World Economic Outlook (WEO) - IMF

Loading...
World Economic and Financial Surveys

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK

April 2014

Recovery Strengthens, Remains Uneven

International Monetary Fund

©2014 International Monetary Fund Cover and Design: Luisa Menjivar and Jorge Salazar Composition: Maryland Composition

Cataloging-in-Publication Data Joint Bank-Fund Library World economic outlook (International Monetary Fund) World economic outlook : a survey by the staff of the International Monetary Fund. — Washington, DC : International Monetary Fund, 1980– v. ; 28 cm. — (1981–1984: Occasional paper / International Monetary Fund, 0251-6365). — (1986– : World economic and financial surveys, 0256-6877) Semiannual. Some issues also have thematic titles. Has occasional updates, 1984– ISSN (print) 0256–6877 ISSN (online) 1564–5215 1. Economic development — Periodicals. 2. Economic forecasting — Periodicals. 3. Economic policy — Periodicals. 4. International economic relations — Periodicals. I.  International Monetary Fund. II.  Series: Occasional paper (International Monetary Fund). III.  Series: World economic and financial surveys. HC10.80 ISBN 978-1-48430-834-9 (paper) 978-1-47551-576-3 (PDF) 978-1-47557-193-6 (ePub) 978-1-48432-630-5 (Mobi)

Disclaimer: The analysis and policy considerations expressed in this publication are those of the IMF staff and do not represent official IMF policy or the views of the IMF Executive Directors or their national authorities. Recommended citation: International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook— Recovery Strengthens, Remains Uneven (Washington, April 2014).

Publication orders may be placed online, by fax, or through the mail: International Monetary Fund, Publication Services P.O. Box 92780, Washington, DC 20090, U.S.A. Tel.: (202) 623-7430 Fax: (202) 623-7201 E-mail: [email protected] www.imfbookstore.org www.elibrary.imf.org

CONTENTS

Assumptions and Conventions

ix

Further Information and Data

xi

Preface xii Foreword xiii Executive Summary

xv

Chapter 1. Recent Developments and Prospects

1

The Demand and Activity Perspective 1 The External Sector Perspective 12 Downside Risks 13 Policies 19 Special Feature: Commodity Prices and Forecasts 25 Box 1.1. Credit Supply and Economic Growth 32 Box 1.2. Is China’s Spending Pattern Shifting (away from Commodities)? 36 Box 1.3. Anchoring Inflation Expectations When Inflation Is Undershooting 41 Box 1.4. Exchange Rate Regimes and Crisis Susceptibility in Emerging Markets 44 References 47 Chapter 2. Country and Regional Perspectives

49

The United States and Canada: Firming Momentum 49 Europe 53 Asia: Steady Recovery 57 Latin America and the Caribbean: Subdued Growth 60 Commonwealth of Independent States: Subdued Prospects 63 The Middle East and North Africa: Turning the Corner? 65 Sub-Saharan Africa: Accelerating Growth 68 Spillover Feature: Should Advanced Economies Worry about Growth Shocks in Emerging Market Economies? 72 References 79 Chapter 3. Perspectives on Global Real Interest Rates

81

Stylized Facts: Measuring Real Rates and the Cost of Capital Determinants of Real Rates: A Saving-Investment Framework Which Factors Contributed to the Decline in Real Interest Rates? Should We Expect a Large Reversal in Real Rates? Summary and Policy Conclusions Appendix 3.1. Model-Based Inflation and Dividend Growth Expectations Appendix 3.2. Investment Profitability Appendix 3.3. Fiscal Indicator Appendix 3.4. The Effect of Financial Crises on Investment and Saving



International Monetary Fund | April 2014

83 86 88 96 97 99 99 100 101

iii

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Appendix 3.5. Sensitivity of Saving and Investment to Real Rates 101 Appendix 3.6. Saving and Growth with Consumption Habit 102 Appendix 3.7. Sample of Countries Used in Tables and Figures 102 Box 3.1. Saving and Economic Growth 107 References 111 Chapter 4. On the Receiving End? External Conditions and Emerging Market Growth Before, During, and After the Global Financial Crisis

113

Effects of External Factors on Emerging Market Growth 116 Global Chain or Global China? Quantifying China’s Impact 124 Growth Effects: The Long and the Short of It 126 Shifting Gears: Have Emerging Markets’ Growth Dynamics Changed since the Global Financial Crisis? 128 Policy Implications and Conclusions 133 Appendix 4.1. Data Definitions, Sources, and Descriptions 133 Appendix 4.2. Estimation Approach and Robustness Checks 137 Box 4.1. The Impact of External Conditions on Medium-Term Growth in Emerging Market Economies 145 References 150 Annex: IMF Executive Board Discussion of the Outlook, March 2014

153

Statistical Appendix

155

Assumptions 155 What’s New 156 Data and Conventions 156 Classification of Countries 157 General Features and Composition of Groups in the World Economic Outlook Classification 157 Table A. Classification by World Economic Outlook Groups and Their Shares in Aggregate GDP, Exports of Goods and Services, and Population, 2013 159 Table B. Advanced Economies by Subgroup 160 Table C. European Union 160 Table D. Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Region and Main Source of Export Earnings 161 Table E. Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Region, Net External Position, Status as Heavily Indebted Poor Countries, and Low-Income Developing Countries 162 Table F. Key Data Documentation 164 Box A1. Economic Policy Assumptions Underlying the Projections for Selected Economies 174 List of Tables 179 Output (Tables A1–A4) 180 Inflation (Tables A5–A7) 187 Financial Policies (Table A8) 192 Foreign Trade (Table A9) 193 Current Account Transactions (Tables A10–A12) 195 Balance of Payments and External Financing (Tables A13–A14) 201 Flow of Funds (Table A15) 203 Medium-Term Baseline Scenario (Table A16) 207 World Economic Outlook, Selected Topics

iv

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

209

CONTENTS

Tables Table 1.1. Overview of the World Economic Outlook Projections 2 Table 1.SF.1. Root-Mean-Squared Errors across Forecast Horizons h (Relative to the Random Walk Model) 31 Table 1.3.1. Consensus Consumer Price Index Inflation Expectations 42 Table 2.1. Selected Advanced Economies: Real GDP, Consumer Prices, Current Account Balance, and Unemployment 52 Table 2.2. Selected European Economies: Real GDP, Consumer Prices, Current Account Balance, and Unemployment 54 Table 2.3. Selected Asian Economies: Real GDP, Consumer Prices, Current Account Balance, and Unemployment 59 Table 2.4. Selected Western Hemisphere Economies: Real GDP, Consumer Prices, Current Account Balance, and Unemployment 62 Table 2.5. Commonwealth of Independent States: Real GDP, Consumer Prices, Current Account Balance, and Unemployment 65 Table 2.6. Selected Middle East and North African Economies: Real GDP, Consumer Prices, Current Account Balance, and Unemployment 67 Table 2.7. Selected Sub-Saharan African Economies: Real GDP, Consumer Prices, Current Account Balance, and Unemployment 69 Table 2.SF.1. Exports to Emerging Market Economies, 1995 versus 2008 74 Table 3.1. Alternative Hypotheses Explaining a Decline in Real Interest Rates 87 Table 3.2. Factors Affecting Real Interest Rates 96 Table 3.3. Investment (Saving) and the Real Interest Rate, Reduced-Form Equations 102 Table 3.4. Data Coverage for Global Interest Rates, Investment, and Saving 103 Table 3.1.1. Saving and Growth: Granger Causality Tests 108 Table 3.1.2. Determinants of the Evolution in Saving-to-GDP Ratios 110 Table 4.1. Impulse Responses to Shocks within the External Block: Baseline Model 119 Table 4.2. Impulse Responses to Shocks within the External Block: Modified Baseline Model with China Real GDP Growth 126 Table 4.3. Share of Output Variance Due to External Factors 128 Table 4.4. Data Sources 134 Table 4.5 Sample of Emerging Market Economies and International Organization for Standardization Country Codes 135 Table 4.6. Correlations of Domestic Real GDP Growth with Key Variables, 1998–2013 138 Table 4.1.1. Growth Regressions for Emerging Markets, 1997–2011 146 Table 4.1.2. Growth Regressions for Emerging Markets: Brazil, China, India, Russia, and South Africa versus Other Emerging Market Partner Growth, 1997–2011 148 Table 4.1.3. Growth Regressions for Emerging Markets 149 Table A1. Summary of World Output Table A2. Advanced Economies: Real GDP and Total Domestic Demand Table A3. Advanced Economies: Components of Real GDP Table A4. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Real GDP Table A5. Summary of Inflation Table A6. Advanced Economies: Consumer Prices Table A7. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Consumer Prices Table A8. Major Advanced Economies: General Government Fiscal Balances and Debt Table A9. Summary of World Trade Volumes and Prices Table A10. Summary of Balances on Current Account Table A11. Advanced Economies: Balance on Current Account



180 181 182 184 187 188 189 192 193 195 197

International Monetary Fund | April 2014 v

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table A12. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Balance on Current Account Table A13. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Net Financial Flows Table A14. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Private Financial Flows Table A15. Summary of Sources and Uses of World Savings Table A16. Summary of World Medium-Term Baseline Scenario

198 201 202 203 207

Online Tables Table B1. Advanced Economies: Unemployment, Employment, and Real GDP per Capita Table B2. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Real GDP Table B3. Advanced Economies: Hourly Earnings, Productivity, and Unit Labor Costs in Manufacturing Table B4. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Consumer Prices Table B5. Summary of Fiscal and Financial Indicators Table B6. Advanced Economies: General and Central Government Net Lending/Borrowing and Excluding Social Security Schemes Table B7. Advanced Economies: General Government Structural Balances Table B8. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: General Government Net Lending/ Borrowing and Overall Fiscal Balance Table B9. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: General Government Net Lending/ Borrowing Table B10. Advanced Economies: Exchange Rates Table B11. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Broad Money Aggregates Table B12. Advanced Economies: Export Volumes, Import Volumes, and Terms of Trade in Goods and Services Table B13. Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Region: Total Trade in Goods Table B14. Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Source of Export Earnings: Total Trade in Goods Table B15. Advanced Economies: Current Account Transactions Table B16. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Balances on Current Account Table B17. Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Region: Current Account Transactions Table B18. Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Analytical Criteria: Current Account Transactions Table B19. Summary of Balance of Payments, Financial Flows, and External Financing Table B20. Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Region: Balance of Payments and External Financing Table B21. Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Analytical Criteria: Balance of Payments and External Financing Table B22. Summary of External Debt and Debt Service Table B23. Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Region: External Debt by Maturity and Type of Creditor Table B24. Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Analytical Criteria: External Debt by Maturity and Type of Creditor Table B25. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Ratio of External Debt to GDP Table B26. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Debt-Service Ratios Table B27. Emerging Market and Developing Economies, Medium-Term Baseline Scenario: Selected Economic Indicators Figures Figure 1.1. Global Activity Indicators Figure 1.2. GDP Growth Forecasts Figure 1.3. Monetary Conditions in Advanced Economies

vi

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

3 3 4

CONTENTS

Figure 1.4. Fiscal Policies Figure 1.5. Global Inflation Figure 1.6. Capacity, Unemployment, and Output Trend Figure 1.7. Overheating Indicators for the Group of Twenty Economies Figure 1.8. Financial Market Conditions in Advanced Economies Figure 1.9. Financial Conditions and Capital Flows in Emerging Market Economies Figure 1.10. Monetary Policies and Credit in Emerging Market Economies Figure 1.11. Exchange Rates and Reserves Figure 1.12. External Sector Figure 1.13. Risks to the Global Outlook Figure 1.14. Recession and Deflation Risks Figure 1.15. Slower Growth in Emerging Market Economies and a Faster Recovery in the United States Figure 1.SF.1. Commodity Market Developments Figure 1.SF.2. Brent Forecast Errors and Futures Figure 1.SF.3. Vector Autoregression and Combination Forecasts Figure 1.SF.4. Rolling Root-Mean-Squared Errors: Recursive Estimation Figure 1.1.1. Cumulative Responses of GDP to a 10 Percentage Point Tightening of Lending Standards Figure 1.1.2. Credit Supply Shocks Figure 1.1.3. Contribution of Credit Supply Shocks to GDP Figure 1.2.1. China: Real GDP Growth and Commodity Prices Figure 1.2.2. Growth Rate of Global Commodity Consumption Figure 1.2.3. Actual and Predicted Per Capita Commodity Consumption Figure 1.2.4. Spending Patterns Figure 1.3.1. Inflation Expectations in Euro Area, United States, Japan, and Norway Figure 1.4.1. Distribution of Exchange Rate Regimes in Emerging Markets, 1980–2011 Figure 1.4.2. Predicted Crisis Probability in Emerging Markets, 1980–2011 Figure 1.4.3. Probability of Banking or Currency Crisis Figure 2.1. 2014 GDP Growth Forecasts and the Effects of a Plausible Downside Scenario Figure 2.2. United States and Canada: Recovery Firming Up Figure 2.3. Advanced Europe: From Recession to Recovery Figure 2.4. Emerging and Developing Europe: Recovery Strengthening, but with Vulnerabilities Figure 2.5. Asia: Steady Recovery Figure 2.6. Latin America and the Caribbean: Subdued Growth Figure 2.7. Commonwealth of Independent States: Subdued Prospects Figure 2.8. Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan: Turning a Corner? Figure 2.9. Sub-Saharan Africa: Accelerating Growth Figure 2.SF.1. Real Trade Linkages between Advanced Economies and Emerging Market Economies Figure 2.SF.2. Financial Exposure of Advanced Economies to Emerging Market Economies Figure 2.SF.3. Event Studies around Downturn Episodes in Emerging Market Economies Figure 2.SF.4. Peak Effect of a Growth Shock to Emerging Market Economies on Advanced Economies’ Output Growth Figure 2.SF.5. Model Simulations of Potential Growth Spillover Effects from Emerging Market Economies on Advanced Economies Figure 3.1. Ten-Year Interest Rate on Government Bonds and Inflation Figure 3.2. Real Interest Rate Comparison Figure 3.3. Real Interest Rates, Real Returns on Equity, and Cost of Capital Figure 3.4. Common Factors in Real Interest Rates Figure 3.5. Real Interest Rate and Shifts in Demand for and Supply of Funds Figure 3.6. Investment-to-GDP Ratios Figure 3.7. Investment Shifts in Advanced Economies



5 6 7 9 10 11 11 12 13 14 14 18 26 27 29 30 33 34 34 36 37 38 39 41 44 45 46 50 51 55 56 58 61 64 66 70 73 74 75 77 78 81 84 85 85 87 88 89

International Monetary Fund | April 2014 vii

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 3.8. Saving Shifts in Emerging Markets 90 Figure 3.9. Effect of Fiscal Policy on Real Interest Rates 91 Figure 3.10. Effect of U.S. Monetary Policy Shocks on Real Interest Rates 92 Figure 3.11. Real Long-Term Interest Rates and Real Returns on Equity 93 Figure 3.12. Portfolio Shifts and Relative Demand for Bonds versus Equity 94 Figure 3.13. Portfolio Shifts and Relative Riskiness of Bonds versus Equity, 1980–2013 94 Figure 3.14. Effect of Financial Crises on Saving- and Investment-to-GDP Ratios 95 Figure 3.15. Implications of Lower Real Interest Rates for Debt Sustainability 97 Figure 3.16. Investment Shifts in Advanced Economies 100 Figure 3.17. Global Long-Term Real Interest Rates 106 Figure 3.18. Convergence of Real Interest Rates in the Euro Area 106 Figure 3.1.1. Saving Rate and Accelerations (Decelerations) in GDP 109 Figure 3.1.2. Total Saving: Actual versus Conditional Forecasts 109 Figure 4.1. Growth Developments in Advanced and Emerging Market and Developing Economies 114 Figure 4.2. Average Country Rankings, 2000–12 118 Figure 4.3. Impulse Responses of Domestic Real GDP Growth to External Demand Shocks 120 Figure 4.4. Impulse Responses to External Financing Shock 120 Figure 4.5. Impulse Responses to U.S. High-Yield Spread Shock 121 Figure 4.6. Correlations between Growth Responses to External Shocks and Country-Specific Characteristics 122 Figure 4.7. Impulse Responses of Domestic Real GDP Growth to Terms-of-Trade Growth Shock 123 Figure 4.8. Historical Decompositions of Real GDP Growth into Internal and External Factors 124 Figure 4.9. Impulse Responses to Real GDP Growth Shock in China 125 Figure 4.10. Historical Decomposition of Real GDP Growth with China as an Explicit External Factor 127 Figure 4.11. Emerging Markets’ Output and Growth Performance after Global Recessions 129 Figure 4.12. Out-of-Sample Growth Forecasts Conditional on External Factors, by Country 131 Figure 4.13. Conditional Forecast and Actual Growth since the Global Financial Crisis, by Country 132 Figure 4.14. Domestic Real GDP Growth across Emerging Markets versus United States and China 136 Figure 4.15. Average Growth for Regional Groups of Emerging Market Economies 137 Figure 4.16. Impact of Prior Choice on Average Impulse Responses 139 Figure 4.17. Average Impulse Responses to Shocks from Alternative U.S. Monetary Policy Variables 140 Figure 4.18. Domestic Real GDP Growth Response to U.S. Federal Funds Rate and 10-Year U.S. Treasury Bond Rate under Alternative Specifications 141 Figure 4.19. Average Impulse Responses to Alternative Measures of U.S. Monetary Policy Shock 142 Figure 4.20. Alternative Monetary Policy Shocks 142 Figure 4.21. Impulse Response of Domestic Real GDP Growth to External Financing Shocks 143 Figure 4.22. Average Impulse Responses of Domestic Real GDP Growth to Shocks under Alternative Vector Autoregression Specifications 143 Figure 4.23. Brazil: Comparison of Responses under the Baseline Model with Responses from Model with Sample Beginning in the First Quarter of 1995 144 Figure 4.24. Comparison of Impulse Responses from Panel Vector Autoregression with Responses from the Baseline Model 144 Figure 4.1.1. Export Partner Growth Elasticity 147 Figure 4.1.2. Export Partner Growth 147

viii

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

Editor’s notes: (April 8, 2014) Note 7 in Figure 1.3 on page 4 has been corrected to remove Colombia from the list of upward pressure countries. (April 10, 2014) Panel 3 of Figure 4.2 (page 118) and panel 2 of Figure 4.6 (page 122) have been replaced to correct errors in the underlying data. (April 11, 2014) Panel 1 of Figure 1.3 has been revised to change the underlying data for the October 2013 WEO projections for the United States from overnight swap rates to federal funds rate futures. (April 21, 2014) In Statistical Table A15 on page 204, the first instance of “Emerging and Developing Europe” has been corrected to read “Emerging and Developing Asia.”

ASSUMPTIONS AND CONVENTIONS

A number of assumptions have been adopted for the projections presented in the World Economic Outlook (WEO). It has been assumed that real effective exchange rates remained constant at their average levels during January 31–February 28, 2014, except for those for the currencies participating in the European exchange rate mechanism II (ERM II), which are assumed to have remained constant in nominal terms relative to the euro; that established policies of national authorities will be maintained (for specific assumptions about fiscal and monetary policies for selected economies, see Box A1 in the Statistical Appendix); that the average price of oil will be $104.17 a barrel in 2014 and $97.92 a barrel in 2015 and will remain unchanged in real terms over the medium term; that the six-month London interbank offered rate (LIBOR) on U.S. dollar deposits will average 0.4 percent in 2014 and 0.8 percent in 2015; that the three-month euro deposit rate will average 0.3 percent in 2014 and 0.4 percent in 2015; and that the six-month Japanese yen deposit rate will yield on average 0.2 percent in 2014 and 2015. These are, of course, working hypotheses rather than forecasts, and the uncertainties surrounding them add to the margin of error that would in any event be involved in the projections. The estimates and projections are based on statistical information available generally through March 24, 2014. The following conventions are used throughout the WEO: . . . to indicate that data are not available or not applicable; – between years or months (for example, 2013–14 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months; / between years or months (for example, 2013/14) to indicate a fiscal or financial year. “Billion” means a thousand million; “trillion” means a thousand billion. “Basis points” refer to hundredths of 1 percentage point (for example, 25 basis points are equivalent to ¼ of 1 percentage point). For some countries, the figures for 2013 and earlier are based on estimates rather than actual outturns. Data refer to calendar years, except in the case of a few countries that use fiscal years. Please refer to Table F in the Statistical Appendix, which lists the reference periods for each country. Projections for Ukraine are excluded due to the ongoing crisis. The consumer price projections for Argentina are excluded because of a structural break in the data. Please refer to note 6 in Table A7 for further details. Korea’s real GDP series is based on the reference year 2005. This does not reflect the revised national accounts released on March 26, 2014, after the WEO was finalized for publication. These comprehensive revisions include implementing the 2008 System of National Accounts and updating the reference year to 2010. As a result of these revisions, real GDP growth in 2013 was revised up to 3 percent from 2.8 percent (which is the figure included in Tables 2.3 and A2). On January 1, 2014, Latvia became the 18th country to join the euro area. Data for Latvia are not included in the euro area aggregates, because the database has not yet been converted to euros, but are included in data aggregated for advanced economies. Starting with the April 2014 WEO, the Central and Eastern Europe and Emerging Europe regions have been renamed Emerging and Developing Europe. The Developing Asia region has been renamed Emerging and Developing Asia. Cape Verde is now called Cabo Verde. As in the October 2013 WEO, data for Syria are excluded for 2011 onward because of the uncertain political situation. If no source is listed on tables and figures, data are drawn from the WEO database. When countries are not listed alphabetically, they are ordered on the basis of economic size. Minor discrepancies between sums of constituent figures and totals shown reflect rounding.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014

ix

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

As used in this report, the terms “country” and “economy” do not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. As used here, the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states but for which statistical data are maintained on a separate and independent basis. Composite data are provided for various groups of countries organized according to economic characteristics or region. Unless noted otherwise, country group composites represent calculations based on 90 percent or more of the weighted group data. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and any other information shown on the maps do not imply, on the part of the International Monetary Fund, any judgment on the legal status of any territory or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.

x

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: TENSIONS FROM THE TWO-SPEED RECOVERY

FURTHER INFORMATION AND DATA

This version of the World Economic Outlook (WEO) is available in full through the IMF eLibrary (www.elibrary. imf.org) and the IMF website (www.imf.org). Accompanying the publication on the IMF website is a larger compilation of data from the WEO database than is included in the report itself, including files containing the series most frequently requested by readers. These files may be downloaded for use in a variety of software packages. The data appearing in the World Economic Outlook are compiled by the IMF staff at the time of the WEO exercises. The historical data and projections are based on the information gathered by the IMF country desk officers in the context of their missions to IMF member countries and through their ongoing analysis of the evolving situation in each country. Historical data are updated on a continual basis as more information becomes available, and structural breaks in data are often adjusted to produce smooth series with the use of splicing and other techniques. IMF staff estimates continue to serve as proxies for historical series when complete information is unavailable. As a result, WEO data can differ from those in other sources with official data, including the IMF’s International Financial Statistics. The WEO data and metadata provided are “as is” and “as available,” and every effort is made to ensure, but not guarantee, their timeliness, accuracy, and completeness. When errors are discovered, there is a concerted effort to correct them as appropriate and feasible. Corrections and revisions made after publication are incorporated into the electronic editions available from the IMF eLibrary (www.elibrary.imf.org) and on the IMF website (www.imf.org). All substantive changes are listed in detail in the online tables of contents. For details on the terms and conditions for usage of the WEO database, please refer to the IMF Copyright and Usage website (www.imf.org/external/terms.htm). Inquiries about the content of the World Economic Outlook and the WEO database should be sent by mail, fax, or online forum (telephone inquiries cannot be accepted): World Economic Studies Division Research Department International Monetary Fund 700 19th Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20431, U.S.A. Fax: (202) 623-6343 Online Forum: www.imf.org/weoforum



International Monetary Fund | April 2014

xi

PREFACE

The analysis and projections contained in the World Economic Outlook are integral elements of the IMF’s surveillance of economic developments and policies in its member countries, of developments in international financial markets, and of the global economic system. The survey of prospects and policies is the product of a comprehensive interdepartmental review of world economic developments, which draws primarily on information the IMF staff gathers through its consultations with member countries. These consultations are carried out in particular by the IMF’s area departments—namely, the African Department, Asia and Pacific Department, European Department, Middle East and Central Asia Department, and Western Hemisphere Department—together with the Strategy, Policy, and Review Department; the Monetary and Capital Markets Department; and the Fiscal Affairs Department. The analysis in this report was coordinated in the Research Department under the general direction of Olivier Blanchard, Economic Counsellor and Director of Research. The project was directed by Thomas Helbling, Division Chief, Research Department, and Jörg Decressin, Deputy Director, Research Department. The primary contributors to this report are Abdul Abiad, Aseel Almansour, Aqib Aslam, Samya Beidas-Strom, John Bluedorn, Rupa Duttagupta, Davide Furceri, Andrea Pescatori, Marco E. Terrones, and Juan Yepez Albornoz. Other contributors include Ali Alichi, Angana Banerji, Benjamin Beckers, Alberto Behar, Sami Ben Naceur, Patrick Blagrave, Kevin Clinton, Alexander Culiuc, Joshua Felman, Emilio Fernandez Corugedo, Roberto GarciaSaltos, Roberto Guimarães-Filho, Keiko Honjo, Benjamin Hunt, Dora Iakova, Deniz Igan, Gregorio Impavido, Zoltan Jakab, Douglas Laxton, Lusine Lusinyan, Andre Meier, Pritha Mitra, Dirk Muir, Jean-Marc Natal, Marco Pani, Mahvash Qureshi, Jesmin Rahman, Marina Rousset, Damiano Sandri, John Simon, Serhat Solmaz, Shane Streifel, Yan Sun, Li Tang, Boqun Wang, and Shengzu Wang. Gohar Abajyan, Gavin Asdorian, Shan Chen, Tingyun Chen, Angela Espiritu, Madelyn Estrada, Sinem Kilic Celik, Mitko Grigorov, Cleary A. Haines, Pavel Lukyantsau, Olivia Ma, Tim Mahedy, Anayo Osueke, Katherine Pan, Sidra Rehman, Daniel Rivera Greenwood, Carlos Rondon, Yang Yang, and Fan Zhang provided research assistance. Luis Cubeddu provided comments and suggestions. Mahnaz Hemmati, Toh Kuan, Emory Oakes, and Richard Watson provided technical support. Skeeter Mathurin and Anduriña Espinoza-Wasil were responsible for word processing. Linda Griffin Kean and Michael Harrup of the Communications Department edited the manuscript and coordinated production of the publication with assistance from Lucy Scott Morales and Sherrie Brown. The Core Data Management team from the IMF’s IT department and external consultant Pavel Pimenov provided additional technical support. The analysis has benefited from comments and suggestions by staff members from other IMF departments, as well as by Executive Directors following their discussion of the report on March 21, 2014. However, both projections and policy considerations are those of the IMF staff and should not be attributed to Executive Directors or to their national authorities.

xii

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

FOREWORD

T

he dynamics that were emerging at the time of the October 2013 World Economic Outlook are becoming more visible: The recovery then starting to take hold in advanced economies is becoming broader. Fiscal consolidation is slowing, and investors are less worried about debt sustainability. Banks are gradually becoming stronger. Although we are far short of a full recovery, the normalization of monetary policy—both conventional and unconventional—is now on the agenda. These dynamics imply a changing environment for emerging market and developing economies. Stronger growth in advanced economies implies increased demand for their exports. The normalization of monetary policy, however, implies tighter financial conditions and a tougher financial environment. Investors will be less forgiving, and macroeconomic weaknesses will become more costly. Acute risks have decreased, but risks have not disappeared. In the United States, the recovery seems solidly grounded. In Japan, Abenomics still needs to translate into stronger domestic private demand for the recovery to be sustained. Adjustment in the south of Europe cannot be taken for granted, especially if Euro wide inflation is low. As discussed in the April 2014 Global Financial Stability Report, financial reform is incomplete, and the financial system remains at risk. Geopolitical risks have arisen, although they have not yet had global macroeconomic repercussions.

Looking ahead, the focus must increasingly turn to the supply side: Potential growth in many advanced economies is very low. This is bad on its own, but it also makes fiscal adjustment more difficult. In this context, measures to increase potential growth are becoming more important—from rethinking the shape of labor market institutions, to increasing competition and productivity in a number of nontradables sectors, to rethinking the size of the government, to examining the role of public investment. Although the evidence is not yet clear, potential growth in many emerging market economies also appears to have decreased. In some countries, such as China, this may be in part a desirable byproduct of more balanced growth. In others, there is clearly scope for some structural reforms to improve the outcome. Finally, as the effects of the financial crisis slowly diminish, another trend may come to dominate the scene, namely, increased income inequality. Though inequality has always been perceived to be a central issue, until recently it was not believed to have major implications for macroeconomic developments. This belief is increasingly called into question. How inequality affects both the macroeconomy and the design of macroeconomic policy will likely be increasingly important items on our agenda. Olivier Blanchard Economic Counsellor



International Monetary Fund | April 2014

xiii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

G

lobal activity has broadly strengthened and is expected to improve further in 2014–15, with much of the impetus coming from advanced economies. Inflation in these economies, however, has undershot projections, reflecting still-large output gaps and recent commodity price declines. Activity in many emerging market economies has disappointed in a less favorable external financial environment, although they continue to contribute more than two-thirds of global growth. Their output growth is expected to be lifted by stronger exports to advanced economies. In this setting, downside risks identified in previous World Economic Outlook reports have diminished somewhat. There are three caveats: emerging market risks have increased, there are risks to activity from lower-than-expected inflation in advanced economies, and geopolitical risks have resurfaced. Overall, the balance of risks, while improved, remains on the downside. The renewed increase in financial volatility in late January of this year highlights the challenges for emerging market economies posed by the changing external environment. The proximate cause seems to have been renewed market concern about emerging market fundamentals. Although market pressures were relatively broadly based, countries with higher inflation and wider current account deficits were generally more affected. Some of these weaknesses have been present for some time, but with prospects of improved returns in advanced economies, investor sentiment is now less favorable toward emerging market risks. In view of possible capital flow reversals, risks related to sizable external funding needs and disorderly currency depreciations are a concern. Some emerging market economies have tightened macroeconomic policies to shore up confidence and strengthen their commitment to policy objectives. Overall, financial conditions have tightened further in some emerging market economies compared with the October 2013 World Economic Outlook. The cost of capital has increased as a result, and this is expected to dampen investment and weigh on growth. Looking ahead, global growth is projected to strengthen from 3 percent in 2013 to 3.6 percent in

2014 and 3.9 percent in 2015, broadly unchanged from the October 2013 outlook. In advanced economies, growth is expected to increase to about 2¼ percent in 2014–15, an improvement of about 1 percentage point compared with 2013. Key drivers are a reduction in fiscal tightening, except in Japan, and still highly accommodative monetary conditions. Growth will be strongest in the United States at about 2¾ percent. Growth is projected to be positive but varied in the euro area: stronger in the core, but weaker in countries with high debt (both private and public) and financial fragmentation, which will both weigh on domestic demand. In emerging market and developing economies, growth is projected to pick up gradually from 4.7 percent in 2013 to about 5 percent in 2014 and 5¼ percent in 2015. Growth will be helped by stronger external demand from advanced economies, but tighter financial conditions will dampen domestic demand growth. In China, growth is projected to remain at about 7½ percent in 2014 as the authorities seek to rein in credit and advance reforms while ensuring a gradual transition to a more balanced and sustainable growth path. The global recovery is still fragile despite improved prospects, and significant downside risks—both old and new—remain. Recently, some new geopolitical risks have emerged. On old risks, those related to emerging market economies have increased with the changing external environment. As highlighted in the April 2014 Global Financial Stability Report, unexpectedly rapid normalization of U.S. monetary policy or renewed bouts of high risk aversion on the part of investors could result in further financial turmoil. This would lead to difficult adjustments in some emerging market economies, with a risk of contagion and broad-based financial stress, and thus lower growth. In advanced economies, risks to activity associated with very low inflation have come to the fore, especially in the euro area, where large output gaps have contributed to low inflation. With inflation likely to remain below target for some time, longer-term inflation expectations might drift down, leading to even lower inflation than is currently expected, or possibly



International Monetary Fund | April 2014

xv

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

to deflation if other downside risks to activity materialize. The result would be higher real interest rates, an increase in private and public debt burdens, and weaker demand and output. The strengthening of the recovery from the Great Recession in the advanced economies is a welcome development. But growth is not evenly robust across the globe, and more policy efforts are needed to fully restore confidence, ensure robust growth, and lower downside risks. Policymakers in advanced economies need to avoid a premature withdrawal of monetary accommodation. In an environment of continued fiscal consolidation, still-large output gaps, and very low inflation, monetary policy should remain accommodative. In the euro area, more monetary easing, including unconventional measures, is necessary to sustain activity and help achieve the European Central Bank’s price stability objective, thus lowering risks of even lower inflation or outright deflation. Sustained low inflation would not likely be conducive to a suitable recovery of economic growth. In Japan, implementation of the remaining two arrows of Abenomics— structural reform and plans for fiscal consolidation beyond 2015—is essential to achieve the inflation target and higher sustained growth. The need for credible medium-term fiscal plans, however, extends beyond Japan. The April 2014 Fiscal Monitor highlights that the combination of large public debt stocks and the absence of medium-term adjustment plans that include specific measures and strong entitlement reforms is the main factor behind important mediumterm fiscal risks in advanced economies, including in the United States. In the euro area, repairing bank balance sheets in the context of a credible asset quality review and recapitalizing weak banks will be critical if confidence is to improve and credit is to revive. Also essential for achieving these goals is progress on completing the banking union—including an independent Single Resolution Mechanism with the capacity to

xvi

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

undertake timely bank resolution and common backstops to sever the link between sovereigns and banks. More structural reforms are needed to lift investment and activity prospects. Emerging market economies will have to weather turbulence and maintain high medium-term growth. The appropriate policy measures will differ across these economies. However, many of them have some policy priorities in common. First, policymakers should allow exchange rates to respond to changing fundamentals and facilitate external adjustment. Where international reserves are adequate, foreign exchange interventions can be used to smooth volatility and avoid financial disruption. Second, in economies in which inflation is still relatively high or the risks that recent currency depreciation could feed into underlying inflation are high, further monetary policy tightening may be necessary. If policy credibility is a problem, strengthening the transparency and consistency of policy frameworks may be necessary for tightening to be effective. Third, on the fiscal front, policymakers must lower budget deficits, although the urgency for action varies across economies. Early steps are required if public debt is already elevated and the associated refinancing needs are a source of vulnerability. Fourth, many economies need a new round of structural reforms that include investment in public infrastructure, removal of barriers to entry in product and services markets, and in China, rebalancing growth away from investment toward consumption. Low-income countries will need to avoid a buildup of external and public debt. Many of these countries have succeeded in maintaining strong growth, partly reflecting better macroeconomic policies, but their external environment has also been changing. Foreign direct investment has started to moderate with declining commodity prices, and commodity-related budget revenues and foreign exchange earnings are at risk. Timely policy adjustments will be important to avoid a buildup in external debt and public debt.

CCHAPTER HAPTER

1

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

Global activity strengthened during the second half of 2013 and is expected to improve further in 2014–15. The impulse has come mainly from advanced economies, although their recoveries remain uneven. With supportive monetary conditions and a smaller drag from fiscal consolidation, annual growth is projected to rise above trend in the United States and to be close to trend in the core euro area economies. In the stressed euro area economies, however, growth is projected to remain weak and fragile as high debt and financial fragmentation hold back domestic demand. In Japan, fiscal consolidation in 2014–15 is projected to result in some growth moderation. Growth in emerging market economies is projected to pick up only modestly. These economies are adjusting to a more difficult external financial environment in which international investors are more sensitive to policy weakness and vulnerabilities given prospects for better growth and monetary policy normalization in some advanced economies. As a result, financial conditions in emerging market economies have tightened further compared with the October 2013 World Economic Outlook (WEO), while they have been broadly stable in advanced economies. Downside risks continue to dominate the global growth outlook, notwithstanding some upside risks in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany. In advanced economies, major concerns include downside risks from low inflation and the possibility of protracted low growth, especially in the euro area and Japan. While output gaps generally remain large, the monetary policy stance should stay accommodative, given continued fiscal consolidation. In emerging market economies, vulnerabilities appear mostly localized. Nevertheless, a still-greater general slowdown in these economies remains a risk, because capital inflows could slow or reverse. Emerging market and developing economies must therefore be ready to weather market turmoil and reduce external vulnerabilities.

The Demand and Activity Perspective Global growth picked up in the second half of 2013, averaging 3⅔ percent—a marked uptick from the 2⅔ percent recorded during the previous six months.

Advanced economies accounted for much of the pickup, whereas growth in emerging markets increased only modestly (Figure 1.1, panel 2). The strengthening in activity was mirrored in global trade and industrial production (Figure 1.1, panel 1). The latest incoming data suggest a slight moderation in global growth in the first half of 2014. The stronger-than-expected acceleration in global activity in the latter part of 2013 was partly driven by increases in inventory accumulation that will be reversed. Overall, however, the outlook remains broadly the same as in the October 2013 WEO: global growth is projected to strengthen to 3.6 percent in 2014 and then to increase further to 3.9 percent in 2015 (Table 1.1). • A major impulse to global growth has come from the United States, whose economy (Figure 1.2, panel 1) grew at 3¼ percent in the second half of 2013— stronger than expected in the October 2013 WEO. Some of the upside surprise was due to strong export growth and temporary increases in inventory demand. Recent indicators suggest some slowing in early 2014. Much of this seems related to unusually bad weather, although some payback from previous inventory demand increases may also be contributing. Nevertheless, annual growth in 2014–15 is projected to be above trend at about 2¾ percent (Table 1.1). More moderate fiscal consolidation helps; it is estimated that the change in the primary structural balance will decline from slightly more than 2 percent of GDP in 2013 to about ½ percent in 2014–15. Support also comes from accommodative monetary conditions as well as from a real estate sector that is recovering after a long slump (Figure 1.3, panel 5), higher household wealth (Figure 1.3, panel 3), and easier bank lending conditions. • In the euro area, growth has turned positive. In Germany, supportive monetary conditions, robust labor market conditions, and improving confidence have underpinned a pickup in domestic demand, reflected mainly in higher consumption and a tentative revival in investment but also in housing. Across the euro area, a strong reduction in the pace of fiscal International Monetary Fund | April 2014

1

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table 1.1. Overview of the World Economic Outlook Projections (Percent change unless noted otherwise)

Year over Year Projections 2014 2015

Difference from January 2014 WEO Update 2014 2015

2012

2013

3.2 1.4

2.8 –0.7 0.9 0.0 –2.4 –1.6 1.4 0.3 1.7 1.9

3.0 1.3

1.9 –0.5 0.5 0.3 –1.9 –1.2 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.3

3.6 2.2

3.9 2.3

–0.1 0.0

–0.1 0.0

5.0

4.7

4.9

5.3

1.4

2.8

2.4

–0.3 5.7 4.1 2.5

0.2 6.1 2.2 2.4

2.8

Q4 over Q4 Estimates 2013

Projections 2014 2015

0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0

3.3 2.1

2.6 0.5 1.4 0.8 –0.9 –0.2 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.9

3.6 2.1

3.7 2.4

–0.2

–0.1

4.8

5.2

5.3

2.9

–0.5

–0.2

3.6

2.5

2.9

1.6 6.3 3.2 3.1

1.8 6.5 4.5 3.3

0.2 –0.3 –0.2 0.0

0.1 0.1 –0.5 0.0

1.1 ... ... 2.8

1.7 ... ... 3.0

1.7 ... ... 3.2

3.0

4.3

5.3

–0.1

0.1

...

...

...

1.1 5.8

1.4 5.6

3.5 5.2

4.5 6.3

0.1 –0.7

0.3 –0.1

... ...

... ...

... ...

2.1 4.2

2.3 4.4

4.2 5.0

4.8 6.2

0.2 –0.4

0.1 –0.1

... ...

... ...

... ...

1.0 –10.0

–0.9 –1.2

0.1 –3.5

–6.0 –3.9

0.4 2.7

–0.8 –1.5

2.6 –3.0

–2.3 –3.2

–6.3 –3.0

Consumer Prices Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies4

2.0 6.0

1.4 5.8

1.5 5.5

1.6 5.2

–0.2 –0.2

–0.1 –0.1

1.2 5.3

1.6 5.1

1.7 4.7

London Interbank Offered Rate (percent) On U.S. Dollar Deposits (six month) On Euro Deposits (three month) On Japanese Yen Deposits (six month)

0.7 0.6 0.3

0.4 0.2 0.2

0.4 0.3 0.2

0.8 0.4 0.2

0.0 –0.1 0.0

0.3 –0.2 0.0

... ... ...

... ... ...

... ... ...

World Output1

Advanced Economies

United States Euro Area2 Germany France Italy Spain Japan United Kingdom Canada Other Advanced Economies3 Emerging Market and Developing Economies4 Commonwealth of Independent States Russia Excluding Russia Emerging and Developing Asia China India5 ASEAN-56 Emerging and Developing Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Brazil Mexico Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan Sub-Saharan Africa South Africa Memorandum European Union Low-Income Developing Countries Middle East and North Africa World Growth Based on Market Exchange Rates World Trade Volume (goods and services) Imports Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies Exports Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies Commodity Prices (U.S. dollars) Oil7 Nonfuel (average based on world commodity export weights)

3.4 3.4 3.3 6.7 7.7 4.7 6.2

3.1 1.0 3.9 4.2 4.9 2.5

2.1 1.3 3.9 6.5 7.7 4.4 5.2

2.7 2.3 1.1 2.4 4.9 1.9

2.8 1.2 1.7 1.0 0.6 0.9 1.4 2.9 2.3 3.0 2.3 1.3 5.3 6.7 7.5 5.4 4.9

2.5 1.8 3.0 3.2 5.4 2.3

3.0 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.1 1.0 1.0 2.5 2.4 3.2 3.1 2.3 5.7 6.8 7.3 6.4 5.4

3.0 2.7 3.5 4.4 5.5 2.7

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.3 –0.3 0.4 0.1 0.1 –0.3 –0.6 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 –0.2

–0.4 –0.5 0.0 –0.1 –0.7 –0.5

0.1 –0.2 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 –0.2

–0.3 –0.2 0.0 –0.4 –0.3 –0.6

1.3 1.1 ... 6.4 7.7 4.7 ...

1.9 1.9 0.6 ... ... 2.1

2.7 1.3 1.6 1.2 0.7 1.1 1.2 3.0 2.1 2.7

2.0 1.6 ... 6.7 7.6 5.7 ...

3.1 2.0 4.5 ... ... 2.1

3.0 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.4 0.9 0.5 1.9 2.4 3.6

2.5 2.5 ... 6.8 7.2 6.5 ...

2.5 2.9 2.4 ... ... 3.0

Note: Real effective exchange rates are assumed to remain constant at the levels prevailing during January 31–February 28, 2014. When economies are not listed alphabetically, they are ordered on the basis of economic size. The aggregated quarterly data are seasonally adjusted. Projections for Ukraine are excluded in the April 2014 WEO due to the ongoing crisis but were included in the January 2014 WEO Update. Latvia is included in the advanced economies; in the January 2014 WEO Update, it was included in the emerging and developing economies. 1The quarterly estimates and projections account for 90 percent of the world purchasing-power-parity weights. 2Excludes Latvia. 3Excludes the G7 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States) and euro area countries but includes Latvia. 4The quarterly estimates and projections account for approximately 80 percent of the emerging market and developing economies. 5For India, data and forecasts are presented on a fiscal year basis and output growth is based on GDP at market prices. Corresponding growth forecasts for GDP at factor cost are 4.6, 5.4, and 6.4 percent for 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. 6Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. 7Simple average of prices of U.K. Brent, Dubai Fateh, and West Texas Intermediate crude oil. The average price of oil in U.S. dollars a barrel was $104.07 in 2013; the assumed price based on futures markets is $104.17 in 2014 and $97.92 in 2015.

2

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

CHAPTER 1   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

Figure 1.1. Global Activity Indicators

Figure 1.2. GDP Growth Forecasts (Annualized quarterly percent change)

Global activity strengthened in the second half of 2013, as did world trade, but the pickup was uneven: broad based in advanced economies, but mixed in emerging market economies. Although export growth improved, domestic demand growth remained mostly unchanged. 25

1. World Trade, Industrial Production, and Manufacturing PMI (three-month moving average; annualized percent change)

20

Manufacturing PMI (deviations from 50) Industrial production World trade volumes

15 10 5 0

2010

11

12

2. Manufacturing PMI (deviations from 50; three5 month moving average) 4 3 2

Advanced economies1 Emerging market economies 2

Growth in advanced economies is projected to strengthen moderately in 2014–15, building up momentum from the gains in 2013. Growth in the United States will remain above trend, and growth in Japan is expected to moderate, mostly as the result of a modest fiscal drag. Among emerging market economies, growth is projected to remain robust in emerging and developing Asia and to recover somewhat in Latin America and the Caribbean.

–5 Feb. 14

13

3. Industrial Production (three-month moving average; annualized percent change) 15 Advanced economies1 Emerging market economies 2

8 1. United States and Japan Advanced economies (left scale) 6 4

12 8

2

4

0

0

–2

–4

–4

2010

11

12

13

14

2. Euro Area

–8 15: Q4 8

Euro area France and Germany Spain and Italy

12 9 6

1

16 United States (left scale) Japan (right scale)

6 4 2

3

0

–1

0

–2

–2

–3

0

–3

2012

13

Feb. 14

2012

13

4. GDP Growth (annualized semiannual percent change) April 2014 WEO October 2013 WEO 4.0 Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 2010: 11:H1 12:H1 13:H1 14:H1 H1

15: 2010: 11:H1 12:H113:H114:H1 H2 H1

–6 Jan. 14

8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 15: H2

Sources: CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis; Haver Analytics; Markit Economics; and IMF staff estimates. Note: IP = industrial production; PMI = purchasing managers’ index. 1 Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, euro area, Hong Kong SAR (IP only), Israel, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway (IP only), Singapore, Sweden (IP only), Switzerland, Taiwan Province of China, United Kingdom, United States. 2 Argentina (IP only), Brazil, Bulgaria (IP only), Chile (IP only), China, Colombia (IP only), Hungary, India, Indonesia, Latvia (IP only), Lithuania, Malaysia (IP only), Mexico, Pakistan (IP only), Peru (IP only), Philippines (IP only), Poland, Romania (IP only), Russia, South Africa, Thailand (IP only), Turkey, Ukraine (IP only), Venezuela (IP only).

2010

11

12

13

14

3. Emerging and Developing Asia Emerging and developing Asia China India

2010

11

12

13

14

4. Latin America and the Caribbean Latin America and the Caribbean Brazil Mexico

2010

11

12

13

14

Source: IMF staff estimates.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 3

–4 15: Q4 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 –2 15: Q4 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 –2 –4 15: Q4

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 1.3. Monetary Conditions in Advanced Economies Monetary conditions have remained broadly supportive in advanced economies, but more so in the United States than in the euro area or Japan. Policy rates remain close to the zero lower bound, but they are expected to rise beginning in 2015, especially in the United States, where household net worth and house prices have recovered. Household debt has broadly stabilized in the euro area relative to disposable income, and it has declined markedly in the United States. Credit to the nonfinancial private sector in the euro area has continued to decline, reflecting tight lending standards and weak demand. 1. Policy Rate Expectations1 2.5 (percent; months on x -axis; dashed lines are from the 2.0 October 2013 WEO) United States Europe United Kingdom

1.5 1.0

5 Italy Spain

0.5 0.0

2. Nonfinancial Firm and Household Credit Growth2 20 (year-over-year percent change) 15 Euro area United States 10

0 –5

–10 t + 36 2006 07 08 09 10 11 12 13: Q4 4. Household Debt-to-Income 140 800 3. Household Net-Worth-toRatio Income Ratio 130 750 120 3 700 Japan 110 650 Euro area 4 Euro area 100 600 90 Japan 550 5 80 EA core United States United States 500 70 EA stressed economies 6 450 60 2000 02 04 06 08 10 13: 2000 02 04 06 08 10 13: Q4 Q3 5. Real House Price Indices 6. Central Bank Total Assets 50 180 (2000 = 100) (percent of 2008 GDP) Advanced economies 160 40 experiencing upward Euro BOJ 140 pressure7 30 area 120 20 United States 100 ECB 8 10 80 Japan Fed 0 60 Mar. 2000 02 04 06 08 10 13: 2007 08 09 10 11 12 14 Q3 Sources: Bank of America/Merrill Lynch; Bank of Italy; Bank of Spain; Bloomberg, L.P.; Haver Analytics; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; and IMF staff calculations. Note: BOJ = Bank of Japan; EA = euro area; ECB = European Central Bank; Fed = Federal Reserve. 1 Expectations are based on the federal funds rate futures for the United States, the sterling overnight interbank average rate for the United Kingdom, and the euro interbank offered forward rate for Europe; updated March 26, 2014. 2 Flow-of-funds data are used for the euro area, Spain, and the United States. Italian bank loans to Italian residents are corrected for securitizations. 3 Interpolated from annual net worth as a percent of disposable income. 4 Euro area includes subsector employers (including own-account workers). 5 Austria, France, Germany, Netherlands, Slovenia. Loans are used for the Netherlands to calculate the ratio. 6 Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain. 7 Upward pressure countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Hong Kong SAR, Israel, Norway, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland. 8 ECB calculations are based on the Eurosystem’s weekly financial statement.

t

t + 12

4

t + 24

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

tightening from about 1 percent of GDP in 2013 to ¼ percent of GDP is expected to help lift growth (Figure 1.4, panel 1). Outside the core, contributions from net exports have helped the turnaround, as has the stabilization of domestic demand. •• However, growth in demand is expected to remain sluggish, given continued financial fragmentation, tight credit (see Figure 1.3, panel 2), and a high corporate debt burden. As discussed in Box 1.1, past credit supply shocks in some economies have not yet fully reversed and are still weighing on credit and growth. Credit demand is also weak, however, because of impaired corporate balance sheets. Overall, economic growth in the euro area is projected to reach only 1.2 percent in 2014 and 1½ percent in 2015. •• In Japan, some underlying growth drivers are expected to strengthen, notably private investment and exports, given increased partner country growth and the substantial yen depreciation over the past 12 months or so. Nevertheless, activity overall is projected to slow moderately in response to a tightening fiscal policy stance in 2014–15. The tightening is the result of a two-step increase in the consumption tax rate—to 8 percent from 5 percent in the second quarter of 2014 and then to 10 percent in the fourth quarter of 2015—and to the unwinding of reconstruction spending and the first stimulus package of the Abenomics program. However, at about 1 percent of GDP, the tightening of the fiscal policy stance in 2014 will be more moderate than was expected in the October 2013 WEO, as a result of new fiscal stimulus amounting to about 1 percent of GDP. This stimulus is projected to lower the negative growth impact of the tightening by 0.4 percentage point to 0.3 percent of GDP in 2014. In 2015, the negative growth effect of the fiscal stance is projected to increase to ½ percent of GDP. Overall, growth is projected to be 1.4 percent in 2014 and 1.0 percent in 2015. In emerging market and developing economies, growth picked up slightly in the second half of 2013. The weaker cyclical momentum in comparison with that in the advanced economies reflects the opposite effects of two forces on growth. On one hand, export growth increased, lifted by stronger activity in advanced economies and by currency depreciation. Fiscal policies are projected to be broadly neutral (see Figure 1.4, panel 1). On the other hand, investment weakness continued, and external funding and domestic financial conditions increasingly tightened. Supply-side and other structural constraints on

CHAPTER 1   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

investment and potential output (for example, infrastructure bottlenecks) are issues in some economies. These offsetting forces are expected to remain in effect through much of 2014. Overall, however, emerging market and developing economies continue to contribute more than two-thirds of global growth, and their growth is projected to increase from 4.7 percent in 2013 to 4.9 percent in 2014 and 5.3 percent in 2015. •• The forecast for China is that growth will remain broadly unchanged at about 7½ percent in 2014– 15, only a modest decline from 2012–13. This projection is predicated on the assumption that the authorities gradually rein in rapid credit growth and make progress in implementing their reform blueprint so as to put the economy on a more balanced and sustainable growth path. For India, real GDP growth is projected to strengthen to 5.4 percent in 2014 and 6.4 percent in 2015, assuming that government efforts to revive investment growth succeed and export growth strengthens after the recent rupee depreciation (Figure 1.2, panel 3; Table 1.1). Elsewhere in emerging and developing Asia, growth is expected to remain at 5.3 percent in 2014 because of tighter domestic and external financial conditions before rising to 5.7 percent in 2015, helped by stronger external demand and weaker currencies. •• Only a modest acceleration in activity is expected for regional growth in Latin America, with growth rising from 2½ percent in 2014 to 3 percent in 2015 (Figure 1.2, panel 4). Some economies have recently faced strong market pressure, and tighter financial conditions will weigh on growth. Important differences are evident across the major economies in the region. In Mexico, growth is expected to strengthen to 3 percent in 2014, resulting from a more expansionary macroeconomic policy stance, a reversal of the special factors behind low growth in 2013, and spillovers from higher U.S. growth. It is expected to increase to 3½ percent in 2015, as the effect of major structural reforms takes hold. Activity in Brazil remains subdued. Demand is supported by the recent depreciation of the real and stillbuoyant wage and consumption growth, but private investment continues to be weak, partly reflecting low business confidence. Near-term prospects in Argentina and Venezuela have deteriorated further. Both economies continue to grapple with difficult external funding conditions and the negative impact on output from pervasive exchange and administrative controls.

Figure 1.4. Fiscal Policies The fiscal drag in advanced economies is expected to decline in 2014, except in the case of Japan, and increase in 2015. This increase is largely due to the second step in the consumption tax increase and the unwinding of fiscal stimulus in Japan. In emerging market economies, the fiscal stance is projected to remain broadly neutral in 2014, but it is expected to tighten in 2015, when activity will have strengthened.

1. Fiscal Impulse (change in structural balance as percent of GDP) 2011 2013 2015 (projection)

3.0 2.5

2012 2014 (projection) October 2013 WEO

2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0

Advanced economies excluding euro area

Emerging market and developing economies

France and Germany

Euro area stressed 1 economies

2. Fiscal Balance (percent of GDP)

–0.5

4 2 0 –2 –4 –6

Advanced economies Emerging market and developing economies World 2001

04

–8 –10

07

10

13

–12 19

16

3. Public Debt (percent of GDP)

160 140

Advanced economies Emerging and developing Asia 2 G7 Latin America and the Caribbean Other emerging market and developing economies World

120 100 80 60 40 20

1950

60

70

80

90

2000

10

19

Source: IMF staff estimates. Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain. 2 The G7 comprises Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States. 1



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 5

0

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 1.5. Global Inflation

(Year-over-year percent change, unless indicated otherwise) Inflation is generally projected to remain subdued in 2014–15 with continued sizable negative output gaps in advanced economies, weaker domestic demand in several emerging market economies, and falling commodity prices. In the euro area and the United States, headline inflation is expected to remain below longer-term inflation expectations, which could lead to adjustments in expectations and risks of higher debt burdens and real interest rates. 1. Global Aggregates: Headline Inflation 10 Emerging market and developing economies 8 Advanced economies World 6 4 2 0 2005

4

06

07

08

09

10

2. Headline Inflation (dashed lines are the six- to ten-year inflation expectations)

11

12

13

14

–2 15: Q4

3. GDP Deflator United States 2 Euro area Japan

3

4 3

2

2

1

1

0

0

–1

United States Euro area 2

–2 –3

2009 10 11

–1

Japan 1

12 13 14

–2

15: Q4

2009 10 11

12

13

4. Commodity Prices (index; 2005 = 100)

Food Energy Metal 2005

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

14

14

–3 15: Q4 260 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 15: Q4

Sources: Consensus Economics; Haver Analytics; IMF, Primary Commodity Price System; and IMF staff estimates. 1 In Japan, the increase in inflation in 2014 reflects, to a large extent, the increase in the consumption tax. 2 Excludes Latvia.

6

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

•• In sub-Saharan Africa, growth is expected to increase from 4.9 percent in 2013 to 5½ percent in 2014– 15. Growth in South Africa is projected to improve only modestly as the result of stronger external demand. Commodity-related projects elsewhere in the region are expected to support higher growth. Currencies have depreciated substantially in some economies. •• In the Middle East and North Africa, regional growth is projected to rise moderately in 2014–15. Most of the recovery is due to the oil-exporting economies, where high public spending contributes to buoyant non-oil activity in some economies and oil supply difficulties are expected to be partly alleviated in others. Many oil-importing economies continue to struggle with difficult sociopolitical and security conditions, which weigh on confidence and economic activity. •• Near-term prospects in Russia and many other economies of the Commonwealth of Independent States have been downgraded, as growth is expected to be hampered by the fallout from recent developments in Russia and Ukraine and the related geopolitical risks. Investment had already been weak, reflecting in part policy uncertainty. In emerging and developing Europe, growth is expected to decelerate in 2014 before recovering moderately in 2015 despite the demand recovery in western Europe, largely reflecting changing external financial conditions and recent policy tightening in Turkey. •• Growth in low-income developing economies picked up to 6 percent in 2013, driven primarily by strong domestic demand. A further uptick to about 6½ percent is projected for 2014–15, because of the support from the stronger recovery in advanced economies and continued robust expansion of private domestic demand.

Inflation Is Low Inflation pressure is expected to stay subdued (Figure 1.5, panel 1). Activity remains substantially below potential output in advanced economies, whereas it is often close to or somewhat below potential in emerging market and developing economies (Figure 1.6, panel 1). Declines in the prices of commodities, especially fuels and food, have been a common force behind recent decreases in headline inflation across the globe (Figure 1.5, panel 4). Commodity prices in U.S. dollar

CHAPTER 1   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

terms are projected to ease a bit further in 2014–15, partly reflecting the path implied by commodity futures prices. As discussed in the Commodity Special Feature, however, for the specific case of oil prices, forecasts differ depending on the underlying approach. That said, different forecasting models currently predict flat to falling oil prices, although the range of uncertainty around commodity price forecasts generally is large. Even so, the broader commodity market picture is one in which supply shifts for many commodities are expected to more than offset the price effects of the projected strengthening in global activity. The supply shifts are most prominent for some food commodities and crude oil. The lower growth anticipated in China is unlikely to result in declines in that country’s commodity consumption, which should continue to increase with per capita income levels projected over the WEO forecast horizon. However, the growth and composition of commodity consumption in China should change as the country’s economy rebalances from investment to more consumption-driven growth (see Box 1.2). In advanced economies, inflation is currently running below target and below longer-term inflation expectations, at about 1½ percent on average (Figure 1.5, panel 1). The return to target is projected to be gradual, given that output is expected to return to potential only slowly (Figure 1.5, panels 2 and 3; Table A8 in the Statistical Appendix). •• In the United States, all relevant inflation measures decreased in the course of 2013, with core inflation running at rates of less than 1½ percent, notwithstanding continued declines in the unemployment rate. The lower unemployment rates partly reflect reductions in labor force participation due to demographic trends as well as discouraged workers dropping out of the labor force. A portion of the decline in labor force participation is expected to be reversed, because some of these workers are likely to seek employment as labor market conditions improve. In addition, the long-term unemployment rate remains high compared with historical standards. As a result, wage growth is expected to be sluggish even as unemployment declines toward the natural rate in 2014–15. •• In the euro area, inflation has steadily declined since late 2011. Both headline and underlying inflation have fallen below 1 percent since the fourth quarter in 2013. Several economies with particularly high unemployment have seen either inflation close to zero or outright deflation during the same period. For

Figure 1.6. Capacity, Unemployment, and Output Trend Output in emerging and developing Asia, Latin America, and sub-Saharan Africa remains above precrisis trend, but WEO output gaps do not indicate output above capacity. Despite slowing economic growth, unemployment rates have continued to decline slightly in emerging Asia and Latin America. The IMF staff has revised down its estimates of medium-term output, responding to disappointments in the recent past. Sizable revisions to output in the so-called BRICs economies account for most of the downward revisions to emerging market and developing economies as a group. 1. Output Relative to Precrisis Trends in WEO Estimates in 20141 (percent of potential or precrisis trend GDP)

WEO output gap in 2014

Advanced EMDE economies

EDE

CIS

2. Unemployment Rates2 (percent)

DA

LAC

SubSaharan Africa

6 3 0 –3 –6 –9 –12 –15 –18

14 2007 2011 2013

12 10 8 6 4

Euro area 3 Japan

US

CIS

DA

EDE

LAC

MENA

2

3. Contribution to Reduction in Emerging Market and Developing Economy Medium-Term Output 4 (percent) 0 –2 –4 Rest EMDE BR CN EMDE 2012

13

ZA RU IN 14

–6 –8 15

16

17

18

–10

Sources: Haver Analytics; IMF, International Financial Statistics; and IMF staff estimates. Note: BR = Brazil; BRICS = Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa; CIS = Commonwealth of Independent States; CN = China; DA = developing Asia; EDE = emerging and developing Europe; EMDE = emerging market and developing market economies; IN = India; LAC = Latin America and the Caribbean; MENA = Middle East and North Africa; RU = Russia; US = United States; ZA = South Africa. 1 Precrisis trend is defined as the geometric average of real GDP level growth between 1996 and 2006. 2 Sub-Saharan Africa is omitted because of data limitations. 3 Excludes Latvia. 4 Relative to the September 2011 WEO; 2017 and 2018 output figures for the September 2011 WEO are extrapolated using 2016 growth rates.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 7

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

2013 as a whole, inflation was 1.3 percent, which is closer to the lower end of the range forecast provided by the European Central Bank (ECB) staff at the end of 2012 and below the lowest value provided by Consensus Forecast survey participants at the time. Inflation is projected to increase slightly as the recovery strengthens and output gaps slowly decrease. Under the current baseline projections, inflation is expected to remain below the ECB’s price stability objective until at least 2016. •• In Japan, inflation started to increase with stronger growth and the depreciation of the yen during the past year or so. In 2014–15, it is projected to accelerate temporarily in response to increases in the consumption tax. Indications are, however, that labor market conditions have started to tighten. Nominal wages have also begun to increase, and underlying inflation is projected to converge gradually toward the 2 percent target. In emerging market and developing economies, inflation is expected to decline from about 6 percent currently to about 5¼ percent by 2015 (Figure 1.5, panel 1). Softer world commodity prices in U.S. dollar terms should help reduce price pressures, although in some economies, this reduction will be more than offset by recent exchange rate depreciation. In addition, activityrelated price pressures will ease with the recent growth declines in many emerging market economies. That said, this relief will be limited in some emerging market economies, given evidence of domestic demand pressures and capacity constraints in some sectors (red and yellow overheating indicators in Figure 1.7). This picture is consistent with output remaining above crisis trend and unemployment having declined further in a number of emerging market economies (Figure 1.6, panels 1 and 2). In low-income developing economies, softer commodity prices and careful monetary policy tightening have helped lower inflation from about 9.8 percent in 2012 to 7.8 percent in 2013. Based on current policies, inflation is expected to decline further to about 6½ percent.

Monetary Policy, Financial Conditions, and Capital Flows Are Diverging Monetary conditions have stayed mostly supportive in advanced economies despite lasting increases in longerterm interest rates since May 2013, when the Federal Reserve announced its intention to begin tapering its asset purchase program (Figure 1.8, panels 2 and 5). 8

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

However, longer-term rates are still lower than rates that would prevail if the term premium had reversed to precrisis levels, and broad financial conditions have remained easy—equity markets have rallied and bond risk spreads remain low (Figure 1.8, panel 3). Monetary policy stances across advanced economies are, however, expected to start diverging in 2014–15. •• Surveys of market participants (such as the Federal Reserve Bank of New York’s January 2014 Survey of Primary Dealers) suggest that the policy rate is expected to increase in the United States in the second half of 2015. Information based on futures prices, however, implies that the timing has been advanced to the first half of 2015 (Figure 1.8, panel 1). The WEO projections are in line with the Federal Reserve’s forward guidance for a continued growth-friendly policy stance and assume that the first U.S. policy rate hike will take place in the third quarter of 2015. The projections take into account that inflation is forecast to remain low, inflation expectations to stay well anchored, and the unemployment rate to continue its slow decline until then. The forecasts also assume that the Federal Reserve will continue tapering asset purchases at the current pace over the next few months and that the program will end by late 2014. •• Markets continue to expect a prolonged period of low interest rates and supportive monetary policy for the euro area and Japan (Figure 1.3, panel 1). Unlike in Europe, Japanese long-term bond yields have remained virtually unchanged since tapering talk began, reflecting both strong demand for bonds by nonresidents and residents and the Bank of Japan’s asset purchases. In the euro area, low inflation remains the dominant concern, including deflation pressure in some countries, amid a weak recovery. The WEO projections assume further small declines in sovereign spreads in countries with high debt, consistent with views that sovereign risks have decreased. The projections also assume, however, that financial fragmentation will remain a problem for the transmission of monetary policy impulses in the euro area. Credit conditions will thus remain tight, and credit outstanding will continue to decline for some time, albeit at a slower pace (Figure 1.3, panel 2). The major contributing factors are remaining weaknesses in bank balance sheets and, more generally, the weak economic environment aggravated by high unemployment and large debt burdens.

CHAPTER 1   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

Figure 1.7. Overheating Indicators for the Group of Twenty Economies Most indicators point to continued excessive cyclical slack in advanced economies. In major emerging market economies, some indicators suggest that capacity constraints are still present, notwithstanding the recent slowdown in growth. For a number of emerging market economies, indicators point to continued external vulnerabilities. Financial indicators flag high equity

prices in many advanced economies and rising house prices in Germany and the United States. In emerging market economies, the indicators reflect continued vulnerabilities from rapid credit growth; developments in other markets are broadly within historical bounds.

2014 estimates above the 1997–2006 average, except as noted below, by Less than 0.5 standard deviation

Domestic

Greater than or equal to 0.5 but less than 1.5 standard deviations

External

Greater than or equal to 1.5 standard deviations

Financial

Real Output Terms Capital Current Fiscal Interest Credit House Share relative Output Unemto trend1 gap ployment Inflation2 Summary of trade inflows3 account Summary growth4 price4 price4 Summary Balance 5 Rate 6 Advanced Economies Japan Germany United States Australia Canada France United Kingdom Italy Korea Emerging Market and Developing Economies India Brazil Indonesia Argentina7 Saudi Arabia Turkey China Russia Mexico South Africa Sources: Australian Bureau of Statistics; Bank for International Settlements; CEIC China Database; Global Property Guide; Haver Analytics; IMF, Balance of Payments Statistics database; IMF, International Financial Statistics database; National Bureau of Statistics of China; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; and IMF staff estimates. Note: For each indicator, except as noted below, economies are assigned colors based on projected 2014 values relative to their precrisis (1997–2006) average. Each indicator is scored as red = 2, yellow = 1, and blue = 0; summary scores are calculated as the sum of selected component scores divided by the maximum possible sum of those scores. Summary blocks are assigned red if the summary score is greater than or equal to 0.66, yellow if greater than or equal to 0.33 but less than 0.66, and blue if less than 0.33. When data are missing, no color is assigned. Arrows up (down) indicate hotter (colder) conditions compared with the October 2013 WEO. 1 Output more than 2.5 percent above the precrisis trend is indicated by red. Output more than 2.5 percent below the trend is indicated by blue. Output within ±2.5 percent of the precrisis trend is indicated by yellow. 2 The following scoring methodology is used for the following inflation-targeting economies: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, South Africa, Turkey, and United Kingdom. End-of-period inflation above the country’s target inflation band from the midpoint is assigned yellow; end-of-period inflation more than two times the inflation band from the midpoint is assigned red. For all other economies in the chart, red is assigned if end-of-period inflation is approximately 10 percent or higher, yellow if it is approximately 5 to 9 percent, and blue if it is less than approximately 5 percent. 3 Capital inflows refer to the latest available value relative to the 1997–2006 average of capital inflows as a percent of GDP. 4 The indicators for credit growth, house price growth, and share price growth refer to the annual percent change relative to output growth. 5 Arrows in the fiscal balance column represent the forecast change in the structural balance as a percent of GDP over the period 2013–14. An improvement of more than 0.5 percent of GDP is indicated by an up arrow; a deterioration of more than 0.5 percent of GDP is indicated by a down arrow. A change in fiscal balance between –0.5 percent of GDP and 0.5 percent of GDP is indicated by a sideways arrow. 6 Real policy interest rates below 0 percent are identified by a down arrow; real interest rates above 3 percent are identified by an up arrow; real interest rates between 0 and 3 percent are identified by a sideways arrow. Real policy interest rates are deflated by two-year-ahead inflation projections. 7 Calculations are based on Argentina’s official GDP and consumer price index data. See note 5 to Statistical Appendix Table A4 and note 6 to Table A7.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 9

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 1.8. Financial Market Conditions in Advanced Economies Longer-term U.S. interest rates rose immediately after the May 2013 taperingrelated announcement by the Federal Reserve but have broadly stabilized since. Rates in the core euro area economies and Japan have increased by a fraction. Equity markets have been buoyant, with price-to-earnings ratios back to precrisis levels. Spreads on Italian and Spanish bonds have continued to decrease. 1. U.S. Policy Rate Expectations1 (percent; months on x-axis)

2.5

May 21, 2013 June 21, 2013 September 20, 2013 March 26, 2014

2.0 1.5

2. Key Interest Rates2 (percent) U.S. average 30-year fixed- June 29, 2012 rate mortgage

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Mar. 14

May 22, 2013

1.0 U.S. 0.5 Japan 0.0

t

t + 12

t + 24

t + 36 2007 08 09 10 11

3. Equity Markets (2007 = 100; national currency) MSCI Emerging Market 160 S&P 500 140 DJ Euro Stoxx 120 TOPIX 100

12

4. Price-to-Earnings Ratios3 U.S. Japan

Germany Italy

25 20 15

80 10

60 40

May 22, 2013

May 22, 2013 June 29, 2012

20

0 2000 02 04 06 08 10 12 Mar. May May May May May May 14 2007 08 09 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

5. Government Bond Yields4 (percent) May 22, Germany 2013 Italy Spain France

5 0 Mar. 14

6. ECB Gross Claims on Spanish and Italian Banks 500 (billions of euros) 400 Spain 300 200 100

June 29, 2012 2007 08 09 10 11

Italy 12

Mar. 2008 09 14

10

11

12

0 Feb. 14

Sources: Bloomberg, L.P.; Capital Data; Financial Times; Haver Analytics; national central banks; Thomson Reuters Datastream; and IMF staff calculations. Note: DJ = Dow Jones; ECB = European Central Bank; MSCI = Morgan Stanley Capital International; S&P = Standard & Poor’s; TOPIX = Tokyo Stock Price Index. 1 Expectations are based on the federal funds rate futures for the United States; updated March 26, 2014. 2 Interest rates are 10-year government bond yields, unless noted otherwise. 3 Some observations for Japan are interpolated because of missing data. 4 Ten-year government bond yields.

10

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

In emerging market economies, there has been a tightening of monetary and financial conditions since May 2013. This is the combined result of spillovers from rising bond rates and better prospects in advanced economies, markets’ reassessment of medium-term growth prospects, and greater investor concerns about vulnerabilities. Rates on longer-term local currency bonds in emerging market economies have risen more than those in advanced economies, consistent with past patterns—namely, that emerging market risk is repriced when advanced economy rates increase (Figure 1.9, panel 2). Equity prices have moved sideways in local currency, whereas in U.S. dollar terms—the benchmark for international investors—they have declined substantially as a result of widespread currency depreciation. Still, the passthrough from higher local currency bond yields to lending rates has often been limited, credit growth has remained relatively high (Figure 1.10, panels 2 and 3), and the depreciation of nominal exchange rates against the U.S. dollar and other major currencies has provided some offset (Figure 1.11, panel 2). Specific market developments are discussed in more detail in the April 2014 Global Financial Stability Report. Despite some retrenchment in capital inflows since the Federal Reserve’s surprise tapering-related announcement in May 2013, developments to date do not portend a sustained reversal of capital flows. In fact, capital inflows recovered moderately in the latter part of 2013 from the lows reached in summer 2013 (Figure 1.9, panels 5 and 6). However, they are estimated to have remained below pretapering levels. The WEO baseline projections assume that capital inflows to emerging market economies will remain lower in 2014 than they were in 2013, before recovering modestly in 2015. The projections also assume that the additional repricing of bonds and equities in some emerging market economies since October 2013 was largely a one-off increase in risk premiums on emerging market economies’ assets. Much of the recent yield increases and asset price declines will thus be lasting. This constitutes a broad-based tightening in financial conditions, which is expected to dampen domestic demand growth and is one of the main factors contributing to the projected lower growth in emerging market economies in 2014–15 compared with the October 2013 WEO (see Table 1.1). The analysis in Chapter 4 highlights that if the tightening in external financial conditions for emerging market economies

CHAPTER 1   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

Figure 1.9. Financial Conditions and Capital Flows in Emerging Market Economies

Figure 1.10. Monetary Policies and Credit in Emerging Market Economies

Financial conditions in emerging market economies have tightened recently in response to a more difficult external financial environment. Bond rates and spreads have increased, and equity markets have moved sideways. Gross capital inflows have declined, and exchange rates have depreciated. Overall, the cost of capital in emerging market economies has increased, which will dampen investment and growth, although increased exports to advanced economies are expected to provide some offset.

Monetary conditions have tightened in many emerging market economies, reflecting changes in external funding, but also policy rate increases in some economies (including Brazil, Indonesia, South Africa, and Turkey); however, real policy rates remain negative in some emerging markets, in some cases because of high inflation. Bank credit growth has started to slow in many economies, but remains at double-digit rates in some, exceeding GDP growth by substantial margins. Economy-wide leverage continues to rise rapidly, and ratios of bank credit to GDP have doubled in some economies during the past seven years.

13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4

1. Policy Rate (percent) Emerging Asia excluding China Emerging Europe Latin America China

2. Ten-Year Government Bond Yields (percent) 17 Emerging Europe China

Emerging Asia excluding China 14 Latin America 11

1. Real Policy Rates1 (percent; deflated by two-year-ahead WEO inflation projections) April 2013 Latest (February 2014)

April 2013 average February 2014 average

8 5 2007 08 09 10 11 12

2 Feb. 2007 08 09 10 11 12 13 Mar. 14 14

3. EMBI Sovereign Spreads (basis points) 900 Emerging Asia 800 excluding China 700 Emerging Europe 600 Latin America 500 China 400 300 200 100 0 2007 08 09 10 11 12 Mar. 14 5. Net Flows in Emerging Market Funds (billions of U.S. dollars) 30 Bond May 22, 2013 Equity 20 VXY

4. Equity Markets (2007 = 100) Emerging Asia excluding China Emerging Europe

160 140

100 80 Latin America China 2007 08 09 10 11 12

60 40 Mar. 14

6. Capital Inflows Based on Balance of Payments (percent of GDP) China Latin America

15

0

0

–20 –30

1st ECB LTROs Irish June 29, crisis 2012

2010: 10: 11: 11: 12: 12: 13: H1 H2 H1 H2 H1 H2 H1

40 2. 30

Emerging Europe Emerging Asia excluding China Mar. 2007 08 09 10 11 12 14

Sources: Bloomberg, L.P.; EPFR Global; Haver Analytics; IMF, International Financial Statistics; and IMF staff calculations. Note: ECB = European Central Bank; EMBI = J.P. Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index; LTROs = longer-term refinancing operations; VXY = J.P. Morgan Emerging Market Volatility Index; emerging Asia excluding China includes India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand; emerging Europe comprises Poland, Russia, Turkey; Latin America includes Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru.

40 30 20

10

10

0

0

–10

2009

70 4.

10

IND TUR COL

60

11

BRA IDN RUS

12

Dec. 13

2009

Bank Credit to GDP (percent) 240 5. 220 200 180

50

10

11

12

MEX (right scale) HKG CHN MYS

–10 Dec. 13

25

20

160

–5

40

–10

30

–15 13: Q3

IDN MYS TUR

20

10 5

Greek crisis

Real Credit Growth (year-over-year percent change) 3. IND BRA COL CHN HKG RUS MEX

120

10

–10

BRA CHL CHN COL IND IDN KOR MEXMYS PER PHL POL RUS THA TUR ZAF

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3

140 120

15

100

20 2006

80 10 13: 2006 08 10 12 13: Q4 Q4 Sources: Haver Analytics; IMF, International Financial Statistics; and IMF staff calculations. Note: BRA = Brazil; CHL = Chile; CHN = China; COL = Colombia; HKG = Hong Kong SAR; IDN = Indonesia; IND = India; KOR = Korea; MEX = Mexico; MYS = Malaysia; PER = Peru; PHL = Philippines; POL = Poland; RUS = Russia; THA = Thailand; TUR = Turkey; ZAF = South Africa. 1 Bank of Indonesia rate for Indonesia; the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey’s effective marginal funding cost estimated by the IMF staff for Turkey. 08



10

12

International Monetary Fund | April 2014 11

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 1.11. Exchange Rates and Reserves Currencies of many major emerging market economies have depreciated against the U.S. dollar, reflecting a weakening of those economies’ medium-term growth outlooks vis-à-vis that of advanced economies and tighter external financial conditions. The broader picture based on the currency assessments in the 2013 Pilot External Sector Report (IMF, 2013b) is that undervalued currencies generally appreciated in real effective terms in 2013, whereas overvalued currencies depreciated. The pace of reserve accumulation in emerging market and developing economies slowed in 2013, reflecting lower capital inflows and reserve losses from foreign exchange intervention. 1. Real Effective Exchange Rates1 (percent) Change in REER between June 2012 and February 2014 REER gap for 2012 (midpoint)

30 20 10 0

DEU MYS CHE SWE KOR NLD CHN THA EA BEL MEX POL RUS IND IDN ITA USA GBR AUS FRA CAN BRA TUR ZAF ESP

–10

2. Nominal Exchange Rates1,2 (percent change from May 22, 2013, to March 21, 2014)

–20

10 5 0 –5 –10

Percent change from Dec. 18, 2013, to Mar. 21, 2014 Sur. Def. Aln.

–15

MYS CHN EA JPN RUS IND IDN BRA TUR ZAF

3. International Reserves (index, 2000 = 100; three-month moving average) Developing Asia Middle East and North Africa Latin America and the Caribbean Emerging Europe

Jul. 2007

Jul. 08

Jul. 09

Jul. 10

Jul. 11

Jul. 12

2,000 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 Jul. Feb. 13 14

Sources: Global Insight; IMF, International Financial Statistics; and IMF staff calculations. Note: Aln. = aligned emerging market economies; AUS = Australia; BEL = Belgium; BRA = Brazil; CAN = Canada; CHE = Switzerland; CHN = China; Def. = deficit emerging market economies; DEU = Germany; EA = euro area; ESP = Spain; FRA = France; GBR = United Kingdom; IDN = Indonesia; IND = India; ITA = Italy; JPN = Japan; KOR = Korea; MEX = Mexico; MYS = Malaysia; NLD = Netherlands; POL = Poland; REER = real effective exchange rate; RUS = Russia; Sur. = surplus emerging market economies; SWE = Sweden; THA = Thailand; TUR = Turkey; USA = United States; ZAF = South Africa. 1 REER gaps and classifications are based on IMF (2013b). 2 U.S. dollars per national currency.

12

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

–20

were limited to the higher advanced economy interest rates associated with faster growth in these economies, the growth spillovers would be positive. With concurrent tightening in other financial conditions, however, such as risk premiums on emerging market sovereign debt, the net spillover effects can turn negative.

The External Sector Perspective Global trade volume growth slowed substantially in the adjustment after the global financial crisis of 2007–09 and the euro area crisis of 2011–12 (Figure 1.12, panels 1 and 2). This slowing has fueled questions about whether international trade will remain an engine of global growth, which are motivated by concerns about stalling or declining globalization (for example, because productivity gains from recent trade liberalization under the World Trade Organization umbrella are diminishing). However, data on world trade growth since 2008 seem to be in line with global output and investment growth. Moreover, recent forecast errors for world trade growth are strongly and positively correlated with those for global GDP growth, as in the past. These factors suggest that the recent trade weakness has simply mirrored stronger-than-expected declines in growth across the globe. Indeed, world trade growth picked up strongly with the strengthening in global activity in the second half of 2013. Global current account imbalances narrowed further in 2013. The narrowing was partly driven by external adjustment in stressed economies in the euro area— which increasingly reflects not only import compression, but also some adjustment in relative prices and rising exports—although balances in euro area surplus economies did not decline materially. The narrowing also reflects larger energy imports in Japan since the 2011 earthquake and tsunami, a decline in net energy imports in the United States, and a combination of falling oil export revenues and increased expenditures in fuel exporters. A modest further narrowing of imbalances is projected for the medium term, resulting mostly from lower surpluses of oil exporters (Figure 1.12, panel 5). Exchange rate adjustments during the past year or so have been broadly consistent with a further correction of external imbalances. Based on the currency assessments in the 2013 Pilot External Sector Report (IMF, 2013b), undervalued currencies, defined by a negative real effective exchange rate gap in mid-2012, generally appreciated in real effective terms in 2013, and overval-

CHAPTER 1   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

Downside Risks The balance of risks to WEO projections for global growth has improved, largely reflecting improving prospects in the advanced economies. Important downside risks remain, however, especially for emerging market economies, for which risks have increased.

Figure 1.12. External Sector Global trade volumes rebounded with the strengthening in global activity in the second half of 2013. The earlier weakening in global trade was broadly consistent with the slowdown in activity, highlighting the high short-term income elasticities of exports and imports. Current account balances of most emerging market economies have declined since the global financial crisis and a few among them now have excessive deficits. 1. World Trade Volume and Global GDP, 1991–2013; 15 Current WEO (percent) 10 5

2. WEO Forecast Error Correlation, 1991–2013; April, Next-Year Forecasts; Current WEO 15 (percent) 10 2011 5

2013

0

0

2013

–5

2012 y = 3.92x – 0.14 R ² = 0.89

2011

–10

–15 –5.0

–2.5 0.0 2.5 Change in GDP growth

5.0 –5.0

3. Current Account Changes (percent of GDP; 2007 on x-axis 25 vs. 2013 on y-axis) 20 AE 15 EMDE 10

2012

–5

y = 3.51x + 0.62 R ² = 0.89

–10

–2.5 0.0 2.5 GDP growth

–15 5.0

4. Gross Capital Inflows (percent of GDP; 2007 on x-axis vs. 2013 on y-axis)

The fan chart for the global real GDP forecast through 2015 suggests a slightly narrower uncertainty band around the WEO projections than in the October 2013 WEO (Figure 1.13, panel 1). For 2014, this narrowing reflects primarily the shorter time horizon to the end of 2014 (“lower baseline uncertainty,” because there is less uncertainty given that more data affecting 2014 outcomes are known already). The probability of global growth falling below the 2 percent recession threshold in 2014 is now estimated to be 0.1 percent, down from 6 percent in October 2013. For 2015, the same probability is 2.9 percent, which is appreciably lower for the next-year forecasts compared with values in April 2012 and 2013. The risk of a recession has fallen noticeably in the major advanced economies while it has remained broadly unchanged in other economies (Figure 1.14, panel 1). Specifically, compared with simulations performed for the October 2013 WEO, the IMF staff’s Global Projection Model shows a decline in the prob-

30 25

AE EMDE

20 15

5

10

0

A Quantitative Risk Assessment: Uncertainty Has Narrowed

World trade growth

Change in trade volume growth

ued currencies depreciated (Figure 1.11, panel 1). The main exceptions to this pattern were some advanced economies affected by safe haven flows (for example, the United Kingdom) or by capital inflows due to decreases in perceived sovereign risks (euro area), which saw further appreciation of their currencies. Although exchange rate adjustments have generally been consistent with corrections of external imbalances, there are conflicting signals for current account balances. In a number of emerging market economies in particular, current account deficits increased further from the underlying norm in 2013 rather than narrowing, despite real exchange rate adjustment in the correct direction. This deficit widening may be simply due to delays in the trade and current account response (the so-called J-curve effects) and lower commodity prices; it may also indicate that further policy measures are needed to correct imbalances.

–5

5

–10

0

–15 –15

–5

5

25 –5

15

0

5

–5 10 15 20 25 30

5. Global Imbalances (percent of world GDP)

4 3 2 1 0 –1

US DEU+JPN CHN+EMA 2000

02

OIL OCADC ROW 04

06

–2 –3

Discrepancy 08

10

–4 12

14

16

18

–5

Sources: Haver Analytics; IMF, International Financial Statistics; and IMF staff estimates. Note: AE = advanced economies; CHN+EMA = China, Hong Kong SAR, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan Province of China, Thailand; DEU +JPN = Germany and Japan; EMDE = emerging market and developing economies; OCADC = Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom; OIL = oil exporters; ROW = rest of the world; US = United States.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 13

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 1.14. Recession and Deflation Risks

Figure 1.13. Risks to the Global Outlook The fan chart, which indicates the degree of uncertainty about the global growth outlook, has narrowed vis-à-vis that in the October 2013 WEO. This suggests a slightly more benign balance of risks for the global outlook; however, downside risks remain a concern. Measures of forecast dispersion and implied volatility for equity and oil prices also suggest a decline in perceived uncertainty about key variables for the global outlook. 1. Prospects for World GDP Growth1 (percent change) WEO baseline 50 percent confidence interval 70 percent confidence interval

6 5 4

11

12

13

14

2. Balance of Risks Associated with Selected Risk Factors2 (coefficient of skewness expressed in units of the underlying variables) Balance of risks for 2014 (October 2013 WEO) 2014 (current WEO) 2015 (current WEO)

Term spread

S&P 500

Inflation risk

1. Probability of Recession, 2013:Q4–2014:Q31 (percent)

Oil price risks

35 30

October 2013 WEO: 2013:Q2–2014:Q1

3

90 percent confidence interval 90 percent bands from October 2013 WEO 90 percent bands from April 2013 WEO 2010

The IMF staff’s Global Projection Model suggests that recession risks have decreased slightly for the major economies and have remained broadly unchanged for other economies. The probability of a recession for the euro area remains high, highlighting the fragility of the weak recovery. The risk of deflation also remains relatively high in the euro area, where it is still about 20 percent, whereas it is virtually negligible for other economies.

25

2

20

1 15

15

2.0 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.0 –0.4 –0.8 –1.2

10 5 United States

Euro area

Japan

Emerging Asia

Latin America

Remaining economies

30

2. Probability of Deflation, 2014:Q41 (percent)

25 20

October 2013 WEO

15

Dispersion of Forecasts and Implied Volatility3

80 3. GDP 70 2000–present (right scale) average VIX 60 (left scale) 50

0.9

140 4.

0.8

120

0.7

100

0.6

80

40

0.5

60

30

0.4

40

20

0.3

20

10

Term spread (right scale) Oil4 (left scale)

0.40

0.25 0.20 0.15

0.2 0 0.10 12 Feb. 2006 08 10 12 Feb. 14 14 Sources: Bloomberg, L.P.; Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE); Consensus Economics; and IMF staff estimates. 1 The fan chart shows the uncertainty around the WEO central forecast with 50, 70, and 90 percent confidence intervals. As shown, the 70 percent confidence interval includes the 50 percent interval, and the 90 percent confidence interval includes the 50 and 70 percent intervals. See Appendix 1.2 of the April 2009 WEO for details. The 90 percent bands for the current-year and one-year-ahead forecasts from the April 2013 and October 2013 WEO reports are shown relative to the current baseline. 2 Bars depict the coefficient of skewness expressed in units of the underlying variables. The values for inflation risks and oil price risks enter with the opposite sign since they represent downside risks to growth. Note that the risks associated with the Standard & Poor's (S&P) 500 for 2014 and 2015 are based on options contracts for December 2014 and December 2015, respectively. 3 GDP measures the purchasing-power-parity-weighted average dispersion of GDP forecasts for the G7 economies (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States), Brazil, China, India, and Mexico. VIX = Chicago Board Options Exchange S&P 500 Implied Volatility Index. Term spread measures the average dispersion of term spreads implicit in interest rate forecasts for Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States. Forecasts are from Consensus Economics surveys. 4 CBOE crude oil volatility index. 2006

08

14

10

0.35

5

0.30

2000–present average

United States

Euro area

Japan

Emerging Asia

Latin America

Remaining economies

3. Deflation Vulnerability Index 2 World Ireland

10

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

0

1.0

Greece Spain

0.8 0.6

High risk

2003

0

Moderate risk

0.4

Low risk

0.2

05

07

09

11

13

0.0 14: Q4

Source: IMF staff estimates. 1 Emerging Asia = China, Hong Kong SAR, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan Province of China, Thailand; Latin America = Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru; Remaining economies = Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Israel, New Zealand, Norway, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, Venezuela. 2 For details on the construction of this indicator, see Kumar (2003) and Decressin and Laxton (2009). The indicator is expanded to include house prices.

CHAPTER 1   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

ability of a recession (two successive quarters of negative growth) in the four quarters ahead. Nevertheless, recession risks of about 20 percent in the euro area and Japan—which partly reflect the relatively low growth projected for these economies—and in the Rest of the World group highlight that a number of fragilities remain present in the global recovery. In most economies, the risk of deflation by the end of 2014 is virtually negligible, according to the Global Projection Model simulations. In the euro area, however, the risk of deflation—estimated at about 20 percent— remains a concern despite some recent declines (Figure 1.14, panel 2).1 Similarly, broad indicators of deflation vulnerability, which measure the risk of more persistent price level declines, remain above or close to the high-risk threshold for some euro area economies, notwithstanding recent improvements (Figure 1.14, panel 3). In Japan, the absence of near-term deflation risks reflects primarily the price-level effects of the increase in the consumption tax rate to 8 percent in the second quarter of 2014 from the previous 5 percent.

A Qualitative Risk Assessment: Some Risks Remain and New Ones Have Emerged Some downside risks identified in the October 2013 WEO have become less relevant, notably shorter-term U.S. fiscal risks because of the two-year budget agreement of December 2013 and the suspension of the debt ceiling until March 2015. The other risks, however, remain a concern; new ones have emerged; and the risks related to emerging market economies have increased. More recently, developments in Ukraine have increased geopolitical risks. At the same time, however, upside risks to growth in some advanced economies have developed, improving the balance of risks compared with the October 2013 WEO.

1The probability of deflation increases with a longer forecast horizon, everything else equal. A longer horizon in this WEO report compared with the October 2013 WEO (three quarters ahead vs. one quarter ahead) is an important reason for a higher probability of deflation in the euro area in panel 2 of Figure 1.14. The comparable one-quarter-ahead probability for the second quarter of 2014 in this WEO report would be 9 percent, compared to 15 percent in October. While deflation risks have decreased, the estimated probability of euro area inflation being above the ECB’s price stability target is only 28 percent in the fourth quarter of 2015 and 42 percent in the fourth quarter of 2016 (probabilities calculated as inflation exceeding 1.9 percent).

Advanced economy risks •• Risks to activity from low inflation: With current inflation lower than expected in many advanced economies, there is a risk, albeit a declining one, of treading into deflation in the event of adverse shocks to activity. In addition, if inflation stays below target for an extended period, as it would under the baseline forecasts, longer-term inflation expectations are likely to drift down. The main reason to be concerned about an adverse impact on activity and debt burdens is that monetary policy will likely be constrained in lowering nominal interest rates for some time, given that policy-relevant rates are already close to the zero lower bound. This risk is primarily a concern in the euro area and, to a lesser extent, in Japan. In the euro area, risks are that inflation could undershoot the ECB’s price stability target by more or for longer than under the baseline forecasts, given the very high unemployment and slack in many economies. In Japan, the issues are entrenched expectations after a long period of deflation and the ongoing shifts in employment from regular, full-time positions to nonregular, part-time positions, which hinder nominal wage adjustment in response to the Bank of Japan’s new 2 percent inflation target. More generally, if there were to be a persistent decline in commodity prices, possibly because of a larger-than-expected supply response to recent high prices, risks from low inflation could be broader. •• Reduced appetite for completing national and euroarea-wide reforms as the result of improved growth prospects and reduced market pressures: Downside risks to euro area growth have decreased relative to the October 2013 WEO with important progress in macroeconomic adjustment and improvements in market confidence, but they remain significant. More policy action is needed to reduce unemployment and debt from the current unacceptably high levels and to preserve market confidence. An important short-term concern is that progress in banking sector repair and reform could fall short of what is needed to address financial fragmentation, restore financial market confidence, and enable banks to pass on improved funding conditions and lower policy rates to borrowers. Insufficient bank balance sheet repair could also hold back the restructuring of debt of nonfinancial corporations with balance sheet stresses. •• Risks related to the normalization of monetary policy in the United States: Tapering risks are expected to



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 15

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

diminish as asset purchases are projected to end in late 2014. The adoption of qualitative forward guidance in March 2014 can provide the Federal Reserve with the needed greater flexibility in achieving its inflation and employment goals on the way to normalization, given the increasing difficulties in measuring slack in the labor market. However, achieving such a major shift in the monetary policy stance in a smooth fashion will be challenging and may entail renewed bouts of financial market volatility. As discussed in scenario analysis in the April 2013 WEO, the key concern is that there will be sudden, sharp increases in interest rates that are driven not by unexpectedly stronger U.S. activity, but by other factors. These could include expectations of an earlier monetary policy tightening because of higher inflation pressures or financial stability concerns, a portfolio shift leading to a sizable increase in the term premium, or a shift in markets’ perception of the Federal Reserve’s intended policy stance. Should such exit risks materialize, the impact on U.S. activity and the spillovers on activity elsewhere would be negative, with the possibility that contagion will turn problems in specific countries into a more widespread financial distress. •• Upside risks to global growth from advanced economies: Stronger-than-expected growth outcomes in the second half of 2013 in advanced economies raise this possibility. It seems most relevant for the United States, where the fiscal drag will decline in 2014 and pent-up demand for durables and investment could be stronger than expected. In Europe, corporate debt overhang and banking sector weakness continue to weigh on confidence and demand in some economies. There are, however, upside risks to growth in Germany, where crisis legacy effects are largely absent, and in the United Kingdom, where easier credit conditions have spurred a rebound in household spending. Emerging market economy risks •• Risks of further growth disappointments in emerging market economies: Downside risks to growth in emerging market economies have increased even though earlier risks have partly materialized and have already resulted in downward revisions to the baseline forecasts. Many of these economies are still adjusting to weaker-than-expected medium-term growth prospects. Foreign investors are also now more sensitive to risks in these economies, and financial conditions have tightened as a result. The higher cost of capital could lead

16

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

to a larger-than-projected slowdown in investment and durables consumption, with recent monetary policy tightening in some economies adding to the risk. Risks could also come from unexpectedly rapid normalization of U.S. monetary policy or from other bouts of risk aversion among investors. Either case could lead to financial turmoil, capital outflows, and difficult adjustments in some emerging market economies, with a risk of contagion and broad-based financial and balance of payments stress. These would lower growth. •• Lower growth in China: Credit growth and offbudget borrowing by local governments have both been high, serving as the main avenues for the sizable policy stimulus that has boosted growth since the global financial crisis. Although a faster-thanexpected unwinding of this stimulus is warranted to reduce vulnerabilities, such an unwinding would also lower growth more than currently projected. •• Geopolitical risks related to Ukraine: The baseline projections incorporate lower growth in both Russia and Ukraine and adverse spillovers to the Commonwealth of Independent States region more broadly as a result of recent turmoil. Greater spillovers to activity beyond neighboring trading partners could emerge if further turmoil leads to a renewed bout of increased risk aversion in global financial markets, or from disruptions to trade and finance due to intensification of sanctions and countersanctions. In particular, greater spillovers could emerge from major disruptions in production or the transportation of natural gas or crude oil, or, to a lesser extent, corn and wheat. Medium-term risks Low interest rates and risks of stagnation Despite their strengthening recoveries, advanced economies still face risks of stagnation. As highlighted in previous WEO reports, the major advanced economies, especially the euro area and Japan, could face an extended period of low growth for a number of reasons, most notably for a failure to address fully the legacy problems of the recent crisis. If such a scenario were to materialize, the low growth would reflect a state of persistently weak demand that could turn into stagnation—a situation in which affected economies would not be able to generate the demand needed to restore full employment through regular self-correcting forces. The equilibrium real interest rate

CHAPTER 1   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

consistent with full employment may be too low to be achieved with the zero lower bound on nominal interest rates. Over time, the growth potential of stagnating economies would also be adversely affected, because of lower investment, including in research and development, and because of lower labor supply as a result of hysteresis in unemployment—the rise in structural unemployment from prolonged cyclical unemployment. The fact that nominal and real interest rates remain low even though a more definitive recovery is expected in advanced economies highlights that stagnation risks cannot be taken lightly. As discussed in Chapter 3, real interest rates are likely to rise under the WEO baseline, but they should remain below the average value of about 2 percent recorded in the mid-2000s before the crisis. The current low rates are resulting from the expectations that global investment will remain on a lower path than before the crisis, partly because of persistent postcrisis effects and partly because of demand rebalancing in China. Although savings ratios could decrease with lower growth in emerging market economies and demand rebalancing in China, demand for safe assets is expected to remain high. As a result, the precrisis trend of declining safe real interest rates is not expected to be reversed even as postcrisis brakes ease and scars heal. Real interest rates thus remain low enough for the zero-lower-bound issue to reemerge under current inflation forecasts should low-growth risks materialize. A hard landing in China The likelihood of a hard landing in China after overinvestment and a credit boom continues to be small because the authorities should be in a position to limit the damage from large-scale asset quality problems with policy intervention. However, credit continues to rise rapidly, and fixed capital formation supported by this rise remains a key source of growth. Risks associated with asset-quality-related balance sheet problems in the financial sector are thus building further. The authorities might find it more difficult to respond the more these risks continue to build. In that case, spillovers to the rest of the world, including through commodity prices, could be significant. Risk scenarios: Tensions from upside and downside risks A more protracted growth slowdown in emerging market economies remains a key concern. The impact of such a slowdown on the world economy would be larger now than it would have been one or two

decades ago. That is because these economies currently account for a larger share of global production and are more integrated into both the trade and the financial spheres (see the Spillover Feature in Chapter 2). At the same time, there are upside risks from the possibility of faster growth in advanced economies. The following scenario analysis considers the possible interaction between upside and downside risks. The upside risk is based on the premise that growth in the United States will be some ½ percentage point higher than assumed under the baseline. This is the standard deviation in the distribution of forecasts for 2014–15 from contributors to the Consensus Economics survey. The faster U.S. recovery leads the Federal Reserve, in this scenario, to withdraw monetary stimulus earlier than in the baseline. All interest rate changes in the scenario reflect central bank responses to changes in macroeconomic conditions. The downside risks are based on the premise that the downward adjustment in investment in the Group of Twenty (G20) emerging market economies will go further than expected under the baseline. This reflects the interaction of three factors: higher-than-expected costs of capital due to the change in the external environment, recent downward revisions to expectations of growth in partner countries, and a correction of some past overinvestment. The “shock” is sequential—the weakness in each period during the five-year WEO horizon is a surprise. Investment growth in each economy is roughly 3 percentage points below baseline every year, resulting in lower investment levels of about 14 percent after five years. Compared with the downside scenario for emerging market economies in the April 2013 WEO, the slowdown is milder but more persistent, reflecting primarily the fact that some of the risks have been realized in the meantime and are now incorporated in the baseline. The main scenario results are as follows (Figure 1.15): •• In the first scenario, in which a faster domestic demand recovery in the United States materializes, the implied faster U.S. growth and the positive spillovers to trading partners lead to an increase in global growth of about 0.2 percentage point in the first two years (red lines in the figure). The positive impact is strongest in other advanced economies and Latin America, reflecting closer trade linkages. With stronger growth, commodity prices are higher than under the baseline in this scenario. After the initial boost to growth in the United States and elsewhere,



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 17

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 1.15. Slower Growth in Emerging Market Economies and a Faster Recovery in the United States (Percent or percentage point deviations from the WEO baseline)

Two scenarios generated with G20MOD, the IMF’s model of the Group of Twenty (G20), are used here to explore the potential implications of a faster U.S. recovery, coupled with notably slower growth in emerging market economies. In the first scenario (red lines), a faster-than-baseline U.S. recovery leads the Federal Reserve to withdraw monetary stimulus faster than in the baseline. In the second scenario (blue lines), weaker-thanbaseline investment growth (roughly 3 percentage points a year below baseline) in G20 emerging market economies is the key driver of the weaker growth outcomes. This weaker investment could arise because of revised expectations of growth in these economies’ export markets, a correction from a past period of overinvestment, or an expectation of a higher future cost of capital. In the first scenario, the faster U.S. growth and the positive spillovers to U.S. trading partners lead to an increase in global output growth in 2014 and 2015 of about 0.2 percentage point. Although the

change in interest rates is the same across emerging markets, because of spillovers, effects on real GDP are strongest for Latin America, followed by emerging Asia and then other emerging markets. The front-loading of the U.S. recovery leads to growth falling slightly in subsequent years. In the second scenario, as a result of lower investment growth and its knock-on effects through labor income and private consumption demand, real GDP growth declines relative to baseline on average by close to 1 percentage point a year in China and 0.6 percentage point in most other emerging markets. Among the Group of Three (G3), Japan is hit the hardest by the spillovers, owing to both integration with emerging Asia and the fact that it has little monetary policy space with which to respond. The euro area comes next, as limited monetary policy also contains the extent to which the impact can be offset. The United States, being the least integrated with emerging markets, has the smallest spillover among the G3.

Faster U.S. recovery 0.8

1. World: Real GDP Growth (percentage points)

Plus emerging markets downturn

2. United States: Real GDP Growth (percentage points)

0.8

3. Euro Area: Real GDP Growth (percentage points)

0.8

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

–0.4

–0.4

–0.4

–0.8

–0.8

–0.8

–1.2 2013

14

15

16

17

18

2013

14

15

16

17

5. Other AE: Real GDP Growth (percentage points)

0.8 4. Japan: Real GDP Growth (percentage points) 0.4

–1.2 18 0.8 0.4

2013

14

15

16

17

6. Oil Exporters: Real GDP Growth (percentage points)

–1.2 18 0.8 0.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

–0.4

–0.4

–0.4

–0.8

–0.8

–0.8

–1.2 2013 14 15 16 0.8 7. China: Real GDP Growth (percentage points) 0.4

17

14 15 16 17 18 2013 8. Emerging Asia: Real GDP Growth (percentage points)

–1.2 18 0.8 0.4

2013

14

15

16

17

9. Emerging Latin America: Real GDP Growth (percentage points)

–1.2 18 0.8 0.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

–0.4

–0.4

–0.4

–0.8

–0.8

–0.8

–1.2 2013

14

15

16

17

18 2013

14

15

16

17

–1.2 18

11. World: Real Price of Oil (percent)

0.8 10. Other EME: Real GDP Growth (percentage points) 0.4 0.0 –0.4 –0.8 –1.2 2013

14

15

16

17

18 2013

14

Source: G20MOD simulations. Note: AE = advanced economies; EME = emerging market economies.

18

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

15

16

17

18

4 2 0 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10

2013

14

15

16

17

–1.2 18

12. World: Real Price of Metals (percent)

2013

14

15

16

17

18

4 2 0 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10

CHAPTER 1   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

there is a slight temporary decline relative to the baseline, reflecting U.S. monetary policy tightening in response to the higher-than-expected inflation and growth. •• In the second scenario, in which upside risks to U.S. growth materialize along with the downside risks for emerging market economies, global growth declines relative to the baseline. This decline reflects the larger magnitude of the shocks to demand on the downside and between economic sizes (the G20 emerging market economies are larger than the U.S. economy in purchasing-power-parity terms). The impact of the negative surprise to investment in emerging market economies on growth in these economies depends on investment shares and the share of trade with other emerging market economies in total trade (blue lines in the figure). The higher the shares, the higher the impact. Reflecting differences in these shares, growth declines relative to baseline are largest in China (at about 1 percentage point a year) and lower in emerging Asia and Latin America. Among the major advanced economies, Japan is hit the hardest by the spillovers, owing to both its close integration with emerging market economies in Asia and its limited monetary policy space to respond with interest rates already very close to zero. The euro area and the United States face monetary policy constraints because of the zero lower bound, but they have smaller trade links with these emerging market economies. As commodity prices decline, commodity exporters perform worse, even though they tend to have more monetary policy space. Oil exporters are particularly affected, given their high shares of oil in production. The second scenario highlights how smaller upside risks to growth in some major advanced economies may not be enough to offset the impact of broader downside risks in major emerging market economies. As highlighted in the earlier risk discussion and in scenario analysis in the April 2014 Global Financial Stability Report, there is a possibility that higher U.S. longer-term interest rates and a rise in policy rate expectations in the United States reflect less benign reasons than faster-than-expected U.S. growth. In this case, spillovers to output to the rest of the world would be negative. The second scenario also illustrates how downside risks to emerging market economies can have important spillovers to advanced economies. Lower-

than-expected growth in the G20 emerging market economies on its own (without faster U.S. domestic demand growth) would lead to global growth that is, on average, roughly 0.3 percentage point less than baseline each year. In advanced economies, growth is on average 0.1 percentage point below the baseline. In emerging market economies, the decline in growth is 0.7 percentage point on average. Thus, output spillovers that operate primarily through trade channels mean that a 1 percentage point decline in emerging market output growth reduces advanced economy output by some 0.2 percentage point. As discussed in the Spillover Feature in Chapter 2, depending on the nature of the shock and the local impact, there is also scope for financial channels to play a role in transmitting emerging market economies’ shocks to advanced economies, given increased financial integration.

Policies The strengthening of the global recovery from the Great Recession is evident. However, growth is not yet robust across the globe, and downside risks to the outlook remain. In advanced economies, continued—and in some cases, greater—support for aggregate demand and more financial sector and structural reforms are needed to fully restore confidence, foster robust growth, and lower downside risks. Many emerging market economies face a less forgiving external financial market environment; their growth has slowed; and they continue to face capital flow risks that they must manage. Spillovers, especially if downside risks were to materialize, could pose further challenges. Boosting medium-term growth is a common challenge throughout the world, and difficult structural reforms are a priority.

Preventing Low Inflation in Advanced Economies Monetary policy should remain accommodative in advanced economies. Output gaps are still large and are projected to close only gradually. Moreover, fiscal consolidation will continue. That said, the strength of the expansions differs across advanced economies. Maintaining clear and forward-looking communication about the path of policy normalization will be a priority for some central banks. In some other advanced economies, monetary policymakers must consider the cost of persistently low inflation below target and risks of deflation. Once inflation expectations start drifting down, reanchor-



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 19

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

ing them to the target could be a long, costly process. As discussed in Box 1.3, this concern is rooted in the current constraints on the ability of monetary policy to lower nominal rates, either because rates are already close to the zero lower bound or because of financial fragmentation. As noted earlier, risks from low inflation appear to be most significant in the euro area and, to a lesser extent, in Japan. In acknowledgment of such risks, the question is whether to ease monetary policy now or to use forward guidance to spell out contingencies for further action if either inflation or inflation expectations remain below target. •• In the euro area, the monetary policy rate is close to, but not at, zero, and a number of considerations suggest that more monetary easing, including use of unconventional measures, is needed now. The current baseline projections imply that inflation will undershoot the ECB’s price stability target by substantial margins for much longer than the usual horizon of one to two years. In this context, there are important risks that inflation will turn out even lower than forecast. Inflation expectations may drift lower, as discussed in Box 1.3. This in turn would lead to higher real interest rates, aggravate the debt burden, and lower growth. In countries that need to improve competitiveness, and where prices and wages have to decline further relative to other euro area countries, this would likely mean greater deflation, and even stronger adverse growth effects. •• The Bank of Japan should continue with its aggressive quantitative easing policy and further strengthen its communication strategy, especially in view of the challenge of assessing underlying inflation following the consumption tax increase. It will, however, be important for the bank to specify policy contingencies if inflation or inflation expectations remain below target for longer than expected. Risks from low inflation and the need for continued accommodative monetary policy mean that it will also be important for many advanced economy central banks to clarify how they will promote financial stability, which remains a concern. Long periods of low interest rates across the entire term structure could encourage too much risk taking, excessive leverage, and imprudent maturity mismatches. Banking supervisors and regulatory authorities will need to continue to closely monitor risks to financial stability from monetary policy and ensure that banks’ activities remain within prudential regulatory standards. In the euro area, however, credit 20

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

has been contracting, and the most pressing issue is to repair bank balance sheets to increase credit.

Raising Growth and Lowering the Risks of Stagnation Risks of low growth and stagnation remain a concern, particularly in the euro area and Japan, where a comprehensive policy response is required to mitigate these risks. More broadly, however, fiscal policy needs to play a critical role if growth remains at subpar levels. In that case, more ambitious measures aimed at raising the growth potential—including, when relevant, higher public investment—should be contemplated, with due consideration for long-term fiscal sustainability. The euro area has made some progress in addressing the legacies of the crisis—high public and private debt, weak balance sheets, and high unemployment—as well as longer-term impediments to competitiveness and productivity. Market confidence has been improving, and growth has started to pick up. However, downside risks remain—there is still substantial slack, inflation has been below the ECB’s price stability objective for some time, and financial fragmentation persists. Although crisis risks have declined with recent policy action, risks of persistent low growth remain a concern. •• Repairing bank balance sheets: Progress has been made in repairing bank balance sheets. However, banks have continued to deleverage, and credit to the private sector is contracting. The ECB’s 2014 asset quality review and stress tests will be a critical opportunity to move toward completing the restructuring of bank balance sheets. This exercise, if executed credibly, will make bank balance sheets transparent and comparable and identify further capital needs. With prompt recapitalization if needed, this exercise will reduce uncertainty about banking system health and foster bank balance sheet repair, which should eventually result in a credit recovery. Although many banks should be able to resort to market-based recapitalization, the timely completion of this step might also require recourse to national and common backstops. •• Completing the banking union: A more complete banking union in the euro area is critical to reduce financial fragmentation and weaken sovereign-bank links. A key element is to have in place, by the time the ECB assumes supervisory responsibilities, a strong, centralized Single Resolution Mechanism to ensure rapid, least-cost bank resolution. The March 20 agreement between the European Parliament,

CHAPTER 1   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

Council, and Commission on such a mechanism is a step toward a fuller banking union. However, the decision-making process appears complex and may not provide for timely resolution, especially when support from the Single Resolution Fund is foreseen. An even quicker transition period for the mutualization of national compartments of the fund, and a clearer decision on a strong common backstop and its timing, are required to break sovereign-bank links effectively, especially in countries where fiscal space is limited. •• More demand support: Given weak and fragile growth and very low inflation, more monetary easing is needed to raise the prospects of achieving the ECB’s price stability objective of inflation below, but close to, 2 percent and support demand. Among possible further actions would be further rate cuts, including mildly negative deposit rates, and unconventional measures, including longer-term refinancing operations (possibly targeted to small and medium-sized enterprises), to support demand and reduce fragmentation. Monetary policy effectiveness would be strengthened by stronger national insolvency regimes, which would help reduce private debt overhang, facilitate balance sheet repair, and lower financial fragmentation. The neutral fiscal stance planned for the euro area in 2014 is broadly appropriate. If low growth persists and monetary policy options are depleted, fiscal policy may need to use the flexibility available under the current fiscal framework to support activity. •• Advancing structural reforms at the national and area-wide levels: This is key to boosting productivity and investment, ensuring higher longer-term growth, and reducing intra-euro-area imbalances. In surplus countries, reforms to boost domestic demand, particularly investment, would help rebalancing. In deficit countries, further adjustment in relative prices is needed to achieve resource reallocation from nontradables sectors to tradables sectors. Together with continued labor market reforms at the national level, opening up product and service markets to competition could unleash new investment and new jobs. Growth and investment would be further supported by lower regulatory hurdles for the entry and exit of firms, simpler tax systems, a targeted implementation of the European Union (EU) Services Directive, and deeper trade integration. In Japan, the bold monetary easing and new fiscal stimulus measures under Abenomics lifted growth in

2013 and boosted growth prospects for 2014–15 relative to the pre-Abenomics baseline forecasts. Longerterm stagnation risks are present primarily because of the sizable fiscal consolidation that will be needed during the next decade or so to ensure the transition to a sustainable long-term fiscal position in a rapidly aging society. IMF staff estimates suggest that, in addition to the consumption tax increase to 8 percent from 5 percent in the second quarter of 2014 and the planned further increase to 10 percent in the fourth quarter of 2015, additional measures yielding 5.5 percent of GDP need to be identified, for public debt to decline in the medium term. Against this backdrop, it will be critical to manage this consolidation at a pace that will not undermine the other goals of Abenomics—sustained growth and a definitive regime change from deflation to inflation. In the near term, the additional temporary fiscal stimulus for 2014 should offset the adverse effects of the welcome consumption tax increase in the second quarter of this year. However, the stimulus also adds to already-elevated fiscal risks and puts a premium on developing, as quickly as possible, concrete plans for further consolidation beyond 2015. This should be supported by ambitious measures to lift potential growth—the third arrow of Abenomics—during the Diet session in the first half of 2014.

Managing Capital Flow Risks in Emerging Market and Developing Economies The changing external environment increases the urgency for emerging market economies to address macroeconomic imbalances and policy weaknesses. As advanced economies’ assets have become relatively more attractive, emerging market economies have experienced lower capital inflows and currency depreciation, and these trends could intensify, including because of upside risks to growth in advanced economies, as noted in the risk scenario discussion. The change in the external environment poses new challenges for emerging market economies. As recent developments show, economies with domestic weaknesses and vulnerabilities are often more exposed to market pressure. A number of these weaknesses have been present for some time, but with better return prospects in advanced economies, investor sentiment is now less favorable toward emerging market risks. In view of possible capital flow reversals, risks related to sizable external funding needs and disorderly deprecia

International Monetary Fund | April 2014 21

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

tion are of particular concern given that they affect returns in investors’ home currencies. Against this backdrop, emerging market economies must weather increased risks from sudden capital flow reversals, recalibrate policies to align them with the cyclical position if necessary, and raise potential growth with structural reforms. Making depreciation manageable Letting the exchange rate depreciate generally remains a desirable response to capital flow reversals, as it facilitates adjustment and lowers the negative effects on output. In practice, policymakers might be reluctant to allow for depreciation for a number of reasons. There is the concern that investors may overreact and that depreciation may be excessive. Then there are concerns about the adverse impact on inflation or financial stability even if depreciation is not excessive. If capital flow reversal risks materialize and outflows are rapid, policymakers can use foreign exchange intervention to smooth excessive volatility or prevent financial disruption, adequate levels of foreign exchange reserves permitting. Such intervention should not forestall underlying external adjustment in economies in which current account deficits exceed levels consistent with fundamentals and desirable macroeconomic policies. Capital flow management measures to lower or prevent capital outflows might also help in smoothing excessive exchange rate volatility. In general, however, relative to capital flow management measures on inflows, they are less desirable. Expectations of such measures being put in place could even trigger outflows in the first place. Policymakers should also address underlying problems if there are concerns about large adverse effects of depreciation. Such measures would help their economies to be better prepared for weathering increased risks of capital flow reversals. •• If the primary concern is inflation, monetary policy tightening may be required if inflation is running high. Policymakers may need to consider, however, that monetary tightening alone might not be enough. Exchange rate pass-through is also a function of monetary policy credibility. If exchange rate depreciation strongly feeds into inflation expectations, credibility is likely to be low, and policymakers might need to adopt a more transparent monetary policy framework or improve the consistency and transparency of monetary policy 22

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

implementation. For example, as discussed in Box 1.4, many emerging market economies have moved away from free floats to de facto “managed” floating, in some cases even with narrow limits on the extent of exchange rate fluctuations. Although managed floating may lower risks of abrupt exchange rate movements, it may also undermine the credibility of inflation targets and delay much-needed external adjustment.2 •• If the primary concern is financial stability, strong regulatory and supervisory policy efforts are needed to ensure that banks address credit quality and profitability problems related to exchange rate and capital flow risks. Financial stability problems arise from the negative effects of large, sudden exchange rate depreciation on balance sheets and cash flows. The main concerns relate to firms in the domestically oriented sectors that have foreign currency financing but that do not enjoy a natural currency hedge in the form of export sales and to domestically oriented banks that have foreign currency funding. In both cases, the debt service burden in domestic currency increases with depreciation, which in turn can lead to important asset quality problems. In addition, regulators must closely monitor possible asset quality problems arising from recent rapid credit growth and less favorable medium-term growth prospects. Recalibrating macroeconomic policies A key consideration for policy setting is whether macroeconomic policies have contributed to the recent widening of current account deficits and whether these deficits are excessive. As noted earlier, some emerging market economies now run current account deficits, and in some economies, recent changes have been away from the underlying equilibrium position (or norm) identified in the assessments in the 2013 Pilot External Sector Report (IMF, 2013b). The concern about policies arises because after the global financial crisis, expansionary macroeconomic policies in emerging market economies boosted domestic demand and provided for a rapid bounce-back in activity. In some economies, however, the policy stance was not fully reversed or was reversed too slowly when the economies were booming in 2010–12 and output was above potential. The concurrent deterioration in current account balances was thus partly the result of overheating, a process that is now correcting itself. 2See Ostry, Ghosh, and Chamon (2012) for a discussion of monetary and exchange rate policies in emerging market economies.

CHAPTER 1   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

The main task, therefore, is to recalibrate the macroeconomic policy mix and stance in such a way that they are credible and consistent with the extent of economic slack. Specific requirements vary across economies, but the following general considerations are relevant. •• Monetary policy: In a number of economies, including Brazil, India, and Indonesia, inflation pressure continues and could be reinforced by currency depreciation since mid-2013. Although policy rates were raised in many countries over the past year, further policy tightening may be needed to rein in inflation. In other economies, policymakers can consider slowing the increase in policy rates or can ease rates if output is below potential. They will, however, need to be mindful of prospective inflation pressure, policy credibility, and the possible market impact in the current environment. •• Fiscal policy: Policymakers should generally align the fiscal stance with updated estimates of mediumterm growth potential and recent changes in longerterm interest rates, as emphasized in previous WEO reports. Interest rates are appreciably higher in some economies and are unlikely to change direction soon. In many emerging market economies, fiscal deficits remain well above precrisis levels (see Figure 1.4, panel 2), even though output generally is still above precrisis trends (Figure 1.6, panel 1). Moreover, debt dynamics are projected to turn less favorable, given that real government bond yields are higher than expected a year ago. Against this backdrop, policymakers need to lower budget deficits, as discussed in the April 2014 Fiscal Monitor. The urgency for action varies across economies, depending on debt levels, vulnerabilities, and cyclical positions. In some economies, increased contingent risks to budgets and public debt from substantial increases in quasi-fiscal activity and deficits reinforce the need to adjust the quasi-fiscal policy stance (Brazil, China, Venezuela). Policies in low-income countries Many low-income countries have succeeded in maintaining strong growth, reflecting more favorable business and investment regimes and better macroeconomic policies. Among other things, the combination of high growth and moderate budget deficits has helped keep public debt levels stable at about 35 percent of GDP. That said, foreign direct investment has started to moderate with declining commodity prices and is expected to ease further, and commodity-related budget revenues and foreign exchange earnings are at

risk. Given these changes in the external environment, timely adjustments to fiscal policies will be important; otherwise, external debt and public debt could build up. Within this broader picture of relative resilience, some countries face greater challenges. Some lowincome countries with low growth and high public debt will need stronger fiscal policies to keep debt levels sustainable. A number of low-income countries with larger external financial needs that have accessed international capital markets (“frontier economies”) are vulnerable to capital flow risks, broadly similar to those faced by emerging market economies. Addressing these vulnerabilities might require tighter monetary and fiscal policies.

Continuing High Growth in Major Emerging Market Economies The major emerging market economies face a common policy issue: how to achieve robust and sustainable growth. However, the underlying problems, including the extent and nature of macroeconomic imbalances, differ from economy to economy. Growth in China has decelerated since 2012, and medium-term growth is now projected to be substantially below the 10 percent average rate recorded during the past 30 years. Still, economic activity continues to be overly dependent on credit-fueled investment, and vulnerabilities are rising. The economic policy priority is to achieve a soft landing on the transition to more inclusive and sustainable, private-consumption-led growth. This shift would require liberalizing interest rates to allow effective pricing of risk; a more transparent, interestrate-based monetary policy framework; a more flexible exchange rate regime; reforms for better governance and quality of growth; and strengthened financial sector regulation and supervision. The Third Plenum of the 18th Central Committee has laid out a reform blueprint that includes these policy steps. Timely implementation must be a priority. Encouraging steps have already been taken in the area of financial sector policy (announcing a timeline for key reforms such as introduction of a deposit insurance scheme and further liberalization of interest rates) and exchange rate policy (the exchange rate fluctuation zone has been widened). Reining in rapid credit growth and curtailing local government off-budget borrowing are near-term priorities, critical for containing rising risks. Policymakers must also address potential challenges from

International Monetary Fund | April 2014 23

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

rapid credit growth in recent years. In particular, bad loans and other impaired assets, should they emerge, must be recognized, and the resolution framework for failed financial institutions should be strengthened. For downside contingencies, fiscal space can be used to recapitalize financial institutions where appropriate. In Brazil, there is a need for continued policy tightening. Despite substantial policy rate increases in the past year, inflation has remained at the upper bound of the band. Foreign exchange intervention should be more selective, used primarily to limit volatility and prevent disorderly market conditions. Fiscal consolidation would help reduce domestic demand pressure and lower external imbalances while also contributing to lowering a relatively high public debt ratio. Supply bottlenecks must be addressed. In India, further tightening of the monetary stance might be needed for a durable reduction in inflation and inflation expectations. Continued fiscal consolidation will be essential to lower macroeconomic imbalances. Policymakers must also concentrate on structural reforms to support investment, which has slowed markedly. Priorities include market-based pricing of natural resources to boost investment, addressing delays in the implementation of infrastructure projects, improving policy frameworks in the power and mining sectors, reforming the extensive network of subsidies, and securing passage of the new goods and services tax to underpin mediumterm fiscal consolidation. In Russia, the monetary policy regime is in transition to inflation targeting; thus, anchoring inflation expectations will have to be a priority in the process. Increased exchange rate flexibility will help as a shock absorber. With substantial depreciation, however, some monetary policy tightening may be required to prevent persistent increases in inflation. Structural reforms are critical to increase investment, diversify the economy, and raise potential growth. Priorities are strengthening the rule of law and scaling back state involvement in the economy. In South Africa, the external current account deficit has been over 5 percent for some time, notwithstanding substantial rand depreciation. Hence, fiscal and monetary policies may need to be tightened to lower the

24

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

country’s vulnerabilities and contain the second-round impact of the depreciation on inflation. Structural reforms to reduce the unacceptably high unemployment rate, which is at 24 percent, are essential.

Global Demand Rebalancing Hopeful signs of a more sustainable global recovery are emerging, but robust recovery also requires further progress on global demand rebalancing. As output gaps close, external imbalances may increase again. The materialization of downside risk to emerging markets could have similar effects if current account balances were to improve sharply in these economies because of capital flow reversals. The challenge is then to implement policy measures that achieve both strong and balanced growth—put another way, policies that ensure that growth will continue without a deterioration of current account balances. The measures discussed earlier were aimed at sustaining growth. Some will also further reduce external balances. The quantitative implications of some of these policies, not only for individual countries, but also for the world economy, are explored in the 2013 Spillover Report (IMF, 2013c). For example, in economies that have had current account surpluses, reforms can boost domestic demand and modify its composition. In China, rebalancing demand toward consumption by removing financial distortions, allowing for more market-determined exchange rates and strengthening social safety nets, will lead to more balanced growth and smaller external imbalances. In Germany, an increase in investment, including public investment, through tax and financial system reform and services sector liberalization, not only is desirable on its own, but also will reduce the large current account surplus. In deficit economies, structural reforms aimed at improving competitiveness (France, South Africa, Spain, United Kingdom) and removing supply bottlenecks to strengthen exports (India, South Africa) again not only are good for growth, but also will help improve external positions and allow for more sustained growth.

SPECIAL FEATURE  COMMODITY PRICES AND FORECASTS

Special Feature: Commodity Prices and Forecasts Commodity price projections in this and previous World Economic Outlook (WEO) reports are derived from commodity futures prices, which currently point to declining prices and downside risks. Although such a market-based approach is appealing, its performance is sometimes questioned. This special feature explores a model-based oil price forecast with better performance. Given strengthening global demand, the model forecast suggests higher oil prices and upside risks. In view of rising North American oil supply and slowing growth in emerging markets, there is merit in a forecast that combines the two approaches as a hedge during a time when the oil market configuration may be changing. This combination suggests slightly declining to flat oil prices this year.

Developments in Commodity Markets1 Since the October 2013 WEO, energy prices have been fairly flat overall (Figure 1.SF.1, panel 1), with falling prices for crude oil offset by rising prices for natural gas (extremely cold weather in the United States) and coal (supply tightness in a number of exporting countries). Crude oil prices have edged lower, mainly as a result of the continued supply surge in North America. Non– Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) supplies increased 1.3 million barrels a day (mbd) in 2013—slightly faster than the 1.2 mbd growth in global demand—with all of the net growth due to the United States (1.2 mbd, mainly shale oil) and Canada (0.2 mbd, mainly oil sands oil) (Figure 1.SF.1, panel 2). Projections for growth in non-OPEC supply have been raised to 1.8 mbd in 2014, well above the 1.4 mbd pace of demand. Prices have been held up by mounting OPEC supply pressures—notably from disruptions in Libya, Nigeria, Syria, and Yemen—and from sanctions against the Islamic Republic of Iran. Oil demand was relatively weak in the fourth quarter of 2013, with the United States the exception (Figure 1.SF.1, panel 3). Despite these pressures, oil prices—based on futures markets—are projected to decline during the outlook The author of this feature is Samya Beidas-Strom, with assistance from Benjamin Beckers and Daniel Rivera Greenwood. Recent commodity market developments were provided by Marina Rousset and Shane Streifel. Technical details are given in Beckers and BeidasStrom (forthcoming). 1See the “Commodity Market Monthly” and “Commodity Outlook and Risks” at www.imf.org/commodities.

period, consistent with expanding oil supply and stilltepid demand. Metal prices have remained broadly flat since the October 2013 WEO, at about 30 percent below the highs of early 2011, with most markets in surplus (large and rising stocks and steady gains in production). Global metal demand growth—and metal demand growth in China—slowed in 2013 (Box 1.2), while supply grew strongly. Futures prices suggest declining metal prices through the outlook period, reflecting continuing albeit diminishing surpluses in a number of markets. In food markets, the production outlook is favorable for most major crops. Global output for major grains and oilseeds is projected to surpass demand growth (Figure 1.SF.1, panel 4). China expects increased production of wheat and corn as a result of favorable weather, and global rice supplies continue to be plentiful. Moreover, stocks continue to gradually recover, especially stocks of corn (Figure 1.SF.1, panel 5). In early 2014, concerns about the effects of adverse weather on South American harvests have exerted some upward price pressure.

Commodity Price Forecasting With broadly flat or softening commodity prices in the second half of 2013, some analysts have predicted the end of the commodity price supercycle, given the slowdown in emerging market economies, particularly China (Box 1.2), and the increase in supplies (namely, increased U.S. crude oil production, a supply overhang in most base metals, and increasing grain supplies). However, during the first quarter of 2014, some prices firmed with signs of strengthening global activity, albeit with much price volatility; hence, analysts have become more circumspect. The motivation for forecasting commodity prices is thus as relevant as ever, and the issue becomes how best to do this. Which tools should policymakers rely on to forecast commodity prices? How have these forecasting tools performed with regard to forecast errors and risk assessments after the fact? Are there other forecasting models that could complement the policymakers’ toolkit? And which tools are best for these uncertain economic times? This feature addresses these four questions as applied to oil prices.2 2The

analysis in this feature is focused on oil prices but can be extended to other commodity prices with futures markets if monthly



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 25

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 1.SF.1. Commodity Market Developments Commodity prices have been fairly flat since the October 2013 World Economic Outlook, as increases in supplies outpaced tepid demand in most markets. 280

1. IMF Commodity Price Indices (2005 = 100)

240

Food Energy Metal

200 160 120

2005

06

07

08

09

10

5 2. World Oil Production (million barrels a day, year-over-year percent change) 4 United States 3 OPEC Other non-OPEC 2 Total 1

11

12

13

14

15

80

5

3. World Oil Demand, Including Natural Gas Liquids (million barrels a day, year-over-year percent change) United States Japan China Total Other advanced economies Emerging market and developing economies

4 3 2 1

0

0

–1

–1

–2

2011:Q4 12:Q1 12:Q2 12:Q3 12:Q4 13:Q1 13:Q2 13:Q3 13:Q4

2.9 4. Annual Food Production and Consumption1 (billion tons) 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5

2011:Q4 12:Q1 12:Q2 12:Q3 12:Q4 13:Q1 13:Q2 13:Q3 13:Q4 5. Global Food Stock-to-Use Ratios (inventories as a percent of global consumption)

Production Consumption

2.4 2.3

2013 2014 1981–2012 average

–2

40 35 30 25 20 15

2.2 2.1 2.0 2000 01 02 03

10 5 04 05 06 07 08

09 10

11

12

13

14

Corn

Rice

Wheat

Soybeans

Other2

Sources: IMF, Primary Commodity Price System; International Energy Agency; U.S. Department of Agriculture; and IMF staff estimates. Note: OPEC = Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. 1 Sum of data for major grains and oilseeds: barley, corn, millet, rice, rye, sorghum, wheat, palm kernel, rapeseed, soybeans, and sunflower seed. 2 Includes barley, millet, palm kernel, rapeseed, rye, sorghum, and sunflower seed.

What Forecasting Tools Do Policymakers Use? Since the 1970s epoch of scarcity, when Hotelling-type (1931) rules were the norm for predicting the price of an exhaustible commodity, policymakers have gravitated toward a few simple forecasting tools: the longdata are available for their global demand, supply, and inventories, and if a leading international price for the commodity prevails (as is the case for aluminum, copper, lead, nickel, tin, and zinc).

26

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

term constant real cost of extracting an exhaustible commodity, random-walk price models, and futures prices. Two recent developments have clouded the usefulness of these approaches—namely, a sustained price spike during the commodity boom in the middle of the first decade of the 2000s and the escalation in extraction costs, which is particularly relevant for oil. Efforts have been undertaken to assess the predictive content and statistical performance of these simple

0

SPECIAL FEATURE  COMMODITY PRICES AND FORECASTS

forecasting tools (Reeve and Vigfusson, 2011; Reichsfeld and Roache, 2011; Alquist, Kilian, and Vigfusson, 2013; Chinn and Coibion, 2013) and to resuscitate the Deaton and Laroque (1996) class of price formation models with speculative storage. Before examining forecasting models with speculative storage, however, this feature explores how the simple forecasting tools have fared during the last decade, first by focusing on futures and then by looking at a broader set of models.

Figure 1.SF.2. Brent Forecast Errors and Futures (U.S. dollars a barrel)

The predictive content of oil futures has declined, with large forecast errors evident during the past decade. The World Economic Outlook (futures-based forecast) projects gradually declining oil prices, with risks tilted to the downside. 1. Simple Forecast Errors of Brent Spot and Futures

150 135

Forecast error of 38 percent

Forecast error of 100 percent

120 105 90

How Have Oil Futures Fared as a Forecasting Tool?3 Spot January 2007 futures January 2011 futures

Simple forecast errors Oil futures have long been used to forecast spot prices on the premise that the price of a futures contract equals the discounted value of the expected future spot price and that, by definition, oil futures include forward-looking information. As with many commodity markets, oil futures markets are frequently in backwardation.4 This can lead to some downward bias in the forecasts of future spot prices. Moreover, the predictive content of commodity futures (and oil futures in particular) has declined since the mid-2000s (Chinn and Coibion, 2013), even when futures were not in backwardation. The forecast error was more than 100 percent (for futures of the January 2007 vintage relative to the actual outturn of July 2008) before the global financial crisis (Figure 1.SF.2, panel 1). This pattern is not unique; the quality of all macroeconomic forecasts tends to deteriorate around recessions or crises. However, even during the slowdown of 2011, the forecast error was 38 percent (for futures prices of the January 2011 vintage relative to the actual outturn of April 2011). This performance suggests that futures prices may not fare well as predictors during turbulent times or periods of structural change. 3For brevity, the analysis focuses on U.K. Brent, the leading international crude oil benchmark. Results are also available for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Dubai Fateh. A simple average of the three constitutes the WEO average spot price, forecast to be $104.17 a barrel and $97.92 a barrel in 2014 and 2015, respectively. 4Backwardation describes the market condition wherein the price of a futures contract is trading below the expected spot price at contract maturity. The resulting futures curve would typically be downward sloping (inverted), because contracts for dates further in the future would typically trade at even lower prices. Keynes (1930) argued that in commodity markets, backwardation is “normal,” because producers of commodities are more prone to hedge their price risk than are consumers. The opposite situation, wherein a futures contract trades at a premium compared with spot prices, is described as “contango,” as experienced by WTI futures in early and mid-2013.

2005

06

07

08

09

2. Brent Oil Price Prospects1

10

11

12

75 60 45

30 13 Jan. 14

Futures 95 percent confidence interval 86 percent confidence interval 68 percent confidence interval

200 175 150 125 100 75 50

2007

08

09

10

11

12

13

25 14 Feb. 15

Sources: Bloomberg, L.P.; IMF, Primary Commodity Price System; and IMF staff estimates. 1 Derived from prices of futures options on February 12, 2014.

Latest forecast The WEO’s futures-based forecast for the nominal Brent price is $108 a barrel in 2014, declining to $103 in 2015 (Figure 1.SF.2, panel 2), with risks tilted to the downside. This forecast implies a small upward revision compared with the October 2013 WEO, likely reflecting mostly larger-than-expected increases in nonOPEC supplies offset by rising geopolitical risks.

Model Forecasts5 Recent evidence The economic models for determining oil prices pioneered by Kilian (2009), and refinements introduced 5The

author thanks Christiane Baumeister of the Bank of Canada for kindly sharing her Matlab code, which was refined and



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 27

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

thereafter, seem to generate more accurate forecasts. These models predict future oil prices by combining global activity measures with changes in oil supply and in global crude oil inventories (to capture speculative storage or consumption smoothing). They suggest that vector autoregression (VAR) forecasting models using monthly data for these aggregates generate more accurate forecasts than most other approaches (Alquist, Kilian, and Vigfusson, 2013) and are robust to changes in model specification and estimation methods (Baumeister and Kilian, 2013b). That said, recent evidence suggests that the use of refined petroleum product spreads based on commodity futures prices could offer even better predictive power (Baumeister, Kilian, and Zhou, 2013). Model ingredients Variables that seem relevant for predicting oil prices are combined to estimate a reduced-form version of the structural VAR of Beidas-Strom and Pescatori (forthcoming). The core variables are global crude oil production, the WEO global industrial production index, the real Brent oil price, and petroleum inventories of the members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Three additional variables are also included: an exchange rate index of the U.S. dollar weighted against bilateral currencies of major oil consumers (in the spirit of Chen, Rogoff, and Rossi, 2010); the U.S. consumer price index; and a measure of OPEC spare capacity. To these are added seasonal dummies for the purpose of forecasting the monthly variation in prices. In addition, the real oil price is detrended to avoid any potential upward bias in the forecast given the observed trend since 2000.6 VAR forecast Out-of-sample forecasts are generated based on the VAR model estimated recursively on monthly data from January 1985 through October 2013. The VAR predicts rising nominal Brent prices over the forecast horizon (Figure 1.SF.3, panel 1), consistent with the expected strengthening of global demand reported in this WEO report (Figure 1.SF.3, panel 2) and the carryover from recent supply and precautionary demand shocks (Figure 1.SF.3, panel 3). Initially, the Brent augmented for the purposes of this section and Beckers and BeidasStrom (forthcoming). 6The drift without detrending of the real Brent oil price is 3.97 percent.

28

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

price is forecast to decline, before rising in the period after February 2014 to average $114 a barrel during 2014 ($6 higher than futures) and thereafter rising to an average of $122 a barrel in 2015 ($19 higher than futures). Recent shocks The dynamic effects of shocks are important for oil price forecasts, given long lags. They depend on the identification scheme used—here the identification restricts the influence of noise trading on the real oil price.7 During the last two quarters of 2013, the real Brent oil price was held up mostly by OPEC supply shortages and some impetus from flow demand, despite the large drawdown of OECD country oil inventories (Figure 1.SF.3, panel 3). The dynamic influence of these shocks dissipates gradually (between 12 and 24 months), with the forecast gradually driven toward the end of the horizon by the model’s parameters (from the variables estimated across the entire sample). Risks Prediction intervals are obtained by bootstrapping the errors of the VAR over the full sample (Figure 1.SF.3, panel 1, shaded intervals, and panel 4). The shape of the VAR distribution changes with the horizon, unlike that for futures prices (which is based on information derived from oil futures options), and indicates much larger upside price risks. In practice, this means that the VAR forecast indicates a 15 percent risk of Brent exceeding $150 a barrel in January 2015, relative to a less than 5 percent risk suggested by futures. The key message is that even models that appear relatively successful in predicting oil prices still imply considerable oil price forecast uncertainty in both directions (Figure 1.SF.3, panel 5).8 Upside risks can be attributed to strengthening global demand and the carryover from some recent unexpected OPEC supply declines, among other things.

Which Forecasting Method Has the Lowest Error—and When? The standard approach for formally assessing forecasting performance is the symmetric root-mean-squared 7See

Beidas-Strom and Pescatori (forthcoming) for details. Bayesian VAR narrows the uncertainty range by about 35 percent, without influencing the risk assessment; that is, it remains upward tilting. 8A

SPECIAL FEATURE  COMMODITY PRICES AND FORECASTS

Figure 1.SF.3. Vector Autoregression and Combination Forecasts A model-based forecast, based on strengthening global demand, continued small OPEC supply shocks, and a drawdown of oil inventories, suggests higher oil prices and upside risks over the forecast horizon. However, there is merit in a combination of forecasts from this model and futures, which points to flat prices this year, rising gradually thereafter. 300 1. VAR Forecast (U.S. dollars a barrel) 250 200 150

130

2. World GDP and Industrial Production (2007 = 100)

95 percent confidence interval 86 percent confidence interval 68 percent confidence interval VAR forecast Random walk with drift Futures

120 Real GDP Global industrial production

110 100

100

90

50 0

2008

09

10

11

12

13

14

Oct. 15

2.0 3. Historical Decomposition of Shocks1 (contribution of shocks (left scale), 1.5 U.S. dollars a barrel (right scale)) 1.0

160 140 120

Real Brent price (right scale)

2005

06

07

08

09

10

11

13

14

80 Oct. 15

4. OECD Inventory Demand Forward Cover (days) Actual Average of previous five years

68 64 60

100

0.5

80

0.0

56

60

–0.5

52

40

Flow oil supply shock 20 Residual shock –1.5 0 2000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13

48

Flow demand shock Speculative shock

–1.0

0.030 5. Probability Density Functions of VAR Forecast (probability) 0.025

2007

08

09

10

11

0.015 0.010

50

100

150

200

250

300

13

44

160 140 120 100 Historical Futures VAR Combination

0.005 0

12

6. Brent Oil Combination Forecasts (U.S. dollars a barrel)

3 month 6 month 9 month 12 month 24 month

0.020

0.000

12

350

400

2008

09

10

11

12

13

14

80 60 40 Oct. 15

Sources: Bloomberg, L.P.; IMF, Primary Commodity Price System; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); and IMF staff estimates. Note: OPEC = Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries; VAR = vector autoregression. 1 See Beidas-Strom and Pescatori (forthcoming) for more details on the chosen identification.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 29

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 1.SF.4. Rolling Root-Mean-Squared Errors: Recursive Estimation When comparing the root-mean-squared errors of forecasts with a rolling twoyear window, or as in Table 1.SF.1 over the full forecast horizon, the VAR forecast performs better than that of other models and futures since 2000, although not in each year when the rolling window is used. Brent price (right scale) Futures

VAR Random walk

16 1. Rolling RMSE for the 1-Month Forecast Horizon

150

14

125

12

100

10 8

75

6

50

4

25

2 0

2000

02

04

06

08

10

12

0

50 2. Rolling RMSE for the 12-Month Forecast Horizon

150

40

125 100

30

75 20

50

10 0

RW by about 10 to 12 percent. For all other horizons, the accuracy gains are about 15 percent. Compared with the futures forecast, the gains from the VAR forecast are as large as 26 percent for the 1-month horizon, between 10 and 20 percent for horizons up to 18 months, and 5 percent for the 24-month horizon (Table 1.SF.1). In addition to RMSEs of the full sample, two-year rolling averages are obtained to address potential time variation of the parameters. These averages indicate that the VAR delivers the lowest RMSE among comparators, particularly during the global financial crisis and the subsequent period, including the 2011 slowdown. It is interesting to note, however, that its performance is no better than futures or the RW model during the 2001 recession (Figure 1.SF.4).

25 2000

02

04

06

08

10

12

0

Source: IMF staff estimates. Note: The line closest to the horizontal axis represents the model with the smallest forecast errors and thus the one with the best forecasting performance. RMSE = root-mean-squared errors of the forecast; VAR = vector autoregression.

error (RMSE) of the forecast. The models that were assessed were the random walk (RW) with and without drift, futures, simple autoregressive (AR(p)) and moving average (MA(q)) processes, a combination of these in the form of ARMA (1,1), and various specifications of the VAR. The VAR outperforms the RW by about 20 percent for horizons of 5 to 8 months and 18 months. In the very short term (1 to 2 months) and at 24 months, the VAR model outperforms the

30

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

Which Model Should Be Used? In view of the considerable forecast uncertainty for oil prices irrespective of the underlying models, it could be useful to employ several forecasting methods to hedge. For oil prices specifically, an abundance of non-OPEC supplies could presage a change in the oil market configuration compared with that prevailing over the past two decades. Indeed, the merits of combination forecasts have long been established (Bates and Granger, 1969; Diebold and Pauly, 1987; Stock and Watson, 2004). More recently, it has been argued that the forecasting model with the lowest RMSE may potentially be improved by incorporating information from other models or macroeconomic factors (Baumeister and Kilian, 2013a). A combination forecast is presented (Figure 1.SF.3, panel 6), based on an inverse weighting of recent RMSE performance of futures and the VAR model. Although it is evenly weighted for very short horizons, forecasting performance at the outer end of the 24-month forecast horizon was better for the VAR model, and hence the combination tends to follow the VAR forecast more closely at that end. The forecast combination yields a Brent price of $108 a barrel during 2014 ($6 lower than the VAR, but $3 higher than futures), rising to an average of $114 a barrel in 2015 ($8 lower than the VAR, but $14 higher than futures).



5.193 8.677 11.513 13.799 15.648 17.172 18.337 19.243 19.879 20.283 20.706 21.240 22.561 23.276 23.929 25.342

RW

1.001 1.004 1.007 1.010 1.013 1.016 1.018 1.019 1.020 1.021 1.021 1.021 1.021 1.018 1.008 1.005

RW w/Drift 0.958 0.976 0.973 0.975 0.974 0.979 0.982 0.984 0.987 0.988 0.987 0.985 0.980 0.981 0.982 0.976

AR(6) 0.961 0.987 0.997 1.008 1.013 1.021 1.028 1.032 1.036 1.034 1.032 1.032 1.036 1.032 1.018 1.011

MA(3) 0.963 0.987 0.994 1.003 1.007 1.013 1.016 1.019 1.022 1.022 1.022 1.022 1.023 1.021 1.010 1.006

ARMA(1,1)

Simple Forecast Models 1.208*** 1.011 1.016 1.015 1.013 1.006 0.998 0.989 0.980 0.973 0.964 0.952 0.925 0.918 0.926 0.932

Futures 0.919 0.895 0.843 0.835 0.818 0.819 0.822 0.835 0.855 0.877 0.883 0.873 0.852 0.820* 0.853* 0.891

A

C 0.946 0.974 0.949 0.977 0.980 0.981 0.988 1.009 1.038 1.070 1.086 1.085 1.103 1.108 1.149 1.184

B 0.894 0.882 0.829 0.826 0.805 0.798 0.803 0.820 0.847 0.874 0.881 0.873 0.840 0.796* 0.842* 0.882 1.008 1.082 1.054 1.078 1.121 1.189 1.233 1.269 1.289 1.296 1.262 1.211 1.270 1.387 1.129 1.095

D 0.949 0.906 0.855 0.852 0.834 0.822 0.815 0.823 0.843 0.872 0.888 0.884 0.870 0.827 0.860 0.897

F

VAR Models 0.927 0.926 0.895 0.903 0.901 0.909 0.919 0.938 0.961 0.988 1.000 0.996 1.014 1.035 1.096 1.132

E

0.978 0.922 0.852 0.829 0.800 0.791 0.787 0.805 0.845 0.882 0.899 0.896 0.874 0.818 0.854* 0.891

G

1.145 1.113 1.054 1.023 0.981 0.916 0.859 0.829 0.822 0.837 0.846 0.848 0.859 0.818* 0.836** 0.878

H

0.989 0.989 0.969 0.963 0.952 0.960 0.969 0.979 0.998 1.025 1.049 1.059 1.057 1.055 1.117 1.151

I

0.913 0.888 0.835 0.811 0.784 0.787 0.807 0.838 0.871 0.898 0.907 0.900 0.862 0.809** 0.864** 0.924

J

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: Values less than one indicate superiority of the forecast model compared with the random walk. Boldface values indicate the best forecast model. Values with *, **, and *** indicate rejection of the null hypothesis of equal predictive ability of the candidate model and the random walk model by the Diebold-Mariano test at the 10, 5, and 1 percent levels, respectively. All vector autoregression (VAR) models A through J are in log differences, except model E, which is in log levels. All have 6 lags, except model D, which has 12. Model B includes the exchange rate index. Model F differentiates between emerging market industrial production and advanced economy industrial production. Models G and H disaggregate oil production between regions. Model J is the one presented in this Special Feature, with the detrended real oil price. See Beckers and Beidas-Strom (forthcoming) for more details. Rows represent horizon in months. AR = autoregression; ARMA = autoregression and moving average; MA = moving average; RW = random walk.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 15 18 21 24

Model

Table 1.SF.1. Root-Mean-Squared Errors across Forecast Horizons h (Relative to the Random Walk Model)

SPECIAL FEATURE  COMMODITY PRICES AND FORECASTS

International Monetary Fund | April 2014 31

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Box 1.1. Credit Supply and Economic Growth The financial nature of the recent global crisis has led to renewed interest in understanding the importance of credit supply conditions for economic growth. This issue remains relevant today inasmuch as several countries are still dealing with residual weaknesses in the banking sector. In particular, the ongoing contraction of bank lending to nonfinancial firms in the euro area is raising concerns that tight lending conditions may still be acting as a drag on economic growth. This box presents an empirical assessment of the importance of credit supply shocks in constraining economic growth since the beginning of 2008 in the United States; the four largest economies of the euro area (France, Germany, Italy, Spain); and Ireland, which experienced a severe banking crisis. The findings reveal that Germany and the United States have almost entirely reversed the credit supply tightening experienced during the crisis. In contrast, further policy action to revive credit supply in France, Ireland, Italy, and Spain could increase GDP by 2 percent or more. Identifying credit supply shocks is not a simple task because variables that are commonly used to monitor credit conditions, such as credit growth and lending rates, reflect both demand and supply factors. This box isolates credit supply conditions by relying on measures of bank lending standards that reflect lending terms and the criteria used by banks for the approval of loans.1 Even these measures, however, cannot be treated as pure measures of credit supply shocks—banks can adjust lending standards not only in response to changes in their own risk attitudes, regulatory requirements, or exogenous shocks to their balance sheets, but also because of variations in credit demand and borrowers’ creditworthiness. For example, banks are likely to tighten lending standards when an ongoing or incipient recession reduces credit demand and undermines borrowers’ repayment capacity. To address this identification problem, a parsimonious vector autoregression (VAR) is estimated at quarterly frequency from the first quarter of 2003 to the third quarter of 2013. The VAR includes real GDP growth, expected GDP growth for the next The authors of this box are Andrea Pescatori and Damiano Sandri. 1Lending standards have been used in similar analyses of both the United States (Lown and Morgan, 2006; Bassett and others, forthcoming) and the euro area (de Bondt and others, 2010).

32

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

quarter, and changes in bank lending standards on loans to firms. Credit supply shocks are isolated by imposing in the VAR that they result in an immediate change in lending standards without a contemporaneous impact on current or expected GDP growth. Shocks that move lending standards as well as actual or expected GDP growth within the same quarter are not interpreted as credit supply shocks. They are instead a hodgepodge of domestic and nondomestic shocks that, by affecting current and expected output, may also induce changes in lending standards. For example, news about an incipient recession that results in a downward revision of expected GDP growth and a tightening of lending standards is not considered a credit shock. There are three main concerns with regard to possible limitations of the identification strategy. On the one hand, the identification restriction may be very conservative. A credit supply shock, especially if realized at the beginning of the quarter, is likely to have already had some effects on GDP within the same quarter, or at least on the expectations of next-quarter GDP. Ignoring this likelihood introduces a downward bias in the estimates; thus the estimation framework provides a conservative assessment of the effects of credit supply shocks on GDP growth. On the other hand, current and expected GDP growth may not fully capture banks’ perceptions of borrowers’ creditworthiness. In this case, the estimation framework risks overestimating the role of credit supply shocks. Finally, the estimation results could be affected by omitted variable bias because the limited time series of lending standards (available only from 2003 onward) does not allow for a larger-scale VAR or by structural breaks in the credit-activity nexus after the global financial crisis. Figure 1.1.1 shows the cumulative effect on real GDP of a credit supply shock that causes a 10 percentage point tightening of lending standards. This is similar to the cross-country average of the shocks experienced at the time of the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy shown in Figure 1.1.2. The estimated impact on GDP is negative and statistically significant across all countries. In France, Italy, and the United States, the shock leads to a total cumulative contraction in GDP of about 1 percent. Credit supply shocks seem to have a stronger effect on GDP in Germany (1.8 percent) and especially in Spain and Ireland (2.2 percent and 4.0 percent, respectively), where nonfinancial

CHAPTER 1   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

Box 1.1 (continued)

Figure 1.1.1. Cumulative Responses of GDP to a 10 Percentage Point Tightening of Lending Standards (Percent of GDP; point estimates and 2 standard deviation bootstrapped confidence bands; quarters on x-axis) 1 1. France

2. Germany

1

0

0

–1

–1

–2

–2

–3

–3

–4

–4

–5

1

4

8

12

16

1

1 3. Ireland

4

8

12

4. Italy

16

–5

1

0

0

–1

–1

–2

–2

–3

–3

–4

–4

–5

1

4

8

12

16

1

1 5. Spain

4

8

12

6. United States

0

–5 16 1 0

–1

–1

–2

–2

–3

–3

–4

–4

–5

1

4

8

12

16

Source: IMF staff calculations.

1

4

8

12

–5 16

firms have been much more dependent on bank credit. However, the confidence bars show that these cross-country differences are generally not statistically significant. Figure 1.1.1 also shows that credit supply shocks have a more immediate effect in France, Germany, and Italy, where the maximum contraction in GDP is reached within 6 quarters. The effect is more delayed in the United States and especially in Ireland and Spain, where credit supply shocks continue to reduce GDP for up to 16 quarters. It is interesting to note that in all countries credit supply shocks have a permanent effect on GDP, suggesting that unresolved problems in the banking sector may have an enduring detrimental effect on output. In assessing the importance of credit supply shocks in reducing growth since 2008, it is important to consider not only how a given shock affects GDP, but also the size and frequency of shocks. Figure 1.1.2 plots the credit supply shocks identified by the VAR; positive values indicate a tightening of credit conditions. The figure shows significant differences across countries that are broadly in line with anecdotal evidence about the nature of the crisis. In France, Germany, and the United States, the greatest tightening of credit supply took place in the second half of 2008 at the time of the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy. From then on, credit conditions remained relatively stable, especially in Germany (Figure 1.1.2, panel 1). In contrast, Ireland, Italy, and Spain endured the largest shocks later in the crisis. In Ireland credit supply contracted sharply at the end of 2009, and experienced a large negative shock at the time of Greece’s bailout. Italy suffered a major credit supply contraction at the end of 2011, when sovereign yields reached their peak. Combining the size and frequency of credit supply shocks (from Figure 1.1.2) with the impact that these shocks have on GDP (from Figure 1.1.1) yields the contribution of credit supply shocks to GDP for a given period. Figure 1.1.3 shows the cumulative contribution of these shocks relative to GDP in the first quarter of 2008.2 The confidence bands confirm that the tightening of credit supply had a statistically significant negative effect on GDP, but they also highlight that there is considerable uncertainty about the precise effects. When the point estimates are examined, the results reveal 2In the absence of any shocks (including nonfinancial shocks), GDP would have grown at its estimated trend, which varies from country to country.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 33

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Box 1.1 (continued) Figure 1.1.3. Contribution of Credit Supply Shocks to GDP

Figure 1.1.2. Credit Supply Shocks

(Percentage point changes in lending standards) 1. France, Germany, and the United States France Germany U.S.

40 30 20 10 0 –10

Lehman bankruptcy 2008

09

Greece bailout 10

LTROs OMTs 11

12

2. Ireland, Italy, and Spain

–20 –30 13: Q3 40

Ireland Italy Spain

09

Greece bailout 10

LTROs OMTs 11

12

2. Germany

0

0

–3

–3

–6

–6

–9

–9

–12

–12

–15

2008

10

12 13: Q3

10

–15 12 13: Q3

10

0

0

–3

–3

–6

–6

–9

–9

–12

–12

–20 –30 13: Q3

–15

2008

10

4. Italy

12 13: Q3

3 5. Spain

that in France, Germany, and the United States, credit supply shocks led to very similar GDP contractions of about 3 percent by the beginning of 2009 (Figure 1.1.3, panels 1, 2, and 6). The negative contribution of credit supply shocks has subsequently moderated, especially in Germany and the United States. The improvement has been considerably weaker in France. As of the third quarter of 2013, the total cumulative impact of credit supply shocks in France, Germany, and the United States had generated a reduction in GDP relative to the beginning of 2008 of 2.2 percent, 0.9 percent, and 0.4 percent, respectively. The impact of credit supply shocks on GDP is estimated to have been considerably stronger in Ireland and Spain, and to a certain extent in Italy, with ­differences

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

2008

3 3. Ireland

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: LTROs = longer-term refinancing operations; OMTs = Outright Monetary Transactions.

34

3

20

–10

2008

3 1. France

30

0

Lehman bankruptcy

(Cumulative contribution with respect to 2008:Q1 GDP; point estimates and 2 standard deviation bootstrapped confidence bands)

2008

3

10

–15 12 13: Q3

6. United States

3

0

0

–3

–3

–6

–6

–9

–9

–12

–12

–15

2008

10

12 13: Q3

Source: IMF staff calculations.

2008

10

–15 12 13: Q3

CHAPTER 1   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

Box 1.1 (continued) that are consistent with the prevalent narratives of country-specific crises (Figure 1.1.3, panels 3, 4, and 5). Confronted with a severe banking crisis, Ireland suffered the most from the contraction in credit supply. According to the point estimates, the impact has been dramatic, leading to a total reduction of about 10 percent of GDP by the middle of 2010, with GDP losses starting to reverse at the end of 2010.3 An important caveat to these findings is the width of the confidence bands. This suggests that the VAR may fail to capture other important factors that may have affected the relationship between credit and GDP growth in Ireland. For example, Laeven (2012) uses micro data and finds a more important role for credit demand factors after taking into account the structural shift from nontradables to tradables production that occurred during the crisis. In Italy in 2008, credit supply contracted less than in France and Germany, consistent with the much lower exposure to U.S. assets, and recovered temporarily until the middle of 2011. However, credit conditions severely deteriorated at the end of 2011, when Italian sovereign yields increased sharply, leading to a contraction in GDP of about 2 percent. Credit conditions subsequently stabilized with a stronger recovery in the middle of 2013. In Spain, credit sup3This impact is close to the reduction in GDP actually experienced by Ireland between 2008 and 2010. However, this should not be interpreted as suggesting that the severe recession in Ireland was due entirely to a tightening of credit supply for two reasons. First, explaining the crisis requires accounting not only for the fall in GDP, but also for the lack of trend growth. Second, there may have been other important contractionary forces, possibly compensated for by other positive shocks, which the VAR is unable to disentangle.

ply conditions exercised a delayed but continuous negative effect on GDP from the beginning of 2008 through the first quarter of 2012. Some stabilization is observed afterward, possibly thanks to the three-year longer-term refinancing operation, Outright Monetary Transactions, and the program supported by the European Stability Mechanism to recapitalize the banking sector. Overall, supply shocks have led to contractions in GDP in Ireland, Italy, and Spain of 3.9 percent, 2.5 percent, and 4.7 percent, respectively, with significant confidence bands around these estimates as noted earlier. The historical contribution of credit supply shocks shown in Figure 1.1.3 can also shed light on the possible impact of policies to strengthen the banking sector, such as measures to boost bank capital or further progress toward banking union in the euro area. Indeed, the cumulative impact of credit supply shocks can also be interpreted as the potential gains to be realized from implementing financial sector policies that can undo the negative credit supply shocks experienced since the beginning of 2008. Germany and the United States have essentially already reversed the negative effects of credit supply shocks, but considerable payoffs remain for France, Ireland, Italy, and Spain. In these countries, restoring the credit supply to precrisis levels could lead to an increase in GDP, relative to the first quarter of 2008, of 2.2 percent, 2.5 percent, 3.9 percent, and 4.7 percent, respectively. As a caveat, policies to return credit supply to 2008 levels might not be desirable from a financial stability perspective given the possibility that precrisis credit conditions reflected excessive banking sector leverage and imprudent risk taking.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 35

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Box 1.2. Is China’s Spending Pattern Shifting (away from Commodities)? Following three decades of rapid growth in China of about 10 percent a year on average, the recent slowdown has raised many concerns. Among them are the implications for global commodity markets: China’s demand rebalancing may lead to lower commodity consumption and prices and thus create adverse spillovers to commodity exporters (Figure 1.2.1). This box delves into China’s commodity consumption and its relationship to demand rebalancing. The analysis finds that China’s commodity consumption is unlikely to have peaked at current levels of income per capita. Moreover, the pattern of its commodity consumption closely follows the earlier paths of other rapidly growing Asian economies.1 However, recent shifts in the composition of China’s commodity consumption are consistent with nascent signs of demand rebalancing—private durable consumption has started to pick up, while infrastructure investment has slowed. Global (and Chinese) commodity consumption has been rising and is predicted to continue to do so, but at a slower pace for low-grade commodities and an accelerating one for higher-grade commodities—implying positive spillovers for exporters of commodities, particularly of higher-value commodities. Growth in global commodity demand has moderated somewhat, but China’s commodity consumption is still rising. Since the global financial crisis, the growth rate of global commodity consumption appears to be slowing, relative to the boom in the middle of the 2000s, except in the case of food (Figure 1.2.2). This slowdown has been accompanied by a compositional shift in global commodity consumption. Specifically, within primary energy, the growth rate of natural gas consumption has risen faster than that of other fuels, very basic food staples such as rice are giving way to proteins (the sum of data for edible oils, meat, and soybeans; excludes seafood and dairy, for which data are incomplete), and base metal consumption has generally shifted away from low-grade metals (copper and iron ore) toward higher-grade ones (aluminum and zinc). In China, the growth rate of commodity consumption has also moderated, but is still robust. Within commodity categories, patterns in energy, metal, and food consumption per capita appear to be broadly in line with The author of this box is Samya Beidas-Strom, with assistance from Angela Espiritu, Marina Rousset, and Li Tang. For details on the methodology and results summarized in this box, see Beidas-Strom (forthcoming). 1As in Guo and N’Diaye (2010) and Dollar (2013), these benchmarks are Japan, Korea, and Taiwan Province of China.

36

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

Figure 1.2.1. China: Real GDP Growth and Commodity Prices Commodity price index (2005 = 100; left scale) Real GDP (annual rate, percent; right scale) 200

15

180

14

160

13 12

140

11

120

10

100

9

80

8

60

7

40 1992 95

98 2001 04

07

10

13

16

19

6

Sources: IMF, Primary Commodity Price System; and IMF staff estimates.

those recorded in other fast-growing Asian economies (namely, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan Province of China) a few decades earlier. Some idiosyncrasies are evident; most notable are China’s considerably higher per capita consumption of coal and high-protein foods. However, recent shifts in composition commodity categories at the global level are also evident in China. In particular, rice has given way to higher-quality foods (edible oils and soybeans, and to a lesser extent, meat); copper and iron ore have recently been giving way to aluminum, tin, and zinc; and coal has started to give way to cleaner primary energy fuels. Chinese (and other emerging market) demand for thermal coal softened in 2013 and early 2014, consistent with the baseline forecast of the International Energy Agency (2013). The relationship between commodity consumption and income can help gauge prospects for future commodity consumption in China. The predicted relationship between commodity consumption per capita and income per capita and other determinants is based on cross-country panel regressions estimated over the period 1980–2013 with country fixed effects for 41 economies (26 advanced: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Ger-

CHAPTER 1   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

Box 1.2 (continued)

15

many, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States; and 15 emerging or developing: Chile, China, Croatia, Hungary, India, Iraq, Mexico, Malaysia, Pakistan, Poland, Russia, South Africa, Taiwan Province of China, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam). For primary energy, the nonlinear relationship with per capita income predicted earlier (April 2011 World Economic Outlook) still holds. The estimated regression is

10

eit = ai + P(yit ) + uit , (1.2.1)

5

in which i denotes the country, t denotes years, e is primary energy per capita, y is real per capita GDP, P(y) is a third-order polynomial, and fixed effects are captured by ai . Specifically, income elasticity of energy consumption is close to one at current levels of income per capita in China (as it was earlier in other fast-growing Asian economies). In contrast, advanced economies can sustain GDP growth with little if any increase in energy consumption (Figure 1.2.3, panel 1). This relationship is flat for higher incomes—except in the United States, where consumption has been increasing with income per capita. What is new is the analysis for base metals. The estimated regressions for average metals and their components are the same as that for energy but with added arguments: the share of investment in GDP, the share of durables in private consumption,2 and the growth rates for both. In particular, the nonlinear relationship with per capita income is a good predictor of metal consumption at the early stages of income convergence,3 with an income elasticity greater than one in China (and its Asian comparators). The predicted metal consumption curve reaches an inflection point at a much earlier income threshold relative to energy, first slowing at the threshold of $8,000 per capita, then reaching a plateau at about $18,000 per capita, and thereafter falling gradually (Figure 1.2.3, panel 2). Moreover, pre-

Figure 1.2.2. Growth Rate of Global Commodity Consumption Advanced economies EMDE excluding China

China

1. Primary Energy, 1986–20121 (percent)

25 20

0 –5 1986 89

92

95

98 2001 04

07

10 12

2. Metal, 1996–20132 (percent)

1996

99

2002

3. Food, 1981–2013 (percent)

05

08

11

13

3

–10 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 –10 –20 –30 25 20 15 10 5 0 –5

1981

86

91

96

2001

06

11 13

–10 –15 –20

Sources: British Petroleum Statistical Review; International Energy Agency; U.S. Department of Agriculture; U.S. Energy Information Administration; World Bureau of Metal Statistics; World Steel Association; and IMF staff calculations. Note: EMDE = emerging market and developing economies. 1 Coal, gas, and oil. 2 Aluminum, cadmium, iron ore, copper, lead, nickel, tin, and zinc. 3 Barley, beef, corn, milk, palm oil, peanut oil, pork, poultry, rapeseed oil, rice, soybean oil, soybeans, sunflower oil, and wheat.

2Private consumption (durables, nondurables, and services) for emerging markets is obtained by splicing the full data set with data from CEIC Data, the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Economist Intelligence Unit, Euromonitor, Global Insight, and the World Bank’s World Development Indicators household surveys. Measurement error could be present for the “level,” but here the interest is in “growth” effects. Hence, for the shares of durables, nondurables, and services, private consumption is reconstructed. 3Thereafter, the predicted curve falls rapidly to zero when income per capita is the only determinant.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 37

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Box 1.2 (continued)

Figure 1.2.3. Actual and Predicted Per Capita Commodity Consumption AE EMDE G20EM Korea Predicted

China G20AE Japan Taiwan Province of China

1. Energy (Mtoe)

5 4 3 2 1

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Per capita income (thousands of PPP-adjusted U.S. dollars) 2. Metal (thousand tons)

160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Per capita income (thousands of PPP-adjusted U.S. dollars) 3. Aluminum (thousand tons)

30 25 20 15 10 5

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Per capita income (thousands of PPP-adjusted U.S. dollars) Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: AE = advanced economies; EMDE = emerging market and developing economies; G20AE = G20 advanced economies; G20EM = G20 emerging market economies; Mtoe = million tons of oil equivalent; PPP = purchasing power parity.

38

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

dicted consumption is rising in the growth rate of the investment-to-GDP ratio (unlike for primary energy). Since the growth rate of investment appears to be slowing and consumption is beginning to rise in China, a further disaggregation of base metal consumption could be warranted to assess which metals are more sensitive to these recent developments in investment and consumption. For a few high-grade metals, such as aluminum and zinc, the relationship is found also to be rising significantly in both the share of durable consumption in private consumption and its growth rate, with the consumption elasticity significantly larger than one (and larger than that for the average metal). Hence, the predicted consumption per capita of high-grade metals grows briskly at levels of income per capita below about $20,000 (relative to the growth rate and the plateau predicted for average metals). However, it falls more rapidly thereafter (relative to average metals) (Figure 1.2.3, panel 3). This result implies that investment, durables, and GDP growth more broadly will come with higher consumption (with an increasing growth rate) of these metals in the future—this is likely also to hold true for some precious metals used in high-end durable manufacturing, such as palladium—at least until China’s income per capita is double the current level. This is not the case for low-grade metals, for which investment and GDP growth will soon be sustained with lower consumption growth rates for these metals, implying a slowing in future demand growth. Estimation results confirm that copper and iron ore consumption will continue to rise, but at a slowing rate as income rises, similar to the experiences of China’s Asian benchmarks earlier. At incomes of $15,000 per capita and higher, consumption of copper and iron ore is predicted to fall more rapidly than consumption of aluminum. Among base metals, only copper futures are in backwardation. What are the broader implications of this analysis, however, for global commodity demand, and what are the links to China’s demand rebalancing? The predicted paths for metal consumption per capita are consistent with slowing investment in infrastructure and accelerating consumption of durables in China. Relative to that in other emerging market economies, China’s commodity consumption per capita is indeed high and rising, as established. However, this is not unusual for its early stage of income convergence given its growth model, which broadly follows that of Korea and Taiwan Province of China in the 1970s and 1980s and of Japan some decades earlier. These benchmark economies relied on a growth model led by exports, factor accumulation, low private consumption, and high investment (Figure

CHAPTER 1   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

Box 1.2 (continued) 1.2.4, panels 1 and 2). Differences between China and these benchmark economies—studied in IMF (2011, 2013a); Hubbard, Hurley, and Sharma (2012); and Dollar (2013)—are largely related to somewhat higher investment-to-GDP and lower household-consumptionto-GDP ratios, linked to China-specific social and institutional factors. Private consumption in benchmark economies also initially declined and later grew as income began to converge, and their infrastructure investment slowed concomitantly. China’s high investment (Ahuja and Nabar, 2012; Roache, 2012) appears to be leveling off. This is particularly notable in the growth rate of infrastructure, as some provinces near a threshold of industrialization and infrastructure building (McKinsey Global Institute, 2013).4 Thus, the observed slowing in metals used heavily in infrastructure seems natural. Meanwhile, private durables consumption is catching up following a long delay (Figure 1.2.4, panel 3), perhaps linked to the acceleration observed in the growth rate of consumption of aluminum and other high-grade metals (Deutsche Bank, 2013; Goldman Sachs, 2013a).5 Demand rebalancing should follow. Regression results suggest that the growth rate of GDP and the investment-to-GDP ratio drive private consumption at the early stages of income convergence (before the $10,000 per capita threshold), when low-grade commodities are intensively consumed.6 Thereafter, invoking Eichengreen, Park, and Shin (2013), (higher) levels of income and other domestic social and institutional factors largely drive the share of durable consumption (and services) when demand shifts toward high-grade 4The slowdown is observed for total real fixed-asset investment during the second half of 2013, with a notable deceleration in the growth rate during the fourth quarter of the year for investment directed toward the nontradable real estate, construction, and infrastructure sectors. 5Industry analysis (Goldman Sachs, 2013b) corroborates this finding: demand has been rising for high-grade metal-intensive durables (for example, cars and dishwashers) and higher-end nondurables (protein foods) and services (tourism and insurance). 6Same period and panel of economies; based on two separate generalized least-squares panel regressions with fixed effects and robust standard errors: one for the determinants of the ratio of private consumption to GDP, the other for the share of durables in consumption. The following domestic factors are found to be statistically significant: financial repression or liberalization, credit to state-owned enterprises, out-of-pocket health and education private spending (Barnett and Brooks, 2010), and demographics. Interestingly, foreign financing conditions and household wealth (for example, house prices) are not found to be statistically significant.

Figure 1.2.4. Spending Patterns AE G20AE Korea

China G20EM

EMDE Japan

1. Total Investment as a Percent of GDP

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2

0.1 0 10 20 30 40 50 Per capita income (thousands of PPP-adjusted U.S. dollars) 2. Private Consumption as a Percent of GDP

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4

0.3 0 10 20 30 40 50 Per capita income (thousands of PPP-adjusted U.S. dollars) 3. Percent of Durables in Private Consumption

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

0.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Per capita income (thousands of PPP-adjusted U.S. dollars) Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: AE = advanced economies; EMDE = emerging market and developing economies; G20AE = G20 advanced economies; G20EM = G20 emerging market economies; PPP = purchasing power parity.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 39

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Box 1.2 (continued) commodities. Such predictions of the determinants of domestic demand components appear to be consistent with the shifting commodity composition and spending pattern observed in China: toward high-grade commodities and durables since 2012 and softening demand for low-grade commodities and slower infrastructure investment during 2013, thus suggestive of nascent demand rebalancing. Implementation of the envisaged reforms outlined in the Third Plenum of the 18th Central Committee, particularly the removal of factor subsidies and administered credit, should lift private labor income and foster further rebalancing. Positive spillovers to both low- and high-grade commodity exporters should occur as commodity consump-

40

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

tion follows predicted relationships. Rebalancing does not indicate that the level of China’s consumption of commodities will peak—at least not until the country’s per capita income doubles from current levels. Rather, commodity consumption (globally and for China) is predicted to increase and to continue to shift gradually toward high-grade foods and metals as well as cleaner primary energy fuels. However, exporters of basic and low-grade commodities (such as rice, copper, iron ore, and later, coal) should expect Chinese demand to grow more slowly as it shifts toward other commodities, with increasing, positive spillovers to the exporters of these commodities.

CHAPTER 1   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

Box 1.3. Anchoring Inflation Expectations When Inflation Is Undershooting Could financial conditions unexpectedly tighten in the world’s largest advanced economies? The question arises because underlying inflation has been running below objective in the euro area, Japan, and the United States. In Japan, where the undershooting has persisted the longest, deflation has become entrenched. Meanwhile, in the euro area and the United States, the undershooting has already pulled down shorter-term inflation expectations. If longerterm inflation expectations start drifting down as a result, there could be serious implications. Central banks might find it difficult to ease monetary conditions, because nominal interest rates are effectively at the zero floor. In this case, real interest rates (based on long-term expected inflation) would rise, tightening financial conditions and threatening the stillfragile recoveries. This box considers the ways in which central banks can prevent longer-term expectations from becoming unanchored. It does this by reviewing the experiences of three seasoned inflation-targeting countries (Canada, Czech Republic, Norway), as well as the three largest advanced economies that have adopted numerical inflation objectives (euro area, Japan, United States), to see what lessons can be drawn.1 Before proceeding, it is worth recalling that keeping long-term inflation expectations anchored at positive levels is not sufficient to rule out the risk of undesirably low inflation: in Japan’s case, inflation expectations remained positive for many years, even as the economy slid into deflation (Figure 1.3.1).

Figure 1.3.1. Inflation Expectations in Euro Area, United States, Japan, and Norway Inflation objective Actual inflation (year-over-year percent change) Six- to ten-year-ahead expectations One-year-ahead expectations 1. Euro Area

6 4 2 0

1999 2001

03

05

07

09

11

2. United States1 Adoption of numerical objective (Jan. 2012)

–2 Dec. 13 6 4 2 0

1990

94

3. Japan

98

2002

06

10

2,3

–2 Dec. 13 4

Adoption of numerical objective (Jan. 2013)

2 0

1990

94

98

2002

06

10

–2 Dec. 13

4. Norway Adoption of numerical objective (March 2001)

6 4 2

Inflation performance and short-term expectations Low inflation is already putting downward pressure on shorter-term inflation expectations. The Consensus Economics survey of professional forecasters shows the problem: inflation projections for 2014–15 are effectively below objective in the six economies mentioned

The authors of this box are Ali Alichi, Joshua Felman, Emilio Fernandez Corugedo, Douglas Laxton, and Jean-Marc Natal. 1Canada and Norway are useful to illustrate the difficulties of balancing competing objectives; the Czech Republic highlights the importance of having alternative instruments available to lift inflation expectations when the policy interest rate is at the zero floor.

0 –2 Dec. 13 Sources: Consensus Economics; and IMF staff calculations. 1 The implicit consumer price index (CPI) inflation objective is estimated at about 0.3 percentage point above the Federal Reserve’s official personal consumption expenditures (PCE) inflation objective of 2.0 percent. This is based on the difference in long-term CPI and PCE inflation forecasts from the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia’s Survey of Professional Forecasters. 2 The announcement of the numerical inflation objective was made in December 2012; implementation occurred in January 2013. 3 In October 2013, the Japanese government announced that the value-added tax rate would be increased by 3 percentage points, effective April 2014. This led to a sharp rise in short-term inflation expectations. 1990

94



98

2002

06

10

International Monetary Fund | April 2014 41

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Box 1.3 (continued) Table 1.3.1. Consensus Consumer Price Index Inflation Expectations1 (Percent)

Euro Area Spain Italy France Germany Japan United States Canada Sweden Norway Czech Republic New Zealand United Kingdom

2014

2015

2016

Inflation Objective

1.1 (–0.3) 0.7 (–0.6) 1.1 (–0.5) 1.2 (–0.3) 1.6 (–0.3) 2.3 (0.0) 1.6 (–0.2) 1.5 (–0.3) 0.9 (–0.4) 2.0 (+0.1) 1.3 (–0.3) 2.0 (0.0) 2.3 (–0.2)

1.4 (–0.2) 1.3 (–0.3) 1.3 (–0.4) 1.4 (–0.2) 2.0 (–0.1) 1.6 (+0.3) 1.9 (–0.2) 1.9 (–0.1) 2.0 (–0.1) 2.1 (0.0) 2.2 (+0.4) 2.3 (–0.1) 2.3 (–0.3)

1.8 1.7 1.6 1.7 2.1 1.4 2.3 2.0 2.2 2.0 2.0 2.4 2.8

 2.02 ... ... ... ... 2.0  2.33 2.0 2.0 2.5 2.0 1.0–3.0 2.0

Publish Policy-Consistent Interest Rate Path? No ... ... ... ... No Yes4 No, only use words Yes Yes Yes Yes No

Sources: Bank of England (2012); Consensus Economics; central bank websites; and IMF staff compilation. 1Data for 2014–15 are from a January 2014 Consensus Economics survey (deviations from the October 2013 benchmark survey in parentheses). Data for 2016 are from an October 2013 benchmark Consensus Economics survey. 2Official European Central Bank objective is “below, but close to 2.0 percent.” 3The implicit consumer price index (CPI) inflation objective is estimated by the IMF staff at about 0.3 percentage point above the Federal Reserve’s official personal consumption expenditures (PCE) inflation objective of 2.0 percent. This is based on the difference in long-term CPI and PCE inflation forecasts from the Philadelphia Federal Reserve’s Survey of Professional Forecasters. 4In the United States, interest rate paths are from individual participants in the Federal Open Market Committee meeting.

above (Table 1.3.1).2 They rise over time, but even by 2016 they are still projected to be below objective in the euro area, Japan, and Norway.

Policy frameworks and long-term expectations What are the risks that these decreases in shorterterm expectations will feed into longer-term expectations? Evidence suggests the answer depends on the policy framework. Figure 1.3.1 provides estimates of longer-term inflation expectations (6 to 10 years ahead) for the euro area, Japan, Norway, and the United States. In the period before Japan and the United States adopted numerical inflation objectives, long-term expectations tended to move with shortterm expectations and actual inflation (in the United States, mainly because it was still disinflating to levels consistent with its long-term inflation objective). In contrast, Canada established its constant 2 percent inflation objective much earlier, and long-term inflation expectations became firmly anchored to the 2Consensus

Economics conducts a monthly survey of expected consumer price inflation for the current year (2014) and the next year (2015), and a semiannual survey (April and October) of longer-term expected inflation. The inflation expectations for Japan in 2014 embody a large transitory effect from a valueadded tax increase expected in April. Measures of underlying inflation excluding value-added tax effects would be significantly lower than the 2 percent objective.

42

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

target, notwithstanding short-term fluctuations (see Table 1.3.1).3 This is not an accident. Once central banks adopt numerical objectives, they devote considerable resources to ensuring that long-term inflation expectations are well anchored. They use their inflation forecasts to guide monetary policy actions, estimating the endogenous policy interest rate path that should return inflation to the target. Most also publish information about their forecasts to provide forward guidance to the public.4 Thus, they can ensure their monetary policy actions are consistent—and are seen to be consistent—with bringing inflation back to its objective over time.

Policy since the global financial crisis In the immediate aftermath of the global financial crisis, the largest advanced economies faced a dilemma. They needed to provide massive stimulus to support 3Similarly, Capistrán and Ramos-Francia (2010) find that the dispersion in short- and medium-term inflation expectations is lower in inflation-targeting countries. 4The Czech National Bank and the Norges Bank publish the path of the policy rate consistent with returning inflation to target, whereas the Bank of Canada simply uses words to describe the policy assumptions in its baseline forecast. The Czech National Bank and Norges Bank make it clear that the forecast is an important input into policymaking, but not the only input.

CHAPTER 1   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

Box 1.3 (continued) the real economy in the near term, while keeping long-term inflation expectations anchored. They also realized that these objectives could be achieved with a more transparent monetary policy framework that focused on longer-term expectations, notwithstanding short-term inflation fluctuations.5 Accordingly, the Federal Reserve and Bank of Japan adopted numerical inflation goals in 2012. The postcrisis task of keeping long-term expectations anchored has proved difficult, however. Canada, the Czech Republic, and Norway were early adopters of inflation targeting and have relatively long histories of communicating monetary policy under inflation targeting.6 Yet in Norway long-term inflation expectations have actually been drifting downward. Why is this happening? In part, it is because Norges Bank has needed to strike a balance between its inflation and financial stability objectives. For some time, the bank has been concerned that credit (especially to households) is growing too rapidly, building up financial imbalances. Accordingly, it has maintained— and is expected to maintain—policy rates above the levels needed to bring inflation back to its objective. Consequently, long-term inflation expectations have fallen below target. The Bank of Canada also has concerns about growing household debt, which may be why inflation is expected to return to target only by 2016. Yet longerterm expectations remain well anchored. Why the difference? One explanation may be the Bank of Canada’s long track record in controlling inflation. It was one of the first inflation targeters, implementing an inflationtargeting framework a decade before Norges Bank. So it has built considerable credibility. The experience of the Czech Republic, meanwhile, illustrates the advantages of having additional policy instruments available when the policy rate has hit the zero bound. Because the Czech Republic is a small and open economy, the exchange rate is a powerful tool for affecting prices, and given that the koruna’s exchange 5Based on data from before the global financial crisis, Levin, Natalucci, and Piger (2004) and Box 4.2 of the September 2005 World Economic Outlook show that long-term inflation expectations were much better anchored in inflation-targeting countries than in non-inflation-targeting countries. 6Canada was the first Group of Seven country to adopt inflation targeting, in 1991, and now has more than 20 years of experience with an inflation-targeting regime. The Czech Republic and Norway adopted inflation targeting in 1997 and 2001, respectively.

rate was overvalued, foreign exchange intervention was considered appropriate.7 So the central bank intervened, accompanied by strong communications, thereby lifting short-term inflation expectations while keeping longer-term inflation expectations on target.

Conclusions What can we conclude from these experiences? One important lesson is that monetary policy frameworks supported by numerical inflation objectives (such as inflation targeting) can help prevent declines in short-term inflation expectations from translating into declines in longer-term expectations. Frameworks can only help so much, however. A second lesson is that implementation is also critical—and difficult when central banks face conflicting objectives. One strategy may be to assign macroprudential tools to achieve financial stability goals. When these tools need to be reinforced with a monetary stance that is tighter than it would otherwise be, central banks will need to explain how this will stabilize the economy over the longer term, thereby ultimately helping to achieve the inflation objective. A third critical lesson is that central banks need adequate tools. With policy rates near zero in many countries, this is also problematic. There are few cases in which foreign exchange intervention, as in the Czech Republic, would be appropriate; a widespread use of this tool could generate large spillovers, harming the international system. That leaves other unconventional monetary policies. Although these measures can have longer-term costs, they have also helped avert another Great Depression since the global financial crisis. Finally, to utilize these tools, central banks will need operational independence, a key pillar of inflation control over the past two decades. Recent developments in this area are not reassuring. The scope for extraordinary interventions––including purchases of a broad range of private or public sector assets––must not be circumscribed by political considerations. In the end, to keep expectations anchored, central banks not only must talk the talk. They must also be able to walk the walk.

7For an analysis of the Czech Republic’s exchange rate level, see Box 3.1 of the April 2013 World Economic Outlook.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 43

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Box 1.4. Exchange Rate Regimes and Crisis Susceptibility in Emerging Markets The choice of exchange rate regime is a perennial issue faced by emerging markets. Conventional wisdom, especially after the emerging market crises of the late 1990s, was a bipolar prescription: countries should choose between floats (the soft end of the prescription) and hard pegs (monetary union, dollarization, currency board). The thinking was that intermediate regimes (conventional pegs, horizontal bands, crawling arrangements, managed floats) left countries more susceptible to crises. The experience of some European emerging market economies as well as some euro area economies during the global financial crisis, however, suggests that hard pegs may make countries more prone to growth declines and painful current account reversals, in which case the safety of the hard end of the prescription may be largely illusory. The soft end of the prescription is also a bit murky. An often-overlooked question is what constitutes a “safe” float—that is, where to draw the line between floats and riskier intermediate exchange rate regimes. Although occasional intervention during periods of market turbulence or extreme events does not turn a float into an intermediate regime, there remains the question of how much management of the exchange rate is too much.

Evolving regimes These issues are clearly relevant to policy, given that an increasing number of emerging market central banks have switched from free floats to de facto managed floating, conventionally defined as regimes in which the central bank influences exchange rate movement through its policies without (at least explicitly) targeting a particular parity.1 In fact, based on the IMF’s de facto exchange rate regime classification, the trend of “hollowing out of the middle”—countries abandoning intermediate regimes mostly in favor of free floats—that started in the immediate aftermath of the Asian crisis The author of this box is Mahvash Qureshi, based on Ghosh, Ostry, and Qureshi (2014). 1This is in contrast to free (or independent) floating, in which the exchange rate is largely market determined. Different de facto exchange rate regime classifications generally use different identification criteria. For example, the IMF’s de facto classification combines information about actual exchange rate volatility and a central bank’s intervention policy with qualitative judgment based on IMF country team analysis; Reinhart and Rogoff’s (2004) classification takes into account exchange rate volatility and the existence of parallel market exchange rates; Levy-Yeyati and Sturzenegger (2005) consider the volatility of the nominal exchange rate and that of international reserves.

44

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

Figure 1.4.1. Distribution of Exchange Rate Regimes in Emerging Markets, 1980–2011 (Percent)

Hard peg Basket peg Crawling peg Free float

Peg to single currency Horizontal band Managed float

100

80

60

40

20

1980 83 86 89 92 95 98 2001 04 07 10

0

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: Based on the IMF’s de facto exchange rate regime classification obtained from the IMF's Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions. Hard pegs include dollarization, currency unions, and currency boards.

of the late 1990s reversed around 2004 (Figure 1.4.1). Since then, the proportion of intermediate regimes in emerging market economies has increased (of which managed floats is the most important category). What explains this shift toward greater management of the exchange rate? In the run-up to the global financial crisis, the trend was likely motivated by the surge in capital inflows to emerging market economies, which raised concern about export competitiveness and prompted efforts to limit currency appreciation. During the crisis, however, as these economies faced sharp declines in capital inflows (and in some cases even large capital outflows), the purpose of intervention was to support their currencies. Thereafter, the ebbs and flows of capital to emerging market econo-

CHAPTER 1   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

Box 1.4 (continued) mies have led to alternating concern about currency appreciation and depreciation—but in either case, concern about exchange rate volatility, hence the desire to manage exchange rates.

Figure 1.4.2. Predicted Crisis Probability in Emerging Markets, 1980–2011 Bank Sovereign debt

Regimes, vulnerabilities, and crisis susceptibility Empirical analysis of the vulnerabilities and risks of crises under different exchange rate regimes in a sample of 50 emerging market economies for 1980–2011 suggests that macroeconomic and financial vulnerabilities (such as currency overvaluation, delayed external adjustment, rapid credit expansion, excessive foreign borrowing, and foreign-exchange-denominated domestic currency lending) are generally significantly greater under less flexible exchange rate regimes—including hard pegs—compared with those under both managed and free floats. Although not especially susceptible to banking or currency crises, hard pegs are significantly more prone to growth collapses than are floats. Overall, intermediate regimes as a class are the most susceptible to crisis, but managed floats behave much more like pure floats, with significantly lower risks and fewer crises (Figure 1.4.2). Among other factors, excessive credit expansion, real exchange rate overvaluation, bank foreign liabilities, and large current account deficits are associated with a significantly higher likelihood of banking and currency crises, whereas more foreign exchange reserves lower the likelihood. Higher external debt also significantly raises the probability of banking and sovereign debt crises, though the association weakens when bank foreign liabilities and the fiscal balance are included in the model.

Where to draw the line? Less flexible exchange rate regimes are more prone to various types of crisis, but what differentiates “safe” managed floats from “risky” intermediate regimes?2 To delve deeper into what constitutes more risky management of the exchange rate, a methodology is adopted that characterizes the crisis susceptibility of intermediate exchange rate regimes according to various factors (such as exchange rate flexibility, degree of foreign exchange intervention, overvaluation of the real exchange rate, and financial stability risks) while allowing for arbitrary thresholds and interactive 2This

is a pertinent question, because existing exchange rate regime classifications often give different information about the exchange rate regime in a country, and the differences are the most pronounced within the intermediate regime category.

Currency Growth 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01

Hard Single Basket Hori- Crawl- Manpeg curren- peg zontal ing peg aged cy peg band float

0.00 Free float

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: Predicted probabilities are obtained from a probit model of crisis likelihood evaluated at mean values of control variables. See Ghosh, Ostry, and Qureshi (2014) for details of the control variables included in each crisis likelihood estimation and for definitions of crisis variables.

effects among these factors.3 The results suggest that there is no simple dividing line (for example, based on exchange rate flexibility) between safe and risky intermediate exchange rate regimes. Rather, what determines whether an intermediate regime is safe or risky is a complex confluence of factors, including financial vulnerabilities, exchange rate flexibility, degree of intervention, and most important, whether the currency 3This is done through binary recursive tree analysis. A binary recursive tree is a sequence of rules for predicting a binary variable (for example, crisis versus noncrisis) on the basis of several explanatory variables such that at each level, the sample is split into two groups according to some threshold value of one of the explanatory variables. The threshold value, in turn, is that which best discriminates between crisis and noncrisis observations based on a specific criterion (for example, minimizing the sum of type I and type II errors).



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 45

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Box 1.4 (continued) Figure 1.4.3. Probability of Banking or Currency Crisis Overall High credit expansion

Low credit expansion

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

Overvaluation

No overvaluation

0.0

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: Results are obtained from binary recursive tree analysis. Overvaluation is defined as deviation of the real effective exchange rate from trend in excess of 5 percent. High (low) credit expansion is a cumulative change in the domestic private-credit-to-GDP ratio of more (less) than 30 percentage points over three years.

46

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

is overvalued. Thus, for example, among intermediate regimes, although the probability of a banking or currency crisis is about seven times as high when the real exchange rate is overvalued than when it is not, the likelihood of a crisis in both cases is much greater if domestic private sector credit has grown rapidly (Figure 1.4.3). Furthermore, if the real exchange rate is overvalued, intervention to prevent greater overvaluation can reduce the risk of crisis, whereas intervention to defend an overvalued exchange rate makes the regime more vulnerable. The upshot of the analysis is threefold. First, although countries with hard pegs have fewer banking and currency crises than those using most other regimes, they are more prone to growth collapses because hard pegs impede external adjustment and make it more difficult to regain competitiveness following a negative shock. Second, although countries with pure floats are the least susceptible to crisis, most emerging market central banks prefer at least some management of their exchange rates, presumably because of concerns about competitiveness or the balance sheet effects of sharp depreciations. Third, once a central bank has chosen to manage the currency, simply counseling that the exchange rate should be as flexible as possible and that the central bank should minimize its interventions may not be sufficient to prevent crisis; rather, what differentiates safe from risky managed floats is a complex set of factors, including whether the central bank is defending an overvalued currency or intervening to prevent further overvaluation, and whether it has other instruments (such as macroprudential measures or capital controls) that can be deployed to mitigate financial stability risks.

CHAPTER 1   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

References Ahuja, Ashvin, and Malhar Nabar, 2012, “Investment-Led Growth in China: Global Spillovers,” IMF Working Paper No. 12/267 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Alquist, Ron, Lutz Kilian, and Robert J. Vigfusson, 2013, “Forecasting the Price of Oil,” in Handbook of Economic Forecasting, Vol. 2, ed. by Graham Elliott and Allan Timmermann (Amsterdam: North Holland), pp. 427–508. Bank of England, 2012, State of the Art of Inflation Targeting, Centre for Central Banking Studies Handbook No. 29 (London). Barnett, Steven, and Ray Brooks, 2010, “China: Does Government Health and Education Spending Boost Consumption?” IMF Working Paper No. 10/16 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Bassett, William F., Mary B. Chosak, John C. Driscoll, and Egon Zakrajsek, forthcoming, “Changes in Bank Lending Standards and the Macroeconomy,” Journal of Monetary Economics. Bates, John M., and Clive W.J. Granger, 1969, “The Combination of Forecasts,” Journal of the Operational Research Society, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 451–68, doi:10.1057/jors.1969.103. Baumeister, Christiane, and Lutz Kilian, 2013a, “Forecasting the Real Price of Oil in a Changing World: A Forecast Combination Approach,” CEPR Discussion Paper No. 9569 (London: Centre for Economic Policy Research). ———, 2013b, “What Central Bankers Need to Know about Forecasting Oil Prices,” Working Paper No. 2013-15 (Ottawa, Ontario: Bank of Canada). ———, and Xiaoqing Zhou, 2013, “Are Product Spreads Useful for Forecasting? An Empirical Evaluation of the Verleger Hypothesis,” Working Paper No. 2013-25 (Ottawa, Ontario: Bank of Canada). Beckers, Benjamin, and Samya Beidas-Strom, forthcoming, “Forecasting the Price of Oil: Can a Global Oil Market VAR Beat the Futures Forecast?” IMF Working Paper (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Beidas-Strom, Samya, forthcoming, “Is China’s Spending Pattern Shifting away from Commodities?” IMF Working Paper (International Monetary Fund: Washington). ———, and Andrea Pescatori, forthcoming, “Oil Price Volatility and the Role of Speculation,” IMF Working Paper (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Capistrán, Carlos, and Manuel Ramos-Francia, 2010, “Does Inflation Targeting Affect the Dispersion of Inflation Expectations?” Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 113–34 . Chen, Yu-Chin, Kenneth S. Rogoff, and Barbara Rossi, 2010, “Can Exchange Rates Forecast Commodity Prices?” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 125, No. 3, pp. 1145–94. Chinn, Menzie D., and Olivier Coibion, 2013, “The Predictive Content of Commodity Futures,” Journal of Futures Markets, early view (online version of record), doi: 10.1002/fut.21615.

de Bondt, Gabe, Angela Maddaloni, José-Luis Peydró, and Silvia Scopel, 2010, “The Euro Area Bank Lending Survey Matters: Empirical Evidence for Credit and Output Growth,” Working Paper No. 1160 (Frankfurt: European Central Bank). Deaton, Angus, and Guy Laroque, 1996, “Competitive Storage and Commodity Price Dynamics,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 104, No. 5, pp. 896–923. Decressin, Jorg, and Douglas Laxton, 2009, “Gauging Risks for Deflation,” IMF Staff Position Note No. 09/01 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Deutsche Bank, 2013, “Commodity Themes in 2014,” Deutsche Bank Markets Research, Special Report, December 10. Diebold, Francis X., and Peter Pauly, 1987, “Structural Change and the Combination of Forecasts,” Journal of Forecasting, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 21–40. Dollar, David, 2013, “China’s Rebalancing: Lessons from East Asian Economic History,” John L. Thornton China Center Working Paper (Washington: Brookings Institution). Eichengreen, Barry, Donghyun Park, and Kwanho Shin, 2013, “Growth Slowdowns Redux: New Evidence on the MiddleIncome Trap,” NBER Working Paper No. 18673 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research). Ghosh, Atish, Jonathan Ostry, and Mahvash Qureshi, 2014, “Exchange Rate Management and Crisis Susceptibility: A Reassessment,” IMF Working Paper No. 14/11 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Goldman Sachs, 2013a, “Changing China,” Top of Mind Special Issue, December 5. ———, 2013b, “What the World Wants,” Economic Research, Global Economics Paper No. 220, September 9. Guo, Kai, and Papa N’Diaye, 2010, “Determinants of China’s Private Consumption: An International Perspective,” IMF Working Paper No. 10/93 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Hotelling, Harold, 1931, “The Economics of Exhaustible Resources,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 137–75. Hubbard, Paul, Samuel Hurley, and Dhruv Sharma, 2012, “The Familiar Pattern of Chinese Consumption Growth,” Economic Roundup, No. 4, pp. 63–78. www.treasury.gov.au/~/media/ Treasury/Publications%20and%20Media/Publications/2012/ roundup-04/downloads/pdf/Economic-Roundup-4-article3. ashx. International Energy Agency (IEA), 2013, “Coal Market Outlook,” in World Energy Outlook (Paris). International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2011, G-20, People’s Republic of China Sustainability Report (Washington). ———, 2013a, G-20, People’s Republic of China Sustainability Update (Washington: International Monetary Fund). ———, 2013b, 2013 Pilot External Sector Report (Washington). ———, 2013c, 2013 Spillover Report (Washington). Keynes, John M., 1930, A Treatise on Money (New York: Harcourt, Brace).



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 47

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Kilian, Lutz, 2009, “Not All Oil Price Shocks Are Alike: Disentangling Demand and Supply Shocks in the Crude Oil Market,” American Economic Review, Vol. 99, No. 3, pp. 1053–69. Kumar, Manmohan S., 2003, Deflation: Determinants, Risks, and Policy Options, IMF Occasional Paper No. 221 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Laeven, Luc, 2012, “Access to Credit, Debt Overhang, and Economic Recovery: The Irish Case,” Section II in Ireland: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 12/265, pp. 11–26 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Levin, Andrew, Fabio Natalucci, and Jeremy Piger, 2004, “The Macroeconomic Effects of Inflation Targeting,” Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, Vol. 86, No. 4, pp. 51–80. Levy-Yeyati, Eduardo, and Federico Sturzenegger, 2005, “Classifying Exchange Rate Regimes: Deeds vs. Words,” European Economic Review, Vol. 49, No. 6, pp. 1603–35. Lown, Cara, and Donald P. Morgan, 2006, “The Credit Cycle and the Business Cycle: New Findings Using the Loan Officer Opinion Survey,” Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, Vol. 38, No. 6, pp. 1575–97. McKinsey Global Institute, 2013, “Resource Revolution: Tracking Global Commodity Markets” (Seoul, San Francisco, London, Washington).

48

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

Ostry, Jonathan D., Atish R. Ghosh, and Marcos Chamon, 2012, “Two Targets, Two Instruments: Monetary and Exchange Rate Policies in Emerging Market Economies,” IMF Staff Discussion Note No. 12/01 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Reeve, Trevor A., and Robert J. Vigfusson, 2011, “Evaluating the Forecasting Performance of Commodity Futures Prices,” International Finance Discussion Paper No. 1025 (Washington: Federal Reserve Board). Reichsfeld, David A., and Shaun K. Roache, 2011, “Do Commodity Futures Help Forecast Spot Prices?” IMF Working Paper No. 11/254 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Reinhart, Carmen, and Kenneth Rogoff, 2004, “The Modern History of Exchange Rate Arrangements: A Reinterpretation,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 119, No. 1, pp. 1–48. Roache, Shaun, 2012, “China’s Impact on World Commodity Markets,” IMF Working Paper No. 12/115 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Stock, James H., and Mark W. Watson, 2004, “Combination Forecasts of Output Growth in a Seven-Country Data Set,” Journal of Forecasting, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 405–30.

CCHAPTER HAPTER

12

COUNTRY AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES

The global recovery is expected to strengthen, led by advanced economies. Growth in emerging market and developing economies is expected to pick up only modestly. The balance of risks to global growth has improved, largely reflecting better prospects in advanced economies. However, important downside risks remain—notably a yet-greater general slowdown in emerging market economies; risks to activity from lowerthan-expected inflation rates in advanced economies; incomplete reforms; and rising geopolitical tensions.

D

uring the second half of 2013, growth in advanced economies rebounded by 1.3 percentage point and is expected to strengthen further in 2014–15. Growth is supported by monetary policy, reduced fiscal drag (except in Japan), and easing crisis legacies amid improving financial conditions in affected economies. In the stressed euro area economies, growth is projected to remain weak and fragile as high debt and financial fragmentation hold back domestic demand. In Japan, fiscal consolidation in 2014–15 is projected to result in some growth moderation. Still-large output gaps in advanced economies highlight the continued fragilities in the recovery. Growth picked up only modestly in emerging market and developing economies in the second half of 2013—from 4.6 percent in the first half of 2013 to 5.2 percent in the second—although they continue to contribute much of global growth. However, robust or increasing growth was limited to the Asia and subSaharan Africa regions, with most other regions experiencing moderating or modest real growth rates. This comes despite the broadly positive lift from exports due to currency depreciation and the firming recovery in advanced economies in many regions, along with robust consumption supporting domestic demand. A worrying development is the downgrade of growth rates in a few large emerging market economies (e.g., Brazil, Russia, South Africa, Turkey) owing to domestic policy weaknesses, tighter domestic and external financial conditions, or investment and supply constraints.

Hence only a modest pickup in growth in emerging market and developing economies is expected this year (Figure 2.1, panel 1). Downside risks to global growth remain. Chief among them is a renewed increase in financial market volatility, especially in emerging market economies. If this risk materializes, capital inflows to emerging market and developing economies will likely decline, and growth in these economies will be lower compared with the baseline—with spillovers to advanced economies, as discussed in this chapter’s Spillover Feature. The impact of a more prolonged slowdown in major emerging market economies because of lower investment—a scenario described in detail in Chapter 1—is shown in panel 2 of Figure 2.1. In advanced economies, downside risks to activity stem mainly from prospects of low inflation and the possibility of protracted stagnation, especially in the euro area and Japan. Other downside risks include adjustment fatigue and insufficient policy action in a still financially fragmented euro area and risks related to the exit from unconventional monetary policy. On the upside, the stronger-thanexpected growth momentum during the second half of 2013 could buoy confidence in Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

The United States and Canada: Firming Momentum The U.S. economy grew at a faster-than-anticipated pace in the second half of 2013, led by buoyant domestic demand, robust inventory accumulation, and strong export growth. Although the harsher-than-usual winter weather may have slowed activity in early 2014, the underlying fundamentals of private demand remain strong, and growth is expected to advance at an abovepotential rate for the rest of this year. In Canada, annual growth is expected to accelerate in 2014 thanks to stronger external demand and rising business investment. Growth in the United States was 1.9 percent in 2013, with the continued recovery of private domestic

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

49

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 2.1. 2014 GDP Growth Forecasts and the Effects of a Plausible Downside Scenario 1. 2014 GDP Growth Forecasts1 (percent)

Less than 0 Between 0 and 1 Between 1 and 2 Between 2 and 4 Between 4 and 6 Greater than or equal to 6 Insufficient data 2. Effects of a Plausible Downside Scenario (peak growth deviation from 2014 baseline projections; percentage points)

Decrease in growth: Very large (greater than 0.75) Large (between 0.60 and 0.75) Moderate (between 0.40 and 0.60) Small (between 0.20 and 0.40) Minimal (less than or equal to 0.20) Insufficient data Source: IMF staff estimates. Note: Simulations are conducted using the IMF’s Flexible System of Global Models, with 29 individual countries and eight regions (other European Union, other advanced economies, emerging Asia, newly industrialized Asia, Latin America, Middle East and North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, oil exporters group). Countries not included in the model are allocated to the regions based on the WEO classification of fuel exporters, followed by geographical regional classifications. Syria is excluded due to the uncertain political situation. Ukraine is excluded due to the ongoing crisis. 1 The data for Argentina are officially reported data. The IMF has, however, issued a declaration of censure and called on Argentina to adopt remedial measures to address the quality of the official GDP data. Alternative data sources have shown significantly lower real growth than the official data since 2008. In this context, the Fund is also using alternative estimates of GDP growth for the surveillance of macroeconomic developments in Argentina. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. IMF staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates. Real GDP is in constant 2009 prices.

50

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

CHAPTER 2   COUNTRY AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES

Figure 2.2. United States and Canada: Recovery Firming Up In the United States, growth in 2013 was higher than expected, and recent data remain consistent with a further pickup in 2014 as improvement in the labor and housing markets continues and the fiscal drag wanes. In Canada, growth strengthened in 2013 and is expected to accelerate in 2014 as a result of rising business investment and firming external demand. 1. Real Activity Indicators (percent change) 5 Priv. cons. Net exports Priv. nonres. inv. 4 Priv. res. inv. 3

69 68 67 66

GDP growth

2

65

1

64

0

63 62

2010–11

14–15

CAN 14–15

12–13

U.S.

–2

12–13

–1 2010–11

demand partly offset by the hefty fiscal consolidation effort, which subtracted between 1¼ and 1½ percentage points from GDP growth. Economic momentum picked up during 2013; GDP grew at an average annualized rate of 3.3 percent in the second half compared with 1.2 percent in the first half. Consumer spending also picked up, boosted by higher house and stock prices and a further decline in household debt ­relative to disposable income, which raised household net worth above its long-term average (Figure 2.2). A faster pace of inventory accumulation and strong export growth (particularly in regard to petroleum products) also contributed to sustained activity in the second half of 2013. Mainly reflecting the October government shutdown, government spending contracted significantly at the end of the year, but financial conditions remained highly accommodative, with long-term rates declining after the sharp increase in mid-2013. The unemployment rate continued to fall in 2013, reaching 6.7 percent in February 2014. However, a major factor behind the decline was a further drop in the labor force participation rate, which stood at 63 percent in February of this year (see Chapter 1). Still-ample slack in the economy was manifest in subdued price pressures, with headline consumer price index inflation standing at 1.6 percent in February 2014. Largely on account of increases in domestic energy production and the associated drop in oil imports, the current account deficit narrowed further to 2.3 percent of GDP in 2013—the lowest in 15 years (Table 2.1). The unusually harsh winter weather weighed on activity in early 2014, but growth is expected to rebound over the rest of the year—driven by strong growth in residential investment (bouncing back from very low levels and given substantial pent-up demand for housing), solid personal consumption, and a pickup in nonresidential fixed-investment growth as consumer and business confidence improves. Growth will also be supported by less fiscal drag, which is declining to ¼ to ½ percentage point of GDP this year, thanks in part to the Bipartisan Budget Act, which replaced some of the automatic spending cuts in fiscal years 2014 and 2015 with back-loaded savings. The debt limit has been suspended until March 2015, reducing the uncertainty that has characterized fiscal policy in the past few years. Overall, growth is projected to accelerate to 2.8 percent in 2014 and to 3.0 percent in 2015.

61

2. U.S. Labor Market (percent) Labor force participation 13 rate 12 Unemployment rate 11 (right scale) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 2008 09 10 11 12 Feb. 14

3. House and Equity Prices1 U.S. FHFA HPI CAN MLS HPI

20 15

200 180 160

10

140

5

4. Household Net Worth and Debt (percent of disposable income)

800

220

U.S. net worth CAN net worth

700

190

600

160

120

0

100

–5

80 S&P 500 60 Right scale: S&P/TSX –15 40 2006 08 10 12 Jan. 14 3,000 5. U.S. Household Formation 2,600 (thousand units; annualized; four-quarter 2,200 moving average) 1,800 Household formation 1,400 precrisis average –10

130

500 Right scale: 400 300

250

100

U.S. household debt CAN household debt 2006

08

10

6. U.S. Fiscal Impulse2 (percent of GDP)

70

40 12 13: Q4 4 3 2 1 0

1,000

–1

600

–2

200

2005

07

09

11

Dec. 13

2007

09

11

13

15

–3

Sources: Bloomberg, L.P.; Canadian Real Estate Association; Congressional Budget Office; Haver Analytics; and IMF staff estimates. Note: CAN = Canada; cons. = consumption; FHFA HPI = Federal Housing Finance Agency Housing Price Index; inv. = investment; MLS HPI = Multiple Listing Service Housing Price Index; nonres. = nonresidential; priv. = private; res. = residential; S&P = Standard & Poor’s; TSX = Toronto Stock Exchange. 1 Year-over-year percent change for house prices and index; January 2005 = 100 for S&P and TSX. 2 The fiscal impulse is the negative of the change in the primary structural balance.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 51

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table 2.1. Selected Advanced Economies: Real GDP, Consumer Prices, Current Account Balance, and Unemployment (Annual percent change unless noted otherwise)

Consumer Prices1

Real GDP Projections Advanced Economies United States Euro Area4,5 Japan United Kingdom4 Canada Other Advanced Economies6

Current Account Balance2

Projections

Unemployment3

Projections

Projections

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

1.3 1.9 –0.5 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.3

2.2 2.8 1.2 1.4 2.9 2.3 3.0

2.3 3.0 1.5 1.0 2.5 2.4 3.2

1.4 1.5 1.3 0.4 2.6 1.0 1.5

1.5 1.4 0.9 2.8 1.9 1.5 1.8

1.6 1.6 1.2 1.7 1.9 1.9 2.4

0.4 –2.3 2.3 0.7 –3.3 –3.2 4.8

0.5 –2.2 2.4 1.2 –2.7 –2.6 4.7

0.4 –2.6 2.5 1.3 –2.2 –2.5 4.3

7.9 7.4 12.1 4.0 7.6 7.1 4.6

7.5 6.4 11.9 3.9 6.9 7.0 4.6

7.3 6.2 11.6 3.9 6.6 6.9 4.5

Note: Data for some countries are based on fiscal years. Please refer to Table F in the Statistical Appendix for a complete list of the reference periods for each country. in consumer prices are shown as annual averages. Year-end to year-end changes can be found in Table A6 in the Statistical Appendix. 2Percent of GDP. 3Percent. National definitions of unemployment may differ. 4Based on Eurostat’s harmonized index of consumer prices. 5Excludes Latvia. Current account position corrected for reporting discrepancies in intra-area transactions. 6Excludes the G7 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States) and euro area countries but includes Latvia. 1Movements

The balance of risks is tilted slightly to the downside. On the external front, protracted sluggishness in the euro area would weigh on growth, particularly if deflation dynamics take hold. A slowdown in emerging market economies could also pose a risk, with output growth declining by 0.2 percentage point in response to a 1 percent reduction in those economies’ GDP (see this chapter’s Spillover Feature). On the domestic front, private domestic demand could also lose momentum if long-term yields rise more quickly than expected without an associated improvement in the outlook. In the medium term, heightened fiscal sustainability concerns could pose additional downside risks, while a continuation of the downward trend in the labor force participation rate would further dent potential output and, by reducing the slack in the economy, lead to an earlier-than-expected tightening of monetary policy. On the upside, a more buoyant housing market recovery, with feedback to and from lending conditions, balance sheets, and private demand, remains a possibility. Moreover, greater confidence in the economy’s prospects (resulting from a relatively healthy financial sector and low energy costs) could induce businesses to shift more aggressively from cash hoarding toward real investment. A balanced, gradual, and credible fiscal plan that puts public debt firmly on a downward path continues to be the main policy priority. Such a plan would involve measures to gradually rein in entitlement spending, a revenue-raising tax reform, and replacement of the sequester cuts with back-loaded new rev-

52

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

enues and mandatory savings. (The Bipartisan Budget Act is a modest step in this direction.) Although the continued economic momentum justifies the measured reductions in the Federal Reserve’s asset purchase program, the overall monetary policy stance should remain accommodative, considering the sizable slack and steady inflation expectations (see Chapter 1). The return to qualitative forward guidance in March 2014 can provide the Federal Reserve with greater flexibility to achieve its employment and inflation goals. As the date of the liftoff draws nearer, the Federal Reserve will have to clearly convey to the market how it will assess progress toward achieving those objectives, in order to avoid an increase in policy uncertainty. Canada’s economy strengthened in 2013, but the much-needed rebalancing from household consumption and residential construction toward exports and business investment has not fully materialized. Growth is expected to rise to 2.3 percent in 2014, up from 2 percent in 2013, with the projected pickup in the U.S. economy boosting Canada’s export and business investment growth (Table 2.1, Figure 2.2). Although external demand could surprise on the upside, downside risks to the outlook still dominate, including from weaker-than-expected exports resulting from competitiveness challenges, lower commodity prices, and a more abrupt unwinding of domestic imbalances. Indeed, despite the recent moderation in the housing market, elevated household leverage and house prices remain a key vulnerability (Figure 2.2). With inflation low and downside risks looming, monetary policy

CHAPTER 2   COUNTRY AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES

should remain accommodative until growth gains further traction. Fiscal policy needs to strike the right balance between supporting growth and rebuilding fiscal buffers, especially at the federal government level, with less room to maneuver at the provincial level.

Europe Advanced Europe: From Recession to Recovery Advanced European economies are expected to resume growth in 2014, but inflation remains very low. Domestic demand in the euro area has finally stabilized and turned toward positive territory, with net exports also contributing to ending the recession. But high unemployment and debt, low investment, persistent output gaps, tight credit, and financial fragmentation in the euro area will weigh on the recovery. Downside risks stem from incomplete reforms, external factors, and even lower inflation. Accommodative monetary policy, completion of financial sector reforms, and structural reforms are critical. The euro area has finally emerged from recession. Activity shrank by about ½ percent in 2013, but growth has been positive since the second quarter after a long period of output decline (Table 2.2). The turnaround—attributable, in part, to less fiscal drag and some impetus from private domestic demand for the first time since 2010—is materializing largely as anticipated. Budding growth and greatly reduced tail risks have buoyed financial markets, with marked compression in sovereign spreads in stressed economies, although these spreads have increased modestly with recent financial market volatility (see Chapter 1). National and collective policy actions have contributed to this positive turn of events. Nevertheless, the legacy of the crisis—high unemployment, weak private and public balance sheets, contracting credit, and a large debt burden—and longer-term impediments to growth must still be fully addressed, raising concern about the strength and durability of the recovery. •• The recovery is uneven across countries and sectors. Pockets of stronger growth, such as Germany, are interspersed with stagnant or declining output elsewhere. Growth remains largely export led, although there has been an incipient revival in domestic demand (for example, in France, Spain, and particularly Germany). Private investment, however, has yet to revive strongly across the euro area. Despite some

rebalancing (within the euro area), current account balances have improved asymmetrically, with persistent surpluses in some core economies and shrinking external balances in deficit economies. •• Substantial and persistent slack has led to a general softening in inflation rates, which were already well below the European Central Bank’s (ECB’s) objective (Figure 2.3). •• Pending bank reform and private sector deleveraging, financial fragmentation, though lessening, continues to impair monetary transmission. In countries under stress, the private sector faces high lending rates and contracting private sector credit. •• Longer-term concerns about productivity and competitiveness linger, despite important reforms in several countries. The euro area recovery is expected to continue in 2014 (Table 2.2), with growth forecast to be 1.2 percent, reflecting a smaller fiscal drag, expectations of improving credit conditions, and stronger external demand. Euro area growth is projected to be about 1½ percent in the medium term. Persistently large output gaps—except in the case of Germany—are expected to moderate inflation to under 1¼ percent in 2014–15, well below the ECB’s objective of close to 2 percent for the foreseeable future. Other advanced economies recorded stronger growth, but durability is far from assured. Growth has rebounded more strongly than anticipated in the United Kingdom on easier credit conditions and increased confidence. However, the recovery has been unbalanced, with business investment and exports still disappointing. Switzerland regained momentum driven by domestic demand, and the exchange rate floor has stemmed deflation. Sweden was held back by continuing high unemployment, a strong krona, and structural labor market weaknesses, although activity is forecast to pick up this year on stronger external demand. Notwithstanding a pickup in growth, downside risks dominate. The euro area recovery could be derailed should financial stress reemerge from stalled policy initiatives. High unemployment could foster reform fatigue, political uncertainty, and policy reversal, jeopardizing hard-won gains. External shocks—tighter financial conditions in the United States, financial contagion and trade disruptions from geopolitical events, and slower-than-expected emerging market growth—could hurt growth and stability. For instance, an external shock involving further growth disappoint-



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 53

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table 2.2. Selected European Economies: Real GDP, Consumer Prices, Current Account Balance, and Unemployment (Annual percent change unless noted otherwise)

Consumer Prices1

Real GDP Projections

Current Account Balance2

Projections

Unemployment3

Projections

Projections

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

0.5 0.1 –0.5 0.5 0.3 –1.9 –1.2

1.7 1.5 1.2 1.7 1.0 0.6 0.9

1.9 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.1 1.0

1.9 1.5 1.3 1.6 1.0 1.3 1.5

1.6 1.1 0.9 1.4 1.0 0.7 0.3

1.8 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8

1.9 2.6 2.3 7.5 –1.6 0.8 0.7

2.1 2.6 2.4 7.3 –1.7 1.1 0.8

2.2 2.8 2.5 7.1 –1.0 1.1 1.4

... 10.8 12.1 5.3 10.8 12.2 26.4

... 10.6 11.9 5.2 11.0 12.4 25.5

... 10.2 11.6 5.2 10.7 11.9 24.9

Netherlands Belgium Austria Greece Portugal

–0.8 0.2 0.4 –3.9 –1.4

0.8 1.2 1.7 0.6 1.2

1.6 1.2 1.7 2.9 1.5

2.6 1.2 2.1 –0.9 0.4

0.8 1.0 1.8 –0.4 0.7

1.0 1.1 1.7 0.3 1.2

10.4 –1.7 3.0 0.7 0.5

10.1 –1.3 3.5 0.9 0.8

10.1 –1.0 3.5 0.3 1.2

6.9 8.4 4.9 27.3 16.3

7.3 9.1 5.0 26.3 15.7

7.1 8.9 4.9 24.4 15.0

Finland Ireland Slovak Republic Slovenia Luxembourg

–1.4 –0.3 0.9 –1.1 2.0

0.3 1.7 2.3 0.3 2.1

1.1 2.5 3.0 0.9 1.9

2.2 0.5 1.5 1.6 1.7

1.7 0.6 0.7 1.2 1.6

1.5 1.1 1.6 1.6 1.8

–0.8 6.6 2.4 6.5 6.7

–0.3 6.4 2.7 6.1 6.7

0.2 6.5 2.9 5.8 5.5

8.1 13.0 14.2 10.1 6.8

8.1 11.2 13.9 10.4 7.1

7.9 10.5 13.6 10.0 6.9

Latvia Estonia Cyprus6 Malta

4.1 0.8 –6.0 2.4

3.8 2.4 –4.8 1.8

4.4 3.2 0.9 1.8

0.0 3.5 0.4 1.0

1.5 3.2 0.4 1.2

2.5 2.8 1.4 2.6

–0.8 –1.0 –1.5 0.9

–1.6 –1.3 0.1 1.4

–1.9 –1.5 0.3 1.4

11.9 8.6 16.0 6.5

10.7 8.5 19.2 6.3

10.1 8.4 18.4 6.2

United Kingdom5 Sweden Switzerland Czech Republic

1.8 1.5 2.0 –0.9

2.9 2.8 2.1 1.9

2.5 2.6 2.2 2.0

2.6 0.0 –0.2 1.4

1.9 0.4 0.2 1.0

1.9 1.6 0.5 1.9

–3.3 5.9 9.6 –1.0

–2.7 6.1 9.9 –0.5

–2.2 6.2 9.8 –0.5

7.6 8.0 3.2 7.0

6.9 8.0 3.2 6.7

6.6 7.7 3.0 6.3

Norway Denmark Iceland San Marino

0.8 0.4 2.9 –3.2

1.8 1.5 2.7 0.0

1.9 1.7 3.1 2.2

2.1 0.8 3.9 1.3

2.0 1.5 2.9 1.0

2.0 1.8 3.4 1.2

10.6 6.6 0.4 ...

10.2 6.3 0.8 ...

9.2 6.3 –0.2 ...

3.5 7.0 4.4 8.0

3.5 6.8 3.7 8.2

3.5 6.7 3.7 7.8

2.8 4.3 1.6 3.5 1.1

2.4 2.3 3.1 2.2 2.0

2.9 3.1 3.3 2.5 1.7

4.1 7.5 0.9 4.0 1.7

4.0 7.8 1.5 2.2 0.9

4.1 6.5 2.4 3.1 3.0

–3.9 –7.9 –1.8 –1.1 3.1

–3.6 –6.3 –2.5 –1.7 2.7

–3.8 –6.0 –3.0 –2.2 2.2

... 9.7 10.3 7.3 10.2

... 10.2 10.2 7.2 9.4

... 10.6 10.0 7.0 9.2

0.9 2.5 –1.0 3.3

1.6 1.0 –0.6 3.3

2.5 1.5 0.4 3.5

0.4 7.7 2.2 1.2

–0.4 4.0 0.5 1.0

0.9 4.0 1.1 1.8

2.1 –5.0 1.2 0.8

–0.4 –4.8 1.5 –0.2

–2.1 –4.6 1.1 –0.6

13.0 21.0 16.5 11.8

12.5 21.6 16.8 10.8

11.9 22.0 17.1 10.5

Europe Advanced Europe Euro Area4,5 Germany France Italy Spain

Emerging and Developing Europe7 Turkey Poland Romania Hungary Bulgaria5 Serbia Croatia Lithuania5

Note: Data for some countries are based on fiscal years. Please refer to Table F in the Statistical Appendix for a complete list of the reference periods for each country. 1Movements in consumer prices are shown as annual averages. Year-end to year-end changes can be found in Tables A6 and A7 in the Statistical Appendix. 2Percent of GDP. 3Percent. National definitions of unemployment may differ. 4Excludes Latvia. Current account position corrected for reporting discrepancies in intra-area transactions. 5Based on Eurostat’s harmonized index of consumer prices. 6Real GDP growth and the current account balance for 2013 refer to staff estimates at the time of the third review of the program and are subject to revision. 7Includes Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, and Montenegro.

ment in emerging market economies, if it materializes, could spill over to the euro area given nonnegligible trade linkages, and to the United Kingdom through financial linkages (see this chapter’s Spillover Feature). More positively, stronger-than-expected business sentiment could jump-start investment and growth.

54

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

A key risk to activity stems from very low inflation in advanced economies. In the euro area, belowtarget inflation for an extended period could deanchor longer-term inflation expectations and complicate the task of recovery in the stressed economies, where the real burden of debt and real interest rates would rise.

CHAPTER 2   COUNTRY AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES

Figure 2.3. Advanced Europe: From Recession to Recovery Financial markets in advanced Europe have been buoyant because of receding tail risks and the resumption of growth. Output gaps, however, remain large, reflected in low inflation, which lies well below the ECB’s medium-term objective. Unemployment rates are stubbornly high, and debt levels are on an upward trajectory. Financial fragmentation persists. Current account balances have improved asymmetrically, with persistent surpluses in some core economies. 1,000 1. Stressed Euro Area: Bank and Sovereign CDS Spreads1 800

2. WEO Growth Projections and Revisions (percent; cumulative, 2013–14) Jan. 2014 Latest Output gap

600

Sovereign Bank

4 2

3. EA: Headline Inflation (seasonally adjusted; 50 year-over-year percent 15 change) 40 Overall HICP 10 Min Max 30 5 0

20

Spain

4. EA: Debt and Unemployment (percent of GDP, unless noted otherwise) 300 General government debt Total private debt 240 Unemployment rate (percent; right scale) 180 360

–5

Number of countries 10 in deflation (right –10 scale) –15 0 2009 10 11 12 Feb. 14 8 5. SME Real Corporate Lending Rates2 (percent) 7 Germany 6 Italy 5 Spain 4 3 2 2007 08 09 10

11

12

United Kingdom

Mar. 14

Italy

12

France

11

Germany

2010

–4

20

1

6

–2

200 0

8

0

400

EA

The priority is to set the stage for stronger and more durable growth and tackle low inflation while ensuring financial stability. The policy mix is complex and interdependent, comprising fiscal and monetary policy, financial sector restructuring and reform, and structural reforms. •• Macroeconomic policies should stay accommodative. In the euro area, additional demand support is necessary. More monetary easing is needed both to increase the prospects that the ECB’s price stability objective of keeping inflation below, but close to, 2 percent will be achieved and to support demand. These measures could include further rate cuts and longer-term targeted bank funding (possibly to small and medium-sized enterprises). The neutral fiscal stance for 2014 is broadly appropriate, but fiscal support may be warranted in countries with policy space if low growth persists and monetary policy options are depleted. In the United Kingdom, monetary policy should stay accommodative, and recent modifications by the Bank of England to the forward-guidance framework are therefore welcome. Similarly, the government’s efforts to raise capital spending while staying within the medium-term fiscal envelope should help bolster recovery and longterm growth. Sweden’s supportive monetary policy and broadly neutral fiscal stance remain adequate. •• Repairing bank balance sheets and completing the banking union are critical to restoring confidence and credit in the euro area (see Chapter 1). To this end, a sound execution of the bank asset quality review and stress tests are essential, supported by strong common backstops to delink sovereigns and banks, and an independent Single Resolution Mechanism to ensure timely, least-cost bank restructuring. The United Kingdom should continue to restore financial sector soundness, ensure that stress tests are well coordinated with those of the European Banking Authority, and guard against any buildup of financial vulnerabilities, including from surging house prices. Sweden should continue to improve bank capitalization and liquidity and introduce demand-side measures to curb household credit growth. Switzerland should ensure that its systemically important banks reduce leverage. •• Despite progress, there is still need to increase potential output and reduce intra-euro-area imbalances through improved productivity and investment. Structural reforms to create flexible labor

120

–6

20 18 16 14 12 10 8

60 6 2005 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 6. EA: Current Account Balances (percent of EA GDP)

5 4 3 2 1 0 –1 –2 Germany Italy Other surplus EA –3 Spain Other deficit EA –4 –5 Jan. 2002 04 06 08 10 12 14

Sources: Bloomberg, L.P.; European Central Bank (ECB); Eurostat; Haver Analytics; and IMF staff estimates. Note: Euro area (EA) = Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain. Stressed euro area = Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain. CDS = credit default swap; HICP = harmonized index of consumer prices; SME = small and medium-sized enterprises. 1 Bank and sovereign five-year CDS spreads in basis points are weighted by total assets and general government gross debt, respectively. Data are through March 24, 2014. All stressed euro area countries are included, except Greece. 2 Monetary and financial institutions’ lending to corporations under €1 million, 1–5 years.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 55

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 2.4. Emerging and Developing Europe: Recovery Strengthening, but with Vulnerabilities Growth decelerated in emerging and developing Europe in 2013, as the region contended with large capital outflows, tighter monetary conditions, and rising financial market volatility. 40 1. CEE and SEE: Real GDP Growth (year-over-year 30 percent change) 20 Real GDP growth 10

2. Turkey: Real GDP Growth (year-over-year percent change) Real GDP growth

0 Consumption Investment Net exports

–10 –20 –30

2009

10

11

12 13:Q3 1

24 3. Core CPI Inflation (year-over-year percent 20 change) 16 Bulgaria Croatia Hungary Poland 12 Romania Turkey 8

2009

10

40 30 20 10

0 Consumption –10 Investment –20 Net exports –30 11 12 13:Q3

4. Nominal Credit to Nonfinancial Firms (year-over-year percent change; exchange rate adjusted) CEE and SEE2 Turkey

120 100 80 60 40

4

20

0

0

–4

2008 09

10

11

12

Feb. 14 2009

28 5. Trade Linkages with Euro Area (year-over-year 21 percent change) 14 7 0 Euro area: Real –7 imports3 –14 CEE and SEE: Real GDP –21 Turkey: Real GDP –28 2005 07 09 11 13 15 17 80 7. CEE and SEE: Capital Flows (billions of U.S. 60 dollars) Total FDI

11

Jan. 2013

13

–20

May 13

Sep. 13

275 250 225 200 175 150 125 100 75 Jan. Mar. 14 14

8. Turkey: Capital Flows (billions of U.S. dollars) Total FDI Portfolio investment Other investment

20

80 60 40 20

0 –20

12

6. EMBIG Spreads 4 (index, May 21, 2013 = 100; simple average) Croatia, Serbia, Turkey Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania

Portfolio investment Other investment

40

10

0 2009

10

11

12 13:Q3

2009

10

11

–20 12 13:Q3

Sources: Bloomberg, L.P.; CEIC Data Management; European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; Haver Analytics; and IMF staff estimates. Note: Central and eastern Europe (CEE) and southeastern Europe (SEE) include Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, and Serbia, wherever the data are available. All country group aggregates are weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parity as a share of group GDP unless noted otherwise. CPI = consumer price index; EMBIG = J.P. Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index Global; FDI = foreign direct investment. 1 Data through February 2014 except in the case of Croatia (January 2014). 2 Data through third quarter of 2013. 3 Excludes Latvia. 4 Data through March 25, 2014.

56

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

markets and competitive product and service markets, ease entry and exit of firms, and simplify tax systems would be necessary. Reducing persistently large current account surpluses would bring beneficial spillovers across the euro area; for example, more public investment could lower the current account surplus in Germany while also raising growth in both Germany and the region. A targeted implementation of the European Union (EU) Services Directive would open up protected professions. A more flexible wage formation process would help address high unemployment in Sweden, especially among vulnerable groups.

Emerging and Developing Europe: Recovery Strengthening but Vulnerabilities Remain Growth decelerated in emerging and developing Europe in the second half of 2013 as the region contended with large capital outflows. Despite positive spillovers from advanced Europe, the recovery is expected to weaken slightly in 2014. Fragilities in the euro area, some domestic policy tightening, rising financial market volatility, and increased geopolitical risks stemming from developments in Ukraine pose appreciable downside risks. Policies aimed at raising potential output remain a priority for the region. During 2013 economic recovery in emerging Europe continued to be driven by external demand, except in the cases of Turkey and the Baltic countries, where growth was led by private consumption. In contrast, the rise in private consumption reflected mostly procyclical macroeconomic policies in Turkey, and in the Baltic countries it reflected better labor market conditions. After an initial improvement, financial market volatility has increased since early fall in most countries. As a result, the region, excluding Turkey, experienced capital outflows (Figure 2.4). Stronger growth in the euro area is expected to lift activity in most of emerging and developing Europe. However, the region as a whole will see slightly weaker growth in 2014 than it did in 2013, mainly on account of Turkey, whose economy is much more cyclically advanced than those of other countries in the region (Table 2.2). •• Despite a projected improvement in net exports, growth in Turkey is expected to weaken in 2014 to 2.3 percent from 4.3 percent in 2013, mainly as a result of a sharp slowdown in private consumption

CHAPTER 2   COUNTRY AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES

driven by macroprudential measures, the sizable exchange rate adjustment, and interest rate hikes. Public investment will likely hold up in line with the 2014 budget targets. •• Growth in Hungary and Poland is forecast to strengthen in 2014 to 2.0 and 3.1 percent, from 1.1 and 1.6 percent in 2013, respectively. In both economies the strengthening is being driven by a pickup in domestic demand, supported by monetary easing, improvements in the labor market, and higher EU funds, which are expected to boost public investment. In Hungary, still-high external vulnerabilities, although declining, could weigh on growth. •• As was the case last year, the growth pickup in southeastern Europe will be moderate in 2014 at about 1.9 percent, mostly on account of improving external demand. Domestic demand in a few countries will benefit from EU spending. However, demand will remain constrained because of slow progress in resolving nonperforming loans, persistent unemployment, and the need for fiscal consolidation in some countries. Inflation is expected to decline or remain moderate in most countries in the region. Core inflation is low in several countries and has been decreasing in Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania, reflecting a stillnegative output gap, depressed domestic demand, weak bank credit, and negative external price developments, among other factors (Figure 2.4). Deflation risks, however, are low for emerging Europe as domestic demand takes hold and the effects of one-off factors dissipate. Delayed recovery in the euro area and renewed volatility in financial markets resulting from geopolitical events or the onset of Federal Reserve tapering are the main downside risks across the region. Regional growth is highly correlated with euro area growth, and with strong financial links, the euro area remains the main source of shocks for emerging and developing Europe. With large declines in portfolio investment, gross capital inflows to central and southeastern Europe turned sharply negative in the third quarter of 2013 and dropped substantially for Turkey (Figure 2.4). Accelerated outflows become a risk if financial market volatility spikes again, with negative consequences for financing still-sizable fiscal deficits in many countries and external deficits in some. In addition, a further escalation of geopolitical risks related to Ukraine could have significant negative spillovers for the region through both financial and trade channels.

Finally, uncertainties associated with the resolution of foreign-currency-denominated mortgages in Hungary, financial sector and corporate restructuring in Slovenia, and achieving the needed fiscal discipline in Serbia also weigh negatively on the outlooks for these countries. Policies aimed at raising potential growth, including by addressing high structural unemployment, making progress in resolving the large stock of nonperforming loans, and enhancing the role of the tradables sector, remain a priority. Low growth largely reflects structural rigidities in many countries, although negative output gaps in most countries in the region also point to cyclical weaknesses. However, room for policy maneuvering is available only to a few: already-low policy rates and the risk of renewed financial turmoil reduce the scope for further monetary easing in most countries. At the same time, elevated public debt and high headline fiscal deficits highlight the need for consolidation, largely relying on expenditure cuts, in several countries.

Asia: Steady Recovery Except in the case of Japan, growth in Asia picked up in the second half of 2013 on recovering exports and robust domestic demand. Global downside risks are still significant and are particularly relevant for economies already weakened by domestic and external vulnerabilities. In addition, homegrown vulnerabilities in China continue to rise, especially those stemming from growth in credit. Policy priorities vary across the region, with some economies tightening, whereas others are still able to support growth. Supply-side reforms would improve resilience and growth prospects. Economic activity in Asia picked up speed in the second half of 2013, as exports to advanced economies accelerated. Domestic demand has been solid, and retail sales across much of Asia have been brisk. Exports, particularly to the United States and the euro area, have gained momentum. In Japan, while private consumption and public spending remained robust, GDP growth slowed in the second half of 2013 on slow recovery of exports and a surge in import demand due to sustained high energy imports and strong domestic demand (see Chapter 1). Countries with strong fundamentals and policies managed to navigate the pressures seen in mid-2013 and early 2014 from slowing capital flows, with many in emerging Asia unscathed and looking more positive. Despite increas-



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 57

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 2.5. Asia: Steady Recovery Activity in Asia picked up in the second half of 2013 as exports recovered owing to stronger demand from advanced economies. With domestic demand still robust, growth is projected to rise to 5.5 percent in 2014 as external demand recovers further. 12 1. Asia (excl. JPN): Net Equity and Bond Fund Flows1 (billions of U.S. dollars) 8 Bond funds Equity funds Peak 2006–07

5

2. Changes in Bilateral Exchange Rates and Foreign Reserves2 (percent change since May 2013)

30 20 10 0

–2

4-week moving average

–6

2011

12

13

Mar. 14

3. Exports by Economies3 (year-over-year percent change) ASEAN 60 CHN 40 East Asia (excl. CHN) 20 80

0 –20

IND JPN 2010

11

12

Feb. 14

40 5. Change in Credit to GDP, 20145 30 (percentage points) Change from 20 2012 10 Deviation from trend 0

–10 Change in exchange rate; US$ per national currency –20 Change in foreign reserves –30

IDN THA PHL MYS IND AUS TWN CHN SGP HKG JPN KOR NZL

1

4. India and Indonesia4 Current 8 –5 Trade 4 account 6 –7 3 4 –9 IND IDN 2 2 –11 0 –13 1 –2 –15 0 –4 –17 IDN IND (right –1 –6 –19 scale) –21 –2 –8 2010 12 Feb. 2005 09 13: Q4 14 6. Selected Asia: Retail Sales 40 Volumes6 (year-over-year 30 percent change) JPN CHN AUS 20 10 0 ASEAN (excl. PHL) East Asia (excl. CHN)

–10 –20

–10

VNM AUS NZL KOR IND JPN IDN PHL TWN CHN MYS THA SGP HKG

–20 13 Feb. 14 Sources: Bloomberg, L.P.; CEIC; Haver Analytics; IMF, International Financial Statistics database; and IMF staff calculations. Note: Asia = Australia (AUS), China (CHN), Hong Kong SAR (HKG), India (IND), Indonesia (IDN), Korea (KOR), Malaysia (MYS), New Zealand (NZL), Philippines (PHL), Singapore (SGP), Thailand (THA), Taiwan Province of China (TWN), Vietnam (VNM). ASEAN = Association of Southeast Asian Nations (IDN, MYS, PHL, SGP, THA). East Asia = CHN, HKG, KOR, TWN. JPN = Japan. Country group aggregates are weighted by purchasing-power-parity GDP as a share of group GDP. 1 Data include exchange-traded fund flows and mutual fund flows; data are through Mar. 19, 2014. 2 Exchange rate data are for Mar. 2014; reserves data are for Feb. 2014 except in the case of NZL (Jan. 2014) and CHN (Dec. 2013). 3 ASEAN data are through Jan. 2013. 4 Trade balance data are in three-month moving averages and are through Jan. 2014 for IDN. Current account balance data are in percent of GDP. 5 Latest monthly availability. Trend calculated using Hodrick-Prescott filter over the period 2000–12. 6 AUS, CHN, JPN, and ASEAN (excluding PHL). Data are through Dec. 2013 for AUS; Jan. 2014 for JPN, east Asia (excluding CHN), and ASEAN (excluding PHL). Linear interpolation is applied on quarterly data for AUS.

58

2010

11

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

12

ing volatility, financial conditions remain accommodative, partly because weaker currencies are providing some offset (Figure 2.5). For Asia as a whole, growth is expected to accelerate modestly, from 5.2 percent in 2013 to about 5.5 percent in both 2014 and 2015 (Table 2.3). The improved outlook in advanced economies, alongside more competitive exchange rates in some cases, will help boost exports. Domestic demand will continue to be supported by strong labor markets and still-buoyant credit growth. Policies are expected to remain accommodative, although in a few cases (India, Indonesia) interest rate hikes on the one hand will attenuate vulnerabilities, but on the other hand could weigh on growth. In Japan, fiscal consolidation will be a headwind. Inflation is expected to increase slightly, albeit remaining generally low across the region, as output gaps close. The main exceptions are India and Indonesia, whose high inflation rates should continue to moderate further. •• In Japan, GDP growth is expected to moderate to about 1.4 percent in 2014 as fiscal policy weighs on activity. The positive effect of the recently approved stimulus measures is expected to be more than offset by the negative impact of the consumption tax hike and the waning of reconstruction spending and past stimulus measures. Monetary support will ensure that financial conditions remain accommodative, and inflation will rise temporarily to 2¾ percent this year as a result of the consumption tax increase (see Chapter 1). •• In Korea, the economy should continue its recovery, with growth accelerating to 3.7 percent in 2014. Stronger growth will be driven mostly by exports, which will be lifted by improving trading partner demand. Domestic demand should also pick up, benefiting from past fiscal stimulus and monetary accommodation as well as continued robust labor market conditions. •• In Australia, growth is expected to remain broadly stable at 2.6 percent in 2014 as the slowdown in mining-related investment continues. In New Zealand, growth should pick up to 3.3 percent, helped by reconstruction spending. •• In China, growth recovered somewhat in the second half of 2013 and should remain robust this year, moderating only marginally to 7.5 percent, as accommodative policies remain in place. The announcement of the government’s reform blueprint

CHAPTER 2   COUNTRY AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES

Table 2.3. Selected Asian Economies: Real GDP, Consumer Prices, Current Account Balance, and Unemployment (Annual percent change unless noted otherwise)

Consumer Prices1

Real GDP Projections

Current Account Balance2

Projections

Unemployment3

Projections

Projections

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

5.2 2.1 1.5 2.8 2.4 2.1 2.9

5.4 2.3 1.4 3.7 2.6 3.1 3.7

5.6 2.2 1.0 3.8 2.7 3.9 3.8

3.5 1.1 0.4 1.3 2.4 0.8 4.3

3.9 2.4 2.8 1.8 2.3 1.4 4.0

3.7 2.2 1.7 3.0 2.4 2.0 3.8

1.4 2.0 0.7 5.8 –2.9 11.7 3.1

1.6 2.1 1.2 4.4 –2.6 11.7 3.3

1.6 2.0 1.3 3.5 –2.8 10.9 3.9

... 4.0 4.0 3.1 5.7 4.2 3.1

... 4.0 3.9 3.1 6.2 4.2 3.1

... 4.0 3.9 3.1 6.2 4.1 3.1

Singapore New Zealand

4.1 2.4

3.6 3.3

3.6 3.0

2.4 1.1

2.3 2.2

2.6 2.2

18.4 –4.2

17.7 –4.9

17.1 –5.4

1.9 6.1

2.0 5.2

2.1 4.7

Emerging and Developing Asia China India

6.5 7.7 4.4

6.7 7.5 5.4

6.8 7.3 6.4

4.5 2.6 9.5

4.5 3.0 8.0

4.3 3.0 7.5

1.1 2.1 –2.0

1.2 2.2 –2.4

1.4 2.4 –2.5

... 4.1 ...

... 4.1 ...

... 4.1 ...

ASEAN-5 Indonesia Thailand Malaysia Philippines Vietnam

5.2 5.8 2.9 4.7 7.2 5.4

4.9 5.4 2.5 5.2 6.5 5.6

5.4 5.8 3.8 5.0 6.5 5.7

4.4 6.4 2.2 2.1 2.9 6.6

4.7 6.3 2.3 3.3 4.4 6.3

4.4 5.5 2.1 3.9 3.6 6.2

0.1 –3.3 –0.7 3.8 3.5 6.6

0.3 –3.0 0.2 4.0 3.2 4.3

0.3 –2.7 0.3 4.0 2.6 3.5

... 6.3 0.7 3.1 7.1 4.4

... 6.1 0.7 3.0 6.9 4.4

... 5.8 0.8 3.0 6.8 4.4

Other Emerging and Developing Asia5

6.2

6.7

7.1

6.8

6.6

6.4

–2.1

–1.4

–1.2

...

...

...

6.5

6.7

6.8

4.5

4.4

4.2

1.2

1.3

1.4

...

...

...

Asia Advanced Asia Japan Korea4 Australia Taiwan Province of China Hong Kong SAR

Memorandum Emerging Asia6

Note: Data for some countries are based on fiscal years. Please refer to Table F in the Statistical Appendix for a complete list of the reference periods for each country. 1Movements in consumer prices are shown as annual averages. Year-end to year-end changes can be found in Tables A6 and A7 in the Statistical Appendix. 2Percent of GDP. 3Percent. National definitions of unemployment may differ. 4Korea’s real GDP series is based on the reference year 2005. This does not reflect the revised national accounts released on March 26, 2014, after the WEO was finalized for publication. These comprehensive revisions include implementing the 2008 System of National Accounts and updating the reference year to 2010. As a result of these revisions, real GDP growth in 2013 was revised up to 3 percent from 2.8 percent. 5Other Emerging and Developing Asia comprises Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Fiji, Kiribati, Lao P.D.R., Maldives, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. 6Emerging Asia comprises the ASEAN-5 economies, China, and India.

has improved sentiment, but progress on rebalancing the economy remains tentative (see Box 1.2). Fiscal reforms are expected to increase the efficiency of the tax system, and ongoing financial reforms should improve the allocation of capital and efficiency of investment, although they could also create some near-term volatility in China’s capital markets (see Chapter 1). Although the inflation outlook is expected to remain benign, concerns about over­ investment and credit quality should mean a continuation of the withdrawal of monetary support for the economy through slower credit growth and higher real borrowing costs. •• India’s growth is expected to recover from 4.4 percent in 2013 to 5.4 percent in 2014, supported by slightly stronger global growth, improving export competitiveness, and implementation of recently approved invest-

ment projects. A pickup in exports in recent months and measures to curb gold imports have contributed to lowering the current account deficit. Policy measures to bolster capital flows have further helped reduce external vulnerabilities. Overall growth is expected to firm up on policies supporting investment and a confidence boost from recent policy actions, but will remain below trend. Consumer price inflation is expected to remain an important challenge, but should continue to move onto a downward trajectory. •• Developments in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) economies will remain uneven. Indonesia’s growth is projected to slow this year as subdued investor sentiment and higher borrowing costs weigh on the domestic economy, although the currency depreciation since mid-2013 should give exports a lift. In Thailand, the near-term outlook remains



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 59

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

clouded by the political situation; the economy is slowing as private demand weakens and public investment plans are delayed. Malaysia and the Philippines, however, are on a more positive trajectory, and growth is expected to remain robust in both countries. •• For developing Asia, the economic outlook is largely for continued solid growth with some additional benefit from the ongoing recovery in world trade. However, in Bangladesh, domestic demand is expected to recover in 2014 as activity normalizes following a year of political unrest. In addition, macroeconomic imbalances related to rapid credit growth and high current account deficits in Lao P.D.R. and Mongolia are an ongoing risk. Concerns linked to the external environment remain, but Asia is also facing various idiosyncratic domestic risks. Overall, there are three broad concerns confronting the region in the coming year (see Chapter 1)—over and above more idiosyncratic risks stemming from political tensions and uncertainties in several countries (for example, Thailand): •• Tightening global financial conditions: As growth in the United States improves, Asia will have to adapt to a steady increase in the global term premium. Economies with weaker fundamentals and greater reliance on global finance and trade would be most affected. In some cases, the impact could be amplified by domestic financial vulnerabilities arising from leverage in firms or households, thus negatively affecting the balance sheets of banks. •• Less effective Abenomics: In Japan, policy measures could prove less effective at boosting growth than envisaged if they fail to raise inflation expectations, nominal wages, exports, and private investment. Slower growth could have significant negative spillovers for economies with strong trade and foreign direct investment linkages with Japan, such as Indonesia and Thailand—especially if the risk of deflation returns. •• A sharper-than-envisaged slowdown and financial sector vulnerabilities in China: A sharper-thanenvisaged slowdown in China—for instance, from the implementation of structural reforms—would have significant spillovers for the rest of the region, especially in economies linked to the regional supply chain and commodity exporters. A near-term financial crisis is unlikely, but given recent rapid credit growth and the growth of shadow banking, there could be continued news of credit problems among the trusts or potential debt-servicing problems among local governments. These could spark 60

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

adverse financial market reaction both in China and globally, but they might also improve the pricing of risk and thus would be welcome. In addition to tackling near-term vulnerabilities, Asia should also continue to push ahead with structural reforms to enhance medium-term prospects. Generally, reforms should focus on removing structural impediments to growth in India and across the ASEAN economies through higher public and private investment (particularly in infrastructure). In China, reforms that liberalize the financial system and raise the cost of capital will be key to improving the allocation of credit and boosting productivity growth. In Japan, structural reforms are needed to achieve a sustainable pickup in growth and a durable exit from deflation.

Latin America and the Caribbean: Subdued Growth Economic activity in Latin America and the Caribbean is expected to remain in relatively low gear in 2014. The recovery in advanced economies should generate positive trade spillovers, but these are likely to be offset by lower commodity prices, tighter financial conditions, and supply bottlenecks in some countries. Growth in the Caribbean remains constrained by high debt levels and weak competitiveness. Policymakers need to focus on strengthening fiscal positions, addressing potential financial fragilities, and pressing ahead with growth-enhancing structural reforms to ease supply-side constraints. Economic activity across Latin America and the Caribbean stayed in relatively low gear last year. Full-year growth for 2013 is estimated to have been 2¾ percent, significantly less than the growth rates observed during previous years (Figure 2.6). Weak investment and subdued demand for the region’s exports held back activity, as did increasingly binding supply bottlenecks in a number of economies. Countries with stronger fundamentals were generally affected less by the market pressures in mid-2013 and early 2014 (see Chapter 1). Nonetheless, most currency, equity, and bond markets across Latin America and the Caribbean continue to trade well below the levels of 12 months ago, reflecting tighter external conditions and a reassessment of medium-term growth prospects. Looking ahead, regional growth is projected to remain subdued in 2014, at 2½ percent. The recovery in the advanced economies is expected to generate positive trade spillovers, but these are likely to be offset by

CHAPTER 2   COUNTRY AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES

the impact of lower commodity prices, tighter financial conditions, and supply-side constraints in some economies. However, there is considerable variation in the outlook for different parts of the region (Table 2.4): •• Growth in Mexico is expected to rebound to 3 percent this year, after an unexpectedly weak growth rate of 1.1 percent in 2013. Several of the earlier headwinds to activity have eased, with fiscal policy shifting to a more accommodative stance and U.S. demand picking up. Headline inflation is forecast to stay close to the upper end of the inflation target range in the near term, as a result of one-time effects of certain tax measures. However, core inflation and inflation expectations remain well anchored. Looking further ahead, Mexico’s ongoing economic reforms, especially in the energy and telecommunications sectors, herald higher potential growth for the medium term. •• Brazil’s economy is expected to remain in low gear, with growth slowing to 1.8 percent in 2014. Weighing on activity are domestic supply constraints, especially in infrastructure, and continued weak private investment growth, reflecting loss of competitiveness and low business confidence. Inflation is expected to remain in the upper part of the official target range, as limited spare capacity and the recent depreciation of the real keep up price pressures. The policy mix has been skewed toward monetary tightening over the past year, with fiscal policy (including policy lending) expected to maintain a broadly neutral stance in 2014. •• Among the other financially integrated economies, Colombia and Peru are forecast to continue expanding at fairly rapid rates. Activity in Chile is projected to moderate somewhat because private investment growth is decelerating markedly, including in the mining sector. In all three countries, domestic consumption remains brisk, supported by record-low unemployment rates and solid growth in real wages. Nonetheless, price pressures are projected to remain contained. •• Activity in Argentina and Venezuela is expected to slow markedly during 2014, though the outlook is subject to high uncertainty. Persistently loose macroeconomic policies have generated high inflation and a drain on official foreign exchange reserves. The gap between official and market exchange rates remains large in both countries, and has continued to widen in Venezuela. Administrative measures taken to manage domestic and external imbalances, including controls on prices, exchange rates, and trade, are weighing further on confidence and activity. Recently, both countries adjusted their exchange rates, and Argentina raised interest rates, but

Figure 2.6. Latin America and the Caribbean: Subdued Growth Growth in Latin America and the Caribbean eased further in 2013, amid subdued export performance and a continued slowdown in investment. Activity is expected to remain in low gear this year, and renewed turbulence in financial markets represents a downside risk, especially for economies with sizable external funding needs or domestic policy weaknesses. 50 1. Selected Latin American Countries: Contributions 40 to Quarterly Real GDP 30 Growth1 (percentage points) 20 10 0 Real GDP –10 Consumption –20 Investment –30 Net exports –40 2008 09 10 11 12 13: Q3 3. LA5: Change in Financial Market Indicators since 50 End-April 20132 (percent, unless 30 noted otherwise)

150

10

30

–10

–30 EMBI spread (basis points, right scale) Equity market US$ exchange rate

–30 –50 –70

8 6

Brazil Colombia Peru Chile Mexico

90

2. LAC: Nominal versus Real Growth of Goods Exports (year-over-year percent change)

0 Nominal Real 2007 08 09 10 11 12

–20 –40 13: Q4

4. LA5: Current Account Balance (billions of U.S. dollars, unless noted 80 otherwise) 4 Brazil Mexico 40 2 Rest of LA53 0 0 –40

–2

–80

–4

–120

–6

–150 –210

–200

5. LA6: 12-month CPI Inflation Minus Inflation Target (percentage points)

40 20

Percent of GDP: LA5 4 (right scale) LAC 5 (right scale) –160

–90

60

2007

09

11

13 14

6. LA5: Change in Interest Rates since End-2012 2 (percentage points)

4 2

Policy rate Ten-year bond rate

0 –2 –4 –6

Brazil Mexico Uruguay 2010

11

13 Feb. 14

–10

6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Average: Chile, Colombia, Peru 12

–8

–1 Brazil

Colombia Peru Chile Mexico

–2

Sources: Bloomberg, L.P.; Haver Analytics; IMF, International Financial Statistics database; national authorities; and IMF staff estimates. Note: CPI = consumer price index; EMBI = J.P. Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index; LAC = Latin America and the Caribbean. LA6 = Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay. LA5 = LA6 excluding Uruguay. 1 Weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parity as a share of group GDP for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru. 2 Data as of March 24, 2014. 3 Simple average for Chile, Colombia, and Peru. 4 Simple average. 5 Weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parity as a share of group GDP.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 61

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table 2.4. Selected Western Hemisphere Economies: Real GDP, Consumer Prices, Current Account Balance, and Unemployment (Annual percent change unless noted otherwise)

Consumer Prices1

Real GDP Projections

Current Account Balance2

Projections

Unemployment3

Projections

Projections

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

North America United States Canada Mexico

1.8 1.9 2.0 1.1

2.8 2.8 2.3 3.0

3.0 3.0 2.4 3.5

1.6 1.5 1.0 3.8

1.6 1.4 1.5 4.0

1.8 1.6 1.9 3.5

–2.3 –2.3 –3.2 –1.8

–2.2 –2.2 –2.6 –1.9

–2.5 –2.6 –2.5 –2.0

... 7.4 7.1 4.9

... 6.4 7.0 4.5

... 6.2 6.9 4.3

South America4 Brazil Argentina5,6 Colombia Venezuela Peru

3.2 2.3 4.3 4.3 1.0 5.0

2.3 1.8 0.5 4.5 –0.5 5.5

2.7 2.7 1.0 4.5 –1.0 5.8

8.1 6.2 10.6 2.0 40.7 2.8

... 5.9 ... 1.9 50.7 2.5

... 5.5 ... 2.9 38.0 2.1

–2.7 –3.6 –0.9 –3.3 2.7 –4.9

–2.8 –3.6 –0.5 –3.3 2.4 –4.8

–2.9 –3.7 –0.5 –3.2 1.8 –4.4

... 5.4 7.1 9.7 9.2 7.5

... 5.6 7.6 9.3 11.2 6.0

... 5.8 7.6 9.0 13.3 6.0

4.2 4.2 6.8 4.2 13.0

3.6 4.2 5.1 2.8 4.8

4.1 3.5 5.0 3.0 4.5

1.8 2.7 5.7 8.6 2.7

3.5 2.8 6.8 8.3 4.7

2.9 2.6 5.3 8.0 5.0

–3.4 –1.5 3.7 –5.9 0.9

–3.3 –2.4 3.7 –5.5 –0.9

–2.8 –3.1 2.4 –5.2 –1.6

5.9 4.7 6.4 6.3 5.4

6.1 5.0 6.3 6.8 5.5

6.2 5.0 6.2 6.9 5.5

Central America7

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.2

3.8

4.4

–6.9

–6.5

–6.2

...

...

...

Caribbean8

2.8

3.3

3.3

5.0

4.4

4.5

–3.7

–3.2

–3.2

...

...

...

Memorandum Latin America and the Caribbean9 Excluding Argentina

2.7 2.5

2.5 2.8

3.0 3.2

6.8 6.4

... 6.8

... 5.9

–2.7 –2.8

–2.7 –2.9

–2.8 –3.0

... ...

... ...

... ...

Eastern Caribbean Currency Union10

0.5

1.4

1.8

1.0

1.2

1.8

–17.6

–17.1

–16.7

...

...

...

Chile Ecuador Bolivia Uruguay Paraguay

Note: Data for some countries are based on fiscal years. Please refer to Table F in the Statistical Appendix for a complete list of the reference periods for each country. 1Movements in consumer prices are shown as annual averages. Year-end to year-end changes can be found in Tables A6 and A7 in the Statistical Appendix. 2Percent of GDP. 3Percent. National definitions of unemployment may differ. 4Includes Guyana and Suriname. See note 6 regarding consumer prices. 5The data for Argentina are officially reported data. The IMF has, however, issued a declaration of censure and called on Argentina to adopt remedial measures to address the quality of the official GDP data. Alternative data sources have shown significantly lower real growth than the official data since 2008. In this context, the Fund is also using alternative estimates of GDP growth for the surveillance of macroeconomic developments in Argentina. 6The data for Argentina are officially reported data. Consumer price data from January 2014 onwards reflect the new national CPI (IPCNu), which differs substantively from the preceding CPI (the CPI for the Greater Buenos Aires Area, CPI-GBA). Because of the differences in geographical coverage, weights, sampling, and methodology, the IPCNu data cannot be directly compared to the earlier CPI-GBA data. Because of this structural break in the data, staff forecasts for CPI inflation are not reported in the Spring 2014 World Economic Outlook. Following a declaration of censure by the IMF on February 1, 2013, the public release of a new national CPI by end-March 2014 was one of the specified actions in the IMF Executive Board’s December 2013 decision calling on Argentina to address the quality of its official CPI data. The Executive Board will review this issue again as per the calendar specified in December 2013 and in line with the procedures set forth in the Fund’s legal framework. 7Central America comprises Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. 8The Caribbean comprises Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago. 9Latin America and the Caribbean comprises Mexico and economies from the Caribbean, Central America, and South America. See note 6. 10Eastern Caribbean Currency Union comprises Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines, as well as Anguilla and Montserrat, which are not IMF members.

more significant policy changes are needed to stave off a disorderly adjustment. •• Bolivia’s economy expanded strongly last year and is expected to remain above potential in 2014, driven by a sharp increase in hydrocarbon exports and accommodative macroeconomic policies. Growth in Paraguay also rebounded in 2013 as the agricultural sector recovered from a severe drought. •• Growth in Central America is expected to remain broadly unchanged, at 4.0 percent, as the boost from the pickup in economic activity in the United 62

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

States is offset by fiscal policy tightening in some countries, the effects of a disease on coffee production, reduced financing from Venezuela, and other country-specific factors. •• The Caribbean continues to face a challenging economic environment, marked by low growth, high indebtedness, and financial fragilities. Nonetheless, activity is expected to recover modestly this year in the tourism-dependent economies as tourism flows firm up. Risks to the outlook remain considerable. On the upside, a stronger-than-expected pickup in U.S.

CHAPTER 2   COUNTRY AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES

growth could lift the region’s exports, although positive trade spillovers would be concentrated in Mexico and a few Central American and Caribbean countries. On the downside, a faster-than-anticipated rise in U.S. interest rates could cause fresh financial headwinds, especially if capital flows were to reverse abruptly. In addition, further downward pressure on commodity prices caused by a sharper-than-expected investment slowdown in China or other factors would be a drag on the commodity exporters in the region. Against this backdrop, policymakers across Latin America and the Caribbean should focus on improving domestic fundamentals to reduce their economies’ vulnerability to external shocks. A gradual reduction in fiscal deficits and public debt levels remains appropriate for countries with large fiscal imbalances, as well as those with limited spare capacity and elevated external current account deficits. Further improvements in the transparency and credibility of fiscal frameworks would also help strengthen investor confidence. In the same vein, it is critical to ensure strong prudential oversight of the financial sector and preemptively address fragilities that could come to the fore if interest rates were to rise sharply or growth to slow further. Exchange rate flexibility has already helped countries adjust to last year’s financial market turmoil and should remain an important buffer in the event of renewed volatility. Meanwhile, monetary policy easing remains the first line of defense against a further growth slowdown in economies with low inflation and anchored inflation expectations. In countries with persistent inflation pressures, which could be exacerbated by further exchange rate depreciation, both monetary and fiscal policy should focus on anchoring inflation expectations. Structural reforms to raise productivity and strengthen competitiveness are also crucial. Above all, the region needs to invest more, and more effectively, in infrastructure and human capital; address obstacles to greater labor force participation in the formal sector; and improve the business and regulatory environment.

Commonwealth of Independent States: Subdued Prospects Growth in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) remains subdued despite robust consumption, reflecting weak investment, political tensions, and policy uncertainty in some cases. Geopolitical tensions are casting a pall on part of this region. By contrast, growth is

brisk in the Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA). Policies should focus on implementing reforms and increasing investment to raise growth potential, and for some countries, correcting serious imbalances is another priority. Growth in the European CIS economies continued to soften in the second half of 2013 and was further slowed by geopolitical tensions in early 2014 (Figure 2.7). Russia’s growth remained subdued during 2013. Despite strong consumption, activity was constrained by weak investment and the slow global recovery. A bumper harvest and resilient private consumption lifted Ukraine from recession in the fourth quarter of 2013, but large domestic and external imbalances have persisted. Volatility in capital flows increased sharply from the summer onward as concerns over Federal Reserve tapering intensified. In early 2014 domestic political turmoil and the takeover of the Crimea by Russia adversely affected Ukraine’s economy and sent spillover waves across the region. The near-term growth outlook for Russia, already weakened, has been further affected by these geopolitical tensions. As the ruble faced downward pressures, with capital outflows intensifying, the central bank temporarily reverted to discretion and increased its foreign exchange intervention. Growth in the CCA region increased by about 1 percentage point to about 6½ percent in 2013, despite the slowdown in Russia, one of the region’s main trading partners. Growth in the European CIS economies will remain weak, while the near-term outlook for the CCA is expected to soften to 6.2 percent in 2014 (Table 2.5). •• Russia’s GDP growth is projected to be subdued at 1.3 percent in 2014. The fallout from emerging market financial turbulence and geopolitical tensions relating to Ukraine are headwinds on the back of already weak activity. •• In Ukraine, output will likely drop significantly as the acute economic and political shocks take their toll on investment and consumption. Toward the end of 2014, net exports and investment recovery should bring back moderate growth. •• Belarus’s growth will remain lackluster at 1.6 percent in 2014. In Moldova, GDP growth will moderate to 3½ percent in 2014, mainly reflecting the expected slowdown in agriculture. •• Strengthening external demand as well as recovery of domestic demand in Armenia and Georgia owing to fiscal easing, and increased hydrocarbon exports from Turkmenistan on past expansions in productive capacity, will support economic activity in the CCA,

International Monetary Fund | April 2014 63

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 2.7. Commonwealth of Independent States: Subdued Prospects Growth in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) has continued to soften, reflecting further deceleration in Russia and weak external demand elsewhere, and capital flows to the region have declined. Policies should focus on implementing stronger reforms to raise growth potential, and for some countries, correcting serious imbalances. 20 1. European CIS: Real GDP Growth1 (year-over-year percent change) 10

20

2. Real GDP Growth (percent)

15 10

0

5 Private consumption Public consumption Investment Net exports Real GDP growth

–10 –20 –30

2009

10

11

12

13: 2004 06 Q3

8 3. Output Gap (percent of potential GDP) 6 Russia 4 Ukraine 2 0 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2006 08 10 12 14

0

CIS Russia NEI NEE excluding Russia 08

10

12

4. Bond Country Flows2 (percent of GDP)

–5 –10 –15

14

0.04 0.02 0.00 –0.02 –0.04

Russia Ukraine

–0.06

2008 09 10 11 12

–0.08 Mar. 14

6. Fiscal Balance3 (percent of fiscal year GDP) CIS Russia NEI NEE excluding Russia

25 5. Inflation (percent) 20 15 10 5

CIS NEI

0 2004 06

Russia NEE excluding Russia 08

10

12

14

2004 06

08

10

12

14

18 15 12 9 6 3 0 –3 –6 –9

Sources: EPFR Global/Haver Analytics; Haver Analytics; and IMF staff estimates. Note: Net energy exporters (NEE) = Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Net energy importers (NEI) = Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, Tajikistan, Ukraine. All country group aggregates are weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parity as a share of group GDP. Projections for Ukraine are excluded due to the ongoing crisis. 1 European CIS includes Belarus, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. 2 Data through March 18, 2014. 3 General government net lending/borrowing except in the case of NEI, for which it is the overall balance.

64

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

despite a temporary weakening of oil output growth in Kazakhstan and flat gold exports from the Kyrgyz Republic. Inflation will be broadly stable at about 6 percent in 2014, but remains high in some economies (Table 2.5). In Russia, it exceeded the target range in 2013 partly because of a temporary uptick in food prices and ruble depreciation and will likely remain higher than the 2014 midpoint target. In Kazakhstan, the recent devaluation of the tenge will add to inflation pressure this year. Inflation has declined in Belarus but will remain in double digits under current policies, whereas it is expected to remain within central banks’ targets in most of the CCA countries. In Georgia, inflation is expected to come close to the 5 percent target in 2015, on a pickup in domestic demand and some recent currency depreciation. In Uzbekistan, inflation will continue to linger in the double digits because of increases in administered prices, currency depreciation, and strong credit growth. The balance of risks remains to the downside, considering rising geopolitical uncertainties following the takeover of the Crimea by Russia, tightening financial conditions, and volatile capital flows. Intensification of sanctions and countersanctions could affect trade flows and financial assets. Contagion could spread through real (trade, remittances) and financial (asset valuation, banking) channels. Even in the absence of sanctions, lower growth in Russia and Ukraine could have a significant impact on neighboring economies over the medium term. Softer commodity prices (see the Commodity Special Feature in Chapter 1) would delay recovery in Ukraine and hamper growth in Russia and in the CCA hydrocarbon exporters. However, countries with large foreign asset buffers would be less affected. Growth in the CCA oil importers would also weaken if growth prospects in emerging markets were to be revised down, with adverse effects on trade, remittances, and project funding, especially considering limited external and fiscal buffers. A slowdown in Russia owing to unsettled conditions would affect the CCA through both real sector and financial channels, particularly if energy supply is disrupted and oil and gas prices rise. On the upside, a stronger recovery in advanced economies could keep oil and gas prices high, benefiting both the oil and gas exporters and the commodity importers through a stronger-thanexpected recovery in Russia. Policies should aim to preserve macroeconomic stability and boost growth potential with ambitious reforms. To manage the potential effects of emerging market

CHAPTER 2   COUNTRY AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES

Table 2.5. Commonwealth of Independent States: Real GDP, Consumer Prices, Current Account Balance, and Unemployment (Annual percent change unless noted otherwise)

Consumer Prices1

Real GDP Projections

Current Account Balance2

Projections

Unemployment3

Projections

Projections

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

2.1

2.3

3.1

6.4

6.6

6.1

0.7

1.9

1.5

...

...

...

Net Energy Exporters Russia Kazakhstan Uzbekistan Azerbaijan Turkmenistan

2.2 1.3 6.0 8.0 5.8 10.2

2.2 1.3 5.7 7.0 5.0 10.7

3.1 2.3 6.1 6.5 4.6 12.5

6.7 6.8 5.8 11.2 2.4 6.6

6.2 5.8 9.2 11.0 3.5 5.7

5.7 5.3 7.5 11.0 4.0 6.0

1.9 1.6 0.1 1.7 19.7 –3.3

2.5 2.1 1.9 2.2 15.0 –1.1

1.9 1.6 2.0 1.9 9.9 1.3

... 5.5 5.2 ... 6.0 ...

... 6.2 5.2 ... 6.0 ...

... 6.2 5.2 ... 6.0 ...

Net Energy Importers Ukraine4 Belarus Georgia5 Armenia Tajikistan

1.2 0.0 0.9 3.2 3.2 7.4

2.8 ... 1.6 5.0 4.3 6.2

3.5 ... 2.5 5.0 4.5 5.7

4.9 –0.3 18.3 –0.5 5.8 5.0

12.0 ... 16.8 4.0 5.0 5.4

11.4 ... 15.8 4.6 4.0 5.9

–8.9 –9.2 –9.8 –6.1 –8.4 –1.9

–9.0 ... –10.0 –7.9 –7.2 –2.1

–7.5 ... –7.8 –7.3 –6.8 –2.3

... 7.4 0.6 ... 18.5 ...

... ... 0.6 ... 18.0 ...

... ... 0.6 ... 17.9 ...

10.5 8.9

4.4 3.5

4.9 4.5

6.6 4.6

6.1 5.5

6.6 5.9

–12.6 –4.8

–15.5 –5.9

–14.3 –6.4

7.6 5.2

7.6 5.6

7.5 5.3

6.6 7.1

6.2 6.0

6.4 5.8

6.0 7.7

7.7 8.3

7.1 8.4

2.6 –2.2

3.0 –2.3

2.4 –2.2

... ...

... ...

... ...

6.8

6.4

6.7

6.4

8.1

7.4

3.6

4.2

3.4

...

...

...

Commonwealth of Independent States

Kyrgyz Republic Moldova Memorandum Caucasus and Central Asia6 Low-Income CIS Countries7 Net Energy Exporters Excluding Russia

Note: Data for some countries are based on fiscal years. Please refer to Table F in the Statistical Appendix for a complete list of the reference periods for each country. 1Movements in consumer prices are shown as annual averages. Year-end to year-end changes can be found in Table A7 in the Statistical Appendix. 2Percent of GDP. 3Percent. National definitions of unemployment may differ. 4Projections for Ukraine are excluded due to the ongoing crisis. 5Georgia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure. 6Includes Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. 7Low-Income CIS countries comprise Armenia, Georgia, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.

financial turmoil and geopolitical tensions, Russia should continue to rely on exchange rate flexibility to facilitate adjustment while avoiding excessive volatility, keep monetary policy focused on anchoring inflation, and maintain a broadly neutral structural fiscal policy while allowing automatic stabilizers to work. Fiscal consolidation and tapering of quasi-fiscal losses in the energy sector are critical for economic stabilization in Ukraine. Although financial support from Russia could provide Belarus with some short-term breathing space, steps to reduce wage and credit growth and to increase exchange rate flexibility should be taken expeditiously to narrow imbalances. While remaining committed to medium-term consolidation, Armenia and Georgia are planning some fiscal stimulus in 2014. Structural reforms to improve the business environment, diversify the economy, and enhance external competitiveness are also needed across the region for strong growth to last and become more inclusive in the years ahead.

The Middle East and North Africa: Turning the Corner? Growth was tepid across the Middle East and North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (MENAP) in 2013, as declines in oil production and weak private investment growth amid continued political transitions and conflict offset increases in public spending. Economic activity will strengthen in 2014–15 as export growth improves in line with trading partners’ recoveries and public and private investment accelerates. However, weak confidence, high unemployment, low competitiveness, and in many cases, large public deficits will continue to weigh on economic prospects in the region. Risks are tilted to the downside on slow progress in reforms during complex political transitions. Reforms to raise and diversify potential output and improve competitiveness and resilience are essential for achieving sustainable and inclusive growth and creating jobs.

International Monetary Fund | April 2014 65

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Oil-Exporting Economies

Figure 2.8. Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan: Turning a Corner? Growth was tepid across the Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (MENAP) in 2013, as high public spending was offset by declines in oil supply and weak non-oil exports amid continued sociopolitical upheaval. Robust non-oil activity on high public spending and recovery in oil production, however, should accelerate activity this year. 2.4 2. MENAPOI: Political 1 Environment 2.2 Consumer Political confidence stability 2.0

12 1. Real GDP Growth (percent) 10 MENAPOE: Oil GDP 8 MENAPOE: Non-oil GDP 6 MENAPOI: Overall GDP 4 2 0 –2 –4 2011 12 13 14

1.8 1.6 15

1.4

2010

11

12

66 64 62 60 58 56 54 52 50 Feb. 14

5. MENAPOE: Break-Even Oil Prices, 2014 2 (U.S. dollars a barrel)

External break-even price

250 200

LBY

150

WEO oil price IRQ DZA ARE OMN QAT SAU BHRIRN KWT

100 50 0

0

YEM

6. MENAPOI: Fiscal Deficits vs. Reserves 3 16 EGY 12 JOR LBN 8 MAR 4 TUN PAK DJI SDN 0 MRTAFG

50 100 150 200 250 –4 Fiscal break-even price

–4 4 8 12 16 Reserves, 2013 (months of imports)

Average fiscal deficit, 2010–13 (percent of GDP)

13 3. MENAPOE: Crude Oil 4. MENAPOI: Exports and FDI 180 Production (index, 2009 = 100; four12 150 (million barrels a day) quarter moving average) 11 10 120 9 Exports of goods 8 90 FDI 7 6 60 Other GCC Saudi Arabia 5 Non-GCC 4 30 Nov. 10 Nov. 11 Nov. 12 Feb. 14 2010 11 12 13:Q3

0

Sources: Haver Analytics; IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics database; International Energy Agency; national authorities; PRS Group, Inc., International Country Risk Guide; and IMF staff estimates. Note: MENAP oil exporters (MENAPOE) = Algeria (DZA), Bahrain (BHR), Iran (IRN), Iraq (IRQ), Kuwait (KWT), Libya (LBY), Oman (OMN), Qatar (QAT), Saudi Arabia (SAU), United Arab Emirates (ARE), and Yemen (YEM); MENAP oil importers (MENAPOI) = Afghanistan (AFG), Djibouti (DJI), Egypt (EGY), Jordan (JOR), Lebanon (LBN), Mauritania (MRT), Morocco (MAR), Pakistan (PAK), Sudan (SDN), Syria (SYR), and Tunisia (TUN). FDI = foreign direct investment; GCC = Gulf Cooperation Council. Data from 2011 onward exclude SYR. Country group aggregates for panel 1 and exports of goods in panel 4 are weighted by purchasing-power-parity GDP as a share of group GDP; panel 2 shows simple averages (excludes AFG, DJI, and MRT); panel 3 and FDI (for EGY, MAR, PAK, and TUN) in panel 4 show sums. 1 Consumer confidence on the left scale and political stability on the right scale. Higher values of the consumer confidence measure (political stability rating) signify greater consumer confidence (political stability). 2 Prices at which the government budget and current account are balanced, respectively. YEM data are for 2013. 3 Bubble size is relative to each country’s 2013 purchasing-power-parity GDP.

66

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

For MENAP oil exporters, economic activity moderated in 2013 to about 2 percent, less than half the growth rate experienced in recent years. Growth in the non-oil economy was supported by sustained public investment in infrastructure and private credit expansion. However, tepid global oil demand, increased oil supply from the United States, and regional oil supply disruptions—mainly those in Libya, where a wave of instability caused oil output to fall to about one-third of capacity—slowed growth in the oil sectors (Figure 2.8; also see the Commodity Special Feature in Chapter 1). As oil output stabilizes alongside strengthening global activity and sustained consumption and investment, total GDP growth is expected to rise to about 3½ percent in 2014 (Table 2.6). In the United Arab Emirates, where real estate prices are rising at a fast pace, the award of World Expo 2020 has further strengthened growth prospects. Likewise, Qatar has embarked on a large public investment program to advance economic diversification and prepare for the Fédération Internationale de Football Association 2022 World Cup. Softening food prices are expected to contain inflation at less than 5 percent in most oil exporters. A notable exception is the Islamic Republic of Iran, which is experiencing stagflation despite some recent improvements in the outlook resulting from temporary easing of some international sanctions. Falling oil revenues are already causing fiscal surpluses to decline, to 2.6 percent in 2014, despite withdrawal of the fiscal stimulus initiated by many countries during the global recession and the Arab Spring. Large current account surpluses are also expected to decline because of lower oil revenues (Table 2.6). Although fiscal positions have been weakening across the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) economies over the past several years, most still have substantial buffers to withstand large shocks to oil prices, provided the shocks are short lived. Risks to the near-term outlook for oil exporters have declined. The recent interim agreement between the P5+1 and Iran has eased geopolitical tensions, and the potential for further large oil supply disruptions in other non-GCC countries now appears more limited. Fasterthan-expected growth in the U.S. oil supply and lingering risks of weaker-than-expected global oil demand because of a slowdown in either emerging markets or

CHAPTER 2   COUNTRY AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES

Table 2.6. Selected Middle East and North African Economies: Real GDP, Consumer Prices, Current Account Balance, and Unemployment (Annual percent change unless noted otherwise)

Consumer Prices1

Real GDP Projections

Current Account Balance2

Projections

Unemployment3

Projections

Projections

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

2.2

3.2

4.5

10.5

8.4

8.3

10.3

8.7

6.6

...

...

...

2.0 –1.7 3.8 2.7 4.8 6.1

3.4 1.5 4.1 4.3 4.4 5.9

4.6 2.3 4.2 4.1 4.2 7.1

11.3 35.2 3.5 3.3 1.1 3.1

8.4 23.0 3.0 4.0 2.2 3.6

8.3 22.0 3.2 4.0 2.5 3.5

14.1 8.1 17.4 0.4 14.9 29.2

11.9 5.2 15.8 0.5 13.3 25.4

9.7 2.8 13.3 –1.3 12.4 20.5

... 12.9 5.5 9.8 ... ...

... 14.0 ... 9.4 ... ...

... 14.6 ... 9.0 ... ...

Kuwait Iraq

0.8 4.2

2.6 5.9

3.0 6.7

2.7 1.9

3.4 1.9

4.0 3.0

38.8 0.0

37.4 1.0

34.2 1.2

2.1 ...

2.1 ...

2.1 ...

Oil Importers5 Egypt Morocco Tunisia Sudan Lebanon Jordan

2.7 2.1 4.5 2.7 3.4 1.0 3.3

2.7 2.3 3.9 3.0 2.7 1.0 3.5

4.2 4.1 4.9 4.5 4.6 2.5 4.0

7.9 6.9 1.9 6.1 36.5 3.2 5.5

8.5 10.7 2.5 5.5 20.4 2.0 3.0

8.2 11.2 2.5 5.0 14.3 2.0 2.4

–6.4 –2.1 –7.4 –8.4 –10.6 –16.2 –11.1

–5.5 –1.3 –6.6 –6.7 –8.2 –15.8 –12.9

–6.4 –4.6 –5.8 –5.7 –7.1 –13.9 –9.3

... 13.0 9.2 16.7 9.6 ... 12.2

... 13.0 9.1 16.0 8.4 ... 12.2

... 13.1 9.0 15.0 8.0 ... 12.2

2.4 3.6 3.6 3.3 2.0 2.1

3.2 3.1 3.2 3.2 2.9 2.2

4.4 3.7 4.5 3.4 7.5 3.9

10.1 7.4 7.4 1.5 3.3 6.4

8.5 8.8 6.1 1.6 3.9 9.3

8.3 9.0 5.5 2.0 4.0 9.7

9.5 –1.0 2.8 2.5 –3.2 –4.7

8.0 –0.9 3.3 1.4 –6.1 –4.3

6.1 –1.0 –0.3 1.7 –5.8 –6.1

... 6.7 ... 6.4 ... ...

... 6.9 ... 6.7 ... ...

... 7.2 ... 6.5 ... ...

Middle East and North Africa Oil Exporters4 Iran Saudi Arabia Algeria United Arab Emirates Qatar

Memorandum Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan Pakistan Afghanistan Israel6 Maghreb7 Mashreq8

Note: Data for some countries are based on fiscal years. Please refer to Table F in the Statistical Appendix for a complete list of reference periods for each country. in consumer prices are shown as annual averages. Year-end to year-end changes can be found in Tables A6 and A7 in the Statistical Appendix. 2Percent of GDP. 3Percent. National definitions of unemployment may differ. 4Includes Bahrain, Libya, Oman, and Yemen. 5Includes Djibouti and Mauritania. Excludes Syria due to the uncertain political situation. 6Israel, which is not a member of the region, is included for reasons of geography. Note that Israel is not included in the regional aggregates. 7The Maghreb comprises Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia. 8The Mashreq comprises Egypt, Jordan, and Lebanon. Excludes Syria due to the uncertain political situation. 1Movements

advanced economies present downside risks to oil prices and GCC production. Policy priorities continue to be centered on diversifying these economies to reduce dependence on oil, increase employment opportunities in the private sector for nationals, and enhance resilience to shocks. Reforms to foster entrepreneurship, along with public wage and employment restraint, are key. Fiscal policy needs to manage demand pressures, preserve wealth for future generations, and ensure efficient public capital spending. Reduction of energy subsidies, currently ranging from 4 percent to 12½ percent of GDP, would curtail energy consumption and free up resources for targeted social spending and to help finance public investment. Eliminating subsidies should be gradual and would require an effective communications strategy to broaden public support and reduce the risk of policy reversals.

Oil-Importing Economies In 2013, three years after the Arab Spring, recovery in the MENAP oil importers remained sluggish. Uncertainties arising from political transitions and social unrest and drag from unresolved structural problems continued to weigh on confidence and economic activity. Despite supportive fiscal and monetary policies, growth has hovered around 3 percent since 2011—half the rate needed to reduce the region’s high and persistent unemployment and improve living standards. The outlook is for continued slow recovery, with growth lingering around 3 percent in 2014 before rising to 4 percent in 2015. Export growth will strengthen gradually as internal demand in trading partner countries, particularly those in Europe, ­recovers. Recent



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 67

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

reforms set in motion to relax supply-side constraints and enhance competitiveness should also help improve confidence, spurring economic activity and foreign direct investment. However, domestic demand will remain subdued because of lingering policy uncertainty. In some countries, fiscal stimulus will turn into a slight fiscal drag, because consolidation is necessary to arrest erosion of fiscal and external buffers. Inflation will rise slightly to 8.5 percent, with upward pressure from energy subsidy phase-outs partly offset by declining global commodity prices (Table 2.6). Beyond these broad trends, country-specific outlooks are as follows: •• In Egypt, growth in 2014 is expected to be broadly the same as in 2013, as political uncertainty will continue to weigh on tourism and foreign direct investment, notwithstanding the fiscal stimulus supported by GCC financing. Large imbalances will persist unless structural reforms and fiscal consolidation are initiated. •• The Syrian conflict continues to weigh heavily on Lebanon, with intensification of sectarian violence, hampered confidence, and added pressures to a deteriorating fiscal position—leaving growth flat in 2014. The conflict has also significantly increased the fiscal adjustment and financing burden in Jordan. •• In Pakistan, faster-than-expected manufacturing sector recovery, reflecting improved electricity supply and recent exchange rate depreciation, is being partly offset by weak cotton production. •• Tunisian growth is expected to strengthen, spurred by improved confidence from a new constitution, reduced security tensions, and preelection reforms. •• Economic activity in Morocco will slow, albeit increasingly driven by the nonagricultural sectors, owing to reforms supporting economic diversification. The recovery remains fragile, and risks are to the downside. Political transitions, intensification of social and security tensions, and spillovers from regional conflicts could damage confidence and threaten macroeconomic stability. Lower-than-expected growth in emerging market economies, Europe, or the GCC could slow exports. Domestic interest rates may rise in countries with limited exchange rate flexibility if global financial conditions tighten sharply, although reliance on official external financing and bond guarantees should limit these effects. On the upside, faster progress in political transitions and economic reforms could boost confidence and growth. A lasting improvement in economic prospects will require structural reforms, from lowering the cost of 68

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

doing business to deepening trade integration with international and regional markets. Many of these reforms are difficult to implement during political transitions. However, some measures can be pursued immediately and should help improve confidence: streamlining business regulations, training the unemployed and unskilled, and improving customs procedures, for example. Macroeconomic policies need to balance the dual goals of bolstering growth and ensuring economic stability. Broadening the tax base in some countries as a means of mobilizing resources to finance higher social spending and public investment would help. Increases in public investment and social support to the poor can also help boost domestic demand. Given large fiscal deficits and debt, these public expenditures have to be financed by reorienting spending away from generalized subsidies that benefit the rich. Fiscal consolidation can proceed at a gradual pace, if financing allows, anchored in credible medium-term plans to ensure continued willingness of investors to provide adequate financing. Accommodative monetary policy, and in some cases greater exchange rate flexibility, can soften the near-term adverse impact of fiscal consolidation on growth, while strengthening external buffers.

Sub-Saharan Africa: Accelerating Growth Growth in sub-Saharan Africa remains robust and is expected to accelerate in 2014. Tight global financing conditions or a slowdown in emerging market economies could generate some external headwinds, especially for middle-income countries with large external linkages, producers of natural resources, and frontier economies.1 However, some of the most salient risks are domestic, stemming from policy missteps in various countries, security threats, and domestic political uncertainties ahead of elections. Policymakers should avoid a procyclical fiscal stance in fast-growing countries, tackle emerging risks in countries facing major fiscal imbalances, address vulnerabilities in those countries more exposed to external shocks, and foster sustainable and inclusive growth. Growth in sub-Saharan Africa remained strong in 2013 at 4.8 percent, virtually unchanged from 2012, underpinned by improved agricultural production and 1Frontier market economies in sub-Saharan Africa include Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia.

CHAPTER 2   COUNTRY AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES

Table 2.7. Selected Sub-Saharan African Economies: Real GDP, Consumer Prices, Current Account Balance, and Unemployment (Annual percent change unless noted otherwise)

Consumer Prices1

Real GDP Projections

Current Account Balance2

Projections

Unemployment3

Projections

Projections

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

4.9

5.4

5.5

6.3

6.1

5.9

–3.6

–3.6

–3.9

...

...

...

5.8 6.3 4.1 –4.9 5.9 4.5

6.7 7.1 5.3 –2.4 5.7 8.1

6.7 7.0 5.5 –8.3 6.3 5.8

7.4 8.5 8.8 3.2 0.5 4.6

6.9 7.3 7.7 3.9 5.6 2.4

6.6 7.0 7.7 3.7 2.5 2.4

3.9 4.7 5.0 –12.0 10.6 –1.2

3.3 4.9 2.2 –10.2 6.9 2.0

2.1 4.0 –0.4 –10.9 4.5 0.1

... ... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ... ...

Middle-Income Countries5 South Africa Ghana Cameroon Côte d’Ivoire Botswana Senegal

3.0 1.9 5.4 4.6 8.1 3.9 4.0

3.4 2.3 4.8 4.8 8.2 4.1 4.6

3.7 2.7 5.4 5.1 7.7 4.4 4.8

5.8 5.8 11.7 2.1 2.6 5.8 0.8

5.9 6.0 13.0 2.5 1.2 3.8 1.4

5.5 5.6 11.1 2.5 2.5 3.4 1.7

–5.7 –5.8 –13.2 –4.4 –1.2 –0.4 –9.3

–5.1 –5.4 –10.6 –3.5 –2.2 0.4 –7.5

–4.9 –5.3 –7.8 –3.6 –2.0 0.2 –6.6

... 24.7 ... ... ... ... ...

... 24.7 ... ... ... ... ...

... 24.7 ... ... ... ... ...

Low-Income Countries6 Ethiopia Kenya Tanzania Uganda Democratic Republic of the Congo Mozambique

6.5 9.7 5.6 7.0 6.0 8.5

6.8 7.5 6.3 7.2 6.4 8.7

6.8 7.5 6.3 7.0 6.8 8.5

6.0 8.0 5.7 7.9 5.4 0.8

5.5 6.2 6.6 5.2 6.3 2.4

5.5 7.8 5.5 5.0 6.3 4.1

–11.8 –6.1 –8.3 –14.3 –11.7 –9.9

–11.8 –5.4 –9.6 –13.9 –12.6 –7.9

–11.7 –6.0 –7.8 –12.9 –12.1 –7.2

... ... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ... ...

7.1

8.3

7.9

4.2

5.6

5.6

–41.9

–42.8

–43.2

...

...

...

4.7

5.4

5.4

6.4

6.1

5.9

–3.6

–3.6

–4.0

...

...

...

Sub-Saharan Africa Oil Exporters4 Nigeria Angola Equatorial Guinea Gabon Republic of Congo

Memorandum Sub-Saharan Africa Excluding South Sudan

Note: Data for some countries are based on fiscal years. Please refer to Table F in the Statistical Appendix for a complete list of the reference periods for each country. 1Movements in consumer prices are shown as annual averages. Year-end to year-end changes can be found in Table A7 in the Statistical Appendix. 2Percent of GDP. 3Percent. National definitions of unemployment may differ. 4Includes Chad and South Sudan. 5Includes Cabo Verde, Lesotho, Mauritius, Namibia, Seychelles, Swaziland, and Zambia. 6Includes Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Comoros, Eritrea, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo, and Zimbabwe.

investment in natural resources and infrastructure. Growth was robust throughout the region, especially in low-income and fragile states.2 Outside these groups, in Nigeria growth remained strong owing to relatively high oil prices, despite security problems in the north and large-scale oil theft in the first half of 2013. In contrast, growth in South Africa continued to decelerate, constrained by tense industrial relations in the mining sector, tight electricity supply, anemic private investment, and weak consumer and investor confidence (Table 2.7). 2Fragile states include Burundi, the Central African Republic, the Comoros, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Eritrea, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, São Tomé and Príncipe, Togo, and Zimbabwe. This list does not include some fragile countries where oil sales account for a major share of exports and government revenue, which are classified as oil exporters.

Inflation continued to abate, with a few exceptions (Figure 2.9). The currencies of South Africa and some frontier market economies weakened, reflecting tightening global monetary conditions and, in some instances, weak external or fiscal balances (Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, Zambia). Because of high fiscal deficits, a few countries’ credit ratings were downgraded, putting additional pressure on yields, and some countries postponed sovereign bond issuance. Growth is projected to accelerate to about 5½ percent in 2014, reflecting positive domestic supply-side developments and the strengthening global recovery: •• In South Africa, growth is forecast to rise moderately, driven by improvements in external demand, but risks are to the downside. (See Chapter 1 for details.) •• Nigerian growth is projected to rebound by 0.8 percentage point, as major oil pipelines are repaired

International Monetary Fund | April 2014 69

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 2.9. Sub-Saharan Africa: Accelerating Growth In 2013, investments in natural resources and infrastructure and good harvests sustained robust growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Inflation continued to abate, but fiscal deficits widened, driven by increased expenditure on investment and wages, contributing to a worsening of current account balances. Growth is projected to accelerate in 2014, helped by improved domestic supply and a favorable global environment. In the face of significant domestic and external downside risks, countries in the region should improve their resilience to shocks by strengthening their fiscal balances and increasing their budget flexibility. 30 1. SSA: Contributions to Output Growth1 (percent) 26 Private Public 22 consumption consumption 18 Investment Net exports 14 Discrepancy GDP growth 10 6 2 –2 –6 2004 06 08 10 12 14 30 3. Current Account Balance (percent of GDP) 25 SSA 20 Oil exporters 15 MICs 10 LICs 5 0 –5 –10 –15 2004 06 08 10 12 14 35 5. Inflation2 (year-over-year percent change) 30 SSA 25 Oil exporters MICs 20 LICs 15

2. Real Output Growth (percent) Oil exporters MICs LICs

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

2004 06

08

10

12

14

4. Terms of Trade (index; 2004 = 100) SSA Oil exporters MICs LICs

200 180 160 140 120 100

2004 06

08

10

12

14

80

20

6. General Government Fiscal Balance3 (percent of GDP) SSA LICs Oil exporters MICs

15 10 5 0

10

–5

5 0

–2

2007

09

11

13

15

2004 06

08

10

12

14

–10

Sources: Haver Analytics; IMF, International Financial Statistics database; and IMF staff estimates. Note: LIC = low-income country (SSA); MIC = middle-income country (SSA). SSA = sub-Saharan Africa. See Table 2.7 for country groupings and the Statistical Appendix for country group aggregation methodology. 1 Liberia, South Sudan, and Zimbabwe are excluded because of data limitations. 2 Because of data limitations, the following are excluded: South Sudan from oil exporters; Eritrea and Zimbabwe from LICs. 3 General government includes the central government, state governments, local governments, and social security funds.

70

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

and production in the non-oil sectors continues to expand. Other oil producers are also expected to see a significant growth pickup. •• Growth is also expected to accelerate in other countries, including several fragile states, in the wake of an improved domestic political and security situation (Mali), massive investments in infrastructure and mining (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Niger), and maturing investments (Mozambique). Moderate food prices and prudent monetary policies should facilitate further declines in inflation in much of the region, and fiscal balances are projected to improve by about ½ percent of GDP on average. Nevertheless, the average current account deficit is not expected to narrow, owing to relatively tepid prospects for commodity prices (see the Commodity Special Feature in Chapter 1) and demand from emerging market economies, and to continuing high levels of foreigndirect-investment-related imports. In several countries, the largest downside risks are domestic, including policy uncertainty, deteriorating security conditions, and industrial tensions. External risks are particularly important for natural resource exporters, which could suffer from a slowdown in emerging markets and a shifting pattern in China from investment- to consumption-led growth. In addition, they are important for countries with external market access, such as South Africa and frontier markets, which are most exposed to a reversal of portfolio flows if global financial conditions tighten further. To avoid a procyclical fiscal stance and increase their resilience to shocks, fast-growing economies in the region should take advantage of the growth momentum to strengthen their fiscal balances. In a few cases in which deficits have become large or public debt is at high levels, fiscal consolidation needs to be pursued to ensure continued macroeconomic stability, and in many countries mobilizing resources for high-value spending remains a priority. Throughout the region, urgent requirements include improving the efficiency of public expenditure; investing in strategic and carefully selected projects to develop energy supply and critical infrastructure; and implementing structural reforms aimed at promoting economic diversification, private investment, and competitiveness. Monetary policies should remain focused on consolidating the gains on the inflation front. In some countries, sustained exchange rate depreciations may pose risks to the inflation outlook.

CHAPTER 2   COUNTRY AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES

South Africa and the group of frontier market economies should prepare to weather further tightening of global financing conditions by preserving their budget flexibility and, where vulnerabilities are of particular importance, by tightening policies. These countries should be ready to adjust their financing plans in a scenario of greatly reduced access to external fund-

ing, while allowing their exchange rates to respond to changes in capital flows. Consideration should also be given to prefinancing rollovers when reasonable conditions arise. Countries should also bolster macroprudential supervision to address potential areas of strain and step up international cooperation to supervise crossborder banks and subsidiaries.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 71

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Spillover Feature: Should Advanced Economies Worry about Growth Shocks in Emerging Market Economies? Economic activity in emerging market economies weakened during the past few months, raising concern in some quarters about the implications of a further synchronized downturn in these economies for the global economy as a whole and for the still-fragile recovery in advanced economies. Although spillovers to advanced economies from previous episodes of weak growth in emerging market economies were limited, an across-the-board negative growth shock to these economies in the present climate would likely have some effect on advanced economies, given stronger economic links between these two groups.1 A common growth shock in emerging market economies can spill over into advanced economies through several channels. A negative growth shock will affect demand for advanced economies’ exports, which tend to be capital-intensive goods. Shocks capable of disrupting global supply chains would also adversely affect advanced economies with an upstream position in global trading networks. A growth shock in emerging market economies could influence their asset prices and currencies, which would hurt advanced economies with substantial financial exposure to these markets. Financial stresses in emerging market economies could also raise global risk aversion and lead to sharp corrections in advanced economy financial markets. This Spillover Feature analyzes the impact on advanced economies of growth shocks emanating from emerging markets. Specifically, it addresses the following questions: What are the spillover channels and how have they changed over time? What were the spillover effects on the advanced economies from previous broad-based growth downturns in emerging market economies? How much would a widespread growth shock in emerging market economies today affect advanced economies’ output growth? The analysis in this feature suggests that a negative growth shock to emerging market economies, akin to The author of this spillover feature is Juan Yépez, with research assistance from Angela Espiritu. Ben Hunt and Keiko Honjo prepared the model simulations. 1For this feature, advanced economies comprise four euro area countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain), Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Emerging market economies included are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, the Philippines, Poland, Russia, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, and Venezuela.

72

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

those experienced in the mid- to late 1990s but not necessarily crisis driven, would have moderate effects on all advanced economies, with Japan affected the most. Trade has been the most prominent spillover channel. There is evidence to suggest, however, that the financial channel could play a bigger role in future transmission of growth shocks in emerging markets.

The Evolution of Trade and Financial Links between Advanced Economies and Emerging Market Economies The growing role of emerging markets in the global economy is good reason for concern about a possible downturn. During the past half century, emerging market economies have moved from peripheral players to systemically important trade and financial centers (IMF, 2011a). In the new global economic landscape, economic linkages among advanced and emerging market economies are stronger, and advanced economies are more exposed to economic developments in the latter group. Trade linkages between the two groups have increased sharply (Figure 2.SF.1).2 Exports of goods to emerging market economies represent, on average, 3 percent of GDP in advanced economies (compared with 1.6 percent in 1992–2002). During the past decade, emerging market economies absorbed close to 20 percent of total exports of goods from advanced economies, and China absorbed a quarter of those exports (compared with 13 percent in the 1990s). The ratios presented in the figure are calculated using the IMF’s Direction of Trade Statistics database, which measures trade in gross terms and includes both intermediate and final goods, and the IMF’s World Economic Outlook (WEO) database. As discussed in IMF (2011a) and Koopman and others (2010), gross exports tend to overstate the exposure of advanced economies to emerging market economies. The reason 2Trade linkages among emerging market economies have markedly increased as well, with exports to other emerging market economies representing, on average, 10 percent of GDP, concentrated in the largest such economies. These links, in turn, make larger emerging market economies more systemically important, particularly to commodity exporters with relatively less-diversified economies (Roache, 2012; Ahuja and Nabar, 2012).

SPILLOVER FEATURE  SHOULD ADVANCED ECONOMIES WORRY ABOUT GROWTH SHOCKS IN EMERGING MARKET ECONOMIES?

Figure 2.SF.1. Real Trade Linkages between Advanced Economies and Emerging Market Economies (Percent)

Trade linkages between advanced economies (AEs) and emerging market economies (EMEs) have increased sharply in recent years. Exports from advanced economies to emerging market economies are concentrated in capital-related goods (namely, machinery and transportation equipment), whereas imports from emerging market economies continue to be dominated by commodity and low-technology manufacturing goods.

Food and fuel

100

3

30

2

20

1

10

0

0

1992–2002 2003–13

Euro United Japan United States area1 Kingdom

70

1992–2002 2003–13

1992–2002 2003–13

1992–2002 2003–13

1992–2002 2003–13

0

1992–2002 2003–13

1

7 2. AEs’ Real Imports of Goods from EMEs 6 Share of GDP (left scale) Share of total imports 5 (right scale) 4

1992–2002 2003–13

2

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

1992–2002 2003–13

7 1. AEs’ Real Exports of Goods to EMEs 6 Share of GDP (left scale) 5 Share of total 4 exports (right scale) 3

60 50 40

Euro United Japan United area1 Kingdom States

Manufacturing Chemicals and others Machinery and transportation equipment

3. Structure of AEs’ Exports to EMEs

4. Structure of AEs’ Imports from EMEs

100

20

0

0

Euro United Japan United area1 Kingdom States

1992–2002 2003–12

20 1992–2002 2003–12

40

1992–2002 2003–12

40

1992–2002 2003–12

60

1992–2002 2003–12

60

1992–2002 2003–12

80

1992–2002 2003–12

80

1992–2002 2003–12

is that exports’ gross value is much larger than the value added in exports to economies that engage heavily in assembly and processing trade, such as those in east Asia, because gross exports incorporate inputs from these economies. This implies that only a part of gross exports to emerging market economies depends on domestic demand in those economies. This appears to be particularly true for large manufacturing exporters such as Japan (Table 2.SF.1). Exports from advanced economies to emerging markets are concentrated in capital goods and related products (for example, machinery and transportation equipment), although the share of capital goods in total exports has declined considerably since 2000 as high-technology exports have shifted toward the most dynamic emerging markets (IMF, 2011a).3 Despite their marked reduction as a share of total exports in advanced economies, capital goods still represent, on average, 50 percent of total imports in emerging market economies. An abrupt downturn in the largest of these economies, accompanied by a sharp drop in investment, could hurt advanced economies that have large trade exposures to emerging market economies, particularly in capital goods. For example, capital goods constitute the bulk of exports to emerging market economies for Japan (58 percent) and the euro area (53 percent). Advanced economies’ imports from emerging market economies have also increased markedly. Imports from these economies represent, on average, 30 percent of advanced economies’ total imports, and the ratio of imports to GDP has doubled as well. The composition of imports from these economies continues to be dominated by commodities (fuels and food products) and low-technology manufactured goods (food and textiles). Since 2000, however, there has been a sizable increase in the share of machinery and transportation equipment in advanced economies’ imports from emerging markets—evidence of the larger role of emerging markets in global supply chains. As a result, large manufacturing exporters (namely, Japan and Germany) are particularly susceptible to any disruption in trade flows. These exporters are vulnerable because of their upstream position in regional and global supply

Euro United Japan United area1 Kingdom States

Sources: IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics database; and U.N. Commodity Trade Statistics Database. 1 Euro area = France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Unweighted average.

3This is particularly important in the United States, where machinery and transportation equipment in 2012 accounted for roughly 30 percent of total exports to emerging market economies, compared with close to 50 percent in the 1990s.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 73

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table 2.SF.1. Exports to Emerging Market Economies, 1995 versus 2008 (1) Ratio of Gross Exports in 2008 to Gross Exports in 1995

(2) Ratio of Value-Added Exports in 2008 to ValueAdded Exports in 1995

(1)/(2) Ratio of Gross Exports to Ratio of Value-Added Exports

1.71 1.20 2.45 1.30

1.54 1.27 1.99 1.23

1.11 0.95 1.23 1.06

Euro Area United Kingdom Japan United States

Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development–World Trade Organization Trade in Value-Added database.

Figure 2.SF.2. Financial Exposure of Advanced Economies to Emerging Market Economies (Percent of GDP)

Financial exposure of advanced economies (AEs) to emerging market economies (EMEs) remains concentrated in foreign bank claims, although exposure through portfolio investment has recently surged. Advanced economies that are financial centers have seen the largest increase in exposures to emerging market economies. Except in the case of China, risks from a reduction in the demand of emerging market economies for advanced economies’ securities appear limited. 1. Structure of Financial Exposure of AEs to EMEs by Asset Class

40 35

Bank loans Debt Equity

30 25 20 15 10 5

1997 2012 Euro area1

1997 2012 United Kingdom

1997 2012 Japan

1997 2012 United States

2. Structure of Financial Exposure of EMEs to AEs by Asset Class2

0

4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5

Debt Equity

2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5

2004 2012 Euro area1

2004 2012 United Kingdom

2004 2012 Japan

2004 2012 United States

Sources: Bank for International Settlements; and IMF, Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey database. 1 Median value for France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. 2 Excluding China.

0.0

chains and as trade networks continue to expand and become more dispersed. Financial links have also strengthened in recent years. The median exposure of advanced economies to emerging market economies, measured as gross external asset holdings, reached 8.7 percent of GDP in 2012—an increase of almost 3.5 percentage points of GDP from the median value in 1997 (Figure 2.SF.2). Although financial exposure remains concentrated in bank claims, exposure through portfolio investment has increased, particularly in equity investment. Not surprisingly, advanced economies that are financial centers have seen the largest increase in exposures to emerging market economies. In the United Kingdom, bank claims on these economies currently represent 14 percent of total foreign bank claims, up from just 4 percent a decade ago. It is important to note that because the United Kingdom is a major financial center, gross financial exposures could overstate actual financial linkages between the United Kingdom and emerging markets.4 Advanced economies with large exposures to emerging market economies could be susceptible to significant valuation and wealth effects resulting from sharp movements in asset prices and currencies in these economies. Given that large output drops in emerging market economies have often preceded past default episodes (Levy-Yeyati and Panizza, 2011), increased economic turbulence in those economies, coupled with bad memories of past crises, could sour investors’ risk sentiment and result in sharp corrections in global financial centers. Advanced economies could also be vulnerable to a sudden reduction in demand from emerging market economies for their debt instruments. China is the ­second-largest exporter of capital in the world, after the United States, and China’s central bank is the 4In addition, most of these claims are held by two banks that, although notionally British, have very limited banking presence in the United Kingdom. This could overstate the financial exposure of the United Kingdom to emerging market economies.

74

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

SPILLOVER FEATURE  SHOULD ADVANCED ECONOMIES WORRY ABOUT GROWTH SHOCKS IN EMERGING MARKET ECONOMIES?

largest purchaser of U.S. financial assets. (See the April 2013 Global Financial Stability Report.) A shock to emerging market economies capable of slowing the pace of reserves accumulation in China or causing a sell-off of its reserves in an attempt to defend its currency could affect advanced economies by raising their long-term yields. Long-term yields in the United States and other advanced economies could also rise if China gradually changes its portfolio away from U.S. to emerging market treasuries (IMF, 2011b).

Spillover Effects on Advanced Economies during Previous Episodes of Financial Turbulence in Emerging Market Economies To obtain some order of magnitude of the effects from past spillovers, an event study is conducted around past episodes with synchronized growth slowdowns in emerging market economies: the Mexican Tequila crisis in 1995, the east Asian crisis in 1997, and the Russian crisis in 1998.5 The analysis focuses on the dynamics of trade and financial variables during a four-quarter window after the realization of each event.6 Results suggest that during episodes of financial turmoil, import demand in emerging market economies was an important spillover channel, particularly during the east Asian and Russian crises (Figure 2.SF.3). During these events, bilateral real exports contracted by at least one standard deviation from their 15-year average. Japanese exports have been particularly vulnerable to shocks stemming from emerging market economies, which could be explained by Japan’s high trade interconnectedness with emerging market economies in east Asia and the high share of capital goods in its export structure. Although imports from emerging market economies have also tended to decline during these episodes, partly as a result of supply-chain disruptions, reductions have been more moderate. The behavior of exports around these events could be explained by the dynamics of bilateral nominal exchange rates, with

Figure 2.SF.3. Event Studies around Downturn Episodes in Emerging Market Economies (Peak effect in four quarters)

Event studies built around major episodes of financial turmoil in emerging market economies (EMEs) point to the sensitivity of import demand in those economies during these events. The sharp reduction in exports from advanced economies (AEs) to emerging market economies during these episodes came hand in hand with substantial appreciation of their currencies, in part explained by a spike in capital inflows. The dynamics of stock markets during these episodes also shed light on the importance of financial markets in transmitting these shocks to emerging market economies. Given that trade and financial linkages are now stronger, similar growth downturn events are likely to have sizable effects on most exposed advanced economies. Tequila crisis East Asian crisis Russian crisis Greater than 1 standard deviation but less than 1.5 standard deviations Greater than 1.5 standard deviations 15 1. Dynamics of Real Exports of AEs to EMEs Following 10 Crisis Events in EMEs (percent) 5

analysis starts in 1990 because of data limitations for emerging market economies. The 1995 Mexican Tequila crisis, the 1997 east Asian crisis, and the 1998 Russian crisis could be characterized as events in emerging market economies that, to a certain extent, were unrelated to developments in advanced economies. The dates of the events are obtained from the chronology in Laeven and Valencia (2012). 6With the exception of the analysis of the dynamics of stock market indexes, in which the behavior of these indexes is examined three months after the realization of each event.

16 12 8

0

4

–5

0

–10

–4

–15

–8

–20

Euro United Japan United area Kingdom States

30 3. Dynamics of Bilateral Nominal Exchange Rates Following 20 Crisis Events in EMEs 10 (percent; negative value represents appreciation) 0

Euro United Japan United area Kingdom States 4. Dynamics of Net Portfolio Inflows Following Crisis Events in EMEs (billions of U.S. dollars)

150 120

30 0 Euro United Japan United area Kingdom States

30 5. Dynamics of Stock Market Indexes in AEs Following Crisis Events in EMEs 1 20 (percent) 10

Euro United Japan United area Kingdom States 6. Impact of a Reduction in Exports to EMEs on AEs’ GDP, East Asian Crisis (percentage points)

–30

0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 –0.2

0

–0.4 1997 2012

–20 –30

180

60

–20 –30

–12

90

–10

–10 5The

2. Dynamics of Real Imports of AEs from EMEs Following Crisis Events in EMEs (percent)

Euro United Japan United area Kingdom States

Euro United Japan United area Kingdom States

–0.6 –0.8 –1.0

Sources: Haver Analytics; IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics database; and IMF staff calculations. 1 Standard & Poor’s 500 for United States, Nikkei 225 for Japan, FTSE 100 for United Kingdom, and average of Deutscher Aktien Index and Société des Bourses Françaises 120 for the euro area.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 75

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

currencies in advanced economies appreciating, on average, more than 20 percent, 1½ standard deviations above their mean. The strengthening of advanced economies’ currencies also points to a flight-to-safety scenario, as evidenced by large spikes in portfolio inflows. In addition, dynamics of stock market price indexes in advanced economies show that shocks from emerging market economies can be transmitted via financial markets, most notably in Japan and the euro area. The east Asian crisis stands out in the brief event analysis because it was triggered by a common shock whose effect on regional comovements was almost as large as that of the global financial crisis (Chapter 3 of the October 2013 WEO). What was the spillover effect of a shock of the magnitude of the east Asian crisis on Japan’s output growth?7 An informal estimate suggests that the 15 percent drop in exports in Japan during the east Asian crisis could have represented a 0.3 percentage point decline in Japan’s real GDP growth, given that Japanese exports to emerging markets were 2 percent of GDP in 1997. A similar shock in 2012 would have implied a much larger decline in output growth (that is, 0.8 percentage point), because the share of exports to emerging market economies in Japan’s GDP has more than doubled since the east Asian crisis.

Quantifying the Spillover Effects of Emerging Market Economy Growth Shocks on Advanced Economies’ GDP The impact of a growth shock in emerging market economies on advanced economies is estimated using a standard vector-autoregression-based (VAR-based) approach and through simulations from a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model. These estimates are much more informative than the simple informal calculations reported earlier. The first element of the empirical analysis involves estimating country-wise VARs for each advanced economy with the following recursive specification: the growth rate of output of all advanced economies excluding the advanced economy for which the VAR is estimated, the growth rate of output in the advanced economy of interest, the growth rate of output in emerging market economies, and the growth rate of 7Japan experienced its own banking crisis in 1997–98; therefore the large growth spillover impact on Japan during the east Asian crisis should be interpreted cautiously.

76

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

real bilateral exports from the advanced economy of interest to emerging market economies. Because the global financial crisis was an exceptional event with unusual effects, a modified version of the VAR model is also estimated. In this modified version, the regressors are also allowed to interact with a dummy variable that equals one from the last quarter in 2007 to the first quarter in 2009 and zero otherwise.8 The spillover effects on advanced economies of a 1 percentage point drop in the GDP growth of emerging market economies range from a 0.15 percentage point drop in output growth in the United Kingdom to a 0.5 percentage point decline in Japan (Figure 2.SF.4). In line with the findings discussed in the event study analysis, results from the empirical exercise suggest that the impact of shocks to emerging market economies’ output on advanced economies’ output is significant (both economically and statistically) in Japan and the euro area.9 Based on the decomposition of the responses of advanced economies’ GDP growth, it appears that the trade channel is particularly important for the transmission of shocks to Japan, whereas nontrade effects seem to dominate in other advanced economies.10 Results from the interaction VAR estimation show that, when the global financial crisis is controlled for—that is, when the dummy is equal to zero—elasticities are reduced by half (except in the case of the United Kingdom) and spillovers are neither statistically nor economically significant across advanced economies. The results from the simple VAR analysis illustrate the magnitude of possible spillover effects; however, they do not identify the sources of the growth slowdown, which matter for the spillovers. Different spillover transmission channels may be involved, depending on the nature of the shock. 8The country-wise VARs are estimated using seasonally adjusted quarterly data from 1996 through 2013, with two lags based on the Akaike information criterion. The second specification implements an interaction VAR framework introduced by Towbin and Weber (2013). 9The large effect observed in Japan could reflect a banking crisis experienced at the same time as the east Asian crisis and the use of gross instead of value-added real bilateral exports in the VAR analysis. As discussed earlier, gross trade linkages tend to overstate direct trade exposures to emerging market economies in countries with an upstream position in global trade networks. 10The nontrade transmission channel corresponds to the estimated responses of GDP growth in advanced economies using the full VAR dynamics, but with real bilateral exports treated as an exogenous variable (that is, the GDP growth equation coefficients on real bilateral exports set to zero).

SPILLOVER FEATURE  SHOULD ADVANCED ECONOMIES WORRY ABOUT GROWTH SHOCKS IN EMERGING MARKET ECONOMIES?

To illustrate the potential impact of emerging market economy shocks on advanced economies under a more structural simulation, the IMF’s Flexible System of Global Models is used.11 The baseline model is calibrated such that a 1 percentage point drop in emerging market economy GDP growth reduces the growth rate of total exports of advanced economies, on average, by 1.3 percentage points (a value of similar magnitude to the average response observed in the baseline VAR estimations). In a second specification, the baseline model is modified to incorporate a capital flight scenario by assuming that turbulence in emerging market economies is accompanied by an increase in the sovereign risk premium of 200 basis points and an increase in the corporate risk premium of 400 basis points.12 Both scenarios show a slight real currency appreciation in advanced economies, whereas emerging market economy currencies depreciate, on average, by 0.2 percent from baseline. In addition, import demand in emerging market economies softens by 4 percent in both scenarios. In line with the VAR estimations presented earlier, Japan is most susceptible to an emerging market economy growth shock, with output growth declining by 0.32 percentage point in response to a 1 percent reduction in emerging market economy GDP (Figure 2.SF.5). The United Kingdom is the least affected by the shock. Estimations from this model are likely to be on the high side, given that monetary policy responses across advanced economies to a slowdown in emerging market economies are constrained by the zero bound on nominal interest rates. It is important to note that in both scenarios, the trade channel is the main transmitter of the shock in the emerging market economies to advanced economies. This result hinges, however, on the assumption that there are no direct financial spillovers from emerging market to advanced economies. Depending on the origin of the slowdown in the emerging market economies, this assumption could be too restrictive. For example, if risk premiums in advanced economies react to the growth shock in emerging market economies—possibly because of concern about balance sheet

Figure 2.SF.4. Peak Effect of a Growth Shock to Emerging Market Economies on Advanced Economies’ Output Growth (Four quarters after impact; percentage points)

The impact of shocks to emerging market economies’ (EMEs’) output on advanced economies’ (AEs’) output is significant (both statistically and economically) only for Japan and the euro area. The trade channel is particularly important for the transmission of shocks to Japan, whereas nontrade effects appear to dominate in other advanced economies. The impact of growth shocks in emerging market economies on advanced economies’ output tends to be attenuated, and become negligible, when the effects of the global economic crisis are controlled for. Transmitted through trade channel Transmitted through nontrade channels Statistically significant at 10 percent level 1.00 1. Effect of a 1 Percentage Point Decline in EME 0.75 Growth on Euro Area 0.50

2. Effect of a 1 Percentage 1.00 Point Decline in EME 0.75 Growth on the United Kingdom 0.50

0.25

0.25

0.00

0.00

–0.25

–0.25

–0.50

–0.50

–0.75

–0.75

–1.00

Baseline

Alternative

1.00 3. Effect of a 1 Percentage Point Decline in EME 0.75 Growth on Japan 0.50

Baseline

Alternative

4. Effect of a 1 Percentage Point Decline in EME Growth on the United States

–1.00

1.00 0.75 0.50

0.25

0.25

0.00

0.00

–0.25

–0.25

–0.50

–0.50

–0.75

–0.75

–1.00

Baseline

Alternative

Baseline

Alternative

–1.00

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: “Baseline” refers to the model in which advanced economies’ GDP growth is contemporaneously exogenous to emerging market economies’ GDP growth. “Alternative” refers to elasticities obtained from the interaction vector autoregression model, when the dummy variable denoting global economic crisis is equal to zero.

11The

Flexible System of Global Models is an annual, multi­ regional general equilibrium model, combining both micro-founded and reduced-form formulations of various economic sectors. It has a fully articulated demand side and some supply-side features. International linkages are modeled in aggregate for each region. It does not model intermediate goods; therefore, supply chain effects are not captured in these simulations. 12Shocks last for one year.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 77

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 2.SF.5. Model Simulations of Potential Growth Spillover Effects from Emerging Market Economies on Advanced Economies (Contribution to change in output growth; percentage points)

A synchronous shock has nonnegligible effects across the advanced economies. Japan is particularly susceptible to emerging market economies’ growth shock, and the United Kingdom is the least affected by the shock. Spillovers are transmitted mainly through the trade channel, given the assumption that risk premiums in advanced economies are not affected by the growth downturn in emerging market economies. However, simulation-based estimates from this model are likely to be on the high side, because monetary policy response across advanced economies to a slowdown in emerging market economies is constrained by the zero bound on nominal interest rates.

Change in Output growth

Exports

Other 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 –0.1 –0.2 –0.3

Euro area

United Kingdom

Japan

Alternative

Baseline

Alternative

Baseline

Alternative

Baseline

Alternative

Baseline

–0.4 –0.5

United States

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: “Baseline” refers to the baseline simulation. “Alternative” refers to results from simulation in which a negative growth shock to emerging market economies is accompanied by a rise in the sovereign risk premium of 200 basis points and a rise in the corporate risk premium of 400 basis points.

78

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

exposure of financial intermediaries—the spillover could be larger and financial channels come into play. Similarly, once cross-border asset linkages are incorporated, shocks to asset prices in emerging market economies could also have wealth and other direct effects on aggregate demand of advanced economies.

Conclusions Macroeconomic fundamentals in many emerging market economies are generally stronger today than in the 1990s and early 2000s, and a simultaneous shock to all emerging market economies similar to those two decades ago is unlikely. Nevertheless, a recurrence of similar events could now have different outcomes for advanced economies, given that the global economic landscape and economic linkages between these two groups have changed. Emerging market economies are now much larger and more integrated into global trade and financial markets, which has increased the exposure of advanced economies to these economies. Spillovers from a synchronized downturn in emerging market economy output, operating primarily through trade channels, could be sizable for some advanced economies, but would likely remain manageable and probably short lived. At the same time, financial links between advanced economies and emerging market economies have strengthened recently, and although the magnitudes are much more challenging to quantify, financial spillovers in the case of a slowdown in emerging market economies and their effects on advanced economies could be important. The recovery of advanced economies from the global financial crisis is still fragile, and policymakers in these economies should closely monitor growth in emerging markets and be prepared to take action to mitigate the impact of external disturbances.

CHAPTER 2   COUNTRY AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES

References Ahuja, Ashvin, and Malhar Nabar, 2012, “Investment-Led Growth in China: Global Spillovers,” IMF Working Paper No. 12/267 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2011a, “Changing Patterns of Global Trade,” prepared by the Strategy, Policy, and Review Department (Washington). ———, 2011b, People’s Republic of China: Spillover Report for the 2011 Article IV Consultation and Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 11/193 (Washington). Koopman, Robert, William Powers, Zhi Wang, and Shang-Jin Wei, 2010, “Give Credit Where Credit Is Due: Tracing Value Added in Global Production Chains,” NBER Working Paper

No. 16426 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research). Laeven, Luc, and Fabián Valencia, 2012, “Systemic Banking Crises Database: An Update,” IMF Working Paper No. 12/163 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Levy-Yeyati, Eduardo, and Ugo Panizza, 2011, “The Elusive Costs of Sovereign Defaults,” Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 94, No. 1, pp. 95–105. Roache, Shaun, 2012, “China’s Impact on World Commodity Markets,” IMF Working Paper No. 12/115 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Towbin, Pascal, and Sebastian Weber, 2013, “Limits of Floating Exchange Rates: The Role of Foreign Currency Import Structure,” Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 101 (March), pp. 179–94.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 79

CCHAPTER HAPTER

13

PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBAL REAL INTEREST RATES

Real interest rates worldwide have declined substantially since the 1980s and are now in slightly negative territory. Common factors account for much of these movements, highlighting the relevance of global patterns in saving and investment. Since the late 1990s, three factors appear to account for most of the decline. First, a steady increase in income growth in emerging market economies during 2000–07 led to substantially higher saving rates in these economies. Second, the demand for safe assets increased, largely reflecting the rapid reserve accumulation in some emerging market economies and increases in the riskiness of equity relative to bonds. Third, there has been a sharp and persistent decline in investment rates in advanced economies since the global financial crisis. This chapter argues that global real interest rates can be expected to rise in the medium term, but only moderately, since these three factors are unlikely to reverse substantially. The zero lower bound on nominal interest rates will remain a concern for some time: real interest rates will likely remain low enough for the zero lower bound to reemerge should risks of very low growth in advanced economies materialize.

I

n the past few years, many borrowers with good credit ratings have enjoyed a cost of debt close to zero or even negative when it is adjusted for inflation. This is not just a consequence of the global financial crisis. Since the early 1980s, yields of all maturities have declined worldwide well beyond the decline in inflation (Figure 3.1). However, because the recent interest rate declines reflect, to a large extent, weak economic conditions in advanced economies after the crisis, some reversal is likely as these economies return to a more normal state. But how much of a reversal? Certain factors suggest a substantial increase in interest rates in the medium term: high and rising debt levels in advanced economies; population aging; lower growth in emerging market economies, which might lower their saving The main authors of this chapter are Davide Furceri and Andrea Pescatori (team leader), with support from Sinem Kilic Celik and Katherine Pan, and with contributions from the Economic Modeling Division of the IMF’s Research Department.

Figure 3.1. Ten-Year Interest Rate on Government Bonds and Inflation (Simple average across France, Germany, United Kingdom, and United States; percent a year) Ten-year nominal interest rate

Inflation rate

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2

1970

75

80

85

90

95

2000

05

10

Sources: Bloomberg, L.P.; Haver Analytics; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; World Bank, World Development Indicators database; and IMF staff calculations. Note: Inflation is calculated as the percent changes in the consumer price index.

rates; and further financial deepening in emerging market economies, which would reduce borrowing constraints and thereby net saving.1 Other factors, however, would work in the opposite direction: longlasting negative effects of the global financial crisis on economic activity (Cerra and Saxena, 2008; Reinhart and Rogoff, 2008), persistence of the “saving glut” in key emerging market economies, and renewed declines in the relative price of investment goods. This chapter constructs global real interest rates at short and long maturities and reviews their evolution since 1980. It also traces the evolution of the cost of 1For example, McKinsey Global Institute (2010) argues that worldwide real interest rates are set to increase substantially in the medium to long term, putting an end to cheap capital.

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

81

13

0

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

capital—a weighted average of the cost of debt and the cost of equity. It then analyzes key factors that could explain the observed patterns: shifts in private saving, changes to fiscal policy, shifts in investment demand, changes in the relative price of investment, monetary policy, and portfolio shifts between bonds and equity. It closes by considering how the main factors behind the decline in real rates might play out in the medium term. The analysis is largely qualitative. The effects of each factor are discussed in a general equilibrium context, but the quantitative effects may not be identified precisely. The following questions arise: •• Is there a global trend in interest rates, or do country-specific dynamics dominate? •• What have been the main factors contributing to the decline in real interest rates since the 1980s? •• What have been the effects of the global financial crisis on real rates, and how long are these effects likely to last? •• What should we expect in the medium term? •• What are the implications for fiscal authorities in advanced economies and for fund and asset managers? What are the implications for monetary policy? These are the main findings: •• Economic and financial integration has increased sufficiently during the past three decades or so for real rates to be determined largely by common factors. Thus, using a global measure of real interest rates and exploring global patterns of saving and investment are appropriate. •• Since the early 1980s, global real interest rates have strongly declined. The cost of capital has also fallen, but to a lesser extent because the required return on equity has increased since 2000. •• Monetary policy dominated the evolution of real rates and the cost of capital in the 1980s and early 1990s. Fiscal policy improvement in advanced economies was the main factor underlying the decline in real interest rates during the rest of the 1990s. In addition, the decline in the relative price of investment may have reduced the demand for loanable funds in both the 1980s and 1990s. •• Since the late 1990s, the following factors have largely driven the decline in real rates and the cost of capital: oo A large increase in the emerging market economy saving rate between 2000 and 2007 more than offset a reduction in advanced economy pub-

82

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

lic saving rates. Strikingly, increases in income growth seem to be the most relevant proximate cause behind the rise in emerging market economy saving rates during the same period. oo Portfolio shifts in the 2000s in favor of bonds were due to higher demand for safe assets, mostly from the official sector in emerging market economies, and to an increase in the riskiness of equity relative to that of bonds. These shifts led to an increase in the real required return on equity and a decline in real rates—that is, an increase in the equity premium.2 oo Scars from the global financial crisis have resulted in a sharp and persistent decline in investment in advanced economies. Their effects on saving have been more muted. Real interest rates and the cost of capital are likely to rise moderately in the medium term from current levels. Part of the reason is cyclical: the extremely low real rates of recent years reflect large negative output gaps in advanced economies—indeed, real rates might have declined even further in the absence of the zero lower bound on nominal interest rates. The analysis in this chapter suggests, however, that real rates and the cost of capital are likely to remain relatively low in the medium term, even when output gaps are eventually closed. The main reasons are as follows: •• The effects of the global financial crisis will persist. The findings of the chapter suggest that the ­investment-to-GDP ratios in many advanced economies are unlikely to recover to precrisis levels in the next five years. •• The portfolio shift in favor of bonds that started in the early 2000s is unlikely to be reversed. Although bond rates may rise again on account of a rising term premium when unconventional monetary policy is wound down, this will probably have a smaller effect on bond rates than will other forces. In particular, stronger financial regulation will further increase demand for safe assets. A reduction in emerging market economy saving and thus in the pace of official reserve accumulation would work the 2Between 2008 and 2012, quantitative easing, mainly in the United States and United Kingdom, may also have contributed to a portfolio shift by compressing term premiums on long-term bonds. There is, however, uncertainty about the magnitude of estimates of these premiums, and even upper-end estimates suggest that the longterm impact of quantitative easing over the period 2008–13 on the equity premium has probably been modest.

CHAPTER 3   PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBAL REAL INTEREST RATES

opposite way, and the net effect is therefore likely to be small.3 •• Lower growth in emerging market economies compared with growth during the precrisis boom years is expected to result in somewhat lower saving rates. Based on the evidence of previous saving shifts, the magnitude of the effect on real rates is likely to be modest. In summary, real rates are expected to rise. However, there are no compelling reasons to believe in a quick return to the average level observed during the mid2000s (that is, about 2 percent). Within this global picture, however, there may well be some countries that will see higher real rates than in the early 2000s because of higher sovereign risk premiums. The conclusions here apply to the risk-free rate. An important concern is the possibility of a prolonged period of very low growth (“secular stagnation”) in advanced economies, especially if new shocks were to hit demand in these economies or if policies do not address crisis legacy issues as expected (see Chapter 1 of the October 2013 World Economic Outlook, WEO). As discussed in Chapter 1, with current low inflation, real interest rates will likely be low enough for the zero lower bound issue to reemerge if such risks of very low growth in advanced economies materialize. Real interest rates may then be unable to decline to the negative levels required to restore full employment. The prospect that real interest rates could increase to relatively low levels in the medium term has important implications: •• Pension funds, insurance companies that provide defined benefits, and savers in general may suffer from a prolonged period of continued low real interest rates. An environment of continued low real (and nominal) interest rates may also induce financial institutions to search for higher real (and nominal) yields by taking on more risk.4 This, in turn, may increase systemic financial sector risks, and appropriate macro- and microprudential

3Withdrawal from quantitative easing may also induce a modest reversal of the portfolio shifts observed between 2008 and 2013 by raising real term premiums to precrisis levels. Its effect on the global cost of capital, however, will probably be small. 4Maddaloni and Peydró (2011) find that periods of low shortterm rates are associated with softening of bank lending standards in the euro area and the United States. Altunbas, Gambacorta, and Marqués-Ibañez (2012) also find that low interest rates over protracted periods lead to an increase in bank risk.

oversight will be critical for maintaining financial stability. •• Symmetrically, borrowers would enjoy the benefits of low rates, all else equal.5 For one thing, achieving fiscal sustainability would be less difficult. As an example, a 1 percentage point reduction in real rates in the next five years relative to the rate currently projected (October 2013 WEO) would reduce the average advanced economy debt-to-GDP ratio by about 4 percentage points. If real rates are expected to be close to or lower than real GDP growth rates for a long time, some increases in debt-financed government spending, especially public investment, may not lead to increases in public debt in the medium term.6 •• With respect to monetary policy, a period of continued low real interest rates could mean that the neutral policy rate will be lower than it was in the 1990s or the early 2000s. It could also increase the probability that the nominal interest rate will hit the zero lower bound in the event of adverse shocks to demand with inflation targets of about 2 percent. This, in turn, could have implications for the appropriate monetary policy framework. The rest of the chapter is structured as follows. The second section constructs the global real rate and cost of capital; the third section introduces the conceptual framework to analyze observed patterns in the global real rate and the cost of capital; the fourth section tests the hypotheses laid out in the third; the fifth section summarizes the findings and draws implications for fiscal policy in the medium term; and the final section concludes.

Stylized Facts: Measuring Real Rates and the Cost of Capital Real interest rates are directly observable only from the yields on inflation-indexed bonds. Such bonds, however, are typically not issued at short maturities 5To the extent that rates are lower than expected because of lowerthan-expected activity, however, borrowers may well be worse off than under a scenario of higher growth and higher interest rates. 6If the real rate is permanently lower than real GDP growth, then a temporary debt-financed increase in government spending will lead to only a temporary increase in the public debt ratio. More generally, the debt-to-GDP ratio may not increase in the medium term if the increased spending permanently raises GDP (for example, by raising the productivity of private capital), generating an increase in annual tax revenue large enough to cover the increase in annual debt service, as argued by Delong and Summers (2012).



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 83

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 3.2. Real Interest Rate Comparison (Percent a year)

1. Three-Month Real Interest Rate Comparison (United States)

8 6 4 2 0

Model Philadelphia FRB Cleveland FRB 1967

72

77

82

87

92

–2 97

2002

–4 13

07

Ten-Year Real Interest Rate Comparison 10

3. United Kingdom

2. United States

10

8

8

6

6

4

4

2

Model IPS Cleveland FRB Livingston

0 –2 –4 1967

77

87

97

2007 13 1967

2

Model IPS CF 77

87

97

0 –2 2007 13

–4

Sources: Consensus Economics; Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland; Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Livingston Survey; Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Survey of Professional Forecasters; Haver Analytics; and IMF staff calculations. Note: CF = Consensus Forecasts; FRB = Federal Reserve Bank; IPS = inflation-protected securities.

(that is, less than one year), and even at longer maturities few countries have good data coverage (King and Low, 2014).7 In the absence of inflation-protected securities, real rates can be approximated by the difference between the nominal interest rate and inflation expectations over the relevant time horizon: rt[n] = it[n] – Et pt,t+n, (3.1) in which it[n] is the nominal yield of a zero coupon bond of maturity n at time t, and Et pt,t+n is the expected consumer price inflation over the life 7Markets for indexed bonds are not deep and are susceptible to changes in the liquidity premium and to technical factors. Following Blanchard (1993), because of tax considerations, for the United Kingdom, the real rate is adjusted by adding τ/(1 − τ) × π, in which τ denotes the income tax rate on coupon payments and is set at 20 percent (see Blanchard, 1993) and π denotes the expected inflation rate over the life of the security.

84

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

of the bond. Bond yields are observable, but inflation expectations are not (at least not directly). For estimates of expected inflation, the analysis relies on survey information and on forecasts from an estimated autoregressive process. Because the parameters of this autoregressive process are likely to change over time, rolling windows are used. To maximize sample coverage, three-month and ten-year maturities are used to represent short- and long-term real rates, respectively.8 Estimated three-month real rates for the United States and ten-year real rates for the United States and the United Kingdom are shown in Figure 3.2. The modeland survey-based approaches give very similar estimates. The figure suggests that real rates in the two countries have declined sharply since the early 1980s. Moreover, the rate decline has been global (Figure 3.3). The average global ten-year real rate declined from a high of 6 percent in 1983 to approximately zero in 2012.9 The relevance of common forces driving the worldwide decline in real rates is confirmed by a principal component analysis. The results show that the contribution of the first common factor to the variation in real rates increased from about 55 percent in 1980–95 to almost 75 percent in 1995–2012 (Figure 3.4, panel 1).10 The greater relevance of common factors can also be seen in the evolution of the cross-country dispersion in real rates over time. Figure 3.4 (panel 2) shows that the cross-sectional standard deviation of ten-year real rates declined from about 400 basis points in the early 1980s to 100 basis points in the most recent years.11 This decline is consistent with the view that within-country factors driving rates away from the common global mean have become

8See

Appendix 3.1 for details. The sample comprises 40 countries: 25 advanced economies and 15 emerging market economies. The interest rates used are those on government securities, where available; otherwise interbank rates are used. 9These are GDP-weighted averages. A similar pattern emerges from simple averages for Group of Seven (G7) countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States) and for GDPweighted averages excluding the United States (see Appendix 3.7). 10Similar results are obtained when changes in real interest rates are used. 11Similar results can be found for short-term emerging market economy securities using a sample starting in 1990 (the data for long-term rates are scant for emerging market economies). These results show that the contribution of emerging market economies to overall real rate dispersion has declined markedly. The analysis excludes those countries that have experienced a significant increase in default risk in the aftermath of the global financial crisis (that is, some noncore euro area countries), because analyzing the determinants of default risks goes beyond the scope of the chapter. It is possible to observe, in regard to the euro area, that whereas the

CHAPTER 3   PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBAL REAL INTEREST RATES

Figure 3.3. Real Interest Rates, Real Returns on Equity, and Cost of Capital

Figure 3.4. Common Factors in Real Interest Rates

(Percent a year)

1. Short- and Long-Term Global Real Interest Rates

1. Principal Component Analysis of Long-Term Real Interest Rates (percent, share of real-rate variation explained by the first three common factors)

10

Contribution of first factor

8 6 4 2 0

75

80

85

90

95

2000

05

10 12

2. Expected Real Returns on Equity

–8 1980–95

9 8 7

8

6

United States 1973

78

83

United Kingdom 88

93

98

2003

08

3. Global Real Interest Rates and Cost of Capital Global real interest rate Global cost of capital

5 4

6

3 2 1 0 13

4

4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5

1991–2000

2001–07

Contribution of third factor 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1996–2012

–2 –4 –6

Three-month real rate Ten-year real rate Term spread 1970

Contribution of second factor

2008–13

0.0

Sources: Bloomberg, L.P.; Haver Analytics; IMF, International Financial Statistics database; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; World Bank, World Development Indicators database; and IMF staff calculations. Note: Term spread is defined as the difference between short- and long-term real rates.

2. Convergence of Real Interest Rates and Financial Integration (percent) Standard deviation of real rates (left scale) Financial integration (right scale)

12 10 8 6 4

2 0 1970

2 75

80

85

90

95

2000

05

10

Sources: Bank for International Settlements; Bloomberg, L.P.; Haver Analytics; IMF, International Financial Statistics database; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; World Bank, World Development Indicators database; and IMF staff calculations. Note: Financial integration is constructed as banks’ bilateral assets and liabilities as a share of countries’ GDP.

less important. However, even though the fraction of the total variance explained by the first factor has increased for both three-month and ten-year real rates, it remains significantly lower at the shorter maturity. This is consistent with continued scope for monetary policy in individual countries to play an important countercyclical role in smoothing domestic output fluctuations. The greater weight of the common factors may be attributable to a variety of reasons. Because inflation risk affects the term premium, a common decline in longterm real rates may be due to simultaneous adoption of

standard deviation of long-term real rates has steadily declined for core euro area countries, it has recently increased for noncore euro area countries (see Appendix 3.7). In contrast, the standard deviation of short-term real rates has decreased for both core and noncore countries.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 85

13

0

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

monetary policy frameworks that ensure low and stable inflation. However, such simultaneous adoption would not explain the trend decline in short-term real rates, because such rates are little affected by inflation risk. In other words, a worldwide decline in the inflation risk premium would have caused a similar decline in the term spread, which has not happened (Figure 3.3, panel 1).12 An alternative hypothesis for the increased relevance of common factors is increased financial market integration. Figure 3.4 (panel 2) shows the evolution of cross-holdings of banks’ assets and liabilities (a measure of financial market integration). According to this measure, financial integration has steadily and substantially increased during the past three decades. The correlation between the financial integration and real-rate dispersion variables is −0.74, supporting the hypothesis. Financing decisions are not limited to short-term borrowing or the fixed-income market. A firm’s evaluation of whether it is worthwhile to undertake a given investment project requires that the expected return on the project be greater than the overall cost of capital, which includes the cost of equity finance as well as that of borrowing. For the cost of equity, a measure of expected real return on major stock markets is constructed.13 Stated roughly, the expected return on equity is equal to the dividend yield plus the expected long-term growth rate of real dividends. Expected dividend growth is estimated through a vector autoregressive process of dividend and GDP growth. Figure 3.3 (panel 2) shows the expected long-term real return on equity constructed for the U.S. and U.K. stock markets. The estimated cost of capital is a weighted average of the estimates for the real long-term interest rate and the required return on equity.14 The ex ante real 12The average real term spread (the difference between long- and short-term real rates) for the entire period is about 100 basis points. The absence of a trend suggests a stable term premium (at short and medium frequency, the term spread varies because of the business cycle). More recently, default risk has been a factor in the euro area. The evolution of default risk, however, is beyond the scope of this chapter. 13The real required (internal) rate of return on equity in period t for a horizon n, R [n] e,t , is estimated from the following equation: –j St /Dt = Snj=0(1 + R [n] e,t ) Et gt,t+1+j,

in which S is a stock price index, D denotes dividends consistent with the stock index chosen, and Et gt,t+j = Dt+j /Dt is the expected cumulated dividend growth. 14Equal weights for the two variables are assumed for the United States, and two-thirds (cost of debt) and one-third (cost of equity) for all the other countries. Weights are chosen based on average values of corporate bond and stock market capitalization in the United

86

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

returns on both bonds and equity declined between the 1980s and the late 1990s, but after the dot-com bubble burst in 2000–01, the expected return on equity increased. The decline in the overall cost of capital was therefore less than the decline in the real interest rate.15 Thus, although the estimated global real interest rate in the first part of the 2000s was 1.15 percentage points lower than in the 1990s, the estimated global cost of capital was only 0.62 percentage point lower (Figure 3.3, panel 3).

Determinants of Real Rates: A SavingInvestment Framework The equilibrium real interest rate is the price that equilibrates the desired demand for and supply of funds. Factors affecting the equilibrium real rate shift or tilt the demand or supply schedules (Figure 3.5). A reduction in the equilibrium real rate would be produced by an outward shift in the supply schedule of funds or an inward shift in the demand schedule. The supply of funds may come from private saving, public saving (the budget surplus), or monetary policy actions. Changes in expected investment profitability and in the relative price of investment goods (for example, machinery, equipment, information technology) may shift the demand for funds. A decrease in the profitability of investment reduces investment and real rates, and the economy converges to a smaller capital stock. A reduction in the relative price of investment, for a given investment volume, reduces the value of loan demand. At the same time, it is likely to increase the volume of investment. Thus, in theory, the net effect on the value of global investment, and on real interest rates, depends on the elasticity of the volume of investment to its relative price. Shifts in private saving can be induced by several factors: changes in current and expected income, social safety nets, and demographics, as well as financial innovations, among others. For example, the permanent income hypothesis predicts a decrease in the saving rate whenever a new development increases expected future income growth. A different result may arise, however, in the presence of consumption habits: an increase in GDP States and in other countries, and tax corrections are not included. Nevertheless, since 2000, for any possible choice of weights, the cost of capital has declined less than the real rate. 15Similar results are obtained when the cost of debt is measured using real corporate yields.

CHAPTER 3   PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBAL REAL INTEREST RATES

growth can raise the saving rate (see Appendix 3.6). All else equal, such a shift in the saving schedule would reduce real interest rates, increasing the equilibrium level of global investment. Population aging reduces saving under the life cycle model, which predicts that saving rates are the highest for age groups in the middle. Overall, aging should increase real interest rates and reduce global investment. Changes in public saving (that is, fiscal policy) affect the aggregate saving schedule similarly to those in private saving. Because long-term rates are a weighted average of expected future short-term rates, expectations of future deficits will tend to increase today’s long-term real bond rate. In addition, the overall effect of fiscal policy on real rates includes an effect from the stock of public debt. Given that saving decisions depend partly on wealth, of which public debt is a part, a high level of debt tends to depress private saving and, in turn, increase real interest rates.16 A neutral monetary policy (that is, keeping output at its potential) does not contribute to the determination of the real interest rate, which is then at its natural level. However, deviations of monetary policy from a neutral stance should lead the real rate to move away from its natural level. Loosely speaking, monetary policy easing (tightening) can be represented as an outward (inward) shift in the supply of funds.17 In the absence of portfolio shifts, the equity premium is constant, implying that movements in the 16Appendix 3.3 shows the negative effect of the stock of public debt on private saving in an overlapping-generations model in which Ricardian equivalence does not hold. 17In the standard Investment Saving–Liquidity Preference Money Supply (IS-LM) model, a decrease in money supply (a leftward shift in the LM curve) increases the real rate, which, in turn, reduces output and investment. The decline in output would shift the saving curve until saving and investment are in equilibrium.

Figure 3.5. Real Interest Rate and Shifts in Demand for and Supply of Funds

Supply

Supply'

Real rate (percent)

Demand

Demand'

Funds (U.S. real dollars, bond market) Source: IMF staff illustration.

cost of capital can be summarized by movements in real rates. The equity premium, however, varies over time. Specifically, two factors can affect the equity premium: (1) a shift in the relative supply of (demand for) bonds and equities and (2) a change in the relative risks of holding bonds and equities.18 The hypotheses outlined above, and their implications for real rates, returns on equities, and global investment and saving schedules, are summarized in Table 3.1. 18More technically, a change in the relative risk of holding bonds and equities is a change in the covariance of long-term bonds or equity with households’ marginal utility of consumption, making one of the two asset classes relatively riskier (or safer) as a financial investment.

Table 3.1. Alternative Hypotheses Explaining a Decline in Real Interest Rates Predicted Effect

Hypothesis

Real Interest Rates

Expected Return on Equity

Global Investment Ratio

Investment Shift

Decrease in the Relative Price of Investment Decrease in Investment Profitability

? ↓

? ↓

? ↓

Saving Shift

Tight Fiscal Policy GDP Growth Increase (habit) Demographics (aging)

↓ ↓ ↑

↓ ↓ ↑

? ↑ ↓

Monetary Policy

Easing







Portfolio Shift

Increase in Relative Risk of Equities Increase in Relative Demand for Bonds

↓ ↓

↑ ↑

? =

Source: IMF staff illustration.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 87

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

1980 to the beginning of the 2000s.19 This reduction, in turn, led to a decline in the value of investment as a share of GDP.20

Figure 3.6. Investment-to-GDP Ratios (Percent of GDP)

Global nominal investment (saving)-to-GDP ratio Advanced economy nominal investment-to-GDP ratio Emerging market economy nominal investment-to-GDP ratio

Reduced investment profitability 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20

1980

85

90

95

2000

05

10

13

18

Sources: Haver Analytics; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; and IMF staff calculations.

Which Factors Contributed to the Decline in Real Interest Rates? This section assesses various hypotheses for explaining the observed decline in real interest rates.

Shifts in the Demand for Funds The investment-to-GDP ratio in advanced economies shows a marked decline since 1980, particularly since 2000 (Figure 3.6). This decline may reflect two factors: a lower price of investment and a reduction in the profitability of investment. Decline in the relative price of investment Figure 3.7 (panel 1) shows the evolution of the relative price of investment and of the value and volume of investment as a share of GDP. The figure shows that although the relative price of investment did not decline meaningfully after 2002, it fell steadily from 88

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

Figure 3.7 also presents the evolution of real corporate profit growth (panel 2) and of corporate profit rates (panel 3). It shows that although no negative shifts in investment profitability are observable up to the early to mid-2000s, investment profitability has markedly declined in the aftermath of the global financial crisis, particularly in the euro area, Japan, and the United Kingdom. Therefore, the hypothesis that a decline in investment profitability in advanced economies has contributed to the decline in real rates does not find empirical support up to the crisis, after which it becomes a key factor.21 Another way to examine the evolution of the attractiveness of investment is to look at the dynamic of Tobin’s q (Hayashi, 1982). A q value greater than one for a company means that the market value of the company is greater than the value of its recorded assets and that firms have an incentive to invest in it. Likewise, a decline in the value of q implies that investment becomes less attractive. Using Thomson Reuters Worldscope data for a sample of more than 30,000 firms for 74 countries for 1990–2013 (Brooks and Ueda, 2011), the analysis finds that the dynamic of q seems to follow the evolution of investment profitability presented above (Figure 3.7, panel 4).22 In particular, no negative shifts in the attractiveness of investment are observable in the 1990s and early to mid-2000s, but q slumped in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. 19The decline in the relative price of investment has been extensively documented in previous studies (for example, Gordon, 1990). These studies typically associate the decline in investment price with better research and development, embodied in new, more efficient investment goods (for example, Fisher, 2006). In addition, falling commodity prices (such as that for steel) also may have contributed to the decline in the relative price of investment in the 1980s and 1990s. 20Although the volume of investment increased during this period, it could not compensate for the reduction in the relative price of the value of investment. 21The decline in investment profitability in advanced economies is confirmed by an estimated measure of profitability (see Appendix 3.2). Furthermore, it coincides with the decline in productivity growth observed in many advanced economies in the aftermath of the crisis. 22The calculations in this analysis assume that the marginal q value is equal to the average q value.

CHAPTER 3   PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBAL REAL INTEREST RATES

In summary, both of these factors contributed to the decline in advanced economy investment ratios, but during different periods: (1) from 1980 to early in the first decade of the 2000s, the substantial decline in the relative price of investment was important, and (2) in the aftermath of the global financial crisis, the negative shift in investment profitability was important.

Shifts in Saving: The Role of Emerging Market Economies The saving-to-GDP ratio in emerging market economies increased markedly after 2000 (Figure 3.8, panel 1). As a result, the global saving rate between 2000 and 2007 increased by 1.7 percentage points (of which 1.5 percentage points can be attributed to increased saving rates in emerging market economies and a further 0.8 percentage point to the increased weight of emerging market economies in world GDP, with a subtraction of 0.6 percentage point resulting from the decline of advanced economy saving rates). Within the emerging market economies, China’s saving accounted for an ever-increasing share—approaching 18 percent of total emerging market economy GDP by 2013, about half of total emerging market economy saving (Figure 3.8, panel 2). The increased supply of saving from emerging market economies, in particular from China, must have contributed significantly to the decline in real interest rates. What factors explain this increase in emerging market economy saving? Higher oil prices contributed to the increase in saving in the oil exporters in this group between 2004 and 2008 (Figure 3.8, panel 2). In addition to rising oil prices, various causes have been proposed, including the erosion of the social safety net in China, financial constraints, demographic factors, and the desire to accumulate a substantial buffer in official reserves (see next section).23 However, in many emerging market economies, financial constraints have decreased (Abiad, Detragiache, and Tressel, 2010), and safety nets have generally been strengthened, which would result in lower saving rates.24 For China, Wu (2011) finds that developments in demographics, safety nets, and financial

Figure 3.7. Investment Shifts in Advanced Economies 1.6 1. Relative Price of Investment, 1980–2013

28

Relative price of investment (left scale) Investment value (percent of GDP; right scale) Investment volume (percent of GDP; right scale)

1.5 1.4

26

1.3

24

1.2

22

1.1

20

1.0 0.9 1980

85

90

95

2000

05

10

13

18

Investment Profitability, 1980–2013 1981–90

1991–2000

8 2. Real Profit Growth (percent) 6

2001–07

2008–13 20

3. Profit Rates (percentage points)

15

4 2

10

0 –2

5

–4 –6

AEs

EA

JPN

UK

US

AEs

EA

JPN

UK

US

1.8 1.6

4. Tobin’s q, 1991–2013 1991–2000

2001–07

0

2008–13

1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

EA

AEs

Japan

UK

US

Sources: Brooks and Ueda (2011); Haver Analytics; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; World Bank, World Development Indicators database; and IMF staff calculations. Note: Real profit growth is the rate of growth of real corporate gross operational surplus. Profit rate is the ratio of corporate gross operational surplus to the capital stock. AEs = advanced economies, EA = euro area, JPN = Japan, UK = United Kingdom, US = United States.

23See, for example, Chamon and Prasad (2010), Song and Yang (2010), Curtis, Lugauer, and Mark (2011), Wei and Zhang (2011), and G20 (2011, 2012). 24For example, between 2000 and 2007, the ratio of public health expenditure to GDP increased to 3.0 percent from 2.7 percent in emerging market economies and to 0.75 percent from 0.49 percent in China.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 89

0.0

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 3.8. Saving Shifts in Emerging Markets 1. Nominal Saving-to-GDP Ratios (percent of GDP)

40 35

Advanced economies EMEs

30 25 20 15

1980

85

90

95

2000

05

10

13

10

40

2. Saving in Total GDP for Emerging Markets (1980–2013, percent)

35 30

EMEs China Oil exporters Other EMEs

25 20 15 10 5

1980

83

86

89

92

95

98

2001

04

07

10

13

0

Contribution of Higher Growth to Increased Saving (percent of GDP, 2001–13) Actual

Predicted

40 3. Emerging Markets

Counterfactual 4. China

60 55

35

50

30

45 40

25 20 2001 03

35 05

07

09

11

13

2001 03

05

07

09

11

13

30

Sources: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; World Bank, World Development Indicators database; and IMF staff calculations. Note: EMEs = emerging market economies; Actual = actual saving-to-GDP ratio; Predicted = predicted saving-to-GDP ratio obtained by regressing the EME saving rate on its lagged value and EME real GDP growth; Counterfactual = conditional forecast of the saving rate assuming real GDP growth is constant at the average value of the late 1990s.

90

constraints have contributed only modestly to the increase in saving rates. Empirical research performed for this chapter confirms this result (Box 3.1). Demographic factors and financial constraints seem important in explaining long-term saving trends and sustained cross-country differences (IMF, 2013). As discussed in Box 3.1, however, they cannot explain the rapid increase in emerging market economy saving rates during 2000–07. A more relevant explanation is that saving rates increased because growth steadily increased (see also Carroll and Weil, 1994). This hypothesis is investigated in Box 3.1. A time-series model, in which saving rates are a function of lagged saving rates and contemporaneous real GDP growth, explains most of the time-series variation in emerging market economy saving rates (Figure 3.8, panels 3 and 4).25 The model suggests that the steady increase in emerging market economy growth in the past decade contributed to a shift in saving rates of about 10 percentage points between 2000 and 2007 (panel 3 of the figure), mainly accounted for by the effect of the acceleration in China (panel 4). These results strongly support the hypothesis that increased emerging market economy growth in the first decade of the 2000s contributed to the rise in emerging market economy saving rates above and beyond the increase in investment rates (that is, net saving increased).26

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

Shifts in Saving: The Role of Fiscal Policy Theory suggests three main channels through which fiscal policy may affect long-term real rates. The first is by reducing public sector saving, thereby raising contemporaneous short-term real rates. The second is through anticipated future deficits, which affect expected short-term real rates. The third is via the stock of public debt and future taxes, which can affect private wealth and thus current saving and consumption decisions. Each of these is examined in turn. 25The model also fits the evolution of saving rates in advanced economies remarkably well, explaining about 90 percent of the variation. 26The relationship between growth and saving is complex and difficult to pin down with great confidence. To the extent Box 3.1 can do so, it finds that the positive relationship between growth and saving in the short to medium term is determined by the effect of growth on saving, rather than the effect of saving on growth. Similarly, strong evidence is found that a steady reduction in growth in many advanced economies (notably Japan) has contributed significantly to the decline in their saving rates.

CHAPTER 3   PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBAL REAL INTEREST RATES

•• Panel 1 of Figure 3.9 shows the historical evolution of world public sector saving as a percentage of world GDP. The global public saving ratio rose during the mid- to late 1980s and mid- to late 1990s, broadly reflecting the profile of the advanced economy ratio (Figure 3.9, panels 2 and 3). •• Figure 3.9 (panel 4) shows expected fiscal positions, as represented by WEO forecasts. These, too, improved considerably in the second part of the 1990s.27 •• Finally, following Blanchard and Summers (1984) and Blanchard (1985), a forward-looking index is constructed that depends on the current level of debt and ten-year forecasts of primary deficits. A decrease in the index over time indicates a reduction in private wealth due to fiscal policy and, thus, a positive shift in total saving.28 The evolution of the aggregate index for advanced economies shows a decline of 2.1 percentage points from 1994 to 2000 (Figure 3.9, panel 5).29 Thus, the evidence regarding all three channels indicates that advanced economy fiscal policies contributed significantly to the decline in real interest rates in the 1990s. Outside of that decade, however, they had the opposite effect. The fact that real rates nevertheless continued to decline during the 2000s means that other factors more than offset the effect of fiscal policy.

Figure 3.9. Effect of Fiscal Policy on Real Interest Rates (Percent of GDP)

Public-saving-to-GDP ratio Public saving net of interest as percent of GDP

5 4 3 2 1 0 –1 1980–84

3

27These

forecasts are available beginning in 1990, but unfortunately only for advanced economies. 28The index is constructed as x = 0.1[b + ∑∞ (1.1)–ipd i=0 t t t,t+i ], in which pdt,t+i is the WEO forecast for the primary-deficit-to-GDP ratio in year t + i, and bt is the debt-to-GDP ratio at time t. See Appendix 3.3 for details. 29This suggests an arc elasticity of about 0.21. In all other periods, the index has increased, putting upward pressure on real rates. 30This is clearly an approximation. For example, over the business cycle, whenever there is a trade-off between output gap and inflation stabilization, the monetary authority has too few instruments to achieve the first-best allocation. This, in turn, implies that over the cycle, the actual real rate cannot be equal to the natural (Wicksellian) rate.

1985–89

1990–94

1995–99

2000–04

2005–09

–2 2010–12

12 3. Emerging Market 6 2. Advanced Economies Economies 5 10 4 8 3 2 6 1 4 0 –1 2 –2 –3 0 1980–84 1990–94 2000–04 2010–12 1980–84 1990–94 2000–04 2010–12

Monetary Policy To the extent that monetary policy is neutral (that is, keeping output at its potential), it does not contribute to the determination of the real interest rate, which is then anchored at its natural level. In practice, it is reasonable to assume that whenever a central bank does not deviate from the systematic behavior implied by its long-standing monetary policy rule, its stance is approximately neutral across business cycles.30 In

6

1. World

4. Advanced Economies, Expected Deficits

0 –3 –6

5. Advanced Economies, Fiscal Index Based on Debt and Expected Deficits

16 14 12 10

Five-year-ahead forecasts Average of one- to five-year-ahead forecasts

–9 1990 94

98

02

06

8 6 4 10 13 1990

96

2002

08

2 13

Sources: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; World Bank, World Development Indicators database; and IMF staff calculations.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 91

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

6

contrast, monetary policy shocks, defined as deviations from the policy rule, should lead to deviations from the neutral stance. For example, a series of tightening shocks should lead to a real rate above the natural rate for some time. To assess the role played by monetary policy, the analysis uses a measure of U.S. monetary policy shocks. The United States is interesting in itself because of its prominent role in the global financial system. Moreover, it is the only country for which a reliable measure of monetary policy shocks that dates back to the 1980s is available (Coibion, 2012).31 In essence, the estimated shocks are exogenous innovations in the policy rate—that is, changes in the rate that are not related to current or expected inflation and economic conditions. Following the approach proposed by Romer and Romer (2004), the effect of monetary policy is estimated as follows:

4

Drt = a + b(l )mpst + et , (3.2)

2

in which r is a real rate, and mps is a monetary policy shock. The results, depicted in Figure 3.10 (panel 1), show that monetary policy shocks have significant and longlasting effects on short-term real interest rates.32 To what extent does monetary policy explain the actual decline in real interest rates? Panel 2 of Figure 3.10 plots the actual evolution of short-term real rates as well as the evolution that can be explained by monetary policy shocks. Until 1992, about 88 percent of the variance in short-term real rates is explained by monetary policy shocks alone; afterward, the percentage of the variance explained is much lower. The story is similar for long-term real rates (panel 3 of the figure), although, as one would expect, monetary policy shocks explain less of the variation. Large tightening policy shocks mostly occurred in the 1980s: between 1980 and 1989, the average policy shock was positive at about 24 basis points a quarter. These positive shocks are consistent with the dramatic change in the conduct of U.S. monetary policy

Figure 3.10. Effect of U.S. Monetary Policy Shocks on Real Interest Rates 2.5

1. Effect on Short-Term Real Rate, 1980:Q1–2008:Q4 (percentage points)

2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7 8 9 Quarters

4 3 2

–0.5

3. Long-Term Real Rate (percent)

7 2. Short-Term Real Rate (percent) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 –1 –2 1983

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Actual Predicted

Actual Predicted

10 8

0 89

95

2001

–2 07 1981 85 89 93 97 2001 05 08

4. U.S. Monetary Policy Shocks, 1980:Q1–2008:Q4 (percent)

5. Global Real Interest Rate (percent a year) Actual Predicted

1 0

8 6 4

–1 –2

2

–3 –4 1980

87

94

2001

08 1981 86

91

0 96 2001 06 09

Sources: Bloomberg, L.P.; Coibion (2012); Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; and IMF staff calculations. Note: In the first panel, the solid line denotes estimated effect; dashed lines denote 90 percent confidence bands. t = 0 is the year of the monetary policy shock. In panel 5, global real rates exclude U.S. real rates.

31The estimated monetary policy shocks are the residuals from an estimated monetary rule based on the Federal Reserve’s Greenbook forecasts. The approach is similar to the one originally proposed by Romer and Romer (2004), but by introducing time-varying parameters, Coibion (2012) allows a distinction to be made between innovations to the central bank’s rule and changes in the rule itself. This distinction is particularly useful for an analysis of a long time span. 32This finding is not novel, and it is consistent with the hypothesis of price rigidities (Christiano, Eichenbaum, and Evans, 1999).

92

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

CHAPTER 3   PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBAL REAL INTEREST RATES

inaugurated at the Federal Reserve by Chairman Paul Volcker on October 6, 1979, which eventually led to successful disinflation (Bernanke and Mishkin, 1992). After 1990 the size of monetary policy shocks declined markedly because the low-inflation regime was by then solidly established (Figure 3.10, panel 4).33 If there is little doubt that the fluctuations in U.S. real interest rates in the 1980s were driven mainly by U.S. monetary policy, it is also clear that U.S. monetary policy shocks explained a substantial part of the fluctuations in the global rate (excluding the U.S. real rate) in that decade (Figure 3.10, panel 5). There are two economic explanations for this result. First, U.S. monetary shocks have substantial spillover effects on other countries’ short-term interest rates, especially for those countries that attempt to stabilize their exchange rates with the U.S. dollar (October 2013 WEO).34 Second, during the 1980s and early 1990s, central banks around the world adopted inflation reduction policies that initially required tighter monetary policy stances, similar to the U.S. Federal Reserve’s.35

Figure 3.11. Real Long-Term Interest Rates and Real Returns on Equity (Percent a year)

Real returns on equity

Real long-term interest rates 9

1. 1983–2001

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1983

85

87

89

91

93

95

97

99

0 2001 5

2. 2001–13

4 3 2 1 0

Portfolio Shifts The hypotheses evaluated so far predict a decline in the real return on a wide spectrum of assets. However, although trends in the returns on bonds and equity were both declining between the 1980s and the late 1990s, after the bursting of the dot-com bubble in 2000–01, the equity premium increased sharply (Figure 3.11).36 There are three explanations for the divergent trend. First, the surge in excess saving (that is, current account surpluses) in emerging market economies led to a steep increase in their foreign exchange reserves in the 2000s (Figure 3.12, panel 1), which were invested 33Various authors have attributed a prominent role to better monetary policy in explaining the reduction in output volatility (see, among others, Galí and Gambetti, 2009; Nakov and Pescatori, 2010). 34In the 1980s, various inflation-prone countries adopted exchange rate targeting as a way of finding a nominal anchor. 35Many advanced economies had reduced inflation and inflation volatility substantially by the early 1990s. Most emerging market economies substantially reduced inflation between the second half of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s. In an increasing number of countries, the policy shift was embodied in the adoption of inflation targeting. 36Although the analysis focuses on the United States because of the availability of longer time series for the equity premium, most advanced and emerging market economies follow a similar pattern. U.S. stock market capitalization accounts for more than 35 percent of global stock market capitalization.

–1 2001 02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

Sources: Bloomberg, L.P.; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; and IMF staff calculations.

mainly in government or government-guaranteed fixed-income liabilities. Indeed, foreign holdings of U.S. Treasury securities increased considerably after 2000, and foreign official holdings in China and other emerging market economies accounted for the largest part of this increase (Figure 3.12, panels 2 and 3). Conversely, the share of foreign private holdings of U.S. equities and other assets remained relatively stable (Figure 3.12, panel 4). Empirical evidence suggests that these foreign official purchases of U.S. Treasuries significantly contributed to the decline in real interest rates in the first decade of the 2000s (Warnock and Warnock, 2009; Bernanke, Reinhart, and Sack, 2004; Beltran and others, 2013).37 37A comparison of previous studies’ estimates of the effects of purchases on Treasury yields suggests that if foreign official inflows into U.S. Treasuries were to decrease in a given month by $100 billion, Treasury rates would rise by 46 to 100 basis points in the short term and by 4 to 20 basis points in the long term (Beltran and others, 2013).



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 93

13

–2

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 3.12. Portfolio Shifts and Relative Demand for Bonds versus Equity 3.5 1. Percent of Global GDP 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5

20

Change in foreign exchange reserves (left scale) Gross saving (right scale)

15

2. Foreign Holdings of U.S. Government Securities (trillions of U.S. dollars)

1.0

5 4 3 2

5

1

0.5 0.0 1990

96

2002

08

6 3. Foreign Holdings of U.S. Government Securities (trillions of U.S. dollars) 5 4 3

14

0

1984

90

96

2002

0 08 11

4. Foreign Official Holdings of U.S. Securities (trillions of U.S. dollars)

5

Government securities Private securities Total

3

Official Total

2

4

0.16 1. Difference in Variances and Correlations between Bonds and Equity Difference in volatility between bond and stock returns 0.12 (left scale) 0.08 Correlation between bond and stock returns (right scale)

1.6

0.04

0.4

0.00

0.0

–0.04

–0.4

–0.08 1980 83

86

89

92

95

98 2001 04

07

90

96

2002

08 11 1984

90

96

2002

10

Variance of stock returns Variance of bond returns

0 08 11

Second, a change in the relative riskiness of bonds and equities has made bonds relatively more attractive. In particular, the evidence summarized in Figure 3.13 (panel 1) shows that the correlation between bond and equity returns has steadily declined (similar results have been found in Campbell, Sunderam, and Viceira, 2013), whereas the correlation between consumption growth and equity returns has dramatically increased since 2000.38 Panel 2 of Figure 3.13 shows that the volatility of equity holdings markedly increased in the aftermaths of the bursting of the dot-com bubble and of the global financial crisis.39 Finally, between 2008 and 2013 some central banks in advanced economies embarked on unconventional monetary policies aimed at stimulating the economy. In 38The

correlation between annual consumption growth and equity returns increased from −0.27 in the 1970–99 sample to more than 0.50 in the period 2000–13. An asset with high returns when consumption is low provides a hedge and therefore yields a low expected return, a negative risk premium. In general, the more procyclical an asset’s return, the higher the risk premium associated with that asset. 39Figure 3.13 also suggests that the increase in the variance of bond returns relative to those of equities may explain the short-lived increase in U.S. real interest rates in the early 1980s (Blanchard, 1993).

94

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

86

89

92

95

98

2001 04

07

–0.8

0.10 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 13

2. Variance of Bonds and Equity

1980 83

0.8

13

2

Sources: Beltran and others (2013); and IMF staff calculations. Note: EMEs = emerging market economies.

1.2

10

1

1 0 1984

(Percent) 6

China Other EMEs Total

10

Figure 3.13. Portfolio Shifts and Relative Riskiness of Bonds versus Equity, 1980–2013

Sources: Bloomberg, L.P.; and IMF staff calculations. Note: Based on autoregressive (ARCH(1)) and generalized autoregressive (GARCH(1)) conditional heteroscedasticity models of bond and stock returns.

particular, some empirical studies (D’Amico and others, 2012; Joyce and others, 2011) provide evidence that quantitative easing, in the form of long-term asset purchases, may have compressed real term premiums on long-term government bonds in the United States and United Kingdom between 2008 and 2012. A reduction in the real term premium, in turn, may explain part of the increase in the equity premium.40 Even though the estimates of the effect of quantitative easing on the term premium are surrounded by wide uncertainty, it is possible that quantitative easing contributed moderately to the observed increase in the equity premium between 2008 and 2013.41 40D’Amico and others (2012) estimate a cumulated effect of Federal Reserve long-term asset purchases on ten-year U.S. government bond yields of about 80 basis points (a similar result is found by Joyce and others, 2011, for the United Kingdom). They claim that most of this effect is attributable to the compression of the real term premium. There is substantial uncertainty, however, about the persistence of the effect. 41It is possible, however, that in the absence of quantitative easing, the increase in the expected real return on equity would have been greater.

CHAPTER 3   PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBAL REAL INTEREST RATES

Scars from the Global Financial Crisis Investment-to-GDP ratios in many advanced economies have not yet recovered to precrisis levels. What should we expect in the medium term? A look at previous financial crises helps answer this question. Two sets of episodes provide the basis for the examination: (1) the entire sample of advanced economy financial crises between 1970 and 2007 identified by Laeven and Valencia (2012) and (2) the “Big 5” financial crises (Spain, 1977; Norway, 1987; Finland, 1991; Sweden, 1991; and Japan, 1992) identified by Reinhart and Rogoff (2008) as the most comparable in severity to the recent one. Looking at financial crises in individual countries allows investment and saving to be analyzed separately.42 The econometric estimates imply that financial crises cause significant and long-lasting declines in the investment-to-GDP ratio (Figure 3.14, panels 1 and 2).43 Financial crises have typically reduced this ratio by about 1 percentage point in the short term (one year after the occurrence of the crisis), with a peak effect of 3 to 3½ percentage points three years after the crisis. The estimated effect matches the 2½ percentage point decline in the investment-to-GDP ratio between 2008 and 2013 remarkably well. Moreover, it is in line with the effect, found in previous studies (Furceri and Mourougane, 2012; Chapter 4 of the October 2009 WEO), of financial crises on the capital-to-labor ratio. With respect to saving, previous financial crises have typically reduced the saving-to-GDP ratio by about 2 percentage points over a two-year horizon. This reduction tapers off to nothing in the medium term (Figure 3.14, panels 3 and 4). The reason financial crises do not have a persistent impact on the total saving rate is that the decline in public saving rates—which typically occurs in the aftermath of financial crises (Reinhart and Rogoff, 2011; Furceri and Zdzienicka, 2012)—is offset by a persistent increase in private saving rates (Figure 3.14, panels 5 and 6). Based on this evidence, the global financial crisis can be expected to leave significant scars in the medium term on investment but not on saving, which will contribute to continued low real interest rates for some time.

42A similar exercise cannot be performed for a global crisis, since investment and saving are equal at the global level. 43See Appendix 3.4 for a description of the methodology used to assess the impact of financial crises on investment and saving as shares of GDP.

Figure 3.14. Effect of Financial Crises on Saving- and Investment-to-GDP Ratios (Percent of GDP)

Investment-to-GDP ratio Actual nominal investment to GDP, 2007–13 (index, 2007 = 0) 1 0

1. Effect of Crises on Investment (all crises)

1

2. Effect of Crises on Investment (Big 5 crises)

0

–1

–1

–2

–2

–3

–3

–4

–4

–5

–5

–6 –6 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Saving-to-GDP ratio Actual nominal saving to GDP, 2007–13 (index, 2007 = 0) 10 8 6

3. Effect of Crises on Saving (all crises)

4. Effect of Crises on Saving (Big 5 crises)

10 8 6

4 2 0

4 2 0

–2 –4 –6

–2 –4

–8 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Public-saving-to-GDP ratio 16 5. Effect of Crises on Public and Private Saving 12 (all crises)

–1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

–6

Private-saving-to-GDP ratio 6. Effect of Crises on Public and Private Saving (Big 5 crises)

16 12

8

8

4

4

0

0

–4

–4

–8

–8

–12 –12 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sources: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; and IMF staff calculations. Note: Big 5 financial crises are those in Spain, 1977; Norway, 1987; Finland, 1991; Sweden, 1991; and Japan, 1992. Solid blue (red) line denotes estimated effect; dashed blue (red) lines denote 90 percent confidence bands; and black line denotes the actual evolution of the investment-to-GDP ratio in advanced economies from 2007 to 2013. X-axis units are years; t = 0 denotes the year of the financial crisis.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 95

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table 3.2. Factors Affecting Real Interest Rates

1996–2000 2001–07 2008–12 Future, Medium Term

Real Interest Rate (percent)

Cost of Capital (percent)

Saving Shifts

Investment Shifts

Portfolio Shifts

 3.3  2.1  0.6 <2.1

 3.5  2.9  2.2 <2.9

↓↓ — ↑

— ↓↓ —

↓↓ ↓↓ —

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: Arrows denote the impact of saving, investment, and portfolio shifts on the real interest rate and the cost of capital. ↑(↓) denotes positive (negative) effects. Multiple arrows indicate larger effects. Dash equals no effect.

Should We Expect a Large Reversal in Real Rates? The past 15-year period is divided by the global financial crisis. Before the crisis real interest rates declined even as the global investment-to-GDP ratio increased, suggesting that a shift in the global saving schedule took place. However, if the outward shift in global saving was the only factor driving the decline in the real rate, a similar decline in the cost of capital should have been observed, but it was not. More precisely, whereas real interest rates declined by about 1.2 percentage points, the cost of capital decreased only by 0.6 percentage point. This difference in declines suggests that portfolio shifts contributed about 0.6 percentage point to decreases in real bond yields (Table 3.2).44 In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, real rates have continued to decline, but equilibrium saving and investment have decreased. The analysis above suggests that an inward shift in the global investment schedule (of about 2 percentage points) was the primary factor—while saving responded to the change in yield. Again, there was a difference in declines between the real rate and the cost of capital. The former declined by about 1½ percentage points, whereas the latter declined only by 0.7 percentage point, suggesting that portfolio shifts contributed about 0.8 percentage point to decreases in real bond yields. Quantitative easing (in the form of long-term asset purchases), by compressing the term premium on long-term government bonds, may explain part of the observed portfolio shift.45 Moreover, 44It

is possible that looser fiscal policy in advanced economies moderated the real-rate decline. 45An upper-bound estimate of the cumulated effect of quantitative easing between 2009 and 2012 in the United States and United Kingdom on the term premium of ten-year government bonds is 80 basis points (D’Amico and others, 2012; Joyce and others, 2011). Since the fixed-income market in those countries is about the same size as the equity market, the impact of quantitative easing would be at most 40 basis points on both the U.S. and U.K. cost of capital. Because these countries contribute to the global cost of capital by no

96

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

high elasticity of real rates to investment shifts (that is, of about 1.5) implies that real rates would have declined considerably more (that is, by about 3 percentage points) in the absence of the zero lower bound on nominal interest rates.46 Unconventional monetary policy in the advanced economies has only mitigated the effects of the zero lower bound, suggesting that natural real rates likely are negative now. Should an increase in real rates be expected in the medium term? Answering this question requires some conjecture about the future evolution of the main determinants of the real rates since 2000: •• Investment shifts: The evidence on the effect of severe financial crises suggests that a full reversal of the downward investment shift in advanced economies is unlikely. In emerging market economies, growth is expected to be about 1 percentage point a year less than that in the first decade of the 2000s. Such a deceleration would reduce machinery and equipment investment in the medium term. In the case of China, the reduction would be amplified by the rebalancing of growth away from investment and toward consumption. •• Saving shifts: The empirical evidence suggests that the lower projected growth would lead to a mediumterm negative shift in emerging market economy saving rates of about 3.5 percentage points.47 Such a reduction would be significantly smaller in absolute terms than the upward shift during the first decade of the 2000s. In advanced economies, the effect of high more than half, the contribution of unconventional monetary policy to portfolio shifts was 0.2 at most. 46A 1 percentage point shift in investment is estimated in this analysis to reduce the real interest rate (the cost of capital) by about 1.5 percentage points (see Appendix 3.5). This estimate implies that the investment shift that took place (of about 2 percentage points) may have reduced the equilibrium real rate by about 3 percentage points. 47Simulations based on the IMF’s Global Integrated Monetary and Fiscal model suggest that the impact of a 3.5 percentage point reduction in emerging market economy saving rates on the global real rate is between 0.25 and 1.25 percentage points in the long term.

CHAPTER 3   PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBAL REAL INTEREST RATES

stocks of public debt on real rates would probably be more than offset by projected improvements in those economies’ fiscal positions.48 •• Portfolio shifts: To the extent that the high demand for safe assets continues in the medium term—as a result of strengthened financial regulation—a reversal of the portfolio shift out of equities is unlikely to occur.49 •• Monetary policy: While output is below potential in advanced economies, monetary policy will probably not contribute to increasing real rates.50 In the medium term, once output gaps are closed, monetary policy is expected to be neutral. In summary, although real interest rates are likely to increase in the medium term, there are no compelling reasons to believe that rates will return to the levels of the early 2000s.

Figure 3.15. Implications of Lower Real Interest Rates for Debt Sustainability (Percent of GDP)

1. Debt Differences

2 0 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10

United States

United Kingdom

Japan

Euro area

Advanced economies

2. Primary Deficit Differences

2.0 1.6

Implications of Persistent Low Real Interest Rates for Debt Sustainability Given the high levels of public debt in advanced economies, even small differences in real interest rates during the coming decades will have major implications for fiscal policy. For a given level of economic activity, if interest rates are higher than expected, current fiscal consolidation targets may not be sufficient to ensure debt sustainability. If they are lower, the debt decline could be faster. The results presented in Figure 3.15 show that if real rates were to remain, for example, about 1.5 percent, which is about 1 percentage point lower than the October 2013 WEO projection, all else equal, this would reduce the advanced economy debt-to-GDP ratio five years ahead by about 4 percentage points. The impact would be larger for countries with higher initial stocks 48The projected evolution of the fiscal index derived in the previous section suggests that fiscal policy in advanced economies may contribute to maintaining low real rates in the medium term. In particular, the fiscal index is projected to decline from about 1.3 in 2013 to about 1.1 in 2018. 49Withdrawal from quantitative easing may induce a modest reversal of the portfolio shifts observed between 2008 and 2013 by raising real term premiums to precrisis levels. 50To the extent that the zero lower bound constrains the reduction of nominal rates and thus prevents real rates from being reduced as desired, actual real rates are likely to be higher than the natural rate. The monetary policy stance is thus involuntarily tight—although unconventional monetary policy can partly mitigate this problem. Once the recovery is sufficiently strong, the natural rate will start rising. Monetary policy, however, is expected to be accommodative until output gaps are closed, by keeping policy rates below the natural level.

–12

1.2 0.8 0.4 United States

United Kingdom

Japan

Euro area

Advanced economies

Sources: Bloomberg, L.P.; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; and IMF staff calculations. Note: Panel 1 shows the differences in the five-year-ahead debt-to-GDP ratio implied by lower real rates. Panel 2 shows the increase in the primary deficit that would need to be sustained each year from 2014 to 2018 to reach the same debt-to-GDP ratio, under the same lower real rates as in panel 1.

of debt (notably Japan). To achieve the same reduction in the debt path with fiscal policy, the primary-surplusto-GDP ratio would have to be higher by about 0.8 percentage point a year.51

Summary and Policy Conclusions Movements in domestic real interest rates have a major common, global component. Therefore, examining shifts in the global supply of and demand for funds is necessary to understand the behavior of interest rates within any region. 51These

figures are illustrative examples. They do not take into account all the details (for example, the maturity structure of debt) needed for a precise calculation. In addition, the exercise assumes that GDP growth is the same in the two scenarios.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 97

0.0

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Global real interest rates have declined substantially since the 1980s. The cost of capital has fallen to a lesser extent, because the return on equity has increased since 2000. Since the early 2000s, three factors have contributed to the declines in real rates and in the cost of capital: •• Saving shifts: The substantial increase in saving in emerging market economies, especially China, in the middle of the first decade of the 2000s contributed to a modest decline in the cost of capital. High income growth in emerging market economies during this period seems to have been the most important factor behind the saving shift. •• Portfolio shifts: About half of the reduction in real rates in the first decade of the 2000s can be attributed to an increase in the relative demand for bonds, which, in turn, reflected an increase in the riskiness of equity and the resulting higher demand for safe assets among emerging market economies to increase official foreign reserves accumulation.52 In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, these factors, though more moderate, have continued to contribute to the decline in real rates. •• Investment shifts: The postcrisis reduction in the cost of capital has been driven mainly by a collapse in the demand for funds for investment in advanced economies. The evidence presented here does not suggest a quick recovery in the investment-to-output ratio for advanced economies in the medium term. The monetary policy stance is expected to be neutral in the medium term once output gaps are closed. A full reversal of the portfolio shift favoring bonds observed in the 2000s is unlikely: although a reduction in surplus emerging market economy saving, and thus in the pace of official reserves accumulation, might reduce the demand for safe assets, strengthened financial regulation will have the opposite effect. The net effect on real interest rates is likely to be small, unless there is a major unexpected change in policies. In advanced economies the effect of high stocks of public debt on real rates is likely to be more than offset by the projected improvements in fiscal balances. The projected reduction in GDP growth in emerging market economies would probably reduce their net saving

rate—and this could be amplified by the rebalancing of growth away from investment in China.53 In summary, it is likely that real interest rates will rise, but no compelling reasons suggest a return to the average level observed during the mid-2000s (that is, about 2 percent). Within this global picture, however, there may be some countries that will see higher real rates because of higher sovereign risk premiums. The conclusions here apply to the risk-free rate. A protracted period of low real interest rates would have negative implications for pension funds and insurance companies with defined-benefit obligations. An environment of continued low real (and nominal) interest rates might also induce investors and financial institutions more broadly to search for higher real (and nominal) yields by taking on more risk. Increased risk taking, in turn, might increase systemic financial sector risks, and appropriate macro- and microprudential oversight would therefore be critical for maintaining financial stability. If real interest rates were to be lower than currently projected in the WEO, achieving fiscal sustainability would be somewhat easier. For example, with real interest rates 1 percentage point lower than projected, the average medium-term debt-to-GDP ratio in advanced economies would be about 4 percentage points lower. Moreover, if real rates are expected to be close to or below the real GDP growth rate for some time, some increases in debt-financed government spending, especially public investment, may not lead to increases in public debt in the medium term. Lower natural real rates also have important implications for monetary policy. For example, with an inflation target of 2 percent, if the equilibrium real interest rate is substantially less than 2 percent as anticipated, the typical neutral policy rate would be significantly less than 4 percent.54 A lower natural rate does not reduce the effectiveness of monetary policy during normal times. However, for a given inflation target, it raises the probability that nominal interest rates will hit the zero lower bound. The higher risk of potential monetary policy ineffectiveness in times of recessions, in turn, may be an important consideration in the choice of an appropriate monetary policy framework.

52Higher demand for safe assets was only partly satisfied by the deterioration in advanced economies’ public finances. The 2000s also saw a vast expansion in holdings of government-guaranteed debt, in particular, mortgage-backed securities. The securitization boom preceding the global financial crisis can be seen as a market response to higher demand for safe assets.

53The effect would be reduced by a composition effect. The countries with the highest GDP growth rates are the ones with the highest saving rates. Their rapid growth would continue to raise the global saving rate even if their own rate were to decline slightly. 54In the United States, the average policy rate between 1990 and 2007 was 4.4 percent.

98

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

CHAPTER 3   PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBAL REAL INTEREST RATES

Appendix 3.1. Model-Based Inflation and Dividend Growth Expectations This appendix describes the empirical methodology used to construct real interest rates and real returns on equity for an unbalanced sample of 25 advanced economies and 15 emerging market economies from 1970 through 2013.

Real Interest Rates Real rates can be approximated by computing the difference between the nominal bond yield and the relevant inflation expectations. Survey information and forecasts from an estimated autoregressive process for inflation are used to obtain inflation expectations (model-based inflation expectations). In particular, model-based inflation expectations over any horizon j are estimated using a monthly autoregressive process AR( p) for the variable gt = lnPt − lnPt–12, in which P is the consumer price index and p = 12 is the order of the process. The AR( p) process is estimated on a rolling window of 60 months to minimize the effect of parameter instability. Using out-of-sample forecasts of gt , Et lnPt+j – lnPt , which is the inflation expectation at time t for the period t + j, is calculated.55 Real rates are then constructed as [n] [n] (1 – g) n i r = it – ——— Si=1 g Et pt,t+i , (3.3) t (1 – gn) – with g = (1 + I )–i, in which rt[n] and it[n] are the real and nominal rates, respectively, on a bond of maturity n; Et pt,t+i is the inflation expectation at time t for period – t + i; and I is the average nominal rate for the period examined. In sum, the real rate is defined as the nominal rate minus the weighted average inflation expectation over the entire life of the bond.

Real Returns on Equity The real required internal rate of return on equity in period t for horizon n is estimated as –j St /Dt = Snj=0(1 + R [n] e,t ) Et gt,t+1+j , (3.4)

55This methodology produces smaller forecast errors, and matches survey expectations better, than an autoregressive process with consumer price index log differences over the previous month, a vector autoregression (VAR) with commodity prices, and a VAR with GDP growth.

in which S is an equity price index and gt,t+j = Dt+j /Dt is cumulated dividend growth, consistent with the equity index chosen. Stated roughly, the expected [n]) is equal to the dividend return on equity (R e,t yield plus the expected long-term growth rate of real dividends. Expected dividend growth rates are constructed by estimating a quarterly bivariate VAR(p) of dividend and GDP growth, with p = 4. The VAR(p) process is estimated on a rolling window of 60 months to minimize the effect of parameter instability.

Appendix 3.2. Investment Profitability One possible explanation for the decrease in investment-to-GDP ratios in many advanced economies is that investment profitability has declined. Various factors can explain shifts in investment profitability (including changes in business taxation, factor prices, productivity, and uncertainty), and quantifying them is difficult. As an alternative, the analysis assesses whether the reduction in the investment-to-GDP ratio can be attributed to the unexpected strengthening of GDP or instead to an anticipated decline in profitability. To discriminate between these two factors, following Blanchard and Summers (1984), the following regression is estimated for each country in the sample: ln It = a + S2i=0 bi lnYt–i + ut , (3.5) in which ut = rut–1 + et ,

(3.6)

with I denoting real private investment and Y real GDP. Under the hypothesis that there has been a ­negative shift in expected profitability, investment should have declined more than predicted by the evolution in output, thus implying a negative forecast error eˆt. Panel 1 of Figure 3.16 presents the aggregated forecast errors for advanced economies. The figure suggests that the hypothesis that a decline in investment profitability has contributed to the decline in real interest rates does not find empirical support up to the global financial crisis, after which it becomes a key factor. A similar conclusion can be reached by looking at the evolution of total factor productivity (Figure 3.16, panel 2).

International Monetary Fund | April 2014 99

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

0.04

myopia about the future. Focusing on the share of aggregate demand (X ) that depends directly on fiscal policy and subtracting the present value of government spending yields

0.02

X = ω[B + p(D; r + p)] + [G – ωp(G; r + p)], (3.8)

Figure 3.16. Investment Shifts in Advanced Economies 1. Estimated Investment Profitability Forecast Errors, 1980–2013 1981–90

1991–2000

2001–07

2008–13

0.06

0.00 –0.02 –0.04 United States

United Kingdom

Japan

2. Productivity Growth, 1991–2013 (percent) 1991–2000

OECD

United Kingdom

Japan

United States

Advanced economies

2001–07

Euro area

–0.06

2008–13

France Germany

Italy

4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 –0.5 –1.0 –1.5

Sources: Haver Analytics; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); World Bank, World Development Indicators database; and IMF staff calculations. Note: Investment profitability is computed as described in the appendix text.

Appendix 3.3. Fiscal Indicator This appendix describes the framework for assessing the impact of debt on total saving and real interest rates. As noted in the chapter text, measuring the impact of fiscal policy on real rates requires looking not only at current and future anticipated deficits, but also at the level of the stock of public debt. Following Blanchard and Summers (1984) and Blanchard (1985), a fiscal index is derived. In a standard life cycle model, consumption is related to wealth. Formally, this can be formulated as C = ω[K + B + p(W − T; r + p)], (3.7) in which C denotes consumption, K + B financial wealth, ω the marginal propensity to consume out of wealth, and p(W − T; r + p) the present value of aftertax labor income discounted at rate r + p. The term r is the real interest rate, and p is a myopia coefficient, reflecting the mortality of current consumers or their 100

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

in which G is government spending, and D denotes primary deficits. The first term of equation (3.8) represents the effect of debt and government finance on demand; the second term represents the effect of government spending financed by current taxes. If consumers are not myopic (p = 0), the first term of equation (3.8) is equal to zero, because consumers fully anticipate the fiscal implications of the government’s budget constraint: if consumers discount future taxes at the interest rate, the timing of a change in taxes does not affect their level of spending (Ricardian equivalence). If consumers are myopic, however, the first term is positive, because they do not fully anticipate that taxes will go up to finance higher interest payments on the stock of public debt. To construct an empirical counterpart of X, given the more limited reliability of forecasts for G, the focus is on the first term of equation (3.8). Dividing each term of equation (3.8) by GDP and focusing on the first term of the equation, equation (3.8) can be rewritten as x = ω[b + p(d; r + p – g)], (3.9) in which lowercase letters indicate shares of GDP, and g is the rate of GDP growth. Assuming a value for ω equal to 0.1, and a value of r + p – g equal to 10 percent a year,56 the empirical index is determined as xt = 0.1[bt + S∞i=0(1.1)–ipdt,t+i], (3.10) in which bt is the stock of public debt at time t, and pdt,t+i is the forecast of primary deficits at time t for the period t + i. In particular, anticipated deficits are constructed using WEO forecasts. These forecasts are available beginning only in 1990, and they should, in principle, incorporate changes in current policies, as well as forecasts of output growth and the evolution of debt and interest payments over time. However, because the forecasts are available only for a time horizon of five years, the ratio of deficits to GDP for year 56The value is chosen as in Blanchard and Summers (1984) and is based on Hayashi’s (1982) estimates. Although choosing a different value would affect the level of the index, it would not affect its evolution, which is the main interest in this analysis.

CHAPTER 3   PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBAL REAL INTEREST RATES

t + i > 5 is assumed to be equal to the ratio forecast for year t + 5.

Appendix 3.4. The Effect of Financial Crises on Investment and Saving This appendix describes the statistical technique used to assess the impact of financial crises on investment and saving as shares of GDP. The statistical method follows the approach proposed by Jordà (2005) to estimate robust impulse response functions. This approach has been advocated by, among others, Stock and Watson (2007) and Auerbach and Gorodnichenko (2013) as a flexible alternative that does not impose dynamic restrictions embedded in vector autoregression (autoregressive distributed lag) specifications. The model is particularly suitable when the dependent variable is highly persistent, as in the analysis in this chapter. More formally, the following econometric specification is estimated: l g k Dy k yi,t+k – yi,t–1 = aki + g kt + Sj=2 j i,t–j + bkDi,t + e i,t, (3.11)

in which y denotes the investment- (saving-)to-GDP ratio, D is a dummy that takes the value one for the starting date of the occurrence of the crisis and zero otherwise, and ai and gt are country and time fixed effects, respectively. The sample consists of an unbalanced panel of 35 advanced economies from 1970 through 2007. Crisis episodes are taken from Laeven and Valencia (2012). Two sets of crisis episodes are of particular interest: (1) the entire sample of financial crisis episodes in advanced economies (1970–2007) and (2) the “Big 5” financial crises (Spain, 1977; Norway, 1987; Finland, 1991; Sweden, 1991; and Japan, 1992) identified by Reinhart and Rogoff (2008) as the most comparable in severity to the recent one. The model is estimated for each k = 0, . . . , 10. Impulse response functions are computed using the estimated coefficients bk. The confidence bands associated with the estimated impulse response functions are obtained using the estimated standard deviations of the coefficients bk. The number of lags (l ) has been tested, and the results suggest that inclusion of two lags produces the best specification. Corrections for heteroscedasticity, when appropriate, are applied using robust standard errors; the problem of autocorrelation is solved using the two lags of the change in the invest-

ment- (saving-)to-GDP ratio as control variables.57 Although the presence of a lagged dependent variable and country fixed effects may, in principle, bias the estimation of g kj and bk in small samples (Nickell, 1981), the length of the time dimension mitigates this concern.58 In theory, another potential concern could be reverse causality, because changes in the investment(saving-)to-GDP ratio may affect the probability of occurrence of financial crises. However, this empirical strategy addresses the issue by estimating changes in the investment- (saving-)to-GDP ratio in the years that follow a crisis.59

Appendix 3.5. Sensitivity of Saving and Investment to Real Rates This appendix presents a framework for assessing the sensitivity of global saving and investment to the real interest rate. The demand for funds (that is, the elasticity of investment to the real rate) is identified using changes in safety nets (proxied by social expenditure) that give rise to exogenous shifts in the supply of funds (saving); the supply of funds is identified using changes in the relative price of investment, which shifts the demand for funds. In particular, the following system of equations is estimated on annual data from 1980 through 2013: st = a0 + a1rt + a2nt + et, (3.12) it = b0 + b1rt + b2pt + et, (3.13) st = it, (3.14) in which s denotes global saving as a percent of GDP, i is global investment as a percent of GDP, n is advanced economy social expenditure as a percent of GDP, and p is the advanced economy relative price of investment. The inclusion of the variables n and p allows the exercise to identify the coefficients of the structural equations (3.12 and 3.13) from a linear combination of the reduced-form coefficients. In particular, the estimates of reduced-form coefficients presented in Table 3.3 give an elasticity of investment to the real rate of 57Tests

for autocorrelation of the residuals have been performed and have rejected the hypothesis of serial correlation. 58The finite sample bias is on the order of 1/T, where T in the sample is 38. 59In addition, robustness checks for endogeneity confirm the validity of the results.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 101

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table 3.3. Investment (Saving) and the Real Interest Rate, Reduced-Form Equations Investment (Saving) Equation Safety Nets

Real Interest Rate Equation

−0.553*** (0.016)  3.334*** (1.121) 0.400

Relative Price of Investment R Squared

  0.106*** (0.042) 21.369*** (2.978) 0.660

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: Robust standard errors are in parentheses. *** denotes significance at the 1 percent level.

about −0.5, and an elasticity of saving to the real rate of about 0.15.60 This also implies that the impact of exogenous shifts in saving and investment on the real rate can be quantified as Dr = 1.5(Saving shifts – Investment shifts).

Appendix 3.6. Saving and Growth with Consumption Habit This appendix derives a simple closed-form solution for both consumption and the saving rate in a rationalexpectations permanent income model. Assume households in each period t enjoy a utility flow from u(ct*) in which ct* = ct – gct–1 and the utility function is quadratic. The role of habit formation is captured by the parameter g; when g = 0, there is no habit. Denote household income as yt and financial wealth as At–1. Households discount the future at a rate r, which is also the return on wealth. Saving is defined as St = rAt–1 + yt – ct . It is then possible to derive the following relationship (Alessie and Lusardi, 1997): g St = gSt+1 + Dyt – 1 – ——– Et S∞j=0(1 + r)–jDyt+j. 1+r (3.15)





Dividing both sides of equation (3.15) by yt, we get g st(1 + gt) = gst–1 + gt – 1 – ——– 1+r × Et S∞j=0(1 + r)–jDyt+j /yt–1, (3.16)





in which st = St /yt and gt = Dyt /yt–1. When gt is sufficiently small, equation (3.16) can be approximated as 60The

estimated elasticity of investment to the real rate is similar to that found in previous studies. For example, Gilchrist and Zakrajsek (2007), using a panel of 926 publicly traded U.S. nonfarm firms from 1973 to 2005, find that a 1 percentage point increase in the cost of capital implies a reduction in the rate of investment of ½ percentage point.

102

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

g st ≅ const + gst–1 + gt – 1 – —— Et S∞j=0(1 + r)–jgt+j. 1+r (3.17)





Assume that output growth follows a stochastic process Et gt+j = r jgt, with |r| < 1; then equation (3.17) can be written as g−r st ≅ const + gst–1 + ———— gt. (3.18) 1+r–r If the habit parameter is higher than the persistence parameter of the growth process, an increase in GDP growth leads to a rise in the saving rate.

Appendix 3.7. Sample of Countries Used in Tables and Figures This appendix describes the sample used to estimate global real interest rates, global investment, global saving, the standard deviation of the real interest rates, and the financial integration indicator. In general, the sample was chosen based on the availability of the data. The coverage period and the full list of countries used to estimate short- and long-term global real interest rates, global nominal investment, and the nominal saving-to-GDP ratio are presented in Table 3.4. The countries in the samples used for some specific figures are also presented in the following paragraphs. Figure 3.3, panel 1, uses a balanced sample of countries for which real interest rates are available since 1970. The global short-term real rate includes data for Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The global long-term real rate includes data for Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the

CHAPTER 3   PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBAL REAL INTEREST RATES

Table 3.4. Data Coverage for Global Interest Rates, Investment, and Saving Period Short-Term Interest Rate

Long-Term Interest Rate

Investment

Saving

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 2000–13

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 2003–13

1960–2013 1963–2013 1980–2013 1977–2013 1960–2013

1960–2013 1966–2013 1970–2013 1977–2013 1967–2013

Australia Austria The Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh

1968–2013 1967–2013 n.a. n.a. n.a.

1967–2013 1967–2013 n.a. n.a. n.a.

1960–2013 1960–2013 1962–2013 1969–2013 1963–2013

1960–2013 1965–2013 1968–2013 1969–2013 1968–2013

Barbados Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan

n.a. 1967–2013 n.a. n.a. n.a.

n.a. 1967–2013 n.a. n.a. n.a.

1965–2013 1960–2013 1963–2013 1969–2013 1979–2013

1967–2013 1980–2013 1968–2013 1969–2013 1980–2013

n.a. n.a. 2001–13 n.a. n.a.

n.a. n.a. 2001–13 n.a. n.a.

1970–2013 1963–2013 1963–2013 1969–2013 1963–2013

1967–2013 1968–2013 1967–2013 1969–2013 1968–2013

Burundi Cabo Verde Cameroon Canada Central African Republic

n.a. n.a. n.a. 1967–2013 n.a.

n.a. n.a. n.a. 1967–2013 n.a.

1960–2013 1963–2013 1963–2013 1960–2013 1969–2013

1968–2013 n.a. 1963–2013 1960–2013 1969–2013

Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros

n.a. 1990–2012 1991–2013 n.a. n.a.

n.a. 2004–13 2002–13 2009–12 n.a.

1969–2013 1960–2013 1963–2013 1960–2013 1969–2013

n.a. 1960–2013 1968–2013 1968–2013 1969–2013

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

1960–2013 1963–2013 1960–2013 1963–2013 1970–2010

1978–2013 1968–2013 1967–2013 1968–2013 n.a.

Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominica Dominican Republic

n.a. 1998–2013 1974–2013 n.a. n.a.

n.a. 2000–13 1974–2013 n.a. n.a.

1963–2013 n.a. 1966–2013 1963–2013 1960–2013

1967–2013 n.a. 1969–2013 1968–2013 1967–2013

Ecuador Egypt Equatorial Guinea Estonia Ethiopia

n.a. n.a. n.a. 1999–2012 n.a.

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

1965–2013 1963–2013 1969–2013 n.a. 1963–2013

1976–2013 1967–2013 n.a. n.a. 1967–2013

Fiji Finland France Gabon The Gambia

n.a. 1970–2013 1970–2013 n.a. n.a.

n.a. 1967–2013 1967–2013 n.a. n.a.

1963–2013 1960–2013 1960–2013 1963–2013 1963–2013

1979–2008 1969–2013 1965–2013 1968–2013 1968–2013

Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala

1967–2013 n.a. 1967–2013 n.a. n.a.

1967–2013 n.a. 1967–2013 n.a. n.a.

1960–2013 1963–2013 1960–2013 1977–2013 1960–2013

1960–2013 1967–2013 1960–2013 1980–2013 1967–2013

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

1969–2013 1979–2013 1960–2013 1963–2013 1963–2013

1969–2013 n.a. 1967–2013 n.a. 1967–2013

Country Albania Algeria Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina

Bolivia Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso

Democratic Rep. of the Congo Republic of Congo Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Cuba

Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 103

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table 3.4. Data Coverage for Global Interest Rates, Investment, and Saving (continued) Period Short-Term Interest Rate

Long-Term Interest Rate

Investment

Saving

Hong Kong SAR Hungary Iceland India Indonesia

1987–2013 1988–2013 1983–2013 1996–2012 1990–2013

1991–2013 1999–2013 1983–2013 1990–2013 2003–13

1961–2013 1960–2013 1960–2013 1960–2013 1963–2013

1961–2013 1968–2013 1960–2013 1967–2013 1967–2013

Iran Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica

n.a. 1983–2013 1992–2013 1971–2013 n.a.

n.a. 1982–2013 1997–2013 1967–2013 n.a.

1963–2013 1960–2013 1963–2013 1960–2013 1963–2013

1963–2013 1960–2013 1963–2013 1965–2013 1967–2013

Japan Jordan Kenya Kiribati Korea

1967–2013 n.a. n.a. n.a. 1980–2013

1967–2013 n.a. n.a. n.a. 1982–2013

1960–2013 1963–2013 1963–2013 1977–1992 1960–2013

1960–2013 n.a. 1963–2013 1979–1992 1965–2013

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

1963–2013 1980–2013 1963–2013 1963–2013 1976–2013

n.a. n.a. 1967–2013 1968–2013 1969–2013

Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives

1967–2013 n.a. n.a. 1976–2013 n.a.

1985–2013 n.a. n.a. 1992–2013 n.a.

1960–2013 1963–2013 1963–2013 1960–2013 1980–2013

1970–2013 1968–2013 1967–2013 1966–2013 1968–2013

Mali Malta Mauritania Mauritius Mexico

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 1978–2013

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 2002–13

1967–2013 1970–2013 1960–2013 1963–2013 1960–2013

1969–2013 1971–2013 n.a. 1967–2013 1967–2013

Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

1969–2013 1963–2013 1963–2013 1960–2013 1980–2013

1969–2013 1968–2013 1968–2013 n.a. n.a.

Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger

n.a. 1967–2013 1974–2013 n.a. n.a.

n.a. 1967–2013 1967–2013 n.a. n.a.

1963–2013 1960–2013 1960–2013 1960–2013 1963–2013

1968–2013 1970–2013 1969–2013 1969–2013 1963–2013

Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama

n.a. 1970–2013 n.a. 1991–2013 n.a.

n.a. 1967–2013 n.a. 2002–12 n.a.

1963–2013 1960–2013 1967–2013 1960–2013 1963–2013

n.a. 1969–2013 1969–2013 1967–2013 1967–2013

Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland

n.a. n.a. n.a. 1976–2013 n.a.

n.a. n.a. 2007–12 1998–2013 n.a.

1960–2013 1963–2013 1960–2013 1960–2013 n.a.

1968–2013 1967–2013 1968–2013 1968–2013 1963–2013

Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Romania Rwanda

1967–2013 n.a. n.a. 1997–2013 n.a.

1967–2013 n.a. n.a. 2011–12 n.a.

1960–2013 1960–2011 1963–2013 1963–2013 1963–2013

1969–2013 n.a. 1968–2013 1979–2013 n.a.

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

1963–2013 1963–2013 1963–2013 1963–2013 1963–2013

n.a. 1968–2013 1968–2013 1967–2013 1968–2013

Country

Kuwait Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Libya

St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Saudi Arabia Senegal

104

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

CHAPTER 3   PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBAL REAL INTEREST RATES

Table 3.4. Data Coverage for Global Interest Rates, Investment, and Saving (continued) Period Short-Term Interest Rate

Long-Term Interest Rate

Investment

Saving

Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa

n.a. n.a. 1981–2013 n.a. 1967–2013

n.a. n.a. 1986–2013 n.a. 1980–2013

1976–2013 1963–2013 1965–2013 1963–2013 1960–2013

1969–2013 1967–2013 1965–2013 1968–2013 1960–2013

Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland

1967–2013 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

1967–2013 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

1960–2013 1963–2013 1976–2013 1977–2005 1963–2013

1969–2013 1967–2013 n.a. n.a. 1968–2013

Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan Province of China Tanzania

1967–2013 1974–2013 n.a. 1983–2013 n.a.

1967–2013 1967–2013 n.a. 1992–2013 n.a.

1960–2013 1965–2013 1965–2010 1963–2013 1963–2013

1960–2013 1980–2011 1969–2010 1963–2013 1967–2013

Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia

1977–2013 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

1996–2012 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

1960–2013 1963–2013 1975–2013 1960–2013 1963–2013

1968–2013 1968–2013 n.a. 1967–2013 1968–2013

Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom

n.a. n.a. 2007–13 n.a. 1967–2013

n.a. n.a. 2007–13 n.a. 1967–2013

1960–2013 1963–2013 n.a. 1964–2013 1960–2013

1963–2013 1963–2013 n.a. 1968–2013 1960–2013

United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Zambia Zimbabwe

1967–2013 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

1967–2013 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

1960–2013 1960–2013 1963–2013 1963–2013 1963–2013 1960–2013

1960–2013 1967–2013 1966–2013 1967–2013 1967–2013 n.a.

Country

Source: IMF staff calculations.

United Kingdom, and the United States. Figure 3.3, panel 3, includes countries with data available starting in 1991. The global real interest rate includes data for Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong SAR, Iceland, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The global cost of capital includes data for Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Hong Kong SAR, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The principal component analysis in Figure 3.4, panel 1, includes data for Australia, Austria, Belgium,

Canada, Finland, France, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The standard deviation of the real interest rate in Figure 3.4, panel 2, employs data for the same sample as the short-term global real rate in Figure 3.3, panel 1. The financial integration in Figure 3.4, panel 2, is constructed using data for Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The global long-term real interest rate in Figure 3.17 is estimated using data for the same sample as in Figure 3.3, panel 1.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 105

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 3.18. Convergence of Real Interest Rates in the Euro Area

Figure 3.17. Global Long-Term Real Interest Rates (Percent a year)

(Percent) Global long-term real interest rate (weighted by U.S. dollar GDP) Global excluding U.S. long-term real interest rate (weighted by U.S. dollar GDP) G7 long-term real interest rate (equal weights)

Long-term real interest rates

Short-term real interest rates

1. Noncore Euro Area Countries

10

8

8

6

6 4

4

2 2

0

0 1990

92

94

96

98

2000 02

04

06

08

10

–2 12 13

–2 2. Core Euro Area Countries

1970

74

78

82

86

90

94

98

2002

06

10

13

7

–4

6

–6

5 4

–8

3 2 1

Sources: Bloomberg, L.P.; Haver Analytics; IMF, International Financial Statistics database; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; World Bank, World Development Indicators database; and IMF staff calculations. Note: G7 comprises Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States.

Finally, the construction of global long-term real rates excludes those countries that have experienced a significant increase in default risk in the aftermath of the global financial crisis (that is, some noncore euro area countries), because analyzing the determinants of default risks goes beyond the scope of the chapter. It is possible to observe, in regard to the euro area,

106

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

0 –1 1990

92

94

96

98 2000

02

04

06

08

10

Sources: Bloomberg, L.P.; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; and IMF staff calculations. Note: Noncore euro area countries comprise Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Spain.

that whereas global long-term real rates have steadily declined for core euro area countries, they have recently increased for noncore euro area countries. In contrast, short-term real rates have decreased for both core and noncore countries (Figure 3.18).

12 13

–2

CHAPTER 3   PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBAL REAL INTEREST RATES

Box 3.1. Saving and Economic Growth The study of private saving behavior has long been central to economics because private national saving is the main source for the financing of investment. Within this research, the causal nexus between the saving rate and economic growth has been the subject of long-standing debate. This box argues that this issue is critical to the understanding of recent saving developments in the global economy. It presents evidence that the increased growth acceleration in emerging market economies during the early years of the 2000s contributed to the increase in their saving rates. In principle the causality between saving and growth may run in both directions. For example, it may be reasonable to consider high saving a precondition for high growth, especially if domestic investment cannot be easily financed with foreign capital (Solow, 1956; Romer, 1986; Rebelo, 1992). In contrast, Modigliani and Brumberg (1954, 1980) predict that higher income growth causes the household saving rate to rise. The crucial assumption behind their argument is that over the life cycle, young, working generations save, whereas the old spend what they accumulated when they were young. In the presence of productivity growth, the young generation is richer than its parents were at the same age. If incomes are growing, the young will be saving on a larger scale than the old are dissaving, so that higher economic growth causes higher saving rates. This prediction has been challenged on both theoretical and empirical grounds. Kotlikoff and Summers (1980, 1988) argue that life cycle saving (that is, saving for retirement) is only a small fraction of national saving.1 Others argue that with more realistic demographic structures, the effects of productivity growth on aggregate saving could go either way.2 Recent studies of consumption behavior have revived the idea that higher growth may lead to higher medium-term saving. In the presence of consumption habits, households whose incomes rise (fall) will adjust their consumption only slowly to the new higher The authors of this box are Davide Furceri, Andrea Pescatori, and Boqun Wang. 1It is also possible that uncertainty about life span, health, and health costs makes older people cautious about spending their assets (Deaton, 1992). 2The presence of liquidity constraints or prudential saving in a life cycle model can, however, induce young generations to save even in the presence of income growth (see Kimball, 1990; Jappelli and Pagano, 1994) and may be another explanation for the positive correlation between growth and the saving rate.

(lower) level—that is, the saving rate will temporarily rise (fall) (Carroll and Weil, 1994).3 This box revisits the saving-growth nexus from an empirical point of view, paying particular attention to the ability of growth to predict saving in the short to medium term. First, the analysis addresses the direction of causality between saving rates and output growth in the short to medium term by looking at whether past real GDP growth and private-saving-to-GDP ratios help predict one another.4 The results of this analysis suggest that increases in saving rates seem to predict lower (not higher) GDP growth in the short to medium term.5 In contrast, increases in GDP growth seem to predict higher saving rates (Table 3.1.1).6 Overall, the results imply that even though the causality between saving and growth runs in both directions, the observed positive correlation between growth and saving must be driven by the effects of changes in growth on saving rates, not the other way around.7 Next, the growth-saving nexus in light of recent experience in advanced economies and emerging market economies, and in Japan and China, is reviewed (Figure 3.1.1). The experiences of Japan and China are relevant because they have contributed significantly to the recent changes in saving behavior in

3Technically, the introduction of consumption habits means that households want to smooth not only the level of their consumption but also its change. 4Technically, a Granger causality test, which is a test of predictive causality, is being performed. The specification used is the following:

sit = ai1 + r1sit–1 + b1git–1 + εit1, git = ai2 + r2 git–1 + b2sit–1 + eit2, in which st and gt denote the five-year (nonoverlapping) averages of the private-saving-to-GDP ratio and real GDP growth, respectively. The inclusion of country fixed effects makes it possible to analyze deviations from countries’ averages. The analysis is performed for an unbalanced sample of 45 advanced and emerging market economies from 1970 to 2013. 5The sign of the effect, however, turns positive when country fixed effects are excluded, corroborating the growth theories’ prediction that higher saving rates lead to higher output (growth) in the long term. 6These results are in line with those obtained by Carroll and Weil (1994). 7Similar results are also obtained using a two-step generalizedmethod-of-moments system estimator.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 107

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Box 3.1 (continued) Table 3.1.1. Saving and Growth: Granger Causality Tests Saving Variable Lagged Five-Year Saving Lagged Five-Year Growth Constant Number of Observations R Squared Country Fixed Effects Year Fixed Effects

Growth

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

0.534*** (0.034) 0.269*** (0.080) 0.0970*** (0.016)

0.556*** (0.033) 0.187** (0.073) 0.101*** (0.015)

−0.0748*** (0.020) 0.0965** (0.046) 0.0317*** (0.009)

−0.0846*** (0.020) 0.128*** (0.045) 0.0263*** (0.009)

502 0.902 Yes Yes

502 0.899 Yes No

502 0.432 Yes Yes

502 0.333 Yes No

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: Standard errors are in parentheses. *, **, and *** denote significance at the 10 percent, 5 percent, and 1 percent levels, respectively.

advanced economies and emerging market economies, respectively. Beginning with emerging market economies, panel 1 of Figure 3.1.1 shows that increases (decreases) in saving rates followed increases (decreases) in growth. In China, the increase in growth early in the first decade of the 2000s was followed by an increase in the saving rate of about 12 percentage points during 2000–07 (panel 2 of the figure). Conversely, the recent growth slowdown was followed by a decline in the saving rate. In advanced economies, the decline in the saving rate was preceded by declines in growth rates (panel 3 of the figure). This trend is particularly evident for Japan (panel 4 of the figure), where lower growth after 1990 was followed by a reduction in the saving rate of about 10 percentage points. These experiences also suggest that the effect of growth on saving has been broadly symmetric (that is, it has been present both when growth increases and when growth decreases). The results suggest that current saving rates are well explained by lagged saving rates and real GDP growth (Table 3.1.1, columns 1 and 2). This holds not only for a panel of countries at medium-term frequencies, but also at the country level at annual frequencies (the estimated equations typically explain about 90 percent of the variation in saving rates).8 8It can be shown that this specification is equivalent to a reduced-form life cycle model with habit in which st = a0 + a1ht* + ut , and ht* = bgt + (1 – b)h*t–1. In this equation, st is the savingto-GDP ratio at time t, gt is the growth rate of income at time t, and ht* is the unobservable stock of habit at time t. The reducedform equation is then estimated using instrumental variables. See Furceri, Pescatori, and Wang (forthcoming).

108

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

This model is used to assess the extent to which perfect foresight about GDP growth would help predict saving rates. To this end, the evolution of saving rates since 2001 is predicted, conditional on observed GDP growth for the same period and the initial saving-toGDP ratio in 2000. The results, presented in Figure 3.1.2, show that the predicted values closely follow the actual evolution of the saving rate.9 For example, in the case of China, the saving rate between 2001 and 2007 increased by about 13 percentage points. The results suggest that about 11 percentage points (that is, 85 percent) of the actual increase can be attributed to the increase in GDP growth. Finally, the analysis turns to some other possible determinants of saving in the short to medium term. In addition to growth, other factors may affect saving rates, including safety nets, financial constraints, and demographic structures. For example, these factors have been found to contribute to an explanation of long-term trends and cross-country differences in saving rates (IMF, 2013). Here, the exercise tests whether they also explain short- and medium-term movements in saving rates. For this purpose, the saving rate is regressed against its lagged value, GDP growth, and a vector of controls, including (1) the private-credit-toGDP ratio (as a proxy for financial deepening), (2) the age-dependency ratio (defined as the ratio of the population ages 0–14 and 65 and older to the population 9In particular, the average absolute ten-year-ahead forecast error of saving rates is only about 1.1 percentage points of GDP (that is, about 4½ percent of the saving-to-GDP ratio). Figure 3.1.2 presents the results only for selected countries. Similar results (available on request) are obtained for most of the countries in the sample.

CHAPTER 3   PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBAL REAL INTEREST RATES

Box 3.1 (continued) Figure 3.1.1. Saving Rate and Accelerations (Decelerations) in GDP

Figure 3.1.2. Total Saving: Actual versus Conditional Forecasts (Percent of GDP)

GDP growth rate (percent; left scale) Saving rate (percent of GDP; right scale) 1. Emerging Market Economies

10 8

40

Forecast

16 2. China

60

36 32

20 1. United States

Actual 2. Japan

28

55 12

50

26

18

24

6 28 4

45

8

24

2 1990

2000

12

5.0 3. Advanced Economies 4.0

20

25 23

3.0

21

2.0 19

1.0

17

0.0 –1.0 1990

2000

12

15

16

22

40 4 1990 7 6 5

2000

4. Japan

14 2001 04

40

22 3. France

07

10 12 2001 04

07

20 10 12

4. Italy

22

35

4 3 2 1 0 –1 –2 1990

35

12

30 25

20

20

18

18

20 2000

12

15

Sources: Haver Analytics; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; World Bank, World Development Indicators database; and IMF staff calculations.

16 2001 04

07

56 5. China

10 12 2001 04

07

16 10 12 38

6. India

52

34

48

in the 15- to 64-year-old age bracket), and (3) public health expenditure as a share of GDP (as a proxy for safety nets).10 The results show that even though the signs of the coefficients are as expected—increases in safety nets, financial deepening, and aging reduce saving—none of the control variables is statistically significant (Table

10In

particular, the following specification is estimated:

30 44 26

40 36 2001 04

07

10 12 2001 04

07

10 12

22

Sources: World Bank, World Development Indicators database; and IMF staff calculations. Note: Forecast is conditional on observed GDP growth and the initial saving-to-GDP ratio observed in 2000.

Sit = ai + r1Sit–1 + b1git + d′Zit + eit. Country fixed effects are included so that the effect of the explanatory variables on deviations of the saving rates from countries’ averages can be analyzed.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 109

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Box 3.1 (continued) Table 3.1.2. Determinants of the Evolution in Saving-to-GDP Ratios (1) Lagged Saving Ratio GDP Growth Financial Deepening Safety Nets Age-Dependency Ratio GDP Growth × Financial Deepening

(2)

0.756*** (0.029) 0.282*** (0.045) –0.003 (0.006) –0.161 (0.145) –0.748 (2.772)

GDP Growth × Safety Nets Average Short-Term Impact of Growth on Saving Number of Observations Adjusted R Squared

0.282*** 878 0.890

0.763*** (0.028) 0.302*** (0.074) –0.005 (0.004)

–0.001 (0.001)

0.290*** 878 0.890

(3) 0.756*** (0.028) 0.202* (1.78)

(4)

–0.245* (0.125)

0.756*** (0.028) 0.203* (0.115) –0.001 (0.006) –0.223 (0.165)

0.003 (0.002)

–0.001 (0.001) 0.002 (0.002)

0.350*** 878 0.890

0.289*** 878 0.890

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: Country fixed effects are included but not reported. Clustered robust standard errors are in parentheses. The average (short-term) impact – – of growth on saving is computed as b1 + ϑZ , in which Z is the simple average of the control variable interacted with GDP growth. *, **, and *** denote significance at the 10 percent, 5 percent, and 1 percent levels, respectively.

3.1.2, column 1).11 A possible explanation for this result is that these variables differ significantly across countries and they move only gradually. Therefore, whereas they are important in explaining cross-country differences in saving rates, as shown in IMF (2013), they do not seem significant in explaining short- to medium-term movements within countries. Another way through which some of these factors (namely, financial constraints and safety nets) may affect saving rates is by strengthening the response of saving to changes in income (for example, Jappelli and Pagano, 1994; Sandri, 2010; Furceri, Pescatori, and 11These results are robust to the inclusion of time fixed effects, using a two-step generalized-method-of-moments system estimator and alternative specifications of the variables, such as (1) using both old and youth age-dependency ratios; (2) using a low-order polynomial to represent 15 population brackets: 0–4, 5–9, . . . , 65–69, 70+ (Higgins, 1998); and (3) using de jure measures of financial constraints (Abiad, Detragiache, and Tressel, 2010).

110

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

Wang, forthcoming). To test this hypothesis, interaction terms between growth and the set of control variables are included in the previous specification.12 The results suggest that interaction effects are not statistically significant (Table 3.1.2, columns 2–4). Moreover, the inclusion of these variables (both as controls and as interaction terms) does not improve the fit of the regression and does not significantly affect the overall impact of growth on saving.13 In summary, the analysis performed confirms a strong relationship between the saving rate and growth at the country level in the short to medium term. Overall, life cycle motives coupled with consumption habits (and possibly prudential saving behavior) are plausible explanations for the observed saving patterns. 12In

particular, the following specification is estimated:

Sit = ai + r1Sit–1 + b1git + d′Zit + ϑ′git Zit + eit. 13When

the interaction terms are included, the average impact – of growth on saving is given by b1 + ϑZ .

CHAPTER 3   PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBAL REAL INTEREST RATES

References Abiad, Abdul, Enrica Detragiache, and Thierry Tressel, 2010, “A New Database of Financial Reforms,” IMF Staff Papers, Vol. 57, No. 2, pp. 281–302. Alessie, Rob, and Annamaria Lusardi, 1997, “Consumption, Saving and Habit Formation,” Economics Letters, Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 103–08. Altunbas, Yener, Leonardo Gambacorta, and Davide MarquésIbañez, 2012, “Do Bank Characteristics Influence the Effect of Monetary Policy on Bank Risk?” Economics Letters, Vol. 117, No. 1, pp. 220–22. Auerbach, Alan J., and Yuriy Gorodnichenko, 2013, “Output Spillovers from Fiscal Policy,” American Economic Review, Vol. 103, No. 3, pp. 141–46. Beltran, Daniel O., Maxwell Kretchmer, Jaime Marquez, and Charles P. Thomas, 2013, “Foreign Holdings of U.S. Treasuries and U.S. Treasury Yields,” Journal of International Money and Finance, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 1120–43. Bernanke, Ben S., and Frederic Mishkin, 1992, “Central Bank Behavior and the Strategy of Monetary Policy: Observations from Six Industrialized Countries,” in NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1992, Vol. 7, ed. by Olivier Blanchard and Stanley Fischer (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press), pp. 183–238. Bernanke, Ben S., Vincent R. Reinhart, and Brian P. Sack, 2004, “Monetary Policy Alternatives at the Zero Bound: An Empirical Assessment,” Finance and Economics Discussion Series Working Paper No. 48 (Washington: Federal Reserve Board). Blanchard, Olivier J., 1985, “Debt, Deficits and Finite Horizons,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 93, No. 2, pp. 223–47. ———, 1993, “Movements in the Equity Premium,” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: 24, pp. 75–138. ———, and Lawrence H. Summers, 1984, “Perspectives on High World Real Interest Rates,” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: 2, pp. 273–334. Brooks, Robin, and Kenichi Ueda, 2011, User Manual for the Corporate Vulnerability Utility, 4th ed. (unpublished; Washington: International Monetary Fund). Campbell, John Y., Adi Sunderam, and Luis M. Viceira, 2013, “Inflation Bets or Deflation Hedges? The Changing Risks of Nominal Bonds,” Harvard Business School Working Paper No. 09–088 (Boston). Carroll, Christopher D., and David N. Weil, 1994, “Saving and Growth: A Reinterpretation,” Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 133–92. Cerra, Valerie, and Sweta C. Saxena, 2008, “Growth Dynamics: The Myth of Economic Recovery,” American Economic Review, Vol. 98, No. 1, pp. 439–57. Chamon, Marcos D., and Eswar S. Prasad, 2010, “Why Are Saving Rates of Urban Households in China Rising?” American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 93–130.

Christiano, Lawrence J., Martin Eichenbaum, and Charles L. Evans, 1999, “Monetary Policy Shocks: What Have We Learned and to What End?” in Handbook of Macroeconomics, Vol. 1, ed. by John B. Taylor and Michael Woodford (Amsterdam: Elsevier), pp. 65–148. Coibion, Olivier, 2012, “Are the Effects of Monetary Policy Shocks Big or Small?” American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 1–32. Curtis, Chadwick C., Steven Lugauer, and Nelson C. Mark, 2011, “Demographic Patterns and Household Saving in China,” NBER Working Paper No. 16828 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research). D’Amico, Stefania, William English, David Lopez-Salido, and Edward Nelson, 2012, “The Federal Reserve’s Large‐Scale Asset Purchase Programs: Rationale and Effects,” Finance and Economics Discussion Series Working Paper No. 2012-85 (Washington: Federal Reserve Board). Deaton, Angus S., 1992, Understanding Consumption (New York: Oxford University Press). Delong, J. Bradford, and Lawrence H. Summers, 2012, “Fiscal Policy in a Depressed Economy,” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity (Spring), pp. 223–97. Fisher, Jonas D.M., 2006, “The Dynamic Effects of Neutral and Investment-Specific Technology Shocks,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 114, No. 3, pp. 413–51. Furceri, Davide, and Annabelle Mourougane, 2012, “The Effect of Financial Crises on Potential Output: New Empirical Evidence from OECD Countries,” Journal of Macroeconomics, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 822–32. Furceri, Davide, Andrea Pescatori, and Boqun Wang, forthcoming, “Saving and Economic Growth,” IMF Working Paper (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Furceri, Davide, and Aleksandra Zdzienicka, 2012, “The Consequences of Banking Crises for Public Debt,” International Finance, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 289–307. Galí, Jordi, and Luca Gambetti, 2009, “On the Sources of the Great Moderation,” American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 26–57. Gilchrist, Simon, and Egon Zakrajsek, 2007, “Investment and the Cost of Capital: New Evidence from the Corporate Bond Market,” NBER Working Paper No. 13174 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research). Gordon, Robert J., 1990, The Measurement of Durable Goods Prices (Chicago: University of Chicago Press and National Bureau of Economic Research). Group of Twenty (G20), 2011, “G-20 Mutual Assessment Process: From Pittsburgh to Cannes,” IMF Umbrella Report, prepared by the staff of the International Monetary Fund (Washington). ———, 2012, “Toward Lasting Stability and Growth: Umbrella Report for G-20 Mutual Assessment Process,” prepared by the staff of the International Monetary Fund (Washington).



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 111

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Hayashi, Fumio, 1982, “Tobin’s Marginal q and Average q: A Neoclassical Interpretation,” Econometrica, Vol. 50, No. 1, pp. 213–24. Higgins, Matthew, 1998, “Demography, National Savings, and International Capital Flows,” International Economic Review, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 343–69. International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2013, “External Balance Assessment (EBA): Technical Background of the Pilot Methodology,” Research Department paper (Washington). Jappelli, Tullio, and Marco Pagano, 1994, “Saving, Growth, and Liquidity Constraints,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 109, No. 1, pp. 83–109. Jordà, Òscar, 2005, “Estimation and Inference of Impulse Responses by Local Projections,” American Economic Review, Vol. 95, No. 1, pp. 161–82. Joyce, Michael, Ana Lasaosa, Ibrahim Stevens, and Matthew Tong, 2011, “The Financial Market Impact of Quantitative Easing in the United Kingdom,” International Journal of Central Banking, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 113–61. Kimball, Miles S., 1990, “Precautionary Saving in the Small and in the Large,” Econometrica, Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 53–73. King, Mervyn, and David Low, 2014, “Measuring the ‘World’ Real Interest Rate,” NBER Working Paper No. 19887 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research). Kotlikoff, Laurence J., and Lawrence H. Summers, 1980, “The Role of Intergenerational Transfers in Aggregate Capital Accumulation,” NBER Working Paper No. 445 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research). ———, 1988, “The Contribution of Intergenerational Transfers to Total Wealth: A Reply,” NBER Working Paper No. 1827 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research). Laeven, Luc, and Fabián Valencia, 2012, “Systemic Banking Crises Database: An Update,” IMF Working Paper No. 12/163 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Maddaloni, Angela, and José-Luis Peydró, 2011, “Bank Risk-Taking, Securitization, Supervision, and Low Interest Rates: Evidence from the Euro-Area and the U.S. Lending Standards,” Review of Financial Studies, Vol. 24, No. 6, pp. 2121–65. McKinsey Global Institute, 2010, Farewell to Cheap Capital? The Implications of Long-Term Shifts in Global Investment and Saving (Seoul, San Francisco, London, Washington). Modigliani, Franco, and Richard Brumberg, 1954, “Utility Analysis and the Consumption Function: An Interpretation of Cross-Section Data,” in Post Keynesian Economics, ed. by Kenneth Kurihara (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press).

112

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

———, 1980, “Utility Analysis and Aggregate Consumption Functions: An Attempt at Integration,” in The Collected Papers of Franco Modigliani: Volume 2, The Life Cycle Hypothesis of Saving, ed. by Andrew Abel and Simon Johnson (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press), pp. 128–97. Nakov, Anton, and Andrea Pescatori, 2010, “Oil and the Great Moderation,” Economic Journal, Vol. 120, No. 543, pp. 131–56. Nickell, Stephen J., 1981, “Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects,” Econometrica, Vol. 49, No. 6, pp. 1417–26. Rebelo, Sergio T., 1992, “Long Run Policy Analysis and Long Run Growth,” NBER Working Paper No. 3325 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research). Reinhart, Carmen M., and Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2008, “Is the 2007 U.S. Subprime Crisis So Different? An International Historical Comparison,” American Economic Review, Vol. 98, No. 2, pp. 339–44. ———, 2011, “From Financial Crash to Debt Crisis,” American Economic Review, Vol. 101, No. 5, pp. 1676–706. Romer, Christina, and David Romer, 2004, “A New Measure of Monetary Shocks: Derivation and Implications,” American Economic Review, Vol. 94, No. 4, pp. 1055–84. Romer, Paul M., 1986, “Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 94, No. 5, pp. 1002–37. Sandri, Damiano, 2010, “Growth and Capital Flows with Risky Entrepreneurship,” IMF Working Paper No. 10/37 (Washington: International Monetary Fund), also forthcoming in American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics. Solow, Robert M., 1956, “A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 70, No. 1, pp. 65–94. Song, Zheng Michael, and Dennis T. Yang, 2010, “Life Cycle Earnings and Saving in a Fast-Growing Economy,” Working Paper (Hong Kong SAR: Chinese University of Hong Kong). Stock, James H., and Mark W. Watson, 2007, “Why Has U.S. Inflation Become Harder to Forecast?” Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Vol. 39, Suppl. 1, pp. 3–33. Warnock, Francis E., and Veronica Cacdac Warnock, 2009, “International Capital Flows and U.S. Interest Rates,” Journal of International Money and Finance, Vol. 28, No. 6, pp. 903–19. Wei, Shang-Jin, and Xiaobo Zhang, 2011, “The Competitive Saving Motive: Evidence from Rising Sex Ratios and Savings Rates in China,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 119, No. 3, pp. 511–64. Wu, Weifeng, 2011, “High and Rising Chinese Saving: It’s Still a Puzzle,” job market paper (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University).

CCHAPTER HAPTER

14

ON THE RECEIVING END? EXTERNAL CONDITIONS AND EMERGING MARKET GROWTH BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS

This chapter finds that external factors induce significant fluctuations in emerging market economies’ growth, explaining about half the variance in their growth rates. Higher growth in advanced economies benefits emerging markets even though it is accompanied by higher global interest rates. A tighter external financing environment, stemming from a higher risk premium on emerging markets’ sovereign debt, reduces their growth. The payoffs from positive demand shocks are greater for economies that have strong trade ties with advanced economies and lesser for economies that are financially open. Adverse external financing shocks hit economies that are financially open, as well as those with limited policy space. China itself has become a key external factor for other emerging markets in the past 15 years—its strong growth provided a buffer during the global financial crisis. China’s recent slowdown has, however, weighed on emerging markets’ growth. Despite the importance of external factors, how much emerging markets are affected also depends on their internal policy responses. The influence of these internal factors has risen in the past two years, although they appear to be reducing rather than spurring growth in some key economies, including China. The persistent dampening effect from internal factors in recent years suggests that trend growth could be affected as well.

T

he recent slowdown in emerging market and developing economies has caused much angst in policy circles. These economies grew at a remarkable pace from the late 1990s until the onset of the global financial crisis in 2008–09 (Figure 4.1, panel 1). With a few exceptions—notably in emerging and developing Europe—activity in these economies also rebounded much more strongly in 2009–10 than in advanced economies (panel 2 of the figure). However, economic growth decelerated after this initial rebound, and growth in some major emerging market economies is now significantly below The authors of this chapter are Aseel Almansour, Aqib Aslam, John Bluedorn, and Rupa Duttagupta (team leader), with support from Gavin Asdorian and Shan Chen. Alexander Culiuc also contributed. Luis Cubeddu provided many helpful suggestions.

levels recorded before the global financial crisis. Thus, policymakers worry that this slowdown could be a sign of the lasting effects of the crisis—temporarily offset by policy stimulus—and the beginning of worse to come. Two polar views have been offered to explain emerging markets’ growth experience, with quite different implications for their future prospects. Some have argued that the slowdown in these economies is inevitable following years of rapid growth, helped by a favorable—but ultimately transitory—external environment characterized by high commodity prices and cheap external credit (Aslund, 2013; Eichengreen, Park, and Shin, 2011). In contrast, others have argued that their improved performance was underpinned by structural reforms and strong macroeconomic policies (de la Torre, Levy Yeyati, and Pienknagura, 2014; Subramanian, 2013; Abiad and others, 2012). The reality could indeed lie somewhere between these competing views, wherein positive external conditions provided emerging market economies with the opportunity to strengthen their economic policies and reforms, and although growth may soften with the unwinding of these conditions, it will remain strong. In this light, it is useful to understand how external conditions have typically affected emerging market economies’ growth, so as to get a picture of how they will cope with the impending changes in these conditions. Historically, different external factors have probably affected these economies in different ways: for example, recent weak growth in advanced economies was likely unfavorable for emerging market economies’ exports and growth, whereas ultralow global interest rates (see Chapter 3), set to support the recovery in advanced economies, may have helped sustain growth by fueling domestic demand. As shown by the black squares in panel 3 of Figure 4.1, domestic demand in some emerging market economies has been growing at a stronger pace than before the global financial crisis. Looking ahead, these global conditions are set to shift: growth in advanced economies should gain speed and support emerging markets’ external demand, but global interest rates will also rise as advanced econoInternational Monetary Fund | April 2014

113

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 4.1. Growth Developments in Advanced and Emerging Market and Developing Economies Emerging market economies grew at a remarkable pace from the late 1990s until the onset of the global financial crisis in 2008–09. With some exceptions, activity in emerging market and developing economies rebounded much more strongly in 2009–10 than in advanced economies. However, economic growth has recently decelerated, with growth in some major emerging markets now significantly below levels recorded prior to the global financial crisis. 1. Real GDP Growth Rates (percent) Advanced economies Emerging market and developing economies

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 –2

1998

2000

02

04

06

08

–4 12

10

2. GDP since the Global Financial Crisis Relative to Precrisis Trend (2008 = 100; dashed lines indicate precrisis trends)

150 140 130

Advanced economies Emerging market and developing economies

120 110 100 90 80

2004

06

08

10

70 14

12

8

3. Emerging Market GDP Growth and Domestic Demand Growth Deviation, 2013 (percentage point difference from trend based on 1999–2006 growth)

6 4 2 0 –2 –4

2013 domestic demand growth deviation from 1999–2006 average RUS

POL IND

ZAF CHN

VEN THA

MYS MEX

BRA TUR

COL CHL

–8 –10

ARG IDN

–6

PHL

Source: IMF staff estimates. Note: X-axis in panel 3 uses International Organization for Standardization (ISO) country codes.

114

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

mies’ monetary policies normalize (see Chapter 1). Similarly, many emerging market economies, especially commodity exporters, will face weaker terms of trade as commodity price increases are reversed. How these economies perform will depend not only on their exposures to these external factors, but also on whether and how they use policies to respond to the changes. This chapter analyzes the effect of external factors on emerging market economies’ growth in the period before, during, and after the global financial crisis and more recently.1 Specifically, it addresses the following questions: •• How have external conditions (such as growth in advanced economies, global financing conditions, and terms of trade) typically affected emerging market economies’ growth over the past decade and a half? •• Are the effects of external factors similar or different across time? Are all emerging markets equally exposed to external shocks, or are some economies more vulnerable? •• Within emerging market economies, how has China’s growth influenced growth in other emerging markets? •• How has the relationship between emerging market economies’ growth and the underlying external and internal factors changed since the onset of the global financial crisis? •• What are the prospects for emerging market economies’ growth—given the expected changes in the global environment—and what are the policy implications? The chapter’s main findings and conclusions are the following: changes in external conditions have important effects on emerging market economies’ growth. Specifically, an unexpected 1 percentage point increase in U.S. growth raises emerging markets’ growth by 0.3 percentage point on impact, and the cumulated effects remain positive beyond the short term (more than one to two years). These positive effects incorporate the fact that the 1 percentage point U.S. growth increase also raises the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate by close to 10 basis points on impact and 25 basis points after one year. 1A related literature analyzes to what extent recent growth changes in emerging market economies are explained by structural versus cyclical factors (see Box 1.2 of the October 2013 World Economic Outlook). Although this chapter does not distinguish between structural growth and cyclical growth, it relates to this issue by addressing whether the growth effects of changes in external conditions are persistent or transitory.

CHAPTER 4   ON THE RECEIVING END?

Similarly, stronger euro area growth boosts emerging market economies’ growth. Conversely, growth is hurt by tighter external financing conditions: a 100 basis point increase in the composite emerging market global sovereign yield reduces growth by ¼ percentage point on impact. On average, in the medium term, external shocks—stemming from external demand, financing costs, and terms of trade—explain about half of the variance in emerging market economies’ growth rates. The incidence of external shocks varies across economies, with stronger growth in advanced economies having a stronger growth effect on emerging market economies that are relatively more exposed to advanced economies in trade and a weaker effect on economies that are more financially open. Similarly, the adverse effects of global financing shocks are higher for emerging market economies that are typically more prone to capital flow volatility or have relatively higher current account deficits and public debt. External factors have contributed as much as or more than other, mostly internal, factors in explaining emerging markets’ growth deviations from the estimated average growth over the past 15 years—although there is considerable heterogeneity across time and across economies. The sharp dip in these economies’ growth during the global financial crisis was almost fully accounted for by external factors. Conversely, the pullback in growth for some emerging market economies since 2012 is mostly attributable to internal factors. External factors have generally been much less important compared with internal factors for some relatively large or closed economies, such as China, India, and Indonesia. China is, in fact, an important contributor to growth for other emerging market economies. China’s strong expansion provided emerging markets with an important buffer during the global financial crisis. However, China’s recent slowdown has also softened emerging market economies’ growth. Specifically, of the 2 percentage point decline in average emerging market economy growth since 2012 compared with 2010–11, China has accounted for close to ½ percentage point, other external factors for 1¼ percentage points, and other, mostly internal, factors for the remaining ¼ percentage point. Finally, although emerging markets’ output and growth outturns since the crisis have been stronger than those observed after most previous global recessions, dynamic forecasts from the empirical model in the analysis, conditional on the path of external

factors, show that in some economies—such as China and a few large emerging market economies—growth since 2012 has been systematically lower than expected given external developments. The persistent dampening effects from these factors suggest that growth could remain lower for some time, affecting growth in the rest of the world as well. Should emerging markets therefore be concerned about their growth prospects as the external environment changes? This chapter’s findings suggest that these economies are likely to face a more complex and challenging growth environment than in the period before the global financial crisis, when most external factors were supportive of growth. On the one hand, if external changes are dominated by a strong recovery in advanced economies, this will, overall, benefit emerging markets despite the accompanying higher U.S. interest rates. However, if external financing conditions tighten by more than can be explained by the recovery in advanced economies, as observed for some emerging market economies during the bouts of market turbulence in the summer of 2013 and the beginning of 2014, emerging markets will suffer. Moreover, as the Chinese economy transitions to a more sustainable but slower pace of growth, this will temporarily weigh on growth in other emerging market economies. Finally, growth will decline further if the drag from internal factors, as observed in some emerging market economies since 2012, continues. In this light, the priority is to better understand the role of these internal factors and assess whether there is scope for policies to improve emerging market growth prospects, without generating macroeconomic imbalances. The rest of the chapter is structured as follows. The next section presents the empirical framework for analyzing the effects of external factors on emerging market economies’ growth and maps those factors’ contributions over the past decade and a half. It also highlights the heterogeneity across emerging markets in the incidence of shocks. The subsequent section discusses the role of China as an independent external factor, followed by an assessment of the relationship between external factors and medium-term growth. The penultimate section discusses how the relationship between emerging market economies’ growth and its underlying external and internal drivers has evolved since the onset of the global financial crisis. The final section draws on the chapter’s findings to discuss emerging market economies’ growth prospects and the implications for policy.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 115

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Effects of External Factors on Emerging Market Growth Analytical Framework The analysis draws on a simple organizing framework to consider the relationship between emerging market economies’ growth and external conditions. It assumes that most emerging markets are small open economies and that global economic conditions are exogenous to their growth, at least on impact. Thus, the impact of external shocks on a particular economy depends on how exposed the economy is to these shocks via crossborder linkages and on how domestic policy stabilizers are allowed to work. Over time, the cumulated effect on domestic growth may be amplified or dampened as domestic policies respond further to external shocks. However, such a framework does not fully consider the potential implications of the rising importance of emerging market economies. Emerging market and developing economies now account for more than onethird of world output at market exchange rates—up from less than 20 percent in the 1990s. Thus, global economic conditions could be treated as endogenous to shocks emanating from emerging market economies as a group. Emerging market and advanced economies could also be driven by common shocks. The analysis in this chapter assumes that any such contemporaneous feedback effects from emerging market economies’ domestic conditions within a quarter are small enough to be ignored, but allows for these domestic conditions to affect global conditions with a lag.2 The chapter also considers the effects of China’s growth—as an external factor distinct from other traditional external factors— on growth in other emerging market economies. With this in mind, this chapter adds to the related literature in three ways:3

2Given these restrictions, one caveat is that the analysis could overstate the effects of external shocks. It is, however, reassuring that the chapter’s estimates for the magnitude of the effects of external conditions are similar to estimates from other recent studies. See note 21 for details. 3Other studies analyzing the role of external conditions in emerging markets’ growth include Calvo, Leiderman, and Reinhart (1993), Canova (2005), Swiston and Bayoumi (2008), and Österholm and Zettelmeyer (2007) for Latin America; Utlaut and van Roye (2010) for Asia; and Adler and Tovar (2012), Erten (2012), and Mackowiak (2007) for a more diverse group of emerging market economies. Most, if not all, find that external shocks—however identified—are important for emerging markets’ growth, explaining about half of its variance.

116

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

•• First, by focusing on the past decade and a half, during which emerging market economies’ performance and policies improved remarkably, as evidenced by their resilience to the deepest global recession in recent history, it analyzes whether the role of external conditions in determining emerging market economies’ growth has fundamentally changed in recent years. •• Second, it documents how the heterogeneity in the incidence of external shocks across emerging market economies relates to differences in their structural characteristics and policies. •• Third, it addresses whether and how the emergence of China as a systemically important component of the global economy has reshaped the impact of external factors on emerging market economies’ growth.4 The analysis uses a standard structural vector autoregression (VAR) model to quantify the growth effects of external shocks. The baseline model comprises nine variables, each placed into either an external or an internal block. The external variables (the “external block”) include U.S. real GDP growth, U.S. inflation as measured by the consumer price index, the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate, the composite emerging market economy bond yield (from the J.P. Morgan Emerging Market Bond Index (EMBI) Global), and economy-specific terms-of-trade growth. In expanded versions of the baseline specification, the external block is augmented by additional proxies for global financing conditions, such as the U.S. high-yield spread, as well as proxies for global demand, such as growth in China and the euro area. The domestic variables (the “internal block”) include domestic real GDP growth, domestic consumer price inflation, the rate of appreciation of the economy’s real exchange rate against the U.S. dollar, and the domestic short-term interest rate. The external block is assumed to be contemporaneously exogenous to the internal block—that is, external variables are not affected by internal variables within a quarter. Within the external block, the structural shocks are identified using a recursive scheme, based on the above order. In other words, U.S. growth shocks are able to affect all other variables within a quarter, whereas shocks to other variables can affect U.S. growth only with a lag of at least one quarter. U.S. inflation shocks are able to affect all the variables ordered below U.S. inflation within a quarter, whereas shocks to the 4Utlaut and van Roye (2010) ask a similar question for emerging Asia, as do Cesa-Bianchi and others (2011) for Latin America.

CHAPTER 4   ON THE RECEIVING END?

v­ ariables below U.S. inflation can affect it only with a lag. A similar logic then applies to variables lower in the external block. Within the internal block, structural shocks are not explicitly ordered and therefore are not identified.5 Taken together, the U.S. variables in the external block proxy for advanced economy economic conditions: U.S. growth captures advanced economy demand shocks; after U.S. growth is controlled for, U.S. inflation captures advanced economy supply shocks; and the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate captures the stance of advanced economy monetary policy.6 Changes in emerging market financing conditions arising from factors other than external demand conditions are incorporated through the EMBI Global yield. Similarly, changes in terms-of-trade growth represent factors other than changes in external demand or financing conditions. The model is estimated individually for each economy in the sample using quarterly data from the first quarter of 1998 through the latest available quarter in 2013. The focus is on the period after the 1990s, given the significant shifts in policies in these economies during this time (Abiad and others, 2012). These include, for example, the adoption of flexible exchange rate regimes, inflation targeting, and the reduction of debt levels. Furthermore, the first quarter of 1998 was the earliest common starting point for all the economies based on data availability at a quarterly frequency. The number of variables and lags chosen for the specification results in a generous parameterization relative to the short sample length. As a result, degrees of freedom are limited such that standard VAR techniques may yield imprecisely estimated relationships that closely fit the data—a problem referred to as “overfitting.” A Bayesian approach, as advocated by Litterman (1986), is adopted to overcome this problem. It allows previous information about the model’s parameters to be combined with information contained within the data to provide more accurate estimates. Given the observed persistence in emerging market economy growth (see 5See Appendix 4.1 for a description of the data and Appendix 4.2 for additional details regarding the recursive identification. 6With the federal funds rate constant at near zero since 2008 and the Federal Reserve’s focus on lowering U.S. interest rates at the long end, the 10-year Treasury bond rate is likely a better proxy for U.S. monetary policy for the analysis. That said, none of the main results of the analysis would be affected if the federal funds rate were used instead (see Appendix 4.2 for details).

Chapter 4 of the October 2012 World Economic Outlook, WEO), it is assumed that all variables follow a first-order autoregressive (AR(1)) process, with the AR coefficient of 0.8 in the priors.7 In view of the short sample length, and given the need to focus on a select few measures for external conditions, a number of robustness checks on the main analysis have been performed, as reported in Appendix 4.2.8 Overall, the main results are found to be largely unaffected by changes in the underlying specification of the model, addition of new variables, changes in the assumptions about the priors (for example, white noise around the unconditional means instead of AR(1) processes), or even changes in the statistical methodology (for example, pooling across economies in a panel VAR and discarding the Bayesian approach). The sample comprises 16 of the largest emerging market economies, spanning a broad spectrum of economic and structural characteristics (Figure 4.2).9 Together, they account for three-quarters of the output of all emerging market and developing economies in purchasing-power-parity terms. Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand are relatively more integrated with global trade and financial markets (panels 1 and 3 of Figure 4.2). Malaysia, Mexico, and Poland are relatively more exposed to advanced economies in goods trade (panel 2). Chile is also financially highly integrated but not that vulnerable to capital flow volatility (panels 3 and 4). Brazil and India have low levels of goods trade exposure to advanced economies 7A more persistent growth process in the prior in part recognizes that growth could in fact be drifting away from its mean for a prolonged period during the sample period. This is possible for a number of the economies in the sample, as observed in their actual growth movements in the past 15 years (see Appendix 4.1). 8The Bayesian methodology is particularly helpful given the relatively short estimation period. With 60 to 62 observations for each economy-specific regression and 37 coefficients to estimate, the prior gets a weight of slightly less than 25 percent in the baseline specification. The weight does increase with the alternative specifications, rising to 50 percent for the short sample regressions in the penultimate section. However, alternative methodologies that do not rely on Bayesian techniques yield broadly similar results: Box 4.1 sheds light on the medium-term relationship between growth and external factors, whereby growth is averaged over a five-year period to remove any effects from business cycles. Appendix 4.2 also discusses the results of the main analysis for a smaller sample of economies for which data are available back to the mid-1990s, which, therefore, does not use Bayesian methods. Finally, it also outlines additional robustness checks using panel VARs. 9The sample is Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russia, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, Venezuela.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 117

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 4.2. Average Country Rankings, 2000–12 The sample of 16 of the largest emerging market economies covers a broad spectrum of economic and structural characteristics. 1. Trade Openness (exports plus imports; percent of GDP)

250 200 150 100 50 0

BRA COL ARG IND TUR VEN RUS MEX CHN IDN ZAF CHL POL PHL THA MYS

2. Trade Exposure to Advanced Economies (goods exports to United States and euro area; percent of GDP)

40 30 20 10 0

IND BRA ARG IDN TUR COL ZAF CHL CHN RUS PHL THA POL VEN MEX MYS

3. Financial Openness (international investment assets plus liabilities; percent of GDP)

250 200 150 100 50

IND COL IDN BRA TUR MEX CHN PHL POL VEN RUS THA ARG ZAF CHL MYS

0

4. Exposure to Capital Flow Volatility (standard deviation of net nonofficial inflows; percent of GDP)

8 6 4 2

MEX IND CHN POL COL PHL BRA IDN CHL ZAF VEN RUS TUR THA MYS ARG

5. Commodity Concentration (net commodity exports; percent of GDP)

THA IND TUR CHN PHL POL MEX BRA ZAF COL MYS IDN ARG CHL RUS VEN

6. Output Volatility (standard deviation of real GDP per capita growth)

and are relatively less open among the sample economies. Argentina and Venezuela experience large output fluctuations—likely reflecting their narrow export bases (panel 5), but also domestic policies—as do Russia and Turkey (panel 6). The discussion of the results focuses on the findings for emerging market economies that enjoyed strong macroeconomic performance during the past 15 years but are now slowing. Although the impulse responses to alternative shocks show the mean group estimates based on all the economies in the sample, the average response for a smaller subsample of emerging market economies, excluding economies that experienced high macroeconomic volatility or recent crises (specifically, Argentina, Russia, and Venezuela), is also presented.

0 25 20 15 10 5 0 –5 –10 10 8

Key Findings Stronger external demand has a lasting positive effect on emerging market economies’ growth despite the attendant rise in the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate (Table 4.1, Figure 4.3). A 1 percentage point increase in U.S. growth typically raises emerging markets’ growth by 0.3 percentage point on impact; the incremental effects remain positive for six quarters (panels 1 and 2 of the figure), and the cumulative effects remain positive beyond the short term (more than one to two years), as shown by the black squares in panel 2 of the figure. Positive spillovers are also transmitted through a small boost to emerging market economies’ terms-oftrade growth (Table 4.1). The impact effect tends to be stronger for economies that are relatively more exposed to advanced economies in trade (for example, Malaysia and Mexico), but also stands out for some others (for example, India and Turkey).10 As shown in Table 4.1, the increase in U.S. growth induces an increase in the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate by close to 10 basis points on impact and further through the first two years (see the estimates in the third grouping within the first data column of the table).11

6 4 2 IDN PHL ZAF COL CHN POL CHL BRA IND MYS MEX THA RUS TUR ARG VEN

0

Sources: IMF, Balance of Payments Statistics database; IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics database; IMF, International Financial Statistics database; IMF, April 2012 World Economic Outlook, Chapter 4; and IMF staff calculations. Note: X-axis in panels uses International Organization for Standardization (ISO) country codes.

118

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

10The relatively high impact elasticity of India’s growth to U.S. growth could reflect the fact that the Indian economy is more closely integrated with that of the United States than is implied by a measure of integration based on the share of India’s goods trade to advanced economies, as in Figure 4.2, panel 2, notably through its sizable service sector exports (for example, outsourcing). Even the data suggest a relatively strong correlation between India’s growth and advanced economy growth in the past 15 years (see Appendix 4.1). 11The effects of the increase in U.S. growth remain strong at about the same level even after growth in other advanced economies is

CHAPTER 4   ON THE RECEIVING END?

Table 4.1. Impulse Responses to Shocks within the External Block: Baseline Model (Percentage points)

Shock

Response1

U.S. Real GDP Growth

U.S. Inflation

Ten-Year U.S. Treasury Bond Rate

EMBI Yield

Terms-of-Trade Growth2

U.S. Real GDP Growth

On Impact End of First Year End of Second Year End of Third Year

1.00 3.20 3.86 3.28

0.00 –0.63 –2.44 –2.04

0.00 0.10 –0.72 –2.72

0.00 –0.09 0.72 1.61

0.00 0.02 0.06 0.09

U.S. Inflation

On Impact End of First Year End of Second Year End of Third Year

0.11 0.66 1.50 1.56

1.00 1.96 0.66 0.70

0.00 0.21 1.21 0.91

0.00 –0.31 –0.42 –0.18

0.00 0.01 0.02 0.05

Ten-Year U.S. Treasury Bond Rate

On Impact End of First Year End of Second Year End of Third Year

0.07 0.26 0.65 1.00

0.07 –0.07 –0.07 –0.14

1.00 3.08 4.96 6.21

0.00 –0.01 0.21 0.49

0.00 0.01 0.01 0.02

EMBI Yield

On Impact End of First Year End of Second Year End of Third Year

–0.31 –0.85 –1.00 –0.67

–0.17 0.14 0.51 0.44

0.22 0.96 2.56 4.76

1.00 2.83 4.13 4.98

0.00 0.00 –0.02 –0.04

Terms-of-Trade Growth2

On Impact End of First Year End of Second Year End of Third Year

0.09 1.22 1.10 –0.39

1.43 0.45 –2.79 –0.83

0.29 1.86 1.89 –0.44

–0.28 –1.47 –0.76 –0.35

1.00 2.23 1.88 2.04

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: EMBI = J.P. Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index. 1All responses are cumulated for the end of the period and normalized for a 1 percentage point shock. 2Averaged across country-specific shocks and responses.

Growth boosts from other advanced economies—proxied by euro area growth in addition to U.S. growth in an alternative specification—are also substantial on impact for emerging market growth (panel 3 in Figure 4.3), even though the positive effects do not endure for as long as those from the U.S. growth shock. This emphasizes the broader sensitivity of growth in emerging market economies to external demand shocks from advanced economies beyond simply the United States. Given the prevailing downside risks to growth prospects in the euro area (see Chapter 1), the risk of adverse spillovers to emerging market growth from Europe also remains strong. Tighter external financing conditions result in a decline in emerging market economies’ growth within the same quarter (Figures 4.4 and 4.5). A 100 basis point increase in the composite EMBI yield (a risk premium shock) reduces emerging market economies’ growth by ¼ percentage point on impact, and the cumulated effects remain negative even after two years

for a majority of the economies. The real exchange rate tends to depreciate, and domestic short-term rates are typically raised in response, possibly reflecting the capital outflows associated with such shocks. The net effect partly depends on the extent to which a weaker currency is able to support export growth. Shocks to other proxies for emerging markets’ external financing conditions yield results similar to those for shocks to the EMBI yield. Since EMBI yields also fluctuate with domestic developments within emerging markets, the composite index, rather than the countryspecific yields, is used as the proxy for external financing conditions. In this index, country-specific factors should be less important. That said, it is possible that changes in the composite EMBI yield could still reflect changes in market sentiment toward underlying domestic developments in emerging markets. Therefore, in an alternative specification, the U.S. corporate high-yield spread is used as an additional proxy for external financing conditions.12 An increase in the U.S.

controlled for. These findings are in line with the related literature (see Österholm and Zettelmeyer, 2007). See Appendix 4.2 for details.

12The U.S. high-yield spread is placed before the EMBI yield, and after all other U.S. variables, in the external block.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 119

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 4.3. Impulse Responses of Domestic Real GDP Growth to External Demand Shocks

Figure 4.4. Impulse Responses to External Financing Shock

Stronger external demand, proxied by a rise in real GDP growth in advanced economies, has a lasting positive effect on emerging market economies’ growth.

A higher risk premium on emerging market economies’ sovereign debt reduces their growth.

(Percentage points)

1. Response to Real GDP Growth Shock in the United States (1 standard deviation = 0.55 percentage point)

0.6 0.5 0.4 Average response 0.3 25th–75th percentile range 0.2 0.1 0.0 –0.1 –0.2 –0.3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 12

2. Response to Real GDP Growth Shock in the United States (normalized to a 1 percentage point rise in U.S. growth)

10

Growth effect on impact (right scale) Cumulated effect on output at end of second year (left scale)

8 6 4 2

Cumulated response of U.S. real GDP growth to its own shock at end of second year (left scale)

3.6

0.6

–2

–0.6

IND

POL CHN

THA PHL

CHL

1 COL ZAF MYS VEN AVG ARG TUR MEX RUS

0.6 0.5 0.4 Average response 0.3 25th–75th percentile range 0.2 0.1 0.0 –0.1 –0.2 –0.3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

0.1

–0.2 –0.3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2. Domestic Short-Term Interest Rate Response (1 standard deviation = 0.54 Average response percentage point) 25th–75th percentile range

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 –0.1

–0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 3. Domestic Real Exchange Rate Response (1 standard deviation = 0.54 percentage point)

1.0 0.5 0.0 –0.5

3. Response to Real GDP Growth Shock in the Euro Area (1 standard deviation = 0.39 percentage point)

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: X-axis units in panels 1 and 3 are quarters; t = 0 denotes the quarter of the shock. X-axis in panel 2 uses International Organization for Standardization (ISO) country codes. 1 Average for all sample economies except Argentina, Russia, and Venezuela.

0.2

–0.1

1.8 1.2

0.3

0.0

2.4

0.0

IDN

1. Domestic Real GDP Growth Response (1 standard deviation = 0.54 percentage point) Average response 25th–75th percentile range

3.0

0 BRA

(Percentage points)

Average response 25th–75th percentile range

–1.0 –1.5

–2.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

8 6 4 2 0 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10

4. Domestic Real GDP Growth Response (normalized to a 1 percentage point rise in the EMBI yield) Cumulated response of EMBI yield to its own shock at the end of second year (left scale)

Growth effect on impact (right scale) Cumulated effect on output at end of second year (left scale) ARG

BRA PHL CHL CHN ZAF MYS TUR AVG 1 VEN COL IDN POL MEX RUS THA IND

2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 –0.5 –1.0 –1.5 –2.0 –2.5

Sources: Federal Reserve Economic Data; Haver Analytics; IMF, International Financial Statistics database; Thomson Reuters Datastream; and IMF staff calculations. Note: X-axis units in panels 1–3 are quarters; t = 0 denotes the quarter of the shock. X-axis in panel 4 uses International Organization for Standardization (ISO) country codes. EMBI = J.P. Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index. 1 Average for all sample economies except Argentina, Russia, and Venezuela.

120

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

CHAPTER 4   ON THE RECEIVING END?

high-yield spread has an even stronger negative growth effect, with a 100 basis point increase in the spread reducing emerging markets’ growth by 0.4 percentage point on impact (Figure 4.5). Effects of changes in U.S. monetary policy, as proxied by the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate in the baseline specification, are also considered. The rise in the U.S. 10-year rate has a negative effect on emerging market growth after a lag of five to six quarters. This may reflect the fact that changes in the U.S. 10-year rates (that are unrelated to U.S. GDP growth and inflation) can still embody many other factors unrelated to the U.S. monetary policy stance, such as expectations about the path of the U.S. economy, or even changes to risk appetite in international investors because of non-U.S. factors as observed through safe haven flows to U.S. Treasury bonds during crises. The details are discussed in Appendix 4.2. Similar results— a lagged negative growth response to a U.S. interest rate increase after the early 1990s—have also been found by others (Mackowiak, 2007; Österholm and Zettelmeyer, 2007; Ilzetzki and Jin, 2013).13 Simple associations linking economies’ growth responses to external shocks with their structural and macroeconomic characteristics are examined by way of bivariate scatter plots (Figure 4.6). With 16 observations for each correlation in this figure, the statistical relationships are suggestive at best. Notable observations include the following: •• Higher advanced economy growth imparts stronger growth spillovers for emerging markets that trade relatively more with advanced economies (for example, Mexico; see panel 1 of the figure) but weaker spillovers for those that are financially more open (for example, Chile; see panel 2). Countries exposed to greater capital flow volatility in general (for example, Thailand; see panel 3) also benefit less. It is possible that stronger growth in advanced economies (and the attendant rise in their interest rates) results in greater capital outflows 13Other proxies for U.S. monetary policy (besides the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate in the baseline specification) that are considered include the effective federal funds or policy rate, the ex ante real federal funds rate, the change in the policy rate, the term spread (the 10-year Treasury bond rate minus the effective federal funds rate), and measures of pure monetary policy shocks (such as those in Kuttner, 2001, and Romer and Romer, 2004). For each of these proxies, the 10-year rate is replaced with the proxy in alternative specifications. Shocks to most of these proxies result in a lagged negative effect on emerging markets’ growth. Only increases in the term spread have an immediate negative effect (see Appendix 4.2 for details).

Figure 4.5. Impulse Responses to U.S. High-Yield Spread Shock (Percentage points)

A rise in the U.S. high-yield spread also has a strong negative effect on emerging market economies’ growth. 1. Domestic Real GDP Growth Response (1 standard deviation = 0.59 percentage point)

0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0

Average response 25th–75th percentile range

–0.1 –0.2 –0.3

–0.4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2. Domestic Short-Term Interest Rate Response (1 standard deviation = 0.59 percentage point) Average response 25th–75th percentile range

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 –0.1

–0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 3. Domestic Real Exchange Rate Response (1 standard deviation = 0.59 percentage point)

1.0 0.5 0.0

Average response 25th–75th percentile range

–0.5 –1.0 –1.5

–2.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

6 4 2 0 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 –12

4. Domestic Real GDP Growth Response (normalized to a 1 percentage point rise in the U.S. high-yield spread) Cumulated response of U.S. high-yield spread to its own shock at end of second year (left scale)

Growth effect on impact (right scale) Cumulated effect on output at end of second year (left scale) 1 VEN RUS BRA ZAF CHL MYS CHN IND AVG ARG COL MEX POL PHL IDN THA TUR

3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6

Sources: Federal Reserve Economic Data; Haver Analytics; IMF, International Financial Statistics database; Thomson Reuters Datastream; and IMF staff calculations. Note: X-axis units in panels 1–3 are quarters; t = 0 denotes the quarter of the shock. X-axis in panel 4 uses International Organization for Standardization (ISO) country codes. 1 Average for all sample economies except Argentina, Russia, and Venezuela.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 121

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 4.6. Correlations between Growth Responses to External Shocks and Country-Specific Characteristics (Percentage points)

Stronger external demand is more beneficial to economies that have stronger trade links with advanced economies and less beneficial to economies that are financially very open. External financing shocks more severely affect economies that are more exposed to capital flow volatility and those with relatively less policy space. 1.2

2. Impact Effect of a 1 Percent 1.2 U.S. Growth Shock

1. Impact Effect of a 1 Percent U.S. Growth Shock

1.0 0.8

RUS

IND

0.6 0.4

BRA

0.2

ZAF IDN

0.0

IND

MEX

TUR PHL

POL

MYS

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Trade exposure to advanced economies (goods exports to the United States and euro area in percent of domestic GDP) 1.2

VEN

0.8

RUS

IND

TUR MYS

MEX BRA PHL 0.4 POL ZAF 0.2 CHN IDN THA 0.0 CHL COL ARG –0.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Capital flow volatility (standard deviation of net capital flows to GDP during 2000–12) 0.6

0.4 0.2 0.0 –0.2

CHN

RUS

–0.4 –0.6

4. Impact Effect of a 1 Percent 0.4 EMBI Yield Shock CHN ZAF MEX BRA PHL IDN COL CHL IND POL VEN

IND

THA

–1.0

ARG

–0.2 –0.4 –0.6

THA

–0.8

6. Impact Effect of a 1 Percent 0.4 EMBI Yield Shock MEX ZAF MYS

CHN RUS CHL

POL

COL

POL

PHL

THA 0

IDN BRA ARG IND

VEN

TUR

–15 –10 –5 0 5 Average current account deficit, 2000–12, percent of GDP

RUS

0.0

–1.0 2 3 4 5 6 7 Capital flow volatility (standard deviation of net capital flows to GDP during 2000–12)

VEN

–0.8

MYS

1

BRA COL

ARG CHL

0.2

TUR

MEX IDN ZAF

PHL

0.6

Financial openness (international investment assets plus liabilities in percent of GDP)

5. Impact Effect of a 1 Percent EMBI Yield Shock MYS

MYS

POL

0.4 BRA ZAF CHN PHL 0.2 COL IDN THA CHL 0.0 ARG –0.2 0 40 80 120 160 200 240

3. Impact Effect of a 1 Percent U.S. Growth Shock

1.0

0.8

RUS

TUR

MEX

CHN COL THA CHL ARG

–0.2

1.0

VEN

VEN

TUR

0.2 0.0 –0.2 –0.4 –0.6 –0.8

15 30 45 60 75 90 Average public debt, 2000–12, percent of GDP

–1.0

Sources: IMF, Balance of Payments Statistics database; IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics database; IMF, International Financial Statistics database; IMF, April 2012 World Economic Outlook, Chapter 4; and IMF staff calculations. Note: EMBI = J.P. Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index. Data labels in the figure use International Organization for Standardization (ISO) country codes.

122

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

from financially integrated economies, partly or fully offsetting the beneficial effects of the external demand increase, especially for economies that do not have strong trade ties with advanced economies. •• Adverse external financing shocks hurt economies more when they tend to be more exposed to capital flow volatility (for example, Thailand and Turkey; see panel 4) or when they have relatively higher external current account deficits and public debt (see panels 5 and 6). The effects are less acute for some economies despite their financial openness, which could be attributable to relatively strong macroeconomic positions (for example, Malaysia). Chile and Malaysia are among the few economies in the sample that have tended to hold their domestic interest rates steady or have even cut them in response to higher EMBI yields. For some others, inadequate policy space may have limited the scope for countercyclical policies to cushion the growth effects of higher EMBI yields. These results resonate well with policies observed in the second half of 2013 and so far in 2014 in response to financial market volatility. Many emerging market economies have resorted to raising domestic interest rates as external financing conditions have tightened and have allowed their exchange rates to adjust. The findings in this chapter suggest that how these economies will be affected will depend on whether their external financial conditions tighten by more than what can be explained by a growth recovery in advanced economies, as well as on their domestic policy response. If financing conditions are tighter, and emerging market economies are forced to limit capital outflows by raising domestic rates, growth will decline, with the decline offset, in part, by exchange rate depreciation. Growth will be further hit in economies that are more exposed to capital flow volatility or those with limited policy space to respond countercyclically to these shocks. Increases in emerging market economies’ terms-oftrade growth that are not accounted for by external demand have a small positive effect on growth that lasts about one year (Figure 4.7). The relatively muted response (compared with responses to other shocks) may reflect the fact that these terms-of-trade changes are driven by supply shocks.14 14As shown in Appendix 4.2, an alternative specification that considers the global commodity price index, as an additional proxy for emerging market economies’ terms of trade, yields broadly similar results for the effects of shocks from global commodity price growth on emerging market economies’ real GDP growth.

CHAPTER 4   ON THE RECEIVING END?

External versus Internal Factors’ Contributions in Historical Growth Dynamics The analysis so far has confirmed that shocks stemming from external demand and financing conditions have significant repercussions for emerging markets’ growth. However, the combination of domestic structures and policies has helped offset the shocks in some cases, whereas it has amplified them in others. In this light, this section looks back historically to assess the extent to which emerging market economies’ growth performance relative to their estimated average growth over the sample period is explained by external factors. External factors tended to explain one-half or more of the deviation in emerging market economies’ growth from the estimated sample mean during 1998–2013 (Figure 4.8, panel 1).15 The higher contribution of external factors is particularly noticeable during the last two recessions originating in advanced economies—in the early 2000s and during the global financial crisis. However, the other, mostly internal factors contributed more during the onset of emerging markets’ rapid expansion in the period before the global financial crisis, as well as during the slowdown beginning in 2012. Internal factors played a more important role, however, in relatively closed or large economies for the entire sample period (Figure 4.8, panels 2–7). Note that in Figure 4.8, the increase or decline in the contribution of a factor is measured by the change in its level relative to the previous quarter. In China, internal factors started contributing less to deviations from average growth beginning in early 2007. The negative contribution of internal factors increased at the onset of the crisis, peaking in the first quarter of 2009, after which a large-scale fiscal stimulus package was deployed (see Dreger and Zhang, 2011). The contribution of internal factors started rising in mid-2009, turning positive in the fourth quarter of 2009 and peaking in 2010. Similarly, in India, internal factors began dampening growth in early 2008, likely as the result of tensions from growing bottlenecks in 15Given the estimates from the reduced-form VAR, growth for each economy at any point in history can be expressed as the sum of initial conditions and all the structural shocks in the model. The sum of the shocks from the identified external factors—advanced economy indicators, EMBI yield, and terms-of-trade growth—provides the contribution of all external factors. The remaining shocks likely stem from domestic variables (such as domestic inflation, real exchange rates, and short-term interest rates in the model) and are termed internal. That said, these unidentified residual shocks could also partly embody other factors, such as common or exogenous shocks (for example, natural disasters).

Figure 4.7. Impulse Responses of Domestic Real GDP Growth to Terms-of-Trade Growth Shock (Percentage points)

Increases in emerging market economies’ terms-of-trade growth that are not accounted for by external demand have a small positive effect on growth that lasts for about one year. 1. Terms-of-Trade Growth Shock (1 standard deviation = 2.96 percentage points) Average response 25th–75th percentile range

0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 –0.1

–0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2. Terms-of-Trade Growth Shock (normalized to a 1 percentage point rise in terms-of-trade growth) 2.5 3.0

Cumulated response of terms-of-trade growth to its own shock at end of second year (left scale)

2.0 1.5

Growth effect on impact (right scale) Cumulated effect on output at end of second year (left scale)

1.0 0.5 0.0

1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0

–0.5 –1.0

1.2

–0.2 ARG CHN TUR COL PHL MYS ZAF POL AVG 1 MEX RUS IND BRA IDN VEN CHL THA

–0.4

Sources: Haver Analytics; IMF, International Financial Statistics database; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; and IMF staff calculations. Note: X-axis units in panel 1 are quarters; t = 0 denotes the quarter of the shock. X-axis in panel 2 uses International Organization for Standardization (ISO) country codes. Average response to terms-of-trade growth shock is calculated as the average of the responses of emerging market economies’ growth to their countryspecific terms-of-trade growth shock. 1 Average for all sample economies except Argentina, Russia, and Venezuela.

infrastructure after a period of rapid growth (see IMF, 2008a). Their negative incidence continued until mid2009, when internal factors started contributing more to growth again. In contrast, the sharp dip in growth in Brazil and Indonesia during the global financial crisis was almost fully driven by external factors. In Russia and South Africa, external factors dominated growth dynamics during the global financial crisis, but internal factors also played a role, possibly reflecting problems related to domestic overheating (in Russia; see IMF, 2008b) or supply-side constraints (in South Africa; see IMF, 2008c).

International Monetary Fund | April 2014 123

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 4.8. Historical Decompositions of Real GDP Growth into Internal and External Factors (Percentage points)

External factors tended to explain one-half or more of emerging market economies’ growth deviation relative to the estimated sample mean during 1998–2013. The roles of external versus internal factors, however, varied across economies, with internal factors playing a more important role in relatively closed or large economies throughout the sample period. Internal factors

External factors

Deviation

1. Emerging Market Economy Average 1

4 2 0 –2 –4 –6

1999

2001

03

8 2. Brazil

05

07

09

11

13: Q2

3. China

–8 6 4

4

2

0

0

–4

–2

–8 1999

2003

07

4. India

8

11 13: 1999 2003 Q2 5. Indonesia

07

10 12

–4 2 1

4

0

0

–1

–4

–2

–8 1999

2003

07

8 6. Russia

11 13: 1999 2003 07 Q2 7. South Africa

10 12

4

4

2

0

0

–4

–2

–8

–4

–12 –16 1999

–3

2003

07

11 13: 1999 Q2

2003

07

11 13: Q2

Sources: Haver Analytics; Thomson Reuters Datastream; and IMF staff calculations. Note: The underlying vector autoregression model includes U.S. real GDP growth, U.S. inflation, 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate, J.P. Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index yield, and terms-of-trade growth in the external block. 1 Average for all sample economies except Argentina, Russia, and Venezuela.

124

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

–6

Internal factors appear to have been pulling down growth in some economies in recent years, although their contribution to growth changes over time has differed across countries. In China, these factors were largely depressing growth after late 2010, but there is a small uptick in their contribution in the last quarter of 2012. A similar picture emerges for India, wherein internal factors reduced growth from 2011 until the third quarter of 2012, but there is an increase in their contribution since late 2012. A more nuanced picture emerges for Brazil and South Africa, but in both economies, after a drag from internal factors in the second half of 2012, these factors contributed more to growth in the first half of 2013.

Global Chain or Global China? Quantifying China’s Impact China’s dramatic expansion during the past several decades has garnered much policy attention. The economy’s rising weight in international trade has offered many emerging market economies the scope to diversify their exports away from advanced economies toward China. A number of recent studies have found significant implications of changes in China’s real activity for growth in the rest of the world (Arora and Vamvakidis, 2010; Ahuja and Nabar, 2012; CesaBianchi and others, 2011; IMF, 2012, 2013a; and the Spillover Feature in Chapter 2). Moreover, China itself has become more resilient to changes in advanced economies’ economic developments, as documented in the previous section. Accordingly, this section analyzes the implications of China as a distinct external factor for other emerging markets’ growth since the late 1990s. How China influences growth beyond its borders will, of course, depend on the nature of its cross-country linkages. One prominent channel is the global supply chain, through which China imports intermediate inputs from elsewhere—especially emerging Asia—to produce final goods for advanced economy markets. In this role, changes in China’s growth are largely endogenous to changes in demand conditions in advanced economies. Another channel arises from China’s own demand. China’s investment-oriented growth can boost commodity-exporting emerging market economies via higher commodity demand and prices. Further demand rebalancing toward private consumption will also benefit those exporting final goods to China (see

CHAPTER 4   ON THE RECEIVING END?

Box 1.2). Finally, China can also support growth elsewhere through higher foreign direct investment flows into those economies (Dabla-Norris, Espinoza, and Jahan, 2012). To identify China’s economic impact on others, its growth is placed in the external block for the other 15 emerging market economies in the sample.16 The results confirm China’s systemic importance in emerging markets’ growth (Figure 4.9). A 1 percentage point rise in China’s growth—which is not explained by U.S. growth—increases other emerging market economies’ growth by about 0.1 percentage point on impact. The positive effect tends to build over time as emerging markets’ terms of trade get a further boost, highlighting China’s relevance for global commodity markets (see Table 4.2).17 The impact elasticity is high for some economies in Asia, such as Thailand, but also for commodity exporters such as Russia.18 Growth shocks from China also feed back into the global economy. A 1 percentage point growth shock in China boosts U.S. growth with a lag, the cumulative effect rising to 0.4 percentage point for a cumulative rise in China’s growth to 4.6 percent after two years (see Table 4.2 and panel 2 of Figure 4.9). However, the effect reverses fully within three years. Emerging markets’ economic integration with China has provided an offset to other external factors at key moments (Figure 4.10). Note once again that the increase or decline in the contribution of a factor is measured by the change in its level relative to the previous quarter. China’s growth contributed positively to other emerging markets’ growth from mid-2001 until early 2002, helping to ameliorate the negative effects of other external factors in the aftermath of the advanced economy recession. Also, after the onset of the global financial crisis, recovering Chinese growth—boosted by

Figure 4.9. Impulse Responses to Real GDP Growth Shock in China (Percentage points)

A 1 percentage point rise in China’s growth increases emerging market economies’ growth by 0.1 percentage point on impact, on average. The positive effect builds over time as emerging market economies’ terms-of-trade growth gets a further boost, highlighting China’s relevance for global commodity markets. 1. Domestic Real GDP Growth Response (1 standard deviation = 0.54 percentage point)

0.4 0.3

Average response 25th–75th percentile range

0.2 0.1 0.0 –0.1

–0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 6 4

2. Domestic Real GDP Growth Response (normalized to a 1 percentage point rise in China growth)

2.0 1.5

Cumulated response of China real GDP growth to its own shock at end of second year (left scale)

1.0

2

0.5

0

0.0

–2 –4 –6

–0.5

Growth effect on impact (right scale) Cumulated effect on output at end of second year (left scale) TUR

PHL CHL

MYS IDN

POL IND

MEX BRA

THA COL

RUS ZAF

–1.0 –1.5

VEN ARG

AVG

3. U.S. Real GDP Growth Response (1 standard deviation = 0.54 percentage point) Average response 25th–75th percentile range

1

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0

16In

this specification, the U.S.-specific variables control for advanced economy growth influences on emerging market economies through the global supply chain and are placed before China’s growth in the recursive ordering. In an alternative specification with both China and euro area growth, the euro area’s growth is placed after U.S. growth in the recursive ordering, whereas China’s growth still comes after all advanced economy indicators. However, switching the place of China’s growth in the external block (either after U.S. or euro area growth or after all advanced economy indicators) does not materially affect the main results. 17The effects of changes in China’s real investment growth on domestic growth follow a similar pattern but are smaller in magnitude (see Appendix 4.2 for details). 18For some commodity exporters, the positive effects build over time and peak at the end of the second year (for example, Brazil and Chile).

–0.1 –0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: X-axis units in panels 1 and 3 are quarters; t = 0 denotes the quarter of the shock. X-axis in panel 2 uses International Organization for Standardization (ISO) country codes. 1 Average for all sample economies except Argentina, Russia, and Venezuela.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 125

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table 4.2. Impulse Responses to Shocks within the External Block: Modified Baseline Model with China Real GDP Growth (Percentage points)

Shock

Response1

U.S. Real GDP Growth

U.S. Inflation

Ten-Year U.S. Treasury Bond Rate

China Real GDP Growth

EMBI Yield

Terms-ofTrade Growth2

U.S. Real GDP Growth

On Impact End of First Year End of Second Year End of Third Year

1.00 3.18 3.88 3.40

0.00 –0.55 –2.31 –1.99

0.00 0.28 –0.35 –2.47

0.00 0.32 0.39 –0.50

0.00 –0.04 0.56 1.04

0.00 0.01 0.06 0.08

U.S. Inflation

On Impact End of First Year End of Second Year End of Third Year

0.12 0.66 1.42 1.51

1.00 2.08 0.91 0.89

0.00 0.28 1.46 1.46

0.00 0.19 0.68 0.67

0.00 –0.20 –0.16 0.01

0.00 0.01 0.01 0.05

Ten-Year U.S. Treasury Bond Rate

On Impact End of First Year End of Second Year End of Third Year

0.07 0.25 0.64 1.00

0.07 –0.08 –0.12 –0.18

1.00 3.11 5.02 6.31

0.00 0.08 0.29 0.45

0.00 0.03 0.31 0.62

0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03

China Real GDP Growth

On Impact End of First Year End of Second Year End of Third Year

0.27 0.70 0.83 1.11

0.28 –0.19 –0.15 0.23

0.94 3.44 6.33 8.00

1.00 3.24 4.59 5.13

0.00 –0.27 –0.60 –0.88

0.00 0.04 0.11 0.16

EMBI Yield

On Impact End of First Year End of Second Year End of Third Year

–0.30 –0.81 –0.91 –0.57

–0.15 0.12 0.51 0.42

0.22 0.87 2.27 4.22

–0.02 –0.21 –0.42 –0.34

1.00 2.84 4.13 5.02

0.00 0.00 –0.01 –0.03

Terms-of-Trade Growth2

On Impact End of First Year End of Second Year End of Third Year

0.22 1.50 1.43 –0.20

1.63 1.05 –2.47 –0.35

0.48 2.36 3.20 1.20

0.69 2.10 2.67 1.64

–0.24 –1.11 –0.38 –0.22

1.00 2.28 1.97 2.03

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: EMBI = J.P. Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index. 1All responses are cumulated for the end of the period and normalized for a 1 percentage point shock. 2Averaged across country-specific shocks and responses.

China’s large fiscal stimulus—increased its contribution to emerging market economies’ growth from the third quarter of 2009 until 2010.19 Of the 3¾ percentage point improvement in emerging market economies’ quarterly (year-over-year) growth in 2010–11 relative to 2008–09, China accounted for ½ percentage point, other external factors 2¼ percentage points, and internal factors the remaining 1 percentage point. However, emerging market economies’ diversification toward China has also exposed them to adverse shocks from China’s growth. Specifically, China’s recent slowdown provided an additional setback to their growth: of the 2 percentage point shortfall in emerging market economies’ quarterly (year-over-year) growth in 2012–13 relative to 2010–11, China accounted for ½ percentage 19China’s

fiscal stimulus packages during the global financial crisis are estimated to have been on the order of 3 percent of GDP in 2009 and 2¾ percent of GDP in 2010 (Dreger and Zhang, 2011).

126

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

point, other external factors for 1¼ percentage points, and internal factors for the remaining ¼ percentage point.20

Growth Effects: The Long and the Short of It Besides growth concerns relating to the ongoing cyclical transitions in the global economy, another issue on the minds of policymakers in emerging markets is the trend growth rate of their economies. Many worry that the observed deceleration is due to declining trend growth compared with the levels recorded in the early 2000s and are concerned about the role of external factors in this trend growth. Although this chapter focuses primarily on understanding the links between emerg20Note that to the extent domestic policies were adopted in response to the global financial crisis and subsequently unwound, they would still be accounted for by external factors rather than independent internal factors.

CHAPTER 4   ON THE RECEIVING END?

ing market economies’ growth and external factors at shorter horizons, this section considers the potential implications for the medium term. The analysis in the previous section suggests that the cumulated growth effects from external shocks—especially from external demand and financing conditions—linger well beyond the short term (see Figures 4.3–4.5 and 4.9). Although trend growth is likely determined by a myriad of factors, including domestic macroeconomic and structural policies, external conditions also have a persistent effect. Thus, a stronger recovery in advanced economies will likely influence emerging market economies’ trend growth, as will tighter global financing conditions relative to today. Moreover, external shocks explain about half the variance in emerging market economies’ growth in the medium term (Table 4.3). For Malaysia, which is generally more integrated with trade and financial markets, and Mexico, which is integrated with the U.S. economy, these shares are in the range of 60 to 70 percent. Even for the Indian and Indonesian economies, in which variance in growth is predominantly domestically driven, the share of external factors is still in the range of 25 to 30 percent. Given the sizable share of external shocks in explaining the variation in growth over the medium term, it is reasonable to expect these shocks to have persistent effects on trend growth as well.21 In this context, Box 4.1 revisits the relationship between external conditions and growth from a medium-term perspective. It estimates growth regressions for a broader group of emerging market economies from 1997 through 2011 to correlate five-year averages of GDP growth per capita with alternative external 21These findings compare well with those in the literature, although the estimated effects from this analysis are somewhat lower compared with those in some of the other studies, reflecting differences in the sample, estimation period, and methodology. Österholm and Zettelmeyer (2007) find that external shocks explain 50 to 60 percent of the volatility in growth for Latin American economies over the medium term, and the overall impact of a global or U.S. growth shock on Latin America’s growth is roughly one for one over time. In comparison, the findings of this chapter show that a 1 percentage point U.S growth shock is associated with a cumulated 4 percentage point rise in U.S. growth and a corresponding 2 percentage point rise in emerging markets’ average growth after two years (see panel 2 of Figure 4.3). This suggests a proportional but less than one-for-one increase in emerging market growth with the increase in U.S. growth over time. The results with regard to shocks to the EMBI yield and the U.S. high-yield spread are very similar to those of Österholm and Zettelmeyer, however. Utlaut and van Roye (2010) and Erten (2012) also find somewhat larger growth effects of real shocks from China, the euro area, and the United States.

Figure 4.10. Historical Decomposition of Real GDP Growth with China as an Explicit External Factor (Percentage points)

China has been an important offset to other external factors in explaining changes in emerging market growth. During the global financial crisis, China’s expansion provided a buffer for emerging market growth. China’s recent slowdown, however, has reduced growth in these economies. Internal factors Other external factors

China real GDP growth Deviation

1. Emerging Market Economies’ Average1

4 2 0 –2 –4 –6

1999

2003

8 2. Brazil 6 4 2 0 –2 –4 –6 –8 1999 2003 2

07

11

13: Q2

8 6 4 2 0 –2 –4 –6 –8 11 13: Q2

3. India

07

11 13: 1999 Q2

4. Indonesia

2003

–8

07

5. Russia

8 4

1

0

0

–4

–1

–8

–2

–12

–3 1999

2003

07

10 12

4 6. South Africa

1999

2003

7. Turkey

07

–16 11 13: Q2 10 5

2

0

0

–5

–2

–10

–4

–15

–6 1999

–20 07 10 13: 13: 1999 2003 Q1 Q2 Sources: Haver Analytics; Thomson Reuters Datastream; and IMF staff calculations. Note: The underlying vector autoregression model includes U.S. real GDP growth, U.S. inflation, 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate, China real GDP growth, J.P. Morgan Emerging Market Bond Index yield, and terms-of-trade growth in the external block. 1 Average for all sample economies except Argentina, China, Russia, and Venezuela. 2003



07

10

International Monetary Fund | April 2014 127

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table 4.3. Share of Output Variance Due to External Factors (Horizon = five years)

ARG BRA

CHL

CHN

COL

IDN

IND

MEX MYS

PHL

POL

RUS THL TUR VEN

ZAF

Avg.1

Model2

Baseline Total Contribution from External Factors U.S. Factors3 EMBI Yield Terms-of-Trade Growth

0.55 0.60 0.37 0.27 0.35 0.25 0.28 0.69 0.37 0.43 0.23 0.22 0.25 0.15 0.19 0.61 0.12 0.12 0.07 0.04 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.02 0.06 0.05 0.07 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.06

0.61 0.53 0.01 0.07

0.37 0.36 0.72 0.31 0.46 0.34 0.26 0.21 0.57 0.19 0.37 0.28 0.09 0.02 0.05 0.05 0.08 0.02 0.02 0.13 0.10 0.07 0.01 0.05

0.56 0.42 0.03 0.11

0.42 0.31 0.06 0.06

Modified Baseline Model4 Total Contribution from External Factors U.S. Factors3 China Real GDP Growth EMBI Yield Terms-of-Trade Growth

0.55 0.35 0.06 0.09 0.04

0.61 0.45 0.07 0.05 0.04

0.38 0.19 0.07 0.04 0.09

... ... ... ... ...

0.33 0.22 0.08 0.01 0.01

0.26 0.13 0.06 0.05 0.02

0.30 0.20 0.02 0.07 0.01

0.69 0.58 0.05 0.01 0.04

0.57 0.45 0.02 0.01 0.09

0.43 0.29 0.09 0.04 0.01

0.48 0.21 0.10 0.02 0.15

0.73 0.57 0.06 0.02 0.08

0.31 0.17 0.06 0.03 0.05

0.44 0.34 0.02 0.06 0.02

0.37 0.24 0.06 0.01 0.06

0.67 0.35 0.23 0.02 0.08

0.46 0.30 0.07 0.04 0.05

Alternative Model5 Total Contribution from External Factors U.S. Factors3 Euro Area Real GDP Growth China Real GDP Growth EMBI Yield Terms-of-Trade Growth

0.50 0.30 0.02 0.07 0.07 0.03

0.60 0.40 0.07 0.07 0.04 0.02

0.40 0.14 0.09 0.06 0.04 0.08

... ... ... ... ... ...

0.30 0.15 0.06 0.06 0.01 0.01

0.24 0.10 0.01 0.06 0.04 0.02

0.34 0.20 0.05 0.02 0.06 0.01

0.73 0.53 0.09 0.03 0.01 0.07

0.57 0.40 0.07 0.01 0.01 0.07

0.41 0.24 0.05 0.08 0.03 0.01

0.49 0.18 0.06 0.09 0.02 0.13

0.75 0.52 0.10 0.04 0.02 0.06

0.27 0.14 0.01 0.05 0.03 0.04

0.46 0.24 0.13 0.02 0.06 0.01

0.36 0.18 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.06

0.68 0.31 0.10 0.17 0.02 0.08

0.46 0.25 0.07 0.06 0.03 0.05

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: EMBI = J.P. Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index. Column heads use International Organization for Standardization (ISO) country codes. 1The numbers are the average for all sample economies except Argentina, Russia, and Venezuela. 2Recursive ordering of external factors is as follows: U.S. real GDP growth, U.S. inflation, 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate, EMBI yield, and terms-of-trade growth. 3U.S. factors include U.S. real GDP growth, U.S. inflation, and 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate. 4Recursive ordering of external factors is as follows: U.S. real GDP growth, U.S. inflation, 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate, China real GDP growth, EMBI yield, and terms-of-trade growth. 5Recursive ordering of external factors is as follows: U.S. real GDP growth, euro area real GDP growth, U.S. inflation, 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate, China real GDP growth, EMBI yield, and terms-of-trade growth.

conditions and provide a sense of average responses of the group to changes in these conditions. It finds that growth in emerging market economies is significantly associated with growth in their trading partners, including that in other large emerging markets such as the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa), and with global financing conditions. It highlights the increasing sensitivity of emerging market economies’ growth to changes in these external conditions as these economies have rapidly integrated into the global economy. In essence, although domestic economic and structural policies remain important determinants of growth over short and long horizons, the analysis in this chapter demonstrates that external conditions also deserve attention. In this regard, if impending changes in the external environment are dominated by an improvement in advanced economies’ growth, emerging market economies will benefit in both the short and medium term. Conversely, if external financing conditions tighten by more than what is accounted for by an improving outlook in advanced economies, growth in emerging markets will suffer a relatively 128

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

lasting effect. However, even if external conditions deteriorate, emerging markets’ ability to weather such shocks will be influenced by the domestic policies they deploy to offset those shocks. The priority, now, for policymakers in some of these economies is to assess why these internal factors, cyclical or structural, are currently reducing growth to less than the averages of the past 15 years and what, if anything, can be done to reverse the situation.

Shifting Gears: Have Emerging Markets’ Growth Dynamics Changed since the Global Financial Crisis? This section assesses in what ways, if any, the behavior of growth in emerging market economies and its relationship with its underlying external and internal drivers have shifted since the onset of the global financial crisis. With the recovery in many advanced economies still anemic, it is possible that emerging markets’ output and growth have also suffered in an enduring way and that their growth today responds differently to external and internal factors than it did before the crisis. This assess-

CHAPTER 4   ON THE RECEIVING END?

ment is an important part of understanding to what extent the past can be a guide for the future relationship between growth and its external drivers. A number of studies have highlighted the serious real effects of financial crises for both advanced and emerging market economies.22 Among the economies considered in this chapter, a few (for example, Russia and Venezuela) suffered serious growth setbacks as they experienced financial distress of their own (Figure 4.11, panel 3; see Laeven and Valencia, 2013). Some others experienced sharp downturns as well, likely reflecting their financial linkages to advanced economies that experienced the financial crisis (for example, South Africa). In contrast, a few weathered the crisis reasonably well (for example, Indonesia and the Philippines). What was the overall growth impact on these economies that were not at the epicenter of the global financial crisis? A starting point is an assessment of the severity of the global financial crisis for emerging market economies’ growth compared with that of previous global recessions. The post-global-financial-crisis output dynamics in emerging markets—relative to the precrisis average levels—compare favorably with those following the global recessions in 1975, 1982, and 1991.23 Panels 1 and 2 of Figure 4.11 show that whereas the global financial crisis inflicted a sharp decline in output for advanced economies in its first year, the average output loss for noncrisis emerging market economies in the sample was less than 1½ percent. Also, unlike in advanced economies, whose four- to five-year output loss widened even more sharply to nearly 9 percent, losses for emerging markets have remained low. This strong performance after the global financial crisis was surpassed only by emerging markets’ experience during the 1991 global recession, when economies in both emerging Asia and Latin America enjoyed rapid growth relative to the pre-1991 growth trends (the black squares in panel 2 of the figure). As for the recent crisis, countercyclical policies, undertaken by both emerging market economies and their advanced 22Most of these studies highlight how the path of output tends to be depressed substantially and persistently following crises, for both advanced and emerging market economies undergoing crises, with no rebound, on average, to the precrisis trend in the medium term (Abiad and others, 2014; Cerra and Saxena, 2008; Reinhart and Rogoff, 2009). 23The dating of global recessions draws on recent work by Kose, Loungani, and Terrones (2013), whereas the metric to compute precrisis trends draws on Abiad and others (2014).

Figure 4.11. Emerging Markets’ Output and Growth Performance after Global Recessions The output and growth dynamics in emerging market economies after the recent global financial crisis compare favorably relative to those following the global recessions in 1975, 1982, and 1991. 10 8 6 4 2 0 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 –12 0 +3 +4 (est.) 2009

1. Advanced Economies’ GDP Deviation from Pre–Global Recession Trend (percent)

GDP growth deviation 0 +3 +5 1975

0 +3 +5 1982

0 +3 +5 1991

2. Emerging Market Economies’ GDP Deviation from Pre– Global Recession Trend1 (percent)

0 +3 +5 1975

0 +3 +5 1982

10 8 6 4 2 0 –2 –4 –6 GDP growth deviation –8 –10 –12 0 +3 +5 0 +3 +4 (est.) 1991 2009

15 3. Emerging Market Economies’ GDP Deviation, 2013 (percent difference from trend based on 10 1999–2006 growth; left scale) 5

3 2 1

0

0

–5

–1

–10

–2

–15

2013 GDP growth deviation from 1999–2006 average (right scale)

–20 –25 –30

RUS

ZAF VEN

TUR CHN MEX CHL COL IDN THA MYS POL BRA IND PHL ARG

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: X-axis in panel 3 uses International Organization for Standardization (ISO) country codes. 1 Average for all sample economies except Argentina, Russia, and Venezuela.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 129

–3 –4 –5 –6

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

economy trading partners, likely helped maintain their growth rates very close to the precrisis trends. This is remarkable given that precrisis growth was exceptionally strong for these economies (see Figure 4.1, panel 1). The hypothesis that the relationship between emerging market growth and external and internal factors may have changed substantially in the aftermath of the global financial crisis is examined next. To do this, the conditional out-of-sample growth forecasts of domestic growth are evaluated using the model estimated through the fourth quarter of 2007, taking as given all external variables not specific to emerging market economies.24 The deviation of the conditional forecast from actual growth is interpreted as reflecting other, mostly internal, factors that have driven growth in these economies since 2008. On average, the conditional forecasts track actual growth since 2008 reasonably well, suggesting that there were no major aftershocks from the global financial crisis to the relationship between emerging market growth and its underlying external factors (Figures 4.12 and 4.13). The conditional forecasts based on one of the two specifications are able to project a sharp dip during the global financial crisis, the subsequent rebound, and the slowdown since 2012. Also, as Figure 4.13 shows, the forecast errors (actual growth minus conditional forecast growth) for most economies are within 1 to 2 percent of the standard deviation of the economies’ growth over the sample period. The notable exceptions are Russia and Venezuela, for which the forecast errors are significantly larger, reflecting in part the lesser suitability of the estimation method—with an underlying assumption of a linear VAR model with stable coefficients—for economies that experienced significant volatility, or many structural shocks, or both, during the sample period. That said, forecast performances differ across the economies, and two specific periods reveal larger forecast errors for many. First, at the peak of the global financial crisis, actual growth fell more sharply than forecast growth—based on either of the two alternative models—for 7 of the 16 economies: Chile, China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Russia, South Africa, and 24Two alternative models for the conditional forecasts are considered. The first is based on the modified baseline model that adds China’s growth in the external block. An alternative model adds growth in both China and the euro area in the external block. For China, the conditional forecasts are based on the baseline model and an alternative model that includes growth in the euro area in the external block.

130

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

Thailand (Figure 4.12). This possibly reflects the unusual shock embodied in the global financial crisis, which affected emerging markets’ growth more deeply than is captured by the traditional external channels and identified within the linear VAR framework. Growth since 2012 has also undershot the level predicted given current global economic conditions for 9 of the 16 economies, suggesting again the role of internal factors. This group comprises Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, India, Russia, South Africa, Turkey, and Venezuela. In fact, for most of these economies, the forecast errors since 2012 are larger than even those for 2008–09 (see Figure 4.13). In some economies, however (for example, Indonesia, Mexico, and the Philippines), actual growth since 2012 has mostly outpaced conditional forecasts, pointing instead to the role of internal factors in boosting growth. Note that although the forecast underperformance is interpreted here as reflecting the role of internal factors in moderating growth, other possibilities include other unidentified factors, such as common or intra-emerging-market shocks (beyond those related to China), or exogenous factors unrelated to domestic policy shocks, such as natural disasters (for example, see, in Figure 4.12, panel 14, the sharp negative deviation of Thailand’s growth from its conditional forecast in the last quarter of 2011, when the country was buffeted by floods of unprecedented magnitude). In economies in which such other unidentified factors may have played a larger role, the analysis could overstate the effects of internal factors. That said, the findings do resonate with recent related work that has also underscored constraints from domestic structural factors as becoming increasingly binding for growth in many of these economies (see IMF, 2013b and 2014, for India; IMF, 2013c, for South Africa; and IMF, 2013d, for Turkey). China is prominent among emerging markets for which growth outturns have systematically been below the level indicated by conditional forecasts in recent years. In fact, the widening of the forecast errors for China since 2011 (see Figure 4.13) suggests that the drag from internal factors has remained persistent. Indeed, China’s medium-term growth forecast, as projected in the WEO (dashed line in Figure 4.12), is lower than both actual growth and the conditional forecast, reflecting the transition of the economy toward a more moderate pace of growth over the medium term. In summary, the recent systematic divergence between actual and forecast growth for a few major emerging markets suggests that internal factors may

CHAPTER 4   ON THE RECEIVING END?

Figure 4.12. Out-of-Sample Growth Forecasts Conditional on External Factors, by Country (Percent)

Although forecast performances differ across emerging market economies, two specific periods reveal larger forecast errors for many economies: first, during the peak of the global financial crisis, from the final quarter of 2008 until mid-2009; and second, since 2012. Actual GDP growth Conditional GDP growth forecast (alternative specification) 30 1. Argentina

2. Brazil

12

20

9

10

6

0

3

–10

0

–20

–3

–30 2003

06

09

13: Q1

12 5. Colombia

2003

06

09

13: Q3

6. India

–6

16

9

12

6

8

3

4

0

0

–3 2003 8

06

09

13: Q3

2003

06

09

13: Q3

–4

10. Philippines

9. Mexico

10

3. Chile

2003

12

06

09

13: Q3

06

09

13: Q2

13. South Africa

2003

06

09

13: Q3

14. Thailand

0

20

6

15

4

10

2

5

0

0

–2

–5

–4 2003

06

09

13: Q3

2003

06

09

13: Q3

–10

8

0

4

–4

2003

06

09

12: Q4

8. Malaysia

10 5 0

2

2003

06

09

11. Poland

0 12: Q4 12

2003

09

06

13: Q2

15. Turkey

2003

06

09

13: Q1

0

15

4

2

–8 2003

4

6

4

–4

16 12

8

6

0

4. China

8

7. Indonesia

8

4

8

Conditional GDP growth forecast (modified baseline) 2018 GDP growth forecast (WEO)

–5 2003

06

09

13: Q3

–10 12

12. Russia

8

8

4

4

0

0

–4

–4

–8

–8

–12

20 15 10 5 0 –5 –10 –15 –20

2003

06

09

13: Q2

16. Venezuela

–12

60

30

0

2003

06

09

13: Q1

–30

Sources: Haver Analytics; Thomson Reuters Datastream; and IMF staff calculations. Note: For all economies except China, the modified baseline vector autoregression model includes U.S. real GDP growth, U.S. inflation, 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate, China real GDP growth, J.P. Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index (EMBI) yield, and terms-of-trade growth in the external block; the alternative specification includes U.S. real GDP growth, euro area real GDP growth, U.S. inflation, 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate, China real GDP growth, EMBI yield, and terms-of-trade growth in the external block. For China, the modified baseline vector autoregression model includes U.S. real GDP growth, U.S. inflation, 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate, EMBI yield, and terms-of-trade growth in the external block; the alternative specification includes U.S. real GDP growth, euro area real GDP growth, U.S. inflation, 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate, EMBI yield, and terms-of-trade growth in the external block.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 131

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 4.13. Conditional Forecast and Actual Growth since the Global Financial Crisis, by Country

(Percentage points)

Differences between actual growth and forecast growth conditional on external conditions are not that large for most sample economies. Actual GDP growth minus conditional GDP growth forecast (modified baseline) Actual GDP growth minus conditional GDP growth forecast (alternative specification) Average of actual GDP growth minus conditional GDP growth forecasts from the modified baseline and alternative specifications 3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7

3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7

3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7

1. Argentina

2. Brazil

2008–09 2010 –11

2012– present

2008–09 2010 –11

2012– present

6. India

5. Colombia

2008–09 2010 –11

2012– present

9. Mexico

2008–09 2010 –11

2012– present

10. Philippines

2008–09 2010 –11

2012– present

13. South Africa

2008–09 2010 –11

2008–09 2010 –11

2012– present

14. Thailand

2012– present

2008–09 2010 –11

2012– present

3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7

3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7

3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7

3. Chile

2008–09 2010 –11

2012– present

7. Indonesia

2008–09 2010 –11

2012– present

11. Poland

2008–09 2010 –11

2012– present

15. Turkey

2008–09 2010 –11

2012– present

3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7

3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7

3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7

3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7

4. China

2008–09 2010 –11

2012– present

8. Malaysia

2008–09 2010 –11

2012– present

12. Russia

2008–09 2010 –11

2012– present

16. Venezuela

2008–09 2010 –11

2012– present

Sources: Haver Analytics; Thomson Reuters Datastream; and IMF staff calculations. Note: For all economies except China, the modified baseline vector autoregression model includes U.S. real GDP growth, U.S. inflation, 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate, China real GDP growth, J.P. Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index (EMBI) yield, and terms-of-trade growth in the external block; the alternative specification includes U.S. real GDP growth, euro area real GDP growth, U.S. inflation, 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate, China real GDP growth, EMBI yield, and terms-of-trade growth in the external block. For China, the modified baseline vector autoregression model includes U.S. real GDP growth, U.S. inflation, 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate, EMBI yield, and terms-of-trade growth in the external block; the alternative specification includes U.S. real GDP growth, euro area real GDP growth, U.S. inflation, 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate, EMBI yield, and terms-of-trade growth in the external block. All values have been normalized using the standard deviation of country-specific real GDP growth between the first quarter of 1998 and the fourth quarter of 2007.

132

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7

3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7

3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7

CHAPTER 4   ON THE RECEIVING END?

have become more important in determining growth for these economies. In many cases, these factors have pulled growth below the level expected under current global economic conditions. Given their persistence, these factors are likely to affect trend growth as well. Even for emerging market economies in which growth is still broadly tracking the path determined by global economic conditions, what happens to their growth will depend in large part on how growth evolves in larger economies, particularly China.

Policy Implications and Conclusions The deceleration of emerging markets’ growth in the past two years following a prolonged period of rapid growth has raised many concerns about these economies’ future prospects: for instance, will growth suffer as advanced economies gain momentum and begin to raise their interest rates? What are the likely effects of a slower pace of expansion in China? Are emerging markets helplessly on the receiving end of these shocks? Has the global financial crisis changed the relationship between growth and its drivers, and has trend growth shifted to a lower plane? This chapter sheds light on some of these concerns by analyzing the external drivers of emerging market economies’ growth and assessing how this relationship has endured both before and since the global financial crisis. The findings suggest that emerging markets are facing a more complex growth environment than in the period before the crisis and provide the following broad lessons. First, if growth in advanced economies strengthens as expected in the current WEO baseline forecasts, this, by itself, should entail net gains for emerging markets, despite the attendant higher global interest rates. Stronger growth in advanced economies will improve emerging market economies’ external demand both directly and by boosting their terms of trade. Conversely, if downside risks to growth prospects in some major advanced economies were to materialize, the adverse spillovers to emerging market growth would be large. The payoffs from higher growth in advanced economies will be relatively higher for economies that are more open to advanced economies in trade and lower for economies that are financially very open. Second, if external financing conditions tighten by more than what advanced economy growth can

account for, as seen in recent bouts of sharp increases in sovereign bond yields for some emerging market economies, their growth will decline. Mounting external financing pressure without any improvement in global economic growth will harm emerging markets’ growth as they attempt to stem capital outflows with higher domestic interest rates, although exchange rate flexibility will provide a buffer. Economies that are naturally prone to greater capital flow volatility and those with relatively limited policy space are likely to be affected most. Third, China’s transition into a slower, if more sustainable, pace of growth will also reduce growth in many other emerging market economies, at least temporarily. The analysis also suggests that external shocks have relatively lasting effects on emerging market economies, implying that their trend growth can be affected by the ongoing external developments as well. Finally, although external factors have typically played an important role in emerging markets’ growth, the extent to which growth has been affected has also depended on their domestic policy responses and internal factors. More recently, the influence of these internal factors in determining changes in growth has risen. However, these factors are currently more of a challenge than a boon for a number of economies. The persistence of the dampening effects of these internal factors suggests that trend growth is affected as well. Therefore, policymakers in these economies need to better understand why these factors are suppressing growth and whether growth can be strengthened without inducing imbalances. At the same time, the global economy will need to be prepared for the ripple effects from the medium-term growth transitions in these emerging markets.

Appendix 4.1. Data Definitions, Sources, and Descriptions The chapter primarily uses the World Economic Outlook (WEO) database from October 2013. Additional data sources are listed in Table 4.4. Data are collected for all variables on a quarterly basis from the first quarter of 1998 to the latest available quarter.

Economy Characteristics Table 4.5 lists the 16 emerging market economies included in the data set. These economies represent



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 133

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table 4.4. Data Sources Variable

Sources

Ten-Year U.S. Treasury Bond Rate Thirty-Day Federal Funds Futures Capital Flow Volatility

Haver Analytics CME Group, Thomson Reuters Datastream IMF, Balance of Payments and International Investment Position (IIP) Statistics Database and IMF Staff Calculations

China Real Investment Growth CPI Inflation EMBI Global Bond Spread EMBI Global Bond Yield Financial Openness

IMF Staff Calculations World Economic Outlook Database Thomson Reuters Datastream Thomson Reuters Datastream IMF Staff Calculations

Global Commodity Price Index IIP Assets and Liabilities

Nonfuel Commodity Terms of Trade Per Capita Output Volatility

IMF Staff Calculations IMF, Balance of Payments and IIP Statistics Database IMF, International Financial Statistics Database World Economic Outlook Database, Direction of Trade Statistics Database World Economic Outlook Database World Economic Outlook Database World Economic Outlook Database Thomson Reuters Datastream, Haver Analytics, Federal Reserve Economic Data (FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis) IMF Staff Calculations IMF, World Economic Outlook Database

Real Exchange Rate versus U.S. Dollar

IMF Staff Calculations

Real GDP Share of Net Commodity Exports in GDP

IMF, World Economic Outlook Database IMF Staff Calculations

Terms-of-Trade Growth

Haver Analytics; IMF, International Financial Statistics Database; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; World Bank, World Development Indicators database; and IMF Staff Calculations

Trade Exposure to Advanced Economies

IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics Database and World Economic Outlook Database

Trade Openness

IMF, World Economic Outlook Database

U.S. Effective Federal Funds Rate U.S. High-Yield Spread

Haver Analytics Bank of America Merrill Lynch and Haver Analytics

U.S. Inflation Expectations

Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Survey of Professional Forecasters Haver Analytics, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, and IMF Staff Calculations Haver Analytics and IMF Staff Calculations

Nominal Exchange Rate versus U.S. Dollar Nominal Exports Nominal GDP Nominal GDP in U.S. Dollars Nominal Imports Nominal Short-Term Interest Rate

U.S. Real Short-Term Interest Rate U.S. Term Spread Source: IMF staff compilation. Note: EMBI = J.P. Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index.

134

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

Calculations and Transformations

Standard deviation of net nonofficial inflows in percent of GDP, 2000–12. See Appendix 4.1 of the April 2011 World Economic Outlook for the methodology

Sum of international investment position assets and international investment position liabilities in percent of GDP (U.S. dollars), 2000–12

Standard deviation of per capita real GDP growth, 2000–12 Nominal exchange rate versus U.S. dollar divided by the ratio of local consumer price index (CPI) inflation to U.S. CPI inflation See Appendix 4.2 of the April 2012 World Economic Outlook for the methodology China terms of trade: quarterly terms of trade for China are interpolated using a Chow-Lin procedure applied to annual terms-of-trade data (from the World Bank’s World Development Indicators database) and three quarterly explanatory variables: Hong Kong import unit value, Hong Kong export unit value, and China producer price index; Venezuela terms of trade: quarterly terms of trade for Venezuela are estimated using the commodity oil price (as a proxy for export prices) and unit import values (from the IMF’s International Financial Statistics database) Sum of exports of goods to the United States and the euro area expressed as a percent of GDP, 2000–12 Nominal exports plus nominal imports in percent of GDP, 2000–12 U.S. investment grade corporate yield minus U.S. (junk bond) high yield U.S. effective federal funds rate minus U.S. inflation expectations Ten-year U.S. Treasury bond rate minus U.S. effective federal funds rate

CHAPTER 4   ON THE RECEIVING END?

Table 4.5. Sample of Emerging Market Economies and International Organization for Standardization Country Codes Africa

Asia

Europe

Latin America

South Africa (ZAF)

China (CHN) India (IND) Indonesia (IDN) Malaysia (MYS) Philippines (PHL) Thailand (THA)

Poland (POL) Russia (RUS) Turkey (TUR)

Argentina (ARG) Brazil (BRA) Chile (CHL) Colombia (COL) Mexico (MEX) Venezuela (VEN)

Source: IMF staff compilation.

75 percent of 2013 GDP (in purchasing-power-parity terms) for the group of emerging market and developing economies. China alone accounts for 31 percent, and the other 15 economies close to 45 percent. Among these, 10 economies—that is, all except China, India, the Philippines, Poland, Thailand, and Turkey—were net commodity exporters during the sample period. However, only four economies in the sample are heavily concentrated in commodities, with net commodity exports as a percentage of GDP—averaged over 2000–10—greater than or equal to 10 percent (Argentina, Chile, Russia, Venezuela). The share for Indonesia is also high, at 8.5 percent. Real GDP growth has varied significantly over the sample period for the 16 economies. Figure 4.14 shows that year-over-year quarterly real GDP growth in China outperforms growth in nine of the sample economies since 2000. Only Argentina, India, Thailand, Turkey, and Venezuela are exceptions, typically because of very high output volatility rather than continuing outperformance. In addition, some emerging market economies were unable to post higher growth than the United States until the mid-2000s: these were largely economies in Latin America; economies in East Asia generally grew at rates above those of the United States, although below the level of China’s growth. Figure 4.15 presents regional growth averages based on the economies in the sample and compares those averages with the evolution of growth in advanced economies and China. Once again, it is clear that China’s growth rate dominates those of almost all other economies in the sample. In fact, with China excluded, the surge in the sample economies’ average growth before the global financial crisis is much less spectacular. Among the three regional groups (emerging Asia excluding China, emerging Europe and South Africa, Latin America), emerging Asia’s growth performance was the strongest both before and during the global financial crisis. Growth in the LA4 (Brazil, Chile,

Colombia, Mexico) tended to trail that in other economies. Growth in emerging Europe and South Africa was close to the levels for emerging Asia before the crisis, but then fell the most during the global financial crisis. Since then, the recovery in emerging Europe and South Africa has tended to be weaker than that in emerging Asia. Table 4.6 provides information on simple pairwise correlations between domestic real GDP growth for the sample economies and the key variables used in the statistical analysis over the sample period. There are a few items of note: •• Domestic output growth is positively correlated with output growth in China for all economies in the sample. For Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Thailand, and Venezuela, the growth correlation with China’s growth is stronger than that with the euro area or the United States. In contrast, output growth in Chile, Malaysia, Mexico, Russia, and Turkey is more correlated with growth in the United States than with growth in China. Among the economies examined, those in emerging Europe and South Africa (Poland, Russia, South Africa, Turkey) generally tend to have the highest growth correlations with growth in the advanced economies and China. Furthermore, growth in China, Colombia, and Indonesia is negatively correlated with growth in the euro area, the United States, or both. •• Interestingly, terms-of-trade growth is not always positively correlated with domestic GDP growth. In fact, for six economies (China, Indonesia, Philippines, Poland, South Africa, Turkey), the correlation is negative, whereas for two, the correlation is numerically insignificant (India, Venezuela). This may reflect the fact that increases in the terms of trade do not always reflect improvement in global demand, and to the extent that it is actually associated with supply shocks, the effect may not be positive for growth.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 135

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 4.14. Domestic Real GDP Growth across Emerging Markets versus United States and China (Percent)

Domestic real GDP growth 20 1. Argentina 15 10 5 0 –5 –10 –15 –20 1998 2002 06

U.S. real GDP growth

2. Brazil

10

13: 1998 Q3

2002

16

06

10

13: Q3

16

8

8

8

4

4

4

0

0

0

–4

–4

–4

–8

16

1998

2002

06

10

7. Indonesia

8

5

4

0

0

–5

–4 2002

06

10

15 9. Mexico

13: 1998 Q3

2002

06

10

13: Q3

10. Philippines

5 0 –5 2002

06

10

13. South Africa

13: 1998 Q3

2002

06

10

14. Thailand

13: Q3

1998

2002

06

10

–8 13: Q3 20 15 10 5 0 –5 –10 –15 –20 13: Q3

11. Poland

16

10

13: 1998 Q3

2002

Source: IMF staff calculations.

136

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

06

10

20 15 10 5 0 –5 –10

1998

2002

06

10

12. Russia

–15 13: Q3 20

4

4

0

0

–4

–4

–8

–8

1998

2002

06

10

13: Q3

15. Turkey

–10 06

–8

10

–5

2002

8. Malaysia

13: Q3

8

0

–4

10

8

5

0

06

15

10

4

2002

12

15

8

1998

12

20

12

–8 1998

–8

16

10

–10 1998

16 12

12

–10 1998

4. China

12

10

16

3. Chile

12

6. India

15 5. Colombia

China real GDP growth

–15 13: Q3

1998

2002

06

10

13: Q3

20 15 10 5 0 –5 –10 –15 –20

5 0 –5 –10 1998

2002

06

10

16. Venezuela

–15 13: Q3 40 30 20 10 0 –10 –20

1998

2002

06

10

–30 13: Q3

CHAPTER 4   ON THE RECEIVING END?

•• All economies demonstrate a strong negative correlation between domestic growth and proxies for global financial conditions, such as the J.P. Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index (EMBI) spread and yield. There is much more cross-economy heterogeneity in the correlation between domestic growth and the U.S. federal funds rate and the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate. On average, only half of the sample shows a negative correlation between domestic growth and U.S. interest rates.

Figure 4.15. Average Growth for Regional Groups of Emerging Market Economies (Percent) 15

1. EME16 versus Advanced

This appendix provides further details regarding the identification and Bayesian estimation of the structural vector autoregression (SVAR) model used in the chapter and presents alternative specifications that assess the robustness of the main results.

15 10

10

5 5

0 LA4 EEA China East Asia excl. China Advanced economies

0 China EME16 excl. China Advanced economies

–5

Appendix 4.2. Estimation Approach and Robustness Checks

2. EMEs by Region

–10 1998

15

2002

06

10

13

1998

2002

06

10

–5 –10 –15 13

–20

4. LA4: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico

3. BRICS: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa

10 8

10

6 4

5

Model Identification The analysis uses a standard SVAR model to estimate the growth effects of external factors. The model is estimated separately for each economy using quarterly data from the first quarter of 1998 to the latest available quarter in 2013. The baseline model takes the following form: A(L)yt = et = A0ut , (4.1) in which yt is a k × 1 vector, where k is the total number of endogenous variables; A(L) is a k × k matrix polynomial of lag operator L with lag length p; and et is a k × 1 vector of contemporaneously correlated, mean-zero reduced-form errors. The contemporaneous relationships across variables are disentangled by mapping et to a k × 1 vector of mutually orthogonal, mean-zero, structural shocks, ut , through the k × k matrix A0. Each economy’s baseline vector autoregression (VAR) consists of nine variables in the vector yt (k = 9) ordered as follows: U.S. real GDP growth (Dy*), U.S. inflation (p*), the nominal 10-year U.S. government bond rate (r*), the EMBI Global yield (rEMBI *), the economy-specific terms-of-trade growth (Dtot), domestic real GDP growth (Dy), domestic inflation (p), the rate of appreciation of the economy’s real exchange rate vis-à-vis the U.S. dollar (e), and the domestic monetary policy rate or short-term interest rate (r). Note that all growth rates are calculated as

2

0 –5 –10 1998

20 15

0

EME16 China BRICS excl. China Advanced economies 2002

06

10

–2 –4

EME16 LA4 Advanced economies 13

1998

2002

06

10

–6 13

6. EEA: Poland, Russia, South Africa, and Turkey

5. East Asia: India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand

10 5

10 5 0 –5 –10 –15 1998

–8

0 EME16 China East Asia excl. China Advanced economies 2002

06

10

EME16 EEA Advanced economies 13

1998

2002

06

10

–5

13

–10

Source : IMF staff calculations. Note: EME = emerging market economy. EME16 denotes the 16 emerging market economies within the sample. LA4 denotes the Latin American economies within the sample, excluding Argentina and Venezuela. EEA denotes economies from emerging and developing Europe and Africa within the sample.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 137

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table 4.6. Correlations of Domestic Real GDP Growth with Key Variables, 1998–2013 U.S. Real GDP Growth

U.S. Federal Funds Rate

Ten-Year U.S. Treasury Bond Rate

Euro Area Real GDP Growth

China Real GDP Growth

EMBI Spread

EMBI Yield

Terms-ofTrade Growth

Argentina Brazil Chile China Colombia

0.12 0.15 0.31 –0.10 –0.08

–0.13 0.03 –0.01 0.05 –0.18

–0.28 0.03 –0.11 –0.05 –0.28

0.15 0.42 0.44 0.16 0.15

0.56 0.51 0.25 1.00 0.53

–0.68 –0.51 –0.62 –0.64 –0.82

–0.64 –0.37 –0.52 –0.50 –0.71

0.33 0.63 0.33 –0.27 0.29

India Indonesia Malaysia Mexico Philippines

0.27 –0.32 0.26 0.76 0.18

0.10 –0.38 –0.07 0.35 –0.27

0.19 –0.35 0.00 0.18 –0.32

0.42 –0.15 0.33 0.77 0.16

0.66 0.27 0.21 0.16 0.32

–0.44 –0.56 –0.37 –0.26 –0.61

–0.29 –0.52 –0.26 –0.16 –0.58

0.03 –0.26 0.29 0.52 –0.40

Poland Russia South Africa Thailand Turkey Venezuela

0.40 0.45 0.39 0.17 0.44 0.17

0.44 0.30 0.32 –0.15 –0.06 0.12

0.36 0.31 0.23 –0.07 –0.04 –0.02

0.61 0.66 0.67 0.18 0.45 0.24

0.49 0.21 0.42 0.26 0.38 0.26

–0.32 –0.23 –0.38 –0.31 –0.51 –0.48

–0.13 –0.04 –0.18 –0.24 –0.41 –0.38

–0.20 0.77 –0.14 0.15 –0.14 0.09

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: Period is 1998:Q1–2013:Q2. EMBI = J.P. Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index.

log differences of the relevant level’s time series. The first five variables constitute the “external” or foreign block, and the remaining variables make up the “internal” or domestic block. Identification (the mapping to the structural shocks) uses contemporaneous restrictions on the structure of the matrix A0. The key restriction is that shocks to the external block are assumed to be exogenous to shocks to the internal block; in other words, the external variables do not respond to the internal variables contemporaneously. Within the external block, structural shocks are further identified using a recursive (Cholesky) scheme, defined by the ordering of the variables in the vector yt . Therefore, U.S. real GDP growth is assumed to respond to other shocks only with a lag. U.S. inflation is affected by U.S. growth shocks contemporaneously, but by other shocks with a lag. The U.S. interest rate responds contemporaneously to U.S. real GDP growth and inflation shocks, but not to the EMBI Global yield or to any emerging market economy’s terms-of-trade growth. The EMBI Global yield is placed ahead of economy-specific terms-oftrade growth, but behind all the U.S. variables. Finally, terms-of-trade growth is placed last in the recursive ordering, implying that it responds contemporaneously to all other external variables, but not to the domestic variables. Structural shocks within the internal block are unidentified. All variables enter the model with four lags. Other than the contemporaneous restrictions on the matrix A0,

138

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

there are no restrictions on the coefficients for the lagged variables; that is, the lags of the internal block variables are allowed to affect the external block variables.

Estimation by Bayesian Methods The number of sample observations relative to the number of parameters to be estimated in each equation of each economy’s SVAR is not very large. This means that there is a danger of overfitting if the model estimation is left unrestricted. Overfitting leads to good performance of the estimated model within the sample (as it tends to follow the noise in the sample more closely), but to poor out-of-sample performance. There are a number of ways to address this overfitting problem. One is to impose hard restrictions on the parameters, by fixing some of them to specific values. However, by taking a hard stance before the fact, such restrictions rule out potentially interesting dynamics. An alternative to such restrictions is to estimate the model using Bayesian methods, which is the approach followed in this chapter. This involves specifying restrictions on estimated parameters that are softer, such as constraining them to be more likely at some values than at others. Operationally, a prior probability distribution is imposed on the estimated parameters, pulling in additional information from outside the sample observations, to avoid overfitting. This is combined with the information in the sample to generate estimates for the parameters.

CHAPTER 4   ON THE RECEIVING END?

The prior used in this chapter is a so-called Minnesota prior, inspired by Litterman (1986), in which each variable is assumed to follow a first-order autoregressive (AR(1)) process with independent, normally distributed errors. Given that the variables have already been transformed to induce stationarity, a random walk, with a unit AR(1) coefficient for the prior, would not be appropriate. Simple AR(1) regressions, however, do suggest estimated AR(1) coefficients of about 0.8, which is the AR(1) coefficient used in the prior for the baseline estimation. Some of this persistence reflects the fact that all growth rates are calculated as yearover-year differences. The weight of the prior versus the sample in the estimation is determined according to the Bayesian approach presented in Sims and Zha (1998). If twice the number of parameters to be estimated in an equation is greater than the estimation sample size, the chapter applies a rule of thumb that gives the prior a (T – p) relative weight of 1 – ———— ∈ [0,1], in which 2(kp + 1) T is the number of available sample observations and k and p are defined as above.25 Figure 4.16 compares the average baseline SVAR results using the AR(1) priors with those from an alternative white-noise prior. As expected, with a white-noise prior, the impulse responses show lower persistence and amplitude. The conditional out-ofsample forecasts from these specifications are largely similar to those shown in Figures 4.12 and 4.13, although the forecast performance improves with a less persistent prior for some economies (for example, Malaysia, Mexico, and the Philippines).





Robustness of the Baseline Results A variety of alternative specifications are used to assess the robustness of the main results. In particular, a number of additional variables are introduced as proxies for external demand, U.S. monetary policy, external financing conditions, and the terms of trade. The results are described in the following.

25In the case of China, there are 60 observations for the reducedform VAR. With 37 coefficients to estimate, the priors receive a weight (importance) of slightly less than 0.25 in the baseline specification (and a maximum weight of 0.50 in the specification for out-of-sample forecasting reported in the chapter text).

Figure 4.16. Impact of Prior Choice on Average Impulse Responses (Percentage points) Baseline specification: AR(1) prior, ρ = 0.8 Alternative specification: white-noise prior 1. U.S. GDP Growth Shock

0.6 0.5

2. U.S. Treasury Bond Rate Shock

0.8 0.6

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.1 0.0

–0.2

–0.1

–0.4

–0.2

0

5

10

15

20

0

0.2 3. EMBI Spread Shock

5

10

15

4. Terms-of-Trade Growth Shock

0.1

–0.6 20 0.05 0.04

0.0

0.03

–0.1

0.02

–0.2

0.01

–0.3

0.00

–0.4

0

5

10

15

20

0

5

10

15

–0.01 20

Source : IMF staff calculations. Note: AR(1) = first-order autoregression; EMBI = J.P. Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index. Shocks are normalized to a 1 percentage point increase. X-axis units are quarters; t = 0 denotes the quarter of the shock.

Alternative U.S. monetary policy measures As described in the chapter, alternative proxies for global financing conditions are tried to assess the robustness of the findings: the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate, which is in the baseline specification (see Figure 4.16); and alternative specifications in which the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate is replaced by (1) the U.S. effective federal funds rate; (2) the ex ante U.S. real federal funds rate; (3) the change in the U.S. federal funds rate; (4) the U.S. term spread (defined as the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate minus the U.S. federal funds rate); (5) Kuttner (2001)–style unanticipated monetary policy shocks, inferred from the behavior of federal funds futures; and (6) an extension of the Romer and Romer (2004) exogenous monetary policy shock series, based on Coibion (2012).



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 139

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 4.17. Average Impulse Responses to Shocks from Alternative U.S. Monetary Policy Variables (Percentage points) U.S. federal funds rate U.S. term spread

U.S. real short-term rate Change in U.S. federal funds rate

1.0 1. Domestic GDP Growth

2. U.S. GDP Growth

0.8

0.8 0.6

0.6 0.4

0.4 0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0

–0.2

–0.2

–0.4

–0.4

–0.6 –0.8

0

5

10

15

20

0

3. Domestic Short-Term Interest Rate

0.8 0.6

5

10

15

–0.6 20

4. Domestic Real Exchange Rate

3 2

0.4

1

0.2

0

0.0 –0.2

–1

–0.4

–2

–0.6 –0.8

0

5

10

15

20

0

5

10

15

–3 20

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: Shocks are normalized to a 1 percentage point increase. X-axis units are quarters; t = 0 denotes the quarter of the shock.

Note that an increase in the U.S. federal funds or policy rate—nominal or real—negatively affects emerging market economies’ growth only after a lag of six quarters just as the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate does (Figures 4.17 and 4.18). The impact effect is negative for very few economies (Chile, Malaysia, Thailand, Venezuela). These puzzling results may indicate that the U.S. rate increase embodies expectations of an improvement in future U.S. growth. Indeed, even U.S. growth is adversely affected with a delay (see Table 4.1). Emerging market economies’ growth declines only as domestic interest rates gradually rise in response to the U.S. rate increase. The alternative proxy using the term spread produces a more immediate negative effect (Figure 4.17). It is possible that the Federal Reserve’s heavy reliance on unconventional policies to lower long-term rates

140

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

over the past few years means that long-term rates are now a better measure of its stance than shortterm rates. With the short-term rate at the zero lower bound, positive shocks to the term spread would indicate a tighter U.S. monetary policy (see also Ahmed and Zlate, 2013). With the exception of the U.S. term spread, emerging markets’ growth responses to shocks to the alternative measures are similar to their responses to shocks to the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate or the U.S. policy rate.26 It is important to note that shocks to the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate may not correspond closely to unanticipated U.S. monetary policy changes unrelated to U.S. GDP growth and inflation. Because it is a long-term rate, it is much more likely that shocks to the 10-year rate reflect expectations in regard to the U.S. economy. Furthermore, since the global financial crisis, the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate has been suppressed by safe haven flows into U.S. Treasuries, reflecting not just the U.S. growth outlook, but also uncertainty over the global recovery. Therefore, shocks to the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate could occur in response to a wide range of external (non-U.S.) factors. The impulse responses from specifications (5) and (6) use monetary policy measures to represent more accurately true U.S. monetary policy shocks. As shown in Figure 4.19, the sign and shape of the responses are broadly the same as for the other proxies discussed earlier. Growth in emerging market economies responds to U.S. monetary policy shocks only after one year. The reason for such responses could be that monetary policy shocks have been fairly limited and muted over the sample period. As Figure 4.20 shows, the largest shocks are shown to have occurred in the 1980s, when calculated using the technique set out in Romer and Romer (2004), and to have occurred with much less frequency, when calculated using the information contained in federal funds futures contracts, as described in Kuttner (2001). External financing conditions Robustness checks are also conducted for different types of external financing shocks besides the EMBI Global yield used in the baseline specification. The 26Another

alternative specification is also tried in which the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond rate is added after the policy rate in the external block. Shocks to either the policy rate or the 10-year rate in this expanded specification still elicit a lagged negative growth response for most emerging markets.

CHAPTER 4   ON THE RECEIVING END?

Figure 4.18. Domestic Real GDP Growth Response to U.S. Federal Funds Rate and 10-Year U.S. Treasury Bond Rate under Alternative Specifications (Percentage points)

U.S. federal funds rate 2.5 1. Argentina 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 –0.5 –1.0 –1.5 0 5 10

2. Brazil

15

20

0

5

1.2

10

15

6. India

0.8 5. Colombia

0.0 –0.4

0

5

10

15

20

0

10

15

10. Philippines

9. Mexico

0.8

5

0.6

0.6

0.0

0.4

0.3

–0.2

0.2

0.0

–0.4

0.0

–0.3

–0.6

–0.2

–0.6 20

–0.8 20

0

5

10

15

7. Indonesia

0.9

0.2

0.6

0.1

0.3

0.0

0.0

–0.1

–0.3

–0.2

–0.6 20

0

5

10

15

11. Poland

5

10

15

20

0

0.6 13. South Africa

5

10

15

14. Thailand

10

15

20

0

5

10

15

0.6 0.3 0.0 –0.3 0

5

10

15

12. Russia

20

–0.6

1.2

0.6

0.9

0.4

0.6

0.2

0.3

–0.3

–0.8 20

–0.4 20

0

5

10

15

15. Turkey

0

5

10

15

16. Venezuela

2.0

–0.6 20 3

1.5

2

1.0

1

0.5

0

0.0

–0.5

5

0.9

–0.2

0.5

0

–0.4 20

0.0

0.0

–0.3

15

0.0

1.0

0.0

10

–0.4

1.5

0.3

–0.3 20

5 8. Malaysia

0.8

0.0

0

0

0.3

0.4

–0.4 –0.8

0.2

0.8

0.0

0.8

0.9

1.2

0.4

4. China

0.4

3. Chile

1.2

0.4

–0.8

Ten-year U.S. Treasury bond rate

–0.5

–1

–1.0

–1.0

–2

–1.5 20

–1.5 20

0

5

10

15

0

5

10

15

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: Shocks are normalized to a 1 percentage point increase. X-axis units are quarters; t = 0 denotes the quarter of the shock.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 141

–3 20

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 4.20. Alternative Monetary Policy Shocks

Figure 4.19. Average Impulse Responses to Alternative Measures of U.S. Monetary Policy Shock

(Percentage points)

(Percentage points)

Approach based on Romer and Romer (2004)1(left scale) Approach based on Kuttner (2001) (right scale)

1

Based on Romer and Romer (2004) (left scale) Based on Kuttner (2001) (right scale) 5

0.4

4

0.3

5

1.8 2. U.S. Real GDP Growth

6

4

1.5

5

0.9

3

1.2

4

3

0.6

2

0.9

3

2

0.3

1

0.6

2

0.3

1

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

–0.3

–1

–0.3

–1

–1

–0.6

–2 20

–0.6

–2 20

–2

1. Domestic Real GDP Growth

1.5 1.2

3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 –0.5 –1.0 –1.5

0

5

10

15

3. Domestic Short-Term Interest Rate

4 3

0

5

10

15

2

0

0

5

10

15

–2 20

10

–5 1969: Q1

–5

–2 –4

–4

0

0

5

10

15

–15 20

Sources: Federal Reserve Economic Data; Haver Analytics; IMF, International Financial Statistics database; Thomson Reuters Datastream; and IMF staff calculations. Note: Shocks are normalized to a 1 percentage point increase. X-axis units in panels are quarters; t = 0 denotes the quarter of the shock. 1 See Coibion (2012).

variables used across the alternative specifications are (1) the EMBI Global spread and (2) the U.S. high-yield spread. As Figure 4.21 shows, the average response of domestic GDP growth in the 16 emerging market economies to all three identified shocks is very similar. External demand conditions The analysis assesses whether and how the effects of U.S. real GDP growth on domestic growth are affected by controlling for real GDP growth in the euro area. The euro area growth indicator enters the external block of the SVAR after U.S. real GDP growth in the recursive identification, but before the other U.S. variables. However, placing euro area growth after all the U.S. variables does not change the main results. 142

0.0 –0.1 –0.2 –0.3

75

80

85

90

95

2000

05 08

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

–0.4 13: Q4

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: X-axis units in panels are quarters; t = 0 denotes the quarter of the shock. 1 See Coibion (2012).

–10

–1 0

15

5

2 1

0.1

1

–3

4. Domestic Real Exchange Rate

4

0.2

As shown in panel 1 of Figure 4.22, the average response of domestic growth to U.S. real GDP growth is largely unaffected by the introduction of this additional variable. Moreover, the response of domestic real GDP growth to euro area growth is also as strong as the response to U.S. real GDP growth, confirming that it is reasonable to use U.S. real GDP growth as a proxy for general advanced economy real growth shocks (Figure 4.22, panel 2). Some economy-specific differences appear in the results: for instance, economies with deeper external trade ties with the euro area (for example, Poland and South Africa) show larger growth effects with respect to euro area real GDP growth changes than with respect to U.S. real GDP growth changes, whereas growth in Mexico shows the reverse (that is, larger effects with respect to U.S. real GDP growth changes). The analysis also considers China’s real investment growth as an alternative proxy (instead of China’s real GDP growth) for external demand shocks emanating from China (Figure 4.22, panel 3). Although the pattern of domestic growth responses to changes in China’s investment growth is very similar to responses

CHAPTER 4   ON THE RECEIVING END?

Figure 4.21. Impulse Response of Domestic Real GDP Growth to External Financing Shocks (Percentage points)

Figure 4.22. Average Impulse Responses of Domestic Real GDP Growth to Shocks under Alternative Vector Autoregression Specifications (Percentage points)

Response to EMBI yield Response to EMBI spread Response to U.S. high-yield spread 0.2 0.1 0.0 –0.1 –0.2

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 –0.1 –0.2

2. Responses from Alternative VAR Specification with Euro Area Real GDP 0.8 Growth Response to 1 percent 0.6 U.S. GDP growth shock 0.4 Response to 1 percent euro area GDP growth 0.2 shock

1. Response to 1 percent U.S. Real GDP Growth Shock Baseline specification Alternative specification with euro area real GDP growth

0.0 –0.2 0

5

10

15

20

0

5

10

15

–0.4 20

–0.3 Responses from Baseline and Alternative VAR Specifications –0.4

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

0.8 3.

–0.5

0.6

–0.6 20

0.4

Response to 1 percent China real investment growth shock (alternative)

0.2 Sources: Bank of America Merrill Lynch; Haver Analytics; Thomson Reuters Datastream; and IMF staff calculations. Note: Shocks are normalized to a 1 percentage point increase. X-axis units in panel are quarters; t = 0 denotes the quarter of the shock. EMBI = J.P. Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index.

to China’s real GDP growth, the elasticity is negligible on impact, building up slightly over time. Terms-of-trade growth alternatives As a potentially more exogenous proxy for emerging market economies’ terms of trade, the exercise includes the global commodity price index in the external block, placing it in the second position within the recursive ordering for the identification of external structural shocks. Panel 4 of Figure 4.22 shows a similar pattern of response to that resulting from a positive shock to terms-of-trade growth. Longer time period The economy-specific SVARs are also estimated using the longest available quarterly data. Only three economies have all baseline variables available from the first quarter of 1995: Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa. The results for those economies with additional data are not affected by the longer-sample SVAR. Figure 4.23 presents, for Brazil, a comparison of the impulse

4.

Response to 1 percent China real GDP growth shock (baseline)

0.0 –0.2

0

5

10

15

20

0

0.14 0.12 0.10 0.08 Response to 1 percent 0.06 global commodity price 0.04 growth shock (alternative) 0.02 0.00 –0.02 –0.04 –0.06 5 10 15 20 Response to 1 percent terms-of-trade growth shock (baseline)

Sources: Haver Analytics; IMF, International Financial Statistics database; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; and IMF staff calculations. Note: Average for all sample economies. Shocks are normalized to a 1 percentage point increase. X-axis units in panels are quarters; t= 0 denotes the quarter of the shock. VAR = vector autoregression.

responses of domestic GDP growth to shocks from four of the key external factors. Similar results are obtained for Mexico and South Africa. Robustness checks with panel vector autoregressions The final section of this appendix assesses how the estimated relationship between emerging market economies’ growth and external conditions is affected by an alternative estimation technique in a panel setup. A panel VAR allows for many more degrees of freedom relative to the SVAR because all the economy-specific observations are pooled. As such, it provides a sense of the average behavior among the sample of economies to the alternative external shocks.

International Monetary Fund | April 2014 143

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Figure 4.23. Brazil: Comparison of Responses under the Baseline Model with Responses from Model with Sample Beginning in the First Quarter of 1995

Figure 4.24. Comparison of Impulse Responses from Panel Vector Autoregression with Responses from the Baseline Model

(Percentage points)

Long sample from 1995:Q1

(Percentage points)

0.8 1. Shock to U.S. Real GDP Growth 0.6

2. Shock to 10-Year U.S. Treasury Bond Rate

1.5 1.0

0.4 0.2

0.5

0.0 0.0

–0.2 –0.4

–0.5

–0.6 –0.8

0

5

10

15

20

0

3. Shock to EMBI Global Yield

0.4 0.2

5

10

15

–1.0 20

4. Shock to Terms-of-Trade 0.12 Growth 0.08

0.0

–0.4

0

5

10

15

1.2

0.4

1.4

0.3

0.9

0.2

0.6

0.2

0.7

0.1

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

–0.2

–0.7

–0.1

–0.3

–0.4

–1.4

–0.2

–0.6 20

–0.6

0

5

10

15

–0.1

As Figure 4.24 illustrates, the responses of emerging market economy growth to changes in external conditions in the panel VAR are broadly similar to the average responses from the country-specific SVARs used in the chapter text. The panel VAR typically produces somewhat larger amplitudes, however, such that the cumulated

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

0.6

0.4

0.0

Sources: Haver Analytics; IMF, International Financial Statistics database; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; Thomson Reuters Datastream; and IMF staff calculations. Note: Shocks are normalized to a 1 percentage point increase. X-axis units in panels are quarters; t = 0 denotes the quarter of the shock.

144

1.5

0.0

–0.08 20

20

0.5

0.00

–0.8

15

0.8

0.04

–0.04

10

1. U.S. Real GDP Growth Shock 1.8

0.6

–0.6 5

0.6

0.2 3. EMBI Global Yield Shock 0.1

–0.2

0

Baseline specification (VAR, AR(1) prior; left scale) Alternative specification (VAR, white-noise priors; left scale) Alternative specification (panel VAR; right scale)

Baseline sample from 1998:Q1

2. Ten-Year U.S. Treasury Bond Rate Shock

0

5

10

15

2.8 2.1

–2.1 20

0.6 4. China Real GDP Growth Shock

2.1

0.4

1.4

–0.3

0.2

0.7

–0.2

–0.6

0.0

0.0

–0.3

–0.9

–0.4

–1.2

–0.2

–0.7

–0.5

0

5

10

15

0.3

–1.5 20

–0.4

0

5

10

15

–1.4 20

Sources: Haver Analytics; Thomson Reuters Datastream; and IMF staff calculations. Note: Shocks are normalized to a 1 percentage point increase. X-axis units in panels are quarters; t = 0 denotes the quarter of the shock. AR(1) = first-order autoregression; EMBI = J.P. Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index; VAR = vector autoregression.

effects are greater. A 1 percent rise in the U.S. growth rate results in a 0.4 percent rise in emerging market economy growth, whereas a 100 basis point rise in the EMBI yield reduces growth by 0.3 percentage point. However, an increase in China’s growth has a small negative effect on impact, although the effects build up over time.

CHAPTER 4   ON THE RECEIVING END?

Box 4.1. The Impact of External Conditions on Medium-Term Growth in Emerging Market Economies This box uses panel growth regressions to estimate the impact of external demand and global financial conditions on medium-term growth in emerging market economies. Thus, it complements the analysis in the chapter, which is more focused on the shorter-term growth implications of changes in external conditions. Growth regressions, which abstract from the business cycle by aggregating data over five-year periods, naturally lend themselves to addressing questions relating to the medium-term impact of a protracted period of adverse external conditions on emerging market economies’ growth. Also, given wider availability of data at an annual frequency, the findings of the box are applicable to a broader group of emerging markets. Economic theory suggests several channels through which external conditions affect long-term growth. The standard growth model is the obvious starting point. Real external shocks, such as an increase in external demand or a change in the terms of trade, directly affect the productivity of capital and therefore capital accumulation.

Financial linkages As for financial linkages, arbitrage ensures that a small open economy with an open capital account will be in a steady state when the productivity of domestic capital is equal to the global interest rate. Although there are many reasons why this equalization may never be achieved (for example, country risk, investment costs), an increase in global real interest rates will necessarily reduce funding for marginal investment projects and negatively affect growth. This process can progress in a dramatic fashion, with an increase in international rates precipitating banking crises and the ensuing decrease in output (Eichengreen and Rose, 2004). This box analyzes the impact of both trade and financial linkages in a single regression. The two channels operate in opposite directions: whereas a recession in advanced economies may adversely affect emerging market economies’ growth (through a combination of lower external demand and weaker terms of trade), relatively lower interest rates in advanced economy downturns can boost domestic demand growth in emerging markets. Analyzing all external factors simultaneously reduces omitted-variable bias, even if it does not allow identification of the exogenous impact of each separately. The author of this box is Alexander Culiuc.

Specification and methodology The empirical approach estimates fixed-effects panel growth regressions—for growth averaged over consecutive five-year periods—of the following general form: DlnGDPPCi,t = b1'(External Conditions)i,t + b2' Xi,t + gi + ht + ei,t , (4.1.1) in which DlnGDPPCi,t = first difference in the log of real per capita GDP; External Conditions = variables measuring external conditions, which include Trading partner growth, computed following Arora and Vamvakidis (2005),1 Change in the log of the terms of trade, and International financing conditions (for example, the real interest rate on the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond) interacted with the degree of financial openness; Xi,t = standard growth regressors, such as initial level of income, population growth, and investment ratio; gi = country fixed effect; and ht = time fixed effect to control for changes in global conditions not captured by the model. For most specifications, the panel is estimated for the period 1997–20112 and includes 62 emerging market economies with populations of more than two million, of which 14 are classified as mineral commodity exporters. The emerging market economy universe is larger than the one considered in the chapter, covering a number of countries (mostly in eastern Europe) only recently reclassified as advanced economies.3

1A similar approach is also used by Drummond and Ramirez (2009) and Dabla-Norris, Espinoza, and Jahan (2012). 2The period is chosen to coincide roughly with the period covered in the chapter. Results, especially those concerning trade linkages, remain broadly unchanged if the period is stretched back to the mid-1980s and even the 1970s. 3The panel is constructed using data from IMF sources (World Economic Outlook, International Financial Statistics, Direction of Trade Statistics, Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions), as well as from the World Development Indicators (World Bank), Lane and Milesi-Ferretti (2007), Klein and Shambaugh (2008), and the Armed Conflict Dataset (Peace Research Institute Oslo).



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 145

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Box 4.1 (continued) Table 4.1.1. Growth Regressions for Emerging Markets, 1997–2011 All Emerging Market Economies (1) Lagged GDP per Capita (log) Population Growth Gross Capital Formation/GDP War Terms-of-Trade Growth Trading Partner GDP Growth Exports/GDP

–0.053** (0.025) 1.473** (0.571) 0.052 (0.054) –0.006 (0.005) 0.121* (0.068) 0.910*** (0.255)

Trading Partner GDP Growth × Exports/ GDP Time Fixed Effects Country Fixed Effects Number of Observations Number of Countries R Squared

Yes Yes 164 57 0.505

(2) –0.051** (0.025) 1.432** (0.542) 0.062 (0.058) –0.001 (0.003) 0.114* (0.060) 0.692 (0.466) –0.054 (0.043) 0.685 (1.085) Yes Yes 164 57 0.486

Non-Commodity-Exporting Emerging Market Economies (3) –0.083*** (0.020) 0.128 (0.311) 0.183*** (0.032) 0.000 (0.003) 0.066 (0.070) 0.847*** (0.177)

Yes Yes 121 42 0.685

(4) –0.082*** (0.020) 0.235 (0.305) 0.178*** (0.032) 0.000 (0.003) 0.060 (0.068) 0.541** (0.262) –0.025 (0.037) 1.072 (1.078) Yes Yes 121 42 0.668

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: Standard errors (in parentheses) are clustered at the country level. *, **, *** indicate that coefficients are significant at the 10, 5, and 1 percent levels, respectively.

Trade linkages The growth regressions are estimated separately for all emerging market economies in the sample and for non–mineral commodity exporters. The regressions confirm that emerging markets’ per capita GDP growth is subject to conditional convergence (negative coefficient on lagged GDP per capita), and both investment and the terms of trade have positive growth effects (Table 4.1.1, columns 1 and 2 for the full sample, and columns 3 and 4 for non-commodityexporting emerging markets). Medium-term growth exhibits a correlation close to one vis-à-vis growth in export partner economies. This elasticity tends to increase with trade openness (column 2 of the table and Figure 4.1.1), particularly for the non-commodity-exporting economies (column 4 of the table and Figure 4.1.1). The results also suggest that the terms of trade have a limited role in determining medium-term growth, especially for non–commodity exporters. The analysis also tracks the relationship between partner growth elasticity and trade openness over time by introducing interaction effects with time dummies (Figure 4.1.2). As panel 1 of Figure 4.1.2 shows, partner growth elasticity has been increasing since the

146

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

mid-1980s in line with the median export-to-GDP ratio. However, although advanced economy partner growth elasticity has been rising over time, emerging market economy partner growth elasticity started rapidly picking up (from zero) only in the early 1990s (panel 2 of Figure 4.1.2). The increase in the growth elasticity of emerging markets with respect to growth in their emerging market partners coincides with—and is likely driven by—the growing prominence of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) and, particularly, the proliferation of supply chains with China. To assess this supposition, the growth regressions are ­reestimated for all non-BRICS emerging markets (Table 4.1.2 and panels 3 and 4 of Figure 4.1.2).4 Panel 3 of the figure appears to corroborate the hypothesis: for the average emerging market economy, correlation with BRICS growth is fairly high (0.3) 4All partner growth elasticities are weighted by the share of partner countries in the export basket of each emerging market. This means, among other things, that the BRICS partner growth elasticity is heavily weighted toward China, which, for the average emerging market economy, accounts for more than one-third of exports to the BRICS.

CHAPTER 4   ON THE RECEIVING END?

Box 4.1 (continued) Figure 4.1.2. Export Partner Growth

1.5

30

1.0

20

0.5

10

2.5

0.0

–0.5

0

0

10

20 30 40 50 Exports (percent of GDP)

60

1.5

Partner growth 35 elasticity1 (left 30 scale)

1.0

25

2. Advanced Economy versus Emerging Market Economy Partner Growth Advanced economy partners 3.0 Emerging 2.5 market economy 2.0 partners 1.5

0.5

20

1.0

0.0

15

0.5

–0.5

10

0.0

–1.0

5

–0.5

1. All Export Partner Growth

2.5 2.0

–10

Median of exports (percent of GDP; right 40 scale)

BRICS versus Other Emerging Market Trading Partners

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: On the x-axis, 0 denotes 0–10 percent of GDP; 10 denotes 10–20 percent of GDP; and so on.

BRICS partners 2.5 3. All Emerging Markets 2.0

and statistically significant. This result, however, hides heterogeneity across country groups. Panel 4 presents results estimated separately for commodity exporters and non–commodity exporters. For non–commodity exporters, BRICS partner growth elasticity is borderline statistically significant. Growth in commodity exporters, on the other hand, exhibits a very strong correlation with both BRICS and other emerging market economy partners, confirming the growing importance of the BRICS, and China in particular, in the global demand for mineral commodities.

Financial linkages The role of external financial conditions in emerging markets’ growth is considered next. Although for a small open economy, an increase in the global interest rate is expected to increase the opportunity cost of capital and, correspondingly, depress growth in the short term, the effect in the medium term remains an open question. Regressions presented in Table 4.1.3 augment the model with global financing conditions proxied by the

1977–81 1982–86 1987–91 1992–96 1997–2001 2002–06 2007–11

2.0

Share of emerging market economy GDP 50 (percent of GDP; right scale) Partner growth elasticity (left scale) 95 percent confidence interval (left scale) 40

1977–81 1982–86 1987–91 1992–96 1997–2001 2002–06 2007–11

Figure 4.1.1. Export Partner Growth Elasticity

Non-BRICS emerging market economy partners 2.5 4. Commodity versus Non– 2.0 Commodity

1.5

1.5

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5

0.0

0.0

–0.5 All emerging markets

–0.5 Non–commodity Commodity

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: BRICS = Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa. In panels 3 and 4, the upper and lower points of each line show the top and bottom of the 95 percent confidence interval. The estimation period is 1997–2011. “Non-commodity” and “Commodity” refer to non–commodity exporters and commodity exporters, respectively, among the emerging market economies in the sample. 1 Dashed lines denote 95 percent confidence interval for partner growth elasticity.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 147

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Box 4.1 (continued) Table 4.1.2. Growth Regressions for Emerging Markets: Brazil, China, India, Russia, and South Africa versus Other Emerging Market Partner Growth, 1997–2011 All EMEs Lagged GDP per Capita (log) Population Growth Gross Capital Formation/GDP War Terms-of-Trade Growth AE Partner GDP Growth EME Partner GDP Growth BRICS Partner GDP Growth

Non–Commodity Exporter

Commodity Exporter

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

–0.056* (–0.030) 1.645*** (–0.515) 0.055 (–0.049) 0.001 (–0.006) 0.145* (–0.074) –1.210 (–0.931) 0.666*** (–0.184)

–0.054* (–0.030) 1.732*** (–0.562) 0.060 (–0.049) 0.000 (–0.006) 0.152** (–0.075) –1.395 (–0.956)

–0.102*** (–0.021) 0.465 (–0.359) 0.163*** (–0.037) 0.005 (–0.004) 0.104 (–0.073) 0.859 (–0.715) 0.545*** (–0.126)

–0.098*** (–0.021) 0.459 (–0.383) 0.166*** (–0.037) 0.006 (–0.004) 0.126* (–0.074) 0.738 (–0.729)

0.130** (–0.053) –0.911 (–1.066) 0.178** (–0.071) 0.010 (–0.013) 0.192* (–0.099) –5.666*** (–1.257) 1.718*** (–0.382)

0.114** (–0.048) –0.363 (–1.433) 0.164* (–0.078) 0.008 (–0.013) 0.127 (–0.132) –6.116*** (–1.653)

Non-BRICS EME Partner GDP Growth Time Fixed Effects Country Fixed Effects Number of Observations Number of Countries R Squared

Yes Yes 164 57 0.505

0.295* (–0.149) 0.527*** (–0.167) Yes Yes 164 57 0.486

Yes Yes 121 42 0.685

0.175* (–0.098) 0.500*** (–0.141) Yes Yes 121 42 0.668

Yes Yes 43 15 0.818

0.718** (–0.260) 1.259** (–0.427) Yes Yes 43 15 0.790

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: AE = advanced economy; BRICS = Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa; EME = emerging market economy. Standard errors (in parentheses) are clustered at the country level. *, **, *** indicate that coefficients are significant at the 10, 5, and 1 percent levels, respectively.

real interest rate on the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond interacted with the degree of financial integration.5 Results confirm the negative effect of high global interest rates on medium-term growth—a 100 basis point increase in the former is associated with a 0.5 percentage point decrease in the latter for the median emerging market economy, with a degree of financial integration of 115 percent of GDP (columns 1 and 2 of the table). However, the relationship is not statistically significant for the sample since the mid-1990s. To make the results comparable to those of previous studies (Frankel and Roubini, 2001; Reinhart and others, 2001; Reinhart and Reinhart, 2001), the model is reestimated for 1997–2011 using annual data (column 3). The negative impact of the foreign interest rate is statistically significant. This suggests that the effect of international borrowing conditions on emerging market economies’ growth may be shorter term in nature and cannot be 5The

degree of financial integration is computed from the updated and extended version of the data set constructed by Lane and Milesi-Ferretti (2007) as the sum of gross foreign assets and liabilities net of international reserves as a percentage of GDP.

148

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

reliably captured when five-year averages are considered. In a similar manner, the terms of trade also gain statistical significance in the regression using annual data.

Conclusion The main messages of the analysis in this box are the following. First, the importance of partner country growth has increased dramatically as emerging market economies have integrated into the world economy. Second, as some emerging markets have gained a prominent role in the global economy, their impact on smaller peers has also increased. BRICS’ growth, in particular, has become an important factor driving growth in other emerging market economies, especially those dependent on mineral commodity exports. Third, international financing conditions, which tend to affect the cyclical component of growth in emerging market economies (as also shown in the main analysis), also exercise a longer-lasting effect, especially for financially integrated countries. Although the analysis has shown that external factors are important for longterm growth, it should be noted that this finding does not diminish the critical role of appropriate domestic

CHAPTER 4   ON THE RECEIVING END?

Box 4.1 (continued) Table 4.1.3. Growth Regressions for Emerging Markets 1987–2011

1997–2011

(1) Lagged GDP per Capita (log) Population Growth Gross Capital Formation/GDP War Terms-of-Trade Growth Terms-of-Trade Growth × Commodity Exporter Trading Partner GDP Growth Financial Integration Financial Integration × Real 10-Year U.S. Treasury Bond Country Fixed Effects Year Fixed Effects Number of Observations Number of Countries R Squared

(2)

–0.040** (0.017) 0.270 (0.443) 0.087** (0.039) –0.010*** (0.003) –0.008 (0.053) 0.105 (0.075) 0.970*** (0.239) –0.016*** (0.006) –0.494** (0.226)

–0.043* (0.025) 1.498** (0.629) 0.054 (0.045) 0.000 (0.004) 0.092 (0.085) 0.051 (0.125) 0.891*** (0.263) –0.016*** (0.005) –0.409 (0.377)

Yes Yes 248 62 0.510

Yes Yes 178 62 0.508

1997–2011 (annual data) (3) –0.061** (0.025) –0.356 (0.349) 0.193*** (0.050) 0.002 (0.008) 0.061** (0.026) –0.038 (0.038) 0.693*** (0.206) –0.023*** (0.005) –0.237** (0.109) Yes Yes 874 62 0.428

Source: IMF staff calculations. Note: Standard errors (in parentheses) are clustered at the country level. *, **, *** indicate that coefficients are significant at the 10, 5, and 1 percent levels, respectively.

economic and structural policies in this area. Indeed, recent work (see Chapter 4 of the October 2012 World Economic Outlook) has established how improvements

in domestic policy frameworks have contributed to the increased resilience of emerging market economies since the 1990s.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 149

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

References Abiad, Abdul, Ravi Balakrishnan, Petya Koeva Brooks, Daniel Leigh, and Irina Tytell, 2014, “What’s the Damage? MediumTerm Output Dynamics after Financial Crises,” Chapter 9 in Financial Crises: Causes, Consequences, and Policy Responses, ed. by Stijn Claessens, M. Ayhan Kose, Luc Laeven, and Fabián Valencia (Washington: International Monetary Fund), pp. 277–308. Abiad, Abdul, John Bluedorn, Jaime Guajardo, and Petia Topalova, 2012, “The Rising Resilience of Emerging Market and Developing Economies,” IMF Working Paper No. 12/300 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Adler, Gustavo, and Camilo E. Tovar, 2012, “Riding Global Financial Waves: The Economic Impact of Global Financial Shocks on Emerging Market Economies,” IMF Working Paper No. 12/188 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Ahmed, Shaghil, and Andrei Zlate, 2013, “Capital Flows to Emerging Market Economies: A Brave New World?” International Finance Discussion Papers No. 1081 (Washington: Federal Reserve Board). Ahuja, Ashvin, and Malhar Nabar, 2012, “Investment-Led Growth in China: Global Spillovers,” IMF Working Paper No. 12/167 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Arora, Vivek, and Athanasios Vamvakidis, 2010, “China’s Economic Growth: International Spillovers,” IMF Working Paper No. 10/165 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Aslund, Anders, 2013, “Why Growth in Emerging Economies Is Likely to Fall,” Working Paper No. 13-10 (Washington: Peterson Institute for International Economics). Calvo, Guillermo, Leonardo Leiderman, and Carmen Reinhart, 1993, “Capital Inflows and the Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Latin America: The Role of External Factors,” IMF Staff Papers, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 108–51. Canova, Fabio, 2005, “The Transmission of U.S. Shocks to Latin America,” Journal of Applied Econometrics, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 229–51. Cerra, Valerie, and Sweta Saxena, 2008, “Growth Dynamics: The Myth of Economic Recovery,” American Economic Review, Vol. 98, No. 1, pp. 439–57. Cesa-Bianchi, Ambrogio, M. Hashem Pesaran, Alessandro Rebucci, and TengTeng Xu, 2011, “China’s Emergence in the World Economy and Business Cycles in Latin America,” Working Paper No. 266 (Washington: Inter-American Development Bank). Coibion, Olivier, 2012, “Are the Effects of Monetary Policy Shocks Big or Small?” American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 1–32. Dabla-Norris, Era, Raphael Espinoza, and Sarwat Jahan, 2012, “Spillovers to Low-Income Countries: Importance of Systemic Emerging Markets,” IMF Working Paper No. 12/49 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

150

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

de la Torre, Augusto, Eduardo Levy Yeyati, and Samuel Pienknagura, 2014, “Latin America’s Fashionable Scepticism: Setting the Record Straight.” VoxEU, January 12. www.voxeu.org/ article/overstated-pessimism-over-latin-america. Dreger, Christian, and Yanqun Zhang, 2011, “The Chinese Impact on GDP Growth and Inflation in the Industrial Countries,” Discussion Paper No. 1151 (Berlin: German Institute for Economic Research). Drummond, Paulo, and Gustavo Ramirez, 2009, “Spillovers from the Rest of the World into Sub-Saharan African Countries,” IMF Working Paper No. 09/155 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Eichengreen, Barry, Donghyun Park, and Kwanho Shin, 2011, “When Fast Growing Economies Slow Down: International Evidence and Implications for China,” NBER Working Paper No. 16919 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research). www.nber.org/papers/w16919. Eichengreen, Barry, and Andrew Rose, 2004, “Staying Afloat When the Wind Shifts: External Factors and Emerging-­ Market Banking Crises,” in Money, Capital Mobility, and Trade: Essays in Honor of Robert A. Mundell, ed. by Guillermo Calvo, Rudiger Dornbusch, and Maurice Obstfeld (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press). Erten, Bilge, 2012, “Macroeconomic Transmission of Eurozone Shocks to Emerging Economies,” Working Paper No. 201212 (Paris: CEPII). Frankel, Jeffrey, and Nouriel Roubini, 2001, “The Role of Industrial Country Policies in Emerging Market Crises,” NBER Working Paper No. 8634 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research). Ilzetzki, Ethan, and Keyu Jin, 2013, “The Puzzling Change in the International Transmission of U.S. Macroeconomic Policy Shocks” (unpublished; London: London School of Economics). International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2008a, India: 2007 Article IV Consultation—Staff Report, IMF Country Report No. 08/51 (Washington). ———, 2008b, Russian Federation: 2008 Article IV Consultation—Staff Report; Staff Statement; and Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion, IMF Country Report No. 08/309 (Washington). ———, 2008c, South Africa: 2008 Article IV Consultation— Staff Report; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussions; and Statement by the Executive Director for South Africa, IMF Country Report No. 08/348 (Washington). ———, 2012, 2012 Spillover Report (Washington). ———, 2013a, 2013 Spillover Report, IMF Multilateral Policy Issues Report (Washington). ———, 2013b, India: 2013 Article IV Consultation, IMF Country Report No. 13/37 (Washington). ———, 2013c, South Africa: 2013 Article IV Consultation, IMF Country Report No. 13/303 (Washington).

CHAPTER 4   ON THE RECEIVING END?

———, 2013d, Turkey: 2013 Article IV Consultation, IMF Country Report No. 13/363 (Washington). ———, 2014, India: 2014 Article IV Consultation, IMF Country Report No. 14/57 (Washington). Klein, Michael W., and Jay C. Shambaugh, 2008, “The Dynamics of Exchange Rate Regimes: Fixes, Floats, and Flips,” Journal of International Economics, Vol. 75, No. 1, pp 70–92. Kose, M. Ayhan, Prakash Loungani, and Marco E. Terrones, 2013, “Why Is This Global Recovery Different?” VoxEU, April 18. www.voxeu.org/article/why-global-recovery-different. Kuttner, Kenneth, 2001, “Monetary Policy Surprises and Interest Rates: Evidence from the Fed Funds Futures Market,” Journal of Monetary Economics, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 523–44. Laeven, Luc, and Fabián Valencia, 2013, “Systemic Banking Crises Database,” IMF Economic Review, Vol. 61, No. 2, pp. 225–70. Lane, Philip, and Gian Maria Milesi-Ferretti, 2007, “The External Wealth of Nations Mark II: Revised and Extended Estimates of Foreign Assets and Liabilities, 1970–2004,” Journal of International Economics, Vol. 73, No. 2, pp. 223–50. Litterman, Robert B., 1986, “Forecasting with Bayesian Vector Autoregressions: Five Years of Experience,” Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 25–38. Mackowiak, Bartosz, 2007, “External Shocks, U.S. Monetary Policy and Macroeconomic Fluctuations in Emerging Markets,” Journal of Monetary Economics, Vol. 54, No. 8, pp. 2512–20. Österholm, Pär, and Jeromin Zettelmeyer, 2007, “The Effect of External Conditions on Growth in Latin America,” IMF Working Paper No. 07/176 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

Reinhart, Carmen, Guillermo Calvo, Eduardo Fernández-Arias, and Ernesto Talvi, 2001, “The Growth–Interest Rate Cycle in the United States and Its Consequences for Emerging Markets,” Research Department Publication No. 4279 (Washington: Inter-American Development Bank). Reinhart, Carmen, and Vincent Reinhart, 2001, “What Hurts Most? G-3 Exchange Rate or Interest Rate Volatility,” NBER Working Paper No. 8535 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research). Reinhart, Carmen, and Kenneth Rogoff, 2009, “The Aftermath of Financial Crises,” American Economic Review, Vol. 99, No. 2, pp. 466–72. Romer, Christina D., and David H. Romer, 2004, “A New Measure of Monetary Shocks: Derivation and Implications,” American Economic Review, Vol. 94, No. 4, pp. 1055–84. Sims, Christopher A., and Tao Zha, 1998, “Bayesian Methods for Dynamic Multivariate Models,” International Economic Review, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 949–68. Subramanian, Arvind, 2013, “Too Soon to Mourn Emerging Markets,” Financial Times, October 7. www.ft.com/ cms/s/0/8604dd58-2f35-11e3-ae87-00144feab7de. html#axzz2v1gYigdT. Swiston, Andrew, and Tamim Bayoumi, 2008, “Spillovers across NAFTA,” IMF Working Paper No. 08/3 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Utlaut, Johannes, and Björn van Roye, 2010, “The Effects of External Shocks on Business Cycles in Emerging Asia: A Bayesian VAR Model,” Working Paper No. 1668 (Kiel, Germany: Kiel Institute for the World Economy).



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 151

ANNEX

IMF EXECUTIVE BOARD DISCUSSION OF THE OUTLOOK, MARCH 2014

The following remarks were made by the Acting Chair at the conclusion of the Executive Board’s discussion of the World Economic Outlook, Global Financial Stability Report, and Fiscal Monitor on March 21, 2014.

E

xecutive Directors welcomed the strengthening of global activity in the second half 2013. They observed that much of the impetus has come from advanced economies, but inflation in these economies continues to undershoot projections, reflecting still-large output gaps. While remaining fairly robust, growth activity in emerging market and developing economies slowed in 2013, in an environment of increased capital flow volatility and worsening external financing conditions. Directors underscored that, despite improved growth prospects, the global recovery is still fragile and significant downside risks, including geopolitical, remain. Directors agreed that global growth will continue to improve this year and next, on the back of slower fiscal tightening and still highly accommodative monetary conditions in advanced economies. In emerging market and developing economies, growth will pick up gradually, with stronger external demand being partly offset by the dampening impact of tighter financial conditions. Directors acknowledged that successfully transitioning from liquidity-driven to growth-driven markets will require overcoming key challenges, including strengthening policy coordination. In advanced economies, a sustained rise in corporate investment and continued efforts to strengthen bank balance sheets will be necessary, especially in the euro area. Risks to emerging market economies have increased with rising public and corporate sector leverage and greater foreign borrowing. Directors noted that the recent increase in financial volatility likely reflected renewed market concern about fundamentals, against the backdrop of early steps toward monetary policy normalization in some advanced economies. In view of possible capital flow reversals from emerging markets, Directors considered the risks related to sizable external funding needs and disorderly currency depreciations and welcomed the recent tightening of macroeconomic policies, which

appears to have shored up confidence. Regarding the financial sector, Directors noted that, despite the progress made in reducing global financial vulnerabilities, the too-important-to-fail issue still remains largely unresolved. Most Directors recommended closer monitoring of the risks to activity associated with low inflation in advanced economies, especially in the euro area. Longer-term inflation expectations could drift down, leading to higher real interest rates, an increase in private and public debt burdens, and a further slowdown in demand and output. Directors noted, however, that continued low nominal interest rates in advanced economies could also pose financial stability risks and have already led to pockets of increased leverage, sometimes accompanied by a weakening of underwriting standards. Against this backdrop, Directors called for more policy efforts to fully restore confidence, lower downside risks, and ensure robust and sustainable global growth. In an environment of continued fiscal consolidation, still-large output gaps, and very low inflation, monetary policy should remain accommodative. Many Directors argued that in the euro area, further monetary easing, including unconventional measures, would help to sustain activity and limit the risk of very low inflation or deflation. A number of Directors thought that current monetary conditions in the euro area are already accommodative and further easing would not be justified. Some Directors also called for a more comprehensive analysis of exchange rates and global imbalances in the World Economic Outlook. Directors recommended designing and implementing clear and credible medium-term fiscal consolidation plans to help mitigate fiscal risks and address the debt overhang in advanced economies, including the United States and Japan. They welcomed the expected shift from tax to expenditure consolidation measures, particularly in those advanced economies where rais

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

153

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

ing tax burdens could hamper growth. Moreover, they agreed that a new impulse to structural reforms is needed to lift investment and growth prospects in advanced economies. Directors welcomed the progress made in strengthening the banking sector in the euro area, but noted that more needs to be done to address financial fragmentation, repair bank and corporate sector balance sheets following a credible comprehensive assessment, and recapitalize weak banks in order to enhance confidence and revive credit. While acknowledging the EU Council’s recent agreement on a Single Resolution Mechanism (SRM), Directors underscored the importance of completing the banking union, including through functional independence of the SRM with the capacity to undertake timely bank resolution and common backstops to sever the link between sovereigns and banks. Directors noted that the appropriate policy measures will differ across emerging market economies, but observed that there are some common priorities. Exchange rates should be allowed to respond to changing fundamentals and facilitate external adjustment. Where international reserves are adequate, foreign exchange interventions can be used to smooth volatility and avoid financial disruption. In economies where inflationary pressures are still high, further monetary policy tightening may be necessary. If warranted, macroprudential measures can help contain the growth of corporate leverage, particularly in foreign currency. Strengthening the transparency and consistency of policy frameworks would contribute to building policy credibility.

154

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

Directors underscored the need for emerging market and low-income economies to rebuild fiscal buffers and rein in fiscal deficits (including by containing public sector contingent liabilities), particularly in the context of elevated public debt and financing vulnerabilities. Fiscal consolidation plans should be country specific and properly calibrated between tax and expenditure measures to support equitable, sustained growth. Priority social spending should be safeguarded, and the efficiency of public spending improved, through better targeting of social expenditures, rationalizing the public sector wage bill, and enhancing public investment project appraisal, selection, and audit processes. Directors agreed that emerging market economies could enhance their resilience to global financial shocks through a deepening of their domestic financial markets and the development of a local investor base. They supported tightening prudential and regulatory oversight, including over nonbank institutions in China, removing implicit guarantees, and enhancing the role of market forces in the nonbank sector in order to mitigate financial stability risks and any negative crossborder spillovers. Directors concurred that many emerging market and developing economies should implement other key structural reforms, designed to boost employment and prospects for diversified and sustained growth, while also promoting global rebalancing. Reforms should, among other things, encompass the removal of barriers to entry in product and services markets, improve the business climate and address key supply-side bottlenecks, and in China, support sustainable and balanced growth, including the shift from investment toward consumption.

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

T

he Statistical Appendix presents historical data as well as projections. It comprises six sections: Assumptions, What’s New, Data and Conventions, Classification of Countries, General Features and Composition of Groups in the World Economic Outlook Classification, and Statistical Tables. The assumptions underlying the estimates and projections for 2014–15 and the medium-term scenario for 2016–19 are summarized in the first section. The second section presents a brief description of the changes to the database and statistical tables since the October 2013 issue of the World Economic Outlook (WEO). The third section provides a general description of the data and the conventions used for calculating country group composites. The classification of countries in the various groups presented in the WEO is summarized in the fourth section. The fifth section provides information on methods and reporting standards for the member countries’ national account and government finance indicators included in the report. The last, and main, section comprises the statistical tables. (Statistical Appendix A is included here; Statistical Appendix B is available online.) Data in these tables have been compiled on the basis of information available generally through March 24, 2014. The figures for 2014 and beyond are shown with the same degree of precision as the historical figures solely for convenience; because they are projections, the same degree of accuracy is not to be inferred.

Assumptions Real effective exchange rates for the advanced economies are assumed to remain constant at their average levels during the period January 31 to February 28, 2014. For 2014 and 2015, these assumptions imply average U.S. dollar/special drawing right (SDR) conversion rates of 1.542 and 1.557, U.S. dollar/euro conversion rates of 1.369 and 1.393, and yen/U.S. dollar conversion rates of 101.6 and 100.0, respectively. It is assumed that the price of oil will average $104.17 a barrel in 2014 and $97.92 a barrel in 2015.

Established policies of national authorities are assumed to be maintained. The more specific policy assumptions underlying the projections for selected economies are described in Box A1. With regard to interest rates, it is assumed that the London interbank offered rate (LIBOR) on six-month U.S. dollar deposits will average 0.4 percent in 2014 and 0.8 percent in 2015, that three-month euro deposits will average 0.3 percent in 2014 and 0.4 percent in 2015, and that six-month yen deposits will average 0.2 percent in 2014 and 2015. With respect to introduction of the euro, on December 31, 1998, the Council of the European Union decided that, effective January 1, 1999, the irrevocably fixed conversion rates between the euro and currencies of the member countries adopting the euro are as follows. 1 euro

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

13.7603 40.3399 0.585274 1.95583 15.6466 5.94573 6.55957 340.750 0.787564 1,936.27 0.702804 40.3399 0.42930 2.20371 200.482 30.1260 239.640 166.386

Austrian schillings Belgian francs Cyprus pound1 Deutsche mark Estonian krooni2 Finnish markkaa French francs Greek drachmas3 Irish pound Italian lire Latvian lats4 Luxembourg francs Maltese lira1 Netherlands guilders Portuguese escudos Slovak koruna5 Slovenian tolars6 Spanish pesetas

1Established

on January 1, 2008. on January 1, 2011. 3Established on January 1, 2001. 4Established on January 1, 2014. 5Established on January 1, 2009. 6Established on January 1, 2007. 2Established

See Box 5.4 of the October 1998 WEO for details on how the conversion rates were established.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 155

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

What’s New •• On January 1, 2014, Latvia became the 18th country to join the euro area. Data for Latvia are not included in the euro area aggregates, because the database has not yet been converted to euros, but are included in data aggregated for advanced economies. •• Starting with the April 2014 WEO, the Central and Eastern Europe and Emerging Europe regions have been renamed Emerging and Developing Europe. The Developing Asia region has been renamed Emerging and Developing Asia. •• Projections for Ukraine are excluded due to the ongoing crisis. •• The consumer price projections for Argentina are excluded because of a structural break in the data. Please refer to note 6 in Table A7 for further details. •• Korea’s real GDP series is based on the reference year 2005. This does not reflect the revised national accounts released on March 26, 2014, after the WEO was finalized for publication. These comprehensive revisions include implementing the 2008 System of National Accounts and updating the reference year to 2010. As a result of these revisions, real GDP growth in 2013 was revised up to 3 percent from 2.8 percent (which is the figure included in Tables 2.3 and A2). •• Cape Verde is now called Cabo Verde. •• As in the October 2013 WEO, data for Syria are excluded for 2011 onward because of the uncertain political situation.

Data and Conventions Data and projections for 189 economies form the statistical basis of the World Economic Outlook (the WEO database). The data are maintained jointly by the IMF’s Research Department and regional departments, with the latter regularly updating country projections based on consistent global assumptions. Although national statistical agencies are the ultimate providers of historical data and definitions, international organizations are also involved in statistical issues, with the objective of harmonizing methodologies for the compilation of national statistics, including analytical frameworks, concepts, definitions, classifications, and valuation procedures used in the production of economic statistics. The WEO database reflects information from both national source agencies and international organizations.

156

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

Most countries’ macroeconomic data presented in the WEO conform broadly to the 1993 version of the System of National Accounts (SNA). The IMF’s sector statistical standards—the Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, Sixth Edition (BPM6), the Monetary and Financial Statistics Manual (MFSM 2000), and the Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001 (GFSM 2001)—have been or are being aligned with the 2008 SNA.1 These standards reflect the IMF’s special interest in countries’ external positions, financial sector stability, and public sector fiscal positions. The process of adapting country data to the new standards begins in earnest when the manuals are released. However, full concordance with the manuals is ultimately dependent on the provision by national statistical compilers of revised country data; hence, the WEO estimates are only partially adapted to these manuals. Nonetheless, for many countries the impact, on major balances and aggregates, of conversion to the updated standards will be small. Many other countries have partially adopted the latest standards and will continue implementation over a period of years. Consistent with the recommendations of the 1993 SNA, several countries have phased out their traditional fixed-base-year method of calculating real macroeconomic variable levels and growth by switching to a chain-weighted method of computing aggregate growth. The chain-weighted method frequently updates the weights of price and volume indicators. It allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past. Table F indicates which countries use a chain-weighted method. Composite data for country groups in the WEO are either sums or weighted averages of data for individual countries. Unless noted otherwise, multiyear averages of growth rates are expressed as compound annual rates of change.2 Arithmetically weighted averages are used for all data for the emerging market and developing 1Many

other countries are implementing the 2008 SNA and will release national accounts data based on the new standard in 2014. A few countries use versions of the SNA older than 1993. A similar adoption pattern is expected for the BPM6. Although the conceptual standards use the BPM6, the WEO will continue to use the BPM5 presentation until a representative number of countries have moved their balance of payments accounts into the BPM6 framework. 2Averages for real GDP and its components, employment, GDP per capita, inflation, factor productivity, trade, and commodity prices are calculated based on the compound annual rate of change,

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

economies group except inflation and money growth, for which geometric averages are used. The following conventions apply. •• Country group composites for exchange rates, interest rates, and growth rates of monetary aggregates are weighted by GDP converted to U.S. dollars at market exchange rates (averaged over the preceding three years) as a share of group GDP. •• Composites for other data relating to the domestic economy, whether growth rates or ratios, are weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parity (PPP) as a share of total world or group GDP.3 •• Composites for data relating to the domestic economy for the euro area (18 member countries throughout the entire period, unless noted otherwise) are aggregates of national source data using GDP weights. Annual data are not adjusted for calendar-day effects. For data prior to 1999, data aggregations apply 1995 European currency unit exchange rates. •• Composites for fiscal data are sums of individual country data after conversion to U.S. dollars at the average market exchange rates in the years indicated. •• Composite unemployment rates and employment growth are weighted by labor force as a share of group labor force. •• Composites relating to external sector statistics are sums of individual country data after conversion to U.S. dollars at the average market exchange rates in the years indicated for balance of payments data and at end-of-year market exchange rates for debt denominated in currencies other than U.S. dollars. •• Composites of changes in foreign trade volumes and prices, however, are arithmetic averages of percent changes for individual countries weighted by the U.S. dollar value of exports or imports as a share of total world or group exports or imports (in the preceding year). •• Unless noted otherwise, group composites are computed if 90 percent or more of the share of group weights is represented.

except in the case of the unemployment rate, which is based on the simple arithmetic average. 3See Box A2 of the April 2004 WEO for a summary of the revised PPP-based weights and Annex IV of the May 1993 WEO. See also Anne-Marie Gulde and Marianne Schulze-Ghattas, “Purchasing Power Parity Based Weights for the World Economic Outlook,” in Staff Studies for the World Economic Outlook (Washington: International Monetary Fund, December 1993), pp. 106–23.

Data refer to calendar years, except in the case of a few countries that use fiscal years. Please refer to Table F, which lists the reporting period for each country.

Classification of Countries Summary of the Country Classification The country classification in the WEO divides the world into two major groups: advanced economies and emerging market and developing economies.4 This classification is not based on strict criteria, economic or otherwise, and it has evolved over time. The objective is to facilitate analysis by providing a reasonably meaningful method of organizing data. Table A provides an overview of the country classification, showing the number of countries in each group by region and summarizing some key indicators of their relative size (GDP valued by PPP, total exports of goods and services, and population). Some countries remain outside the country classification and therefore are not included in the analysis. Anguilla, Cuba, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and Montserrat are examples of countries that are not IMF members, and their economies therefore are not monitored by the IMF. Somalia is omitted from the emerging market and developing economies group composites because of data limitations.

General Features and Composition of Groups in the World Economic Outlook Classification Advanced Economies The 36 advanced economies are listed in Table B. The seven largest in terms of GDP—the United States, Japan, Germany, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and Canada—constitute the subgroup of major advanced economies often referred to as the Group of Seven (G7). The members of the euro area are also distinguished as a subgroup. Composite data shown in the tables for the euro area cover the current members for all years, even though the membership has increased over time.

4As used here, the terms “country” and “economy” do not always refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. Some territorial entities included here are not states, although their statistical data are maintained on a separate and independent basis.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 157

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table C lists the member countries of the European Union, not all of which are classified as advanced economies in the World Economic Outlook.

Emerging Market and Developing Economies The group of emerging market and developing economies (153) includes all those that are not classified as advanced economies. The regional breakdowns of emerging market and developing economies are Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS); emerging and developing Asia; emerging and developing Europe (sometimes also referred to as central and eastern Europe); Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC); Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (MENAP); and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Emerging market and developing economies are also classified according to analytical criteria. The analytical criteria reflect the composition of export earnings and other income from abroad; a distinction between net creditor and net debtor economies; and, for the net debtors, financial criteria based on external financing sources and experience with external debt servicing. The detailed composition of emerging market and developing economies in the regional and analytical groups is shown in Tables D and E. The analytical criterion by source of export earnings distinguishes between categories: fuel (Standard International Trade Classification—SITC 3) and nonfuel and then focuses on nonfuel primary products (SITCs 0, 1, 2, 4, and 68). Economies are categorized into one of these groups when their main source of export earnings exceeds 50 percent of total exports on average between 2008 and 2012.

158

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

The financial criteria focus on net creditor economies, net debtor economies, heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs), and low-income developing countries (LIDCs). Economies are categorized as net debtors when their current account balance accumulations from 1972 (or earliest data available) to 2012 are negative. Net debtor economies are further differentiated on the basis of two additional financial criteria: official external financing and experience with debt servicing.5 Net debtors are placed in the official external financing category when 66 percent or more of their total debt, on average, between 2008 and 2012 was financed by official creditors. The HIPC group comprises the countries that are or have been considered by the IMF and the World Bank for participation in their debt initiative known as the HIPC Initiative, which aims to reduce the external debt burdens of all the eligible HIPCs to a “sustainable” level in a reasonably short period of time.6 Many of these countries have already benefited from debt relief and have graduated from the initiative. The LIDCs are countries that were designated Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust (PRGT)–eligible in the 2013 PRGT eligibility review and had a level of per capita gross national income less than the PRGT income graduation threshold for non–small states (that is, twice the IDA operational threshold, or US$2,390 in 2011 as measured by the World Bank’s Atlas method); and Zimbabwe. 5During

2008–12, 34 economies incurred external payments arrears or entered into official or commercial bank debt-rescheduling agreements. This group is referred to as economies with arrears and/or rescheduling during 2008–12. 6 See David Andrews, Anthony R. Boote, Syed S. Rizavi, and Sukwinder Singh, Debt Relief for Low-Income Countries: The Enhanced HIPC Initiative, IMF Pamphlet Series No. 51 (Washington: International Monetary Fund, November 1999).

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Table A. Classification by World Economic Outlook Groups and Their Shares in Aggregate GDP, Exports of Goods and Services, and Population, 20131 (Percent of total for group or world)

Exports of Goods and Services

GDP

Advanced Economies United States Euro Area2 Germany France Italy Spain Japan United Kingdom Canada Other Advanced Economies Memorandum Major Advanced Economies

Emerging Market and Developing Economies Regional Groups Commonwealth of Independent States3 Russia Emerging and Developing Asia China India Excluding China and India Emerging and Developing Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Brazil Mexico Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan Middle East and North Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Excluding Nigeria and South Africa Analytical Groups4 By Source of Export Earnings Fuel Nonfuel Of Which, Primary Products By External Financing Source Net Debtor Economies Of Which, Official Financing Net Debtor Economies by DebtServicing Experience Economies with Arrears and/or Rescheduling during 2008–12 Other Net Debtor Economies Other Groups Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Low-Income Developing Countries

Number of Economies

Advanced Economies

36

100.0 38.9 26.4 7.5 5.3 4.2 3.2 10.9 5.5 3.5 14.7 75.9

37.6

17

15 7

World

Advanced Economies

49.6 19.3 13.1 3.7 2.6 2.1 1.6 5.4 2.7 1.8 7.3

100.0 16.1 41.5 13.1 5.7 4.4 3.3 5.9 5.6 3.9 27.1 54.7

Population

World

Advanced Economies

World

61.1 9.8 25.3 8.0 3.5 2.7 2.0 3.6 3.4 2.4 16.6

100.0 30.5 31.8 7.8 6.1 5.8 4.5 12.3 6.2 3.4 15.7

14.7 4.5 4.7 1.1 0.9 0.8 0.7 1.8 0.9 0.5 2.3

33.4

72.1

10.6

World

Emerging Market and Developing Economies

World

Emerging Market and Developing Economies

World

50.4

100.0

38.9

100.0

85.3

8.3 5.8 51.4 30.5 11.6 9.3 6.6 17.1 5.5 4.2

4.2 2.9 25.9 15.4 5.8 4.7 3.3 8.6 2.8 2.1

10.0 6.6 44.1 26.9 5.3 11.9 8.6 14.0 3.1 4.4

3.9 2.6 17.2 10.5 2.0 4.6 3.4 5.4 1.2 1.7

4.8 2.4 57.4 22.7 20.7 14.0 3.0 9.9 3.3 2.0

4.0 2.0 49.0 19.3 17.7 11.9 2.5 8.4 2.8 1.7

22 20 45 43

11.4 10.0 5.1 2.7

5.7 5.0 2.6 1.3

18.1 17.7 5.2 2.9

7.1 6.9 2.0 1.1

10.4 6.8 14.6 10.9

8.9 5.8 12.5 9.3

28 125 28

17.6 82.4 3.6

8.9 41.6 1.8

28.4 71.6 3.5

11.0 27.9 1.4

11.4 88.6 7.1

9.7 75.5 6.1

123 27

49.9 4.0

25.1 2.0

41.4 3.0

16.1 1.2

63.7 9.7

54.3 8.3

34 89

6.4 43.4

3.2 21.9

4.1 37.4

1.6 14.5

10.3 53.3

8.8 45.5

38 59

2.5 6.5

1.2 3.3

1.9 5.9

0.7 2.3

11.0 22.4

9.4 19.1

Emerging Market and Developing Economies 153

100.0

12 29

27 13 32

1The GDP shares are based on the purchasing-power-parity valuation of economies’ GDP. The number of economies comprising each group reflects those for which data are included in the group aggregates. 2Data for Latvia are not included in the euro area aggregates because the database has not yet been converted to euros. 3Georgia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure. 4South Sudan is omitted from the net external position groups composite for lack of a fully developed database.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 159

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table B. Advanced Economies by Subgroup Major Currency Areas United States Euro Area Japan Euro Area1 Austria Belgium Cyprus Estonia Finland France

Germany Greece Ireland Italy Luxembourg Malta

Netherlands Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain

Italy Japan United Kingdom

United States

Israel Korea Latvia New Zealand Norway

San Marino Singapore Sweden Switzerland Taiwan Province of China

Major Advanced Economies Canada France Germany Other Advanced Economies Australia Czech Republic Denmark Hong Kong SAR2 Iceland

1Data for Latvia are not included in the euro area aggregates because the database has not yet been converted to euros. 2On July 1, 1997, Hong Kong was returned to the People’s Republic of China and became a Special Administrative Region of China.

Table C. European Union Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France

160

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands

Poland Portugal Romania Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Table D. Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Region and Main Source of Export Earnings Fuel

Nonfuel Primary Products

Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Russia Turkmenistan

Uzbekistan

Brunei Darussalam Timor-Leste

Mongolia Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands Tuvalu

Bolivia Ecuador

Chile Guyana

Trinidad and Tobago Venezuela

Paraguay Suriname Uruguay

Algeria Bahrain Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Yemen

Afghanistan Mauritania Sudan

Angola Chad Republic of Congo Equatorial Guinea Gabon Nigeria South Sudan

Burkina Faso Burundi Central African Republic Democratic Republic of the Congo Eritrea Guinea Guinea-Bissau Malawi Mali Mozambique Niger Sierra Leone South Africa Zambia Zimbabwe

Commonwealth of Independent States

Emerging and Developing Asia

Latin America and the Caribbean

Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan

Sub-Saharan Africa



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 161

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table E. Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Region, Net External Position, Status as Heavily Indebted Poor Countries, and Low-Income Developing Countries Net External Position

Net External Position

Net Creditor

Net Creditor

Heavily Low-Income Indebted Poor Developing Net Countries2 Debtor1 Countries

Commonwealth of Independent States3

*

Armenia

*

Azerbaijan

* *

Belarus Georgia Kazakhstan

*

Kyrgyz Republic Moldova

• *

* *

*

*

*

Russia Tajikistan

*

Turkmenistan

*

Ukraine

*

Uzbekistan

Bhutan Cambodia

• •

* *

*

*

India Indonesia Kiribati Lao P.D.R.

Nepal Palau Papua New Guinea

* * • *

Samoa Solomon Islands Sri Lanka Thailand

• • * *

Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Vietnam Emerging and Developing Europe

*

Poland

*

Romania

*

Serbia

*

Turkey

*

* * * * *

Antigua and Barbuda The Bahamas Barbados Bolivia

* * * * * * * • * * * * • * * * • * * * * *

* *

Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada

* * * *

Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua

*

Panama Paraguay Peru St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines

* •

Suriname

*

Trinidad and Tobago

* *

Uruguay

Albania

*

Bosnia and Herzegovina

*

162

*

Montenegro

Costa Rica

*

Timor-Leste

*

FYR Macedonia

Colombia

*

Philippines

Lithuania

Ecuador

* • • * * * * *

Myanmar

*

Chile

*

Malaysia Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Mongolia



Kosovo

Brazil

* * * * *

Fiji

*

Hungary

Belize

*

China

*

Croatia

Argentina

*

Brunei Darussalam

Bulgaria

Latin America and the Caribbean

*

Emerging and Developing Asia Bangladesh

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

Heavily Low-Income Indebted Poor Developing Net Countries2 Debtor1 Countries

Venezuela

*



*

• • •

*



*

*

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Table E. (concluded) Net External Position

Net External Position

Net Creditor

Net Creditor

Heavily Low-Income Indebted Poor Developing Net Countries2 Debtor1 Countries

Afghanistan Algeria Bahrain

* * *

Egypt Iran Iraq

Saudi Arabia

Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Lesotho *

Malawi Mali



Mauritius

* *

Mozambique

• • *

Tunisia

*

*

Rwanda

*

Angola

Seychelles

* *

Benin Botswana

São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal

Sub-Saharan Africa



*

Sierra Leone South Sudan4

*

South Africa

• •

* *

Swaziland

• • * •

*

Togo

Comoros

• • * * • * •

Democratic Republic of the Congo

*



*

Burkina Faso Burundi Cabo Verde Cameroon Central African Republic Chad

* * *

* •

*

* * * • * • * * * * * *

• • • •

*

*



*

*

* * *

* * • • • •

*



*

*

Nigeria

*

*

* * *

*

Namibia Niger

*

Yemen

Liberia Madagascar

*

Syria United Arab Emirates

Ghana



• •

*

The Gambia

* *

Sudan

Ethiopia Gabon

*

Pakistan Qatar

*

*

Morocco Oman

Equatorial Guinea

*

Mauritania

Côte d’Ivoire Eritrea

*

Lebanon Libya

*

* *

Jordan Kuwait



* *

Djibouti

• * * • •

Republic of Congo

Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan

Heavily Low-Income Indebted Poor Developing Net Countries2 Debtor1 Countries

Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

* • * * * * … * * • * * *

• • •

*



*

* *

* • • • •

1Dot

instead of star indicates that the net debtor’s main external finance source is official financing. instead of star indicates that the country has reached the completion point. 3Georgia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure. 4South Sudan is omitted from the net external position groups composite for lack of a fully developed database. 2Dot



*

*

International Monetary Fund | April 2014 163

* * * *

*

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table F. Key Data Documentation National Accounts

Country

Historical Data Source1

Currency

Latest Actual Data

Base

Reporting Period3

Use of ChainWeighted Methodology4

Afghanistan

Afghan Afghani

NSO

Albania

Albanian lek

IMF staff

2012

1996

From 1996

Algeria

Algerian dinar

NSO

2011

2001

From 2005

Angola

Angolan kwanza

NSO

2011

2002

Antigua and Barbuda

Eastern Caribbean dollar

CB

2013

20065

Argentina

Argentine peso

MEP

2012

1993

Armenia

Armenian dram

NSO

2012

2005

Australia

Australian dollar

NSO

2013

Austria

Euro

NSO

2013

2005

From 1988

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan manat

NSO

2013

2003

From 1994

The Bahamas

Bahamian dollar

NSO

2012

2006

Bahrain

Bahrain dinar

MoF

2012

2010

Bangladesh

Bangladesh taka

NSO

2012

2005

Barbados

Barbados dollar

NSO and CB

2012

19745

Belarus

Belarusian rubel

NSO

2012

2009

From 2005

Belgium

Euro

CB

2013

2011

From 1995

Belize

Belize dollar

NSO

2012

2000

Benin

CFA franc

NSO

2011

2000

Bhutan

Bhutanese ngultrum

NSO

2006/07

20005

Bolivia

Bolivian boliviano

NSO

2012

1990

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Convertible marka

NSO

2012

2010

Botswana

Botswana pula

NSO

2010

2006

Brazil

Brazilian real

NSO

2013

1995

Brunei Darussalam

Brunei dollar

NSO

2012

2000

Bulgaria

Bulgarian lev

NSO

2013

2005

Burkina Faso

CFA franc

NSO and MEP

2011

1999

Burundi

Burundi franc

NSO

2010

2005

Cabo Verde

Cabo Verde escudo

NSO

2011

2007

Cambodia

Cambodian riel

NSO

2012

2000

Cameroon

CFA franc

NSO

2010

2000

Canada

Canadian dollar

NSO

2013

2007

Central African Republic

CFA franc

NSO

2012

2005

Chad

CFA franc

CB

2010

2005

Chile

Chilean peso

CB

2013

2008

China

Chinese yuan

NSO

2012

19905

Colombia

Colombian peso

NSO

2012

2005

Comoros

Comorian franc

NSO

2012

2000

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Congo franc

NSO

2006

2005

Republic of Congo

CFA franc

NSO

2009

1990

Costa Rica

Costa Rican colón

CB

2012

1991

Côte d'Ivoire

CFA franc

MEP

2011

2000

Croatia

Croatian kuna

NSO

2012

2005

Cyprus

Euro

Eurostat

2012

2005

From 1995

Czech Republic

Czech koruna

NSO

2013

2005

From 1995

Denmark

Danish krone

NSO

2013

2005

From 1980

Djibouti

Djibouti franc

NSO

1999

1990

164

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

2011/12

Year2

2002/03

2011/12

From 1980

Jul/Jun From 2000

From 2005

From 2011

From 1980

From 2003

From 2000

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Government Finance Historical Data Source1

Country

Prices (CPI)

Latest Actual Data

Reporting Period3

2012/13

Solar year6

Balance of Payments

Historical Data Source1

Latest Actual Data

Historical Data Source1

Latest Actual Data

Afghanistan

MoF

NSO

2013

NSO

2012

Albania

IMF staff

2012

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Algeria

CB

2012

NSO

2012

CB

2012

Angola

MoF

2012

CB

2013

CB

2012

Antigua and Barbuda

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Argentina

MEP

2012

NSO

2012

MEP

2012

Armenia

MoF

2012

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Australia

MoF

2012/13

NSO

2013

NSO

2013

Austria

NSO

2013

NSO

2013

NSO

2013

Azerbaijan

MoF

2012

NSO

2013

CB

2012

The Bahamas

MoF

2012/13

Jul/Jun

NSO

2012

CB

2012

Bahrain

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

CB

2012

Bangladesh

MoF

2011/12

Jul/Jun

NSO

2013

CB

2011

Barbados

MoF

2012/13

Apr/Mar

CB

2012

CB

2012

Belarus

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Belgium

CB

2012

CB

2013

CB

2012

Belize

MoF

Apr/Mar

NSO

2012

CB

2012

Benin

MoF

2011

NSO

2011

CB

2010

Bhutan

MoF

2010/11

Jul/Jun

CB

2008

CB

2007/08

Bolivia

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Bosnia and Herzegovina

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Botswana

MoF

2008/09

NSO

2010

CB

2009

Brazil

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Brunei Darussalam

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

MEP

2011

Bulgaria

MoF

2012

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Burkina Faso

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2011

Burundi

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

CB

2011

Cabo Verde

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Cambodia

MoF

2012

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Cameroon

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

MoF

2010

Canada

NSO and OECD

2013

NSO

2013

NSO

2013

Central African Republic

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

CB

2012

Chad

MoF

2012

NSO

2013

CB

2010

Chile

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

China

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

State Admin. of Foreign Exchange

2012

Colombia

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

CB and NSO

2012

Comoros

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

CB and IMF staff

2012

Democratic Republic of the Congo

MoF

2013

CB

2013

CB

2013

Republic of Congo

MoF

2012

NSO

2013

CB

2008

Costa Rica

MoF and CB

2012

CB

2013

CB

2012

Côte d'Ivoire

MoF

2011

MoF

2011

CB

2009

Croatia

MoF

2013

NSO

2012

CB

2013

Cyprus

Eurostat

2013

Eurostat

2013

Eurostat

2012

Czech Republic

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

NSO

2013

Denmark

NSO

2013

NSO

2013

NSO

2013

Djibouti

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

CB

2012

2012/13

Apr/Mar



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 165

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table F. Key Data Documentation (continued) National Accounts

Country

Historical Data Source1

Currency

Latest Actual Data

Base Year2

Reporting Period3

Use of ChainWeighted Methodology4

Dominica

Eastern Caribbean dollar

NSO

2013

2006

Dominican Republic

Dominican peso

CB

2013

1991

Ecuador

U.S. dollar

CB

2012

2007

Egypt

Egyptian pound

Other

El Salvador

U.S. dollar

CB

2012

1990

Equatorial Guinea

CFA franc

MEP and CB

2006

2006

Eritrea

Eritrean nakfa

IMF staff

2006

2000

Estonia

Euro

NSO

2013

2005

Ethiopia

Ethiopian birr

NSO

2012/13

Fiji

Fiji dollar

NSO

2012

20085

Finland

Euro

NSO

2013

2000

From 1980

France

Euro

NSO

2013

2005

From 1980

Gabon

CFA franc

MoF

2010

2001

The Gambia

Gambian dalasi

NSO

2012

2004

Georgia

Georgian lari

NSO

2012

2000

From 1996

Germany

Euro

NSO

2013

2005

From 1991

Ghana

Ghanaian cedi

NSO

2011

2006

Greece

Euro

NSO

2013

2005

Grenada

Eastern Caribbean dollar

NSO

2013

2006

Guatemala

Guatemalan quetzal

CB

2012

2001

Guinea

Guinean franc

NSO

2009

2003

Guinea-Bissau

CFA franc

NSO

2011

2005

Guyana

Guyana dollar

NSO

2012

20065

Haiti

Haitian gourde

NSO

2012/13

Honduras

Honduran lempira

CB

2012

2000

Hong Kong SAR

Hong Kong dollar

NSO

2013

2011

From 1980

Hungary

Hungarian forint

NSO

2012

2005

From 2005

Iceland

Icelandic króna

NSO

2013

2000

India

Indian rupee

NSO

2012/13

Indonesia

Indonesian rupiah

NSO

2013

Iran

Iranian rial

CB

Iraq

Iraqi dinar

NSO

2013

1988

Ireland

Euro

NSO

2012

2011

From 2011

Israel

Israeli shekel

NSO

2012

2010

From 1995

Italy

Euro

NSO

2012

2005

From 1980

Jamaica

Jamaica dollar

NSO

2012

2007

Japan

Japanese yen

NSO and Nomura

2013

2005

Jordan

Jordanian dinar

NSO

2013

1994

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstani tenge

NSO

2012

2007

Kenya

Kenya shilling

NSO

2013

2000

Kiribati

Australian dollar

NSO

2009

2006

Korea

Korean won

CB

2012

2005

Kosovo

Euro

NSO

2012

2012

Kuwait

Kuwaiti dinar

MEP and NSO

2012

2000

166

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

2012/13

2011/12

2001/02

2010/11

1986/87

2004/05

Jul/Jun

From 1995 Jul/Jun

From 2000 From 2001

Oct/Sep

From 1990 Apr/Mar

2000 1997/98

Apr/Mar

From 1980

From 1994

From 1980

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Government Finance

Country

Historical Data Source1

Latest Actual Data

Prices (CPI) Reporting Period3 Jul/Jun

Balance of Payments

Historical Data Source1

Latest Actual Data

Historical Data Source1

Latest Actual Data

Dominica

MoF

2012/13

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Dominican Republic

MoF

2013

CB

2013

CB

2013

Ecuador

CB and MoF

2012

NSO and CB

2012

CB

2012

Egypt

MoF

2012/13

NSO

2012/13

CB

2012/13

El Salvador

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Equatorial Guinea

MoF

2012

MEP

2012

CB

2006

Eritrea

MoF

2008

NSO

2009

CB

2008

Estonia

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Ethiopia

MoF

2012/13

NSO

2012

CB

2012/13

Fiji

MoF

2011

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Finland

MoF

2012

NSO and Eurostat

2013

CB

2012

France

NSO

2012

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Gabon

IMF staff

2013

MoF

2013

CB

2006

The Gambia

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB and IMF staff

2012

Georgia

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

NSO and CB

2012

Germany

NSO and Eurostat

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Ghana

MoF

2011

NSO

2011

CB

2011

Greece

MoF

2012

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Grenada

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Guatemala

MoF

2012

NSO

2013

CB

Guinea

MoF

2012

NSO

2013

CB and MEP

Guinea-Bissau

MoF

2011

NSO

2011

CB

Guyana

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

CB

2012

Haiti

MoF

2012/13

Oct/Sep

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Honduras

MoF

2012

CB

2013

CB

2012

Hong Kong SAR

NSO

2012/13

Apr/Mar

NSO

2013

NSO

2011

Hungary

MEP and Eurostat

2012

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Iceland

NSO

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

India

MoF

2012/13

NSO

2012/13

CB

2012/13

Indonesia

MoF

2013

CEIC

2013

CEIC

2013

Iran

MoF

2011/12

CB

2013

CB

2012

Iraq

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Ireland

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

NSO

2012

Israel

MoF

2012

Haver Analytics

2013

Haver Analytics

2012

Italy

NSO

2012

NSO

2012

NSO

2012

Jamaica

MoF

2012/13

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Japan

Cabinet Office of Japan

2012

NSO and Nomura

2013

NSO and Nomura

2013

Jordan

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Kazakhstan

IMF staff

2012

CB

2012

CB

2012

Kenya

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Kiribati

MoF

2010

NSO

2010

NSO

2009

Korea

MoF

2012

CB

2013

CB

2013

Kosovo

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

CB

2011

Kuwait

MoF

2012

MEP and NSO

2012

CB

2012

Jul/Jun

Jul/Jun

Apr/Mar Apr/Mar

Apr/Mar



2012 IMF staff estimates 2011

International Monetary Fund | April 2014 167

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table F. Key Data Documentation (continued) National Accounts

Country

Historical Data Source1

Currency

Latest Actual Data

Base Year2

Reporting Period3

Use of ChainWeighted Methodology4

Kyrgyz Republic

Kyrgyz som

NSO

2013

1995

Lao P.D.R.

Lao kip

NSO

2011

2002

Latvia

Latvian lats

NSO

2013

2010

From 1995

Lebanon

Lebanese pound

NSO

2011

2000

From 2010

Lesotho

Lesotho loti

NSO

2012

2004

Liberia

U.S. dollar

CB

2011

1992

Libya

Libyan dinar

MEP

2009

2003

Lithuania

Lithuanian litas

NSO

2013

2005

From 2005

Luxembourg

Euro

NSO

2012

2005

From 1995

FYR Macedonia

Macedonian denar

NSO

2013

2005

Madagascar

Malagasy ariary

NSO

2012

2000

Malawi

Malawi kwacha

NSO

2009

2007

Malaysia

Malaysian ringgit

NSO

2013

2005

Maldives

Maldivian rufiyaa

MEP

2012

2003

Mali

CFA franc

MoF

2011

1987

Malta

Euro

Eurostat

2012

2005

Marshall Islands

U.S. dollar

NSO

2011/12

Mauritania

Mauritanian ouguiya

NSO

2009

1998

Mauritius

Mauritian rupee

NSO

2013

2000

Mexico

Mexican peso

NSO

2013

2008

Micronesia

U.S. dollar

NSO

2012

2004

Moldova

Moldovan leu

NSO

2013

1995

Mongolia

Mongolian togrog

NSO

2012

2005

Montenegro

Euro

NSO

2011

2006

Morocco

Moroccan dirham

NSO

2013

1998

Mozambique

Mozambican metical

NSO

2012

2000

Myanmar

Myanmar kyat

MEP

2010/11

Namibia

Namibia dollar

NSO

2009

Nepal

Nepalese rupee

NSO

2011/12

Netherlands

Euro

NSO

2013

New Zealand

New Zealand dollar

NSO

2011/12

Nicaragua

Nicaraguan córdoba

IMF staff

2012

2006

Niger

CFA franc

NSO

2010

2000

Nigeria

Nigerian naira

NSO

2012

2000

Norway

Norwegian krone

NSO

2013

2011

Oman

Omani rial

NSO

2012

2000

Pakistan

Pakistan rupee

MoF

2012/13

Palau

U.S. dollar

MoF

2012

2005

Panama

U.S. dollar

NSO

2012

1996

Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea kina

NSO and MOF

2012

1998

Paraguay

Paraguayan guaraní

CB

2012

1994

Peru

Peruvian nuevo sol

CB

2013

1994

Philippines

Philippine peso

NSO

2013

2000

Poland

Polish zloty

NSO

2013

2005

From 1995

Portugal

Euro

NSO

2012

2006

From 1980

Qatar

Qatari riyal

NSO and MEP

2012

2004

Romania

Romanian leu

NSO and Eurostat

2013

2005

168

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

2003/04

2010/11

From 2000 Oct/Sep From 1999 Oct/Sept

From 1998 Apr/Mar

2000 2000/01

Aug/Jul

2005

From 1980

1995/96

2005/06

From 1987 From 1994

From 1980 Jul/Jun Oct/Sep

From 2000

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Government Finance

Country

Historical Data Source1

Latest Actual Data

Kyrgyz Republic

MoF

2013

Lao P.D.R.

MoF

2012/13

Latvia

MoF

Lebanon

MoF

Lesotho

MoF

2012/13

Liberia

MoF

Libya

MoF

Lithuania

Prices (CPI) Reporting Period3

Historical Data Source1

Balance of Payments

Latest Actual Data

Historical Data Source1

Latest Actual Data

NSO

2013

MoF

2012

NSO

2013

CB

2011

2013

Eurostat

2013

CB

2013

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2012

NSO

2013

CB

2012

2012

CB

2013

CB

2012

2011

NSO

2009

CB

2010

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Luxembourg

MoF

2012

NSO

2013

NSO

2012

FYR Macedonia

MoF

2012

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Madagascar

MoF

2012

Malawi

MoF

2012/13

Malaysia

MoF

Maldives

MoF and Treasury

Mali

Oct/Sep

Apr/Mar

NSO

2012

CB

2011

NSO

2013

NSO

2012

2012

NSO

2013

NSO

2013

2011

CB

2010

CB

2009

MoF

2012

MoF

2012

CB

2011

Malta

Eurostat

2012

Eurostat

2012

NSO

2012

Marshall Islands

MoF

2011/12

NSO

2013

NSO

2012

Mauritania

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

CB

2009

Mauritius

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Mexico

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Micronesia

MoF

2011/12

NSO

2012

NSO

2012

Moldova

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Mongolia

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Montenegro

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Morocco

MEP

2013

NSO

2013

Foreign Exchange Office

2013

Mozambique

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

CB

2011

Myanmar

MoF

2011/12

Apr/Mar

NSO

2012

IMF staff

2012

Namibia

MoF

2008/09

Apr/Mar

NSO

Nepal

MoF

2011/12

Aug/Jul

CB

Netherlands

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2012

New Zealand

MoF

2012/13

NSO

2013

NSO

2012

Nicaragua

MoF

2012

CB

2012

IMF staff

2012

Niger

MoF

2011

NSO

2011

CB

2010

Nigeria

MoF

2012

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Norway

NSO and MoF

2012

NSO

2013

NSO

2012

Oman

MoF

2011

NSO

2012

CB

2011

Pakistan

MoF

2012/13

Jul/Jun

MoF

2012/13

CB

2012/13

Palau

MoF

2012

Oct/Sep

MoF

2011/12

MoF

2012

Panama

MEP

2012

NSO

2012

NSO

2012

Papua New Guinea

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

CB

2012

Paraguay

MoF

2012

CB

2012

CB

2012

Peru

MoF

2012

CB

2013

CB

2013

Philippines

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Poland

Eurostat

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Portugal

NSO

2012

NSO

2012

CB

2012

Qatar

MoF

2012/13

NSO

2013

CB and IMF staff

2012

Romania

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Jul/Jun

Oct/Sep

Oct/Sep

Apr/Mar



2009

CB

2009

2011/12

CB

2010/11

International Monetary Fund | April 2014 169

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table F. Key Data Documentation (continued) National Accounts

Country

Historical Data Source1

Currency

Latest Actual Data

Base Year2

Reporting Period3

Use of ChainWeighted Methodology4

Russia

Russian ruble

NSO

2013

2008

Rwanda

Rwanda franc

MoF

2012

2006

Samoa

Samoa tala

NSO

2012/13

2002

San Marino

Euro

NSO

2011

2007

São Tomé and Príncipe

São Tomé and Príncipe dobra

NSO

2010

2000

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabian riyal

NSO and MEP

2013

1999

Senegal

CFA franc

NSO

2011

2000

Serbia

Serbian dinar

NSO

2012

2010

Seychelles

Seychelles rupee

NSO

2011

2006

Sierra Leone

Sierra Leonean leone

NSO

2012

2006

From 2010

Singapore

Singapore dollar

NSO

2013

2005

From 2005

Slovak Republic

Euro

Haver Analytics

2013

2005

From 1993

Slovenia

Euro

NSO

2013

2000

From 2000

Solomon Islands

Solomon Islands dollar

CB

2011

2004

South Africa

South African rand

CB

2012

2005

South Sudan

South Sudanese pound

NSO

2011

2010

Spain

Euro

NSO

2013

2008

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka rupee

CB

2012

2002

St. Kitts and Nevis

Eastern Caribbean dollar

NSO

2013

20065

St. Lucia

Eastern Caribbean dollar

NSO

2013

2006

St. Vincent and the Grenadines

Eastern Caribbean dollar

NSO

2013

20065

Sudan

Sudanese pound

NSO

2010

2008

Suriname

Surinamese dollar

NSO

2011

2007

Swaziland

Swaziland lilangeni

NSO

2009

2000

Sweden

Swedish krona

NSO

2012

2012

From 1993

Switzerland

Swiss franc

NSO

2013

2005

From 1980

Syria

Syrian pound

NSO

2010

2000

Taiwan Province of China

New Taiwan dollar

NSO

2013

2006

Tajikistan

Tajik somoni

NSO

2012

1995

Tanzania

Tanzania shilling

NSO

2012

2001

Thailand

Thai baht

NSO

2013

1988

Timor-Leste

U.S. dollar

MoF

2011

20105

Togo

CFA franc

NSO

2012

2000

Tonga

Tongan pa’anga

CB

2012

Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago dollar

NSO

2011

2000

Tunisia

Tunisian dinar

NSO

2012

2005

Turkey

Turkish lira

NSO

2012

1998

Turkmenistan

New Turkmen manat

NSO and IMF staff

2012

2005

Tuvalu

Australian dollar

PFTAC advisors

2012

2005

Uganda

Uganda shilling

NSO

2013

2002

Ukraine

Ukrainian hryvnia

State Statistics Committee

2013

2007

United Arab Emirates

U.A.E. dirham

NSO

2012

2007

United Kingdom

Pound sterling

NSO

2013

2010

170

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

2010/11

From 1995 Jul/Jun

From 2010

From 1995

Jul/Jun From 2009 From 2000

From 2005

From 1980

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Government Finance

Country

Historical Data Source1

Latest Actual Data

Prices (CPI) Reporting Period3

Balance of Payments

Historical Data Source1

Latest Actual Data

Historical Data Source1

Latest Actual Data

Russia

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

Rwanda

MoF

2012

MoF

2012

CB

2012

Samoa

MoF

2010/11

NSO

2013

CB

2011/12

San Marino

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

...

...

São Tomé and Príncipe

MoF and Customs

2012

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Saudi Arabia

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Senegal

MoF

2011

NSO

2011

CB and IMF staff

2011

Serbia

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Seychelles

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

CB

2012

Sierra Leone

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

CB

2012

Singapore

MoF

2011/12

NSO

2013

NSO

2013

Slovak Republic

Haver Analytics

2013

Haver Analytics

2013

IFS

2013

Slovenia

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

NSO

2013

Solomon Islands

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

CB

2012

South Africa

MoF

2012/13

NSO

2013

CB

2012

South Sudan

MoF

2012

NSO

2013

Other

2011

Spain

MoF and Eurostat

2012

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Sri Lanka

MoF

2011

NSO

2012

CB

2011

St. Kitts and Nevis

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

St. Lucia

MoF

2012/13

NSO

2013

CB

2013

St. Vincent and the Grenadines

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Sudan

MoF

2011

NSO

2010

CB

2011

Suriname

MoF

2012

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Swaziland

MoF

2011/12

NSO

2012

CB

2010

Sweden

MoF

2012

NSO

2013

NSO

2012

Switzerland

MoF

2011

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Syria

MoF

2009

NSO

2011

CB

2009

Taiwan Province of China

MoF

2012

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Tajikistan

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

CB

2011

Tanzania

MoF

2012/13

Jul/Jun

NSO

2013

CB

2011

Thailand

MoF

2012/13

Oct/Sep

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Timor-Leste

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

CB

2012

Togo

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Tonga

CB and MoF

2012

Jul/Jun

CB

2012

CB and NSO

2012

Trinidad and Tobago

MoF

2012/13

Oct/Sep

NSO

2013

CB and NSO

2011

Tunisia

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

CB

2012

Turkey

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Turkmenistan

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

NSO and IMF staff

2012

Tuvalu

IMF staff

2012

NSO

2012

PFTAC advisors

2012

Uganda

MoF

2013

CB

2013/14

CB

2013

Ukraine

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

United Arab Emirates

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

CB

2012

United Kingdom

NSO

2012

NSO

2013

NSO

2013

Jul/Jun

Apr/Mar

Apr/Mar

Apr/Mar



2013

International Monetary Fund | April 2014 171

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table F. Key Data Documentation (concluded) National Accounts

Country

Historical Data Source1

Currency

Latest Actual Data

Base Year2

United States

U.S. dollar

NSO

2013

2009

Uruguay

Uruguayan peso

CB

2012

2005

Uzbekistan

Uzbek sum

NSO

2012

1995

Vanuatu

Vanuatu vatu

NSO

2012

2006

Venezuela

Venezuelan bolívar fuerte

CB

2010

1997

Vietnam

Vietnamese dong

NSO

2013

2010

Yemen

Yemeni rial

IMF staff

2008

1990

Zambia

Zambian kwacha

NSO

2013

2000

Zimbabwe

U.S. dollar

NSO

2012

2009

Reporting Period3

Source: IMF staff. Note: CPI = consumer price index. 1BEA = U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis; CB = Central Bank; IFS = IMF, International Financial Statistics; MEP = Ministry of Economy and/or Planning; MoC = Ministry of Commerce; MoF = Ministry of Finance; NSO = National Statistics Office; OECD = Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre. 2National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index. 3Reporting period is calendar year unless a fiscal year is indicated. 4Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume component using weights from a year in the moderately distant past. 5Nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP. 6Before 2012, based on March 21 to March 20; therafter, from December 21 to December 20.

172

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

Use of ChainWeighted Methodology4 From 1980

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Government Finance

Country

Historical Data Source1

Latest Actual Data

Prices (CPI) Reporting Period3

Balance of Payments

Historical Data Source1

Latest Actual Data

Historical Data Source1

Latest Actual Data

United States

BEA

2013

NSO

2013

NSO

2013

Uruguay

MoF

2012

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Uzbekistan

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

MEP

2012

Vanuatu

MoF

2012

NSO

2012

CB

2012

Venezuela

MoF

2010

CB

2010

CB

2012

Vietnam

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2012

Yemen

MoF

2009

NSO and CB

2009

IMF staff

2009

Zambia

MoF

2013

NSO

2013

CB

2013

Zimbabwe

MoF

2012

NSO

2013

CB and MoF

2012



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 173

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Box A1. Economic Policy Assumptions Underlying the Projections for Selected Economies Fiscal Policy Assumptions The short-term fiscal policy assumptions used in the World Economic Outlook (WEO) are based on officially announced budgets, adjusted for differences between the national authorities and the IMF staff regarding macroeconomic assumptions and projected fiscal outturns. The medium-term fiscal projections incorporate policy measures that are judged likely to be implemented. For cases in which the IMF staff has insufficient information to assess the authorities’ budget intentions and prospects for policy implementation, an unchanged structural primary balance is assumed unless indicated otherwise. Specific assumptions used in regard to some of the advanced economies follow. (See also Tables B5 to B9 in the online section of the Statistical Appendix for data on fiscal net lending/borrowing and structural balances.1) Argentina: The 2012 estimates are based on actual data on outturns and IMF staff estimates. For the outer years, the fiscal balance is projected to remain roughly at the current level. Australia: Fiscal projections are based on the 2013– 14 Mid-Year Economic and Fiscal Outlook, Australian Bureau of Statistics, and IMF staff projections. Austria: Projections take into account the authorities’ medium-term fiscal framework, as well as associated further implementation needs and risks. For 2014, the creation of a defeasance structure for Hypo Alpe Adria is assumed to increase the general government debt-to-GDP ratio by 5½ percentage points and the deficit by 1.2 percentage points. Belgium: IMF staff projections for 2014 and beyond are based on unchanged policies. 1 The output gap is actual minus potential output, as a percent of potential output. Structural balances are expressed as a percent of potential output. The structural balance is the actual net lending/borrowing minus the effects of cyclical output from potential output, corrected for one-time and other factors, such as asset and commodity prices and output composition effects. Changes in the structural balance consequently include effects of temporary fiscal measures, the impact of fluctuations in interest rates and debt service costs, and other noncyclical fluctuations in net lending/borrowing. The computations of structural balances are based on IMF staff estimates of potential GDP and revenue and expenditure elasticities. (See Annex I of the October 1993 WEO.) Net debt is calculated as gross debt minus financial assets corresponding to debt instruments. Estimates of the output gap and of the structural balance are subject to significant margins of uncertainty.

174

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

Brazil: For 2013, preliminary outturn estimates are based on the information available as of January 2014. Projections for 2014 take into account the latest adjustments to the original budget, as per the Presidential Decree of February 2014. In outer years, the IMF staff assumes adherence to the announced primary target. Canada: Projections use the baseline forecasts in the Economic Action Plan 2014 (the fiscal year 2014/15 budget) and 2014 provincial budgets as available. The IMF staff makes some adjustments to this forecast for differences in macroeconomic projections. The IMF staff forecast also incorporates the most recent data releases from Statistics Canada’s Canadian System of National Economic Accounts, including federal, provincial, and territorial budgetary outturns through the end of the fourth quarter of 2013. Chile: Projections are based on the authorities’ budget projections, adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s projections for GDP and copper prices. China: The pace of fiscal consolidation is likely to be more gradual, reflecting reforms to strengthen social safety nets and the social security system announced as part of the Third Plenum reform agenda. Denmark: Projections for 2013–15 are aligned with the latest official budget estimates and the underlying economic projections, adjusted where appropriate for the IMF staff’s macroeconomic assumptions. For 2016–19, the projections incorporate key features of the medium-term fiscal plan as embodied in the authorities’ 2013 Convergence Program submitted to the European Union (EU). France: Projections for 2014 reflect the budget law. For 2015–17, they are based on the 2013–17 multiyear budget, the April 2013 stability plan, and the medium-term projection annexed to the 2014 budget adjusted for differences in assumptions on macro and financial variables, and revenue projections. The fiscal data for 2011 were revised following a May 15, 2013, revision by the statistical institute of both national accounts and fiscal accounts. Fiscal data for 2012 reflect the preliminary outturn published by the statistical institute in May 2013. Projections for 2013 reflect discussion with the authorities on monthly developments on spending and revenue. Germany: The estimates for 2013 are preliminary estimates from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany. The IMF staff’s projections for 2014 and

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Box A1. (continued) beyond reflect the authorities’ adopted core federal government budget plan, adjusted for the differences in the IMF staff’s macroeconomic framework and assumptions about fiscal developments in state and local governments, the social insurance system, and special funds. The estimate of gross debt includes portfolios of impaired assets and noncore business transferred to institutions that are winding up, as well as other financial sector and EU support operations. Greece: Fiscal projections for 2013 and the medium term are consistent with the policies discussed between the IMF staff and the authorities in the context of the Extended Fund Facility. Hong Kong SAR: Projections are based on the authorities’ medium-term fiscal projections on expenditures. The fiscal year 2015/16 balance is adjusted to include HK$50 billion for health care reform expenditure. Hungary: Fiscal projections include IMF staff projections of the macroeconomic framework and of the impact of recent legislative measures, as well as fiscal policy plans announced in the 2014 budget. India: Historical data are based on budgetary execution data. Projections are based on available information on the authorities’ fiscal plans, with adjustments for IMF staff assumptions. Subnational data are incorporated with a lag of up to two years; general government data are thus finalized well after central government data. IMF and Indian presentations differ, particularly regarding divestment and license auction proceeds, net versus gross recording of revenues in certain minor categories, and some public sector lending. Indonesia: IMF projections for 2013–18 are based on a gradual increase in administrative fuel prices, the introduction beginning in 2014 of new social protections, and moderate tax policy and administration reforms. Ireland: Fiscal projections are based on the 2014 budget. The fiscal projections are adjusted for differences between the IMF staff’s macroeconomic projections and those of the Irish authorities. Italy: Fiscal projections incorporate the government’s announced fiscal policy, as outlined in the 2014 Budgetary Plan, adjusted for different growth outlooks and estimated impact of measures. Estimates of the cyclically adjusted balance include the expenditure to clear capital arrears in 2013, which are excluded from the structural balance. After 2014, the IMF staff projects convergence to a structural balance in line with Italy’s fiscal rule, which implies corrective measures in some years, as yet

unidentified. Fiscal proposals by the new government were announced after the finalization of the WEO projections and are not included in the figures. Japan: The projections include fiscal measures already announced by the government, including consumption tax increases, earthquake reconstruction spending, and the stimulus package. Korea: The medium-term forecast incorporates the government’s announced medium-term consolidation path. Mexico: Fiscal projections for 2014 are broadly in line with the approved budget; projections for 2014 onward assume compliance with rules established in the Fiscal Responsibility Law. Netherlands: Fiscal projections for the period 2012– 18 are based on the authorities’ Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis budget projections, after adjusting for differences in macroeconomic assumptions. New Zealand: Fiscal projections are based on the authorities’ 2013 Half Year Economic and Fiscal Update and on IMF staff estimates. Portugal: Projections for 2013–14 reflect the authorities’ commitments under the EU- and IMFsupported program; projections thereafter are based on IMF staff estimates. Russia: Projections for 2013–19 are based on the oil-price-based fiscal price rule introduced in December 2012, with adjustments by the IMF staff. Saudi Arabia: The authorities base their budget on a conservative assumption for oil prices, with adjustments to expenditure allocations considered in the event that revenues exceed budgeted amounts. IMF staff projections of oil revenues are based on WEO baseline oil prices. On the expenditure side, wage bill estimates incorporate 13th-month pay awards every three years in accordance with the lunar calendar; capital spending estimates over the medium term are in line with the authorities’ priorities established in the National Development Plans. Singapore: For fiscal year 2013/14, projections are based on budget numbers. For the remainder of the projection period, the IMF staff assumes unchanged policies. South Africa: Fiscal projections are based on the authorities’ Medium Term Budget Policy Statement, released on October 23, 2013. Spain: For 2013 and beyond, fiscal projections are based on the measures specified in the Stability Pro-



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 175

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Box A1. (continued) gram Update 2013–16; the revised fiscal policy recommendations by the European Council in June 2013; the 2014 budget plan issued in October 2013; and the 2014 budget, approved in December 2013. Sweden: Fiscal projections are broadly in line with the authorities’ projections based on the 2014 Budget Bill. The impact of cyclical developments on the fiscal accounts is calculated using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s latest semi-elasticity. Switzerland: Projections for 2012–18 are based on IMF staff calculations, which incorporate measures to restore balance in the federal accounts and strengthen social security finances. Turkey: Fiscal projections assume that both current and capital spending will be in line with the authorities’ 2013–15 Medium-Term Program based on current trends and policies. United Kingdom: Fiscal projections are based on the U.K. Treasury’s 2014 budget, published in March 2014. However, on the revenue side, the authorities’ projections are adjusted for differences between IMF staff forecasts of macroeconomic variables (such as GDP growth) and the forecasts of these variables assumed in the authorities’ fiscal projections. In addition, IMF staff projections exclude the temporary effects of financial sector interventions and the effect on public sector net investment during 2012–13 of transferring assets from the Royal Mail Pension Plan to the public sector. Real government consumption and investment are part of the real GDP path, which, according to the IMF staff, may or may not be the same as that projected by the U.K. Office for Budget Responsibility. Transfers of profits from the Bank of England’s Asset Purchases Facility affect general government net interest payments. The timing of these payments can create differences between fiscal year primary balances published by the authorities and calendar year balances shown in the WEO. United States: Fiscal projections are based on the February 2014 Congressional Budget Office baseline adjusted for the IMF staff’s policy and macroeconomic assumptions. The baseline incorporates the key provisions of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013, including a partial rollback of the sequester spending cuts in fiscal years 2014 and 2015. The rollback is fully offset by savings elsewhere in the budget. In fiscal years 2016 through 2021, the IMF staff assumes

176

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

that the sequester cuts will continue to be partially replaced, in portions similar to the case in fiscal years 2014 and 2015, with back-loaded measures generating savings in mandatory programs and additional revenues. Over the medium term, the IMF staff assumes that Congress will continue to make regular adjustments to Medicare payments (“DocFix”) and will extend certain traditional programs (such as the research and development tax credit). The fiscal projections are adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s forecasts of key macroeconomic and financial variables and different accounting treatment of financial sector support and are converted to a general government basis. Historical data start at 2001 for most series because data compiled according to the 2001 Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM2001) may not be available for earlier years.

Monetary Policy Assumptions Monetary policy assumptions are based on the established policy framework in each country. In most cases, this implies a nonaccommodative stance over the business cycle: official interest rates will increase when economic indicators suggest that inflation will rise above its acceptable rate or range; they will decrease when indicators suggest that inflation will not exceed the acceptable rate or range, that output growth is below its potential rate, and that the margin of slack in the economy is significant. On this basis, the London interbank offered rate (LIBOR) on six-month U.S. dollar deposits is assumed to average 0.4 percent in 2014 and 0.8 percent in 2015 (see Table 1.1). The rate on three-month euro deposits is assumed to average 0.3 percent in 2014 and 0.4 percent in 2015. The interest rate on six-month Japanese yen deposits is assumed to average 0.2 percent in 2014 and 2015. Australia: Monetary policy assumptions are in line with market expectations. Brazil: Monetary policy assumptions are consistent with gradual convergence of inflation toward the middle of the target range over the relevant horizon. Canada: Monetary policy assumptions are in line with market expectations. China: Monetary policy will remain broadly unchanged from its current status, consistent with the authorities’ announcement of maintaining stable economic growth.

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Box A1. (concluded) Denmark: The monetary policy is to maintain the peg to the euro. Euro area: Monetary policy assumptions for euro area member countries are in line with market expectations. Hong Kong SAR: The IMF staff assumes that the currency board system remains intact. India: The policy (interest) rate assumption is based on the average of market forecasts. Indonesia: Monetary policy assumptions are in line with market expectations and reduction of inflation by 2014 to within the central bank’s targeted band. Japan: The current monetary policy conditions are maintained for the projection period, and no further tightening or loosening is assumed. Korea: Normalization is assumed to commence in the second half of 2014, with policy rates rising through 2015. Mexico: Monetary assumptions are consistent with attaining the inflation target. Russia: Monetary projections assume increasing exchange rate flexibility as part of the transition to the new full-fledged inflation-targeting regime, as indicated in recent statements by the Central Bank of Russia. Specifically, policy rates are assumed to remain at the current levels, gradually reducing the number of interventions in the foreign exchange markets. Saudi Arabia: Monetary policy projections are based on the continuation of the exchange rate peg to the U.S. dollar.

Singapore: Broad money is projected to grow in line with the projected growth in nominal GDP. South Africa: Monetary projections are consistent with South Africa’s 3–6 percent inflation target range. Sweden: Monetary projections are in line with Riksbank projections. Switzerland: Monetary policy variables reflect historical data from the national authorities and the market. Turkey: Broad money and the long-term bond yield are based on IMF staff projections. The short-term deposit rate is projected to evolve with a constant spread against the interest rate of a similar U.S. instrument. United Kingdom: On monetary policy, the projections assume no changes to the policy rate or the level of asset purchases through 2014. United States: Given the outlook for sluggish growth and inflation, the IMF staff expects the federal funds target to remain near zero until late 2014. This assumption is consistent with the Federal Open Market Committee’s statement following its January 2013 meeting (and reaffirmed in subsequent meetings) that economic conditions are likely to warrant an exceptionally low federal funds rate at least through late 2014.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 177

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

List of Tables Output A1. A2. A3. A4.

Summary of World Output Advanced Economies: Real GDP and Total Domestic Demand Advanced Economies: Components of Real GDP Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Real GDP

Inflation A5. Summary of Inflation A6. Advanced Economies: Consumer Prices A7. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Consumer Prices

Financial Policies A8. Major Advanced Economies: General Government Fiscal Balances and Debt

Foreign Trade A9. Summary of World Trade Volumes and Prices

Current Account Transactions A10. Summary of Balances on Current Account A11. Advanced Economies: Balance on Current Account A12. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Balance on Current Account

Balance of Payments and External Financing A13. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Net Financial Flows A14. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Private Financial Flows

Flow of Funds A15. Summary of Sources and Uses of World Savings

Medium-Term Baseline Scenario A16. Summary of World Medium-Term Baseline Scenario



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 179

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table A1. Summary of World Output1 (Annual percent change) Average 1996–2005

Projections 2015 2019

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

3.7 2.8 3.4 2.1 1.0 3.6 5.2

5.2 3.0 2.7 3.3 1.7 4.0 8.2

5.3 2.7 1.8 3.0 2.2 4.2 8.7

2.7 0.1 –0.3 0.4 –1.0 1.0 5.9

–0.4 –3.4 –2.8 –4.4 –5.5 –2.4 3.1

5.2 3.0 2.5 2.0 4.7 4.5 7.5

3.9 1.7 1.8 1.6 –0.5 2.7 6.3

3.2 1.4 2.8 –0.7 1.4 1.5 5.0

3.0 1.3 1.9 –0.5 1.5 2.1 4.7

3.6 2.2 2.8 1.2 1.4 2.9 4.9

3.9 2.3 3.0 1.5 1.0 2.9 5.3

3.9 2.1 2.2 1.5 1.1 3.0 5.3

4.2 7.1 4.0 2.9

8.8 10.3 6.4 5.6

8.9 11.5 5.3 5.8

5.3 7.3 3.3 4.3

–6.4 7.7 –3.4 –1.3

4.9 9.7 4.7 6.0

4.8 7.9 5.4 4.6

3.4 6.7 1.4 3.1

2.1 6.5 2.8 2.7

2.3 6.7 2.4 2.5

3.1 6.8 2.9 3.0

3.2 6.5 3.4 3.6

4.9 4.9 4.7

6.7 6.8 6.3

6.0 6.0 7.1

5.1 5.1 5.7

2.8 3.0 2.6

5.2 5.5 5.6

3.9 3.9 5.5

4.2 4.1 4.9

2.4 2.2 4.9

3.2 3.2 5.4

4.4 4.5 5.5

4.5 4.4 5.4

2.5

3.6

3.4

0.6

–4.4

2.0

1.7

–0.3

0.2

1.6

1.8

1.9

By Source of Export Earnings Fuel Nonfuel Of Which, Primary Products

4.6 5.3 4.0

7.9 8.3 5.8

7.5 9.0 6.0

5.3 6.0 4.3

–1.2 4.1 1.0

5.1 8.1 5.2

4.8 6.6 4.8

4.4 5.2 4.2

2.4 5.2 4.1

3.0 5.3 4.0

3.9 5.6 4.5

3.9 5.6 4.5

By External Financing Source Net Debtor Economies Of Which, Official Financing

4.1 4.7

6.5 5.9

6.6 5.0

4.3 4.9

1.6 1.9

6.8 4.1

5.1 5.0

3.7 4.1

3.6 4.6

3.8 4.4

4.5 4.7

5.0 5.2

Net Debtor Economies by Debt-Servicing Experience Economies with Arrears and/or Rescheduling during 2008–12

4.2

6.9

6.7

6.1

1.9

5.7

5.0

3.0

3.8

2.7

3.4

4.1

Median Growth Rate Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies

3.4 4.3

4.0 5.7

4.0 6.3

0.8 5.1

–3.7 1.8

2.3 4.5

1.9 4.4

0.9 4.0

0.9 3.8

1.9 4.1

2.2 4.5

2.2 4.3

Output per Capita Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies

2.1 3.9

2.3 6.9

2.0 7.4

–0.6 4.5

–4.1 2.0

2.5 6.4

1.2 5.2

0.9 4.0

0.8 3.6

1.7 3.8

1.8 4.3

1.6 4.3

World Growth Rate Based on Market Exchange

3.0

4.0

3.9

1.5

–2.1

4.1

3.0

2.5

2.4

3.1

3.3

3.3

Value of World Output (billions of U.S. dollars) At Market Exchange Rates At Purchasing Power Parities

35,002 44,472

76,776 81,009 91,093 96,256

100,847 121,265

World Advanced Economies United States Euro Area2 Japan Other Advanced Economies3 Emerging Market and Developing Economies Regional Groups Commonwealth of Independent States4 Emerging and Developing Asia Emerging and Developing Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan Middle East and North Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Memorandum European Union Analytical Groups

Memorandum

1Real

50,059 56,440 61,848 58,623 64,020 70,896 72,106 73,982 62,474 67,466 70,558 70,627 75,099 79,381 83,258 86,995

GDP. Latvia. 3In this table, Other Advanced Economies means advanced economies excluding the United States, Euro Area countries, and Japan but including Latvia. 4Georgia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure. 2Excludes

180

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Table A2. Advanced Economies: Real GDP and Total Domestic Demand1 (Annual percent change) Average 1996–2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Fourth Quarter2 Projections Projections 2014 2015 2019 2013:Q4 2014:Q4 2015:Q4

2.8 3.4 2.1 1.2 2.2 1.4 3.7 2.7 2.2 2.4 3.7 2.5 3.7 7.6 4.2 4.0 4.8 6.9 6.9 3.5 ... 1.0 3.4 3.3 4.8 3.7 4.4 3.1 3.4 1.7 5.3 3.0 2.9 3.6 2.1 3.5 4.6 ...

3.0 2.7 3.3 3.9 2.5 2.2 4.1 3.4 2.7 3.7 5.5 1.4 4.4 5.5 8.3 5.8 4.9 11.0 10.1 4.1 2.6 1.7 2.8 2.6 5.2 2.7 5.4 4.3 7.0 3.8 8.9 7.0 2.3 5.8 3.4 2.8 4.7 3.8

2.7 1.8 3.0 3.4 2.3 1.7 3.5 3.9 2.9 3.7 3.5 2.4 5.3 5.0 10.5 7.0 6.6 10.0 7.5 5.1 4.1 2.2 3.4 2.0 5.1 4.5 6.0 3.3 6.5 3.8 9.0 5.7 2.7 6.9 1.6 3.4 6.0 7.1

0.1 –3.4 –0.3 –2.8 0.4 –4.4 0.8 –5.1 –0.1 –3.1 –1.2 –5.5 0.9 –3.8 1.8 –3.7 1.0 –2.8 1.4 –3.8 –0.2 –3.1 0.0 –2.9 0.3 –8.5 –2.2 –6.4 5.8 –4.9 3.4 –7.9 –0.7 –5.6 –2.8 –17.7 –4.2 –14.1 3.6 –1.9 3.9 –2.8 –1.0 –5.5 –0.8 –5.2 1.2 –2.7 2.3 0.3 2.7 1.5 0.7 –1.8 –0.6 –5.0 2.1 –2.5 2.2 –1.9 1.9 –0.6 3.1 –4.5 0.0 –1.4 4.5 1.2 –0.8 –5.7 –0.8 –1.4 1.2 –6.6 3.4 –9.5

3.0 2.5 2.0 3.9 1.7 1.7 –0.2 1.5 2.3 1.8 –4.9 1.9 3.4 –1.1 4.4 1.3 3.1 –1.3 2.6 1.3 3.3 4.7 1.7 3.4 6.3 2.2 10.8 6.6 6.8 3.0 15.1 2.5 0.6 5.7 1.4 2.1 –4.1 –5.0

1.7 1.8 1.6 3.4 2.0 0.4 0.1 0.9 1.8 2.8 –7.1 –1.3 2.8 2.2 3.0 0.7 1.9 5.3 9.6 0.4 1.7 –0.5 1.1 2.5 3.7 2.6 4.2 2.9 4.8 1.8 6.0 1.8 1.1 4.6 1.1 1.9 2.7 –8.5

1.4 2.8 –0.7 0.9 0.0 –2.4 –1.6 –1.2 –0.1 0.9 –7.0 –3.2 –1.0 0.2 1.8 –2.5 –0.2 5.2 3.9 –2.4 0.9 1.4 0.3 1.7 2.0 3.6 1.5 0.9 1.5 1.0 1.9 –1.0 2.8 3.4 –0.4 2.6 1.4 –5.1

1.3 1.9 –0.5 0.5 0.3 –1.9 –1.2 –0.8 0.2 0.4 –3.9 –1.4 –1.4 –0.3 0.9 –1.1 2.0 4.1 0.8 –6.0 2.4 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.8 2.4 2.1 1.5 2.9 2.0 4.1 –0.9 0.8 3.3 0.4 2.4 2.9 –3.2

2.2 2.8 1.2 1.7 1.0 0.6 0.9 0.8 1.2 1.7 0.6 1.2 0.3 1.7 2.3 0.3 2.1 3.8 2.4 –4.8 1.8 1.4 2.9 2.3 3.7 2.6 3.1 2.8 3.7 2.1 3.6 1.9 1.8 3.2 1.5 3.3 2.7 0.0

2.3 3.0 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.1 1.0 1.6 1.2 1.7 2.9 1.5 1.1 2.5 3.0 0.9 1.9 4.4 3.2 0.9 1.8 1.0 2.5 2.4 3.8 2.7 3.9 2.6 3.8 2.2 3.6 2.0 1.9 3.4 1.7 3.0 3.1 2.2

2.1 2.2 1.5 1.3 1.9 0.9 1.3 2.1 1.5 1.4 2.8 1.8 1.8 2.5 3.6 1.9 2.2 4.0 3.7 1.9 1.7 1.1 2.4 2.0 3.8 3.0 4.5 2.4 4.0 1.7 3.8 2.4 2.1 3.5 1.8 2.5 2.3 2.9

2.1 2.6 0.5 1.4 0.8 –0.9 –0.2 0.8 1.0 0.5 –2.5 1.6 –0.5 –0.6 1.4 1.9 1.8 3.9 0.9 ... 2.9 2.5 2.7 2.7 4.0 2.8 2.3 3.1 2.9 1.9 5.5 1.3 1.3 3.2 0.6 1.6 2.3 ...

2.1 2.7 1.3 1.6 1.2 0.7 1.1 0.6 1.1 2.3 2.3 0.7 2.1 –1.3 2.9 –0.9 2.1 4.2 6.1 ... 2.0 1.2 3.0 2.1 3.3 2.4 2.2 2.1 3.9 2.6 2.6 1.1 2.0 3.3 2.0 4.7 3.2 ...

2.4 3.0 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.4 0.9 1.7 1.3 1.3 3.2 2.0 0.0 0.5 3.0 1.5 1.7 4.0 3.3 ... 1.1 0.5 1.9 2.4 4.1 3.1 5.9 2.6 3.8 2.0 4.2 2.0 1.7 3.3 1.8 1.9 1.9 ...

2.6

2.6

2.2

–0.3

–3.8

2.8

1.6

1.7

1.4

2.2

2.3

1.9

2.2

2.1

2.2

Advanced Economies United States Euro Area Germany France Italy Spain Japan United Kingdom Canada Other Advanced Economies6

2.9 3.9 2.0 0.6 2.3 1.8 4.4 0.7 3.8 3.4 3.3

2.8 2.6 3.1 2.8 2.4 2.1 5.2 0.9 2.4 3.9 4.2

2.3 1.1 2.8 2.0 3.2 1.4 4.1 1.1 3.4 3.4 5.0

–0.4 –1.3 0.3 1.0 0.3 –1.2 –0.5 –1.3 –1.6 2.8 1.5

–3.8 –3.8 –3.7 –2.3 –2.6 –4.4 –6.3 –4.0 –6.3 –2.7 –2.9

2.9 2.9 1.2 2.3 1.8 2.1 –0.6 2.9 2.4 5.2 5.7

1.4 1.7 0.7 2.8 2.0 –0.9 –2.0 0.4 –0.1 2.9 2.9

1.1 2.6 –2.2 –0.2 –0.9 –5.1 –4.1 2.3 1.2 2.2 2.0

1.0 1.7 –1.0 0.5 0.4 –3.0 –2.7 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.9

2.0 2.6 0.9 1.4 1.0 0.5 0.5 1.5 2.8 2.0 2.5

2.2 3.1 1.0 1.3 1.0 0.7 0.3 0.6 2.3 2.0 2.7

2.0 2.2 1.4 1.3 1.7 0.9 0.7 1.1 2.3 1.9 3.2

1.9 2.3 0.1 0.5 1.2 –1.0 –0.6 3.0 2.7 2.3 2.6

1.8 2.8 1.0 2.1 0.8 0.2 0.6 0.5 2.5 1.6 1.4

2.3 3.2 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.1 0.4 0.2 2.0 2.1 3.6

Memorandum Major Advanced Economies

2.8

2.4

1.7

–0.8

–3.8

2.8

1.4

1.5

1.3

2.1

2.2

1.9

2.0

2.0

2.2

Real GDP Advanced Economies United States Euro Area3 Germany France Italy Spain Netherlands Belgium Austria Greece Portugal Finland Ireland Slovak Republic Slovenia Luxembourg Latvia Estonia Cyprus4 Malta Japan United Kingdom Canada Korea5 Australia Taiwan Province of China Sweden Hong Kong SAR Switzerland Singapore Czech Republic Norway Israel Denmark New Zealand Iceland San Marino Memorandum Major Advanced Economies Real Total Domestic Demand

1In

this and other tables, when countries are not listed alphabetically, they are ordered on the basis of economic size. 2From the fourth quarter of the preceding year. 3Excludes Latvia. 4Owing to the unusually large macroeconomic uncertainty, projections for this variable are not available. The national accounts data for 2013 refer to staff estimates at the time of the third review of the program and are subject to revision. 5Korea’s real GDP series is based on the reference year 2005. This does not reflect the revised national accounts released on March 26, 2014, after the WEO was finalized for publication. These comprehensive revisions include implementing the 2008 System of National Accounts and updating of the reference year to 2010. As a result of these revisions, real GDP growth in 2013 was revised up to 3 percent from 2.8 percent. 6In this table, Other Advanced Economies means advanced economies excluding the G7 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States) and Euro Area countries but including Latvia.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014

181

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table A3. Advanced Economies: Components of Real GDP (Annual percent change) Averages 1996–2005 2006–15 Private Consumer Expenditure Advanced Economies United States Euro Area1 Germany France Italy Spain Japan United Kingdom Canada Other Advanced Economies2

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Projections 2014 2015

3.0 3.9 2.0 0.9 2.3 1.6 3.8 1.0 4.1 3.4 3.6

1.4 1.8 0.4 0.9 0.9 –0.5 –0.1 0.9 0.9 2.5 2.6

2.6 3.0 2.1 1.6 2.2 1.4 4.0 1.1 1.8 4.1 3.9

2.4 2.2 1.7 –0.2 2.4 1.1 3.5 0.9 2.7 4.2 4.8

0.1 –0.4 0.4 0.7 0.2 –0.8 –0.6 –0.9 –1.0 2.9 1.1

–1.1 –1.6 –1.0 0.3 0.3 –1.6 –3.7 –0.7 –3.6 0.3 0.1

2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.6 1.5 0.2 2.8 1.0 3.4 3.8

1.5 2.5 0.3 2.3 0.6 –0.3 –1.2 0.3 –0.4 2.3 2.8

1.2 2.2 –1.4 0.7 –0.3 –4.0 –2.8 2.0 1.5 1.9 2.1

1.3 2.0 –0.7 1.0 0.4 –2.6 –2.1 1.9 2.3 2.2 2.1

1.9 2.7 0.6 1.0 0.9 –0.2 1.2 0.7 2.4 2.2 2.6

2.1 2.9 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.5 0.9 0.6 2.6 2.1 2.8

Memorandum Major Advanced Economies Public Consumption Advanced Economies United States Euro Area1 Germany France Italy Spain Japan United Kingdom Canada Other Advanced Economies2

2.8

1.3

2.4

1.9

–0.2

–1.2

1.9

1.7

1.4

1.6

1.9

2.1

2.2 2.0 1.8 0.9 1.4 1.8 4.2 2.4 2.8 1.7 2.8

1.0 0.4 0.9 1.4 1.2 –0.3 0.9 1.3 0.9 2.1 2.5

1.7 1.1 2.1 0.9 1.4 0.5 4.6 0.0 2.2 3.1 3.0

1.8 1.4 2.2 1.4 1.5 1.0 5.6 1.1 0.7 2.8 3.0

2.3 2.5 2.3 3.2 1.3 0.6 5.9 –0.1 2.1 4.6 2.8

3.1 3.7 2.6 3.0 2.5 0.8 3.7 2.3 0.7 3.3 3.5

0.9 0.1 0.6 1.3 1.8 –0.4 1.5 1.9 0.5 2.7 2.5

–0.7 –2.7 –0.1 1.0 0.4 –1.3 –0.5 1.2 0.0 0.8 1.7

0.3 –0.2 –0.5 1.0 1.4 –2.6 –4.8 1.7 1.6 1.1 2.0

–0.1 –2.0 0.2 0.7 1.7 –0.8 –2.3 2.2 0.9 0.8 2.4

0.4 –0.6 0.3 0.9 0.4 –0.1 –1.7 1.7 1.2 1.0 2.0

0.4 0.1 –0.2 0.9 –0.1 –0.4 –2.2 1.0 –0.5 1.0 1.7

Memorandum Major Advanced Economies

2.0

0.7

1.1

1.3

2.1

2.9

0.7

–1.1

0.4

–0.5

0.2

0.4

Gross Fixed Capital Formation Advanced Economies United States Euro Area1 Germany France Italy Spain Japan United Kingdom Canada Other Advanced Economies2

3.5 5.1 2.7 0.0 3.3 2.6 6.2 –0.8 4.5 5.9 3.4

0.5 0.5 –0.6 1.7 0.5 –2.1 –3.5 –0.4 0.0 2.2 2.6

3.9 2.2 5.6 8.9 4.0 3.4 7.1 1.5 5.6 6.2 5.6

2.5 –1.2 5.2 5.1 6.3 1.8 4.5 0.3 7.5 3.2 6.3

–3.0 –4.8 –1.4 0.7 0.4 –3.7 –4.7 –4.1 –6.9 1.6 0.1

–11.9 –13.1 –12.8 –12.2 –10.6 –11.7 –18.0 –10.6 –16.7 –12.0 –6.3

1.8 1.1 –0.4 5.4 1.5 0.6 –5.5 –0.2 2.8 11.3 6.6

2.5 3.4 1.6 7.0 3.0 –2.2 –5.4 1.4 –2.4 4.2 3.7

1.9 5.5 –4.1 –1.4 –1.2 –8.0 –7.0 3.4 0.7 4.3 1.9

0.9 2.9 –3.0 –0.6 –2.1 –4.7 –5.1 2.6 –0.5 0.0 2.2

3.4 4.0 2.2 3.2 1.9 1.9 0.6 2.6 7.7 1.6 2.8

4.0 6.3 2.6 2.5 2.7 2.6 1.2 –0.2 5.2 3.0 3.2

Memorandum Major Advanced Economies

3.4

0.4

3.4

1.2

–3.6

–12.6

1.9

2.7

2.9

1.4

3.6

4.3

182

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Table A3. Advanced Economies: Components of Real GDP (concluded) (Annual percent change) Averages

Projections

1996–2005

2006–15

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Final Domestic Demand Advanced Economies United States Euro Area1 Germany France Italy Spain Japan United Kingdom Canada Other Advanced Economies2

2.9 3.9 2.1 0.7 2.2 1.9 4.5 0.8 3.9 3.6 3.3

1.2 1.3 0.3 1.2 0.9 –0.8 –0.7 0.7 0.8 2.4 2.5

2.7 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.4 1.6 5.0 1.0 2.5 4.4 4.0

2.3 1.4 2.5 1.2 3.0 1.2 4.1 0.8 3.1 3.7 4.9

–0.2 –0.9 0.4 1.1 0.5 –1.2 –0.7 –1.6 –1.4 2.9 1.1

–2.7 –3.0 –2.8 –1.6 –1.4 –3.2 –6.2 –2.3 –4.8 –1.9 –0.9

1.8 1.5 0.6 1.8 1.6 0.9 –0.9 2.0 1.2 5.0 4.2

1.4 1.8 0.4 2.9 1.0 –0.9 –2.0 0.7 –0.6 2.4 2.8

1.2 2.4 –1.7 0.4 –0.1 –4.5 –4.1 2.2 1.4 2.3 2.0

1.0 1.6 –0.9 0.6 0.3 –2.6 –2.7 2.1 1.6 1.4 2.1

1.9 2.5 0.8 1.4 0.9 0.2 0.5 1.3 2.9 1.8 2.6

2.2 3.2 1.0 1.3 1.0 0.7 0.3 0.5 2.3 2.1 2.7

Memorandum Major Advanced Economies Stock Building3 Advanced Economies United States Euro Area1 Germany France Italy Spain Japan United Kingdom Canada Other Advanced Economies2

2.8

1.1

2.3

1.6

–0.6

–2.8

1.7

1.4

1.5

1.2

2.0

2.2

0.0 0.0 0.0 –0.1 0.1 –0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 –0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.1 0.0 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.3 –0.1 –0.1 –0.1 0.1

0.0 –0.2 0.3 0.8 0.2 0.2 –0.1 0.3 0.3 –0.1 0.1

–0.2 –0.5 –0.1 –0.1 –0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 –0.2 0.0 0.3

–1.1 –0.8 –1.0 –0.6 –1.2 –1.2 0.0 –1.5 –1.5 –0.8 –1.9

1.1 1.5 0.6 0.5 0.2 1.1 0.0 0.9 1.2 0.2 1.4

0.0 –0.2 0.3 0.0 1.1 –0.1 0.1 –0.2 0.4 0.5 0.1

–0.1 0.2 –0.5 –0.5 –0.9 –0.7 0.0 0.1 –0.2 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.2 –0.1 –0.1 0.1 –0.4 0.0 –0.3 0.3 0.4 –0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 –0.1

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 –0.1 0.0

Memorandum Major Advanced Economies

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

–0.3

–1.0

1.1

0.0

–0.1

0.1

0.1

0.0

Foreign Balance3 Advanced Economies United States Euro Area1 Germany France Italy Spain Japan United Kingdom Canada Other Advanced Economies2

–0.1 –0.6 0.1 0.5 –0.1 –0.3 –0.7 0.2 –0.6 –0.2 0.6

0.3 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.5 1.0 0.0 0.2 –0.7 0.7

0.2 –0.1 0.2 1.2 0.0 0.1 –1.4 0.8 0.2 –1.4 0.9

0.4 0.6 0.2 1.5 –0.9 0.3 –0.8 1.0 –0.1 –1.5 0.7

0.5 1.1 0.1 –0.1 –0.3 0.0 1.5 0.2 0.9 –1.9 0.4

0.3 1.1 –0.7 –3.0 –0.5 –1.2 2.9 –2.0 0.9 0.0 1.6

0.2 –0.5 0.7 1.7 –0.1 –0.4 0.4 2.0 –0.5 –2.0 0.6

0.4 0.1 0.9 0.7 –0.1 1.5 2.1 –0.8 1.2 –0.4 0.6

0.4 0.1 1.5 1.1 1.0 2.6 2.5 –0.7 –0.7 –0.6 0.2

0.3 0.1 0.5 0.0 –0.1 0.8 1.5 –0.2 0.1 0.3 0.6

0.3 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.6 0.4 –0.2 0.0 0.4 0.9

0.2 –0.3 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.8

Memorandum Major Advanced Economies

–0.3

0.2

0.2

0.5

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.0

1Excludes

Latvia. 2In this table, Other Advanced Economies means advanced economies excluding the G7 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States) and Euro Area countries but including Latvia. 3Changes expressed as percent of GDP in the preceding period.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014

183

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table A4. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Real GDP (Annual percent change)

Commonwealth of Independent States1,2 Russia Excluding Russia Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyz Republic Moldova Tajikistan Turkmenistan Ukraine3 Uzbekistan Emerging and Developing Asia Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Darussalam Cambodia China Fiji India Indonesia Kiribati Lao P.D.R. Malaysia Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Palau Papua New Guinea Philippines Samoa Solomon Islands Sri Lanka Thailand Timor-Leste4 Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Vietnam Emerging and Developing Europe Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Hungary Kosovo Lithuania FYR Macedonia Montenegro Poland Romania Serbia Turkey

184

Average 1996–2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

4.2 3.8 5.0 8.6 9.5 6.9 6.5 6.4 4.7 2.2 6.0 9.9 2.8 4.6 7.1 5.4 6.9 1.7 8.3 9.2 2.5 6.4 2.6 2.3 6.0 4.7 6.7 ... 0.2 4.6 ... 4.2 ... 1.5 4.1 4.2 0.1 4.3 2.7 ... 1.2 ... 1.9 7.1 4.0 5.7 ... 2.4 3.9 3.6 ... 6.2 2.3 ... 4.2 2.2 ... 4.3

8.8 8.2 10.6 13.2 34.5 10.0 9.4 10.7 3.1 4.8 7.0 11.0 7.4 7.5 10.3 6.5 7.0 4.4 10.8 12.7 1.9 9.3 5.5 –4.5 8.6 5.6 19.6 1.9 –0.2 8.6 13.1 3.4 –1.4 2.3 5.2 2.1 4.0 7.7 5.1 –3.2 –2.8 2.1 8.5 7.0 6.4 5.4 5.7 6.5 4.9 3.9 3.4 7.8 5.0 8.6 6.2 7.9 3.6 6.9

8.9 8.5 9.9 13.7 25.0 8.7 12.3 8.9 8.5 3.0 7.8 11.1 7.6 9.5 11.5 6.3 12.6 0.2 10.2 14.2 –0.9 9.8 6.3 7.5 7.8 6.3 10.6 3.8 –2.1 10.2 12.0 3.4 1.7 7.2 6.6 1.8 6.4 6.8 5.0 11.6 –1.4 6.4 5.2 7.1 5.3 5.9 6.0 6.4 5.1 0.1 8.3 9.8 6.1 10.7 6.8 6.3 5.4 4.7

5.3 5.2 5.6 6.9 10.8 10.3 2.3 3.3 7.6 7.8 7.9 14.7 2.3 9.0 7.3 6.0 10.8 –1.9 6.7 9.6 1.0 3.9 6.0 2.8 7.8 4.8 12.2 –2.0 –2.6 8.9 3.6 6.1 –5.5 6.6 4.2 4.3 7.1 6.0 2.5 14.6 2.6 8.0 6.5 5.7 3.3 7.5 5.6 6.2 2.1 0.9 7.2 2.9 5.0 6.9 5.1 7.3 3.8 0.7

–6.4 –7.8 –3.1 –14.1 9.3 0.1 –3.8 1.2 2.9 –6.0 3.9 6.1 –14.8 8.1 7.7 5.9 5.7 –1.8 0.1 9.2 –1.4 8.5 4.6 –0.7 7.5 –1.5 –3.6 –1.8 1.0 –1.3 5.1 4.5 –10.7 6.1 1.1 –5.1 –4.7 3.5 –2.3 12.8 3.3 –4.4 3.3 5.4 –3.4 3.3 –2.7 –5.5 –6.9 –6.8 3.5 –14.8 –0.9 –5.7 1.6 –6.6 –3.5 –4.8

4.9 4.5 6.0 2.2 5.0 7.7 6.3 7.3 –0.5 7.1 6.5 9.2 4.1 8.5 9.7 6.4 9.3 2.6 6.1 10.4 3.0 10.3 6.2 –0.5 8.1 7.4 7.1 5.9 2.5 6.4 5.3 4.8 3.2 7.7 7.6 0.5 7.8 8.0 7.8 9.5 3.1 –2.7 1.6 6.4 4.7 3.8 0.8 0.4 –2.3 1.1 3.2 1.6 2.9 2.5 3.9 –1.1 1.0 9.2

4.8 4.3 6.1 4.7 0.1 5.5 7.2 7.5 6.0 6.8 7.4 14.7 5.2 8.3 7.9 6.5 10.1 3.4 7.1 9.3 2.7 6.6 6.5 2.7 8.0 5.1 6.5 0.6 2.1 17.5 5.9 3.4 5.2 10.7 3.6 1.4 10.7 8.2 0.1 12.0 1.9 8.5 1.2 6.2 5.4 3.1 1.0 1.8 –0.2 1.6 4.4 6.0 2.8 3.2 4.5 2.2 1.6 8.8

3.4 3.4 3.3 7.1 2.2 1.7 6.2 5.0 –0.9 –0.7 7.5 11.1 0.2 8.2 6.7 6.1 6.5 0.9 7.3 7.7 1.7 4.7 6.3 2.8 7.9 5.6 0.9 3.2 0.4 12.4 7.3 4.9 5.5 8.1 6.8 2.9 4.9 6.3 6.5 9.3 0.7 0.2 1.8 5.2 1.4 1.3 –1.2 0.6 –1.9 –1.7 2.5 3.7 –0.4 –2.5 1.9 0.7 –1.5 2.2

2.1 1.3 3.9 3.2 5.8 0.9 3.2 6.0 10.5 8.9 7.4 10.2 0.0 8.0 6.5 5.8 5.0 –1.2 7.0 7.7 3.0 4.4 5.8 2.9 8.2 4.7 3.7 0.8 0.6 11.7 7.5 3.6 –0.2 4.6 7.2 –0.3 2.9 7.3 2.9 8.4 1.0 1.1 2.8 5.4 2.8 0.7 1.2 0.9 –1.0 1.1 2.5 3.3 3.1 3.4 1.6 3.5 2.5 4.3

2.3 1.3 5.3 4.3 5.0 1.6 5.0 5.7 4.4 3.5 6.2 10.7 ... 7.0 6.7 6.0 6.4 5.4 7.2 7.5 2.3 5.4 5.4 2.7 7.5 5.2 4.2 3.2 0.6 12.9 7.8 4.5 1.8 6.0 6.5 1.6 4.0 7.0 2.5 9.0 1.6 1.6 3.5 5.6 2.4 2.1 2.0 1.6 –0.6 2.0 3.9 3.3 3.2 2.8 3.1 2.2 1.0 2.3

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

Projections 2015 2019 3.1 2.3 5.7 4.5 4.6 2.5 5.0 6.1 4.9 4.5 5.7 12.5 ... 6.5 6.8 6.5 7.6 3.0 7.3 7.3 2.3 6.4 5.8 2.0 7.8 5.0 4.5 1.7 0.6 7.7 7.8 4.5 2.2 21.6 6.5 1.9 3.6 6.5 3.8 8.8 1.7 1.9 4.5 5.7 2.9 3.3 3.2 2.5 0.4 1.7 4.5 3.5 3.4 2.9 3.3 2.5 1.5 3.1

3.2 2.5 5.0 5.0 4.2 2.8 5.0 5.4 5.2 4.0 5.8 8.3 ... 5.5 6.5 7.0 8.0 3.5 7.5 6.5 2.4 6.8 6.0 2.0 7.5 5.0 4.8 1.5 0.7 8.8 7.7 5.0 2.2 3.7 6.0 2.0 3.6 6.5 4.5 9.1 1.7 1.9 4.0 6.0 3.4 4.7 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.7 4.5 3.8 4.0 3.1 3.6 3.5 4.0 3.5

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Table A4. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Real GDP (continued) (Annual percent change)

Latin America and the Caribbean Antigua and Barbuda Argentina5 The Bahamas Barbados Belize Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Trinidad and Tobago Uruguay Venezuela Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan Afghanistan Algeria Bahrain Djibouti Egypt Iran Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Mauritania Morocco Oman Pakistan Qatar Saudi Arabia Sudan6 Syria7 Tunisia United Arab Emirates Yemen

Average 1996–2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2.9 3.9 2.3 4.0 2.0 5.7 3.3 2.4 4.3 2.3 4.5 1.9 5.2 3.0 2.7 5.9 3.3 1.6 1.0 3.8 0.6 3.4 4.1 4.9 1.2 3.3 3.9 2.0 3.8 3.4 7.9 1.2 1.6

5.6 12.7 8.5 2.5 5.7 4.7 4.8 4.0 5.8 6.7 8.8 4.6 10.7 4.4 3.9 –4.0 5.4 5.1 2.2 6.6 2.9 5.0 4.2 8.5 4.8 7.7 4.6 7.2 6.0 5.8 13.2 4.1 9.9

5.8 7.1 8.7 1.4 1.7 1.2 4.6 6.1 5.2 6.9 7.9 6.0 8.5 2.2 3.8 6.1 6.3 7.0 3.3 6.2 1.4 3.1 5.0 12.1 5.4 8.9 4.8 1.4 3.0 5.1 4.8 6.5 8.8

4.3 1.5 6.8 –2.3 0.3 3.8 6.1 5.2 3.2 3.5 2.7 7.8 5.3 6.4 1.3 0.9 3.3 2.0 0.8 4.2 –0.8 1.4 4.0 10.1 6.4 9.8 3.4 4.7 –0.5 4.1 3.4 7.2 5.3

–1.3 –10.7 0.9 –4.2 –4.1 0.3 3.4 –0.3 –0.9 1.7 –1.0 –1.1 3.5 0.6 –3.1 –6.6 0.5 3.3 3.1 –2.4 –3.4 –4.7 –2.2 3.9 –4.0 0.9 –3.8 –0.1 –2.0 3.0 –4.4 2.2 –3.2

6.0 –8.6 9.2 1.0 0.2 3.1 4.1 7.5 5.7 4.0 5.0 1.2 7.8 3.5 1.4 –0.5 2.9 4.4 –5.5 3.7 –1.4 5.1 3.6 7.5 13.1 8.8 –3.8 –0.7 –2.3 4.2 0.2 8.9 –1.5

4.6 –2.1 8.9 1.7 0.8 2.1 5.2 2.7 5.7 6.6 4.5 0.2 4.5 7.8 2.2 0.8 4.2 5.4 5.5 3.8 1.4 4.0 5.4 10.9 4.3 6.9 –1.9 1.4 0.3 5.3 –2.6 6.5 4.2

3.1 2.8 1.9 1.8 0.0 4.0 5.2 1.0 5.4 4.2 5.1 –1.1 3.9 5.1 1.9 –1.8 3.0 4.8 2.9 3.9 –0.5 3.9 5.2 10.8 –1.2 6.3 –0.9 –1.3 1.5 4.8 1.2 3.9 5.6

2.7 0.5 4.3 1.9 –0.7 1.6 6.8 2.3 4.2 4.3 3.5 0.8 4.1 4.2 1.6 1.5 3.5 4.8 4.3 2.6 0.5 1.1 4.2 8.0 13.0 5.0 1.7 –1.5 2.1 4.7 1.6 4.2 1.0

2.5 1.6 0.5 2.3 –1.2 2.5 5.1 1.8 3.6 4.5 3.8 1.7 4.5 4.2 1.6 1.1 3.5 4.3 4.0 3.0 1.3 3.0 4.0 7.2 4.8 5.5 2.7 0.3 2.3 4.0 2.2 2.8 –0.5

3.0 1.9 1.0 2.8 0.9 2.5 5.0 2.7 4.1 4.5 4.1 1.7 4.1 3.5 1.7 1.2 3.5 4.0 4.0 3.1 1.7 3.5 4.0 6.9 4.5 5.8 3.0 1.0 2.9 4.0 2.2 3.0 –1.0

3.6 2.2 2.0 2.3 2.3 2.5 5.0 3.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 1.9 4.0 3.5 2.0 2.5 3.5 3.3 4.0 3.0 2.7 3.8 4.0 5.8 4.5 5.8 3.1 2.2 3.3 4.3 1.6 3.8 1.0

4.9 ... 4.3 4.9 1.2 4.8 5.1 ... 4.8 5.0 3.5 3.1 3.3 4.4 3.1 4.6 9.7 3.3 15.5 2.7 5.0 5.8 4.7

6.7 5.4 1.7 6.5 4.8 6.8 6.2 10.2 8.1 7.5 1.6 6.5 11.4 7.8 5.5 5.8 26.2 5.6 8.9 5.0 5.7 9.8 3.2

6.0 13.3 3.4 8.3 5.1 7.1 6.4 1.4 8.2 6.0 9.4 6.4 1.0 2.7 6.7 5.5 18.0 6.0 8.5 5.7 6.3 3.2 3.3

5.1 3.9 2.4 6.2 5.8 7.2 0.6 6.6 7.2 2.5 9.1 2.7 3.5 5.6 13.2 5.0 17.7 8.4 3.0 4.5 4.5 3.2 3.6

2.8 20.6 1.6 2.5 5.0 4.7 3.9 5.8 5.5 –7.1 10.3 –0.8 –1.2 4.8 3.3 0.4 12.0 1.8 4.7 5.9 3.1 –4.8 3.9

5.2 8.4 3.6 4.3 3.5 5.1 5.9 5.5 2.3 –2.4 8.0 5.0 4.3 3.6 5.6 2.6 16.7 7.4 3.0 3.4 2.9 1.7 7.7

3.9 6.5 2.8 2.1 4.5 1.8 2.7 10.2 2.6 6.3 2.0 –62.1 4.0 5.0 4.5 3.7 13.0 8.6 –1.2 ... –1.9 3.9 –12.7

4.2 14.0 3.3 3.4 4.8 2.2 –5.6 10.3 2.7 6.2 1.5 104.5 7.0 2.7 5.0 4.4 6.2 5.8 –3.0 ... 3.6 4.4 2.4

2.4 3.6 2.7 4.9 5.0 2.1 –1.7 4.2 3.3 0.8 1.0 –9.4 6.7 4.5 5.1 3.6 6.1 3.8 3.4 ... 2.7 4.8 4.4

3.2 3.2 4.3 4.7 6.0 2.3 1.5 5.9 3.5 2.6 1.0 –7.8 6.8 3.9 3.4 3.1 5.9 4.1 2.7 ... 3.0 4.4 5.1

4.4 4.5 4.1 3.3 6.5 4.1 2.3 6.7 4.0 3.0 2.5 29.8 6.5 4.9 3.4 3.7 7.1 4.2 4.6 ... 4.5 4.2 4.4

4.5 5.6 4.3 3.5 5.8 4.0 2.4 9.2 4.5 3.9 4.0 3.5 10.7 5.6 3.7 5.0 6.4 4.3 4.3 ... 4.5 4.2 4.7



Projections 2015 2019

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

185

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table A4. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Real GDP (concluded) (Annual percent change)

Sub-Saharan Africa Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cabo Verde Cameroon Central African Republic Chad Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of Congo Côte d’Ivoire Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone South Africa South Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe8

Average 1996–2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

4.7 8.2 4.5 5.8 6.6 0.9 7.1 4.2 0.7 8.6 2.1 –0.1 3.2 1.5 38.4 1.8 5.4 0.5 4.4 4.9 3.7 0.2 2.9 3.4 ... 3.1 3.2 5.1 4.1 9.1 4.2 4.4 7.1 8.7 2.6 4.4 2.8 0.7 3.3 ... 2.5 5.5 1.6 7.0 3.8 ...

6.3 20.7 3.8 8.0 6.3 5.4 9.1 3.2 4.8 0.6 1.2 5.3 6.2 0.7 1.3 –1.0 11.5 –1.9 1.1 6.1 2.5 2.1 6.3 4.1 8.4 5.4 2.1 5.3 4.5 8.7 7.1 5.8 6.2 9.2 12.6 2.5 9.4 4.2 5.6 ... 3.3 6.7 4.1 7.0 6.2 –3.6

7.1 22.6 4.6 8.7 4.1 3.4 9.2 2.8 4.6 3.3 0.5 6.3 –1.6 1.6 13.1 1.4 11.8 6.3 3.6 6.5 1.8 3.2 7.0 4.9 12.9 6.5 9.5 4.3 5.9 7.3 5.4 3.2 7.0 7.6 2.0 4.9 10.4 8.0 5.5 ... 3.5 7.1 2.3 8.1 6.2 –3.3

5.7 13.8 5.0 3.9 5.8 4.9 6.7 3.6 2.1 3.1 1.0 6.2 5.6 2.3 12.3 –9.8 11.2 1.7 5.7 8.4 4.9 3.2 1.5 5.1 6.0 7.2 8.3 5.0 5.5 6.8 3.4 9.6 6.0 11.2 9.1 3.7 –2.1 5.2 3.6 ... 2.4 7.4 2.4 10.4 5.7 –16.4

2.6 2.4 2.7 –7.8 3.0 3.8 –1.3 1.9 1.7 4.2 1.8 2.9 7.5 3.7 –8.1 3.9 10.0 –2.3 6.4 4.0 –0.3 3.0 2.7 4.5 5.1 –3.5 9.0 4.5 3.0 6.3 –1.1 –0.7 7.0 6.2 4.0 2.4 –1.1 3.2 –1.5 ... 1.2 6.0 3.5 4.1 6.4 8.2

5.6 3.4 2.6 8.6 8.4 5.1 1.5 3.3 3.0 13.6 2.1 7.1 8.7 2.4 –1.3 2.2 10.6 6.2 6.5 8.0 1.9 3.5 5.8 5.6 6.1 0.1 6.5 5.8 4.1 7.1 6.3 8.4 8.0 7.2 4.5 4.3 5.9 5.3 3.1 ... 1.9 7.0 4.1 6.2 7.6 11.4

5.5 3.9 3.3 6.1 5.0 4.2 4.0 4.1 3.3 0.1 2.2 6.9 3.4 –4.7 5.0 8.7 11.4 6.9 –4.3 15.0 3.9 5.3 4.4 4.3 7.9 1.5 4.3 2.7 3.8 7.3 5.7 2.3 7.4 8.2 4.9 2.1 7.9 6.0 3.6 ... –0.6 6.4 4.8 6.2 6.8 11.9

4.9 5.2 5.4 4.2 9.0 4.0 1.0 4.6 4.1 8.9 3.0 7.2 3.8 9.8 3.2 7.0 8.5 5.5 5.3 7.9 3.8 –1.5 4.6 6.0 8.3 2.5 1.9 0.0 3.3 7.2 5.0 11.1 6.6 8.0 4.0 3.5 2.8 15.2 2.5 –47.6 1.9 6.9 5.9 2.8 7.2 10.6

4.9 4.1 5.6 3.9 6.8 4.5 0.5 4.6 –36.0 3.6 3.5 8.5 4.5 8.1 –4.9 1.3 9.7 5.9 6.3 5.4 2.5 0.3 5.6 5.8 8.0 2.4 5.0 1.7 3.1 7.1 4.3 3.6 6.3 5.0 4.0 4.0 3.6 16.3 1.9 24.4 2.8 7.0 5.6 6.0 6.0 3.0

5.4 5.3 5.5 4.1 6.0 4.7 3.0 4.8 1.5 10.8 4.0 8.7 8.1 8.2 –2.4 2.3 7.5 5.7 7.4 4.8 4.5 3.0 6.3 5.6 7.0 3.0 6.1 6.5 3.7 8.3 4.3 6.5 7.1 7.5 5.0 4.6 3.7 13.9 2.3 7.1 2.1 7.2 6.0 6.4 7.3 4.2

Projections 2015 2019 5.5 5.5 5.2 4.4 7.0 4.8 3.5 5.1 5.3 7.3 4.0 8.5 5.8 7.7 –8.3 1.9 7.5 6.3 7.0 5.4 5.0 3.9 6.3 5.5 8.7 4.0 6.5 5.0 4.0 7.9 4.5 5.9 7.0 7.5 5.5 4.8 3.8 10.8 2.7 17.6 2.1 7.0 6.0 6.8 7.1 4.5

5.4 6.7 4.8 3.8 7.0 5.4 4.0 5.4 5.7 3.5 4.0 5.6 2.6 5.7 –9.4 3.6 6.5 5.8 5.5 3.8 17.6 4.3 6.5 5.1 7.4 5.1 5.9 4.4 4.0 7.8 4.7 8.3 6.7 7.5 6.0 5.2 3.4 5.0 3.0 5.8 2.1 6.9 5.2 7.4 6.0 4.0

1Data for some countries refer to real net material product (NMP) or are estimates based on NMP. The figures should be interpreted only as indicative of broad orders of magnitude because reliable, comparable data are not generally available. In particular, the growth of output of new private enterprises of the informal economy is not fully reflected in the recent figures. 2Georgia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure. 3Projections for Ukraine are excluded due to the ongoing crisis. 4In this table only, the data for Timor-Leste are based on non-oil GDP. 5The data for Argentina are officially reported data. The IMF has, however, issued a declaration of censure and called on Argentina to adopt remedial measures to address the quality of the official GDP data. Alternative data sources have shown significantly lower real growth than the official data since 2008. In this context, the Fund is also using alternative estimates of GDP growth for the surveillance of macroeconomic developments in Argentina. 6Data for 2011 exclude South Sudan after July 9. Data for 2012 and onward pertain to the current Sudan. 7Data for Syria are excluded for 2011 onward due to the uncertain political situation. 8The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. IMF staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates. Real GDP is in constant 2009 prices.

186

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Table A5. Summary of Inflation (Percent) Average 1996–2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Projections 2015 2019

Advanced Economies United States Euro Area1 Japan Other Advanced Economies2 Consumer Prices

1.7 2.0 1.7 –1.0 2.1

2.1 3.1 1.8 –1.1 2.2

2.2 2.7 2.4 –0.9 2.6

1.9 2.0 2.0 –1.3 3.1

0.8 0.8 1.0 –0.5 1.1

1.0 1.2 0.8 –2.2 2.4

1.3 2.0 1.2 –1.9 2.0

1.2 1.7 1.3 –0.9 1.4

1.2 1.5 1.4 –0.6 1.5

1.5 1.5 1.2 1.6 1.6

1.5 1.8 1.4 1.0 1.6

1.8 2.0 1.6 1.3 2.0

Advanced Economies United States Euro Area1,3 Japan Other Advanced Economies2

2.0 2.5 1.9 –0.1 2.0

2.4 3.2 2.2 0.2 2.1

2.2 2.9 2.2 0.1 2.2

3.4 3.8 3.3 1.4 3.9

0.1 –0.3 0.3 –1.3 1.4

1.5 1.6 1.6 –0.7 2.4

2.7 3.1 2.7 –0.3 3.4

2.0 2.1 2.5 0.0 2.1

1.4 1.5 1.3 0.4 1.7

1.5 1.4 0.9 2.8 1.7

1.6 1.6 1.2 1.7 2.2

2.0 2.0 1.6 2.0 2.3

Emerging Market and Developing Economies

10.0

5.8

6.5

9.2

5.4

5.9

7.3

6.0

5.8

5.5

5.2

4.6

24.8 4.1 27.0 10.1

9.5 4.3 5.9 5.3

9.7 5.3 6.0 5.4

15.6 7.4 7.9 7.9

11.2 3.2 4.7 5.9

7.2 5.3 5.4 6.0

10.1 6.5 5.4 6.6

6.5 4.6 5.8 5.9

6.4 4.5 4.1 6.8

6.6 4.5 4.0 ...

6.1 4.3 4.1 ...

5.8 3.9 4.0 ...

6.0 5.9 14.2

8.2 8.2 7.2

10.2 10.6 6.2

12.2 12.3 13.0

7.4 6.3 9.7

6.9 6.5 7.5

9.8 9.3 9.4

10.6 10.5 9.0

10.1 10.5 6.3

8.5 8.4 6.1

8.3 8.3 5.9

7.4 7.6 5.5

3.5

2.3

2.4

3.7

0.9

2.0

3.1

2.6

1.5

1.1

1.4

1.8

17.0 8.4 10.4

9.4 4.9 6.2

10.4 5.5 6.2

14.3 8.0 12.1

9.0 4.5 7.0

7.8 5.5 5.4

9.8 6.7 7.0

9.0 5.3 7.2

10.2 4.8 6.8

9.0 4.7 6.5

8.1 4.6 5.9

7.2 4.1 5.1

10.9 8.9

6.4 7.2

6.0 8.1

9.1 12.5

7.4 9.1

6.7 7.5

7.6 11.3

7.1 10.2

6.3 7.5

5.9 6.8

5.7 6.9

5.0 5.3

Net Debtor Economies by Debt-Servicing Experience Economies with Arrears and/or Res­cheduling during 2008–125

8.8

7.5

7.6

11.2

10.9

9.2

12.6

12.0

8.8

...

...

...

Memorandum Median Inflation Rate Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies

2.1 5.2

2.3 6.1

2.2 6.1

4.0 10.3

0.7 4.2

1.9 4.2

3.2 5.7

2.5 4.6

1.4 3.9

1.4 3.9

1.7 4.0

2.0 4.0

GDP Deflators

Regional Groups Commonwealth of Independent States4 Emerging and Developing Asia Emerging and Developing Europe Latin America and the Caribbean5 Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan Middle East and North Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Memorandum European Union Analytical Groups By Source of Export Earnings Fuel Nonfuel Of Which, Primary Products By External Financing Source Net Debtor Economies Of Which, Official Financing

1Excludes

Latvia. this table, Other Advanced Economies means advanced economies excluding the United States, Euro Area countries, and Japan but including Latvia. 3Based on Eurostat’s harmonized index of consumer prices. 4Georgia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure. 5See note 6 to Table A7. 2In



International Monetary Fund | April 2014

187

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table A6. Advanced Economies: Consumer Prices1 (Annual percent change)

Advanced Economies United States Euro Area3,4 Germany France Italy Spain Netherlands Belgium Austria Greece Portugal Finland Ireland Slovak Republic Slovenia Luxembourg Latvia Estonia Cyprus4 Malta Japan United Kingdom4 Canada Korea Australia Taiwan Province of China Sweden Hong Kong SAR Switzerland Singapore Czech Republic Norway Israel Denmark New Zealand Iceland San Marino Memorandum Major Advanced Economies

Average 1996–2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Projections 2014 2015 2019

End of Period2 Projections 2013 2014 2015

2.0 2.5 1.9 1.3 1.7 2.4 2.9 2.3 1.8 1.6 4.1 2.8 1.5 3.0 7.0 6.8 2.2 5.4 6.6 2.7 2.7 –0.1 1.5 2.0 3.6 2.5 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.8 0.8 4.5 2.0 4.0 2.1 2.0 3.5 ...

2.4 3.2 2.2 1.8 1.9 2.2 3.6 1.7 2.3 1.7 3.2 3.0 1.3 2.7 4.3 2.5 3.0 6.6 4.4 2.3 2.6 0.2 2.3 2.0 2.2 3.6 0.6 1.4 2.0 1.1 1.0 2.5 2.3 2.1 1.9 3.4 6.7 2.1

2.2 2.9 2.2 2.3 1.6 2.0 2.8 1.6 1.8 2.2 2.9 2.4 1.6 2.9 1.9 3.6 2.7 10.1 6.7 2.2 0.7 0.1 2.3 2.1 2.5 2.3 1.8 2.2 2.0 0.7 2.1 2.9 0.7 0.5 1.7 2.4 5.1 2.5

3.4 3.8 3.3 2.7 3.2 3.5 4.1 2.2 4.5 3.2 4.2 2.7 3.9 3.1 3.9 5.7 4.1 15.3 10.6 4.4 4.7 1.4 3.6 2.4 4.7 4.4 3.5 3.4 4.3 2.4 6.6 6.3 3.8 4.6 3.4 4.0 12.7 4.1

0.1 –0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.8 –0.2 1.0 0.0 0.4 1.2 –0.9 1.6 –1.7 0.9 0.9 0.0 3.3 0.2 0.2 1.8 –1.3 2.2 0.3 2.8 1.8 –0.9 –0.5 0.6 –0.5 0.6 1.0 2.2 3.3 1.3 2.1 12.0 2.4

1.5 1.6 1.6 1.2 1.7 1.6 2.0 0.9 2.3 1.7 4.7 1.4 1.7 –1.6 0.7 1.8 2.8 –1.2 2.7 2.6 2.0 –0.7 3.3 1.8 2.9 2.9 1.0 1.2 2.3 0.7 2.8 1.5 2.4 2.7 2.3 2.3 5.4 2.6

2.7 3.1 2.7 2.5 2.3 2.9 3.1 2.5 3.4 3.6 3.3 3.6 3.3 1.2 4.1 1.8 3.7 4.2 5.1 3.5 2.5 –0.3 4.5 2.9 4.0 3.3 1.4 3.0 5.3 0.2 5.2 1.9 1.3 3.5 2.8 4.0 4.0 2.0

2.0 2.1 2.5 2.1 2.2 3.3 2.4 2.8 2.6 2.6 1.5 2.8 3.2 1.9 3.7 2.6 2.9 2.3 4.2 3.1 3.2 0.0 2.8 1.5 2.2 1.8 1.9 0.9 4.1 –0.7 4.6 3.3 0.7 1.7 2.4 1.1 5.2 2.8

1.4 1.5 1.3 1.6 1.0 1.3 1.5 2.6 1.2 2.1 –0.9 0.4 2.2 0.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 0.0 3.5 0.4 1.0 0.4 2.6 1.0 1.3 2.4 0.8 0.0 4.3 –0.2 2.4 1.4 2.1 1.5 0.8 1.1 3.9 1.3

1.5 1.4 0.9 1.4 1.0 0.7 0.3 0.8 1.0 1.8 –0.4 0.7 1.7 0.6 0.7 1.2 1.6 1.5 3.2 0.4 1.2 2.8 1.9 1.5 1.8 2.3 1.4 0.4 4.0 0.2 2.3 1.0 2.0 1.6 1.5 2.2 2.9 1.0

1.6 1.6 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.7 0.3 1.2 1.5 1.1 1.6 1.6 1.8 2.5 2.8 1.4 2.6 1.7 1.9 1.9 3.0 2.4 2.0 1.6 3.8 0.5 2.6 1.9 2.0 2.0 1.8 2.2 3.4 1.2

2.0 2.0 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.1 1.5 1.4 1.7 1.6 1.5 2.0 1.7 2.2 2.0 1.9 2.3 2.2 1.9 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 2.5 2.0 2.0 3.5 1.0 2.4 2.0 2.5 2.0 2.2 2.0 2.5 1.7

1.2 1.2 0.8 1.2 0.0 0.7 0.3 1.7 1.2 2.0 –1.7 0.2 1.9 1.8 0.4 0.7 1.5 –0.4 3.2 –1.2 1.0 1.4 2.1 1.0 1.1 2.7 0.3 0.1 4.3 0.0 2.0 1.4 2.0 1.8 0.8 1.6 3.3 1.3

1.6 1.5 1.0 1.4 1.0 0.7 0.5 0.9 0.8 1.8 0.0 2.5 1.4 0.2 1.6 1.3 1.7 2.4 2.8 0.4 4.1 2.9 1.9 1.8 2.5 1.8 1.7 0.8 4.0 1.0 2.3 1.2 2.0 1.7 1.6 2.5 3.3 1.0

1.7 1.7 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 1.1 1.1 1.7 0.7 –1.9 1.5 0.9 1.6 1.8 1.8 2.5 2.5 1.4 1.2 1.9 1.9 2.0 3.0 2.5 2.0 2.0 3.8 1.0 2.7 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.2 2.1 3.1 1.2

1.8

2.4

2.2

3.2

–0.1

1.4

2.6

1.9

1.3

1.6

1.6

1.9

1.2

1.7

1.6

1Movements

in consumer prices are shown as annual averages. 2Monthly year-over-year changes and, for several countries, on a quarterly basis. 3Excludes Latvia. 4Based on Eurostat’s harmonized index of consumer prices.

188

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Table A7. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Consumer Prices1 (Annual percent change) Average 1996–2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Commonwealth of Independent States3,4 Russia Excluding Russia Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyz Republic Moldova Tajikistan Turkmenistan Ukraine5 Uzbekistan Emerging and Developing Asia Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Darussalam Cambodia China Fiji India Indonesia Kiribati Lao P.D.R.

24.8 25.5 22.9 5.6 3.7 67.7 9.7 11.7 13.5 16.0 47.6 47.0 18.2 27.8 4.1 4.9 5.7 0.5 4.2 1.6 2.9 5.7 13.5 1.6 28.7

9.5 9.7 8.9 3.0 8.4 7.0 9.2 8.6 5.6 12.7 10.0 8.2 9.1 14.2 4.3 6.8 4.9 0.2 6.1 1.5 2.5 7.3 13.1 –1.0 6.8

9.7 9.0 11.6 4.6 16.6 8.4 9.2 10.8 10.2 12.4 13.2 6.3 12.8 12.3 5.3 9.1 5.2 1.0 7.7 4.8 4.8 6.1 6.7 3.6 4.5

15.6 14.1 19.4 9.0 20.8 14.8 10.0 17.1 24.5 12.7 20.4 14.5 25.2 12.7 7.4 8.9 6.3 2.1 25.0 5.9 7.7 8.9 9.8 13.7 7.6

11.2 11.7 10.2 3.5 1.6 13.0 1.7 7.3 6.8 0.0 6.5 –2.7 15.9 14.1 3.2 5.4 7.1 1.0 –0.7 –0.7 3.7 13.0 5.0 9.8 0.0

7.2 6.9 7.9 7.3 5.7 7.7 7.1 7.1 7.8 7.4 6.5 4.4 9.4 9.4 5.3 8.1 4.8 0.2 4.0 3.3 3.7 10.5 5.1 –3.9 6.0

10.1 8.4 14.1 7.7 7.9 53.2 8.5 8.3 16.6 7.6 12.4 5.3 8.0 12.8 6.5 10.7 8.6 0.1 5.5 5.4 7.3 9.6 5.3 1.5 7.6

6.5 5.1 9.9 2.5 1.0 59.2 –0.9 5.1 2.8 4.6 5.8 5.3 0.6 12.1 4.6 6.2 10.1 0.1 2.9 2.6 3.4 10.2 4.0 –3.0 4.3

6.4 6.8 5.6 5.8 2.4 18.3 –0.5 5.8 6.6 4.6 5.0 6.6 –0.3 11.2 4.5 7.5 8.7 0.4 3.0 2.6 2.9 9.5 6.4 2.0 6.4

6.6 5.8 9.3 5.0 3.5 16.8 4.0 9.2 6.1 5.5 5.4 5.7 ... 11.0 4.5 7.3 10.2 0.5 3.8 3.0 3.0 8.0 6.3 2.5 7.5

6.1 5.3 8.6 4.0 4.0 15.8 4.6 7.5 6.6 5.9 5.9 6.0 ... 11.0 4.3 6.7 8.8 0.5 3.2 3.0 3.0 7.5 5.5 2.5 7.5

5.8 5.0 8.0 4.0 4.9 16.5 5.0 5.4 5.5 5.0 6.0 6.0 ... 11.0 3.9 5.7 6.7 0.6 3.0 3.0 2.9 6.1 5.0 2.5 5.7

6.2 6.5 5.4 5.6 3.6 16.5 2.3 4.8 4.0 5.2 3.7 5.5 0.5 10.2 4.3 7.3 10.0 0.1 4.6 2.5 3.4 8.1 8.1 2.0 6.6

6.3 5.3 9.5 4.0 3.4 16.3 4.0 10.1 7.0 5.2 5.3 6.0 ... 11.5 4.4 7.0 9.6 0.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 8.0 5.5 2.5 7.7

6.1 5.3 8.8 4.0 4.5 15.4 5.0 7.5 6.0 6.5 6.5 6.0 ... 11.6 4.3 6.4 8.4 0.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 7.4 5.4 2.5 7.3

Malaysia Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Mongolia

2.4 2.1 ... ... 13.7

3.6 3.5 5.3 4.6 4.5

2.0 6.8 2.6 3.3 8.2

5.4 12.0 14.7 8.3 26.8

0.6 4.5 0.5 6.2 6.3

1.7 6.1 2.2 3.9 10.2

3.2 11.3 4.9 5.4 7.7

1.7 10.9 4.5 4.6 15.0

2.1 4.0 1.4 4.0 9.6

3.3 3.3 1.6 3.3 12.0

3.9 4.4 1.8 2.7 11.0

2.7 4.4 2.2 2.0 6.5

3.2 3.1 1.4 4.5 12.3

3.3 4.4 1.6 3.3 13.3

3.9 4.4 1.8 2.7 8.1

Myanmar Nepal Palau Papua New Guinea Philippines

... 5.7 ... 9.8 5.8

26.3 8.0 4.8 2.4 5.5

30.9 6.2 3.0 0.9 2.9

11.5 6.7 10.0 10.8 8.2

2.2 12.6 4.7 6.9 4.2

8.2 9.5 1.1 6.0 3.8

2.8 9.6 2.6 8.4 4.7

2.8 8.3 5.4 2.2 3.2

5.8 9.9 2.8 3.8 2.9

6.6 9.8 3.0 6.0 4.4

6.9 7.0 3.5 5.0 3.6

4.7 5.5 2.0 5.0 3.5

6.7 7.7 3.0 5.5 4.1

7.0 9.3 3.5 6.0 4.0

6.7 7.3 3.0 5.0 3.5

Samoa Solomon Islands Sri Lanka Thailand Timor-Leste

4.7 8.8 9.8 3.2 ...

3.5 11.2 10.0 4.6 4.1

4.7 7.7 15.8 2.2 9.0

6.3 17.3 22.4 5.5 7.6

14.6 7.1 3.5 –0.9 0.1

–0.2 0.9 6.2 3.3 4.5

2.9 7.4 6.7 3.8 11.7

6.2 5.9 7.5 3.0 13.1

–0.2 6.1 6.9 2.2 10.6

–1.0 5.9 4.7 2.3 9.5

3.0 5.6 6.4 2.1 8.1

2.5 5.5 5.5 2.0 6.0

–1.7 6.3 4.7 1.7 10.4

1.0 6.0 6.0 2.4 8.5

3.5 5.6 6.2 2.3 7.6

6.7 ... 2.3 4.2 27.0 7.8 ... 46.5 3.5 10.4 ... ... 2.1 ... 7.6 39.3 ... 48.5

6.1 4.2 2.0 7.5 5.9 2.4 6.1 7.4 3.2 3.9 0.6 3.8 3.2 2.1 1.0 6.6 10.7 9.6

7.4 2.3 3.8 8.3 6.0 2.9 1.5 7.6 2.9 7.9 4.4 5.8 2.3 3.5 2.5 4.8 6.9 8.8

7.5 10.4 4.2 23.1 7.9 3.4 7.4 12.0 6.1 6.1 9.4 11.1 8.4 9.0 4.2 7.8 12.4 10.4

3.5 –0.3 5.2 6.7 4.7 2.3 –0.4 2.5 2.4 4.2 –2.4 4.2 –0.8 3.6 3.4 5.6 8.1 6.3

3.9 –1.9 2.7 9.2 5.4 3.5 2.1 3.0 1.0 4.9 3.5 1.2 1.5 0.7 2.6 6.1 6.2 8.6

4.6 0.5 0.7 18.7 5.4 3.4 3.7 3.4 2.3 4.0 7.3 4.1 3.9 3.1 4.3 5.8 11.1 6.5

3.1 1.4 1.4 9.1 5.8 2.0 2.0 2.4 3.4 5.7 2.5 3.2 3.3 3.6 3.7 3.3 7.3 8.9

3.2 2.6 1.3 6.6 4.1 1.9 –0.1 0.4 2.2 1.7 1.9 1.2 2.8 2.2 0.9 4.0 7.7 7.5

3.9 2.6 1.8 6.3 4.0 2.7 1.1 –0.4 0.5 0.9 1.8 1.0 1.8 0.2 1.5 2.2 4.0 7.8

4.6 2.8 2.4 6.2 4.1 2.8 1.5 0.9 1.1 3.0 1.5 1.8 2.3 1.1 2.4 3.1 4.0 6.5

5.9 2.6 2.7 5.1 4.0 3.0 2.1 2.2 2.5 3.0 1.5 2.2 2.3 1.4 2.5 2.7 4.0 6.0

3.5 2.7 1.5 6.0 3.4 1.9 –0.1 –0.9 0.3 0.4 1.5 0.5 1.4 0.3 0.7 1.6 2.2 7.4

4.4 2.7 2.0 6.3 4.6 2.6 1.1 0.5 1.0 2.9 1.5 1.7 2.3 0.9 2.1 3.5 5.3 8.0

4.9 2.7 2.7 6.1 3.9 3.0 1.5 1.3 1.4 3.0 1.5 1.8 2.3 1.1 2.5 3.1 4.0 6.0

Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Vietnam Emerging and Developing Europe Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Hungary Kosovo Lithuania FYR Macedonia Montenegro Poland Romania Serbia Turkey



Projections 2015 2019

End of Period2 Projections 2013 2014 2015

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

189

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table A7. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Consumer Prices1 (continued) (Annual percent change) Average 1996–2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Latin America and the Caribbean6 Antigua and Barbuda Argentina6 The Bahamas Barbados Belize Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Trinidad and Tobago Uruguay Venezuela

10.1 1.8 4.9 1.6 2.3 1.8 4.7 8.1 3.9 10.9 11.9 1.4 12.2 27.8 3.6 1.6 7.6 5.4 16.5 12.1 11.0 11.8 8.5 1.1 8.7 4.4 3.2 2.3 1.6 25.2 4.4 11.8 31.0

5.3 1.8 10.9 2.1 7.3 4.2 4.3 4.2 3.4 4.3 11.5 2.6 7.6 3.3 4.0 4.3 6.6 6.7 14.2 5.6 8.9 3.6 9.1 2.5 9.6 2.0 8.5 3.6 3.0 11.1 8.3 6.4 13.7

5.4 1.4 8.8 2.5 4.0 2.3 6.7 3.6 4.4 5.5 9.4 3.2 6.1 2.3 4.6 3.9 6.8 12.2 9.0 6.9 9.2 4.0 11.1 4.2 8.1 1.8 4.5 2.8 7.0 6.6 7.9 8.1 18.7

7.9 5.3 8.6 4.7 8.1 6.4 14.0 5.7 8.7 7.0 13.4 6.4 10.6 8.4 7.3 8.0 11.4 8.1 14.4 11.4 22.0 5.1 19.8 8.8 10.2 5.8 5.3 5.5 10.1 15.0 12.0 7.9 30.4

5.9 –0.6 6.3 1.9 3.7 –1.1 3.3 4.9 1.5 4.2 7.8 0.0 1.4 5.2 0.5 –0.3 1.9 3.0 3.4 5.5 9.6 5.3 3.7 2.4 2.6 2.9 2.1 –0.2 0.4 0.0 7.6 7.1 27.1

6.0 3.4 10.5 1.3 5.8 0.9 2.5 5.0 1.4 2.3 5.7 2.8 6.3 3.6 1.2 3.4 3.9 3.7 4.1 4.7 12.6 4.2 5.5 3.5 4.7 1.5 0.6 3.3 0.8 6.9 10.5 6.7 28.2

6.6 3.5 9.8 3.2 9.4 1.5 9.9 6.6 3.3 3.4 4.9 1.3 8.5 4.5 5.1 3.0 6.2 5.0 7.4 6.8 7.5 3.4 8.1 5.9 8.3 3.4 7.1 2.8 3.2 17.7 5.1 8.1 26.1

5.9 3.4 10.0 2.0 4.5 1.4 4.5 5.4 3.0 3.2 4.5 1.5 3.7 5.1 1.7 2.4 3.8 2.4 6.8 5.2 6.9 4.1 7.2 5.7 3.7 3.7 1.4 4.2 2.6 5.0 9.3 8.1 21.1

Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan Afghanistan Algeria Bahrain Djibouti Egypt Iran Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Mauritania Morocco Oman Pakistan Qatar Saudi Arabia Sudan7 Syria8 Tunisia United Arab Emirates Yemen

6.0 ... 4.6 0.7 2.0 4.7 15.9 ... 2.6 1.8 2.4 –0.7 6.1 1.6 0.1 6.3 3.6 –0.3 21.8 2.2 2.8 3.1 12.8

8.2 6.8 2.3 2.0 3.5 4.2 11.9 53.2 6.3 3.1 5.6 1.5 6.2 3.3 3.4 8.0 11.9 1.9 7.2 10.4 4.1 9.3 10.8

10.2 8.7 3.7 3.3 5.0 11.0 18.4 30.8 4.7 5.5 4.1 6.2 7.3 2.0 5.9 7.8 13.6 5.0 8.0 4.7 3.4 11.1 7.9

12.2 26.4 4.9 3.5 12.0 11.7 25.3 2.7 13.9 6.3 10.8 10.4 7.5 3.9 12.6 10.8 15.2 6.1 14.3 15.2 4.9 12.3 19.0

7.4 –6.8 5.7 2.8 1.7 16.2 10.8 –2.2 –0.7 4.6 1.2 2.4 2.1 1.0 3.5 17.6 –4.9 4.1 11.3 2.8 3.5 1.6 3.7

6.9 2.2 3.9 2.0 4.0 11.7 12.4 2.4 5.0 4.5 5.1 2.5 6.3 1.0 3.3 10.1 –2.4 3.8 13.0 4.4 4.4 0.9 11.2

9.8 11.8 4.5 –0.4 5.1 11.1 21.5 5.6 4.4 4.9 7.2 15.9 5.7 0.9 4.0 13.7 1.9 3.7 18.1 ... 3.5 0.9 19.5

10.6 6.4 8.9 2.8 3.7 8.6 30.5 6.1 4.6 3.2 5.9 6.1 4.9 1.3 2.9 11.0 1.9 2.9 35.5 ... 5.6 0.7 9.9

190

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

2013

Projections 2014 2015 2019

End of Period2 Projections 2013 2014 2015

6.8 1.1 10.6 0.3 2.3 0.5 5.7 6.2 1.8 2.0 5.2 –0.4 4.8 2.7 0.8 0.0 4.3 3.5 6.8 5.2 9.4 3.8 7.4 4.0 2.7 2.8 0.7 1.5 0.9 1.9 5.2 8.6 40.7

... 1.0 ... 2.0 2.0 1.2 6.8 5.9 3.5 1.9 2.9 1.8 3.9 2.8 1.8 1.6 4.0 3.9 4.1 5.5 9.1 4.0 7.0 3.8 4.7 2.5 0.7 1.1 0.9 1.7 4.8 8.3 50.7

... 1.7 ... 2.5 1.7 2.0 5.3 5.5 2.9 2.9 4.5 1.8 4.2 2.6 2.6 1.7 4.1 4.3 5.8 6.5 8.2 3.5 7.0 3.6 5.0 2.1 1.8 2.4 1.1 3.1 4.0 8.0 38.0

... 2.5 ... 1.3 2.6 2.0 5.0 4.7 3.0 3.0 4.5 1.8 4.0 2.5 2.6 2.3 4.0 3.8 5.0 5.5 6.9 3.0 7.0 2.5 5.0 2.0 2.5 3.1 2.0 3.7 4.0 6.5 30.0

7.4 1.1 10.9 0.3 2.2 0.4 6.5 5.9 3.0 1.9 3.7 –0.9 3.9 2.7 0.8 –1.2 4.4 3.5 4.5 4.9 9.7 4.0 6.9 3.7 3.7 2.9 0.4 –1.4 0.2 0.6 5.6 8.5 56.1

... 1.1 ... 5.5 1.8 2.0 5.5 5.8 3.0 2.7 4.5 2.3 4.5 2.7 2.0 1.7 4.3 4.3 5.7 7.0 8.5 4.0 7.0 3.6 5.0 2.3 1.5 2.4 1.7 2.2 4.0 8.5 75.0

... 2.0 ... 2.5 1.6 2.0 5.2 5.4 3.0 3.0 4.5 1.7 4.0 2.5 2.6 1.6 4.2 4.3 5.0 6.0 8.0 3.7 7.0 3.5 5.0 2.0 2.0 1.8 1.7 3.3 4.0 7.6 75.0

10.1 7.4 3.3 3.3 2.5 6.9 35.2 1.9 5.5 2.7 3.2 2.6 4.1 1.9 1.3 7.4 3.1 3.5 36.5 ... 6.1 1.1 11.1

8.5 6.1 4.0 2.5 2.5 10.7 23.0 1.9 3.0 3.4 2.0 4.8 4.7 2.5 2.7 8.8 3.6 3.0 20.4 ... 5.5 2.2 10.4

8.3 5.5 4.0 2.4 2.5 11.2 22.0 3.0 2.4 4.0 2.0 6.3 5.2 2.5 3.1 9.0 3.5 3.2 14.3 ... 5.0 2.5 9.8

7.4 5.0 4.0 2.6 2.5 12.2 20.0 3.0 1.8 4.0 2.5 2.5 5.5 2.5 3.4 6.0 3.4 3.5 5.5 ... 4.0 3.9 7.7

7.9 7.2 1.1 3.9 1.1 9.8 22.0 3.1 3.0 2.7 1.3 1.7 4.5 0.4 1.3 5.9 3.1 3.0 41.9 ... 6.0 1.7 9.8

9.0 4.0 5.3 2.6 2.3 11.3 24.0 2.3 2.4 3.4 2.0 7.5 5.0 2.5 2.7 10.0 3.6 3.3 18.1 ... 5.3 2.4 10.0

7.9 6.4 4.0 2.2 2.3 11.5 20.0 3.0 2.2 4.0 2.0 5.4 5.5 2.5 3.1 8.0 3.5 3.4 12.0 ... 4.5 2.7 9.5

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Table A7. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Consumer Prices1 (concluded) (Annual percent change) Average 1996–2005 2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Projections 2015 2019

End of Period2 Projections 2013 2014 2015

Sub-Saharan Africa Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi

14.2 208.2 3.3 8.1 2.7 12.4

7.2 13.3 3.8 11.6 2.4 9.1

6.2 12.2 1.3 7.1 –0.2 14.4

13.0 12.5 7.4 12.6 10.7 26.0

9.7 13.7 0.9 8.1 2.6 4.6

7.5 14.5 2.2 6.9 –0.6 4.1

9.4 13.5 2.7 8.5 2.8 14.9

9.0 10.3 6.7 7.5 3.8 12.0

6.3 8.8 1.0 5.8 2.0 8.8

6.1 7.7 1.7 3.8 2.0 5.9

5.9 7.7 2.8 3.4 2.0 6.0

5.5 6.5 2.8 3.2 2.0 4.5

5.9 7.7 –1.8 4.1 2.0 8.8

6.2 8.0 4.0 3.5 2.0 5.9

5.8 7.5 2.8 3.3 2.0 6.0

Cabo Verde Cameroon Central African Republic Chad Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of Congo Côte d'Ivoire Equatorial Guinea Eritrea

2.6 2.5 1.6 2.9 3.2 137.3 3.7 3.1 5.4 14.2

4.8 4.9 6.7 7.7 3.4 13.2 4.7 2.5 4.5 15.1

4.4 1.1 0.9 –7.4 4.5 16.7 2.6 1.9 2.8 9.3

6.8 5.3 9.3 8.3 4.8 18.0 6.0 6.3 4.7 19.9

1.0 3.0 3.5 10.1 4.8 46.2 4.3 1.0 5.7 33.0

2.1 1.3 1.5 –2.1 3.9 23.5 5.0 1.4 5.3 12.7

4.5 2.9 1.2 1.9 6.8 15.5 1.8 4.9 4.8 13.3

2.5 2.4 5.9 7.7 6.3 2.1 5.0 1.3 3.4 12.3

1.5 2.1 6.6 0.2 2.3 0.8 4.6 2.6 3.2 12.3

1.7 2.5 4.5 2.4 3.2 2.4 2.4 1.2 3.9 12.3

2.0 2.5 4.2 3.0 3.2 4.1 2.4 2.5 3.7 12.3

2.0 2.5 2.0 3.0 3.1 5.5 2.2 2.5 3.0 12.3

0.1 1.7 5.9 0.9 3.2 1.0 2.1 0.4 4.9 12.3

2.0 2.5 3.9 3.2 3.2 3.7 2.7 0.0 3.7 12.3

2.0 2.5 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.5 2.3 2.5 3.4 12.3

Ethiopia Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea

3.3 1.1 5.8 22.4 8.6

13.6 –1.4 2.1 10.2 34.7

17.2 –1.0 5.4 10.7 22.9

44.4 5.3 4.5 16.5 18.4

8.5 1.9 4.6 20.6 4.7

8.1 1.4 5.0 11.7 15.5

33.2 1.3 4.8 8.7 21.4

24.1 2.7 4.6 9.2 15.2

8.0 0.5 5.2 11.7 12.0

6.2 5.6 5.3 13.0 10.2

7.8 2.5 5.0 11.1 8.5

8.0 2.5 5.0 8.1 6.0

7.7 3.3 5.6 13.5 11.0

7.0 2.5 5.0 12.3 8.5

8.0 2.5 5.0 9.8 7.8

Guinea-Bissau Kenya Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone South Africa South Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe9

10.7 7.3 7.5 ... 10.2 21.9 2.0 5.5 12.5 7.5 2.6 13.8 6.6 22.1 1.5 2.9 13.2 5.9 ... 6.5 8.4 2.6 4.8 24.4 ...

0.7 6.0 6.1 9.5 10.8 13.9 1.5 8.9 13.2 5.1 0.1 8.2 8.8 23.1 2.1 –1.9 9.5 4.7 ... 5.2 7.3 2.2 7.2 9.0 33.0

4.6 4.3 8.0 11.4 10.4 8.0 1.5 8.8 8.2 6.7 0.1 5.4 9.1 18.6 5.9 –8.6 11.6 7.1 ... 8.1 7.0 0.9 6.1 10.7 –72.7

10.4 15.1 10.7 17.5 9.2 8.7 9.1 9.7 10.3 10.4 11.3 11.6 15.4 32.0 5.8 37.0 14.8 11.5 ... 12.7 10.3 8.7 12.0 12.4 157.0

–1.6 10.6 7.4 7.4 9.0 8.4 2.2 2.5 3.3 8.8 4.3 12.5 10.3 17.0 –1.7 31.7 9.2 7.1 ... 7.4 12.1 3.7 13.1 13.4 6.2

1.1 4.3 3.6 7.3 9.3 7.4 1.3 2.9 12.7 4.5 –2.8 13.7 2.3 13.3 1.2 –2.4 17.8 4.3 ... 4.5 7.2 1.4 4.0 8.5 3.0

5.1 14.0 5.0 8.5 10.0 7.6 3.1 6.5 10.4 5.0 2.9 10.8 5.7 14.3 3.4 2.6 18.5 5.0 ... 6.1 12.7 3.6 18.7 8.7 3.5

2.1 9.4 6.2 6.8 5.8 21.3 5.3 3.9 2.1 6.5 0.5 12.2 6.3 10.6 1.4 7.1 13.8 5.7 45.1 8.9 16.0 2.6 14.0 6.6 3.7

0.6 5.7 5.3 7.6 5.8 27.7 –0.6 3.5 4.2 6.2 2.3 8.5 4.2 8.1 0.8 4.3 9.8 5.8 0.0 5.6 7.9 2.0 5.4 7.0 1.6

2.5 6.6 4.7 8.1 6.2 15.1 3.9 3.8 5.6 5.9 2.5 7.3 4.1 6.6 1.4 3.5 7.8 6.0 11.2 5.5 5.2 3.0 6.3 7.0 1.5

2.0 5.5 4.6 7.5 6.0 6.9 2.5 4.5 5.6 5.7 2.1 7.0 4.8 4.9 1.7 3.3 6.7 5.6 9.0 5.2 5.0 2.7 6.3 6.0 1.7

2.0 5.0 4.0 5.8 5.0 5.2 2.2 5.0 5.6 5.5 –0.8 7.0 5.0 3.0 1.9 3.0 5.4 5.2 5.0 5.2 5.0 2.5 5.0 5.0 2.5

1.7 7.1 4.6 8.5 6.3 20.1 0.0 3.5 3.0 6.0 1.1 7.9 3.6 7.1 1.2 3.4 8.5 5.4 –8.8 4.4 5.6 2.2 5.6 7.1 0.3

2.8 6.6 4.6 7.9 6.5 9.7 8.1 4.5 6.0 5.8 2.6 7.0 4.5 6.0 1.7 3.5 7.5 6.3 14.2 5.6 5.0 2.8 7.0 6.5 2.0

2.0 5.1 4.6 7.0 6.0 5.8 3.3 5.0 5.6 5.7 1.2 7.0 5.0 4.0 1.7 3.2 6.0 5.6 5.0 5.2 5.0 2.7 5.6 5.5 2.0

1Movements

in consumer prices are shown as annual averages. year-over-year changes and, for several countries, on a quarterly basis. 3For many countries, inflation for the earlier years is measured on the basis of a retail price index. Consumer price index (CPI) inflation data with broader and more up-to-date coverage are typically used for more recent years. 4Georgia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure. 5Projections for Ukraine are excluded due to the ongoing crisis. 6The data for Argentina are officially reported data. Consumer price data from January 2014 onwards reflect the new national CPI (IPCNu), which differs substantively from the preceding CPI (the CPI for the Greater Buenos Aires Area, CPI-GBA). Because of the differences in geographical coverage, weights, sampling, and methodology, the IPCNu data cannot be directly compared to the earlier CPI-GBA data. Because of this structural break in the data, staff forecasts for CPI inflation are not reported in the Spring 2014 World Economic Outlook. Following a declaration of censure by the IMF on February 1, 2013, the public release of a new national CPI by end-March 2014 was one of the specified actions in the IMF Executive Board’s December 2013 decision calling on Argentina to address the quality of its official CPI data. The Executive Board will review this issue again as per the calendar specified in December 2013 and in line with the procedures set forth in the Fund’s legal framework. 7Data for 2011 exclude South Sudan after July 9. Data for 2012 and onward pertain to the current Sudan. 8Data for Syria are excluded for 2011 onward due to the uncertain political situation. 9The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. IMF staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates. 2Monthly



International Monetary Fund | April 2014

191

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table A8. Major Advanced Economies: General Government Fiscal Balances and Debt1 (Percent of GDP unless noted otherwise) Average 1998–2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Projections 2015

2019

Major Advanced Economies Net Lending/Borrowing Output Gap2 Structural Balance2

–3.9 0.0 –4.0

–5.1 –1.2 –4.5

–10.8 –5.7 –7.0

–9.6 –3.9 –7.8

–8.2 –3.5 –6.7

–7.3 –3.2 –5.8

–5.9 –3.1 –4.3

–5.1 –2.4 –3.9

–4.4 –1.7 –3.6

–3.5 0.0 –3.5

United States Net Lending/Borrowing3 Output Gap2,3 Structural Balance2 Net Debt Gross Debt

–4.4 –0.5 –3.9 41.7 60.7

–7.8 –3.1 –5.7 50.4 72.8

–14.7 –7.1 –8.8 62.1 86.1

–12.5 –5.6 –10.0 69.7 94.8

–11.0 –5.2 –8.7 76.2 99.0

–9.7 –4.3 –7.7 80.1 102.4

–7.3 –4.1 –5.4 81.3 104.5

–6.4 –3.3 –5.0 82.3 105.7

–5.6 –2.2 –4.6 82.7 105.7

–5.7 0.0 –5.7 84.5 106.7

Euro Area4 Net Lending/Borrowing Output Gap2 Structural Balance2 Net Debt Gross Debt

–1.9 0.9 –2.6 54.4 69.4

–2.1 2.3 –3.4 54.1 70.3

–6.4 –2.8 –4.8 60.2 80.1

–6.2 –1.6 –4.8 64.3 85.7

–4.2 –0.6 –3.8 66.5 88.1

–3.7 –1.7 –2.3 70.2 92.8

–3.0 –2.6 –1.3 72.4 95.2

–2.6 –2.2 –1.2 73.2 95.6

–2.0 –1.7 –1.0 72.6 94.5

–0.3 –0.2 –0.1 65.5 85.5

Germany5 Net Lending/Borrowing Output Gap2 Structural Balance2,6 Net Debt Gross Debt

–2.2 0.0 –2.4 46.8 63.4

–0.1 2.3 –1.0 50.0 66.8

–3.1 –3.7 –1.1 56.5 74.5

–4.2 –1.4 –2.6 58.2 82.5

–0.8 0.8 –1.1 56.5 80.0

0.1 0.5 –0.1 58.1 81.0

0.0 –0.4 0.3 55.7 78.1

0.0 –0.1 0.2 52.9 74.6

–0.1 0.0 –0.1 49.9 70.8

0.4 –0.1 0.4 40.2 58.7

France Net Lending/Borrowing Output Gap2 Structural Balance2,6 Net Debt Gross Debt

–2.7 1.4 –3.6 55.5 61.5

–3.3 1.1 –4.1 62.3 68.2

–7.6 –3.0 –5.7 72.0 79.2

–7.1 –2.2 –5.7 76.1 82.4

–5.3 –1.0 –4.6 78.6 85.8

–4.8 –1.8 –3.5 84.0 90.2

–4.2 –2.4 –2.4 87.6 93.9

–3.7 –2.4 –1.9 89.5 95.8

–3.0 –2.0 –1.5 89.8 96.1

0.0 0.1 0.0 81.4 87.7

Italy Net Lending/Borrowing Output Gap2 Structural Balance2,7 Net Debt Gross Debt

–2.9 1.7 –4.4 91.6 107.3

–2.7 1.9 –4.0 89.3 106.1

–5.4 –3.4 –4.2 97.9 116.4

–4.4 –1.6 –3.8 100.0 119.3

–3.7 –1.3 –3.8 102.5 120.7

–2.9 –2.8 –1.6 106.1 127.0

–3.0 –4.2 –0.3 110.7 132.5

–2.7 –3.5 –0.8 112.4 134.5

–1.8 –2.4 –0.3 111.2 133.1

–0.2 –0.4 0.0 101.7 121.7

Japan Net Lending/Borrowing Output Gap2 Structural Balance2 Net Debt Gross Debt8

–5.8 –1.1 –5.5 70.0 162.4

–4.1 –1.4 –3.5 95.3 191.8

–10.4 –7.1 –7.4 106.2 210.2

–9.3 –3.1 –7.8 113.1 216.0

–9.8 –3.9 –8.3 127.3 229.8

–8.7 –3.1 –7.6 129.5 237.3

–8.4 –2.1 –7.8 134.1 243.2

–7.2 –1.4 –6.9 137.1 243.5

–6.4 –1.0 –6.1 140.0 245.1

–5.4 0.0 –5.4 143.8 245.0

United Kingdom Net Lending/Borrowing Output Gap2 Structural Balance2 Net Debt Gross Debt

–1.3 1.9 –2.6 36.4 41.1

–5.0 1.7 –6.7 48.0 51.9

–11.3 –2.2 –10.2 62.4 67.1

–10.0 –1.9 –8.4 72.2 78.5

–7.8 –2.5 –5.9 76.8 84.3

–8.0 –3.0 –5.7 81.4 88.6

–5.8 –2.7 –3.7 83.1 90.1

–5.3 –1.7 –3.8 84.4 91.5

–4.1 –1.1 –3.1 85.7 92.7

–0.2 0.0 –0.1 77.6 84.6

Canada Net Lending/Borrowing Output Gap2 Structural Balance2 Net Debt Gross Debt

1.2 1.3 0.4 40.4 78.9

–0.3 0.7 –0.8 22.4 71.3

–4.5 –3.5 –2.3 27.6 81.3

–4.9 –2.0 –3.7 29.7 83.1

–3.7 –1.3 –2.9 32.4 83.5

–3.4 –1.5 –2.5 36.7 88.1

–3.0 –1.3 –2.2 38.5 89.1

–2.5 –0.9 –1.9 39.5 87.4

–2.0 –0.6 –1.6 39.9 86.6

–0.6 0.0 –0.6 37.6 81.9

Note: The methodology and specific assumptions for each country are discussed in Box A1. The country group composites for fiscal data are calculated as the sum of the U.S. dollar values for the relevant individual countries. 1Debt data refer to the end of the year and are not always comparable across countries. Gross and net debt levels reported by national statistical agencies for countries that have adopted the System of National Accounts (SNA) 2008 (Australia, Canada, United States) are adjusted to exclude unfunded pension liabilities of government employees’ defined-benefit pension plans. Fiscal data for the aggregated Major Advanced Economies and the United States start in 2001, and the average for the aggregate and the United States is therefore for the period 2001–07. 2Percent of potential GDP. 3Data have been revised as a result of the Bureau of Economic Analysis’s recent comprehensive revision of the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA). 4Excludes Latvia. 5Beginning in 1995, the debt and debt-services obligations of the Treuhandanstalt (and of various other agencies) were taken over by the general government. This debt is equivalent to 8 percent of GDP, and the associated debt service to 0.5 to 1 percent of GDP. 6Excludes sizable one-time receipts from the sale of assets, including licenses. 7Excludes one-time measures based on the authorities’ data and, in the absence of the latter, receipts from the sale of assets. 8Includes equity shares.

192

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Table A9. Summary of World Trade Volumes and Prices (Annual percent change) Averages 1996–2005 2006–15

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Projections 2014 2015

Trade in Goods and Services World Trade1 Volume Price Deflator In U.S. Dollars In SDRs

6.7

4.2

9.3

7.9

2.8

–10.6

12.8

6.2

2.8

3.0

4.3

5.3

0.7 0.9

2.5 2.0

5.0 5.5

7.7 3.5

11.4 7.9

–10.3 –8.1

5.6 6.8

11.1 7.4

–1.8 1.2

–0.8 0.0

–0.2 –1.6

–0.4 –1.3

Volume of Trade Exports Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies

5.9 8.7

3.6 5.6

8.9 11.2

6.9 9.4

2.1 4.3

–11.7 –7.9

12.4 13.9

5.7 7.0

2.1 4.2

2.3 4.4

4.2 5.0

4.8 6.2

Imports Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies

6.5 8.0

2.7 7.2

7.8 12.2

5.4 14.9

0.5 8.5

–12.2 –8.0

11.7 14.4

4.8 9.2

1.1 5.8

1.4 5.6

3.5 5.2

4.5 6.3

Terms of Trade Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies

–0.1 1.3

–0.3 0.8

–1.2 3.0

0.3 1.7

–2.1 3.3

2.5 –4.9

–1.0 2.1

–1.5 3.4

–0.7 0.6

0.7 –0.3

0.0 –0.2

–0.2 –0.7

6.8

4.0

9.3

7.1

2.2

–11.7

14.0

6.6

2.6

2.7

4.3

5.3

0.5 0.8

2.7 2.2

5.6 6.0

7.9 3.7

12.4 8.9

–11.6 –9.4

6.7 7.8

12.2 8.4

–1.9 1.1

–1.1 –0.3

–0.3 –1.8

–0.6 –1.5

World Trade Prices in U.S. Dollars2 Manufactures Oil Nonfuel Primary Commodities Food Beverages Agricultural Raw Materials Metal

–0.3 12.0 0.0 –0.4 –2.3 –1.8 2.8

1.4 6.3 4.6 4.7 5.5 3.2 5.2

2.4 20.5 23.1 10.2 8.4 8.7 56.2

5.4 10.7 13.9 14.8 13.8 5.0 17.4

6.3 36.4 7.9 24.5 23.3 –0.7 –7.8

–6.5 –36.3 –15.8 –14.8 1.6 –17.1 –19.2

2.5 27.9 26.5 11.9 14.1 33.2 48.2

6.1 31.6 17.9 19.9 16.6 22.7 13.5

0.2 1.0 –10.0 –2.4 –18.6 –12.7 –16.8

–1.1 –0.9 –1.2 1.1 –11.9 1.5 –4.3

–0.3 0.1 –3.5 –5.3 15.1 0.5 –5.4

–0.4 –6.0 –3.9 –5.9 0.8 –0.3 –3.9

World Trade Prices in SDRs2 Manufactures Oil Nonfuel Primary Commodities Food Beverages Agricultural Raw Materials Metal

–0.1 12.3 0.2 –0.1 –2.1 –1.6 3.1

0.9 5.7 4.0 4.2 5.0 2.6 4.7

2.8 21.0 23.6 10.7 8.8 9.2 56.9

1.3 6.4 9.5 10.3 9.4 0.9 12.8

3.0 32.1 4.5 20.5 19.4 –3.8 –10.7

–4.1 –34.8 –13.7 –12.7 4.1 –15.1 –17.2

3.7 29.3 27.9 13.1 15.4 34.6 49.8

2.5 27.2 13.9 15.8 12.7 18.6 9.7

3.3 4.1 –7.3 0.6 –16.1 –10.0 –14.3

–0.3 –0.1 –0.4 1.9 –11.2 2.3 –3.5

–1.7 –1.3 –4.9 –6.6 13.5 –0.9 –6.8

–1.4 –6.9 –4.9 –6.8 –0.2 –1.3 –4.8

World Trade Prices in Euros2 Manufactures Oil Nonfuel Primary Commodities Food Beverages Agricultural Raw Materials Metal

0.2 12.5 0.5 0.1 –1.8 –1.3 3.3

0.3 5.1 3.4 3.5 4.3 2.0 4.0

1.6 19.5 22.1 9.3 7.5 7.9 55.0

–3.4 1.4 4.3 5.1 4.2 –3.8 7.5

–1.0 27.1 0.5 15.9 14.8 –7.5 –14.1

–1.2 –32.7 –11.0 –9.9 7.3 –12.5 –14.6

7.6 34.3 32.8 17.4 19.8 39.8 55.5

1.2 25.5 12.4 14.3 11.2 17.0 8.3

8.4 9.3 –2.6 5.7 –11.9 –5.5 –10.0

–4.3 –4.1 –4.4 –2.1 –14.8 –1.7 –7.3

–3.2 –2.9 –6.3 –8.1 11.7 –2.5 –8.2

–2.2 –7.7 –5.6 –7.5 –1.0 –2.1 –5.5

Trade in Goods World Trade1 Volume Price Deflator In U.S. Dollars In SDRs



International Monetary Fund | April 2014

193

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table A9. Summary of World Trade Volumes and Prices (concluded) (Annual percent change) Averages 1996–2005 2006–15

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Projections 2014 2015

Trade in Goods Volume of Trade Exports Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies Fuel Exporters Nonfuel Exporters

5.8 8.9 4.9 10.3

3.3 5.4 2.5 6.6

8.8 10.7 4.3 13.4

5.8 8.7 4.2 10.6

1.5 3.4 3.1 3.5

–13.4 –8.1 –7.3 –8.5

14.3 13.8 3.6 17.7

6.0 6.9 5.0 7.6

1.8 4.8 6.0 4.3

1.8 4.0 1.1 5.4

4.2 5.1 1.4 6.7

4.6 6.2 4.2 7.0

Imports Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies Fuel Exporters Nonfuel Exporters

6.7 8.3 8.0 8.4

2.6 7.0 8.0 6.8

8.1 11.7 12.4 11.6

4.8 14.4 23.8 12.4

–0.1 7.9 14.0 6.4

–13.1 –9.6 –12.7 –8.9

13.5 14.9 6.2 17.1

5.2 10.0 10.2 10.0

0.5 5.4 10.8 4.3

1.2 5.3 7.0 4.9

3.2 5.4 5.1 5.5

4.5 6.5 6.5 6.5

Price Deflators in SDRs Exports Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies Fuel Exporters Nonfuel Exporters

0.1 3.6 8.8 1.7

1.4 3.7 5.6 2.8

3.9 11.0 18.4 7.8

3.4 5.7 8.0 4.7

5.7 14.4 25.8 9.6

–6.7 –13.5 –25.9 –7.5

4.5 14.2 24.5 10.2

6.0 13.0 23.9 8.7

–0.2 2.4 3.2 2.0

0.4 –0.9 –1.8 –0.4

–1.4 –2.6 –2.6 –2.7

–0.8 –3.1 –4.9 –2.3

Imports Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies Fuel Exporters Nonfuel Exporters

0.2 2.1 1.3 2.3

1.8 2.8 2.9 2.8

5.4 7.2 8.8 6.8

3.0 4.0 4.0 4.0

8.4 10.2 8.8 10.5

–10.1 –8.1 –4.8 –8.9

5.7 11.4 9.3 11.9

7.9 8.5 6.3 9.0

1.0 2.1 1.9 2.1

–0.2 –0.7 0.1 –0.9

–1.1 –2.3 –2.4 –2.3

–0.8 –2.2 –1.8 –2.3

Terms of Trade Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies

–0.2 1.5

–0.4 0.8

–1.4 3.6

0.4 1.6

–2.5 3.8

3.8 –5.9

–1.1 2.5

–1.8 4.1

–1.2 0.3

0.6 –0.1

–0.3 –0.3

0.0 –0.9

5.0 –1.5 0.0 1.5

2.6 –0.3 –0.8 1.4

7.9 –0.6 –1.0 7.1

1.9 0.3 1.7 2.3

15.9 –1.4 –2.7 3.0

–17.4 3.2 3.5 –8.9

12.7 –6.2 –4.0 11.1

11.2 –2.4 –1.9 9.0

1.8 1.3 –0.1 –3.1

–1.2 1.4 0.4 –1.5

–0.4 0.6 –2.9 –1.7

–2.1 0.6 –0.5 –1.6

6.8 7.2 ...

2.2 2.3 2.0

6.8 7.0 7.1

3.2 3.2 4.7

12.7 13.4 8.9

–18.2 –18.6 –13.0

11.6 11.5 12.7

14.4 14.7 8.9

–0.1 0.4 –1.4

–1.6 –1.7 –1.8

0.2 0.4 –1.2

–3.1 –3.1 –2.3

7.4 –0.5

2.6 0.1

8.9 0.9

3.9 0.7

15.6 –0.8

–22.2 1.5

13.8 –1.5

16.6 –0.3

1.2 –0.1

–1.9 0.5

–0.2 –0.4

–3.2 0.0

8,482 6,835 12.0 26.82 –0.3

20,390 16,396 6.3 88.84 1.4

Regional Groups Commonwealth of Independent States3 Emerging and Developing Asia Emerging and Developing Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan Middle East and North Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Analytical Groups By Source of Export Earnings Fuel Exporters Nonfuel Exporters Memorandum World Exports in Billions of U.S. Dollars Goods and Services Goods Average Oil Price4 In U.S. Dollars a Barrel Export Unit Value of Manufactures5

14,891 17,336 19,830 15,880 18,916 22,317 22,535 23,083 23,990 25,123 12,035 13,920 15,984 12,469 15,167 18,123 18,260 18,591 19,281 20,132 20.5 10.7 36.4 –36.3 27.9 31.6 1.0 –0.9 0.1 –6.0 64.27 71.13 97.04 61.78 79.03 104.01 105.01 104.07 104.17 97.92 2.4 5.4 6.3 –6.5 2.5 6.1 0.2 –1.1 –0.3 –0.4

Note: SDR = special drawing right. of annual percent change for world exports and imports. 2As represented, respectively, by the export unit value index for manufactures of the advanced economies and accounting for 83 percent of the advanced economies’ trade (export of goods) weights; the average of U.K. Brent, Dubai Fateh, and West Texas Intermediate crude oil prices; and the average of world market prices for nonfuel primary commodities weighted by their 2002–04 shares in world commodity exports. 3Georgia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure. 4Percent change of average of U.K. Brent, Dubai Fateh, and West Texas Intermediate crude oil prices. 5Percent change for manufactures exported by the advanced economies. 1Average

194

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Table A10. Summary of Balances on Current Account (Billions of U.S. dollars) Projections 2015

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

–429.2 –798.5 53.9 170.9 144.5

–327.4 –713.4 46.4 212.1 127.5

–490.5 –681.3 –96.5 159.9 127.5

–57.7 –381.6 33.1 146.6 144.3

–19.9 –449.5 72.7 204.0 152.9

–43.5 –457.7 109.2 119.3 185.8

–26.6 –440.4 246.0 60.4 107.5

193.3 –379.3 366.0 34.3 172.3

247.7 –391.1 391.6 57.2 190.0

217.6 –472.0 432.6 65.0 192.0

222.5 –627.1 498.7 84.8 266.1

632.1

604.4

674.4

248.8

325.3

414.0

368.4

210.0

239.1

175.0

98.5

94.0 271.1 –84.1 46.2

65.5 394.8 –129.7 6.2

108.6 429.3 –154.5 –39.5

43.0 275.9 –50.3 –30.0

69.1 238.7 –84.4 –62.1

108.1 97.4 –118.8 –79.4

67.7 104.1 –80.9 –107.1

20.5 145.2 –75.6 –153.3

50.2 177.5 –68.3 –154.1

39.2 213.9 –76.6 –167.7

29.0 335.9 –109.6 –208.7

275.4 29.5

255.7 11.8

332.3 –1.9

39.1 –28.8

175.0 –11.0

418.7 –11.9

418.8 –34.2

320.5 –47.2

283.6 –49.9

225.5 –59.3

125.2 –73.3

Memorandum European Union

–28.2

–62.9

–172.1

4.7

19.1

83.6

174.5

328.9

357.4

404.9

505.4

Analytical Groups By Source of Export Earnings Fuel Nonfuel Of Which, Primary Products

475.5 156.7 –12.1

419.8 184.6 –17.1

586.2 88.2 –34.9

140.5 108.3 –23.3

319.0 6.3 –13.5

635.6 –221.5 –29.4

607.5 –239.0 –65.8

445.2 –235.2 –65.6

414.0 –174.9 –58.4

344.6 –169.6 –60.0

223.2 –124.7 –65.0

By External Financing Source Net Debtor Economies Of Which, Official Financing

–107.4 –17.7

–207.9 –21.6

–376.0 –32.9

–179.9 –17.6

–273.7 –12.1

–402.4 –8.6

–461.0 –20.4

–451.7 –16.5

–429.2 –17.1

–466.3 –22.1

–604.1 –32.3

Advanced Economies United States Euro Area1,2 Japan Other Advanced Economies3 Emerging Market and Developing Economies Regional Groups Commonwealth of Independent States4 Emerging and Developing Asia Emerging and Developing Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan Sub-Saharan Africa

Net Debtor Economies by Debt-Servicing Experience Economies with Arrears and/or Rescheduling during 2008–12 World1

2019

–5.8

–13.2

–27.1

–30.6

–32.6

–33.5

–53.4

–55.9

–55.8

–68.8

–89.6

203.0

277.0

183.9

191.1

305.4

370.6

341.9

403.3

486.8

392.6

321.1



International Monetary Fund | April 2014

195

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table A10. Summary of Balances on Current Account (concluded) (Percent of GDP) 2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Projections 2015

2019

–1.2 –5.8 0.5 3.9 1.8

–0.8 –4.9 0.4 4.9 1.4

–1.2 –4.6 –0.7 3.3 1.3

–0.1 –2.6 0.3 2.9 1.7

0.0 –3.0 0.6 3.7 1.6

–0.1 –2.9 0.8 2.0 1.8

–0.1 –2.7 2.0 1.0 1.0

0.4 –2.3 2.9 0.7 1.6

0.5 –2.2 2.9 1.2 1.7

0.4 –2.6 3.1 1.3 1.6

0.4 –2.8 3.0 1.5 1.8

4.9

3.8

3.5

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.4

0.7

0.8

0.6

0.2

7.2 5.7 –6.5 1.5

3.8 6.6 –8.1 0.2

5.0 5.9 –8.2 –0.9

2.6 3.5 –3.2 –0.7

3.4 2.5 –4.9 –1.3

4.3 0.9 –6.4 –1.4

2.6 0.8 –4.5 –1.9

0.7 1.1 –3.9 –2.7

1.9 1.2 –3.6 –2.7

1.5 1.4 –3.8 –2.8

0.9 1.6 –4.2 –2.8

15.5 17.2 4.1

12.2 13.6 1.4

12.8 14.3 –0.2

1.7 2.2 –3.2

6.5 7.1 –1.0

13.1 14.1 –1.0

12.6 13.7 –2.7

9.5 10.3 –3.6

8.0 8.7 –3.6

6.1 6.6 –3.9

2.6 2.9 –3.6

Memorandum European Union

–0.2

–0.4

–0.9

0.0

0.1

0.5

1.0

1.9

1.9

2.1

2.2

Analytical Groups By Source of Export Earnings Fuel Nonfuel Of Which, Primary Products

16.3 1.6 –2.0

11.6 1.5 –2.6

12.7 0.6 –4.9

3.7 0.7 –3.3

7.1 0.0 –1.5

11.5 –1.1 –2.9

10.4 –1.1 –6.4

7.4 –1.0 –6.3

6.7 –0.7 –5.6

5.4 –0.7 –5.4

2.8 –0.4 –4.4

By External Financing Source Net Debtor Economies Of Which, Official Financing

–1.5 –3.4

–2.4 –3.6

–3.9 –4.7

–1.9 –2.6

–2.5 –1.6

–3.2 –1.1

–3.7 –2.6

–3.5 –1.9

–3.3 –1.9

–3.4 –2.3

–3.3 –2.5

Net Debtor Economies by Debt-Servicing Experience Economies with Arrears and/or Rescheduling during 2008–12

–0.8

–1.5

–2.6

–3.0

–2.8

–2.5

–3.7

–3.7

–3.7

–4.4

–4.3

0.4

0.5

0.3

0.3

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.5

0.3

0.7 0.4

0.8 0.5

0.5 0.3

0.6 0.3

0.8 0.5

0.8 0.5

0.8 0.5

0.9 0.5

1.0 0.6

0.8 0.5

0.5 0.3

Advanced Economies United States Euro Area1,2 Japan Other Advanced Economies3 Emerging Market and Developing Economies Regional Groups Commonwealth of Independent States4 Emerging and Developing Asia Emerging and Developing Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan Middle East and North Africa Sub-Saharan Africa

World1 Memorandum In Percent of Total World Current Account Transactions In Percent of World GDP

1Reflects errors, omissions, and asymmetries in balance of payments statistics on current account, as well as the exclusion of data for international organizations and a limited number of countries. See “Classification of Countries” in the introduction to this Statistical Appendix. 2Calculated as the sum of the balances of individual Euro Area countries excluding Latvia. 3In this table, Other Advanced Economies means advanced economies excluding the United States, Euro Area countries, and Japan but including Latvia. 4Georgia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure.

196

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Table A11. Advanced Economies: Balance on Current Account (Percent of GDP)

Advanced Economies United States Euro Area1 Germany France Italy Spain Netherlands Belgium Austria Greece Portugal Finland Ireland Slovak Republic Slovenia Luxembourg Latvia Estonia Cyprus2 Malta Japan United Kingdom Canada Korea Australia Taiwan Province of China Sweden Hong Kong SAR Switzerland Singapore Czech Republic Norway Israel Denmark New Zealand Iceland San Marino Memorandum Major Advanced Economies Euro Area3

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Projections 2015

2019

–1.2 –5.8 0.5

–0.8 –4.9 0.4

–1.2 –4.6 –0.7

–0.1 –2.6 0.3

0.0 –3.0 0.6

–0.1 –2.9 0.8

–0.1 –2.7 2.0

0.4 –2.3 2.9

0.5 –2.2 2.9

0.4 –2.6 3.1

0.4 –2.8 3.0

6.3 –0.6 –1.5 –9.0 9.3 1.9 2.8 –11.4 –10.7 4.2 –3.6 –7.8 –1.8 10.4 –22.6 –15.3 –7.0 –9.7 3.9 –2.8 1.4 1.5 –5.8 7.0 8.7 11.9 14.4 24.1 –2.1 16.4 4.7 3.0 –7.2 –25.6 ...

7.4 –1.0 –1.3 –10.0 6.7 1.9 3.5 –14.6 –10.1 4.3 –5.3 –5.3 –4.2 10.1 –22.4 –15.9 –11.8 –4.0 4.9 –2.2 0.8 2.1 –6.7 8.9 9.3 12.1 8.6 25.6 –4.4 12.5 3.2 1.4 –6.9 –15.7 ...

6.2 –1.7 –2.9 –9.6 4.3 –1.3 4.9 –14.9 –12.6 2.6 –5.6 –6.6 –5.4 5.4 –13.2 –9.2 –15.6 –4.8 3.3 –0.9 0.1 0.3 –4.9 6.9 9.0 13.4 2.1 13.9 –2.1 16.0 1.4 2.9 –7.8 –28.4 ...

5.9 –1.3 –2.0 –4.8 5.2 –0.6 2.7 –11.2 –10.9 1.8 –2.3 –2.6 –0.5 7.3 8.7 2.7 –10.7 –8.3 2.9 –1.4 –2.9 3.9 –4.6 11.4 6.3 8.4 10.5 17.2 –2.5 11.7 3.8 3.4 –2.3 –11.6 ...

6.4 –1.3 –3.5 –4.5 7.4 1.9 3.4 –10.1 –10.6 1.5 1.1 –3.7 –0.1 7.7 2.9 2.8 –9.8 –6.9 3.7 –2.7 –3.5 2.9 –3.5 9.3 6.3 5.4 14.8 25.3 –3.8 11.9 3.1 5.8 –2.3 –8.5 ...

6.8 –1.8 –3.1 –3.8 9.5 –1.1 1.4 –9.9 –7.0 –1.5 1.2 –3.8 0.4 6.6 –2.1 1.8 –3.3 –0.6 2.0 –1.5 –2.8 2.3 –2.8 9.0 6.0 5.2 9.0 23.2 –2.9 13.5 1.3 5.9 –2.9 –5.6 ...

7.4 –2.2 –0.4 –1.1 9.4 –2.0 1.8 –2.4 –2.0 –1.7 4.4 2.2 3.3 6.6 –2.5 –1.8 –6.8 2.1 1.0 –3.7 –3.4 4.3 –4.1 10.7 6.1 2.8 9.6 17.4 –2.4 14.3 0.3 6.0 –4.1 –5.0 ...

7.5 –1.6 0.8 0.7 10.4 –1.7 3.0 0.7 0.5 –0.8 6.6 2.4 6.5 6.7 –0.8 –1.0 –1.5 0.9 0.7 –3.3 –3.2 5.8 –2.9 11.7 5.9 3.1 9.6 18.4 –1.0 10.6 2.5 6.6 –4.2 0.4 ...

7.3 –1.7 1.1 0.8 10.1 –1.3 3.5 0.9 0.8 –0.3 6.4 2.7 6.1 6.7 –1.6 –1.3 0.1 1.4 1.2 –2.7 –2.6 4.4 –2.6 11.7 6.1 3.3 9.9 17.7 –0.5 10.2 1.4 6.3 –4.9 0.8 ...

7.1 –1.0 1.1 1.4 10.1 –1.0 3.5 0.3 1.2 0.2 6.5 2.9 5.8 5.5 –1.9 –1.5 0.3 1.4 1.3 –2.2 –2.5 3.5 –2.8 10.9 6.2 3.9 9.8 17.1 –0.5 9.2 1.7 6.3 –5.4 –0.2 ...

5.7 0.4 –0.4 3.4 9.2 0.3 3.6 1.4 2.6 0.5 6.2 2.5 1.6 5.0 –2.0 0.1 –0.2 1.5 1.5 –0.6 –2.2 3.0 –3.3 9.6 5.8 5.0 9.8 15.0 –0.9 7.8 1.7 6.6 –6.3 2.5 ...

–1.9 –0.1

–1.1 0.1

–1.3 –1.5

–0.6 –0.1

–0.8 0.1

–0.8 0.1

–1.0 1.3

–0.7 2.3

–0.6 2.4

–0.6 2.5

–0.7 2.4

1Calculated

as the sum of the balances of individual Euro Area countries excluding Latvia. balance on the current account for 2013 is a staff estimate at the time of the third review of the program and is subject to revision. 3Corrected for reporting discrepancies in intra-area transactions excluding Latvia. 2The



International Monetary Fund | April 2014

197

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table A12. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Balance on Current Account (Percent of GDP) 2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Projections 2015

2019

7.2 9.3 0.6 –1.8 17.6 –3.9 –15.2 –2.5 –3.1 –11.3 –2.8 15.7 –1.5 9.2 5.7 1.2 –4.4 50.1 –0.6 8.5

3.8 5.5 –1.4 –6.4 27.3 –6.7 –19.8 –8.0 –6.2 –15.2 –8.6 15.5 –3.7 7.3 6.6 0.8 14.6 47.8 –1.9 10.1

5.0 6.3 0.9 –11.8 35.5 –8.2 –22.0 4.7 –15.5 –16.1 –7.6 16.5 –7.1 8.7 5.9 1.4 –2.2 48.9 –5.7 9.3

2.6 4.1 –1.8 –15.8 23.0 –12.6 –10.5 –3.6 –2.5 –6.9 –5.9 –14.7 –1.5 2.2 3.5 2.8 –2.0 40.3 –4.5 4.9

3.4 4.4 0.3 –14.8 28.0 –15.0 –10.2 0.9 –6.4 –7.0 –1.2 –10.6 –2.2 6.2 2.5 0.5 –10.3 45.5 –3.9 4.0

4.3 5.1 1.8 –10.9 26.5 –8.5 –12.7 5.4 –6.5 –11.3 –4.8 2.0 –6.3 5.8 0.9 –1.2 –23.7 43.1 –8.1 1.9

2.6 3.6 –0.7 –11.2 21.8 –2.7 –11.7 0.3 –15.0 –6.0 –2.0 0.0 –8.1 1.2 0.8 0.8 –17.6 46.9 –8.7 2.3

0.7 1.6 –1.8 –8.4 19.7 –9.8 –6.1 0.1 –12.6 –4.8 –1.9 –3.3 –9.2 1.7 1.1 1.8 –22.2 39.0 –8.6 2.1

1.9 2.1 1.0 –7.2 15.0 –10.0 –7.9 1.9 –15.5 –5.9 –2.1 –1.1 ... 2.2 1.2 0.5 –22.6 39.3 –8.4 2.2

1.5 1.6 0.8 –6.8 9.9 –7.8 –7.3 2.0 –14.3 –6.4 –2.3 1.3 ... 1.9 1.4 –0.7 –24.7 37.9 –7.4 2.4

0.9 1.0 0.5 –6.3 4.6 –5.5 –5.5 1.4 –6.8 –6.4 –2.5 3.2 ... 0.8 1.6 –0.9 –6.6 38.8 –5.8 3.0

Fiji India Indonesia Kiribati Lao P.D.R. Malaysia Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia Mongolia

–15.4 –1.0 2.6 –23.6 –9.9 16.1 –23.2 –4.3 –13.7 6.5

–10.4 –1.3 1.6 –19.4 –15.7 15.4 –17.2 –5.4 –9.2 6.3

–15.9 –2.3 0.0 –20.4 –18.5 17.1 –32.3 –3.5 –16.2 –12.9

–4.2 –2.8 2.0 –23.3 –21.0 15.5 –11.1 –17.4 –18.3 –8.9

–4.5 –2.7 0.7 –16.9 –18.2 10.9 –8.9 –28.8 –14.9 –15.0

–5.7 –4.2 0.2 –32.6 –15.2 11.6 –20.0 –9.0 –17.4 –31.5

–1.5 –4.7 –2.8 –29.0 –28.4 6.1 –22.9 –8.1 –12.0 –32.6

–18.5 –2.0 –3.3 –15.7 –29.5 3.8 –20.6 –9.3 –9.6 –27.9

–6.3 –2.4 –3.0 –36.2 –27.3 4.0 –22.7 –20.6 –9.5 –22.1

–7.1 –2.5 –2.7 –30.5 –23.7 4.0 –22.1 –10.8 –9.0 –19.7

–10.1 –2.6 –2.6 –31.0 –17.0 3.7 –20.1 –11.2 –8.0 –15.9

Myanmar Nepal Palau Papua New Guinea Philippines

6.8 2.1 –24.7 –1.7 4.4

–0.7 –0.1 –16.7 3.9 4.8

–4.2 2.7 –16.8 8.5 2.1

–1.3 4.2 –4.7 –15.2 5.6

–1.5 –2.4 –7.2 –21.4 4.5

–2.1 –0.9 –4.1 –23.5 3.2

–4.4 4.8 –5.0 –51.0 2.9

–4.9 3.3 –6.5 –27.9 3.5

–5.3 2.4 –5.5 –3.7 3.2

–5.2 0.8 –5.3 11.0 2.6

–5.4 –1.0 –5.6 4.6 0.5

Samoa Solomon Islands Sri Lanka Thailand Timor-Leste Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Vietnam

–10.2 –9.1 –5.3 1.1 19.2 –5.6 21.1 –6.2 –0.2

–15.5 –15.7 –4.3 6.3 39.7 –5.6 –21.7 –7.3 –9.0

–6.4 –20.5 –9.5 0.8 45.6 –8.1 0.3 –10.8 –11.0

–6.2 –21.4 –0.5 8.3 39.0 –6.7 5.4 –7.9 –6.5

–7.6 –30.8 –2.2 3.1 39.8 –3.7 –4.7 –5.4 –3.8

–4.1 –6.7 –7.8 1.2 40.4 –4.8 –29.0 –8.1 0.2

–9.2 0.2 –6.6 –0.4 43.4 –6.2 32.3 –6.4 5.8

–2.3 –4.2 –4.1 –0.7 34.2 –5.3 37.1 –4.4 6.6

–6.1 –13.0 –3.8 0.2 31.9 –4.2 25.3 –5.6 4.3

–5.6 –12.4 –3.6 0.3 26.7 –3.4 24.2 –5.7 3.5

–4.9 –10.1 –2.9 0.5 23.7 –2.7 24.4 –5.4 –3.3

Emerging and Developing Europe Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Hungary

–6.5 –5.6 –7.9 –17.6 –6.7 –7.4

–8.1 –10.4 –9.1 –25.2 –7.3 –7.3

–8.2 –15.2 –14.1 –23.0 –9.0 –7.4

–3.2 –14.1 –6.6 –8.9 –5.2 –0.2

–4.9 –10.0 –6.2 –1.5 –1.2 0.2

–6.4 –9.6 –9.8 0.1 –0.9 0.5

–4.5 –9.3 –9.7 –0.9 0.0 1.0

–3.9 –9.1 –5.6 2.1 1.2 3.1

–3.6 –10.3 –7.5 –0.4 1.5 2.7

–3.8 –12.4 –7.0 –2.1 1.1 2.2

–4.2 –8.2 –4.6 –3.2 –2.0 –1.5

Kosovo Lithuania FYR Macedonia Montenegro Poland Romania Serbia Turkey

–7.2 –10.6 –0.4 –31.3 –3.8 –10.4 –10.1 –6.0

–10.2 –14.5 –7.1 –39.5 –6.2 –13.4 –17.8 –5.8

–16.0 –13.3 –12.8 –49.8 –6.6 –11.6 –21.7 –5.5

–9.4 3.9 –6.8 –27.9 –4.0 –4.1 –6.6 –2.0

–12.0 0.0 –2.0 –22.9 –5.1 –4.4 –6.8 –6.2

–13.8 –3.7 –2.5 –17.7 –4.9 –4.5 –9.1 –9.7

–7.7 –0.2 –3.0 –18.7 –3.5 –4.4 –10.7 –6.2

–6.8 0.8 –1.8 –15.0 –1.8 –1.1 –5.0 –7.9

–7.7 –0.2 –3.9 –17.9 –2.5 –1.7 –4.8 –6.3

–6.9 –0.6 –5.5 –21.9 –3.0 –2.2 –4.6 –6.0

–7.6 –1.8 –4.3 –16.7 –3.4 –3.3 –7.2 –5.4

Commonwealth of Independent Russia Excluding Russia Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyz Republic Moldova Tajikistan Turkmenistan Ukraine2 Uzbekistan Emerging and Developing Asia Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Darussalam Cambodia China

198

States1

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Table A12. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Balance on Current Account (continued) (Percent of GDP) Projections 2015 2019

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Latin America and the Caribbean Antigua and Barbuda Argentina3 The Bahamas Barbados Belize Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Trinidad and Tobago Uruguay Venezuela

1.5 –25.7 3.4 –17.7 –8.2 –2.1 11.2 1.3 4.6 –1.9 –4.5 –13.0 –3.6 3.7 –4.1 –30.8 –5.0 –13.4 –1.5 –3.7 –10.0 –0.8 –10.4 –3.2 1.6 3.2 –13.6 –29.3 –19.5 8.4 39.6 –2.0 14.4

0.2 –29.9 2.6 –11.5 –5.4 –4.0 11.4 0.1 4.1 –2.9 –6.3 –21.1 –5.3 3.7 –6.1 –29.7 –5.2 –9.5 –1.5 –9.1 –15.3 –1.4 –13.5 –8.0 5.7 1.4 –16.1 –30.1 –28.0 11.1 23.9 –0.9 6.9

–0.9 –26.7 1.8 –10.6 –10.7 –10.6 11.9 –1.7 –3.2 –2.8 –9.3 –28.7 –9.9 2.8 –7.1 –28.0 –3.6 –13.7 –3.1 –15.4 –17.7 –1.8 –18.4 –10.9 1.0 –4.2 –27.3 –28.7 –33.1 9.2 30.5 –5.7 10.2

–0.7 –14.0 2.5 –10.3 –6.8 –4.9 4.3 –1.5 2.0 –2.1 –2.0 –22.7 –5.0 0.5 –1.5 –22.2 0.7 –9.1 –1.9 –3.8 –11.0 –0.9 –8.6 –0.7 3.0 –0.6 –27.3 –11.6 –29.2 0.3 8.5 –1.3 0.7

–1.3 –14.7 0.3 –10.1 –5.8 –2.4 3.9 –2.2 1.6 –3.0 –3.5 –17.4 –8.4 –2.3 –2.7 –22.1 –1.4 –9.6 –1.5 –4.3 –8.7 –0.3 –9.7 –11.4 –0.3 –2.5 –21.5 –16.2 –30.6 6.4 20.3 –1.9 3.0

–1.4 –10.4 –0.6 –15.3 –11.4 –1.1 0.3 –2.1 –1.2 –2.9 –5.3 –14.5 –7.9 –0.3 –4.9 –21.8 –3.4 –13.1 –4.3 –8.0 –13.4 –1.1 –13.2 –15.9 0.5 –1.9 –15.7 –18.8 –29.4 5.8 12.4 –3.0 7.7

–1.9 –14.0 –0.1 –18.4 –10.1 –2.2 7.8 –2.4 –3.4 –3.2 –5.2 –18.9 –6.8 –0.3 –5.4 –19.2 –2.6 –13.3 –5.4 –8.6 –13.0 –1.2 –12.9 –10.6 –1.0 –3.4 –11.9 –12.8 –27.8 0.6 4.9 –5.4 2.9

–2.7 –13.8 –0.9 –19.6 –11.4 –4.2 3.7 –3.6 –3.4 –3.3 –5.0 –17.0 –4.2 –1.5 –6.7 –27.2 –3.0 –17.9 –6.5 –8.8 –10.4 –1.8 –13.2 –11.9 0.9 –4.9 –8.5 –11.8 –28.9 –4.7 10.2 –5.9 2.7

–2.7 –12.3 –0.5 –14.7 –7.8 –4.5 3.7 –3.6 –3.3 –3.3 –5.1 –17.7 –4.5 –2.4 –6.3 –22.6 –2.6 –18.3 –5.8 –7.4 –8.6 –1.9 –12.7 –11.5 –0.9 –4.8 –17.4 –11.4 –30.7 –4.5 10.1 –5.5 2.4

–2.8 –11.4 –0.5 –10.4 –7.3 –4.8 2.4 –3.7 –2.8 –3.2 –5.1 –16.7 –5.2 –3.1 –5.9 –21.0 –2.3 –19.9 –5.7 –6.0 –7.4 –2.0 –12.2 –11.2 –1.6 –4.4 –17.1 –11.4 –24.4 –6.7 8.9 –5.2 1.8

–2.8 –10.0 –0.5 –6.3 –6.3 –6.3 1.1 –3.5 –2.5 –2.8 –5.3 –15.4 –3.7 –6.0 –4.9 –17.4 –2.1 –12.0 –5.2 –5.5 –5.1 –1.6 –11.1 –7.1 –1.1 –3.5 –15.1 –12.1 –18.1 2.8 6.2 –3.7 –2.8

Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan Afghanistan Algeria Bahrain Djibouti Egypt Iran Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Mauritania Morocco Oman Pakistan Qatar Saudi Arabia Sudan4 Syria5 Tunisia United Arab Emirates Yemen

15.5 –1.1 24.7 11.8 –11.5 1.6 8.5 12.9 –11.5 44.6 –7.3 51.1 –1.3 2.2 15.4 –3.6 15.5 26.3 –8.8 1.4 –1.8 16.3 1.1

12.2 6.0 22.7 13.4 –21.4 2.1 10.6 7.7 –16.8 36.8 –7.2 44.1 –17.2 –0.1 5.9 –4.5 14.4 22.5 –6.0 –0.2 –2.4 6.9 –7.0

12.8 5.2 20.1 8.8 –24.3 0.5 6.5 12.8 –9.3 40.9 –11.1 42.5 –14.9 –5.2 8.3 –8.1 23.1 25.5 –1.6 –1.3 –3.8 7.1 –4.6

1.7 1.9 0.3 2.4 –9.3 –2.3 2.6 –8.0 –3.3 26.7 –12.6 14.9 –16.2 –5.4 –1.3 –5.5 6.5 4.9 –9.6 –2.9 –2.8 3.1 –10.1

6.5 3.1 7.5 3.0 –5.4 –2.0 6.5 3.0 –5.3 30.8 –13.3 19.5 –9.4 –4.1 10.0 –2.2 19.0 12.7 –2.1 –2.8 –4.7 2.5 –3.4

13.1 3.1 9.9 11.2 –14.1 –2.6 11.0 12.0 –12.0 41.8 –15.7 9.1 –7.5 –8.0 15.3 0.1 30.3 23.7 –0.4 ... –7.4 14.6 –4.0

12.6 3.9 6.0 7.3 –12.3 –3.9 6.6 6.7 –18.1 43.2 –15.7 35.4 –32.5 –9.7 11.6 –2.1 32.4 22.4 –10.4 ... –8.2 17.3 –1.3

9.5 2.8 0.4 12.0 –13.2 –2.1 8.1 0.0 –11.1 38.8 –16.2 –2.8 –25.8 –7.4 9.7 –1.0 29.2 17.4 –10.6 ... –8.4 14.9 –2.7

8.0 3.3 0.5 10.4 –16.3 –1.3 5.2 1.0 –12.9 37.4 –15.8 –27.7 –26.3 –6.6 7.8 –0.9 25.4 15.8 –8.2 ... –6.7 13.3 –1.5

6.1 –0.3 –1.3 9.4 –17.5 –4.6 2.8 1.2 –9.3 34.2 –13.9 –16.7 –38.0 –5.8 2.5 –1.0 20.5 13.3 –7.1 ... –5.7 12.4 –2.7

2.6 –3.6 –3.3 4.5 –16.5 –6.1 0.4 4.0 –6.1 25.1 –12.1 –15.4 –14.8 –4.2 –2.1 –0.8 6.5 9.9 –3.1 ... –3.7 6.9 –4.4



International Monetary Fund | April 2014

199

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table A12. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Balance on Current Account (concluded) (Percent of GDP)

Sub-Saharan Africa Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cabo Verde Cameroon Central African Republic Chad Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of Congo Côte d’Ivoire Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone South Africa South Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe6

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

4.1 25.6 –4.9 19.2 –9.5 –21.5 –4.8 1.6 –3.0 4.6 –6.0 –2.3 2.8 2.8 16.9 –3.6 –9.2 14.1 –6.9 –8.2 –4.6 –5.6 –2.3 26.3 –18.2 –3.8 –11.3 –3.7 –9.1 –8.6 13.8 –8.6 25.3 –4.3 –34.5 –9.2 –16.1 –4.2 –5.3 ... –6.7 –9.6 –8.4 –4.2 –0.4 –6.5

1.4 19.9 –10.2 15.1 –8.3 –5.4 –12.9 1.4 –6.2 8.2 –5.8 –0.7 –6.5 –0.2 15.9 –6.1 –4.5 15.3 –8.3 –8.7 –11.6 –3.4 –4.0 24.6 –12.1 –8.9 1.0 –6.3 –5.4 –10.9 9.1 –8.2 16.5 –2.2 –31.9 –11.6 –18.8 –4.2 –7.0 ... –2.1 –11.0 –8.7 –5.5 –6.5 –5.4

–0.2 10.3 –8.1 0.4 –11.5 –1.0 –13.7 –1.2 –10.0 3.7 –12.1 –10.6 –0.5 2.3 12.2 –5.5 –5.7 23.4 –12.3 –11.9 –10.6 –4.9 –6.5 23.4 –54.8 –17.8 –9.7 –12.2 –10.1 –12.9 2.8 –12.9 14.0 –4.9 –35.0 –14.1 –27.2 –8.9 –7.2 ... –7.7 –10.2 –6.8 –8.7 –7.1 –16.7

–3.2 –9.9 –8.9 –10.2 –4.7 1.7 –14.6 –3.3 –9.2 –9.2 –7.8 –7.8 –6.0 7.6 –7.5 –7.6 –5.1 7.5 –12.3 –5.4 –8.6 –6.6 –5.5 8.9 –28.5 –19.5 –4.8 –7.3 –7.4 –12.2 –1.1 –24.4 8.2 –7.3 –23.7 –6.7 –22.4 –6.3 –4.0 ... –13.1 –9.8 –6.6 –7.3 4.6 –39.6

–1.0 8.1 –8.7 –5.4 –2.2 –12.2 –12.4 –3.0 –10.2 –9.0 –5.7 –4.9 3.8 2.5 –9.6 –5.6 –4.1 8.7 –16.0 –8.6 –11.5 –8.6 –7.3 –4.7 –37.4 –8.8 –1.3 –12.6 –10.3 –11.7 –1.8 –19.8 5.8 –5.4 –23.0 –4.4 –22.3 –19.7 –2.0 ... –10.0 –9.3 –6.3 –11.1 7.4 –20.3

–1.0 12.6 –7.8 –0.2 –1.2 –13.6 –16.3 –2.9 –7.6 –5.6 –9.4 –5.9 5.8 12.9 –0.6 0.6 –0.7 13.2 –15.6 –9.1 –20.5 –1.2 –11.2 –8.6 –34.0 –5.6 –5.8 –6.0 –13.3 –24.4 –3.5 –22.3 3.5 –7.2 –26.6 –7.9 –26.6 –44.9 –2.3 18.4 –8.6 –14.5 –9.1 –12.5 3.7 –28.8

–2.7 9.2 –7.9 –4.9 –0.8 –17.3 –11.2 –4.0 –5.6 –8.3 –3.8 –8.0 –1.3 –1.3 –4.6 2.3 –6.5 14.0 –17.0 –12.2 –33.0 –6.5 –10.4 –4.2 –31.9 –6.2 –4.0 –3.3 –7.9 –45.6 –2.6 –15.4 7.7 –11.4 –20.5 –10.3 –24.8 –36.7 –5.2 –27.7 4.1 –15.9 –11.8 –10.5 3.8 –20.1

–3.6 5.0 –14.5 –0.4 –7.2 –23.2 –1.9 –4.4 –10.4 –8.1 –6.1 –9.9 –1.2 –1.2 –12.0 0.3 –6.1 10.6 –17.0 –13.2 –20.1 –8.7 –8.3 –1.3 –31.4 –4.6 –3.4 –3.3 –9.1 –41.9 –4.6 –17.2 4.7 –7.3 –20.3 –9.3 –17.7 –14.2 –5.8 2.2 5.5 –14.3 –12.0 –11.7 1.2 –19.7

–3.6 2.2 –9.2 0.4 –7.3 –21.5 –10.0 –3.5 –13.9 –6.0 –11.5 –7.9 2.0 –2.2 –10.2 0.2 –5.4 6.9 –14.3 –10.6 –18.0 –4.6 –9.6 –0.8 –48.3 –1.9 –2.2 –6.7 –8.7 –42.8 –5.1 –21.8 4.9 –11.5 –15.3 –7.5 –14.5 –9.4 –5.4 –2.3 1.9 –13.9 –10.9 –12.6 0.9 –18.3

1Georgia,

Projections 2015 2019 –3.9 –0.4 –7.2 0.2 –8.4 –21.3 –10.1 –3.6 –13.4 –6.4 –11.1 –7.2 0.1 –2.0 –10.9 –1.2 –6.0 4.5 –14.9 –7.8 –48.1 –4.4 –7.8 –5.4 –30.7 –2.2 –2.2 –5.7 –8.4 –43.2 –6.9 –17.7 4.0 –10.3 –13.9 –6.6 –13.2 –7.6 –5.3 2.2 –1.2 –12.9 –9.8 –12.1 1.1 –17.1

–3.6 –1.0 –6.8 –3.7 –7.8 –16.8 –6.2 –4.2 –11.9 –6.2 –8.6 –6.2 –0.2 –4.5 –11.1 –2.9 –4.4 0.5 –14.9 –6.7 –23.3 –1.7 –5.6 –11.5 –20.7 –0.5 –0.9 –5.6 –5.6 –37.1 5.6 –11.7 2.5 –6.5 –9.6 –6.2 –9.0 –7.1 –4.5 –2.3 –3.5 –10.7 –6.9 –10.2 1.9 –14.3

which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure. for Ukraine are excluded due to the ongoing crisis. 3Calculations are based on Argentina’s official GDP data. See note 5 to Table A4. 4Data for 2011 exclude South Sudan after July 9. Data for 2012 and onward pertain to the current Sudan. 5Data for Syria are excluded for 2011 onward due to the uncertain political situation. 6The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. IMF staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates. 2Projections

200

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Table A13. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Net Financial Flows1 (Billions of U.S. dollars) Average 2003–05 Emerging Market and Developing Economies Private Financial Flows, Net Private Direct Investment, Net Private Portfolio Flows, Net Other Private Financial Flows, Net Official Financial Flows, Net2 Change in Reserves3 Memorandum Current Account4

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Projections 2014 2015

253.1 208.6 44.5 0.0 –76.1 –392.6

321.3 301.6 –37.2 56.9 –177.2 –721.8

714.5 442.9 108.2 163.4 –58.8 –1,186.6

182.6 468.8 –81.6 –204.5 –79.2 –654.9

263.8 332.2 57.6 –126.0 166.7 –496.1

557.8 409.9 193.4 –45.5 98.1 –816.3

479.6 520.1 86.8 –127.4 –10.6 –720.9

228.7 471.4 234.8 –477.6 10.3 –404.2

419.9 475.6 186.5 –242.1 –45.3 –509.3

362.1 439.6 162.9 –240.3 –76.2 –550.0

385.2 447.4 164.6 –226.7 –15.0 –525.2

255.2

632.1

604.4

674.4

248.8

325.3

414.0

368.4

210.0

239.1

175.0

18.6 9.9 3.5 5.1 –13.3 –54.9

51.2 21.1 4.8 25.3 –25.1 –127.5

129.3 28.0 18.8 82.5 –5.7 –167.7

–98.0 49.7 –31.3 –116.3 –19.0 26.7

–62.7 15.7 –8.8 –69.6 41.6 –7.2

–25.4 9.7 8.7 –43.8 1.3 –52.1

–63.3 13.5 –27.5 –49.2 –17.9 –23.9

–41.4 17.1 –4.9 –53.7 1.9 –29.9

–43.7 11.8 5.1 –60.6 –2.2 31.7

–60.5 13.5 5.0 –79.0 –6.6 17.6

–29.1 19.4 9.7 –58.1 –7.0 –2.4

Emerging and Developing Asia Private Financial Flows, Net Private Direct Investment, Net Private Portfolio Flows, Net Other Private Financial Flows, Net Official Flows, Net2 Change in Reserves3

119.3 82.6 24.8 11.9 –8.3 –228.3

90.1 127.2 –53.4 16.3 7.1 –368.3

204.4 174.2 52.2 –21.9 7.2 –621.2

35.7 153.8 –0.4 –117.6 –4.1 –479.6

208.2 116.9 48.5 42.8 31.8 –461.4

389.4 222.8 82.0 84.6 31.4 –570.2

370.8 288.8 56.7 25.2 10.8 –437.5

116.3 238.4 109.0 –231.1 19.0 –131.8

314.8 226.4 64.8 23.6 17.6 –441.0

289.4 199.6 88.9 0.9 29.5 –490.9

220.6 171.5 79.5 –30.3 26.2 –450.8

Emerging and Developing Europe Private Financial Flows, Net Private Direct Investment, Net Private Portfolio Flows, Net Other Private Financial Flows, Net Official Flows, Net2 Change in Reserves3

62.4 27.0 13.8 21.5 5.2 –22.1

110.6 62.5 0.7 47.3 4.5 –28.8

177.0 72.5 –3.3 107.8 –6.4 –34.6

153.7 66.8 –10.8 97.7 19.5 –8.3

37.2 31.0 8.5 –2.3 45.4 –32.7

84.6 24.8 27.2 32.7 33.7 –35.8

96.5 38.4 34.3 23.8 22.1 –13.8

63.9 23.9 46.3 –6.4 16.2 –22.7

69.3 21.1 28.0 20.1 –9.8 –3.8

52.9 25.3 24.8 2.8 –1.2 –2.4

60.3 30.8 23.4 6.1 1.0 –4.2

Latin America and the Caribbean Private Financial Flows, Net Private Direct Investment, Net Private Portfolio Flows, Net Other Private Financial Flows, Net Official Flows, Net2 Change in Reserves3

22.9 49.6 –8.3 –18.4 –8.7 –1.0

46.9 33.8 8.2 4.9 –44.9 –10.0

116.5 94.9 45.8 –24.2 –0.9 –98.1

72.5 100.9 –13.2 –15.2 3.5 10.3

34.3 70.0 29.2 –64.8 44.7 –26.3

117.7 80.5 65.7 –28.5 48.1 –64.9

176.3 126.8 54.1 –4.6 24.7 –81.1

123.4 129.0 34.1 –39.7 62.7 –29.3

137.9 154.7 53.0 –69.8 47.9 9.0

128.6 142.5 18.4 –32.3 32.6 6.8

147.0 152.4 22.0 –27.4 38.0 4.3

Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan Private Financial Flows, Net Private Direct Investment, Net Private Portfolio Flows, Net Other Private Financial Flows, Net Official Flows, Net2 Change in Reserves3

19.0 25.1 10.7 –16.8 –50.0 –72.3

15.5 48.5 –3.5 –29.5 –84.9 –156.3

72.5 51.1 –5.5 26.9 –61.6 –236.6

4.2 61.5 1.9 –59.3 –89.7 –187.0

30.6 66.1 –16.8 –18.7 –16.1 23.4

9.6 49.9 10.6 –51.0 –49.7 –92.7

–101.3 20.3 –22.3 –99.4 –79.1 –141.1

–48.0 31.1 40.2 –119.3 –124.5 –171.2

–72.9 26.1 36.2 –135.1 –125.7 –99.3

–75.0 20.5 24.6 –120.1 –158.6 –75.5

–57.5 26.0 29.5 –113.0 –97.8 –62.9

10.9 14.3 0.0 –3.4 –1.1 –13.9

7.0 8.5 6.0 –7.4 –33.9 –30.9

14.7 22.1 0.2 –7.6 8.6 –28.2

14.5 36.2 –27.8 6.1 10.6 –16.9

16.1 32.5 –3.0 –13.4 19.4 8.1

–18.1 22.3 –0.9 –39.5 33.1 –0.7

0.6 32.2 –8.4 –23.2 28.8 –23.6

14.6 31.9 10.1 –27.4 35.0 –19.3

14.5 35.5 –0.7 –20.3 26.9 –5.9

26.6 38.2 1.2 –12.8 28.1 –5.7

43.9 47.3 0.6 –4.0 24.6 –9.3

19.3

19.8

120.0

–189.3

–98.9

–95.6

–227.7

–158.0

–217.5

–210.2

–149.0

233.8

301.5

594.5

371.9

362.7

653.5

707.3

386.7

637.4

572.4

534.2

Commonwealth of Independent States5 Private Financial Flows, Net Private Direct Investment, Net Private Portfolio Flows, Net Other Private Financial Flows, Net Official Flows, Net2 Change in Reserves3

Sub-Saharan Africa Private Financial Flows, Net Private Direct Investment, Net Private Portfolio Flows, Net Other Private Financial Flows, Net Official Flows, Net2 Change in Reserves3 Memorandum Fuel Exporting Countries Private Financial Flows, Net Other Countries Private Financial Flows, Net 1Net

financial flows comprise net direct investment, net portfolio investment, other net official and private financial flows, and changes in reserves. 2Excludes grants and includes transactions in external assets and liabilities of official agencies. 3A minus sign indicates an increase. 4The sum of the current account balance, net private financial flows, net official flows, and the change in reserves equals, with the opposite sign, the sum of the capital account and errors and omissions. 5Georgia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014

201

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table A14. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Private Financial Flows1 (Billions of U.S. dollars) Average 2003–05

Projections 2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Emerging Market and Developing Economies Private Financial Flows, Net Assets Liabilities

253.1 –226.3 478.1

321.3 –618.5 940.4

714.5 –821.6 1,536.9

182.6 –579.0 768.6

263.8 –302.6 567.4

557.8 –645.5 1,200.9

479.6 –709.8 1,189.4

228.7 –805.0 1,029.0

419.9 –665.1 1,078.7

362.1 –669.7 1,029.7

385.2 –741.6 1,124.5

Commonwealth of Independent States2 Private Financial Flows, Net Assets Liabilities

18.6 –52.5 71.0

51.2 –100.4 151.6

129.3 –161.4 290.7

–98.0 –264.9 167.0

–62.7 –74.9 12.2

–25.4 –104.9 79.3

–63.3 –164.7 101.3

–41.4 –161.1 119.6

–43.7 –164.6 120.8

–60.5 –173.0 112.6

–29.1 –168.8 139.8

Emerging and Developing Asia Private Financial Flows, Net Assets Liabilities

119.3 –54.7 172.2

90.1 –219.3 304.8

204.4 –260.4 459.6

35.7 –169.3 209.7

208.2 –96.6 301.7

389.4 –256.5 640.4

370.8 –296.1 661.6

116.3 –397.6 505.7

314.8 –257.0 565.1

289.4 –290.3 576.6

220.6 –353.5 572.2

Emerging and Developing Europe Private Financial Flows, Net Assets Liabilities

62.4 –18.1 80.4

110.6 –54.6 164.8

177.0 –39.7 215.6

153.7 –31.0 183.7

37.2 –8.9 46.6

84.6 –8.0 92.6

96.5 12.4 84.2

63.9 –2.3 66.3

69.3 13.0 56.3

52.9 –1.3 54.5

60.3 –10.3 71.0

Latin America and the Caribbean Private Financial Flows, Net Assets Liabilities

22.9 –43.1 66.6

46.9 –92.5 144.8

116.5 –109.7 233.4

72.5 –81.2 157.3

34.3 –99.8 137.3

117.7 –167.4 288.4

176.3 –115.3 297.6

123.4 –140.1 266.8

137.9 –122.1 261.4

128.6 –77.8 207.5

147.0 –76.8 225.6

Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan Private Financial Flows, Net Assets Liabilities

19.0 –45.1 64.1

15.5 –118.7 134.1

72.5 –216.3 288.7

4.2 –14.4 18.6

30.6 –9.5 40.4

9.6 –81.6 91.3

–101.3 –118.7 17.5

–48.0 –83.3 35.9

–72.9 –113.1 40.5

–75.0 –115.0 40.8

–57.5 –120.7 63.1

Sub-Saharan Africa Private Financial Flows, Net Assets Liabilities

10.9 –12.8 23.8

7.0 –32.9 40.2

14.7 –34.0 48.9

14.5 –18.3 32.3

16.1 –13.0 29.2

–18.1 –27.2 8.9

0.6 –27.3 27.1

14.6 –20.6 34.8

14.5 –21.3 34.7

26.6 –12.4 37.7

43.9 –11.4 52.7

1Private

financial flows comprise direct investment, portfolio investment, and other long- and short-term investment flows. which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure.

2Georgia,

202

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Table A15. Summary of Sources and Uses of World Savings (Percent of GDP) Projections Averages 1992–99 2000–07

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Average 2016–19

World Savings Investment

22.7 23.3

23.1 23.1

24.7 24.5

22.7 22.4

23.9 23.6

24.7 24.1

24.8 24.4

25.0 24.5

25.5 24.8

25.6 25.1

26.2 25.9

Advanced Economies Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance

22.5 22.8 –0.3 –0.5 –0.3 0.5

21.3 22.1 –0.8 –0.6 0.5 –0.6

20.6 22.0 –1.4 –0.8 0.3 –0.8

18.3 18.7 –0.5 –0.8 0.4 0.1

19.2 19.5 –0.4 –0.9 0.6 0.0

19.7 19.9 –0.1 –0.8 1.1 –0.2

19.6 19.9 –0.2 –0.8 0.9 –0.2

19.9 19.7 0.3 –0.9 0.9 0.3

20.4 20.0 0.4 –0.9 0.9 0.5

20.6 20.3 0.3 –0.9 0.8 0.6

21.3 21.0 0.3 –0.9 0.7 0.6

19.1 21.6 –2.5 –0.5 –0.5 –1.4

18.4 22.5 –4.1 –0.7 1.0 –4.5

15.5 20.8 –5.3 –0.9 0.3 –4.8

14.4 17.5 –3.1 –0.8 0.4 –2.7

15.1 18.4 –3.3 –0.9 0.9 –3.3

15.8 18.4 –2.6 –0.9 1.8 –3.6

16.3 19.0 –2.7 –0.8 1.4 –3.3

17.2 19.5 –2.3 –0.8 1.4 –2.8

17.6 19.9 –2.2 –0.8 1.2 –2.6

17.9 20.5 –2.6 –0.8 1.1 –2.7

18.9 21.7 –2.8 –0.8 0.8 –2.9

21.4 21.3 0.1 –0.6 –0.5 1.5

21.7 21.3 0.5 –0.9 –0.3 1.6

21.5 22.2 –0.7 –1.1 –0.6 1.0

19.1 18.8 0.3 –1.2 –0.1 1.5

19.8 19.2 0.6 –1.2 0.3 1.6

20.5 19.6 0.8 –1.2 0.4 1.6

20.5 18.4 2.1 –1.2 0.4 2.8

20.6 17.7 2.9 –1.3 0.5 3.6

21.2 18.1 3.0 –1.3 0.5 3.8

21.5 18.3 3.2 –1.3 0.4 4.1

22.0 18.8 3.1 –1.3 0.3 4.2

21.1 22.1 –1.0 –1.5 0.0 0.5

22.1 18.9 3.2 –1.3 0.4 4.1

25.5 19.3 6.2 –1.3 1.3 6.2

22.3 16.4 5.9 –1.4 2.5 4.8

23.7 17.3 6.4 –1.5 2.2 5.7

25.1 18.3 6.8 –1.3 2.7 5.4

24.7 17.3 7.4 –1.4 2.9 6.0

24.3 16.7 7.5 –1.5 2.8 6.2

24.8 17.4 7.3 –1.5 2.8 6.1

24.7 17.6 7.1 –1.5 2.8 5.8

23.8 17.6 6.2 –1.5 2.8 4.9

19.3 17.8 1.5 –0.7 0.0 2.2

20.3 19.8 0.5 –1.1 1.3 0.3

20.2 21.9 –1.7 –1.3 1.7 –2.2

17.6 18.9 –1.3 –1.8 1.7 –1.3

18.0 19.3 –1.3 –1.6 2.0 –1.7

19.0 20.8 –1.8 –1.8 2.3 –2.3

17.6 19.8 –2.2 –1.8 1.5 –1.9

17.7 19.4 –1.6 –2.0 1.7 –1.4

18.4 19.7 –1.3 –2.0 2.0 –1.4

19.1 19.8 –0.7 –2.0 2.0 –0.7

20.4 20.1 0.3 –2.0 2.0 0.2

21.2 20.0 1.2 –0.5 –1.4 3.1

20.6 21.2 –0.6 –0.7 –0.4 0.4

18.8 21.6 –2.9 –0.9 –1.2 –0.7

16.9 18.9 –2.0 –0.8 –0.7 –0.5

16.5 20.1 –3.5 –1.0 –0.5 –1.9

16.7 19.8 –3.1 –1.0 –0.6 –1.5

17.6 18.0 –0.4 –1.0 –0.5 1.1

17.8 17.1 0.8 –1.0 –0.7 2.5

19.0 17.9 1.1 –1.1 –0.7 2.9

19.2 18.1 1.1 –1.2 –0.8 3.2

19.5 19.3 0.2 –1.2 –1.2 2.6

30.4 27.9 2.4 –0.2 1.0 1.6

26.4 23.1 3.3 –0.2 2.0 1.5

26.3 23.0 3.3 –0.3 3.2 0.4

22.6 19.7 2.9 –0.2 2.7 0.5

23.5 19.8 3.7 –0.2 2.6 1.4

22.2 20.2 2.0 –0.2 3.0 –0.7

21.8 20.8 1.0 –0.2 3.0 –1.8

21.7 21.0 0.7 –0.2 3.5 –2.6

22.8 21.6 1.2 –0.2 3.6 –2.2

22.8 21.5 1.3 –0.2 3.4 –1.9

23.2 21.8 1.4 –0.2 3.4 –1.9

16.2 17.2 –1.0 –0.8 –0.1 –0.1

15.3 17.5 –2.2 –0.8 1.1 –2.5

16.1 17.1 –0.9 –0.9 2.2 –2.2

12.7 14.1 –1.4 –1.1 1.3 –1.6

12.3 15.0 –2.7 –1.4 0.9 –2.2

13.5 14.9 –1.5 –1.4 1.5 –1.5

10.9 14.7 –3.7 –1.5 –0.1 –2.1

11.0 14.4 –3.3 –1.5 –0.3 –1.6

12.2 14.9 –2.7 –1.4 –0.1 –1.3

13.1 15.3 –2.2 –1.4 0.2 –1.1

15.4 16.5 –1.1 –1.4 0.8 –0.5

United States Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance Euro Area1 Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers2 Factor Income2 Resource Balance2 Germany Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance France Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance Italy Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance Japan Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance United Kingdom Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance



International Monetary Fund | April 2014

203

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table A15. Summary of Sources and Uses of World Savings (continued) (Percent of GDP) Projections Averages 1992–99 2000–07 Canada Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance Emerging Market and Developing Economies Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance Memorandum Acquisition of Foreign Assets Change in Reserves

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Average 2016–19

17.8 19.8 –2.0 –0.1 –3.9 1.9

23.4 21.7 1.7 0.0 –2.3 4.1

24.1 24.0 0.1 0.0 –1.6 1.7

18.9 21.8 –2.9 –0.2 –1.3 –1.5

19.8 23.3 –3.5 –0.2 –1.4 –1.9

21.1 23.8 –2.8 –0.2 –1.3 –1.2

21.2 24.7 –3.4 –0.2 –1.2 –2.0

21.1 24.4 –3.2 –0.2 –1.4 –1.7

21.6 24.3 –2.6 –0.2 –1.3 –1.2

21.8 24.3 –2.5 –0.2 –1.4 –1.0

22.3 24.6 –2.3 –0.2 –1.7 –0.5

23.7 25.3 –1.6 0.8 –1.6 –0.8

28.8 26.2 2.7 1.5 –1.8 3.0

33.7 30.0 3.6 1.4 –1.4 3.6

32.2 30.7 1.6 1.3 –1.4 1.6

32.9 31.4 1.6 1.2 –1.7 2.1

33.4 31.7 1.7 1.1 –1.9 2.6

33.4 32.0 1.4 0.9 –1.8 2.3

32.9 32.2 0.8 0.8 –1.8 1.8

33.4 32.6 0.9 0.9 –1.7 1.7

33.3 32.8 0.6 0.8 –1.6 1.4

33.4 33.1 0.4 0.8 –1.4 1.0

2.2 0.9

7.0 3.7

6.4 3.4

4.6 2.7

6.9 3.7

5.9 2.8

4.9 1.5

4.2 1.8

3.9 1.9

3.7 1.7

3.2 1.4

25.5 25.1 0.5 0.7 –2.4 2.1

29.7 22.0 7.6 0.4 –2.7 9.9

30.0 25.2 4.9 0.2 –3.3 8.1

22.0 19.2 2.8 0.2 –3.6 6.0

26.1 22.5 3.6 0.2 –3.6 6.9

28.5 24.1 4.4 0.2 –3.9 8.1

25.9 23.3 2.6 0.1 –3.9 6.4

24.7 23.9 0.8 0.0 –3.9 4.7

26.6 24.7 2.0 0.0 –3.7 5.6

26.6 25.2 1.5 0.2 –3.4 4.8

26.5 25.6 1.0 0.3 –2.4 3.1

2.7 0.2

12.3 6.6

10.0 –1.2

1.6 0.4

5.8 2.6

5.9 1.0

4.9 1.1

2.6 –1.1

3.4 –0.7

4.0 0.1

3.7 0.2

32.7 33.4 –0.6 1.0 –1.4 –0.2

37.7 34.3 3.3 1.8 –1.2 2.8

44.6 38.6 5.9 1.8 –0.2 4.3

45.3 41.8 3.5 1.6 –0.6 2.5

44.7 42.1 2.5 1.5 –0.9 2.0

43.3 42.3 0.9 1.3 –1.2 0.8

43.8 43.0 0.8 1.1 –1.1 0.8

43.8 42.7 1.0 0.9 –1.1 1.2

43.9 42.7 1.2 0.9 –1.1 1.3

43.8 42.4 1.3 0.9 –1.1 1.6

43.4 42.0 1.4 0.8 –1.2 1.8

3.8 1.8

7.5 5.6

7.5 6.6

6.9 5.9

8.7 6.0

6.1 3.9

4.4 1.1

4.8 3.3

4.7 3.4

4.4 2.9

3.8 2.3

19.3 21.6 –2.3 1.8 –1.1 –3.1

16.6 21.4 –4.7 1.9 –1.9 –4.8

16.7 24.9 –8.1 1.4 –2.4 –7.3

15.7 18.9 –3.2 1.6 –2.5 –2.5

15.7 20.6 –4.9 1.5 –2.5 –4.0

16.5 22.8 –6.4 1.6 –2.8 –5.2

16.2 20.6 –4.5 1.5 –2.7 –3.4

16.4 20.3 –3.9 1.5 –2.8 –2.8

16.5 20.0 –3.5 1.6 –2.9 –2.3

16.5 20.2 –3.7 1.6 –3.0 –2.4

16.4 20.4 –4.0 1.4 –3.2 –2.3

1.3 1.2

3.5 1.7

2.1 0.4

2.1 2.1

2.7 2.1

–0.4 0.7

0.6 1.3

0.2 0.2

–0.3 0.1

0.1 0.2

–0.1 0.3

Regional Groups Commonwealth of Independent States3 Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance Memorandum Acquisition of Foreign Assets Change in Reserves Emerging and Developing Asia Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance Memorandum Acquisition of Foreign Assets Change in Reserves Emerging and Developing Europe Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance Memorandum Acquisition of Foreign Assets Change in Reserves

204

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Table A15. Summary of Sources and Uses of World Savings (continued) (Percent of GDP) Projections Averages 1992–99 2000–07 Latin America and the Caribbean Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Average 2016–19

18.4 21.5 –3.2 0.9 –2.7 –1.3

20.0 20.3 –0.3 1.7 –3.1 1.1

22.0 23.1 –1.1 1.6 –2.8 0.1

19.7 20.4 –0.7 1.4 –2.6 0.4

20.0 21.4 –1.4 1.2 –2.6 0.0

20.0 21.7 –1.7 1.1 –2.9 0.1

19.2 21.3 –2.1 1.1 –2.7 –0.5

18.5 21.3 –2.8 1.1 –2.8 –1.1

18.3 21.1 –2.8 1.2 –2.8 –1.2

18.3 21.2 –2.9 1.1 –2.8 –1.3

18.8 21.7 –2.9 1.1 –2.7 –1.3

Memorandum Acquisition of Foreign Assets Change in Reserves

1.4 0.2

3.1 0.1

2.2 –0.2

3.5 0.6

5.0 1.3

4.1 1.4

3.3 0.5

2.3 –0.2

1.0 –0.1

1.1 –0.1

1.0 0.0

Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance

23.2 22.6 0.5 –1.0 2.4 –0.8

33.9 23.2 11.0 0.1 1.1 9.8

42.2 28.0 14.2 0.0 1.5 12.9

32.6 29.8 3.6 –0.5 1.0 2.6

36.1 28.6 8.0 –0.6 0.5 7.8

40.4 26.4 14.5 –0.6 0.6 14.4

38.8 25.3 14.2 –0.6 0.5 13.8

35.7 25.4 11.3 –0.9 0.5 10.9

34.7 26.0 9.7 –0.6 0.7 9.0

32.8 26.0 7.5 –1.0 1.2 7.0

31.2 26.9 4.8 –1.0 2.5 3.3

Memorandum Acquisition of Foreign Assets Change in Reserves

1.2 1.1

13.4 5.5

11.6 7.2

3.6 –1.0

9.0 3.4

13.0 4.4

13.0 5.1

10.1 2.9

8.8 2.1

7.8 1.7

6.0 1.2

13.7 17.3 –3.6 1.8 –4.3 –0.9

19.4 19.9 –0.5 2.9 –5.0 1.5

22.5 22.3 0.1 4.5 –5.4 0.9

19.8 22.9 –3.1 4.6 –3.9 –3.8

21.1 22.3 –1.1 4.1 –4.6 –0.7

20.7 21.5 –0.8 3.8 –4.7 0.4

20.1 22.7 –2.6 3.7 –5.0 –1.4

19.5 23.0 –3.6 3.9 –4.9 –2.6

19.6 23.2 –3.5 3.9 –4.5 –2.9

19.2 23.2 –3.9 3.6 –4.2 –3.3

19.1 22.9 –3.8 3.4 –3.7 –3.5

1.5 0.6

3.9 2.1

4.1 1.8

2.6 –0.9

3.1 0.1

3.2 1.9

2.4 1.5

0.6 0.4

1.8 0.4

2.0 0.6

1.9 0.6

Fuel Exporters Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance

24.6 23.5 1.2 –2.1 0.7 2.7

34.9 23.3 11.7 –1.2 –1.1 14.0

39.5 26.1 13.4 –0.7 –1.5 15.6

30.5 26.0 4.9 –1.0 –1.4 6.9

34.0 26.2 8.0 –1.1 –1.9 10.7

37.6 25.5 12.2 –1.0 –2.1 15.4

35.9 25.0 11.1 –1.2 –2.3 14.3

33.2 25.4 8.3 –1.4 –2.3 11.6

32.7 25.6 7.5 –1.4 –1.9 10.5

31.6 25.8 6.2 –1.4 –1.5 8.8

30.1 26.2 4.1 –1.4 0.0 5.5

Memorandum Acquisition of Foreign Assets Change in Reserves

1.9 –0.5

14.2 4.7

12.5 2.5

3.0 –2.1

7.9 1.9

11.3 2.9

10.8 3.7

7.7 1.0

7.2 0.5

6.8 0.6

5.3 0.3

Nonfuel Exporters Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance

23.5 25.7 –2.2 1.4 –2.0 –1.6

27.3 26.9 0.5 2.1 –2.0 0.3

31.9 31.2 0.6 2.1 –1.4 –0.1

32.6 31.8 0.8 2.0 –1.5 0.2

32.7 32.6 0.0 1.8 –1.7 –0.1

32.2 33.3 –1.1 1.6 –1.8 –0.9

32.7 33.8 –1.1 1.5 –1.6 –1.0

32.8 33.9 –1.1 1.4 –1.7 –0.8

33.6 34.4 –0.7 1.5 –1.7 –0.6

33.8 34.5 –0.7 1.4 –1.7 –0.4

34.1 34.6 –0.5 1.3 –1.7 –0.1

2.2 1.2

5.1 3.4

4.5 3.7

5.1 4.0

6.7 4.2

4.4 2.8

3.3 0.9

3.2 2.0

3.0 2.2

3.0 1.9

2.7 1.6

Sub-Saharan Africa Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance Memorandum Acquisition of Foreign Assets Change in Reserves Analytical Groups By Source of Export Earnings

Memorandum Acquisition of Foreign Assets Change in Reserves



International Monetary Fund | April 2014

205

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Table A15. Summary of Sources and Uses of World Savings (concluded) (Percent of GDP) Projections Averages 1992–99 2000–07

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Average 2016–19

By External Financing Source Net Debtor Economies Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance Memorandum Acquisition of Foreign Assets Change in Reserves Official Financing Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance Memorandum Acquisition of Foreign Assets Change in Reserves

19.5 22.4 –2.9 1.7 –2.2 –2.3

20.8 22.3 –1.4 2.5 –2.5 –1.5

21.8 25.6 –3.8 2.6 –2.4 –4.0

21.6 23.5 –1.9 2.6 –2.2 –2.3

22.3 24.7 –2.5 2.3 –2.4 –2.4

21.8 25.0 –3.2 2.3 –2.4 –3.1

20.8 24.5 –3.7 2.4 –2.5 –3.6

20.8 24.3 –3.5 2.4 –2.6 –3.3

21.2 24.5 –3.3 2.5 –2.7 –3.2

21.2 24.6 –3.4 2.4 –2.7 –3.2

21.9 25.3 –3.4 2.3 –2.8 –3.0

1.4 0.9

3.2 1.8

1.1 0.6

2.9 1.7

4.0 2.1

2.0 1.0

1.9 0.7

1.2 0.1

0.9 0.6

1.1 0.6

1.1 0.6

15.8 19.7 –4.0 4.0 –2.8 –5.3

19.4 21.2 –1.9 5.5 –2.9 –4.6

19.2 23.2 –4.1 5.4 –2.9 –6.6

19.5 21.5 –2.1 6.0 –2.7 –5.5

20.6 21.7 –1.1 6.4 –2.5 –5.0

20.8 21.3 –0.5 6.6 –2.2 –5.0

19.7 22.0 –2.3 6.9 –2.5 –6.7

20.0 21.8 –1.9 6.6 –2.6 –6.0

20.7 22.6 –1.9 6.6 –2.6 –6.0

20.6 22.9 –2.3 6.7 –2.6 –6.4

21.9 24.9 –3.0 6.6 –3.1 –6.5

1.1 1.2

1.9 1.5

2.1 2.4

1.7 2.7

1.7 1.6

1.0 0.9

–3.4 –1.3

–1.7 –0.4

0.2 1.2

0.1 1.1

0.1 0.9

15.4 18.8 –3.5 2.6 –2.2 –3.9

19.0 18.9 0.0 4.3 –2.9 –1.5

20.8 23.8 –3.0 4.1 –2.6 –4.6

18.3 21.3 –3.0 4.0 –2.6 –4.5

18.9 22.4 –3.6 4.0 –3.7 –3.9

18.6 22.4 –3.8 3.8 –4.0 –3.6

17.0 21.4 –4.4 3.9 –3.2 –5.1

17.1 21.3 –4.2 4.0 –3.0 –5.3

17.8 21.8 –4.1 4.8 –2.9 –6.0

17.2 21.8 –4.7 4.1 –2.7 –6.1

17.6 22.1 –4.5 4.1 –2.4 –6.2

2.6 1.0

3.3 1.2

1.7 0.4

0.4 0.8

2.7 1.3

1.6 –0.5

–1.1 –1.6

–1.0 –0.8

–0.7 0.0

0.0 0.4

0.4 0.5

Net Debtor Economies by Debt-Servicing Experience Economies with Arrears and/or Rescheduling during 2008–12 Savings Investment Net Lending Current Transfers Factor Income Resource Balance Memorandum Acquisition of Foreign Assets Change in Reserves

Note: The estimates in this table are based on individual countries’ national accounts and balance of payments statistics. Country group composites are calculated as the sum of the U.S. dollar values for the relevant individual countries. This differs from the calculations in the April 2005 and earlier issues of the World Economic Outlook, in which the composites were weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parities as a share of total world GDP. For many countries, the estimates of national savings are built up from national accounts data on gross domestic investment and from balance-of-payments-based data on net foreign investment. The latter, which is equivalent to the current account balance, comprises three components: current transfers, net factor income, and the resource balance. The mixing of data sources, which is dictated by availability, implies that the estimates for national savings that are derived incorporate the statistical discrepancies. Furthermore, errors, omissions, and asymmetries in balance of payments statistics affect the estimates for net lending; at the global level, net lending, which in theory would be zero, equals the world current account discrepancy. Despite these statistical shortcomings, flow-of-funds estimates, such as those presented in these tables, provide a useful framework for analyzing developments in savings and investment, both over time and across regions and countries. 1Excludes Latvia. 2Calculated from the data of individual Euro Area countries excluding Latvia. 3Georgia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure.

206

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

STATISTICAL APPENDIX

Table A16. Summary of World Medium-Term Baseline Scenario Projections Averages

Averages

1996–2003

2004–11

3.5 2.8 4.6

4.0 1.6 6.8

2012

2013

2014

2015

3.6 2.2 4.9

3.9 2.3 5.3

2012–15

2016–19

3.4 1.8 5.0

3.9 2.3 5.4

Annual Percent Change World Real GDP Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies Memorandum Potential Output Major Advanced Economies

3.2 1.4 5.0

3.0 1.3 4.7

2.5

1.6

1.3

1.3

1.5

1.5

1.4

1.7

6.1

5.6

2.8

3.0

4.3

5.3

3.9

5.7

6.1 6.5

4.0 9.6

1.1 5.8

1.4 5.6

3.5 5.2

4.5 6.3

2.6 5.7

5.3 6.3

5.5 7.8

4.8 7.6

2.1 4.2

2.3 4.4

4.2 5.0

4.8 6.2

3.4 4.9

5.3 6.2

0.1 0.5

–0.6 2.1

–0.7 0.6

0.7 –0.3

0.0 –0.2

–0.2 –0.7

–0.1 –0.1

0.0 –0.4

World Prices in U.S. Dollars Manufactures Oil Nonfuel Primary Commodities

–1.3 6.7 –2.5

2.9 17.4 11.1

0.2 1.0 –10.0

–1.1 –0.9 –1.2

–0.3 0.1 –3.5

–0.4 –6.0 –3.9

–0.4 –1.5 –4.7

0.5 –3.0 –0.6

Consumer Prices Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies

1.9 11.1

2.1 6.5

2.0 6.0

1.4 5.8

1.5 5.5

1.6 5.2

1.6 5.6

1.9 4.9

2.7 3.0

0.5 1.5

–1.1 0.1

–1.1 0.8

–1.1 1.0

–1.0 1.5

–1.1 0.9

1.3 2.3

Balances on Current Account Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies

–0.4 0.2

–0.6 2.8

–0.1 1.4

0.4 0.7

0.5 0.8

0.4 0.6

0.3 0.9

0.4 0.3

Total External Debt Emerging Market and Developing Economies

36.5

26.9

24.1

24.4

24.4

24.3

24.3

23.7

Debt Service Emerging Market and Developing Economies

9.5

8.9

8.3

8.6

8.5

8.5

8.5

8.5

World Trade, Volume1 Imports Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies Exports Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies Terms of Trade Advanced Economies Emerging Market and Developing Economies

Interest Rates Real Six-Month LIBOR2 World Real Long-Term Interest Rate3

Percent

Percent of GDP

1Data

refer to trade in goods and services. 2London interbank offered rate on U.S. dollar deposits minus percent change in U.S. GDP deflator. 3GDP-weighted average of 10-year (or nearest maturity) government bond rates for Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States.



International Monetary Fund | April 2014

207

CHAPTER

1

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK SELECTED TOPICS

World Economic Outlook Archives World Economic Outlook: The Global Demographic Transition

September 2004

World Economic Outlook: Globalization and External Balances

April 2005

World Economic Outlook: Building Institutions

September 2005

World Economic Outlook: Globalization and Inflation

April 2006

World Economic Outlook: Financial Systems and Economic Cycles

September 2006

World Economic Outlook: Spillovers and Cycles in the Global Economy

April 2007

World Economic Outlook: Globalization and Inequality

October 2007

World Economic Outlook: Housing and the Business Cycle

April 2008

World Economic Outlook: Financial Stress, Downturns, and Recoveries

October 2008

World Economic Outlook: Crisis and Recovery

April 2009

World Economic Outlook: Sustaining the Recovery

October 2009

World Economic Outlook: Rebalancing Growth

April 2010

World Economic Outlook: Recovery, Risk, and Rebalancing

October 2010

World Economic Outlook: Tensions from the Two-Speed Recovery—Unemployment, Commodities, and Capital Flows

April 2011

World Economic Outlook: Slowing Growth, Rising Risks

September 2011

World Economic Outlook: Growth Resuming, Dangers Remain

April 2012

World Economic Outlook: Coping with High Debt and Sluggish Growth

October 2012

World Economic Outlook: Hopes, Realities, Risks

April 2013

World Economic Outlook: Transitions and Tensions

October 2013

World Economic Outlook: Recovery Strengthens, Remains Uneven

April 2014

I. Methodology—Aggregation, Modeling, and Forecasting How Accurate Are the Forecasts in the World Economic Outlook?

April 2006, Box 1.3

Drawing the Line Between Personal and Corporate Savings

April 2006, Box 4.1

Measuring Inequality: Conceptual, Methodological, and Measurement Issues

October 2007, Box 4.1

New Business Cycle Indices for Latin America: A Historical Reconstruction

October 2007, Box 5.3

Implications of New PPP Estimates for Measuring Global Growth

April 2008, Appendix 1.1

Measuring Output Gaps

October 2008, Box 1.3

Assessing and Communicating Risks to the Global Outlook

October 2008, Appendix 1.1

Fan Chart for Global Growth

April 2009, Appendix 1.2

Indicators for Tracking Growth

October 2010, Appendix 1.2

Inferring Potential Output from Noisy Data: The Global Projection Model View

October 2010, Box 1.3

Uncoordinated Rebalancing

October 2010, Box 1.4

World Economic Outlook Downside Scenarios

April 2011, Box 1.2

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

209

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

II.  Historical Surveys External Imbalances Then and Now

April 2005, Box 3.1

Long-Term Interest Rates from a Historical Perspective

April 2006, Box 1.1

Recycling Petrodollars in the 1970s

April 2006, Box 2.2

Historical Perspective on Growth and the Current Account

October 2008, Box 6.3

A Historical Perspective on International Financial Crises

October 2009, Box 4.1

The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: 100 Years of Dealing with Public Debt Overhangs

October 2012, Chapter 3

III.  Economic Growth—Sources and Patterns How Will Demographic Change Affect the Global Economy?

September 2004, Chapter 3

HIV/AIDS: Demographic, Economic, and Fiscal Consequences

September 2004, Box 3.3 

Implications of Demographic Change for Health Care Systems

September 2004, Box 3.4

Workers’ Remittances and Economic Development

April 2005, Chapter 2

Output Volatility in Emerging Market and Developing Countries

April 2005, Chapter 2

How Does Macroeconomic Instability Stifle Sub-Saharan African Growth?

April 2005, Box 1.5

How Should Middle Eastern and Central Asian Oil Exporters Use Their Oil Revenues?

April 2005, Box 1.6

Why Is Volatility Harmful?

April 2005, Box 2.3

Building Institutions

September 2005, Chapter 3

Return on Investment in Industrial and Developing Countries

September 2005, Box 2.2

The Use of Specific Levers to Reduce Corruption

September 2005, Box 3.2

Examining the Impact of Unrequited Transfers on Institutions

September 2005, Box 3.3

The Impact of Recent Housing Market Adjustments in Industrial Countries

April 2006, Box 1.2

Awash with Cash: Why Are Corporate Savings So High?

April 2006, Chapter 4

The Global Implications of an Avian Flu Pandemic

April 2006, Appendix 1.2

Asia Rising: Patterns of Economic Development and Growth September 2006, Chapter 3 Japan’s Potential Output and Productivity Growth

September 2006, Box 3.1

The Evolution and Impact of Corporate Governance Quality in Asia

September 2006, Box 3.2

Decoupling the Train? Spillovers and Cycles in the Global Economy

April 2007, Chapter 4

Spillovers and International Business Cycle Synchronization: A Broader Perspective

April 2007, Box 4.3

The Discounting Debate

October 2007, Box 1.7

Taxes versus Quantities under Uncertainty (Weitzman, 1974)

October 2007, Box 1.8

Experience with Emissions Trading in the European Union

October 2007, Box 1.9

Climate Change: Economic Impact and Policy Responses

October 2007, Appendix 1.2

What Risks Do Housing Markets Pose for Global Growth?

October 2007, Box 2.1

The Changing Dynamics of the Global Business Cycle

October 2007, Chapter 5

Major Economies and Fluctuations in Global Growth

October 2007, Box 5.1

Improved Macroeconomic Performance—Good Luck or Good Policies?

October 2007, Box 5.2

House Prices: Corrections and Consequences

October 2008, Box 1.2

Global Business Cycles

April 2009, Box 1.1

How Similar Is the Current Crisis to the Great Depression?

April 2009, Box 3.1

Is Credit a Vital Ingredient for Recovery? Evidence from Industry-Level Data

April 2009, Box 3.2

From Recession to Recovery: How Soon and How Strong?

April 2009, Chapter 3

What’s the Damage? Medium-Term Output Dynamics after Financial Crises

October 2009, Chapter 4

Will the Recovery Be Jobless?

October 2009, Box 1.3

Unemployment Dynamics during Recessions and Recoveries: Okun’s Law and Beyond

April 2010, Chapter 3

Does Slow Growth in Advanced Economies Necessarily Imply Slow Growth in Emerging Economies?

October 2010, Box 1.1

The Global Recovery: Where Do We Stand?

April 2012, Box 1.2

210

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

SELECTED TOPICS

How Does Uncertainty Affect Economic Performance?

October 2012, Box 1.3

Resilience in Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Will It Last?

October 2012, Chapter 4

Jobs and Growth: Can’t Have One without the Other?

October 2012, Box 4.1

Spillovers from Policy Uncertainty in the United States and Europe

April 2013, Chapter 2, Spillover Feature

Breaking through the Frontier: Can Today’s Dynamic Low-Income Countries Make It?

April 2013, Chapter 4

What Explains the Slowdown in the BRICS?

October 2013, Box 1.2

Dancing Together? Spillovers, Common Shocks, and the Role of Financial and Trade Linkages

October 2013, Chapter 3

Output Synchronicity in the Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan and in the Caucasus and Central Asia

October 2013, Box 3.1

Spillovers from Changes in U.S. Monetary Policy

October 2013, Box 3.2

Saving and Economic Growth

April 2014, Box 3.1

On the Receiving End? External Conditions and Emerging Market Growth before, during, and after the Global Financial Crisis

April 2014, Chapter 4

The Impact of External Conditions on Medium-Term Growth in Emerging Market Economies

April 2014, Box 4.1

IV.  Inflation and Deflation and Commodity Markets Is Global Inflation Coming Back?

September 2004, Box 1.1

What Explains the Recent Run-Up in House Prices?

September 2004, Box 2.1

Will the Oil Market Continue to Be Tight?

April 2005, Chapter 4

Should Countries Worry about Oil Price Fluctuations?

April 2005, Box 4.1

Data Quality in the Oil Market

April 2005, Box 4.2

Long-Term Inflation Expectations and Credibility

September 2005, Box 4.2

The Boom in Nonfuel Commodity Prices: Can It Last?

September 2006, Chapter 5

International Oil Companies and National Oil Companies in a Changing Oil Sector Environment

September 2006, Box 1.4

Commodity Price Shocks, Growth, and Financing in Sub-Saharan Africa

September 2006, Box 2.2

Has Speculation Contributed to Higher Commodity Prices?

September 2006, Box 5.1

Agricultural Trade Liberalization and Commodity Prices

September 2006, Box 5.2

Recent Developments in Commodity Markets September 2006, Appendix 2.1 Who Is Harmed by the Surge in Food Prices?

October 2007, Box 1.1

Refinery Bottlenecks

October 2007, Box 1.5

Making the Most of Biofuels

October 2007, Box 1.6

Commodity Market Developments and Prospects

April 2008, Appendix 1.2

Dollar Depreciation and Commodity Prices

April 2008, Box 1.4

Why Hasn’t Oil Supply Responded to Higher Prices?

April 2008, Box 1.5

Oil Price Benchmarks

April 2008, Box 1.6

Globalization, Commodity Prices, and Developing Countries

April 2008, Chapter 5

The Current Commodity Price Boom in Perspective

April 2008, Box 5.2

Is Inflation Back? Commodity Prices and Inflation

October 2008, Chapter 3

Does Financial Investment Affect Commodity Price Behavior?

October 2008, Box 3.1

Fiscal Responses to Recent Commodity Price Increases: An Assessment

October 2008, Box 3.2

Monetary Policy Regimes and Commodity Prices

October 2008, Box 3.3

Assessing Deflation Risks in the G3 Economies

April 2009, Box 1.3

Will Commodity Prices Rise Again when the Global Economy Recovers?

April 2009, Box 1.5

Commodity Market Developments and Prospects

April 2009, Appendix 1.1

Commodity Market Developments and Prospects

October 2009, Appendix 1.1



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 211

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

What Do Options Markets Tell Us about Commodity Price Prospects?

October 2009, Box 1.6

What Explains the Rise in Food Price Volatility?

October 2009, Box 1.7

How Unusual Is the Current Commodity Price Recovery?

April 2010, Box 1.2

Commodity Futures Price Curves and Cyclical Market Adjustment

April 2010, Box 1.3

Commodity Market Developments and Prospects

October 2010, Appendix 1.1

Dismal Prospects for the Real Estate Sector

October 2010, Box 1.2

Have Metals Become More Scarce and What Does Scarcity Mean for Prices?

October 2010, Box 1.5

Commodity Market Developments and Prospects

April 2011, Appendix 1.2

Oil Scarcity, Growth, and Global Imbalances

April 2011, Chapter 3

Life Cycle Constraints on Global Oil Production

April 2011, Box 3.1

Unconventional Natural Gas: A Game Changer?

April 2011, Box 3.2

Short-Term Effects of Oil Shocks on Economic Activity

April 2011, Box 3.3

Low-Frequency Filtering for Extracting Business Cycle Trends

April 2011, Appendix 3.1

The Energy and Oil Empirical Models

April 2011, Appendix 3.2

Commodity Market Developments and Prospects

September 2011, Appendix 1.1

Financial Investment, Speculation, and Commodity Prices

September 2011, Box 1.4

Target What You Can Hit: Commodity Price Swings and Monetary Policy

September 2011, Chapter 3

Commodity Market Review April 2012, Chapter 1, Special Feature Commodity Price Swings and Commodity Exporters

April 2012, Chapter 4

Macroeconomic Effects of Commodity Price Shocks on Low-Income Countries

April 2012, Box 4.1

Volatile Commodity Prices and the Development Challenge in Low-Income Countries

April 2012, Box 4.2

Commodity Market Review

October 2012, Chapter 1, Special Feature

Unconventional Energy in the United States

October 2012, Box 1.4

Food Supply Crunch: Who Is Most Vulnerable?

October 2012, Box 1.5

Commodity Market Review

April 2013, Chapter 1, Special Feature

The Dog That Didn’t Bark: Has Inflation Been Muzzled or Was It Just Sleeping?

April 2013, Chapter 3

Does Inflation Targeting Still Make Sense with a Flatter Phillips Curve?

April 2013, Box 3.1

Commodity Market Review

October 2013, Chapter 1, Special Feature

Energy Booms and the Current Account: Cross-Country Experience

October 2013, Box 1.SF.1

Oil Price Drivers and the Narrowing WTI-Brent Spread

October 2013, Box 1.SF.2

Anchoring Inflation Expectations When Inflation is Undershooting

April 2014, Box 1.3

Commodity Prices and Forecasts April 2014, Chapter 1, Special Feature

V.  Fiscal Policy Has Fiscal Behavior Changed under the European Economic and Monetary Union?

September 2004, Chapter 2

Bringing Small Entrepreneurs into the Formal Economy

September 2004, Box 1.5

HIV/AIDS: Demographic, Economic, and Fiscal Consequences

September 2004, Box 3.3 

Implications of Demographic Change for Health Care Systems

September 2004, Box 3.4

Impact of Aging on Public Pension Plans

September 2004, Box 3.5

How Should Middle Eastern and Central Asian Oil Exporters Use Their Oil Revenues?

April 2005, Box 1.6

Financial Globalization and the Conduct of Macroeconomic Policies

April 2005, Box 3.3

Is Public Debt in Emerging Markets Still Too High?

September 2005, Box 1.1

212

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

SELECTED TOPICS

Improved Emerging Market Fiscal Performance: Cyclical or Structural?

September 2006, Box 2.1

When Does Fiscal Stimulus Work?

April 2008, Box 2.1

Fiscal Policy as a Countercyclical Tool

October 2008, Chapter 5

Differences in the Extent of Automatic Stabilizers and Their Relationship with Discretionary Fiscal Policy

October 2008, Box 5.1

Why Is It So Hard to Determine the Effects of Fiscal Stimulus?

October 2008, Box 5.2

Have the U.S. Tax Cuts Been “TTT” [Timely, Temporary, and Targeted]?

October 2008, Box 5.3

Will It Hurt? Macroeconomic Effects of Fiscal Consolidation

October 2010, Chapter 3

Separated at Birth? The Twin Budget and Trade Balances

September 2011, Chapter 4

Are We Underestimating Short-Term Fiscal Multipliers?

October 2012, Box 1.1

The Implications of High Public Debt in Advanced Economies

October 2012, Box 1.2

The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: 100 Years of Dealing with Public Debt Overhangs

October 2012, Chapter 3

The Great Divergence of Policies

April 2013, Box 1.1

Public Debt Overhang and Private Sector Performance

April 2013, Box 1.2

VI.  Monetary Policy, Financial Markets, and Flow of Funds Adjustable- or Fixed-Rate Mortgages: What Influences a Country’s Choices?

September 2004, Box 2.2

What Are the Risks from Low U.S. Long-Term Interest Rates?

April 2005, Box 1.2

Regulating Remittances

April 2005, Box 2.2

Financial Globalization and the Conduct of Macroeconomic Policies

April 2005, Box 3.3

Monetary Policy in a Globalized World

April 2005, Box 3.4

Does Inflation Targeting Work in Emerging Markets?

September 2005, Chapter 4

A Closer Look at Inflation Targeting Alternatives: Money and Exchange Rate Targets

September 2005, Box 4.1

How Has Globalization Affected Inflation?

April 2006, Chapter 3

The Impact of Petrodollars on U.S. and Emerging Market Bond Yields

April 2006, Box 2.3

Globalization and Inflation in Emerging Markets

April 2006, Box 3.1

Globalization and Low Inflation in a Historical Perspective

April 2006, Box 3.2

Exchange Rate Pass-Through to Import Prices

April 2006, Box 3.3

Trends in the Financial Sector’s Profits and Savings

April 2006, Box 4.2

How Do Financial Systems Affect Economic Cycles?

September 2006, Chapter 4

Financial Leverage and Debt Deflation

September 2006, Box 4.1

Financial Linkages and Spillovers

April 2007, Box 4.1

Macroeconomic Conditions in Industrial Countries and Financial Flows to Emerging Markets

April 2007, Box 4.2

Macroeconomic Implications of Recent Market Turmoil: Patterns from Previous Episodes

October 2007, Box 1.2

What Is Global Liquidity?

October 2007, Box 1.4

The Changing Housing Cycle and the Implications for Monetary Policy

April 2008, Chapter 3

Is There a Credit Crunch?

April 2008, Box 1.1

Assessing Vulnerabilities to Housing Market Corrections

April 2008, Box 3.1

Financial Stress and Economic Downturns

October 2008, Chapter 4

Policies to Resolve Financial System Stress and Restore Sound Financial Intermediation

October 2008, Box 4.1

The Latest Bout of Financial Distress: How Does It Change the Global Outlook?

October 2008, Box 1.1

How Vulnerable Are Nonfinancial Firms?

April 2009, Box 1.2

The Case of Vanishing Household Wealth

April 2009, Box 2.1

Impact of Foreign Bank Ownership during Home-Grown Crises

April 2009, Box 4.1

A Financial Stress Index for Emerging Economies

April 2009, Appendix 4.1

Financial Stress in Emerging Economies: Econometric Analysis

April 2009, Appendix 4.2

How Linkages Fuel the Fire

April 2009, Chapter 4



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 213

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Lessons for Monetary Policy from Asset Price Fluctuations

October 2009, Chapter 3

Were Financial Markets in Emerging Economies More Resilient than in Past Crises?

October 2009, Box 1.2

Risks from Real Estate Markets

October 2009, Box 1.4

Financial Conditions Indices

April 2011, Appendix 1.1

House Price Busts in Advanced Economies: Repercussions for Global Financial Markets

April 2011, Box 1.1

International Spillovers and Macroeconomic Policymaking

April 2011, Box 1.3

Credit Boom-Bust Cycles: Their Triggers and Policy Implications

September 2011, Box 1.2

Are Equity Price Drops Harbingers of Recession?

September 2011, Box 1.3

Cross-Border Spillovers from Euro Area Bank Deleveraging

April 2012, Chapter 2, Spillover Feature

The Financial Transmission of Stress in the Global Economy

October 2012, Chapter 2, Spillover Feature

The Great Divergence of Policies

April 2013, Box 1.1

Taper Talks: What to Expect When the United States Is Tightening

October 2013, Box 1.1

Credit Supply and Economic Growth

April 2014, Box 1.1

Should Advanced Economies Worry about Growth Shocks in Emerging Market Economies? April 2014, Chapter 2, Spillover Feature Perspectives on Global Real Interest Rates

April 2014, Chapter 3

VII.  Labor Markets, Poverty, and Inequality The Globalization of Labor

April 2007, Chapter 5

Emigration and Trade: How Do They Affect Developing Countries?

April 2007, Box 5.1

Labor Market Reforms in the Euro Area and the Wage-Unemployment Trade-Off

October 2007, Box 2.2

Globalization and Inequality

October 2007, Chapter 4

The Dualism between Temporary and Permanent Contracts: Measures, Effects, and Policy Issues

April 2010, Box 3.1

Short-Time Work Programs

April 2010, Box 3.2

Slow Recovery to Nowhere? A Sectoral View of Labor Markets in Advanced Economies

September 2011, Box 1.1

The Labor Share in Europe and the United States during and after the Great Recession

April 2012, Box 1.1

Jobs and Growth: Can’t Have One without the Other?

October 2012, Box 4.1

VIII.  Exchange Rate Issues Learning to Float: The Experience of Emerging Market Countries since the Early 1990s

September 2004, Chapter 2

How Did Chile, India, and Brazil Learn to Float?

September 2004, Box 2.3

Foreign Exchange Market Development and Intervention

September 2004, Box 2.4

How Emerging Market Countries May Be Affected by External Shocks

September 2006, Box 1.3

Exchange Rates and the Adjustment of External Imbalances

April 2007, Chapter 3

Exchange Rate Pass-Through to Trade Prices and External Adjustment

April 2007, Box 3.3

Depreciation of the U.S. Dollar: Causes and Consequences

April 2008, Box 1.2

Lessons from the Crisis: On the Choice of Exchange Rate Regime

April 2010, Box 1.1

Exchange Rate Regimes and Crisis Susceptibility in Emerging Markets

April 2014, Box 1.4

IX.  External Payments, Trade, Capital Movements, and Foreign Debt Is the Doha Round Back on Track?

September 2004, Box 1.3

Regional Trade Agreements and Integration: The Experience with NAFTA

September 2004, Box 1.4

Trade and Financial Integration in Europe: Five Years after the Euro’s Introduction

September 2004, Box 2.5

214

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

SELECTED TOPICS

Globalization and External Imbalances

April 2005, Chapter 3

The Ending of Global Textile Trade Quotas

April 2005, Box 1.3

What Progress Has Been Made in Implementing Policies to Reduce Global Imbalances?

April 2005, Box 1.4

Measuring a Country’s Net External Position

April 2005, Box 3.2

Global Imbalances: A Saving and Investment Perspective

September 2005, Chapter 2

Impact of Demographic Change on Saving, Investment, and Current Account Balances

September 2005, Box 2.3

How Will Global Imbalances Adjust? September 2005, Appendix 1.2 Oil Prices and Global Imbalances

April 2006, Chapter 2

How Much Progress Has Been Made in Addressing Global Imbalances?

April 2006, Box 1.4

The Doha Round after the Hong Kong SAR Meetings

April 2006, Box 1.5

Capital Flows to Emerging Market Countries: A Long-Term Perspective

September 2006, Box 1.1

How Will Global Imbalances Adjust?

September 2006, Box 2.1

External Sustainability and Financial Integration

April 2007, Box 3.1

Large and Persistent Current Account Imbalances

April 2007, Box 3.2

Multilateral Consultation on Global Imbalances

October 2007, Box 1.3

Managing the Macroeconomic Consequences of Large and Volatile Aid Flows

October 2007, Box 2.3

Managing Large Capital Inflows

October 2007, Chapter 3

Can Capital Controls Work?

October 2007, Box 3.1

Multilateral Consultation on Global Imbalances: Progress Report

April 2008, Box 1.3

How Does the Globalization of Trade and Finance Affect Growth? Theory and Evidence

April 2008, Box 5.1

Divergence of Current Account Balances across Emerging Economies

October 2008, Chapter 6

Current Account Determinants for Oil-Exporting Countries

October 2008, Box 6.1

Sovereign Wealth Funds: Implications for Global Financial Markets

October 2008, Box 6.2

Global Imbalances and the Financial Crisis

April 2009, Box 1.4

Trade Finance and Global Trade: New Evidence from Bank Surveys

October 2009, Box 1.1

From Deficit to Surplus: Recent Shifts in Global Current Accounts

October 2009, Box 1.5

Getting the Balance Right: Transitioning out of Sustained Current Account Surpluses

April 2010, Chapter 4

Emerging Asia: Responding to Capital Inflows

October 2010, Box 2.1

Latin America-5: Riding Another Wave of Capital Inflows

October 2010, Box 2.2

Do Financial Crises Have Lasting Effects on Trade?

October 2010, Chapter 4

Unwinding External Imbalances in the European Union Periphery

April 2011, Box 2.1

International Capital Flows: Reliable or Fickle?

April 2011, Chapter 4

External Liabilities and Crisis Tipping Points

September 2011, Box 1.5

The Evolution of Current Account Deficits in the Euro Area

April 2013, Box 1.3

External Rebalancing in the Euro Area

October 2013, Box 1.3

The Yin and Yang of Capital Flow Management: Balancing Capital Inflows with Capital Outflows

October 2013, Chapter 4

Simulating Vulnerability to International Capital Market Conditions

October 2013, Box 4.1

X.  Regional Issues What Are the Risks of Slower Growth in China?

September 2004, Box 1.2

Governance Challenges and Progress in Sub-Saharan Africa

September 2004, Box 1.6

The Indian Ocean Tsunami: Impact on South Asian Economies

April 2005, Box 1.1

Workers’ Remittances and Emigration in the Caribbean

April 2005, Box 2.1

What Explains Divergent External Sector Performance in the Euro Area?

September 2005, Box 1.3

Pressures Mount for African Cotton Producers

September 2005, Box 1.5

Is Investment in Emerging Asia Too Low?

September 2005, Box 2.4



International Monetary Fund | April 2014 215

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: RECOVERY STRENGTHENS, REMAINS UNEVEN

Developing Institutions to Reflect Local Conditions: The Example of Ownership Transformation in China versus Central and Eastern Europe

September 2005, Box 3.1

How Rapidly Are Oil Exporters Spending Their Revenue Gains?

April 2006, Box 2.1

EMU: 10 Years On

October 2008, Box 2.1

Vulnerabilities in Emerging Economies

April 2009, Box 2.2

East-West Linkages and Spillovers in Europe

April 2012, Box 2.1

The Evolution of Current Account Deficits in the Euro Area

April 2013, Box 1.3

XI.  Country-Specific Analyses Why Is the U.S. International Income Account Still in the Black, and Will This Last?

September, 2005, Box 1.2

Is India Becoming an Engine for Global Growth?

September, 2005, Box 1.4

Saving and Investment in China

September, 2005, Box 2.1

China’s GDP Revision: What Does It Mean for China and the Global Economy?

April 2006, Box 1.6

What Do Country Studies of the Impact of Globalization on Inequality Tell Us? Examples from Mexico, China, and India

October 2007, Box 4.2

Japan after the Plaza Accord

April 2010, Box 4.1

Taiwan Province of China in the Late 1980s

April 2010, Box 4.2

Did the Plaza Accord Cause Japan’s Lost Decades?

April 2011, Box 1.4

Where Is China’s External Surplus Headed?

April 2012, Box 1.3

The U.S. Home Owners’ Loan Corporation

April 2012, Box 3.1

Household Debt Restructuring in Iceland

April 2012, Box 3.2

Abenomics: Risks after Early Success?

October 2013, Box 1.4

Is China’s Spending Pattern Shifting (away from Commodities)?

April 2014, Box 1.2

XII.  Special Topics Climate Change and the Global Economy

April 2008, Chapter 4

Rising Car Ownership in Emerging Economies: Implications for Climate Change

April 2008, Box 4.1

South Asia: Illustrative Impact of an Abrupt Climate Shock

April 2008, Box 4.2

Macroeconomic Policies for Smoother Adjustment to Abrupt Climate Shocks

April 2008, Box 4.3

Catastrophe Insurance and Bonds: New Instruments to Hedge Extreme Weather Risks

April 2008, Box 4.4

Recent Emission-Reduction Policy Initiatives

April 2008, Box 4.5

Complexities in Designing Domestic Mitigation Policies

April 2008, Box 4.6

216

International Monetary Fund | April 2014

I N T E R N A T I O N A L

M O N E T A R Y

F U N D

Hunting for global analysis? Find it at the IMF Bookstore Global Financial Stability Report

The Global Financial Stability Report provides expert and up-to-date analysis of global capital flows that play a critical role in world economic growth and financial stability.

Jobs and Growth: Supporting the European Recovery

Equitable and Sustainable Pensions: Challenges and Experiences Pension reform is high on the agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. This book brings together the latest research on equity issues related to pension systems and related reforms in the post-crisis world.

What are the key factors needed to lead Europe out of its crisis? The IMF research in this book provides a road map to stronger and better-balanced growth and employment in Europe.

Financial Crises: Causes, Consequences, and Policy Responses

Five years after the economic crisis began, its lingering effects are still visible. This book surveys a wide range of crises, including banking, balance of payments, and sovereign debt.

IMF BOOKSTORE

Order Now: Visit the IMF Bookstore today and browse to find the latest reports, publications, and data. imfbookstore.org/wes4

Loading...

World Economic Outlook (WEO) - IMF

World Economic and Financial Surveys WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK April 2014 Recovery Strengthens, Remains Uneven International Monetary Fund ©2014 I...

8MB Sizes 2 Downloads 26 Views

Recommend Documents

IMF World Economic Outlook (WEO): Hopes, Realities, and Risks
Apr 1, 2013 - The Dog That Didn't Bark: Has Inflation Been Muzzled or Was It Just Sleeping? 79. Introduction. 79. The Mi