Writing, Speaking, Listening, Interviewing, Communication

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communication skills

home | search | reference | military portal | index to internet Use Ctrl-F to Find word/phrase on this or other browser pages. Communication, in General Communication & Connection Working with Interpreters Speaking Powerpoint & Slide Shows Malapropisms, Eggcorns, Mondegreens, etc. Storytelling & Use of Narrative Metaphors & Analogies Listening Virtual Collaboration, VTCs, etc. Interviewing Being Interviewed by the Media Interrogation Deception Detection Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) Charisma Building Rapport Working with Difficult People Giving Effective Feedback Effective Meetings Reading Journaling Writing Style Guides Staff Writing Writing for Publication Writing Op-Eds Visual Display of Info Writing Style Guides Fallacies in Logic Argumentative/Persuasive Communication Rhetoric Gender Differences

See also: Team Building Cross-Cultural Communication English as a Second Language Influence & Influence Theory Inoculation Theory Negotiation Center of Excellence Trial Advocacy Skills ...questioning, rebuttal, presence Deception Propaganda Risk & Crisis Communication Media Relations Citing Online Sources Copyright Stuff Creativity and Thinking Skills Critical Thinking Oral History(ing) Military Education Online Learning & Teaching Center Seminars & Small Groups Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)

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Communication, in General The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place. — George Bernard Shaw If you cannot - in the long run - tell everyone what you have been doing, your doing has been worthless. — Erwin Schrödinger, Science and Humanism Even for the physicist the description in plain language will be a criterion of the degree of understanding that has been reached. — Werner Karl Heisenberg I know you believe you understand what you think I said, but I am not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant. — attributed to various speakers Leader Communication [formerly Writing and Speaking Skills for Army Leaders] (local copy), handbook from CGSS, 2012 UFMCS Red Team Handbook, Apr 2011 (local copy) Each section can almost stand alone, and Section XI – Structured Analytic Techniques – has a large variety of tools/techniques for overcoming “mind-sets” – including “9 Step Cultural Methodology” and “String of Pearls” tool and “Analysis of Competing Hypotheses” and a passel of others - for example, "deception detection." Section XII deals with slide-ology and "elevator briefs" Steven Pinker on language and thought, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) "In an exclusive preview of his book The Stuff of Thought, Steven Pinker looks at language and how it expresses what goes on in our minds -- and how the words we choose communicate much more than we realize." Steven Pinker: Language as a Window into Human Nature, animated by RSA Animate - includes addressing issues such as shared knowledge and overt language Marine Corps University Communications Style Guide (local copy) - includes research, writing, listening, and speaking This style guide serves three main purposes: First, the guide introduces a uniform style and procedure of writing that will be implemented university-wide. Second, the guide provides University students with a user-friendly reference for effective communication that they can refer to when they return to the operating forces. Finally, the guide directs students to additional resources for effective communication guidelines. Joint Officer Handbook: Staffing and Action Guide (local copy, 5.7 Mb), Aug 2011 Joint Officer Handbook: Staffing and Action Guide (local copy, 4.6 Mb), Aug 2010 (lo-res copy, 2.3 Mb) Effective Communication: “If Anything Can Go Wrong, It Will”, by Pine and Bauman, from AU-24 Leaders Communicating Effectively, by Kline, from AU-24 Symbolic Leadership: The Symbolic Nature of Leadership, by Vickrey, from AU-24 Understanding Your Communication Style (local copy), from SBA - includes typical mottos, behaviors, verbal cues, nonverbal cues, confrontation style, etc. for each of three basic communication styles Aggressive Passive Assertive Communicating in Style: Discover How to Communicate with Everyone (and Like It!) (local copy), by Barrett, of PinnacleOne, presentation at 2003 CMAA National Conference, posted by GSA Project Management Center of Expertise Effective Communication (local copy), FEMA independent study course Staff Work: Methods and Applications (local copy), AFSC Pub 1, 2000, including problem-solving, briefings, and papers Headquarters Army Action Officer's Online Reference - Communicating Communication, Management Benchmark Study (local copy), Dept of Energy -- includes chapters on networking, alliances, organizational culture, and innovation Communication & Connection Amber Case: We are all cyborgs now, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) "Technology is evolving us, says Amber Case, as we become a screen-staring, button-clicking new version of homo sapiens. We now rely on "external brains" (cell phones and computers) to communicate, remember, even live out secondary lives. But will these machines ultimately connect or conquer us? Case offers surprising insight into our cyborg selves." "Amber Case studies the symbiotic interactions between humans and machines -- and considers how our values and culture are being shaped by living lives increasingly mediated by high technology." Sherry Turkle: Connected, but alone?, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) "As we expect more from technology, do we expect less from each other? Sherry Turkle studies how our devices and online personas are redefining human connection and communication -- and asks us to think deeply about the new kinds of connection we want to have." "Sherry Turkle studies how technology is shaping our modern relationships: with others, with ourselves, with it." Alone Together, video by Turkle MIT technology and society specialist Professor Sherry Turkle presents the results of a fifteen year exploration of the colossal impact technology has had on our lives and communities. includes discussion of roles to be played by robots "We say that our world is evermore complex, and yet we create a communications culture in which we create the expectation that we will respond to each other immediately, and almost without thinking." The Internet in Society: Empowering or Censoring Citizens?, by Morozov, for RSA Animate Does the internet actually inhibit, not encourage democracy? In this new RSA Animate adapted from a talk given in 2009, Evgeny Morozov presents an alternative take on 'cyber-utopianism' - the seductive idea that the internet plays a largely emancipatory role in global politics. "We confuse the intended uses of technology with the actual uses." Working with Interpreters How To Communicate Effectively Through Interpreters - A Guide for Leaders (local copy), from the Center for Army Lessons Learned FM 3-07.31, Appendix C - Interpreters (local copy) Selecting an Interpreter Training the Interpreter The Interview Communication Techniques Finally, when the military member has acquired an effective interpreter, make them feel like a valuable member of the team. Give the interpreter recognition commensurate with the importance of their contribution. Interviewing Techniques (local copy), from EPA gives details and tips, incuding the use of interpreters Speaking Silence is the virtue of fools. — Francis Bacon Make sure you have finished speaking before your audience has finished listening. — Dorothy Sarnoff Everyone gets butterflies in their stomach-you just need to get them in formation. — Dale Carnegie Rudyard Kipling, from "The Elephant's Child" in Just So Stories I keep six honest serving-men (They taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When And How and Where and Who. [ed. - answering those six questions is often a good place to begin - and "why" is usually the one that pushes your writing past the knowledge level and demonstrates/reveals your insights] See also giving effective feedback - also includes evaluation tools Evaluation-Feedback Tools, formerly used at Squadron Officer School Speaking Evaluation and Feedback Guide (local copy) Seminar Leader Critique Guide (local copy) Speaking Effectively (local copy, HTML), by John Kline (local copy, PDF) Speechwriting in Perspective: A Brief Guide to Effective and Persuasive Communication (local copy), CRS Report to Congress the "Additional Resources" section includes the following references and others American Rhetoric This is an Index to an expanding database of over 5000 full text, audio and video versions of public speeches, debates and interviews. This site has a useful set of communication links and is updated every two weeks. Advanced Public Speaking Institute Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations Requested from the Congressional Research Service Guidelines for Public Speaking (local copy), by Palkovitz, in Law Enforcement Bulletin, Feb 2013 includes 14 tips Melissa Marshall: Talk nerdy to me, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) "Melissa Marshall brings a message to all scientists (from non-scientists): We're fascinated by what you're doing. So tell us about it -- in a way we can understand. In just 4 minutes, she shares powerful tips on presenting complex scientific ideas to a general audience." Preparing the Mind, Body, and Voice (local copy), The Army Lawyer, Nov 2003 - rehearsing and warming up aren't just for lawyers Briefing Guide (local copy), US Army Sergeants Major Academy - outlines for 18 types of briefings and staff estimates Marine Corps University Communications Style Guide (local copy) - includes research, writing, listening, and speaking This style guide serves three main purposes: First, the guide introduces a uniform style and procedure of writing that will be implemented university-wide. Second, the guide provides University students with a user-friendly reference for effective communication that they can refer to when they return to the operating forces. Finally, the guide directs students to additional resources for effective communication guidelines. USMC Command and Staff College Written and Oral Communications Guide (local copy) Preaching and Communication (local copy), The Army Chaplaincy, Summer-Fall 1997 - summarizes some basic theories and points of view regarding rhetoric, such as Cicero outlined five principles of rhetoric that would later influence preaching for centuries. In them, the speaker: discovers what should be said (invention) arranges the speech in a particular order (arrangement) clothes the thoughts with language (style) secures the speech in (memory) effectively (delivers) the speech Cicero's Brutus or History of Famous Orators and The Orator [both from Project Gutenberg] Tips for Preparing Scientific Presentations (local copy), Office of Naval Research - includes the Ten Commandments of Visual Aids (such as Powerpoint slides) - delivery chapter has section on handling Q & A after speaking - most of the material applies to almost any presentation, not just techical Effective Presentations (local copy), Army Corps of Engineers Effective Speaking and Presentation: Selling Ideas, Gathering Support, Motivating Audiences (local copy), by Lee, in PM magazine, Jan-Feb 2001 Language - An Introduction to the Study of Speech , by Edward Sapir -- philosophical and academic examination Toastmasters International 10 Tips for Successful Public Speaking Key Steps to an Effective Presentation, with emphasis on proper vis aids How to Conquer Public Speaking Fear, written by medical doctor Participating in Seminars, by Johnston Evaluating Speaking Tips on the Critiquing of Writing and Speaking (local copy), by Kline and Lippincott Powerpoint & Slide Shows We Have Met the Enemy and He Is PowerPoint, in Small Wars Journal, has a whole list of Powerpoint related articles linked at the bottom of the page How PowerPoint Stifles Understanding, Creativity, and Innovation Within Your Organization, by Zweibelson, in Small Wars Journal, 4 Sep 2012 - includes eight recommendations at the end, to "restore the briefer as a critical thinker" PowerPoint provides a useful vehicle for sharing and developing concepts among military professionals in a variety of venues. Unfortunately, the U.S. military tends to lose track of the supportive context for PowerPoint and instead shackles organizations to institutional processes and rigid ‘group-think.’ We tend to burden our military professionals with an exhausting and high-maintenance requirement to churn out repetitive and non-explanatory slide decks for nearly every conceivable information requirement. Rarely do we conduct a meeting without the ever-present bright projection of PowerPoint upon a screen. When you attend a briefing and the majority of slides and material attempt to reduce, measure, categorize, or describe something, we are often merely admiring the problem. Instead of thinking about why something is occurring, we are usually required to answer precise information that satisfies a descriptive (WHAT-centric) procedure instead of a critical line of inquiry. Many military professionals refer to this as “feeding the beast” in PowerPoint-centric organizations, where we openly acknowledge that our own hierarchy often demands volumes of often meaningless or irrelevant information for illusionary pretexts. If descriptive thinking blinds your organization to critical and creative thinking, then PowerPoint is the drug of choice for continuing the reductionist and highly tacticized mentality across an organization that fears uncertainty. Additionally, a recent trend of cramming four slides onto one “quad chart” slide is another work-around that compresses a larger slide show into fewer yet more cluttered slides and supports the ‘quantity over quality’ tension. This recent staff technique defeats the purpose of a quadrant chart that uses two separate tensions in an overlapping geometric structure to demonstrate patterns and explore complex relationships. ‘Quad charts’ are not interrelated if you apply one simple test. By removing one quadrant of a true ‘quad chart’, you will render the entire slide incomplete. Each quadrant in a quad chart should systemically relate to the other quadrants in terms of context. If you are only removing one component while the three remaining quadrants maintain their coherence, your staff has merely shoved ten pounds of dirt into a five pound bag for you, by condensing four slides into one. This reduces total slide numbers, but does little to improve organizational learning. Many military organizations use ‘read-ahead’ packets that provide an advanced copy of the PowerPoint briefing slides in advance of the briefing. In theory, this implies an alternate route for information sharing that, when combined with a briefing, could function in tandem. In practice, this requires two commitments that are rarely met. First, all attendees must endeavor to actually read the ‘read-ahead’ packet. This prepares an audience to enter a briefing cognizant of the topics, context, and prepared to offer relevant discourse to drive emergent thought. Secondly, the briefer must resist using any slides in the ‘read-ahead’ except for ancillary or expository reasons during the brief. Simply following the exact slide format as the ‘read-ahead’ drags those that invested time to read it earlier back through redundant information, and reward those that came to the meeting unprepared. PowerPoint: You’re doing it wrong: For persuasive presentations, try this alternative approach, by Abela, in Armed Forces Journal, June 2012 Tips for Preparing Scientific Presentations (local copy), Office of Naval Research - includes the Ten Commandments of Visual Aids (such as Powerpoint slides) - delivery chapter has section on handling Q & A after speaking - most of the material applies to almost any presentation, not just techical Malapropisms, Eggcorns, Mondegreens, etc. For All “Intensive” Purposes: A Primer on Malapropisms, Eggcorns, and Other Rogue Elements of the English Language (local copy), by Ching, in The Army Lawyer, Dec 2008 Storytelling & Use of Narrative Jay O'Callahan: The Power of Storytelling, a 99u video "Jay O'Callahan has the rare distinction of traveling the world telling stories. Here, he introduces us to the power of storytelling -- that most human, and ancient, art form. Through the lens of a tale about NASA putting a man on the moon, O'Callahan illustrates how storytelling taps into our imagination, engages those around us, and inspires amazing achievements." TED.com videos - most are 6-15 minutes Chimamanda Adichie: The danger of a single story - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Our lives, our cultures, are composed of many overlapping stories. Novelist Chimamanda Adichie tells the story of how she found her authentic cultural voice -and warns that if we hear only a single story about another person or country, we risk a critical misunderstanding. "The single story creates stereotypes, and the problem with stereotypes is not that they are untrue, but that they are incomplete. They make one story become the only story." "How they are told, who tells them, when they're told, how many stories are told, are really dependent on power." "Power is the ability not just to tell the story of another person, but to make it the definitive story of that person. The Palestinian poet Mourid Barghouti writes that if you want to dispossess a people, the simplest way to do it is to tell their story and to start with, "secondly." Start the story with the arrows of the Native Americans, and not with the arrival of the British, and you have an entirely different story. Start the story with the failure of the African state, and not with the colonial creation of the African state, and you have an entirely different story." "So that is how to create a single story, show a people as one thing, as only one thing, over and over again, and that is what they become." Shekhar Kapur: We are the stories we tell ourselves - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Where does creative inspiration spring from? At TEDIndia, Hollywood/Bollywood director Shekhar Kapur ("Elizabeth," "Mr. India") pinpoints his source of creativity: sheer, utter panic. He shares a powerful way to unleash your inner storyteller. "When I go out to direct a film, every day we prepare too much, we think too much. Knowledge becomes a weight upon wisdom. You know, simple words lost in the quicksand of experience." "So, I will go further, and I say, "I tell a story, and therefore I exist." I exist because there are stories, and if there are no stories, we don't exist. We create stories to define our existence." Karen Thompson Walker: What fear can teach us - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Imagine you're a shipwrecked sailor adrift in the enormous Pacific. You can choose one of three directions and save yourself and your shipmates -- but each choice comes with a fearful consequence too. How do you choose? In telling the story of the whaleship Essex, novelist Karen Thompson Walker shows how fear propels imagination, as it forces us to imagine the possible futures and how to cope with them. "Now we might just as easily call these fears by a different name. What if instead of calling them fears, we called them stories? Because that's really what fear is, if you think about it. It's a kind of unintentional storytelling that we are all born knowing how to do." "So if we think of our fears as more than just fears but as stories, we should think of ourselves as the authors of those stories. But just as importantly, we need to think of ourselves as the readers of our fears, and how we choose to read our fears can have a profound effect on our lives." "Just like all great stories, our fears focus our attention on a question that is as important in life as it is in literature: What will happen next? In other words, our fears make us think about the future. And humans, by the way, are the only creatures capable of thinking about the future in this way, of projecting ourselves forward in time, and this mental time travel is just one more thing that fears have in common with storytelling." Michael Gazzaniga: Your Storytelling Brain - a short video at big think that talks about the brain's natural creation of stories to explain actions after the fact The Power of Story (local copy), by Fox and Cohen, in NASA's Ask magazine Metaphor frees us to interpret stories individually. Stories, metaphor, and narrative activate our innate impulse to search for meaning. As listeners, we play with them like kids on well-constructed jungle gyms. We feel as if we are extracting meaning ourselves, and we are—stories don’t force a single, simple conclusion on us. But a good story guides us, so that what we learn is what the story wants to tell us, but adapted to our own needs and interests. The Story is Telling: Simplicity is Complicated (local copy), by Paparone, in Defense AT&L: May-June 2010 Is there an example in DoD of good storytelling? Indeed, the Marines have employed subjective-contextualization in writing doctrine to quite effectively communicate complexity. For example, the 1996 Marine Corps Doctrinal Publication 6, Command and Control, starts off its first chapter with a short story that offers a word picture of command and control in action (done well and done poorly) and illustrates various key points that appear in the text. The chapter can be read separately or in conjunction with the rest of the text. Preparing to Lead with a Compelling Narrative: If You Don’t Frame the Narrative,Someone Else Will, by Crannell and Sheppard, Strategic Studies Quarterly, Fall 2011 The narrative determines how we perceive the credibility and authenticity of leaders and organizations. The concept of the narrative may be familiar, but there lacks an understanding of how this can be leveraged to achieve an organization’s vision and aspirations. The proliferation of information sources, the speed of transmitting the narrative, and the number of visible competing narratives presents a limited time for leaders to frame their narrative. Compressed news cycles feed on quick responses. To dominate the narrative, a nation-state, company, or emerging political movement requires flexibility to adjust its narrative without losing sight of its aspirations and goals. The Use of Storytelling in the Department of the Navy (local copy) Conveying information in a story provides a rich context, remaining in the conscious memory longer and creating more memory traces than information not in context. Therefore a story is more likely to be acted upon than normal means of communications. Storytelling, whether in a personal or organizational setting, connects people, develops creativity, and increases confidence. The use of stories in organizations can build descriptive capabilities, increase organizational learning, convey complex meaning, and communicate common values and rule sets. Description capabilities are essential in strategic thinking and planning, and create a greater awareness of what we could achieve. Fictional stories can be powerful because they provide a mechanism by which an organization can learn from failure without attributing blame. With the advent of the Internet and Intranet, there is a larger opportunity to use stories to bring about change. Electronic media adds moving images and sound as context setters. Hypertext capabilities and collaboration software invites groups, teams and communities to co-create their stories. New multiprocessing skills are required to navigate this new world, skills that include the quick and sure assimilation of and response to fast-flowing images and sounds and sensory assaults. In summary, when used well storytelling is a powerful transformational tool in organizations, one that all of our managers and leaders across the Department need to utilize. NASA's ASK Talks with Dr. Gary Klein - use of storytelling, even internally, to improve decision making and problem solving and development/use of expertise "Story Model of Decisionmaking" - explained with examples (starting on PDF page 30) in A Literature Review of Analytical and Naturalistic Decision Making (local copy), by Zsambok, Beach, and Klein, for Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center, Dec 1992 According to the theory, the story coordinates three types of knowledge: facts or information from the current situation knowledge about similar situations generic expectations about what makes a complete story, such as believing that people do what they do for a reason Given a set of known facts in an unfolding situation, knowledge about similar situations, and expectations about what is needed to make a complete story, the decisionmaker can know when important information is missing, and where inferences must be made. Construct a story Evaluate story for coverage - concerns the extent to which the story accounts for evidence Evaluate story for coherence consistency - concerns the extent to which the story does not contain contradictions plausibility - concerns the extent to which the story is consistent with real or imagined events in the real world completeness - concerns the extent to which a story has all of its parts Storytelling and Terrorism: Towards a Comprehensive 'Counter-Narrative Strategy' (Local Copy) by Casebeer and Russell, in Strategic Insights, Mar 2005 Storytelling that moves people. A conversation with screenwriting coach Robert McKee, abstract with PubMed, at National Library of Medicine In this conversation with HBR, Robert McKee, the world's best-known screenwriting lecturer, argues that executives can engage people in a much deeper--and ultimately more convincing--way if they toss out their Power-Point slides and memos and learn to tell good stories. As human beings, we make sense of our experiences through stories. But becoming a good storyteller is hard. It requires imagination and an understanding of what makes a story worth telling. All great stories deal with the conflict between subjective expectations and an uncooperative objective reality. Malignants in the Body Politic: Redefining War through Metaphor, SAAS paper, 2004 The Center for Narrative Studies The Art of Trial Advocacy: the Art of Storytelling (local copy), in The Army Lawyer, Oct 1999 recommends three ways to enhance your storytelling for effect use the present tense speak in clear, active English engage the senses of the audience Storytelling and the Art of Teaching (local copy), by Pedersen, in State Department's Forum, Jan-Mar 1995 Deep Impact Storytelling (local copy), by Deacon and Murphey, in State Department's Forum, Oct-Dec 2001 Storytelling: Passport to the 21st Century, by Brown et al Tell Me a Story: Why Stories are Essential to Effective Safety Training (local copy), NIOSH Publication No. 2005-152, August 2005 "Story Telling" - in the National Park Service Community Tool Box Use it if ... You want to help people begin working together: An engaging story will serve as a unifying emotional and experiential tool. You are trying to develop a vision and need to first find agreement as to what people believe is important. A Review of Narrative Methodology (local copy), by Mitchell and Egudo, Australian Department of Defence, 2003 This bibliography outlines how the narrative approach can be used as an alternative for the study of human action. Narrative is an interpretive approach in the social sciences and involves using storytelling methodology. The story becomes an object of study, focusing on how individuals or groups make sense of events and actions in their lives. Researchers capture the informant's story through ethnographic techniques such as observation and interviews. This method is said to be well suited to study subjectivity and the influence of culture and identity on the human condition. The case studies included provide examples of how research is conducted within this field, and thus the bibliography can act to support researchers in developing this research tool for understanding the context of formal and informal learning within training arenas. Furthermore, it can serve as a reference point for others seeking to adopt a narrative investigation. Case studies of narrative in organisational studies demonstrate how narrative can be used to effect cultural change, transfer complex tacit knowledge through implicit communication, construct identity, aid education, contribute to sense making, act as a source of imderstanding, and study decision making. Metaphors & Analogies To me, however, analogy is anything but a bitty blip — rather, it’s the very blue that fills the whole sky of cognition — analogy is everything, or very nearly so, in my view. — Douglas R. Hofstadter We are prisoners of our own metaphors, metaphorically speaking... — R. Buckminster Fuller Analogy as the Core of Cognition, by Hofstadter, 2006 Stanford Presidential lecture and a text by Hofstadter from The Analogical Mind: Perspectives from Cognitive Science, by Gentner et al, MIT Press, 2001 interesting and entertaining pieces on analogy, human cognition, and communicating within a language/culture group -- much of it very applicable to teaching and learning The Power of Story (local copy), by Fox and Cohen, in NASA's Ask magazine Metaphor is part of what makes listeners active participants in stories, and they must engage with and interpret these images that work on the show-don’t-tell principle. An image that has to be explained, Campbell says, is not working. Metaphor frees us to interpret stories individually. Stories, metaphor, and narrative activate our innate impulse to search for meaning. As listeners, we play with them like kids on well-constructed jungle gyms. We feel as if we are extracting meaning ourselves, and we are—stories don’t force a single, simple conclusion on us. But a good story guides us, so that what we learn is what the story wants to tell us, but adapted to our own needs and interests. Geary James Geary, metaphorically speaking, excellent 11 minute talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) "Aphorism enthusiast and author James Geary waxes on a fascinating fixture of human language: the metaphor. Friend of scribes from Aristotle to Elvis, metaphor can subtly influence the decisions we make, Geary says." Guest Post: James Geary on Metaphor, A Taxonomy, op-ed piece in the New York Times, 8 Feb 2011 discusses the three stages of metaphor and four common kinds of metaphor Spies, Meet Shakespeare: Intel Geeks Build Metaphor Motherlode, by Groeger, at Wired.com web site, 25 May 2011 Metaphors are everywhere (there are three in the previous paragraph). Problem is, they can differ from culture to culture, and are often hard to identify. While it’s relatively simple for a computer to sort nouns from verbs, the nuances of language are slightly more challenging. To solve this problem, Iarpa, the mad science unit of the intelligence community (or Darpa for spies), is asking universities and businesses to help them build a giant database of metaphors. The goal is to “exploit the use of metaphors by different cultures to gain insight into their cultural norms.” In an unlikely shout out to Aristotle, Iarpa acknowledges the ancient roots of these poetic devices. Much more recently, scientists have uncovered those roots in our biology. Turns out, metaphors are more than just figurative flourishes or explanatory shortcuts; they shape our thoughts, beliefs and actions. Metaphors We Think With: The Role of Metaphor in Reasoning , by Thibodeau and Boroditsky (Dept of Psychology, Stanford U.), at PLoS ONE web site, 23 Feb 2011 The way we talk about complex and abstract ideas is suffused with metaphor. In five experiments, we explore how these metaphors influence the way that we reason about complex issues and forage for further information about them. We find that even the subtlest instantiation of a metaphor (via a single word) can have a powerful influence over how people attempt to solve social problems like crime and how they gather information to make “well-informed” decisions. Interestingly, we find that the influence of the metaphorical framing effect is covert: people do not recognize metaphors as influential in their decisions; instead they point to more “substantive” (often numerical) information as the motivation for their problem-solving decision. Metaphors in language appear to instantiate frameconsistent knowledge structures and invite structurally consistent inferences. Far from being mere rhetorical flourishes, metaphors have profound influences on how we conceptualize and act with respect to important societal issues. We find that exposure to even a single metaphor can induce substantial differences in opinion about how to solve social problems: differences that are larger, for example, than preexisting differences in opinion between Democrats and Republicans. Paparone Learning to Swim in the Ocean: Creativity as a Zone of Analogy (local copy), by Paparone, in Defense AT&L, Jul-Aug 2010 “’Over-proceduralization’ inhibits the commander and staff’s critical thinking and creativity, which are essential to finding a timely solution to complex problems.” (U.S. Joint Forces Command Commander Gen. J. N. Mattis, Vision of a Joint Approach to Operational Design, October 2009) The point is that when we are faced with novel, perplexing situations, we can rely only on past meanings to make sense of them (like Schön tried to communicate with his child swimmer metaphor). As we err (i.e., we discover that these old meanings do not work well in explaining the way the world appears to us now), we reinterpret those meanings into something new and tentative. As time goes on, we elaborate on this temporary use of borrowed meanings and eventually adopt them into our more permanently accepted language that reflects the way things are. On Metaphors We Are Led By (local copy), by Paparone, in Military Review, Nov-Dec 2008 Despite principled attempts to prosecute “information operations” and “strategic communications,” there is scant discussion in current military discourse about how people assign meaning to their perceptions. This essay investigates how the use of metaphor shapes understanding in an increasingly ambiguous world of meaning. Indeed, the rhetorical work of pundits, politicians, appointees, bloggers, academics, military doctrinaires, and flag officers (those I call “thought leaders”) is largely the management of meaning. That is, thought leaders engage in persuading the naïve, the obtuse, or those with different understandings to follow their narrative constructions, which are often riddled with metaphors. Metaphors Are Mindfunnels: Finding Neo (local copy), by Ward et al, in Defense AT&L, Nov-Dec 2008 The basic concept behind Metaphors We Live By is that metaphors are the fundamental construct of human thought. This concept was not entirely new to us, but we quickly discovered that the scope and scale of humanity’s reliance on metaphor is shockingly large. The book explains that metaphors do not simply make things more interesting or easier to understand—metaphors actually are understanding, and it is almost impossible to think in non-metaphorical terms. Using Metaphors in Creative Writing, at Purdue Online Writing Lab Physical Metaphor in Military Theory and Doctrine: Force, Friction, or Folley? (local copy) by Brendler, SAMS paper, 18 Dec 1997 - extensive comparison of metaphors and theorists, from Barzun to Hayakawa to Wittgenstein to Clausewitz Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003. Quinn, Naomi. “The Culture Basis of Metaphor.” Beyond Metaphor: The Theory of Tropes in Anthropology. Ed. James W. Fernandez. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1991. 56-93. Boundary of Metaphors, from MIT OpenCourseWare project Effective Presentations (local copy), Army Corps of Engineers Meet your listeners at their level of understanding. Use metaphors: Compare unfamiliar facts with something simple the audience already knows. An example would be comparing the flow of water in a pipe with the flow of electricity in a wire. People learn more rapidly when the information relates to their own experience. Malignants in the Body Politic: Redefining War through Metaphor, by Stickle, 2004 SAAS paper Metaphors and Paradigms of Team Cognition: a Twenty Year Perspective, by McNeese, Penn. State Univ., in Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 47th Annual Meeting, 2003, posted by Office of Naval Research A Joint Task Force Staff Structure for the New Millennium: Leaner, Faster, and More Responsive, by Row, Wright Flyer Paper No. 4 Uses metaphors to describe organizational relations. Includes quote below. "Metaphor is often regarded just as a device for embellishing discourse, but its significance is much greater than this. The use of metaphor implies a way of thinking and a way of seeing that pervade how we understand our world generally. . . . Metaphor is inherently paradoxical. It can create powerful insights that also become distortions, as the way of seeing created through a metaphor becomes a way of not seeing." - from Gareth Morgan, Images of Organization, 2d ed. (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1997), 4-5. The Digital General: Reflections on Leadership in the Post-Information Age, by Harig, in Parameters, Autumn 1996 Just as there are plentiful examples where critical scientific breakthroughs have occurred while the right brain (our intuitive, pre-verbal cognitive resource) was operating ahead of the pack, strategic vision requires an ability to think in metaphors, to seek related patterns in unrelated objects, situations, and events. True, our future senior leaders will have access to more information. The successful ones will be those who are best able to sort out the important from the interesting. The development and testing of analogies--the patterns that allow leaders to see the important under data overload, is a skill that could waste away under a sterile diet of expert systems and virtual reality simulations. Listening Most people do not listen with the intent to understand; they listen with the intent to reply. --- Stephen R. Covey A man who listens because he has nothing to say can hardly be a source of inspiration. The only listening that counts is that of the talker who alternatively absorbs and expresses ideas. --- Agnes Repplier See also building rapport See also Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) Julian Treasure: 5 ways to listen better, excellent 8 minute talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) In our louder and louder world, says sound expert Julian Treasure, "We are losing our listening." In this short, fascinating talk, Treasure shares five ways to re-tune your ears for conscious listening -- to other people and the world around you. Listening Effectively (local copy, HTML), by John Kline (local copy, PDF) Practice Listening Skills (local copy) - a quick checklist from the Office of the Dispute Resolution Specialist, Dept of Veteran Affairs Ten Commandments of Good Listening - as posted by the Wildland Fire Leadership Development Program the first ten - from K. Davis, Human Behavior at Work, McGraw Hill, 1972 1. Stop talking. Obvious, but not easy. 2. Put the speaker at ease. Create a permissive, supportive climate in which the speaker will feel free to express himself or herself. 3. Show a desire to listen. Act interested and mean it. 4. Remove distractions. External preoccupation is less likely if nothing external is present to preoccupy you. 5. Empathize. Try to experience to some degree the feelings the speaker is experiencing. 6. Be patient. Give the speaker time to finish; don't interrupt. 7. Hold your temper. Don't let your emotions obstruct your thoughts. 8. Go easy on argument and criticism. Suspend judgment. 9. Ask questions. If things are still unclear when a speaker has finished, ask questions which serve to clarify the intended meanings. 10. Stop talking. In case you missed the first commandment. additional listening techniques - from P. Bradley and J. Baird, Communication for Business and the Professions, Brown, 1980 Preparation. If you know what the topic is ahead of time, learn something about it so you will not be an ignorant listener. Even some careful thinking will allow you to listen more accurately when the communication actually begins. Seek intent. Try to discover the intent of the source; why is he or she saying these things? Seek structure. Look for an organizational scheme of the message. If the speaker is an accomplished one, you won't have to look very hard; it will be obvious. But if the speaker is less skilled, the responsibility falls to you. Analyze. Do not accept what you hear at face value; analyze what the speaker is saying and pay attention to body language. Focus. Keep the main topic of the message in mind at all times, using it to bring focus to the information which the speaker supplies. Motivate yourself. This may be the most important. Listening takes work, and to do that you may have to "psych yourself up." International Listening Association Listening Skills - Self-Evaluation Test Listening Skills Self-Evaluation Listening and Empathy Responding Crisis Intervention: Using Active Listening Skills in Negotiations (local copy), by Noesner and Webster, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, August 1997 Virtual Collaboration, Video Teleconferencing (VTCs), Audioconferencing, Computer-Mediated Communication Challenges in Virtual Collaboration: Videoconferencing, Audioconferencing, and Computer-Mediated Communications, by Wainfan and Davis, RAND report, 2004 This report summarizes the research literature on virtual collaboration, focusing on interactive virtual collaborations in real or near-real time. In particular, it reviews how the processes and outcomes of virtual collaborations are affected by the communication medium (videoconferencing, audioconferencing, or computer-mediated conferencing). It then discusses how problems in such collaboration can be mitigated and opportunities realized. Problems include increased “us vs. them” divisions and misunderstandings, as well as shifts toward risky options. Opportunities include broadening the range of views and options, as well as broadening the range of available experts. The report suggests a strategy for choosing the most effective medium, including face-to-face communication and hybrid systems, as a function of task and context (e.g., convergence on a decision or brainstorming). Video Conferencing Tips, various sources Interviewing Remember - interviewing can be face-to-face, by phone, by fax, by e-mail, by video teleconference, or by other means as technology continues to change See also listening See also building rapport See also working with interpreters See also Oral History(ing) on History page See also being interviewed by media below See also interrogation and deception detection below FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin FBI Counterintelligence Division‘s Behavioral Analysis Program: A Unique Investigative Resource (local copy), by Dreeke, in Law Enforcement Bulletin, July 2013 includes descriptions of proactive five-step process for relationship development Documenting a Suspect’s State of Mind (local copy), by Dietz, in Law Enforcement Bulletin, Nov 2012 includes Dietz Mental State Interview (DMSI) Protocol Mastering Rapport and Having Productive Conversations (local copy), by Dreeke, in Law Enforcement Bulletin, Oct 2012 includes "Ten Techniques for Building Rapport" Behavioral Mirroring in Interviewing (local copy), by Dreeke and Navarro, in Law Enforcement Bulletin, Dec 2009 includes descriptions of four personality models of interviewees and how to communicate with each Cognitive Interviewing Cognitive Interview Technique (local copy), from NTSB - relies more on lengthy narrative responses The traditional interviewer asks many questions, each of which elicits a very brief response. The cognitive interview, on the other hand, is in some ways a questionless interview. The goal is to ask as few questions as possible so that witnesses give you long narrative responses that each contains that much more information than a traditional interview. The objective is to try to elicit information, not extract information. The good interviewer tries to create a social environment so the witness generates information without having to wait for questions to be asked. How to Conduct a Cognitive Interview: a Nutrition Education Example (local copy), by Shafer and Lohse, for USDA Cognitive Interviewing at the National Center for Health Statistics (local copy), CDC briefing slides, by Beatty et al Verbal Reports are Data! A Theoretical Approach to Cognitive Interviews (local copy), Federal Commission on Statistical Methodology, 1999 research conference paper, by Conrad, Blair, and Tracy From Impressions to Data: Increasing the Objectivity of Cognitive Interviews (local copy), Proceedings of the Section on Survey Research Methods, American Statistical Association, 1996, by Conrad and Blair, posted by Bureau of Labor Statistics Perceptual and Memory Distortion During Officer-Involved Shootings (local copy), by Artwohl, in Law Enforcement Bulletin, Oct 2002 The developers of this method found that how investigators interview individuals can significantly impact the ability of the witnesses to remember and report the details of an event. Their research indicated the cognitive interview as the most effective technique for facilitating memory retrieval with cooperative witnesses. Using proper interview techniques is particularly important for high-stress situations because during experiential thinking, the individual is more likely to be dissociative and “encodes reality in concrete images, metaphors, and narratives,” whereas, in rational thinking, the individual is more logical and “encodes reality in abstract symbols, words, and numbers.” As cognitive interviewing involves thinking aloud on the part of the interviewee, one should keep in mind the following item (which may also apply to cultures other than Asian) from The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently… and Why, by Richard Nisbett, 2003 To test the possibility that Asians and Asian Americans in fact find it relatively difficult to use language to represent thought, Kim had people speak out loud as they solved various kinds of problems. This had no effect on the performance of European Americans. But the requirement to speak out loud had very deleterious effects on the performance of Asians and Asian Americans. (page 210 of Free Press edition) Interviewing Techniques (local copy), from EPA gives details and tips on the five phases below, as well as getting info from reluctant witness, and using interpreters introduction rapport questions summary close Office of Naval Inspector General (see investigation on military law page) Investigations Manual - Chapter on Interviewing (local copy), (PDF) - includes telephone interviews Investigations Guide - Chapter on Interviewing (local copy), (PDF) excellent expanded checklists - includes telephone interviews Slides for Factfinding - Interviews (local copy) Living History Project: Instructions for Interviewing (local copy), Library of Congress Using Structured Interviewing Techniques (local copy), GAO guide Interviewing Strategies: How to Get People to Talk to You (local copy), emphasis on obtaining medical history, but useful points for any interviewing situation (downloaded from cim.usuhs.mil/gsn0514/Interviewing%20and%20History%20Taking.PDF) Witness Interviews - Guidelines from the Air Force Safety Center (local copy) Air Force Pamphlet 91-211 USAF Guide to Aviation Safety Investigation Attachment 5 - Techniques for Conducting Witness Interviews Attachment 6 - Spouse/Friend Interview Guide Being Interviewed by the Media See also interviewing above DoD Guides for Interacting with Media JP 3-61, Appendix A - Guidelines for Discussions with the Media (local copy) Meeting the Media - A Guide to Encountering the Media (local copy), U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command's Pocket Guide to Encountering the Media Public Affairs Handbook for Engineering & Services (local copy) Meeting the Media (local copy), handbook from USAF Public Affairs Center of Excellence (PACE) Interviews: a Closer Look (local copy), USINFO, State Department Assessing the Interview Request - including 5 best tips Establishing Ground Rules Once the Interview Is Agreed To - including 5 best tips During the Interview - including 5 best tips Staying Focused Being Effective on Television After the Interview Media Traps and Pitfalls - Avoiding Common Mistakes (local copy), FBI Academy briefing Preparing for a Successful Media Interview: a Systematic Approach for Success (local copy), USMC TECOM briefing Media Skills Training (local copy), USMC Why should you talk to the media? American public opinion directly influences all levels of warfare We have intrinsic value to the Nation and our existence is dependent on the will of the American people If we don't tell our story, no one will The media will tell the story with or without our input ... Media and the Military (local copy), Chapter 7 from the Joint Services Warrant Officers’ Course, Defence Academy, Ministry of Defense, UK - “Concentrate on what you want to say - don’t become mesmerised by what you might be asked” Military Justice and the Media: The Media Interview (local copy), by Schwenk, posted by USAFA Department of Law - examines interviews, pretrial publicity, and related matters 6 tips for taking control in media interviews, by Krotz, Microsoft Small Business Center - see article for expansion of tips below 1. Set goals for every appearance. 2. Nothing is 100% off the record. 3. Watch your body language. 4. Stay on track with your message. 5. Learn how to "bridge." 6. Prepare take-aways. Oh, the Mistakes Spokespeople Make: Ten Sure-Fire Ways to Blow an Interview, by Bennett - click link above to see expansion of points below 1. Misunderstanding the Media 2. Misunderstanding the Spokesperson Role 3. Lacking Message Points 4. Unleashing a Core Dump 5. Over-Answering 6. Failing to Listen 7. Speaking in Jargon 8. Missing the "So What?" 9. Trashing Competitors 10. Playing Tug of War Interrogation See also interviewing See also NLP See also deception detection See also interrogations and interviewing on Lessons Learned page See also torture on Law page Educing Information: Interrogation: Science and Art - Foundations for the Future (local copy), Intelligence Science Board, Phase 1 Report, National Defense Intelligence College, Dec 2006 Interrogation: World War II, Vietnam, and Iraq (local copy, 22 Mb), National Defense Intelligence College Press, Sep 2008 Interrogation of Japanese POWs in World War II: U.S. Response to a Formidable Challenge Unveiling Charlie: U.S. Interrogators’ Creative Successes Against Insurgents The Accidental Interrogator: A Case Study and Review of U.S. Army Special Forces Interrogations Field Manual 2-22.3, Human Intelligence Collector Operations, Sep 2006 - replaced FM 34-52 Intelligence Interrogation (1992) FM 34-52 Intelligence Interrogation, 1992 version NOTE: some sources believe the 1987 version below was more permissive than the 1992 version above - however, even in the 1987 version below you can see the prohibition against force. Principles of Interrogation, in Chapter 1, FM 34-52 (1987 version, now superceded) - included the following Interrogation is the art of questioning and examining a source to obtain the maximum amount of usable information. The goal of any interrogation is to obtain usable and reliable information, in a lawful manner and in the least amount of time, which meets intelligence requirements of any echelon of command. ... The use of force, mental torture, threats, insults, or exposure to unpleasant and inhumane treatment of any kind is prohibited by law and is neither authorized nor condoned by the US Government. Experience indicates that the use of force is not necessary to gain the cooperation of sources for interrogation. Therefore, the use of force is a poor technique, as it yields unreliable results, may damage subsequent collection efforts, and can induce the source to say whatever he thinks the interrogator wants to hear. However, the use of force is not to be confused with psychological ploys, verbal trickery, or other nonviolent and noncoercive ruses used by the interrogator in questioning hesitant or uncooperative sources. The psychological techniques and principles outlined should neither be confused with, nor construed to be synonymous with, unauthorized techniques such as brainwashing, mental torture, or any other form of mental coercion to include drugs. These techniques and principles are intended to serve as guides in obtaining the willing cooperation of a source. The absence of threats in interrogation is intentional, as their enforcement and use normally constitute violations of international law and may result in prosecution under the UCMJ. Additionally, the inability to carry out a threat of violence or force renders an interrogator ineffective should the source challenge the threat. Consequently, from both legal and moral viewpoints, the restrictions established by international law, agreements, and customs render threats of force, violence, and deprivation useless as interrogation techniques. Understanding Interrogation (local copy), by Boetig and Bellmer, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, October 2008 - the differences in meaning between interviewing and interrogating, in US and overseas Reducing a Guilty Suspect’s Resistance to Confessing: Applying Criminological Theory to Interrogation Theme Development (local copy), by Boetig, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, August 2005 - discusses theme-based interrogation and criminological theories Strategies to Avoid Interview Contamination (local copy), by Sandoval, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, October 2003 - some good tips, strategies, and questions Criminal Confessions - Overcoming the Challenges (local copy), by Napier and Adams, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, November 2002 - includes following principles/tips follow the facts identify personal vulnerabilities know the suspect preserve the evidence adjust moral responsibility use psychology versus coercion allowing suspects to maintain dignity is professional and increases the likelihood of obtaining a confession Conducting Successful Interrogations (local copy), by Vessel, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, October 1998 Obtaining information that an individual does not want to provide constitutes the sole purpose of an interrogation. Magic Words to Obtain Confessions (local copy), by Napier and Adams, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, October 1998 Magic words come from three commonly used defense mechanisms-rationalization, projection, and minimization Rationalize Suspects’ Actions Project the Blame onto Others Minimize the Crime Provide Reasons to Confess Interviewing Self-confident Con Artists (local copy), by O'Neal, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, March 2001 - "with the proper preparation and strategic approach, investigators can take advantage of the character traits of con artists" Investigative Techniques: Federal Agency Views on the Potential Application of Brain Fingerprinting" (local copy), GAO report, Oct 2001 Hypnosis in Interrogation, by Deshere, in Studies in Intelligence, Vol.4, No.1 "Truth" Drugs in Interrogation, by Bimmerle, in Studies in Intelligence, Vol.5, No.2 Deception Detection See also deception on Info Ops page See also interviewing and NLP sections See also interrogation TED Videos Jeff Hancock: The future of lying, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) "Who hasn’t sent a text message saying “I’m on my way” when it wasn’t true or fudged the truth a touch in their online dating profile? But Jeff Hancock doesn’t believe that the anonymity of the internet encourages dishonesty. In fact, he says the searchability and permanence of information online may even keep us honest." Markham Nolan: How to separate fact and fiction online, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) "By the end of this talk, there will be 864 more hours of video on YouTube and 2.5 million more photos on Facebook and Instagram. So how do we sort through the deluge? At the TEDSalon in London, Markham Nolan shares the investigative techniques he and his team use to verify information in real-time, to let you know if that Statue of Liberty image has been doctored or if that video leaked from Syria is legitimate." Pamela Meyer: How to spot a liar, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) "On any given day we're lied to from 10 to 200 times, and the clues to detect those lie can be subtle and counter-intuitive. Pamela Meyer, author of Liespotting, shows the manners and "hotspots" used by those trained to recognize deception -- and she argues honesty is a value worth preserving." A Comparison of Approaches To Detect Deception (local copy), by Taylor et al, Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, NAMRL Report Number 11-05, Feb 2011 Altogether, the current literature suggests that the GKT performed in conjunction with GSR holds promise as an instrument to detect guilty knowledge, but much remains to be learned not only of alternate GKT endpoints but also of the possibility that combined measures may enhance classification accuracy. In the present study, we examined the utility of three physiological endpoints in the detection of guilty knowledge with the GKT paradigm and we assessed whether combined indices would improve classification accuracy. Lies, Liars, and Lie Detection, by Gray, in Federal Probation, Dec 2011 - includes cues to deceit and things to watch for Detecting Deception (local copy), by retired FBI agent Joe Navarro, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, AUg 2012 - setting the stage and four opportunities to detect deception Four viable opportunities allow investigators to detect when a person hides something, feels anxious about a question, lies, or has knowledge of guilt. When Asking - The first opportunity to detect deception arises when the interrogator asks a question. While Processing - Interviewers have a second chance to gauge for deception when the interviewee processes the question. When Answering - The third occasion to assess for hidden information, deception, or guilty knowledge is when the interviewee answers the question. After Responding - Investigators have the fourth opportunity for assessment after the suspect answers a question. At that point, a skilled interviewer will wait and watch for 2 to 4 seconds, creating a natural but pregnant pause to observe the interviewee. After making the proper observations during these four phases, it proves useful to remember that speech errors, hesitation, lack of confidence, indicators of stress, and pacifiers in relation to a question merely suggest some cause. Law enforcement officers must recognize the limits of lie detection. Deception can be identified only when all information is known, which usually is not the case. ... A polygrapher cannot say definitively that persons have lied, only that they displayed indicators of stress when asked a question. Unfortunately, the same holds true for interviewers. That does not mean that interrogators stop asking questions. The interviewee’s discomfort or lack of confidence during questioning compels knowledgeable investigators to look further. Evaluating Truthfulness and Detecting Deception (local copy), by Matsumoto et al, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, June 2011 - includes examples of criteria Body Language: Learn How to Spot a Liar & Avoid Getting Scammed, video interview with retired FBI agent Joe Navarro A Four-Domain Model for Detecting Deception - An Alternative Paradigm for Interviewing (local copy), by Navarro, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, June 2003 They can use an alternative paradigm for detecting deception based on four critical domains: comfort/discomfort emphasis synchrony perception management Detecting Deception (local copy), by Navarro and Schafer, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, July 2001 Deception Detection in Multicultural Coalitions: Foundations for a Cognitive Model (local copy), by Kaina et al, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) paper presented at the 16th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS), June 2011 This paper considers ontology of deception, themes of deception, and describes a deception-detection model based on preparation, detection and reaction. Cognition plays a central role in deception because the deceiver attempts to manipulate the target into believing something that is not true. The domain of deception and deception detection involves identifying physical and verbal discrepancies as well as inconsistencies in information or context, as well as the use of nonverbal cues. A cognitive approach is discussed that considers personality, cultural, and organizational factors that affect the heuristics of deception and its detection. Distributed Information and Intelligence Analysis Group (DI2AG), within Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College Toward Detecting Deception in Intelligent Systems, by Santos and Johnson, U. of Conn. Deception Detection publications Interview Clues: Words That Leave an Investigative Trail (local copy), by Sandoval, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Jan 2008 - includes examples of words that camouflage and hide actions The Art of Investigative Interviewing: Countering the Lie of Omission (local copy), by Wells, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Jan 2008 Text Bridges and the Micro-Action Interview (local copy), by Schafer, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Jan 2008 - includes table of text bridges identified by grammar function Behavioral Analysis of Leadership (local copy), by Connors, in Joint Force Quarterly, 4th Qtr 2006 - includes discussion of expressions and body movements that belie the spoken words Educing Information: Interrogation: Science and Art - Foundations for the Future (local copy), Intelligence Science Board, Phase 1 Report, National Defense Intelligence College, Dec 2006 - includes several chapters dealing with deception detection Accuracy in the Media: Misinformation, Mistakes, and Misleading in American and Other Media (local copy), by Leventhal and Chinni, Foreign Press Center, State Department, 6 Apr 2005 How to Identify Misinformation (local copy), USINFO.STATE.GOV, 27 July 2005 - with examples of misinformation and conspiracies, and support material Formal Methods of Countering Deception and Misperception in Intelligence Analysis (local copy), by Pope et al, presented at the 11th International Command and Control Technology Symposium (ICCRTS), 2006 (slides) Detecting Online Deception and Responding to It (local copy), by Rowe, Naval Postgraduate School Detecting Deception, by Adelson, in Monitor on Psychology, Jul-Aug 2004 - includes discussion of software which can analyze written content for lying Intuitive people worse at detecting lies, by Young, NewScientist.com, 18 Mar 2002 People who think of themselves as being intuitive make worse lie detectors than those who do not trust in a "gut instinct", according to new research. One possible explanation is that intuitives in fact rely on common misconceptions about how to spot a liar, he says. Interpersonal Deception Theory: Examining Deception from a Communication Perspective (local copy), by Buller et al, ARI Research Note 98-16, June 1998 Interviewing Self-confident Con Artists (local copy), by O'Neal, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, March 2001 - "with the proper preparation and strategic approach, investigators can take advantage of the character traits of con artists" Investigative Techniques: Federal Agency Views on the Potential Application of Brain Fingerprinting" (local copy), GAO report, Oct 2001 Hypnosis in Interrogation, by Deshere, in Studies in Intelligence, Vol.4, No.1 "Truth" Drugs in Interrogation, by Bimmerle, in Studies in Intelligence, Vol.5, No.2 Microexpressions Truth Wizards Can Detect Lies (local copy), in the Maine Law Officer's Bulletin, Nov 2004 - detecting the subtle signs that people reveal when they lie Lying and Deceit - The Wizards Project, Police Psychology Online "With 20 minutes of training, we are able to significantly improve someone's ability to recognize microexpressions which are involved in many kinds of lies," Dr. O'Sullivan said. Paul Ekman "Lying Faces - One Man Studies Them," by Garrett, WNEP News Discover Magazine [Jan 2005 issue] reports Ekman is working with the Department of Defense on software that could detect liars by studying facial emotions, called micro-expressions, that go unnoticed by the untrained eye. "They look just like an ordinary expression, except they're only on the face about a 25th of a second," this researcher observes. Ekman has shown that certain emotions flash almost undetectably when people are telling high-stakes lies, where they benefit or lose a lot. Paul Ekman home page, with articles "Darwin, Deception, and Facial Expression" - by Ekman, in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences - discusses the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) Ekman, O’Sullivan, & Frank. "A few can catch a liar." Psychological Science, 10, 263-266, 1997 Ekman, P. & O’Sullivan, M. - "Who can catch a liar?" in American Psychologist, 46, 913-920 , 1991 Ekman, Paul. Telling Lies: Clues to Deceit in the Marketplace, Marriage, and Politics, W.W. Norton & Company, 3rd revised edition 2002 Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) See also building rapport See also Van der Horst article about Edward T. Hall -- "A Great-Grandfather of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP)" on Culture Center site Communicating in Style: Discover How to Communicate with Everyone (and Like It!) (local copy), by Barrett, of PinnacleOne, presentation at 2003 CMAA National Conference, posted by GSA Project Management Center of Expertise - includes NLP as one of the methods Subtle Skills for Building Rapport - Using Neuro-Linguistic Programming in the Interview Room (local copy), by Sandoval and Adams, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, August 2001 - good short explanation of NLP basics (HTML version) Model-Based Mind (local copy), by Kercel, Brown-VanHoozer, and VanHoozer, Oak Ridge National Lab, in Proceedings of SMC 2000: IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. - using NLP to draw inferences and abstract meaning from data - also discusses internal decision functions, mental states, and visual, auditory, and kinesthetic cues used during interviews Models of Reality (local copy), by Brown-VanHoozer, Oak Ridge National Lab, for ANNIE '99 Conference (Artificial Neural Networks in Engineering), Nov 1999 - includes discussion of primary representational system (PRS) - the representational system we tend to favor most feedback loops in decision strategies neurological cues to thought processes seven categories of an experience - "a framework from which an individual can elicit detailed descriptions of experience in order that sufficient, high quality, reproducible data, insofar as that it is possible when dealing with human subjects, is obtained for unpacking strategy patterns (Brown-VanHoozer, 1995)." 1. External behavior - what the person is doing; 2. Internal Computation - how that information is stored in sensory based distinctions in the brain; 3. Internal State - what impact the experience has internally; 4. Context - the precise situation in which the person is involved, which includes, but is not limited to: location, time, persons other than subject with whom engaged, etc. 5. Criteria - how important the experience is in personal terms for the subject - a rank ordering; 6. Cause-Effect - what, exactly, makes the experience occur, and 7. Complex Equivalence - what it all means, to the individual. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: A Basis for Language Learning, by Love, in The Journal of the Imagination in Language Learning and Teaching Some NLP Presuppositions 1. The map is not the territory. [Our senses filter everything we experience.] 2. What you believe either is true or becomes true.[Perceptions are individual and influence behavior.] 3. The mind and the body affect each other.[Thought, emotions and behavior are interconnected.] 4. Knowing what you want helps you to get it.[Identify your goals and break them down into manageable tasks.] 5. The meaning of your communication is the response you get.[Communication is not your intention; it is an experiential process.] 6. There is no failure, only feedback.[Stop blaming yourself if something isn't working. Try something else!] 7. Communication is verbal and non-verbal.[You are always sending and receiving messages.] 8. Modeling excellent behavior leads to excellence. [Find the model and follow the pattern.] 9. There is a positive intention behind every behavior.[People respond in the only way they know how at the time.] NLP Information Center additional references Charisma See also building rapport A Charismatic Dimension of Military Leadership? (local copy), paper by Tritten and Keithly, Naval Doctrine Command, May 1995 Building Rapport See also interviewing See also listening See also NLP See also crisis negotiation including active listening skills, at Negotiation Center of Excellence FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin FBI Counterintelligence Division‘s Behavioral Analysis Program: A Unique Investigative Resource (local copy), by Dreeke, in Law Enforcement Bulletin, July 2013 includes descriptions of proactive five-step process for relationship development Mastering Rapport and Having Productive Conversations (local copy), by Dreeke, in Law Enforcement Bulletin, Oct 2012 includes "Ten Techniques for Building Rapport" Behavioral Mirroring in Interviewing (local copy), by Dreeke and Navarro, in Law Enforcement Bulletin, Dec 2009 includes descriptions of four personality models of interviewees and how to communicate with each It’s All About Them: Tools and Techniques for Interviewing and Human Source Development (Local Copy), by Dreeke, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, June 2009 includes diagram of "The Dynamic Relationship Cycle" Crisis Intervention for Law Enforcement Negotiators (Local Copy), by Regini, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, October 2004 "Crisis intervention in crisis negotiation comprises the concepts of empathy, active listening communication skills, a nonjudgmental attitude, boundary setting, acknowledgment of distorted thinking through reframing, and problem solving." Subtle Skills for Building Rapport - Using Neuro-Linguistic Programming in the Interview Room (local copy), by Sandoval and Adams, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, August 2001 - good short explanation of NLP basics (HTML version) Crisis Intervention: Using Active Listening Skills in Negotiations (Local Copy), by Noesner and Webster, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, August 1997 It is Not Just What You Ask, But How You Ask It: The Art of Building Rapport During Witness Interviews (local copy), The Army Lawyer, Aug 1999 Giving Effective Feedback Feedback can be overwhelming, so make sure the student understands what the three changes (out of all the feedback) are which would make the greatest improvement. — instructor of over 3,000 officers from lieutenant to general Evaluation-Feedback Tools, formerly used at Squadron Officer School Seminar Leader Critique Guide (local copy) Speaking Evaluation and Feedback Guide (local copy) Writing Evaluation and Feedback Guide (local copy) Tips on the Critiquing of Writing and Speaking (local copy), by Kline and Lippincott Guide to the Marking of Written Assignments, by Johnston How to Give Effective Performance Feedback: Guidelines for Supervisors (local copy), by Hall, Air War College A Guide to Giving and Receiving Feedback (local copy), NASA Feedback: A Unique Key to Leadership, by Staley, from AU-24 Small Group Instructor Training Course (SGITC) - Student Reference (local copy), U.S. Army Chapter 1 - Orientation - Overview of Groups and Learning Chapter 2 - Experiential Learning Cycle and Adult Learners Chapter 3 - Group Development, Consensus, and Feedback Chapter 4 - Interventions - Strategies for Various Behaviors Chapter 5 - Johari Window - a Model for Soliciting and Giving Feedback Chapter 6 - Small Group Instruction: Theory and Practice Johari entry in Wikipedia, with adjective list to create individualized Johari feedback within a group, and also the Nohari adjective list for negative traits analysis/feedback Does it Take Courage To Give Feedback? (local copy), by Williams, USCG - about counseling Working with Difficult People A compliment ought always to precede a complaint, where one is possible, because it softens resentment and insures for the complaint a courteous and gentle reception. — Mark Twain Dealing with Difficulty People (local copy), briefing at Air University Dealing with Difficulty People (local copy), briefing by Behavioral Health folks at Hurlburt AFB Meetings Effective Meeting Facilitation: The Sine Qua Non of Planning, by Duncan, National Endowment for the Arts Effective Meeting Facilitation: Sample Forms, Tools, and Checklists, by Duncan, National Endowment for the Arts Group Dialogue, by Brown, National Endowment for the Arts The 6 Golden Rules of Meeting Management, at GovLeaders.org From HQ ACC Action Officer Survival Guide - handouts about meetings Set-Up/Conduct a Meeting (local copy) Meeting Participation (local copy) EffectiveMeetings.com Reading Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at an Elingsh uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht frist and lsat ltteer is at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can siltl raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae we do not raed ervey lteter by istlef but the wrod as a wlohe. How to Prepare for, Survive, and Prosper during Air War College, from Dr Grant Hammond includes sections on asking good questions rules for study and research previewing a book and reading effectively analyzing content taking notes preparing for and taking tests how to do research and write a paper Poetry in Motion -- A Technique in Writing (local copy), State Dept Forum, discusses various ways of reading - scanning, skimming, and intensive - and making decisions in the design of your writing Thinking Out of the Box: Reading Military Texts from a Different Perspective (local copy), by Ridderhof, in Naval War College Review, Autumn 2002 - using a deconstructive technique to get more meaning and ideas out of military readings Read More Quickly and Effectively, by Mind Tools Fundamentals of Critical Reading and Effective Writing Study Skills Self-help Information, Va Tech, includes several handouts on improving reading skills - speed, comprehension, taking notes, etc. Study Guides and Strategies, in multiple languages, includes several handouts on improving reading skills - speed, comprehension, taking notes, etc. Study Skill Guides, Dartmouth On the Art of Reading, by Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch Speed Reading Test Online Brief Suggestions for Increasing Speed and Effectiveness of Reading, U. of Texas Learning Center Tips for Improving Your Reading Speed Rocket Reader speed reading program, not free ** BrainDance.com - with variety of material on boosting creativity, improving memory, enhancing reading effectiveness, working smarter, learning faster, and managing more effectively International Reading Association Reading for Understanding: Toward an R&D Program in Reading Comprehension, by Snow, a RAND report Journaling Soldier 360 Journaling Playbook (local copy), U.S. Army - mentions types of journaling and has wealth of topics for journaling Therapeutic journaling promotes healing (local copy), U.S. Army, 26 Apr 2010 "The feedback I've gotten from our social workers is saying, in some cases, it is helpful for Soldiers suffering from PTSD or post-combat stress," says Maj. Christopher Blais, executive officer of the WTB [Warrior Transition Battalion]. In a journal, Soldiers can vent without fear of retribution, and clear their minds of stressful thoughts and memories. Journaling gives the ability to see one's thoughts from a new perspective. Once those thoughts appear on paper, they can be observed with a certain detachment, as if they belonged to another. Frequently, this new perspective helps to identify solutions that might not have been so obvious when they were just thoughts. Whether the issues involve anger, guilt, fear or other points of discomfort, one of the things that cause those feelings to swell and fester is that they are kept private. A journal can be a place to vent, but more importantly, it is a place where complicated issues can be broken down to component parts. These parts can then be viewed and dealt with individually. Issues can be overwhelming when approached all at once, but little pieces of big issues can frequently be sorted through almost painlessly and before you know it, the big issues have been resolved as well. All of which helps to make molehills out of mountains. Try it. Take 20 minutes, once a week. Make a list of the things that cause you the most stress. Take an item from that list and see how many elements you can find which contribute to it. After you've broken your issue down as far as possible, try to find solutions to the individual elements, rather than the issue itself, and you'll soon find that what was once overwhelming is now manageable; what was once part of a wall is now a stepping-stone. Writing Writing, the art of communicating thoughts to the mind through the eye, is the great invention of the world ... enabling us to converse with the dead, the absent, and the unborn, at all distances of time and space. — Abe Lincoln, from a lecture before the Springfield Library Association, 22 February 1860. There is as much difference between the right word and the almost-right word as between lightning and the lightning bug. — Mark Twain Rudyard Kipling, from "The Elephant's Child" in Just So Stories I keep six honest serving-men (They taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When And How and Where and Who. [ed. - answering those six questions is often a good place to begin - and "why" is usually the one that pushes your writing past the knowledge level and demonstrates/reveals your insights] See also giving effective feedback - also includes evaluation tools See also Public Affairs Center of Excellence (PACE) writing page See also mini-course on writing See also critical thinking See also writing a critical book review See also writing lessons learned, after action reviews, and concepts Evaluation-Feedback Tool, formerly used at Squadron Officer School Writing Evaluation and Feedback Guide (local copy) 25 Insights on Becoming a Better Writer, from 25 authors, posted by 99U Ten rules for writing fiction, 10 rules each from over 25 authors, posted by The Guardian - many are useful for ANY type writing (be sure to also see part two of the article) Research, Writing, and the Mind of the Strategist (local copy), by Foster, in Joint Force Quarterly, Spring 1996 Based on recent events, there is ample ground to conclude that our ability simply to cope with—much less shape—a future of pronounced complexity, uncertainty, and turbulence will depend in large measure on the prevalence of strategic thinkers in our midst. Ideas and the ability to generate them seem increasingly likely, in fact, to be more important than weapons, economic potential, diplomatic acumen, or technological advantage in determining who exercises global leadership and enjoys superpower status. Thus it is imperative to develop, nurture, and engage strategic thinkers at all levels—critical, creative, broadgauged visionaries with the intellect to dissect the status quo, grasp the big picture, discern important relationships among events, generate imaginative possibilities for action, and operate easily in the conceptual realm. A broad-based education expands and fuels the self-guided growth of one’s horizons. It develops the intellect and inculcates the spirit of inquiry for a lifelong pursuit of learning. The measure of education, far from being the level or even the sum of formal schooling, rests more in the degree of open-mindedness and active mental engagement it engenders. Any institution that relies on professionals for success and seeks to maintain an authentic learning climate for individual growth must require its members to read (to gain knowledge and insight), discuss (to appreciate opposing views and subject their own to rigorous debate), investigate (to learn how to ask good questions and find defensible answers), and write (to structure thoughts and articulate them clearly and coherently). Musket and Quill: Are They Compatible? (local copy), by Matthews, in Military Review, Jan 1981 In this article, the author explains why manuscripts often fail to meet publication standards and offers hints to assist prospective authors in their efforts to "get into print." He also looks at the frequent lack of military contributions to written articles/analysis/books. He quotes Bernard Brodie: "Soldiers have always cherished the image of themselves as men of action rather than as intellectuals, and they have not been very much given to writing analytical inquiries into their own art." Air Force Research Institute (AFRI) Writing Tools Improving Your Writing: The Whirlwind Tour, slides for briefing by Demorah Hayes, Air Force Research Institute (AFRI, no longer active), given 10 Aug 2010 at Air War College (updated July 2016) Academic Writing for Airmen video series from AFRI Introduction to Academic Writing .. 9 minutes The Writing Process .. 8 1/2 minutes Choosing a Topic .. 7 1/2 minutes Defining Your Purpose and Analyzing Your Audience .. 7 minutes Developing a Timeline for Writing .. 6 minutes Don't Turn Verbs into Nouns .. 8 minutes Marine Corps University Communications Style Guide (local copy) - includes research, writing, listening, and speaking This style guide serves three main purposes: First, the guide introduces a uniform style and procedure of writing that will be implemented university-wide. Second, the guide provides University students with a user-friendly reference for effective communication that they can refer to when they return to the operating forces. Finally, the guide directs students to additional resources for effective communication guidelines. The War on (Buzz)Words, by Bateman, in the U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, Aug 2008 Bad writing in the Defense Department undermines U.S. national security. Alive and well in the corridors of the Pentagon and throughout the services, the misuse and abuse of language obscures major defense issues, alienates non-defense experts, and suffocates ideas. Put simply, bad writing wastes time and money. The United States can ill afford such waste in peacetime, much less in war. While serving as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1984, General John W. Vessey Jr. put it bluntly, “From my own experience, I can tell you, more has been screwed up on the battlefield and misunderstood in the Pentagon because of a lack of understanding of the English language than any other single factor.” Or as Mortimer D. Goldstein, who had a 25-year career in the State Department, responded to Vessey’s words, “I suspect that the problem . . . is not so much a lack of understanding of English as the failure to write it so that it can be understood.” The Seven Deadly Sins of Business Writing, by Ferrara, in Government Executive, Dec 1991 1. Pomposity 2. Verbosity 3. Incoherence 4. Obscurity 5. Vagueness 6. Dullness 7. Sloppiness Surviving Written Communication (local copy), by Turk, in Defense AT&L, Sep-Oct 2010 Every document should tell somebody something. As the writer, you have to decide what to tell and how best to tell it to your intended audience. Who will be the reader? Blair says that there are three considerations: What they already know affects what you can leave out. What they need to know determines what you include. What they want to know suggests the order and emphasis of your writing. Effective Writing Resources, Air University Library bibliography Twelve Frequent Errors in English Expression, by Dr Jim Toner, Air War College Riddlebarger Effective Writing: A New Millennium-An Old Challenge, by Riddlebarger, from AU-24 Better Writing - A Heretic's View, by Riddlebarger, in Airpower Journal, Winter 1987-88 -- includes a good checklist of Heretic's Rules An Effective Writing Formula for Unsure Writers, by Emmons, in AU Review - including seven ways to achieve emphasis A Little Thought Prevents Big Waste, by Conely, in AU Review - reasons bad writing occurs, and how to avoid them Politics and the English Language, by Orwell, including the following "rules that one can rely on when instinct fails": 1. Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print. 2. Never use a long word where a short one will do. 3. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. 4. Never use the passive where you can use the active. 5. Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent. 6. Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. Evaluating Readability Calculate the Clarity Index (local copy), from the Army writing guidance Gunning Fog Index estimates the years of formal education needed to understand the text being rated Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Readability Formula assesses the U.S. grade level of the writing How To Choose The Best Readability Formula For Your Document, by Jesse Dawson Evaluating Writing Tips on the Critiquing of Writing and Speaking (local copy), by Kline and Lippincott Guide to the Marking of Written Assignments, by Johnston Writing Assistance Navy War College Writing Guide (local copy) USMC Command and Staff College Written and Oral Communications Guide (local copy) Effective Writing for Army Leaders (local copy), Army Pamphlet 600-67 US Army Sergeants Major Academy (USASMA) Briefing Guide (local copy) Hints and Helpful Guidance for the Army Writer (local copy) - extracted from TSP 158-F-0010 USAFA Professional Writing Course (formerly known as the Executive Writing Course) The Professional Writing Course is a two-hour presentation that offers practical, time-tested ways to improve official writing. It is available to bases or organizations that pay TDY costs for two instructors. Using entertaining research and examples, the presentation focuses on the basics of workplace writing: understanding your audience, organizing your message, and writing concisely. USAFA Executive Writing Course manual (local copy) - old edition, but advice still valuable - some of the sections are listed below Organized Writing Establish Your Purpose and Audience Start Fast, Explain as Necessary, Then Stop Use More Headings Write Effective Paragraphs Write Disciplined Sentences Spoken Writing Use Personal Pronouns Talk to One Reader When Writing to Many Rely on Everyday Words Use Some Contractions Keep Sentences Short Ask More Questions Listen to Your Tone Be Concrete USAFA Executive Writing Course manual (local copy) - older edition, but with additional quotes and examples "Want to see a general cry? Stop by when I'm reading some of your writing." -- a major general introducing the Executive Writing Course How to Write Clearly (local copy), by the Directorate-General for Translation, European Commission, European Union PlainLanguage.gov, .gov site, includes handbooks below Federal Plain Language Guidelines (local copy) Writing User-Friendly Documents (local copy) How to Write Plain English (local copy), previous HTML version (more interactive) of above handbook, as well as several other tools CRITO (local copy), a step-by-step method for creating a critical analysis essay, courtesy of Dr. David K. Johnson, Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts C - State a Conclusion or claim R - State Reasons or evidence meant to convince the reader I - Test the Inference, or argument T - Test the Truth of the R O - Construct the strongest imaginable Objections, and respond to them Writing and Editing Tips (local copy), a quick guide from an Army organization Paradigm Online Writing Assistant (essays, argument, documenting, organizing, etc) Online Writing Lab (OWL), Purdue University -- GOOD handouts Online Writing Lab, Purdue University, Home Page Writing On and With the Internet, Purdue OWL Over 130 Handouts on Writing, Purdue OWL, including parts of speech, overcoming writer's block, starting your research, teaching English as a second language, doing resumes, doing job search letters List of OWLs, by Purdue OWL Internet Research Starting Points, Purdue OWL International Writing Centers Association (IWCA) International Writing Centers Association (IWCA), Home Page IWCA Resources for Writers IWCA index of Writing Centers Online Online Writing Labs (OWLs) List of OWLs, by Purdue OWL OWLs (Online Writing Labs) OWLs across US and Beyond (list by Washington State U.) Handouts & Links - UNC Writing Center Grammar (also see OWLs) GrammarBook.com - site includes many excellent examples and quizzes Grammar Resources - U. of Chicago Writing Program Emergency Grammar Test, U. of Oregon Writing Skills Test (local copy), from Naval Medical Education and Training Command Miscellaneous My Virtual Reference Desk Thesauri and Quotations, My Virtual Reference Desk Cliché Finder Rhyming Dictionary Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary and Thesaurus - includes audio pronunciations Britannica Encyclopedia Acronym Finder - & spells 'em out Composition-Rhetoric (local copy), by Brooks and Hubbard, courtesy Project Gutenberg Style Guides see also style guides section at the Public Affairs Center of Excellence (PACE) web site Official DoD Plain Language Website Air University (AU) Style & Author Guide for Writers and Editors Defense Information School Broadcast Writing Style Guide (local copy) - audience is DINFOS students as well as "all Department of Defense members who write and prepare broadcast news releases, features, spots, and public service announcements for military and civilian media" U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual Writing Style Guide and Preferred Usage for DoD Issuances (local copy), 20 Aug 2014 - from the DTIC web site Air Force Manual 33-326, Preparing Official Communications Air Force Handbook 33-337, Tongue and Quill (local copy (4.4 Mb)) Naval War College Pocket Writing and Style Guide (local copy), 2012 Naval War College Writing and Style Guide (local copy), Aug 2007 Naval War College Style Manual and Classification Guide (local copy), Aug 2000 Marine Corps University Communications Style Guide (Local copy) Marine Corps University Communications Pocket Style Guide (Local copy) Marine Corps Historical Center Writing Guide (Local copy), including gathering research and doing oral histories Elements of Style, by William Strunk, Jr. The King’s English , by Fowler On the Art of Writing, by Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch Guide to Grammar and Writing Writer's Handbook: APA Documentation Style, Univ. of Wisconsin Chicago Manual of Style Chicago Manual of Style Frequently Asked Questions - explaining items from the manual Staff Writing Writing and Speaking Skills for Army Leaders (local copy), handbook from CGSS, 2009 - supercedes the 1998 version below Writing and Speaking Skills for Leaders at the Organizational Level (local copy), handbook from CGSC, 1998 Staff Writing (local copy), from the Army Action Officer Training Program Staff Summary Sheet template (local copy), courtesy of AFSOC - you can fill it in and then attach it and other attachments to your email for forwarding, without the mess which frequently occurs when you try to embed the SSS into the email message and it fails to transfer properly Air Force Manual 33-326, Preparing Official Communications A Practical Guide for Developing and Writing Military Concepts (local copy), Defense Adaptive Red Team (DART) Working Paper #02-4, Dec 2002 Writing for Publication Writing for Publication - military resources Writing Articles for Publication Writing References, from USAF Public Affairs Center of Excellence (PACE) Writing Op-Eds Air University Blue Dart System - 700-800 word op-ed influence pieces Op-Ed Articles: How to Write and Place Them, Duke University How to Write an Op-Ed and Get It Published, DePaul University How to Write an Op-Ed: Perhaps it's PR's most underutilized tool, by McLain, posted on All About Public Relations website How to Write An Op Ed Piece, American Civil Liberties Union Tips for Writing an Op-Ed, Faculty Media Training, University of Florida Writing op-ed columns, University of North Texas Tips on Op-Ed Writing, by McKibben, Middlebury College Op-eds & Letters to the Editor - tips and by-newspaper links, from Communications Consortium Media Center The Christian Science Monitory contributors guidelines Op-Ed Guidelines for The Wall Street Journal How to Submit an Article to The New York Times Op-Ed Page Visual Display of Information Hans Rosling shows the best stats you've ever seen, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) You've never seen data presented like this. With the drama and urgency of a sportscaster, statistics guru Hans Rosling debunks myths about the so-called "developing world." Tufte, Edward R. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, Chesire, Connecticut: Graphics Press (1983, first edition; 2001, second edition) - excellent examples of display methods Principles of Graphical Excellence (local copy), by Waggener, US Army War College, slides for paper presented at ALAIR, Apr 5-6, 2001 - with speaker notes for some of the slides Fallacies in Logic See also cognitive bias See critical thinking Psychology of Intelligence Analysis (local copy), by Heuer, for CIA -- very good examination of many elements of critical thinking, with examples Check out Part III - Cognitive Biases Fallacies, Purdue U. Online Writing Lab (OWL) (PDF version) Identifying Fallacies Exercise, Purdue U. Online Writing Lab (OWL) Fallacies: Mistakes in the Logic of Arguments, U. of N.C. Writing Center Stephen's Guide to the Logical Fallacies Dr. Michael C. Labossiere's description of over 40 fallacies, posted at The Nizkor Project Logical Fallacies and the Art of Debate Logical Fallacies in Psychology The source of belief bias effects in syllogistic reasoning, NIH summary of study by Newstead et al, Department of Psychology, University of Plymouth, UK In studies of the belief bias effect in syllogistic reasoning, an interaction between logical validity and the believability of the conclusion has been found; in essence, logic has a larger effect on unbelievable than on believable conclusions. Two main explanations have been proposed for this finding. The selective scrutiny account claims that people focus on the conclusion and only engage in logical processing if this is found to be unbelievable; while the misinterpreted necessity account claims that subjects misunderstand what is meant by logical necessity and respond on the basis of believability when indeterminate syllogisms are presented. ... [five experiments were run] ... It is concluded that people try to construct a mental model of the premises but, if there is a believable conclusion consistent with the first model they produce, then they fail to construct alternative models. Argumentative and Persuasive Communication See rhetoric See Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) See inoculation theory See critical thinking See fallacies in logic See writing a critical book review See propaganda See perception warfare & influence theory See art of advocacy on Military Law page McInerny, D. Q. (2004). Being Logical: A Guide to Good Thinking, New York, NY: Random House. Cialdini, R. B. (1993). Influence: Science and practice, 3rd Ed. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman. Persuasion Context - theories page, U. of Ky Logic Tutor, by Green - FREE online tutorial system on logic Argumentation-Persuasion: Logic in Argumentative Writing, Purdue Online Writing Lab Essays and Arguments: A Handbook on Writing Argumentative and Interpretative Essays (local copy), by Johnston, May 2000, in public domain Persuasive Speech: The Way We, Um, Talk Sways Our Listeners, Science Daily, 16 May 2011 "Interviewers who spoke moderately fast, at a rate of about 3.5 words per second, were much more successful at getting people to agree than either interviewers who talked very fast or very slowly," said Jose Benki, a research investigator at the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research (ISR). ... They found that males with higher-pitched voices had worse success than their deep-voiced colleagues. But they did not find any clear-cut evidence that pitch mattered for female interviewers. The last speech characteristic the researchers examined for the study was the use of pauses. Here they found that interviewers who engaged in frequent short pauses were more successful than those who were perfectly fluent. ... If interviewers made no pauses at all, they had the lowest success rates getting people to agree to do the survey. We think that's because they sound too scripted. The Unexpected Influence Of An Uncertain Expert, by Martin, Inside Influence Report, 11 May 2011 ... But in an information saturated world where so many claim to be experts, what does the latest persuasion research tell us about which expert we should pay particular attention to? And how could such insights help when attempting to persuade others? ... A series of new studies conducted by Stanford Business School’s Zak Tormala and Uma Karmarkar and published recently in the Journal of Consumer Research suggest that rather than the most confident sounding expert being the most persuasive it is often the recommendations and advice from experts that are themselves uncertain, that will be more compelling. Their series of studies found that an experts’ influence over others increases when that expert expresses minor doubts about their advice and opinions. They found that this effect was particularly acute when an expert’s advice concerned subjects or situations where there was no one single clear or obvious answer. ... In explaining these counter intuitive findings the researchers point out that because people generally expect experts to be certain of their opinions, when that expert signals potential uncertainties about their message people become more intrigued and drawn in to what they are saying. In effect the incongruity between the source’s expertise and their level of uncertainty makes his or her message appear more intriguing. As a result, assuming that the arguments in a message are reasonably strong, this drawing in of an audience leads to more effective persuasion. ... And when it comes to persuading others about the merits and benefits of the products and proposals we have to offer, assuming our case is a strong one, it would seem sensible that rather than hide or cover up minor drawbacks and weaknesses in our case, we instead embrace them in the knowledge that they can actually make us more persuasive. The Mathematics of Persuasive Communication, by Yaffe, in Chief Marketer, 14 May 2007 PERSUASION: What the Research Tells Us , teaching note by Yates - MIT OpenCourseWare project A Rulebook for Arguments, by Anthony Weston War of the Words (local copy), by Johnson, page 3 of News & Views, Sandia Labs, Jan 2005 Four Principles for Success in the War of Ideas Be clear about whom you are speaking and avoid viewing populations monolithically Be precise in your terms and avoid exaggeration Seek to understand alternative viewpoints and show respect for them Learn your own blind spots ChangingMinds.org Thinking Strategies and Writing Patterns: Persuasion, UMUC Online Writing Center Logic and Argument, UVic Writer's Guide Connecticut Community Collges Composition Patterns: Developing an Argument: Being Logical Logic in Argumentative Writing, including examples of formal logic construction Stephen's Guide to the Logical Fallacies Influence at Work - the Psychology of Persuasion Primer on Persuasion and Influence Shavitt, S., & Brock, T. C. (1994)(Eds.), Persuasion: Psychological insights and perspectives. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. Inoculation Theory see Inoculation section on Cyberspace and Information Operations Study Center Rhetoric See Persuasion The Role of Rhetorical Theory in Military Intelligence Analysis - A Soldier’s Guide to Rhetorical Theory (local copy), by Mills, AU Press McInerny, D. Q. (2004). Being Logical: A Guide to Good Thinking, New York, NY: Random House. Courses at Sloan School of Management, available online as part of MIT OpenCourseWare Project - includes syllabi and course materials Rhetoric, with Study Materials - including tips for position, thesis, research, arrangement, style, and levels of rhetoric Composition-Rhetoric (local copy), by Brooks and Hubbard, courtesy Project Gutenberg - see especially Part II: description, narration, exposition, and argument The Forest of Rhetoric (silva rhetoricae) (Brigham Young University) Silva Rhetoricae - The Forest of Rhetoric, at BYU - extensive reference which includes discussion of persuasive appeals logos - appeal to reason pathos - appeal to emotion ethos - appeal to one's character "branches" of oratory judicial (aka "forensic") deliberate (aka "legislative") epideictic (aka "ceremonial" or "demonstrative") canons of rhetoric - invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery Preaching and Communication (local copy), The Army Chaplaincy, Summer-Fall 1997 - summarizes some basic theories and points of view regarding rhetoric, such as Cicero outlined five principles of rhetoric that would later influence preaching for centuries. In them, the speaker: discovers what should be said (invention) arranges the speech in a particular order (arrangement) clothes the thoughts with language (style) secures the speech in (memory) effectively (delivers) the speech Cicero's Brutus or History of Famous Orators and The Orator [both from Project Gutenberg] The Rhetoric, by Aristotle alternate source - different formatting alternate source - different formatting Listening Effectively (local copy), by John Kline Critical Listening ethos logos pathos The Online Writing and Communication Center at MIT Critically Analyzing Information Sources (Cornell University Library) Elements of Rhetoric (Harvard) A Glossary of Rhetorical Terms (University of Kentucky) Federal Register: Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents Presidential Rhetoric.com Plato and His Dialogues Perseus Digital Library Rhetoric and Composition Rhetorical Analysis in Time of War (University of Arizona) International Encyclopedia of Philosophy (University of Tennessee at Martin) Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy (Texas Tech University) Gender Differences Gender and Communication-Finding Common Ground (local copy), by Norton, in The Leadership News, a quarterly newsletter on Leadership and diversity in the Coast Guard - contrasting "flat" culture with "hierarchical" culture Cross-Gender Communication in Cyberspace, research paper at Simon Fraser University Gender Styles in Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC), Georgetown U. faculty product He Said, She Said: Gender Based Communications Effective communication between men and women requires changes in how we approach our work, by Sanders Citing Online Sources See Citing Electronic Sources on the Research page Plagiarism See also Citing Electronic Sources on the Research page See also Copyright Stuff Plagiarism resource page - a wealth of sources, strategies, and tools for detecting and dealing with plagiarism in the information age Phonetic Alphabet Alpha Bravo Charlie Delta Echo Foxtrot Golf Hotel India Juliet Kilo Lima Mike November Oscar Papa Quebec Romeo Sierra Tango Uniform Victor Whiskey X-ray Yankee Zulu

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