Vogtle Early Site Permit Application Environmental Reference - NRC

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Chapter 5 Sections 5.2 to 5.9

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,,ORMIXIM,i~xing.gone Applic~ati~ons,•

This'page contains iifomatMoIn .

about mixing-zonesaand the hydrodynamics of the mixing : process. Examples ofmxg zons and CORMIX application areppresented. In addition, related,

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issues vhpr CORMIX analysis is." possible is gi'ven,"along with -- informationabut are6 in which

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Types of ambient water bodies to which QORMIX may be applied. Image: Natl'Geo. Soce't. . This information is not intended to endorse or recommend any company, individual or issue.

CORMIX Applicationsin Mixing Zone Analysis CORMIX cad predict mixing behavior from diverse discharge types ranging from powerpiint cooling waters, desalinization facility ordrilling rig-brines, municipal wastewater, or thermal atmospheric plumes. CORMIX cain'alsobe applied across a broad~range-of ambient conditions'ranging from estuaries, deep oceans, swift shallow rivers, to density stratified reservoirs and lakes. Some special hydrodynamic features of CORMIX include: gym

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4 Makes complete near-field and far-field plume trajectory, shape, concentration, and dilution preditions and visualizations. ST*

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Includes plume. boundary interactions, inqluding dynamic near-field attachments. T Predicts density current behavior with buoyant upstream wedgg intrusion and _tagnation points. * Provides a documented analysis, complete with all rules used in classification and conclusions

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reached during, a session. Models, conservative, non-conservative. and heatedpollutant types. . * Alerts user when plume encounters regulatory.mixing zone constraints,, including Toxic Dilution Zone CMC and CCC values. * Application to steady, unsteady ambient currents/tides. or stagnant ambient conditions. * Predicts stratified atmospheric plumes with skewed wind velocity.

NPDES Discharge Permits in the USA * The Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation discusses the use of CORMIX in this Draft Guidance ForProposed'Mixing Zone Regulations.' " The California Department of Water Resources Desalination Task Force recognizes CORMIX in analyzing dilution for concentrate disposal in this draft issues document for water quality management of desalination discharges. The Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Controls recognizes CORMIX for modeling impacts from confined disposal facilities in this policy document for dredge management. .. The Hawaii Department of Health recognizes CORMIX in setting dilution requirements for wastewater outfalls in its administrative rules for water quality management. .. .... ~ Ih an reor •. ~~~~~ standard practices, anda regulations, Quality gives State Department of Envirmental .. Therm The Idaho Idaho SttZearmnofnniomne.... describing mixing zones:; detailed case study of CORMIX applicationm-&this p_•_idrp procedures. The Indiana Dpartment of Environmentaf Management recognizes CORMIX for mixing zone esguidanceedocument. modeling in this TMDL technical pro The Kansas Department of Health & Environment-recognizes CORMIXfor mixing zonpjmodeling . this implementation of procedures documen't. •.The

Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality recognizes CORMIX for mixing zo;ne modeling,

in this TMDL technical procedures guida'nce document. , The Maine Department of Environmental :Protection recognizes, CORMIX for mixing zone modeling in this document. IlThe Missouri Department of Natural Resources recognizes CORMIX for mixing zone modeling in this draft operating' permit. * The Montana Department of Environmental Quality recognizes CORMIX for mixing zone modeling in this document.

* The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection recognizes the use of CORMIX for mixing zone evaluation in this draft guidance document. * The New York State Departmeit of Environmental Conservation used CORMIX for developing acute and :chronic limits for 15WWTP chlorine' 1discharges into Long Island Sound'in this EPA report. The.North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources recommendsuse of CORMIX as an analytical model for NPDES mixing zone permits, and this document explains State interpretation of mxug zones and presents two case study exanmples of CORMIX application. " The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality is leading in the development water quality standards for temperature. In this document the State of Oregon DEQ recognizes the-use of CORMIX for mixing zone evaluations. * The: South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control has published a toxics control strategy., In this,document the State of South Carolina lists the use of CORMIX formixing zone evaluations. . " The Texas.Natural Resources Conservation Commission recognizes the use of CORMIX to evaluation multiport diffuser designs in this guidance document. " The,-Virginia Department of Environmental Quality recognizes CORMIX for mixing zone-modeling in this guidance document. " The Washington State Department of Ecology recognizes the use of CORMIX in mixing zone analysis is this guidaneedocunment. . " The West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection outlines the use of CORMIX in mixing zoneanalysis in this guidance document. " The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources recognizes CORMIX for mixing zone modeling in this document'. The Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality includes CORMIX as a methodology to determine'imixing zones in this document on Surface Water Quality Standards.

CORMIX Applications in Mixing Zone Analysis * This report by the Mt. IHope Bay Natural Laboratory at the University of Massachusetts uses CORMIX for point source mixing analysis. " The consulting firm Alden uses dORMIX in hydraulic analysis.

International Wastewater Disposal Applications The National Institute of Airand WaterResearch (NIWA in Hamilton, New Zealand, uses CORMIX

for mixing zone simulation in Waimakariri District Ocean Outfall Option, an outfall diffuser siting study for a coastal wastewater discharge. " The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA recommends use of CORMIX for initial dilution modeling in "Initial Dilution and Mixing Zones for Discharges from Coastal and Estuarine Outfalls. * Alberta Environmental Protection in Canada recognizes the use of CORMIX in determination of mixing zones in this water quality guidance document. • The Government of Manitoba in Canada suggests the use of CORMIX for modeling water quality impacts from livestock in this Leport. " Health Canada uses CORMIX for exposure assessment from wastewater discharges. " A Belgium Power Company evaluates CORMIX for assessment of thermal discharges in this I newsletter. " A Dutch Public Works Ministry evaluates the use of CORMIX for cooling water discharges linked to far-field circulation models in this repot. " The Government of India uses CORMIX for assessment of dredge discharges in this link. • Water authorities apply a diversity of models and input data to set water quality-based emission limits in discharge permits. To illustrate the consequences of model and data selection, A. M. J. Ragas and R. S. E. W. Leuven compare results from two complete mixing models and four mixing zone models used in Germany, the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands and the United States of America (USA) were applied to various discharges of cadmium in "Modelling of water quality-Based Emission Limits for Industrial Discharges in Rivers", in Water Science Technology Vol. 39, No.4 pp. 185-192 1999. * This consultant uses CORMIX for initial mixing modeling. " In a study of a wastewater diffuser in the Atlantic ocean on the Lisbon, Portugal coast, J. Matos et aL use CORMIX to simulate wastewater dispersion and improve field data collection techniques in Wastewater Diffusion in the Estoril Coast: Theoretical Calculationsand FieldStudies" in Water Science Technology, Vol. 38, No. 10, pp.337-334, 1998. " Ever since Charles Darwin developed his theory of evolution, the Galapagos Archipelago has been known for its unique ecosystem and biodiversity. Today the islands are a center of ecological conservation and international scientific research. Here is a description on how CORMIX was applied for environmental impact assessment of wastew.ater effluent plumes. " In analysis of wastewater dispersion for the City of Barcelona on the Spanish Mediterranean Coast, A. Rodriguez etal. use CORMIX in conjunction with far-field dispersion models to predict waste field behavior in "Pollutant Dispersion in the Nearshore Region: Modelling and Measurements in Water Science Technology, Vol. 12, No. 9-10, pp 169-178, 1995. " E. B. Marecellino and J. P. Ortiz demonstrate the use of CORMIX to determine the performance of

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marine outfalls in "Systematization of Submarine Sewers Operated By Basic Sanitation Company of Sao Paulo State-SABESP and Performance Evaluation Carried Out by the CORMIX Expert System Application" in Proceeding XXIX IAHR-Congress, Beijing China, September 16-21 2001.

Thermal DischargeslCooling Waters * Cornell University applied CORMIX.in environmental impact assessment on Lake Cayuga for its new Lake Source CoolingProject. Lakq Souirce Cooling. technology utilizes the thermal storage capacity from large deep lakes to provide chilled water for air conditioning demand. This report details the application of,CORMIX for environmental impact -assessment. * A well known engineering consulting firm reports how CORMIX is applied for regulatory compliance of thermal discharges..In this particular application, the impacts on a sensitive species of freshwater mussel from a cooling water discharge under various design conditions is analyzed with CORMIX3.

Thermal Refugia-Habitat, SIn tie Pacific Northwest, the several species of Salmon'have been placed under the jurisdiction of the End15ingered Species•Act. Salmo inmigrate to and hold-in mixing zones characterized by 6ool thermal refgiaf hibitat to0survive in freshwater during warm months. Refugia habitat has been associated with -cool tributar source mixing and groundwater recharge areas. Physical mixing zone thermal refugia characteristics may be predicted by CORMIX models. The National Marine Fisheries Service applied CORMIX for fish habitat assessment from power plant thermal discharge in an estuar. This reort details the results of the study. A USGS report outlines a study in Colorado for study of thermal diversity in the jPoudre River in Colorado. " Researchers have reported the role.of tributary thermal refugia habitat for Striped Bass in the Pascagoula River. . " The toxicity of acid mine drainage to fish is studied in a field experiment within tributary mixing * zones. This report highlights how juvenile Bluegill fared in mixing zones.

Fishb Pa'ss~aae at Dihms * Downstream migration of juvenile salmon experience high mortality rates when smolts pass through turbines rather than fish passage structures. Introduction of turbulence can provide an attraction flow to,fish passage diversion structures in dam forebays to bypass turbine intakes. This paper by C.C. Coutant (see also Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report Number ORNLTIM-13608) outlines how the

CORMIX model could be-used to design turbulent jets to help guide young fish around damns in down river migration.

BrinelProduced Water/Desalination Concentrate Discharges " Brookhaven National Laboratory has applied CORMIX for environmental

impact assessment from

produced water discharges from offshore petroleum production. " The California Coastal Commission recently published a Leport on potential environmental impacts of desalination facility discharge. As freshwater resources for water supply become more scarce, many coastal communities may begin to consider seawater desalination as a source of supply. CORMIX1 and CORMIX2 can be directly applied to many of these discharges. " In the paper by Jody A. Berry and Peter G. Wells, "Integrated Fate Modeling for Exposure Assessment of Produced Water on the Sable Island Bank", Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2004, Vol. 23, No. 10, pp. 2483-2493, the authors use CORMIX for initial dilution modeling for exposure assesment from produced watet discharges in Nova Scotia.

Surface water/Groundwater Interaction CORMIX is used to characterize the source strength of groundwater recharge in Karst Groundwater HydrologicAnalysis Based on Aerial Thermography by C. W. Campbell'and A. G. Keith in Abstracts: Atmospheric. Surface and Subsurface Hydrology and Interactions' 2000 Annual Meeting and International Conference of the American Institute of Hydrology.

Ship Discharges * The cruise ship industry has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Passengers are drawn to cruising by the beauty of the cruise locales. In order to protect the water quality of scenic coastal waters, Alaska's Department of Environmental Conservation has commissioned a rpo•rt which reviews CORMIX estimates dilution of wastewater discharged from cruise ships. * The Uniform National Discharge Standards (UNDS) Program used CORMIX for dilution studies in this report on ship discharges prepared for the Department of Defense.

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration * Fossil fuel combustion releases "Greenhouses Gases" such as CO2, SO2, and HCL into the atmosphere and has been identified as a forcing factor in acid rain, global warming, and climate change. One

possible solution is to use the oceans as a sink by capture and disposal of dissolved flue gases directly into the coastal environment. Dissolved CO2 discharges produce dense effluents which transport the dissolved gas quickly towards the bottom. In a paper titled "Alternative Models for the Disposal of Flue Gases in Deep Sea" P.N. Tandon and P. Ramalingam uses CORMIX models to investigate the transport and mixing behavior of dissolved gas discharges into the ocean and present analysis of the likely ecological impact. (Reference: Environmental Coastal Regions. C.A Brebbia ed., 2 nd International Conference on Environmental Coastal Regions, Computational Mechanics, Inc. 1998, pp.185-194).

Submarine Pipeline Construction Underwater construction of pipeline generally requires excavation of trench. This r•pQt by the US Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research Laboratory outlines how CORMIX was used to predicted environmental impacts from trench excavation for a proposed project to bring Canadian natural gas to the United States crossing Lake Erie.

Other Applications * The Exploration and Geological Services Division of the Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, prepared a report titled "Use of Diffuser Systems for Dispersion of Placer Mining Effluent" in open file report 1996-2(T) in which CORMIX2 was used to evaluate different discharge designs to dispose of mine wash water. * The National Decentralized Water Resources Capacity Development Project (NDWRCDP) mentions CORMIX in this document about wastewater management.

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This page contains information about independently conducted mixing zone studies and CORMIX application in environmental impact analysis. It is not intended to endorse or recommend any company, individual, or issue.

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Independent CORMIX Validation Studies: " USEPA conducted a Science Advisory Board review of D-CORMIX (which is based upon CORMIX). This rort concludes the model has the potential to predict mixing zone water quality from suspended sediment discharges and the methodology warrants additional development. " The State of Idaho conducted a mixing zone evaluation and fish passage study for a surface mine drainagedischarge into a small mountain stream. The eortconcludes relatively good agreement using v4.1 CORMIX3 model predictions when compared. with field dye study data. * The Department of Ecology in Washington'State conducted a mixing zone model validation study in the Spokane River for a paper r/iill discharge. The eport concludes that CORMIX2 model predictions compared well with field data.

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PA. Davies,1L.A. Mofor, and M.J. Neves found good overall agreement in CORMIXI and CORMIX3 flow predictions with field data-for cooling water discharges in "Comparisonsof Remotely Sensed Observationswith Modeling Predictionsfor the Behaviourof Wastewater Plumesfrom CoastalDischarges"International Journal of Remote Sensing, 1997, Vol. 18, No. 9, PP. 1987-.2019. In particular the authors conclude that very good quantitative agreement

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between CORMIX predictions and field data can be found when water depths, discharge geometries, excess temperatures, and crossflow velocities are known with even moderate precision. I.K. Tsanis, C. Valeo, and Y. Diao report good near-field agreement in CORMIX2 predictions with available field data in "Comparisonof Near-FieldMixing Modelsfor MultiportDiffusers in the Great Lakes" in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 21. Feb. 1994. *-In "Near-Field Mixing Characteristics of Submerged Effluent Discharges into Masan Bay" S.W. Kang et al. report overall agreement of CORMIX2 predictions with field dilution data for a wastewater outfall in a Korean estu=. They also, make model prediction comparisons with field collected data from the Southeast Florida Ocean Outfall Experiment IU(SEFLOE), in Ocean Research, Vol. 22 No. 1. pp. 45-56, 2000.

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" The book "Fundamentals of Environmental Discharge Modeling" (L. R. Davis, CRC Press, 1999) reviews'several of the common methods used for prediction of initial mixing including an older DOS 'version of CORMIX. The author states in his recommendations "The major strdngtl0of the CORMIX models is in the ability to handle complex cases with boundary if the other models don't apply or get into trouble, I use CORIVX" (page 145). effects " In an another companison of field data from the Southeast Florida Ocean.Outfall Experiment II (SEFLOE), good agreement of CORMIX1 and CORMIX2 model predictions with field data are reported "in"'Comparisonof FieldDilutionData with Model CORMIX' by P. Chandra in-the Proceedings from the International Conference in Ocean EngineeringCOE'96,HT, Madras India, 17-20 Dec. 1996.gC " In an overview of environmental risks associaged with offshore oil and gas industry discharges, R. Sadiq et al. find good agreement between CORMIX and a proposed far-field hydrodynamic model in "An IntegratedApproach to Environmental Decision-making", presented at Canada-Brazil Oil & Gas HSE Seminar and Workshop, March 11-12,2002. " In a paper titled !'Near-fieldMixing at an Outfall", S.T. Gawad, J.A. McCorquodale, and H. Geiges find good agreement in CORMIX3 surface discharge dilution predictions with laboratory data in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol.23. No. 1.,1996. " In a detailed study of CORMIX3 surface discharge model predictions titled "BuoyantSurface DischargesAnalysed by the Expert System CORMIX and Comparedwith Delft Hydraulics LaboratoryData Under Varyinig Flow Conditions",W. Summer, 0. Schmidt and W. Zhang report satisfactory agreement overa wide range of flow conditions. Published in Hydroinformatics '94, Proceedings of the International Association for Hydraulic Research, ...

Rotterdam; Balkema, Vol. 1, 1994. In another study of thermal wastewater plumes in l C. Valeo I. Tsanis report general agreement of CORMIX2 predictions in coastal environments in "Two Case,Studies.of Dilution Models appliedto Thermal Discharges"in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 23. 1996. * C. Valeo, H. Shen, and I. Tsanis model a tributary mixing zone in Lake Ontario using CORMIX3 in both stratified and unstratified ambient conditions. They report good agreement with field data and another 3-D numerical hydrodynamic model results in "ModelingMimico Creek as a Surface Discharge"in Journal of Hydraulic Research, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1996. Versar, Inc. conducted a validation study for the state of Maryland on the application of CORMIX3 version v3.2 to power plant discharges. Overall, model results were satisfactory for the 3 out 4 sites considered in the study, which inclu4ed a large freshwater river. a narrow tidal estuar,. a wide tidal estuga and a wind-driven tidal estuary. This study highlights the limitations of methodology application where detailed hydrographic data is not available, where tidal currents and unsteady build-up over multiple tidal cycles can occur, and where wind-induced ambient currents affect plume trajectory and mixing. * LMS Engineers conducted a water quality modeling study for the City of New York. Using CORMIX v2.1. overall they found good agreement in model predictions of initial dilution with data from 12 separate outfall dye studies, and make recommendations for model application. There results are reported in "CORMIX Model Neawield DilutionEvaluationsfor 12 Water Pollution ControlPlantDischarges,"by D. Distante, R. O'Neill, G. Apicella, and H. Tipping, in WEFTEC '94 Vol 4; Surface Water Quality and Ecology, Annual Conference and Exposition-Water Environment Federation; Conf 67; VOL 4. 1994. A University of Western Australia thesis outlines application of CORMIX2 version v2.1 to wastewater discharge in a marine environment. Model results were in good to fair agreement with near-field dilution data. * A University of British Columbia thesis outlines the application of CORMIXI version v3.1 to paper mill effluents. A combination of laboratory experiments and field data found that model predictions produced reasonable results. * In a paper by K.L. Pun and M.J. Davidson titled "On the Behaviour ofAdvected Plunes and Thermals", Journal of Hydraulic Research, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1999, the authors state that CORMIX1 provides reasonably accurate predictions of wastewater behavior in the ocean. * A comparison of various simulation models for thermal plume assessment is given in his paer by A. C. Pinheiro and J. P. Ortiz. The authors state that "(CORMIX ) ... is accepted internationally as a good tool to provide information... (on) water field temperature."

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Home: GEORGIA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES: ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: WATER C CONTROL LINKS: Organization and Administration 391-3-6-.01 * Preparation and Submission of Engineering Reports, Plans Specifications, and Environmental Informati 391-3-6-.02 * Water Use Classifications and Water Quality Standards.' Amended 391-3-6-.03 Marine Sanitation Devices updated 391-3-6-.04 " Emergency Actions 391-3-6-.05 * Waste Treatment and Permit Requirements 391-3-6-.06

updated

* Surface Water Withdrawals. Amended 391-3-6-.07 " Pretreatment and Permit Requirements 391-3-6-.08 " Requirements for Approval and Implementation of Publicly Owned Treatment Works Pretreatment Programs 391-3-6-.09 " Determinations of Categorization of Industrial Users and Requests for Fundamentally Different Factor 391-3-6-.10 " Land Disposal and Permit Requirements 391-3-6-.11 Wastewater Treatment Plant Classification

391-3-6-.12 * Underground Injection Control

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" State Revolving Fund

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391-3-6-.14 " Non-Storm Water General Permit Requirements 391-3-6-.15 " Storm Water Permit Requirements 391-3-6-.16 " Sewage Sludge (Biosolids) Requirements 391-3-6-.17 " Reserved 391-3-6-.18 " General Permit - Land Application System Requirements 391-3-6-.19 " Swine Feeding Operation Permit Requirements 391-3-6-.20 e Animal (Non-Swine) Feeding Operation Permit Requirements 391-3-6-.21

udated

" NPDES General Permit for Construction Activity Fees 391-3-6-.22 " Land Disposal of Septage 391-3-6-.23 " Regulation of Commercial Waste Originators, Pumpers, Transporters, Processors, and Disposal Facilit new 391-3-6-.24

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USER'S MANUAL FOR CORMIX: A HYDRODYNAMiC MIXING ZONE MODEL AND DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR POLLUTANT DISCHARGES INTO SURFACE WATERS

by 3 2 Gerhard H. Jirkal, RobertL. Doneker , and Steven W. Hinton

DeFrees Hydraulics Laboratory School of Civil and Environmental Engineering Cbrnell University Ithaca, New York 14853-3501 'now at: Institute for Hydromechanics, University of Karlsruhe Karlsruhe, D-76131, Germany 2now

at: Oregon Graduate Institute, PO Box 91000, Portland, OR 97291-1000 3 National

Registry of Capacity Rights, West Peabody, MA 01960

Cooperative Agreement No. CX824847-01 -0 Project Officer: Dr. Hiranmay Biswas

OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY WASHINGTON, DC 20460

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Abstract The Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System (CORMIX, Version 3.0 or higher) is a software system for the analysis, prediction, and design of aqueous toxic or conventional pollutant discharges into diverse water bodies. The major emphasis is on the geometry and dilution characteristics of the initial mixing zone -including compliance with regulatory constraints--, but the system also predicts the behavior of the discharge plume at larger distances. The highly user-interactive CORMIX system is implemented on microcomputers (IBM-PC, or compatible), and consists of three integrated subsystems:

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highly unsteady environments, such as tidal reversal conditions, in which transient recirculation and pollutant build-up effects can occur. In addition, two post-processing models are linked to the CORMIX system, but can also be used independently. These are CORJET (the Cornell BUoyant Jet' Integral Model) for the detailed analysis of the near-field behavior of buoyant jets, and FFLOCATR (the Far-Field Plume Locator) for the far-field delineation of discharge plumes in non-uniform river or estuary environments.

---CORMIX1 for submerged single port discharges, ---CORMIX2 for submerged multiport diffuser discharges, ---CORMIX3 for buoyant surface discharges.

This user's manual gives a comprehensive description of the CORMIX system; it provides guidance for assembly and preparation of required input data for the three subsystems; it delineates ranges of applicability; it provides guidance for interpretation and graphical display of system output; and it illustrates practical system application through several case studies.

While CORMIX was originally developed under the assumption of steady ambient conditions, Version 3.0 also allows application to

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Acknowledgments An earlier version of this users manual covering the three separate CORMIX subsystems (Version 1.0) before they were integrated into a comprehensive single system was developed under support form the National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement Inc. (NCASI) and was published as Technical Bulletin No. 624 of NCASI (Jirka and Hinton, 1992). With the permission of NCASI, that users guide has up until recently also been distributed by the USEPA-Center for Environmental Assessment Modeling (CEAM), Athens, GA, as part of the modeling support for CORMIX. With the completion of CORMIX Version 3.0 and its many new program features, the present revision and update of the users manual This work was has become necessary. conducted at the DeFrees Hydraulics Laboratory, Cornell University, as a Cooperative Agreement

with the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The authors would like to extend their appreciation to Dr. Hiranmay Biswas, Project Officer, for his guidance of the project. Additional support for the development, testing and evaluation of CORMIX system elements was provided by the State of Delaware Department of Natural Resources (Mr. Rick Greene, Project Officer) during 1991, by the Austrian Verbundgesellschaft (Dr. Gerhard Schiller, Project Officer) during 1991/92, and by the State of Maryland Department of Natural Resources (Dr. Paul Miller, Project Officer) during 1992 to 1995. Cameron Wilkens, Electronics Technician, in the DeFrees Hydraulics Laboratory, generously assisted with solutions forecomputer hardware and software problems.

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Table of Contents Abstract .......

Acknowledgments ...................... Table of Contents

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Metric Conversion Factors for Dimensions Used in CORMIX

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Glossary .....................

I Introduction

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II Background: 3 Mixing Processes and Mixing Zone Regulations .... ............................ 3 ................................ Mixing Processes .... 2.1 HydrodynaMic 2.1.1 Near-Field Processes ...................................... 3 ............. ..... 10 ......... 2.1.2 Far-Field Processes .............. 12 .......................... 2.2 Mixing Zone Regulations ............... 12 2.2.1 Legal Background ............................................. 13 2.2.2 Mixing Zone Definitions ........... 13 Miori onxicstances.............. 2.2.3 Special MixingZona Requacicemont 14 ............. To.i Substa 2.2.4 Current Permitting Practice on Mixint Zones 2.2.5 Relationship Between Actual Hydrodynamic Processes and Mixing Zone 15 ............................................... Dimesions 17 III General Features of the CORMIX System ....................................... 17 3.1 Overview .................................................... 3.2 Capabilities and Major Assumptions of the Three Subsystems and the Post-Processor 18 Models ........................................................... 18 ....................... 3.2.1 CORMIX Subsystems .......... 18 3.2.2 Post-Processor Models CORJET and FFLOCATR .................... 19 3.3 System Processing Sequence and Structure ................................ 19 3.4 CORMIX Data Input Features ............................................ 21 3.5 Logic Elements of CORMIX: Flow Classification ............................. 21 3.6 Simulation Elements of CORMIX: Flow Prediction ............................ 21 3.7 CORMIX Output Features: Design Summary and Iterations .................... 22 ................................... 3.7.1 CORMIX Session Report 23 .............................. 3.7.2 CORMIXI. 2 or 3 Prediction File 23 3.7.3 CMXGRAPH Plots ............................................. 23 3.8 Post-Processor Models CORJET and FFLOCATR: Input and Output Features .... 23 3.9 Equipment Requirements, System Installation and Run Times .................. IV CORMIX Data Input .......................................................... 4.1 General Aspects of Interactive Data Input .................................. 4.2 Site/Case Identifier Data ................................................ ......................................... 4.3 Ambient Data ........ 4.3.1 Bounded Cross-Section ........................................

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4.3.2 Unbounded Cross-section ....................................... 4.3.3 Tidal Reversing Ambient Conditions ............................... 4.3.4 Ambient Density Specification ..................................... 4.3.5 W ind speed .................................................. 4.4. Discharge Data: CORMIX1 ............................................. 4.4.1 Discharge Geometry ..... ....................................... ............................. 4.4.2 Port Discharge Flow ......... 4.5 Discharge Data: CORMIX2 .............................................. 4.5.1 Diffuser Geometry .............................................. 4.5.2 Diffuser Discharge Flow ........................................... ................................. 4.6 Discharge Data: CORMIX3 ............ 4.6.1 Discharge Geometry ............................................ 4.6.2 Discharge Flow ............................................... 4.7 Pollutant Data ........................................................ 4.8 Mixing Zone Data ..................................................... 4.9 Units of Measure ......................................................

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V CORMIX Output Features ..................................................... 5.1 Qualitative Output: Flow Descriptions ..................................... 5.1.1 Descriptive Messages .......................................... 5.1.2 Length Scale Computations ..................................... 5.1.3 Description of Flow Classes ..................................... 5.2 Quantitative Output: Numerical Flow Predictions ............................. ................................... 5.2.1 Summary Output in SUM 5.2.2 Detailed Prediction Output Fileff.CXn .......................... 5.3 Graphical Output: Display and Plotting of Plume Features Using CMXGRAPH .... 5.3.1 Access to CMXGRAPH ......................................... 5.3.2 Use of CMXGRAPH ............................................

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VI Post-Processor Models CORJET and FFLOCATR: Input and Output Features ................................................ 6.1 CORJET: The Cornell Buoyant Jet Integral Model ............................ 6.1.1 General Features .............................................. 6.1.2 Access to CORJET ............................................ 6.1.3 CORJET Input Data File ........................................ 6.1.4 CORJET Output Features ....................................... 6.2 FFLOCATR: The Far-Field Plume Locator ................................. 6.2.1 General Features .............................................. 6.2.2 Access to FFLOCATR ............................. 6.2.3 FFLOCATR Cumulative Discharge Input Data File.................... 6.2.4 FFLOCATR Output Features .....................................

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VII Closure ................................................................... 7.1 Synopsis . ...... .................................................... 7.2 System and Documentation Availability .................................... 7.3 User Support .........................................................

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Literature References ..........................................................

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Appendix A Flow Classification Diagrams for the Three CORMIX Subsystems ...............

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Appendix B CORMIXI: Submerged Single Port Discharge in a Deep Reservoir ............... Appendix C CORMIXl and 2: Submerged Single Port Discharge and Multiport Diffuser in a Shallow River ..........

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Appendix D CORMIX3: Buoyant Surface Discharge In An Estuary,...........................

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Appendix E Two Applications of CORJET

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.......................................

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:Glossary Actual Water Depth (HDM - the actual water depth at the submerged discharge location. It is also called local water depth. For surface discharges it is the water depth at the channel entry location. Alignment Angle (GAMMA) - the angle measured counterclockwise from the ambient current direction to the diffuser axis. Allocated Impact Zone - see mixing zone. Alternating Diffuser - a multi-port diffuser where the ports do not point in a nearly single horizontal direction. Ambient Conditions - the geometric and dynamic characteristics of a receiving water body that impact mixing' zone processes. These include plan shape, vertical cross sections, bathymetry, ambient velocity, and density distribution. Ambient Currents - A velocity field within the receiving Water which tends to deflect a buoyant jet Into the current direction. Ambient Discharge (QA) - the volumetric flow rate of the receiving water body. Average Diameter (DO) - the average diameter of the discharge ports or nozzles for a multi-port diffuser. Average Depth (HA) - the average depth of the receiving water body'determined from the equivalent cross sectional area during schematization. Bottom Slope (SLOPE) - the slope of the bottom that extends from a surface discharge into the. receiving water body. Buovant Je - a discharge where turbulent mixing is caused by a combination of initial momentum flux and buoyancy flux." It is also called'a forced pluime.. Buoyant Spreading Processes - far-field mixing processes which arise due to the buoyant forces caused by the density difference between the mixed flow and the ambient reciving water. Buoyant Surface Disccharge - the release of a positively or neutrally buoyant effluent into a receiving water through a canal, channel, or near-surf ace pipe. Coanda Attachment - a dynamic interaction betWein the effluent plUme and the water bottom that results from the entrainment demand of the effluent jet itself and is due to low pressure effects. Cumulative Discharge - refers to the volumetric flow rate which occurs between the bankJshoreline and a given position within the water body. Cumulative Discharge Method - an approach for representing transverse plume mixing in river or estuaryflow by describing the plume centedinie as being fixed on a line of lonstant cumulative discharge and by relating the plume width in terms, of a cumulative discharge increment Darcy-Weisbaih Friction iactor

-

a measurIe of the roughness characte'ristics in a channel.

Deep Conditions - see near-field stability.

vii

Density Stratification - the presence of a vertical density profile within the receiving water. Diffuser Lenath (LD) - The distance between the first and last port of a multi-port diffuser line. See diffuser line. Diffuser Line - a hypothetical line between the first and last ports of a multi-port diffuser. Discharge Velocity (UO) - the average velocity of the effluent being discharged from the outfall structure. Discharge from Shore (DISTB) - the average distance between the outfall location (or diffuser, midpoint) and the shoreline. It is also specified as a cumulative ambient discharge divided by the product UA times HA. Distance from Shore (YB1. YB2) - the distance from the shore line to the first and last portsof a multiport diffuser. Discharge Flow Rate (Q00 - the volumetric flow rate from the discharge structure. Discharge Channel Width (=0) - the average width of a surface discharging channel. Discharge Channel Depth (HO) - the average depth of a surface discharging channel. Discharge Conditions - the geometric and flux characteristics of an outfall installation that effect mixing processes. These include port area, elevation above the bottom and orientation, effluent discharge flow rate, momentum flux, and buoyancy flux. Far-fieid - the region of the receiving water where buoyant spreading motions and passive diffusion control the trajectory and dilution of the'effluent discharge plume. Far-field Processes - physical mixing mechanisms that are dominated by the ambient receiving water conditions, particularly ambient current velocity and density differences between the mixed flow and the ambient receiving water.

AST-CORMIX - a version of CORMIX data entry with short questions and without help sections; can be chosen in main menu; for advanced users. Flow Classification - the process of identifying the most appropriate generic qualitative description of the discharge flow undergoing analysis. This is accomplished by examining known relationships between flow pattems and certain calculated physical parameters. Flux Characteristics - the properties of effluent discharge flow rate, momentum flux and buoyancy flux for theeffluent discharge. Forced Plume - see buoyant jet. Generic Flow Class - a qualitative description of a discharge flow situation that is based on known relationships between flow pattems and certain physical parameters. Height of Port (HO) - the average distance between the bottom and the average nozzle centerline. High Water Slack (HWS) - the time of tidal reversal nearest to MHW Horizontal Angle (SIGMA1 - the angle measured counterclockwise from the ambient current direction viii

to the plane projection of the port center line. Hydrodynamic Mixing Processes - the physical processes that determine the fate and distribution of effluent once it is discharged. Input Data Sequence - a group of questions from one of four topical areas. Intermediate-field Affects - induced flows in shallow waters which extend beyond the strictly near-field region of a multi-port diffuser. Iteration Menu- the last menu (red panel) the user can choose after completion of a design case; allows iteration with different ambient/discharge/regulatory conditions. Jet- see pure jet. Laterally bounded - refers to a water body which is constrained on both sides by banks such as rivers, streams, estuaries and other narrow water courses. LaterallyvUnbounded -za water body which for practical purposes is constrained on at most one side. This would include discharges into wide lakes, wide estuaries and coastal areas. Legal Mixing Zone (LMZ) - see regulatory mixing zone. Lengt Sle - a dynamic measure of the relative influence of certain hydrodynamic processes on effluent mixing. Length Scale Analysis - an approach which uses calculated measures of the relative influence of certain hydrodynamic processes to identify key aspects of a discharge flow so that.a generic flow class can be identified. Local Water Depth (HD) - see actual water depth. Low Water Slack (LW$) - the time of tidal reversal nearest to MLW Main Menu - the first menu (red panel)_the user can choose from when entering CORMIX. Manning's n - a measure of the roughness characteristics in a chanrel.. Maximum Tidal Velocity (Uamax) - the maximum velocity occurring within the tidal cycle Mean Ambient Velocity (UA) - the averageyvelocity of the receiving water bodys flow. Mean Hiah Water (MLW)

-

the highest water level (averaged over many tidal cycles) in estuarine or

coastal flows. Mean Low Water (MLW) coastal flows.

.1

-

the lowest water level (averaged over many tidal cycles) in estuarine or

Merging -,the phnical interaction of the discharge plumes from adjacent ports of a multi-port diffuser. Mixing Zone - an administrative construct which defines a limited area or volume of the receiving water where the initial dilution of a discharge is allowed to occur. In practice, it may occurwih.in .the near-field or far-field of a hydrodynamic mixing process and therefore depends on source, ambient, and regulatory ix

constraints. Mixing Zone Regulations - The administrative construct that intends to prevent any harmful impact of a discharged effluent on the aquatic environment and its designated uses. Momentum Jet - see pure jet. Multi-port Diffuser - a structure with many closely spaced ports or nozzles that inject more than one buoyant jet into the ambient receiving water body. Near-field - the region of a receiving'water where the initial jet characteristic of momentum flux, buoyancy flux and outfall geometry influence the jet trajectory and mixing of an effluent discharge. Near-Field Region (NFR) - a term used in the CORMIX printout for describing the zone of strong initial mixing where the so called near-field processes occur. It is the region of the receiving water where outfall design conditions are most likely to have an impact on in-stream concentrationss. Near-field Stabilit - the amount of local recirculation and re-entrainment of already mixed water back into the buoyant jet region. Stable dischaige conditions are associated with weak momentum and deep water and are also sometimes called 'deepý Water conditions. Unstable discharge conditions have localized recirculation patterns and are also called shallow water conditions. Negative Buoyancy - the measure of the tendency of an effluent discharge to sink in a receiving water. Non-buoyant Jet - see pure jet.

Open Format - data input which does not require precise placement of numerical values in fixed fields andwhich allows character strings to berentered in either upper or lower case letters.

1)

Passive Ambient Diffusion Processes - far-field mixing processes which arise due to existing turbulence in the ambient receiving water flow. Plume - see buoyant jet.

Positive Buoyancy - the measure of the tendency of an effluent discharge to rise in the receiving water. Post-Prcessor - several options available within CORMIX (main menu or iteration menu) for additional computation or data display, including a graphics package, a near-field buoyant jet model, and a far-field plume delineator. Pure Jet - a discharge where only the initial momentum flux in the form of a high velocity injection causes turbulent mixing. It is also called momentum jet or non-buoyant jet. Pure Plume - a discharge where only the initial buoyancy flux leads to local vertical accelerations which then lead to turbulent mixing.

Eycnocline - a horizontal layer in the receiving water where a rapid density change occurs. Pycnocline Height (HINT) - the average distance between the bottom and a horizontal layer in thd-. receiving water body where a rapid density change occurs. Region Of Interest (ROI) - a user defined region of the receiving water body where mixing conditions are to be analyzed. x

3)

Regulatory Mixing Zone (RMZ) - the region of the receiving water where mixing zone regulations are applied. It is sometimes referred to as the legal mixing zone. Relative Orientation Angle (BETA) - the angle measured either clockwise or counterclockwise from the average plan projection of the port centerline to the nearest diffuser axis. Schematization - the process of describing a receiving water body's actual geometry with a rectangular cross section. Shallow Water Conditions - see near-field stability. ,table Dischaerg - see near-field stability. Staged Diffuser - a multi-port diffuser where all ports point in one direction, generally following the diffuser line. Stagnant Conditions - the absence of ambient receiving water flow. A condition which rarely occurs in actual receiving water bodies. Submerged Multi-port Diffuser - an effluent discharge structure with more than one efflux opening that is located substantially below the receiving water surface. Submerged Single Port Discharge - an effluent discharge structure with a single efflux opening that is located substantially below the receiving water surface. Surface Buoyant Jets - positively or neutrally buoyant effluent discharges occurring horizontally at the water surface from a latterly entering channel or pipe. Surface Width (BS) - the equivalent average surface width of the receiving water body determined from the equivalent rectangular cross sectional area during schematization. Tidal cyle - the variation of ambient water depth and velocity as a function of time occurring due to tidal (lunar and solar) influences. Tidal period (PERIOD) - the duration of the tidal cycle (on average 12.4 hours). Tidal reversal - the two instances in the tidal cycle when the ambient velocity reverses its direction. Toxic Dilution Zone (I'DZ) - the region of the receiving water where the concentration of a toxic chemical may exceed the acute effects concentration. Unidirectional Diffuser - a multi-port diffuser with all ports pointing to one side of the diffuser line and all ports oriented more or less normally to the diffuser line. Unstable Discharge - see near-field stability. Vertical Angle (TrHETA) - the angle between the port centerline and the horizontal plane. Wake Attachment - a dynamic interaction of the effluent plume with the bottom that is forced by the receiving water crossflow. Zone of Initial Dilution - a term sometimes used to describe the mixing zone for the discharge of municipal wastewater into the coastal ocean, limited to the extent of near-field mixing processes.

Axi

Metric Conversion Factors for Dimensions Used in CORMIX Length:

lm

= = =

3.281 ft 39.37 in 0.0006214 mile

Velocity:

1 m/s

= =

3.281 ft/s (fps)

2,237 miles/hr (mph) - 1.943 knots

Discharge:

1 m 3/s

- 35.31 ft3/s (cfs) = 22.82 million-gaVday (mgd)

Density:

3 1000 kg/m

= 62.43 lb/ft3

Temperature:

oC

= (F

-

32.0) * 0.5556

1)

9 xii

I Introduction 'The Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System (CORMIX) is a software system for the analysis, prediction, and design:'of aqueous toxic or conventional pollutant discharges into diverse water bodies. It was developed under several' cooperative funding agreements between U.S.' EPA and Cornell University during the period 1985-1995. It is a recommended analysis tool in , key guidance documents (1,2-3) on the permitting of induttrial, municipal, thermalI, and other point: source discharges to receing waters. Although'. the system's major emphasis is on predicting the geometry and dilution characteristics of the initial mixing zone so that compliance with water quality regulatory constraints may be judged, the system also predicts the behavior of the discharge plume at larger distances.

Several factors provided the original impetus for system development including' (a),the considerable complexity of mixing processes in the aquatic environment, resulting from the great diversity of discharge and site conditions and requiring advanced knowledge in a specialized field of hydrodynamics; (b) the failure of previously existing models§ (e.g. the: U.S. EPA plurrie models (4)' originally 'developed for municipal discharges in deep bcoastal waters) to' adequately predict' often ý routine discharge situations, especially for more shallow inland sites; (c) the issuance in 1985 by the U.S. EPA of additional guidelines (1) for the permitting of toxic aqueous 'discharges, placing yet another burden on both applicants and regulators' in'delineating special zones fcr the initial mixing of these substances; and '(d) the availability of new compUter methods, so-called expert systems, for making accessible to the user, within a simple' personal computing environment, the expert's knowledge and'l"experience in -dealing with complex engineering problems.,

The highly user-interactive CORMIX: system is implemented on IBM-DOS compatible microcomputers, utilizes a rule-based' systenms approach to data input and processing, and consists-of three subsystems. These are: (a) CORMIX1 for the analysis of submerged single port discharges, (b) CORMIX2 for the analysis of submerged multiport diffuser discharges and (c) CORMIX3 for the analysis of buoyant surface discharges. Without specialized training in hydrodynamics,' users can Make detailed predictions of mixing zone conditions,' 'check compliance 7 with -regulations and readily investigate the performance' of altemrative outfall designs. The basic CORMIX methodology M'elieson the assumption of 'steady ambient conditions. However, recent versiong also contain special' routines for the application to highly unsteady environments, such as tidal reversal conditions, in which transient recirculation and pollutant build-up effects can occur.

Four separate publications (5,6,7,8) describe the; scientific basis for the CORMIX system and ,demonstrate comparison' and validation withý field and laboratory Idata. ' The results'of these Works are summarized in 'the peer-review'ed' literature (9,10,11,12,13,14,15, 16,17). The CORMIX systems approach and its performance relative to the earlier U.S.ý EPA plume models in the context of estuarine applications Is also described in EPA's technical guidarh6e- man.al for performingI waste' load allocations in estuaries (3). EPA's established policy is to make the CORMIX system freely available to all potential users through its modeling software distribution facility at the U.S. EPA Center for Environmental Assessment Modeling (CEAM) in Athens, Georgia. Some of the CORMIX subsystems have been available to the industrial and regulatory user communities since December 1989 when distribution of CORMIX1 was commenced by Cornell University for the purpose of identifying subtle programming errors through application to actual mixing zone analysis problems by a

In addition, several post-processing options are available. These are CORJET (the Cornell Buoyant Jet Integral Model) for the detailed analysis of the near-field behavior of buoyant jets, FFLOCATR (the Far-Field Plume Locator) for the far-field delineation of discharge plumes in non-uniform river or estuary environments, and CMXGRAPH, a graphics package for plume plotting.

1

controlled users group. After this testing was deemed complete, CEAM commenced the distribution of CORMIX1 in November 1990. A similar approach was used to introduce CORMIX2 which began CEAM distribution in October 1991. In 1992, CORMIXI, CORMIX2, and CORMIX3 were integrated a single program and distributed by USEPA-CEAM as CORMIX Version 2.1 as of 1993.

management positions desiring an overview of the CORMIX systems capabilities, and 2) technical staff needing assistance in actual applications. Chapter II provides a summary of the physical processes of effluent mixing, as well as an overview of the regulatory background and practice on mixing zone applications. The general features of the CORMIX system are explained in Chapter II!including summaries of: (a) predictive capabilities and limitations, (b) overall system structure and method of processing information, (c) user interaction, and (d) individual computational elements. Detailed guidance on the preparation and entry of input data, as required by the three CORMIX subsystems, is given in Chapter IV. Chapter V provides a description of system output, containing descriptive, quantitative, and graphical information on the- predicted effluent flow. Chapter VI describes the background, input and output features of the CORJET jet integral model and- the far-field plume locator program FFLOCATR. The closing remarks in Chapter VII contain information on system availability and user support, and on possible future developments and enhancements.

Additional development of the postprocessor modules, including plume graphics, the jet-integral model, and the far-field locator, were added to the system and distributed as CORMIX Version 3.0 as of 1994. This manual describes the operation of, a revised version, including a special routine for unsteady tidal applications, denoted as,CORMIX Version 3.1 that has been distributed by Cornell as of June 1995. A slightly updated Version 3.2 will be distributed by USEPA-CEAM as of September 1996. The objectives of this user's guide are as follows: (a) to provide a comprehensive description of the CORMIX system; (b) to provide guidance for assembly and preparation of required input data for all three subsystems as well as the post-processor models; (c) to delineate ' ranges of applicability of the subsystems; (d) to provide guidance for the interpretation and graphical display of system output;. and (e) to illustrate, practical system application through several case studies.

Appendices to this guide present four case studies on the application of all. three CORMIX subsystems and its post-processor models. These are adapted from actual situations and illustrate the complete input requirements and output capabilities of the system. In addition, some of the assumptions on data schematization, problem simplification, and output interpretation, and construction graphical displays are discussed in a context typical of many mixing zone model applications.

This manual is organized to meet the informational needs of two distinctly different groups of readers: 1) personnel in environmental

D

9

J9 2

I! Background: Mixing Processes and Mixing Zone Regulations When performing design work and predictive studies on effluent discharge problems, it is important to clearly distinguish between the physical aspects of hydrodynamic mixing processes that determine the effluent fate and distribution, and the administrative construct of mixing zone regulations that intend to prevent any harmful impact of the effluent on the aquatic environment and associated uses.

and construction details represent additional geometric features; and for surface discharges the cross-section and: orientation of the flow entering the ambient watercourse are important. The flux characteristics are given by the effluent discharge flow rate, by its momentum flux and by its buoyancy flux.. The buoyancy flux represents the effect of the. relative density difference between the effluent discharge and ambient conditions in combination with the gravitational. acceleration. It is a measure of the tendency for the effluent flow to rise (i.e. positive buoyancy) or to fall (i.e. negative buoyancy).

2.1 Hydrodynamic Mixing Processes The mixing behavior of any wastewater discharge is govemed by the interplay of ambient conditions in the receiving water body and by the discharge characteristics.

The.. hydrodynamics of an effluent continuously discharging into a receiving water body can be conceptualized as a mixing process occurring in two separate regions. In the first region, the initial jet characteristics of momentum flux, buoyancy flux, and outfall geometry influence the jet trajectory and mixing. This region will be referred to as the 'near-field', and encompasses the buoyant jet flow and any surface, bottom or terminal layer interaction. In this near-field region, ouffall designers can -usually affect the Initial mixing characteristics through appropriate manipulation of design variables.

The ambient conditions in the receiving water body;, be it stream, river, lake, reservoir, estuary or coastal waters, are described by.the: water bodys -geometric and dynamic, characteristics.. Important geometric parameters include plan shape, vertical cross-sections, and bathymetry, 'especially in the discharge, vicinity. Dynamic-characteristics are given by the velocity and density distribution in the water body, again primarily in the discharge vicinity. In many cases, these conditions can be taken as steady-state with little variation because the time scale for the mixig . processes is usually of the order of minutes up to perhaps one hour. Insome cases, notably tidally .influenced flows, the ambient conditions.., can be highly transient and the assumption of steady-state conditions maybe inappropriate. In this case, the effective•dilution of the discharge plume may be reduced relative to that under steady state conditions.

As the turbulent plume travels further away from the source, the source characteristics become less important. Conditions existing in the ambient environment will control trajectory and dilution of the turbulent plume through buoyant spreading motions and passive diffusion due to ambient turbulence., This region will be referred to -here as the "far field'" It is stressed at this'. poipt that the distinction between near-field and far-field is made purely on hydrodynamic grounds. It is. unrelated to any regulatory mixing zone definitions.

The discharge conditions relate to the geometric and flux characteristics of the submerged outfall installation, For a single port discharge the port diameter, its elevation. above: the bottom and, its orientation, provide .the geometry;. for muitiport diffuser installations the arrangement of the individual ports along the. diffuser line•,the orientation of the diffuser line,

2.1.1 Near-Field Processes Three: important types of =near-field processes are submerged buoyant ,jet mixing,. boundary. interactions and surface buoyant jet mixing as described in the following paragraphs.

3

ports. After merging, a two-dimensional buoyant jet plane is formed as illustrated in Figure 2.1d. Such plane buoyant jets resulting from a multiport diffuser discharge in deep water can be further affected by ambient currents and by density stratification as discussed in the preceding paragraph..

Submerged Buoyant Jet Mixing: The. effluent' flow from a submerged discharge port provides a velocity discontinuity between the discharged fluid and the ambient fluid causing an intense shearing action. The shearing flow breaks rapidly down into a turbulent motion. The width of the'zone of high turbulence intensity increases in the direction of the flow by incorporating ("entraining") more of the outside, less turbulent fluid into this zone. In this manner, any internal concentratiaohs (e.g. fluid momentum or pollutants) of the discharge- flow become diluted by the entrainment of ambient water. Inversely, one can speak of the fact that both fluid momentum and poirutants' become gradually diffused into the ambient field. The initial velocity discontinuity may arise in different fashions. In a .pure jet" (also called "momentum jet" or "non-buoyant jeto), the initial momentum flux in the form of a' high-velocity injection causes the turbulentmixinj. In a- pure plume," the, initial buoyancy flux leads to local vertical accelerations which then lead to turbulent, mixing. In the generalbcase of a "buoyant jet" (also called a "forced plume),) a combination of initial momentum flux and buoyancy flux is a responsible for turbulent mixingq Thus, buoyant lets are characterized by a narrow turbulent fluid zone in Which vigorous mixing takes place.., Furthermore, depending on discharge orientation' and direction of buoyant acceleration, curved trajectories are generally established in a stagnant uniform-density environment as illustrated in Figure 2.1a.

9

Boundary Interaction Processes and NearField Stability:' Ambient water bodies always have vertical boundaries. "These include the water sUrface and the bottom, but in addition, "internal boundaries" may exist at pycnoclines. Pycnoclines are layers of rapid density change' Depending on the dynamic and geometric characteristics of the discharge flow, a variety of interaction phenomena can occur at such boundaries, particularly where flow trapping may occur. boundary interaction In essence, processes provide a transition between the buoyant jet mixing process in the near-field, and between buoyant spreading and passive diffusion in the far-field. They can be gradUal 'and mild, or abrupt. leading to vigorous transition and mixing processes. They also can significantly influence the stability of the effluent discharge conditions. The assessment of near-field stability, i.e. the distinction of stable or unstable conditions, is a key aspect of effluent dilution analyses. It is especially important for 'understanding the behavior of the two-dimensional plumes resulting from multiport, diffusers, as shown by some examples in Figure 2.2., "Stable discharge" conditions, usually occurring for a combination of strong buoyancy, weak momentum and deep water, are often referred to as "deep water" "Unstable conditions ý(Figures 2.2aXc). discharge" conditions, on the other hand, may be considered synonymous to "shallow water" conditions (Figure 2.2b,d). Technical discussions on discharge stability are presented elsewhere (18,19).

Buoyant jet mixing is further affected. by ambient currents and density stratification. The role of ambient currents is to graduallydeflect the buoyant jet into the current direction as illustrated in Figure 2.1b and thereby induce additional mixing. The role of ambient density stratification is to counteract the vertical acceleration within the buoyant jet-'. leading ultimately to trapping of the flow at a certain level. Figure 2.1c shows a typical buoyant jet shape at the trapping or terminal level.

A few important examples of boundary interaction for a single round buoyant jet are illustrated in Figure 2.3. If a buoyant jet is bentover by a cross-flow, it will gradually approach the surface, bottom or terminal level and will undergo a smooth transition with little additional mixing

• Finally, in case of multiport diffusers, the behave round buoyant, jets individual independently until they interact, ormerge, with each other at a certain distance from the efflux

4

ID

Another type of interaction process concerns submerged buoyant jets discharging in the vicinity of the water bottom into a stagnant or flowing ambient. Two types of dynamic interaction processes can occur that lead to rapid attachment of the effluent plume to the water bottom as These are wake illustrated in Figure 2.4. attachment forced by the receiving water's crossfiow or Coanda attachment forced by the entrainment demand of the effluent jet itself. The latter is due to low pressure effects as the jet periphery is close to the water bottom.

impingement point can take on one of the following forms: (a) If the flow has sufficient buoyancy it will ultimately form a stable layer at the surface (Figure 2.3b). In the presence of weak ambient flow this will lead to an upstream intrusion against the ambient current. (b) If the buoyancy of the effluent flow Is weak or its momentum very high, unstable recirculation phenomena can occur in the discharge vicinity (Figure 2.3c). This local recirculation leads to reentrainment of already mixed water back into the buoyant jet region. (c) In the intermediate case, a combination of localized vertical mixing and upstream spreading may result (Figure 2.3d).

Terminal level,

Finally plume -like

current

Port let-like

a) Buoyant Jet in Stagnant Uniform Ambient

c) Buoyant Jet in Stagnant Stratified Ambient Round i- jets-

Plane jet

Ambient

current

NfmkI

Strongly d•lT I

b)Buoyant Jet in Uniform Ambient Cross-Current

Side View

Tap View

d) Jet Merging for UnidirectionaI Multipart -diffuser Forming plane Buoyant Jet

Figure 2.1:

Typical buoyant jet mixing flow patterns under different ambient conditions

5

ID

(1

2d II V.%WI

a) Deep Water, 'High Buoyancy, Vertical: Stable Near-Field

~awn

c) Deep Water, High Buoyancy, Near-Horizontal: Stable Near-Field

3 -Ful

veti

b) Shallow Water, Low Buoyancy, Vertical: Unstable Near-Field with Local Mixing and Restratification

1-

d) Shallow Water,. Low Buoyancy, Near-Horizontal: Unstable. Near-Field with Full Vertical Mixing

Figure 2.2: Examples of near-field stability and instability conditions for submerged discharges in limited water depth

ID 6

Side View

Side View . _

a) Gradual Surface Approach (Near-Horizontal)

_J_ _

c) Surface Impingement with Full Vertical Mixing in Shallow Water

Weak ambient

Si

Side View ,.

b) Surface Impingement with Buoyant Upstream Spreading

Figure 2.3:

d)

Surface Impingement with Local Vertical Mixing. Buoyant Upstream Spreading and Restrotificotion

Examples of boundary Interactions for submerged jets in finite depth

7

U0

U(] U

i) Free Deflected Jet/Plume in Cross-flow

ii) Wake Attachment of Jet / Plume

a) Wake Attachment

9_

i) Free Jet

ii) Attached Jet b) Coanda Attachment

Figure 2.4: Examples of wake (crossflow induced) attachment and Coanda attachment conditions for jets discharging near boundaries

8

Surface

Buoyant Jet

Mixing:

Positively

After this stage, vertical, entrainment becomes inhibited due to buoyant damping of the turbulent motions, and the jet experiences strong lateral spreading. During stagnant ambient conditions, ultimately a reasonably thin layer may be formed at the surface of the receiving water; that layer can .undergo the transient buoyant spreading motions depicted in Figure2.5a.

buoyant- jets discharged horizontally along the watersurface from a laterally entering channel or pipe (Figure 2.5) bear some similarities to the more classical submerged buoyant jet. For arelatively short initial, distance, the effluent: behaves like a momentum jet spreading both laterally and vertically due to turbulent mixing.

Plan View

m\verticof Ientroinment

c) Shoreline-Attoched Surface Jet in'-Strong .Ambient Crossflow

a) Buoyant Surface Jet in Stagnant Ambient

-

-

Plan View

Plan View

7~ rm ~7 ~ b) Buoyant` Surfoce Jet In Amblent Crossflowa.'

d) Upstream Intruding - Plume in Weak Ambient Crossf low

.-

2.5:

Typical buoyant surface jet mixing flow pattems under stagnant or flowing ambient conditions

9

In the presence of ambient crossflow, buoyant surface jets may exhibit any one of following three types of flow features: They may form a weakly deflected jet that does not Interact with the shoreline (Figure 2.5b). When the crossflow is .strong, they: may attach to the downstream boundary forming a shore-hugging plume (Figure 2.5c). When a high discharge buoyancy flux combines with a weak crossflow, the buoyant spreading effects can be so strong that an upstream intruding plume is formed that also stays close to the shoreline (Figure 2.5d).

Far-field mixing processes are characterized by the longitudinal advection of the mixed effluent by the ambient current Velocity. Buoyant Spreading Processes: These are defined as the horizontally transverse spreading of the, mixed effluent flow while it is being advected downstream by the ambient current. Such spreading processes arise due to the buoyant forces caused by the density difference of the mixed flow relative to the ambient density. They can be effective transport mechanisms that can quickly spread a mixed effluent laterally over large distances in the transverse direction, particularly in cases of strong ambient stratification. In this situation, effluent of considerable vertical thickness at the, terminal level can collapse into a thin but very wide layer unless this is prevented by lateral boundaries. If the discharge is non-buoyant, or weakly buoyant, and the ambient is unstratified, there is no buoyant spreading region in the far-field, only a passive diffusion region.

Intermediate-Field Effects for Multiport Diffuser Discharges: Some multiport diffuser installations induce flows in shallow water which extend beyond the strict near-field region. The resulting plumes are sometimes referred to as the "intermediate-field" (18) because they interact with the receMng water at distances that are substantially greater than the water depth; the order of magnitude of the water depth is typically used to define the dimensions of the near-field region. Intermediate fields may occur when a multiport diffuser represents a large source of momentum with a relatively weak buoyancy effect. Such a diffuser will have an unstable near-field with shallow water conditions. For certain diffuser geometries (e.g. unidirectional & staged diffuser types; see Section V) strong motions can be induced in the shallow water environment in the form of vertically mixed currents that laterally entrain ambient water and may extend over long distances before they re-stratify or dissipate their momentum.

Depending on the type of near-field flow and ambient stratification, several types of buoyant spreading may occur. These include: (a) spreading at the water surface, (b) spreading at the bottom, (c) spreading at a sharp internal interface (pycnocline) with a density jump, or (d) spreading at the terminal level in continuously stratified ambient fluid. As an example, the definition diagram and structure of surface buoyant spreading processes somewhat downstream, of the discharge in unstratified crossflow is shown in Figure 2.6.

Another type of interaction process concerns submerged buoyant jets discharging in the vicinity of the water bottom into a stagnant or flowing ambient. Two types of dynamic interaction processes can occur that lead to rapid attachment of the effluent plume'to the water bottom as illustrated in Figure 2.4. These are wake attachment forced by the receiving water's crossflow or Coanda attachment forced by the entrainment demand of the effluent jet itself. The latter is due to low pressure effects as the jet periphery is close to the water bottom.

The laterally spreading flow behaves like a density current and entrains some ambient fluid in the "head region" of the current. During this phase, the mixing rate is usually relatively small, the layer thickness may decrease, and a subsequent interaction with a shoreline or bank can impact the spreading and mixing processes. Passive Ambient Diffusion Processes: The existing turbulence in the ambient environment becomes the dominating mixing mechanism at sufficiently large distances from the discharge point. In general, the passively diffusing flow grows in width and in thickness until it interacts

2.1.2 Far-Reld Processes

10

D

The strength of the ambient diffusion mechanism depends on a number of factors relating mainly to the geometry of the ambient shear flow and the amount of ambient stratification. In the context of classical diffusion theory (20), gradient diffusion processes in the bounded flows of rivers or narrow estuaries can be described by constant diffusivities in the vertical and horizontal direction that depend on

turbulent intensity and on channel depth or width as the length scales. In contrast, wide "unbounded" channels or open coastal areas are characterized by plume size dependent diffusivities leading to accelerating plume growth described, for example, by the "4/3 law" of diffusion. In the presence of a stable ambient stratification, the vertical diffusive mixing is generally strongly damped.

Front

Plan View

UG 0

1""

r; ;-

Cross-section A-A V7

Frontal Zone

I -I ý; w

i

H '1 Y&'.YA¼rnA~.rnVA

lq•

Figure 2.6:

V•lV

•Vill

•ydr•

V•

...

~.

Buoyant spreading processes downstream of the near-field region (example of spreading along the water surface) 11

Plan View

PPossible Bank Interaction

U _

Turbulent flow

Side View

1")

3 'Possible Bottom Interaction

Figure 2.7:

Passive ambient diffusion process with advection in the far-field

2.2 Mixing Zone Regulations The discharge of waste water into a water body can be considered from two vantage points regarding its impact on ambient water quality. On a larger scale, seen over the entire receiving water body, care must be taken that water quality conditions that protect designated beneficial uses are achieved. This is the realm of the general waste load allocation (WLA) procedures and models. On a local scale; or in the immediate discharge vicinity, additional precautions must be taken to Insure that high initial pollutant concentrations are minimized and constrained to

small zones, areas, or volumes. The generic definition of these zones, commonly referred to as "mixing zones", is embodied in federal water quality regulations and often cited in the regulations of permit granting authorities. As are mixing zones stated previously, administrative constructs that are independent of hydrodynamic mbdng processes. 2.2.1 Legal Background The Clean Water Act of 1977 defines five general categories of pollutants. These are: (a) conventional, (b) nonconventional, (c) toxics, (d) heat, and (e) dredge and fill spoil. The Act distinguishes between new and existing sources

12

Pollutants for setting effluent standards. designated as "conventional" would be "generally those pollutants that are naturally occurring, biodegradable, oxygen demanding materials and solids. In addition, compounds which are not toxic and which are similar in characteristics to naturallyoccurring, biodegradable substances are to be designated as conventional pollutants for the purposes of the provision." Examples of conventional pollutants are: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids, and fecal Pollutants designated as coliform bacteria. "nonconventional" would be "those which are not toxic or conventional", and some examples are: chemical oxygen demand (COD), fluoride, and ammonia. "Toxic" pollutants are those that cause harmful effects, either acute or chronic, at very low concentrations; examples of some designated toxic substances are: nickel, chloroform, or benzidine.

to adopt a mixing zone and to specify its dimensions. The U.S. EPA allows the use of a mixing zone in permit applications except where one is prohibited in State regulations. A previous review (5) of individual State mixing zone policies (1,22) found that 48 out of 50 States make use of a mixing zone in some form; the exceptions are Arizona and Pennsylvania. State regulations dealing with streams or rivers generally limit mixing zone widths or cross-sectional areas, and allow lengths to be determined on a case by case basis.

2.2.2 Mixing Zone Definitions

Special mixing zone definitions have been developed for the discharge of municipal wastewater into the coastal ocean, as regulated under Section 301 (h) of the Clean Water Act (23). Frequently, thesesame definitions are used also for industrial and other discharges into coastal waters or large lakes, resulting in a plurality of terminology. For those discharges, the mixing zone was labeled as the "zone of initial dilution' in which rapid mixing of the waste stream (usually the rising buoyant fresh water plume within the ambient saline water) takes place. EPA requires that the "zone of initial dilution" be a regularly shaped area (e.g. circular or rectangular) surrounding the discharge structure (e.g. that submerged pipe or diffuser .line) encompasses the regions of high (exceeding standards) pollutant concentrations under design conditions (23). In practice, limiting boundaries defined by dimensions equal to, the water depth measured horizontally from any point of the discharge structure are accepted by the EPA provided they do not violate other mixing zone restrictions (23).,

In the case of lakes, estuaries and coastal waters, some states specify the surface area that can be affected by the discharge. The surface area limitation usually applies to the underlying water column and benthic area. In the absence of specificmixing zone dimensions, the actual shape and size is determined on a case-by-case basis.

The mixing zone is defined as an "allocated Impact zone" where numeric water quality criteria can be exceeded as long as acutely toxic conditions are prevented. A mixing zone can be thought of as a limited area or volume where the initial dilution of a discharge occurs (21). Water quality standards apply at the boundary of the'mixing zone, not within the mixing zone itself. The U.S. EPA and its predecessor agencies have published numerous documents giving guidance for determining mixing zones. Guidance published by U.S. EPA in the 1984 Water Quality Standards Handbook (21) supersedes these sources. In setting requirements for mixing zones, U.S. EPA (22) requires that "the area or volume of an individual zone or group of zones be limited to an area or volume as small as practicable that will not interfere with the designated uses or with the established community ;of aquatic life. In the segment for: which the uses are designated," and the shape be "a simple configuration that Is easy to locate in the body of water and -avoids impingement on biologically important areas," and "shore .hugging plumes should be avoided.".

2.2.3, Special Mixing Zone Requirements for Toxic Substances The U.S. EPA maintains two water quality criteria for the allowable concentration of toxic substances: a criterion maximum concentration

The U.S. EPA rules for mixing zones recognize the State has discretion whether or not.

13

situations of severe bottom interaction and surface interaction.

(CMC) to protect against acute or lethal effects; and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) to protect against chronic effects (1).- The CMC value is greater than or equal to the CCC value and is usually more restrictive. The CCC must be met at the edge of the same regulatory mixing zone specified for conventional and nonconventional discharges.

The CMC must be met within a distance of 5 times the local' water depth in any horizontal direction.* The local water depth is defined as'the natural water depth (existing prior ýto the installation of the 'discharge outlet) prevailing under mixing zorildesign condition (e.g. low flow for rivers). This restriction will prevent locating the discharge in very shallow environments or very close to shore, which would result in significant surface and bottom concentrations (1).

Lethality to passing organisms within the mixing zone can be prevented in one of four ways: The first alternative is to meet the CMC criterion within the pipe itself. The second alternative is to meet the CMC within a short distance from the outfall. If dilution of the toxic discharge in the ambient environment Is allowed, a toxic dilution zone (TDZ), which is usually more restrictive than the legal mixing zone for conventional and nonconventional pollutants, may be used' The revised 1991 Toxics TSD document (1) recommends for new discharges a minimum exit velocity of 3 meters per second (10 feet pet second) in order to provide sufficiently 'rapid mixing that would minimize organism exposure time to toxic material. The TSD does not set a requirement in this regard, recognizing that the restrictions listed in the following paragraph can in many instances also be met by other designs, especially if the ambient velocity is large.

A fourth alternative isý to show that a drifting organism would not be exposed more than 1-hour to average concentrations exceeding the CMC.

As the third alternative, the outfall design must meet the most restrictive of the following geometric restrictions for a TDZ:

(i) The mixing zone is. defined by some numerical dimension, as discussed above. The applicant must then demonstrate that the existing or proposed discharge meets all applicable standards for conventional pollutants or for the CCC of toxic pollutants at the edge of the specified mixing zone.

The CMC must be met within 10% of the distance from the edge of the outfall structure to the edge of the regulatory mixing zone in any spatial direction.

2.2.4

Current Permitting Practice on Mixing

Zones It is difficult to generalize the actual practice in implementing, the mixing zone regulations, given the large number and diverse types of jurisdictions and permit-granting authorities Involved. By and large, however, current procedure falls into one of the following approaches, or may Involve a combination thereof.

(ii) No numerical definition for a mixing zone may apply. In this case a mixing zone dimension may be proposed by the applicant; To do so the applicant generally uses actual concentration measurements for existing discharges, dye, dispersion' tests or model predictions to show at what plume distance, width, or region, the applicable standard will be met. The applicant may then use further ecological or water use-oriented arguments to demonstrate that

The CMC must be met within a distance of 50 times the discharge length scale in any spatial direction. The discharge length scale is defined as the square-root of the cross-sectional area 'of any discharge outlet. This restriction is intended to ensure a dilution factor of at least 10 within-this distance under all possible circumstances, including

14

3)

the size of that predicted region provides reasonable protection. The permitting authority may evaluate that proposal, or sometimes pursue its own independent proposal for a mixing zone. This approach resembles a negotiating process with the objective of providing optimal protection of the aquatic environment consistent with other uses. As regards the acute, or CMC, criterion for toxic pollutants, the spatial restrictions embodied in the Toxics TSD document (1) call for very specific demonstrations of how the CMC criterion is met at the edge of the "toxic dilution zone". Again, field tests for existing discharges or predictive models may be used.

2.2.5 Relationship Between Actual Hydrodynamic Processes and Mixing Zone Dimensions The spatial requirements in mixing zone regulations are not always correlated with the actual hydrodynamic processes of mixing. With few exceptions, the toxic dilution criteria apply to the near-field of most discharges since the TDZ criteria (2) are spatially highly restrictive. The regular mixing zone boundaries, however, may be located in the near-field or the far-field of the actual effluent discharge flow since they are administratively determined by the permit-granting authority. Thus, the analyst must have tools at his disposal with the capability to address both the near and far-field situations.

15,

16

III

General Features of the CORMIX System are prone to locally recirculating flows. Other non-applicable cases may arise to complicated discharge geometries in which case CORMIX advises the user not to proceed with the analysis. Whenever the model is applicable extensive comparison with available field and laboratory data hasshown that the CORMIX predictions on dilutions and concentrations, with associated plume geometries, are accurate to Within t 50 % (standard deviation).

This section provides a; - general description of common features of CORMIX. CORMIX Version 3.1 has three different subsystem. modules for diverse discharge conditions. The subsystems are CORMIX1, CORMIX2, and CORMIX3 for the analysis of submerged single port, submerged multiport, and outfall " configurations, surface buoyant' respectively. Furthermore, two post-processor models CORJET, a near-field jet Integral model, and FFLOCATR, a far-field plume locator in nonuniform channels, are included. The following two sections give a detailed guidance for'developing the6required input data and for Understanding program output. ReferenrCe is made throughout this document to CORMIX Version 3.1 dated June 1995 or Version 3.2 dated September 1996; other versions may differ somewhat.

The methodology provides answers to questions that typically arise during the application of mixing zone regulations for both More conventional and toxic discharges. importantly, this is accomplished by utilizing the customary approaches often used in evaluating' and implementing mixing zones, thereby providing a common framework for both, applicants and regulatory personnel to arrive at a' consensus view'of the available dilution and plume trajectory for the' site and effluent discharge characteristics.

3.1 Overview The CORMIX system represents a robust and versatile computerized methodology for predicting both the qualitative features (e.g. flow classification) and the quantitative aspects (e'g. dilution I ratio,- plume -trajectory) of the hydrodynamic mixing processes resulting from different discharge configurations and in all types of ambient water bodies, including small streams, larged rivers,' lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, and coastal Waters." The methodology: (a) has been extensively verified by the developers through comparison of simulation results to available fiela and "laboratory data orn mixing" pr0ocegSsebs (5,6,7,8), (b) has undergone independent veer review in journal proceedings (9,10,11,12,131 14,15,16,17) and (c) Is equally applicable to a. wide range: of pr6blems from a ssirmple' single submerged pipe 'discharge intoa'small strdamwith rapid cross-sebtional mixing to a complicated multiport dffuseriinstallatio~h in a deeply stretifiel eplstr.tif.ed coastal water.":

The methodology also provides a way for personnel with little or ý no' training in hydrodynamics to investigate improved design solutions for aquatic discharge structures, To limit: misuse, the system contains limits of applicability' that prevent the simulation of situatiOns for which no safe predictive methodology exists,'or for discharge -geometries that are hydrodynamic viewpoint.: ra undesirable from Furthermore, warning -Iabels,' data screening design alternatiVe mechanisms, '. and recommendations are furnished by the system. The system Is not fool proof, however, and final results! should' always: be examined for reasonableness.r

System experence suggests that', CORMIX1'iapplies to better than' 95% 'of submerged single-port designs, CORMIX2 to better than 80% of multiport diffusers, and CORMIX3 to' 'better' than 90%' of , 'surface discharges?; Lack of applicability is Usually given' by highly 6rin-uniformambilent flow conditions that 17.

Finally, CORMIX is an educational tool that intends to** make- the user 'more knowledgeable and appreciative about effluent' discharge and mixing processes. The system is not simply'a black box that produces a final numerical or graphical output, but contains an interactive menu of user guidance, help options, and explanatory material of the relevant physical processes. These assist users in understanding model predictions and exploring the sensitivity of model predictions to'assumptions.' -

3.2 Capabilities and Major Assumptions of the Three Subsystems and the Post-Processor Models

cross-section of the water body be described as a rectangular straight uniform channel that may be bounded laterally or unbounded. The ambient velocity is assumed to be uniform within that cross-section. In addition to a uniform ambient density possibility, CORMIX allows for three generic. types of ambient stratification profiles to be used for the approximation of the actual vertical density distribution (see Section 4.3). All CORMIX subsystems are in principle steady-state models, however recent developments (beginning with Version 3.1) allow the analysis of -unsteady mixing in tidal environments. All CORMIX systems can predict mixing for both conservative and first-order decay processes, and can simulate heat transfer from thermal plumes.

3.2.1 CORMIX Subsystems CORMIX1 predicts the geometry and dilution characteristics. of the effluent, flow resulting from a submerged single port diffuser discharge, of arbitrary density (positively, neutrally, or negatively buoyant) and arbitrary location and geometry, into an ambient receiving water body that may be stagnant or flowing and have ambient density, stratification of different types. CORMIX2 applies to three commonly used types of submerged multiport diffuser discharges under the same general effluent and ambient conditions as CORMIX1i It analyzes unidirectional, staged, and alternating designs of multiport, diffusers and allows for arbitrary alignment of the diffuser structure within the ambient,, water body, and for arbitrary arrangement and orientation of the individual ports. For complex- hydrodynamic cases, CORMIX2 uses the ."equivalent slot diffuser" concept and thus neglects the. details of the individual jets issuing from each diffuser port and their merging process, but rather assumes that the flow arises from a long slot discharge with equivalent dynamic characteristics. Hence, if details of the effluent flow behavior in the immediate diffuser vicinity are needed, an additional CORMIX1 simulation for an equivalent partial effluent flow may be recommended.

q 9 9

eurIPIQr. IVIV•VIV VVIR~AP.T IVk I

qnri

CORJET, the.Cormell Buoyant Jet Integral Model, is a buoyant jet Integral model. that predicts the jet, trajectory and dilution characteristics of a single round jet or of a series of merging jets from a multiport diffuser with arbitrary discharge direction and positive, neutral or negative buoyancy in a general ambient environment. The ambient conditions can be highly non-uniform with both ambient current magnitude, current direction, and density a function of vertical distance. In general, CORJET can be used as an enhancement to the near-field predictions provided byCORMIX1 or 2 in order to. investigate local details that have been simplified within the CORMIX representation. The major limitation of CORJET lies in the assumption of an infinite receiving water body, similar to all other available jet integral type models. Thus, CORJET should only be used after an initial CORMIX classification has shown that the single or multiple port discharge is indeed of the deep water type, i.e. hydrodynamically stable, without boundary interactions.

CORMIX3 analyzes buoyant surface discharges that result when an effluent enters a larger water body laterally, through a canal, channel, or near-surface pipe. In contrast to CORMIX1 and 2, it is limited to positively or neutrally buoyant effluents. Different discharge geometries and orientations can be analyzed including flush or protruding. channel mouths, and orientations normal, oblique, or parallel to the bank. Additional major assumptions include the following: --

PnQt-PrnnPQ-nr I IV •VI

EFLOCATR

FFLOCATR, the Far-Field Plume Locator, uses the cumulative discharge method, to delineate the CORMIX predicted far-field plume

All subsystems require that the actual 18

possible generic flow configurations. HYDRO performs the actual detailed numerical prediction of the effluent plume characteristics. Finally, SUM summarizes the results from the classification and prediction, interprets them as regards mixing zone regulations, suggests design alternatives, and allows sensitivity analysis to be conveniently conducted using the current input data. At this point the iteration menu allows the user to different with iteration an perform ambient/discharge/regulatory conditions, or start a new design case, or make use of the postprocessor options.

within the actual irregular (meandering or winding) river or estuary channel geometry with uneven distribution of the ambient flow. System 3.3 Structure

Processing Sequence and

The general CORMIX layout appears in Figure 3.1, which shows the overall structure and the execution sequence of the program elements. The system has overall common data Input features for the three different discharge During program execution, the elements. elements are loaded automatically and Each element sequentially by the system. prompting in and provides user interaction response to displayed information. This may somewhat extend the total time required for a single CORMIX session, but has offsetting benefit of allowing the user to gain process knowledge and insight on design sensitivity.

Due to its diverse programming requirements, CORMIX is written in two programming languages:, VP-Expert, an "expert systems shell', and Fortran. The former is powerful in knowledge representation and logical reasoning, while the latter is adept at mathematical computations. Program elements DATIN, PARAM, CLASS, and SUM are written exclusively in VP-Expert. HYDRO is written in VP-Expert, but uses three Fortran executables HYDRO1, 2 and 3 for the actual detailed computation of plume characteristics. Finally, C++ is used in the specially developed graphics package CMXGRAPH.

The user has numerous options with the Main Menu at start-up. Option 1 is to start a new CORMIX session. Option 2 is to re-run and modify a former case. Option 3 is to simply redisplay (without new computation)"results 6f a former design case. Option 4 is to use the PostProcessor, which includes the CORJET near-field jet Integral model, the FFLOCATR far-field locator, and the plume display graphics which will be discussed in Section V of this document. Option 5 is the file manager which lists all files Option 6 Is to from previous simulations. set/change CORMIX system speed. Here the user can select REGULAR CORMIX, complete with detailed queries and user help, or FASTCORMIX, which has terse questions and limited user help. Option 7 contains system information and reference material. Option 7 Is to quit the CORMIX system and return to DOS.

3.4 CORMIX Data Input Features All data is entered interactively in response to the CORMIX system prompts generated by the data input program element DATIN. DATIN que' eHs the user for a complete specification of the physical ernvironment of the discharge,' as well as the :applicable regulatory considerations for the situation Undergoing analysis. A CORMIX session commences with questions on four.topics which are asked sequentialyiyn thiSi bder: site/case, desc'iptions,

The common program elements of CORMIX are composed of DATIN, PARAM, CLASS, HYDRO, and SUM (Figure 3.1). DATIN is the program element for the entry'of data and'.' initialization of other program elements.' PARAM uses the input data to compute a number of important physical parameters and length scales, as precursor to CLASS which performs the hydrodynamic classification of the given discharge/ambient situation into one of many 19

ambient conditions, discharge characteristics, and regulatory mixing zone definitions. Data entry is entirely guided by the systemi and the available advice menu options, provide, expanded descriptions of the questios,"if clarification is needed. Chapter IV provides complete' details on input specification for the three CORMIX discharge subsystems. Chapter VI deals with the input features of the post-processor models CORJET .nd FFLOCATR.

VP-Expert AMBIENT

DATIN

*.......*DISCHARGE1 ,2,3

User Data-Input

ZONES

&

VP-Expert PARAM Parameter Computation

VP-Expert CLASS Flow Classification

VP-Expert

FORTiR•,AN.

HYDRO

HYDRO1,2,3

Program Control

Predlction/Simulation

I

VP-Expert

SUM Summary Evaluation Recommendations

w

Post-Processor CMXGRAPH (c++)

Design Iteration-

FFLOCATR (FORTRAN) CORJET (FORTRAN) Figure 3.1:

CORMIX system elements and processing sequence 20

3.5 Logic. Elements Classification

of

CORMIX:

It has also testing and data comparison. undergone independent peer review and the four documentation manuals (5,6,7,8) give the detailed scientific background for the classification scheme, in .form of a number of criteria. The actual criteria constants are listed in the technical reports with comments on their sources and users,. Experienced degree. of.. reliability. applications, especially those involved in research may want to inspect these data values contained in the source code and occasionally vary some constant values within certain limits in order to examine improved prediction fits with, available high-quality data. Extreme caution must be exercised when doing that as some values are, interdependent; furthermore, if changes are made, they should be carefully documented.

Flow

To make predictions of an effluent discharge's dilution and plume trajectory, CORMIX typically combines the solutions of several simple flow patterns to provide a complete analysis from the efflux location all the way into the far-field. The logic processing elements of CORMIX identify which solutions should be combined to provide the complete analysis. This process, called flow classification, develops a generic qualitative description of the discharge flow and Is based on known relationships between flow patterns and certain calculated physical parameters.

When CLASS has executed, a description of the particular flow class is available tothe user in the form of on.screen or hardcopy computer output; these description are also contained in the documentation reports (5,6,7). It is recommended that the novice or intermediate user review these to gain an appreciation of the involved. hydrodynamic mixing processes.

PARAM is the program element that computes relevant physical parameters including: the various length scales, fluxes, and other values needed for the execution of other. program elements. Length scales are calculated measures of the length, of dynamic Influence of various physical processes (see Chapters IV and V).

3.6 Simulation Elements of CORMIX: Flow Prediction

At the heart of CORMIX is a flow classification system contained in the program element CLASS. It provides a rigorous and robust expert knowledge base that .carefully distinguishes among the many hydrodynamic flow patterns that, a discharge `may exhibit. As examples, these possibilities include discharge plumes attaching to the bottom, plumes vertically mixing, due to. instabilities in .shallow• water, plumes becoming trapped internally due to density stratification, and, plumes Intruding upstream against the ambient current due to buoyancy.,, and many others., Theoretically based hydrd ynamic criteria using length scale analysis and empirical knowledge from laboratory and field experimentation, are applied In a systematic fashion to identify the most appropriate flow classification for a particular, analysis situation. For,,all three subsystems, a total of about 80 generic: flow,configurations or classes can be, distinguished..

Once a flow has been classified, CORMIX assembles and executes ; a, sequence of appropriate hydrodynamic simulation modules in the program element, HYDRO1, 2 or 3. HYDRO consists of: (a) control programs or 'protocols" foreach. hydrodynamic flow classification and (b) a, large number. of subroutines - or 'simulation modules; corresponding to the particular flow processes, and their associated spatial :regions, that occur within a given flow classification. The simulation modules are based on buoyant jet similarity theory,-. buoyan.t jet integral .models, ambient diffusion th'eory, and stratified flow theory, and on simple dimensional analysis, as descdbedelsewhere (5,6,7,8). The basic, tenet of the simulation methodology: is to arrange a sequence of relativelysimple simulation modules whIchK .when executed together, predict the trajectory and,dilution characteristics of a complex flow. Each of the simulation models uses the final values of the previous module •as "initial conditionso,

The classification procedure of CORMIX is based on technical principles-and has been. verified by the .developers through repeated 21

3.7 CORMIX Output Summary and Iterations

Features:

notable exception is the effluent-discharge into very shallow flow-limited streams where the actual discharge port design detail may have little bearing on instream concentrations.

Design

In addition 'to the narrative feedback during user input, the CORMIX system provides three types of output on-screen or in print: a) CORMIX Session Report that is a narrative summary, mostly for regulatory evaluation, of all discharge input data and global plume featutres, including compliance with ý mixing zone regulations, b) CORMIX1. 2• or 3 Prediction File that is a detailed listing of all plume properties as predicted by the Fortran program, and c) CMXGRAPH Plots representing plan, side, and trajectory views and concentration distribution of the predicted plume.

Regulatory Mixing Zone (RMZ): The RMZ corresponds to either: (1) the applicable mixing zone regulation with specified size dimensions, or (2) a preliminary proposal for a mixing zone (see Section 2.2.4 (ii)). Toxic Dilution Zone (TDZ)I- The TDZ corresponds to the EPA's definition of where toxic chemical concentrations may exceed the CMC value (see Section 2.2.3).

3.7.1 CORMIX Session Report Region of Interest (ROD: The ROI is a user defined region-of the receiving water body where mixing conditions are to be analyzed. It is specified as the maximum analysis distance in the direction of mixed effluent flow and is*particularly important when legal mixing zone restrictions do not exist or when information over a larger area is of interest.

SUM is the final program element that summarizes the hydrodynamic simulation results for the case under consideration. The output in the CORMIX Session Report is arranged in four groups: (1) Site summary gives the site identifier information, discharge and ambient environment data, and discharge length scales.

(3) Data analysis section presents further details on toxic dilution zone criteria, regulatory mixing zone criteria, stagnant ambient environment information, and region of interest criteria.

(2) Hydrodynamic simulation and mixing zone summai lists conditions at the end of the nearfield region (NFR), regulatory mixing zone (RMZ) conditions, toxic dilution zone (TDZ) conditions, region of interest (ROI) conditions, upstream intrusion information, bank attachment locations, and a passive diffusion mixing summary. Users should be cognizant of the four major zone definitions, and associated acronyms, introduced above and defined as follows:

(4) Design recommendations section contains design suggestions in three general areas for improving initial dilution. These include: (a) geometry variations in discharge' port design, (b) sensitivity to ambient conditions, and (c) process variations in discharge flow characteristics. The user is given guidance on the potential ,changes in mixing conditions from varying parameter values within these groups.

Near-Field Region (NFR): The NFR is simply the zone of strong Initial mixing, corresponding *to the 'near-field' processes discussed in Chapter' I1.'It has no regulatory implication whatsoever. However, the information on size and mixing conditions at the edge of the NFR is given as a useful guide to the discharge designer because mixing in the NFR is usuallysensitive to design conditions, and therefore somewhat controllable. A

Finally, SUM is also used as an interactive loop to guide the user back to DATIN to alter design variables and perform sensitivity studies. Different options for iteration exist on the iteration menu depending on.what input data changes are to be made. The importance of performing an ample number of CORMIX iterations cannot be sufficiently stressed. To obtain a design that 22

3)

3.9 Equipment Requirements, Installation and Run Times

adequately meets water quality and engineering construction objectives, it is necessary to get a feel for the physical situation and its sensitivity to design changes through repeated system use.

System

The minimum recommended hardware configuration required for CORMIX is an IBMDOS compatible microcomputer with: (a) a minimum of 550Kb of available RAM memory, (b) approximately 3Mb of hard disk space, (c) DOS 3.3 or higher operating system, and (d) a minimum 80386 with, math co-processor to provide acceptable performance, especially with plume graphics display. The system will run on systems with less advanced processors, however simulation times can be long.

3.7.2 CORMIXI. 2 or 3 Prediction File The CORMIX1, 2 or 3 Prediction File is a detailed listing of all simulation input data as well as the predicted plume properties (plume shapes and concentration distributions) arranged by the individual flow modules that form part of the simulation. Additional information, such as encounter of local mixing zone regulations, plume contact with bottom or shoreline, etc., are listed in the output. Detailed output features are discussed in Chapter V.

The RAM memory requirement of CORMIX may present an obstacle to many users because the configuration requirements of many commercial applications packages and the installation of memory resident software, or running. DOS from windows, frequently reduce available RAM memory to less than 550Kb. The amount of .available RAM memory can be determined with the DOS command CHKDSK. Although there are numerous approaches for increasing the size of a computer's available RAM memory, the simplest way is "boot" the computer from a floppy "system" disk that contains no AUTOEXEC.BAT or CONFIG.SYS files which consume additional memory. This should be done just prior to beginning an analysis session since it will temporary disable programs that consume RAM memory. The CONFIG.SYS file should allow the number of open files to be set to at least 20 by including the line statement *files=20". At the completion of the analysis session, the computer should be "booted" from the hard drive to restore normal operations. A bootable floppy system disk can be created with the DOS command FORMAT aJS.

3.7.3 CMXGRAPH Plots The post-processing graphics package CMXGRAPH can be exercised flexibly by the user at different stages: directly after a CORMIX case prediction for an initial revaluation of the design case, or later to inspect or prepare plots for an earlier design case, or outside the CORMIX system to plot any plume predicted by CORMIX or CORJET. The user can view different Views of the plume, with scaling and zooming possibilities. Finally, hardcopy printouts can be prepared through a direct print-screen option or by writing to a Postscript file. Details of the graphics feafure are discussed in Chapter V. 3.8 Post-Processor Models CORJET and FFLOCATR: Input and Output Features, The near-field jet integral model CORJET and the far-field plume locator model FFLOCATR can be exercised both within the CORMIX system, with guided Input data assembly, or separately, with a simple Fortran input file. In both cases, only limited data are needed. Chapter VI p'rovides a detailed discussionof the data requirements.

d The CORMIX must be installed on a hard disk drive. The directory structure of CORMIX (Table 3.1) is fixed; it gets set up during the installation process; and it consists of a subsystem root directory, called "CORMIXI, and six sub-directories. Complete installation instructions are available with the CORMIX distribution diskette.

The output from these models is displayed on-screen or as a printed file. Furthermore, CORJET output can also be plotted with the CMXGRAPH program (see Section 5.3).

Depending on computer configuration, a typical CORMIX session for one discharge/ambient condition may take less than 5 23

minutes for an Pentium-based computer to about 20 minutes for an 80286-based computer if all necessary input data is at hand. In some unusual cases (such as'attached flow classes, e.g. HIA5)

the numerical simulation routines in HYDROn may take up to 10 minutes to converge on Pentium-based systems.

Table 3.1 Directory Structure CORMIX Version 3.1 JiJne 1995, Version 3.2 September 1996

Directory Name

Comments

CORMIX

system root directory;, contains VP-Expert system files, the knowledge base program CORMIX.kmp or kbs (system driver), and the start-up batch file CMX.bat, and several other batch files tobe used for starting up CORJET, CMXGRAPH, and FFLOCATR when used independently

CORMIX\DATA

contains cache "fact3 files exported from knowledge base programs

CORMIX\EXE

contains Fortran hydrodynamic simulation programs HYDROn and file manipulation programs (*.exe)

CORMIX\KBS

contains all knowledge base programs (*.kmp or *.kbs)

CORMIX\POST

contains three post-processor' CMXGRAPH, and FFLOCATR

CORMIX\POS'TCJ

contains CORJET numerical prediction files (fn.CJT) and graphical postscript files (fn.Pvn, where v = view type, and n -0 to 9)

CORMIX\POST\FF

contains FFLOCATR cumulative discharge input data files (*.FFI) and prediction files (fn.FFX)

CORMIXSIM

contains simulation results (Fortran files "fn.cXn*, where n = 1,2,3, and fn = user designated filenames) and graphical postscript files (fn.Pvn, where v = view type, and n = 0 to 9)

CORMIX\SIM\CXn

contains simulation data files for each subsystem n (cache files 'fn.CXC" and record keeping file "summary")

CORMIXMTEXT

contains (*.txt) •"all user-requested advice files and flow descriptions

programs

CORJET,

9

ID 24

IV CORMIX Data Input Regl6ar CORMIX versus FAST-CORMIX: Upon in its initial' installation the CORMIX system speed is set to "Regular CORMIX". In this mode the'user will see detailed input questions with' ample explanations for each variable. Also there will be opportunities to consult advice sections. It is recommended that the novice user employ this mode for about a dozen or so CORMIX sessions until he/she has become thoroughly familiar with the system. The advanceduser can switch to the "FAST-CORMIX" nmode in which only short questions are asked, thereby greatly accelerating data input and compacting it on screen., Certain advice section are not available'. The differences are illustrated in the following:

4.1 General Aspects of Interactive Data Input All CORMIX data input occurs interactively in response to system prompts and is entirely guided by the system. The user is automatically prompted for a complete specification of: site/case descriptions, ambient conditions, discharge characteristics, and regulatory definitions. 'The data for each of these four topical areas are'called Input data sequences herein. Questions are asked in plain English. Advice menu options within the program are available to provide help on how to prepare and enter data values when clarification of the system prompts is needed. The contents of these are also available in the documentation reports (5,6,7).

.Examples of three questions asked in Regular CORMIXi 1),

Do you want detailed ADVICE on how to specify the ambient density stratification? [no]

2)

'

[yes]

Can the ambient density be considered 'UNIFORM'

throughout the water column,

or

is there a 'NON-UNIFORM' vertical density stratification? As practical guideline, uniformity can be assumed if the vertical density variation between top and bottom is limited to 0.1 kg/mA3 or the temperature variation to 1 degC. [uniform]

3)

What is

[non-uniform]

the WIDTH of the channel in

the vicinity of the discharge

(m)?

Corresponding questions In FAST-CORMIX: 1)



2)

AMBIENT DENSITY? [uniform] [non-uniform]I

3)

Channel WIDTH (m) ?

Data can be entered in an open format without concern for 'letter case or decimal placement. - The only constraint is that tbh following characters' mray not" be entered in" response to'any question: . -. . + = } ,< > ,,i\ ;• . ... • '

25

The system checks data entries for consistency with question type (e.g. an alphabetic character for waterdepth), obvious physical errors (e.g. a negative length),' possible 'inconsistencies with previous 'entries (e:g. an angular value implying that a port points directly'back to the

shoreline) and situations outside the ranges of model applicability. inconsistency with question type and obvious physical errors require immediate re-entry while possible inconsistencies with previous entries lead to a warning label and the opportunity for later correction. Entries specifying situations outside the ranges of model applicability usually require the re-entry of the entire data segment.,

analysis to, verify that all necessary data are available.

Warming: No attempt should be made to alter input data by manipulating any of the data files that are used by the HYDROn Fortran programs and execute these programs separately without using the VP-Expert segments DATIN, PARAM, and CLASS. Because of the inherent error and compatibility checking of input data within these program segments, unreliable prediction may result if they are by-passedl

It is necessary to specify three site/case labels that facilitate the rapid identification of printed output and aid in good record-keeping. The system provides for one label called SITE NAME (e.g. Blue River), another called DESIGN CASE (e.g. 7Q10-low-flow, or High-velocity-port).

4.2 Site/Case Identifier Data The first input data sequence determines basic information needed for the program, to operate. These include: a two-part identifier for labeling output and a computer file name.

The user needs to supply a DOScompatible FILE NAME,. up to eight characters long, and without extension (e.g. sdif7qlO). CORMIX will use that user-specified file name fn, and create, transfer, or store intermediate or final data files with that same file name, but with different extensions. The most important of these are the two output data files, SIMVn.CXn and SIM\CXnVn.CXC, where n = 1,2 or 3, which are discussed further in Chapter V.

As discussed in Chapter III, data input occurs in three or four program segments that load automatically. At the end of each data sequence (usually of the order of 5 to 20 items long) the entire sequence is displayed and the user is requested to accept or not accept the sequence. If it is not accepted, I.e. an error has been made, the user has another opportunity for entering the sequence. If an error is detected earlier there is no way of correcting immediately, it is best then to give a short answer (e.g. the value of 1) to all remaining questions and thus quickly move to the end of the sequence for the re-start opportunity.

9

4.3 Ambient Data Ambient conditions are defined by the geometric and hydrographic conditions in the vicinity of the discharge. Due to the significant effect of boundary interactions on mixing processes, the ambient data requirements for the laterally bounded and unbounded analysis situations are presented separately in the discussions below. CORMIX analyses, as all mixing zone evaluations, are usually carried out under the assumption of steady-state ambient conditions. Even though the actual water environment is never in a true steady-state, this assumption is usually adequate since mixing processes are quite rapid relative to the time scale of hydrographic variations. In highly unsteady tidal reversing flows the assumption is no longer valid and significant concentration build-up can occur. CORMIX will assess this situation and compute some re-entrainment effects on plume behavior. The data requirements for that purpose are discussed in the Section 4.3.3. Following are discussions on ambient

Due to the similarity of data entry, a common description is given for all input data sequences, except discharge data to which a separate subsection for each CORMIXn subsystem is devoted below. Further guidance on data specification can be obtained from examining the case studies in the Appendices and from the documentation manuals (5,6,7). Following the discussion of input data sequences, units of measure conversion factors and checklists for input preparation are presented. All the data input requirements of CORMIX are included in the Checklist for Data Preparation (see following page) that can be photocopied by the reader for future multiple use. The checklist aids in the assembly and preparation of this data prior to beginning an 26

C

CHECKLIST'FOR DATA PREPARATION

CORMIX "CORNELL MIXING ZONE EXPERT SYSTEM ,- Version 3.00-3.20 Date

SITE Name,_________________

Design CASE DOS FILE NAME .

extenson)

-..

Prpare bY .

. " .. !'AJIEpT DATA: e •' 112e• a r an cboundedunbounded A pp•m..•velcI8 . .:: bient.....bdy-is . Am . .water ...or. arge . . . .. . .=. ... .. . - . ... nIs D .tept at d isAc h bet:

S)

_•i

__

r y sb ac f o ý. DOa -nnn-'n: •. . ,.,.- p, values • . ! • ., . .- : :i .: :•. - -. 3.. dens , iy/tem . as pecif peratr.. Tern I fresh:-S f I./ nsity..kg/m De :i?•::•!-:-:-:> .- UNITS: . -% .a:ter-.:fresh-sa.t

•-: • •i ." : •• :

~' i d pe ed da aI .Density Water by

_ _ _ __:i)

r /s:- .

Portare j~sm or______Vef6

Por hmbengt

.

mS'

- .ce - DcoRMIXI t -ban k..-...... PORTDIsCHARGE nc e tone are s-.. ta SINGLE is -i.:" ,,SUBMERGED. t i f e k Is o n -, 'Ne ar estb ain .• .. .,. ... .. •- :; . :Hg o n aDeaienorietatiojb~nl ... ,;::, THETA r cal angle VWr ,Vericl TET ngl BTAmeaie` -. . -,.A M G .. . I . . : :g r a •n P ;..' m Po r t d i am ete r .. - , _

_A-C

__,_

hi./one rendpoint OIS'CHARGI•"DIFFUSER Distan c tQCO"R"MI:X" MULTIPORT ht SUBMERGED tda ef # b ank son tin:-. s__ Nearen .• : :in ::.-•.-• ? ltoo th ere nd point D:::iffu ser !.eng th : :•.:,~ - - .:+ -. . -- m .- m /,: •: :•. . .L~i: • oPh eigh t i: , F-. m ,• .:.T o tal n um ber o f o pe ning s :. ._ 4 'i-.-':• ,!-::' ' ito r;a ction tra~ co~n imwth ' m..: :. SPort d ia m~eter -t-a l e- a.te ma..n o r.vertic unidire ctio n l I Diffus er a rra ngem ent/'ty p e o.--flow . .c -,: -: , ,nc3 MA IusiBE oen O orizontal..angle:SIG H gativ :, : -_.__ CoRe MAv GAM ban. angle ht nrnent ric: fig '-A lef.. on; e T l • Discharge -

__-._,- _ _.._ _• _-

_-._ _ _ _ __,_:::,:)

_ _ _ _ _ _ _.

_.."_-_ _ __,_::"!;'

________.

_____

.',-. tal an gle S iG MA nz &on S.oH :De pth at discharge

st . .fr Om

.r I-.

, . . . .W

.... .... .smvin ke .sDi - .

slo .pe, -2' ."7" -: ; "-. ..- . ', •.:5- B otto mMoan __ __ __ _n.i.-..-,•.-:: or orre

of iners Grditevl.fr.srIv~.~ .... Recilon~~~~~~~~~~~~. " . . 'rv tempe 'tu .. Effluent o kg/m. , i-- ' ifty E. 2, . oe f fi ce n t. .. . ... ._ .-- .W~m s s c¢ . :-• s/ no.:, .: •.,•-. . • If:ye s :He at lo . .: Het d d s h r e? .,.. _.e • " -: : : t rat io n• i• i•: ?• • :,..: Eff luei t co n cen A ._ Con ent ato n un hs : " -y a d -. n e i f o a Ino"._e / nor syei::. •:• Cons e r va ti ve su bsta nc ? -'.

_:.

_ _ _ _ __,_

_ _ __-.

_ __•#

_ _ _ _

~•:DATA.k . IXING ZONE WQ sta~n'd J f

:{i"::".... ......

nioi at~ 6ii .:?

iof ~e sntcif..-..ied? .. . , -Ai-. mRe rion

°: •9

es/no 1

-'

,

....

:" 7i:'5 ''•

[

::"•! :• •' r Jfy . s.. v al ue'o s tan d'W?•i

f e:

ns nC_______i or width.

.I:

..

"". •'.. " •-

'-_ or 3_

I

LI. ......................................................................

Eq w

I

-..

,

density specification and on wind effects. CORMIX requires that the actual crosssection of the ambient water body be described by a rectangularchannel that may be bounded laterally or unbounded. Furthermore, that channel is assumed to be uniform in- the downstream direction,following the mean flow of the actualwater body that may be non-uniform or meandering. The process of describing a receiving water body's geometry with a rectangular cross-section is herein called schematization. Additional aids exist for the CORMIX user for interpreting plume behavior in the far-field of actual non-uniform (winding or meandering) flows in rivers or estuaries (see Section 6.2 for the post-. processor option FFLOCATR).

cross-sections, it may require more judgment and perhaps several iterations of the analysis to get a better feel on the sensitivity of the results to the assumed cross-sectional shape. In any case, the user is advised to consider the following comments: a) Be aware that a particular flow condition such as a river discharge is usually associated with a certain water surface elevation or "stage." Data for a stage-discharge relationship is normally available from a USGS office; otherwise it can be obtained from a separate hydraulic analysis or from field measurements. In the simplest case of a river flow, if river depth is known for a certain flow condition (subscript I in the following) corresponding perhaps to the situation at the time" of a field study, then thedepth for a given design (e.g. low). flow (subscript 2) can be predicted from Manning's equation

The first step towards specifying the ambient conditions is to determine whether a receiving water body should be considered *bounded" or "unbounded." To do this, as well as answer other questions on .the ambient geometry, it Is usually necessary to have access to cross-sectional diagrams of the water body. These should show the area normal to, the ambient flow direction at the discharge site and at locations further downstream.- Ifthe water body is constrained on both sides by banks such as in rivers, streams, narrow estuaries, and other narrow watercourses, then it should be considered "bounded., However, in some cases the discharge is located close to*one bank or shore while the other bank is for practical purposes very far away. When interactionof the effluent plume with that other bank or shore is impossible or unlikely, then the situation should be considered "unbounded." This would include discharges into wide lakes, wide estuaries, and coastal areas.

HA2

=HA

1

[QA2 1

2-

in which QA is the ambient river flow and HA the mean ambient depth. This approach assumes that the both the ambient.width and frictional *charactedristics' of the channel (i.e. Manning's n) remain approximately the same during'such a stage change. b) For the given stage/river, discharge combination to be analyzed, assemble plots showing the cross-sections at the discharge and several downstream locations. Examine these to determine an "equivalent ý rectangular cross-sectional area." Very shallow bank areas or shallow, floodways may be neglected- as unimportant for effluent transport. Also, more weight should be given to the cross-sections at, and close to, the discharge location since these will likely have the greatest effect on near-field processes. Figure 4.1a provides an example of the schematization process for a river or estuary cross-section.

4.3.1 Bounded Cross-Section Both geometric (bathymetric) and hydrographic. (ambient discharge) data should be used for defining the appropriate rectangular crosssection. This schematization may be quite evident for well-channeled and regular rivers or artificial channels. For highly irregular 28

9D

"Nearest bank on the right" BS

Actual cross-section (distorted scale).

ri

I .

.

I

Schematized bounded. cross- section

a) Example: Bounded Cross-Section Looking Downstream (River -or Estuary) "Nearest bank on the left" Design water level

Actual bathymetry (distorted scale)

,. Schembtize d unbounded e~rns.- sAdinn

,

b) Example .'Unbounded, Cross-Section Looking Downstream -1(Sm Buoyaqn 3l Jet Discharge.Into Large Lake ... or Reservoir) Figure 4.11: ..Examples of the schematization process for preparing CORMIX input- data on ambient cross-sectional conditions

29

c) The input data values for surface width (BS) and (average) depth (HA) should be determined from the equivalent rectangular crosssectional area. When ambient discharge and ambient velocity data are available, the reasonableness of the schematization should be checked with the continuity'relation. It specifies that ambient discharge equals velocity times cross-sectional area, Where the area is given by the product of average Width and depth.

The simulation of stagnant conditions should usually be avoided. Ifzero or a very small value for ambient velocity or discharge is entered, CORMIX will label the ambient environment as stagnant. In this case; CORMIX will predict only the near-field of the discharge, since steady-state far-field processes require a mean transport velocity. Although stagnantbconditions often, but not necessarily always-, represent the extreme limiting case for~a dilution prediction, a real water body never istruly stagnant. Therefore, a more realistic assumption for natural water bodies would be to consider a Small, but finite ambient crossflow.

The discussion of the cumulative discharge method (see Section 6.2 and Figure 6.2 for an illustration) will provide further perspective on the choice of these variables.

f) As a measure of the roughness characteristics in the channel the value of Manning's n, or alternatively of the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f, must be specified. values are useful. for applications in Friction laboratory studies.' If Manning's n is given, as is preferablefor field cases, CORMIX internally converts it to an f friction value using the following equation n2 .....

d) CORMIX also reqi~ires specification of the actual water depth (HD) in the general discharge location to describe local bathymetric features. A check Is built in allowing the local depth HD not to differ from the schematized average depth HA by more than +/- 30%. This restriction is included to prevent CORMIX misuse in several discharge/ambient combinations involving strongly non-uniform channels. Alternative schematizations can be explored by the user to work around the restriction. The choice for these alternatives may be influenced somewhat by the expected plume pattern., As an example, Figure 4.1b illustrates a small buoyant discharge that is located on the side slope of a deep reservoir and that is rising upward. In this situation, the correct representation of the deeper mean reservoir depth is irrelevant for plume predictions. Although the illustration is for an unbounded example, the comments on choice of HA apply here, too.

f=8g HA in which g = 9.81 m/s2 . The fdction parameters influence the mixing process only in the final far-field diffusion stage, and do not have a large impact on the predictions. Generally, if these values can be estimated within +/-30%, the far-field predictions will vary by +/-10% at the most. The following list is a brief guide for specification of Manning's n values; additional details are available in hydraulics textbooks (e.g. 24).

When schematizing HA and HD in highly non-uniform conditions, HD is the variable that usually influences neat-fleld mixing, while HA is important for far-field transport and never influences the near-field.

g) The channel appearance can have an effect on the far field mixing by increasing turbulent diffusivity for the passive mixing process, but will not significantly affect near-field mixing. Three channel, appearance types are allowed in CORMIX. Type 1 are fairly straight and uniform channels. Type 2 have moderate downstream meander with a non-uniform channel. Type 3 are strongly winding and have highly irregular downstream cross-sections.

e) The ambient discharge (QA) or mean ambient velocity (UA) may be used to specify the ambient flow condition. Depending which is specified, the program will calculate and display the other. The displayed value should be checked. to see whether it is consistent with schematizations and continuity principles discussed above. 30

-Channel _t~oe Smooth earth channel, no weeds Earth channel, some stones and weeds Clean and straight natural rivers Winding channel, with pools-and shoals, Very weedy streams, winding, overgrown Clean straight alluvial channels (d = 75% sediment grain size in feet)

4.3.2 Unbounded Cross-section Both hydrographic and gebmetric information are closely linked in this case. The following comments apply: a) From lake or reservoir elevation or tidal stage data, determine the water depth(s) for the receiving water condition to be analyzed.

Manning's n 0.020 0.025 0.025- 0.030 0.033 - 0.040 0.050 - 0.150 0.031 d"6

.unavailable, data or estimates of the vertically, averaged velocity at the discharge location can be used to specify HA, UA, and DISTB. First, determine the cumulative cross-sectional area from the shore to the discharge location for the For each of the discharge cross-section. subsequent downstream cross-sections, mark the position where the cumulative cross-sectional area has the same value as at the discharge cross-section. Then proceed as discussed in the preceding paragraph. d) The specification of the actual water depth at the submerged discharge location (HD) in CORMIXI and 2 is governed by considerations that are similar to those discussed earlier for bounded flow situations discussed above. Figure 4.1b shows an illustration of the schematization for a small buoyant discharge located on the side slope of a deep reservoir. The plume Is expected to rise upward and stay close to one shore, with bottom, contact and vertical mixing not expected. In this situation, no emphasis on replicating the mean reservoir depth and the actual width is necessary. However, care mqust still be taken to specify an ambient mean velocity that is: (a) characteristic of the actual reservoir and (b) not determined using the reduced depth assumption.

b) For the given receMng water condition to be analyzed, assemble plots showing water depth as a function of distance from the shore for the discharge location and for several positions downstream along the ambient current direction. c) If detailed hydrographic data from field surveys or from hydraulic numerical model calculations are available, determine, the "cumulative ambient discharge" from the shore to the discharge location for the discharge For each of the subsequent cross-section. downstream cross-sections, determine .the distance from the shore at which the same cumulative ambient discharge has been attained. Mark this position on all cross-sectional profiles. Examine the vertically averaged velocity and the depth at these positions to determine typical values for the ambient depth (HA) and ambient velocity (UA) input specifications. The conditions at, and close to, the discharge location should be given the most weight. The distance from the shore (DISTB) for the outfall location is typically specified as, the cumulative ambient discharge divided by the product UA times HA.

The specification of HD for CORMIX3 is dictated by the depth condition some distance offshore from the discharge exit. It does not describe the conditions immediately in front of the discharge channel exit. When in doubt, set HD simply equal to HA in the CORMIX3 case. e) Either- Manning's :n or the DarcyWeisbach friction factor f can be specified for the ambient roughness characteristics as

When detailed hydrographic data are 31

described previously forthe bounded case (see above). If the unbounded case represents a large lake or coastal area, it is often preferable to use the friction factor f. Typical f values for such open water bodies range from 0.020 to 0.030, with larger values for rougher conditions.-

Mean High water (MHW). The tidal velocity changes its direction twice during the tidal cycle at times called slack tide. One of these times occurs near, but is not necessarily coincident with, the time MLW and is referred to as Low Water Slack (LWS). The slack period near MHW is referred to as High Water Slack (HWS). The rate reversal (time 'radient of the tidal velocity) near these slack'tides is of considerable importance for the: concentration build-up in tlhe transient discharge plume, as tidal reversals will reduce the effective dilution of a discharge by re-entraining the discharge plume remaining from the previous tidal cycle (8). Hence, CORMIX needs some information on the ambient design conditions relative to any of the two slack tides.

4.3.3 Tidal Reversinq Ambient Conditions When predictions are desired in an unsteady ambient flow field, information on the tidal cycle must be supplied. In general, estuaries or coastal waters - can exhibit considerable complexity' with vadations' in both velocity magnitude, direction and water depth. As an example, Figure 4.2 shows the time history of tidal velocities and tidal height for a mean tidal cycle at some site in Long Island Sound. The tidal height varies between mean Low Water (MLW) and

MHW

MHW

.01 1,

-2

2+

AFRood

7

-9

Current/

-3 _j

1-+

40

I~s

Id

14W

Iu

LW\ 0

I

I

Eb1Cr 2

3

5

et :I

#

6L

7

8

HWS

HWS 9 ý-0

1

I

12

hours after high water U, 1A

1- ,Ebb Current

Figure 4.2:

Example of tidal cycle, showing stage and velocity as a function of time after Mean High Water (MHW)

32

D

ambient density (or temperature) can be The tidal period (PERIOD) must be supplied; in most cases it is 12.4 hours, but in considered as uniform or as non-uniform within The * the water body, and in particular within the some locations it may vary slightly. expected plume regions. As a practical guide, maximum tidal velocity (UAmax) for the location vertical variation in density of less than 0.1 kg/mi must be specified; this can usually be taken as or in temperature of less than 1 OC can be the average of the absolute values of the two neglected. For uniform conditions, the average actuar maxima, independent of their direction. A ambient density or average temperature must CORMIX design case consists then of an be specified. instantaneous ambient condition, before, at or after one of the two slack tides. Hence, the When conditions are non-uniform, analyst must specify the time (in hours) before, CORMIX requires that the actual measured at, or after slack that defines the design vertical density distribution be approximated by condition, followed by the actual tidal ambient one of three schematic stratification profile types velocity (UA) at that time. The ambient depth illustrated in Figure 4.4. These are: Type A, linear conditions are then those corresponding to that density. profile; Type B, two-layer system with time. constant densities and density jump; Type C, In general, tidal simulations should be repeated for several time intervals (usually hourly constant density surface layer with linear density profile in bottom layer separated by a density or two-hourly intervals will suffice) before and jump. Corresponding profile types exist for after slack time to determine plume approximating a temperature distribution when it characteristics in unsteady ambient conditions. is used for specifying the density distribution. Strongly unsteady conditions can also Note:. When in doubt about the occur in other environments, such as In windof the ambient density values it is specification oru lakes induced current reversals in shallow first simplify as much as possible. to reasonable reversal typical any case, coastal areas. In this of a given assumption can be sensitivity The approach an following be analyzed can period CORMIX simulations. subsequent in explored above. to the similar Furthermore, ifCORMIX indicates indeed a flow configuration (flow class) with near-field stability, 4.3.4 Ambient Density Specification additional studies with the post-processor option CORJET (see Sectipn 6.1) can be performed to Information about the density distribution investigate any arbitrarydensity distribution. In the ambient water body is very important for the correct prediction of effluent discharge plume stratification the selecting After behavior. CORMIX first inquires whether the enters all then the user used, to be approximation ambient water is fresh water or non-fresh (i.e. and values (or temperature) density appropriate brackish or saline). If the ambient water is fresh the specify to fully (HINT) heights pycnOCline and above 4 00, thesystem povi des the option of' zone or as is defined The pycnocline profiles. entering ambient temperature data so that the the separates that change density strong level of ambient density values can be intemally upper and lower layers of the water column. The computed from an equation of state. This is the program checks the densit specification to insure recommended option for specifying the density of that stable ambient stratification exists (i.e. the fresh water, even though ambient temperature density at higher elevations must not exceed that. s Is not needed for the analysis of mixing at lower elevations). conditions, water conditions. In the case of salt for guide Figure 4.3 Is included as a practical Note that a dynamically _:correct specifying the density if "salinf values' in partsapproximation of the actua Idensity distribution per-thousand (ppt) are available for the water should keep a balance between over-and body. Typical open ocean salinities are in the under-estimatiornof the actual data similar to a range 33 - 35 ppt. .,best-fit in regression analysis. If simulation . results indicate internal plume trapping, then it is The user then "specifies whether :the 33

3-r

0

4

GI

F Sh

re

12

X.,

120

Density rL \Z

Linear

Figure 4.4:

29

32 -

40

2

Water Density [kg/m 3 ]

Figure 4.3:

214

IT Y ( V.,) SA LIN

1000.0 + a-t

DiagIram for density of seawater as a function of temperature and salinity

Pa (z)

(

Two-Layer

©

Different approximations for representing the ambient density stratification

34

for non-circular shaped ports) (Note: The specification-of the port dimension should account for any contraction effects that the effluent jet may experience upon leaving the port/nozzle!) , (d) height of the port (HO) center above the bottom, (e) vertical angle of discharge (THETA) between the port centerline and a horizontal plane, and (f) horizontal angle of discharge (SIGMA) measured counterclockwise from the ambient current direction (x-axis) to the plan projection of the port centedine. Angle THETA may range between -450 and 900. As examples, the vertical angle is 900 for a discharge pointing vertically upward, and it is 00 for a horizontal discharge. Angle SIGMA may range between 00 and 360 o. As examples, the horizontal angle is 00 (or 360 0) when the port points downstream in the ambient flow direction, and it is 900, when the port points to the left of the ambient flow direction.

desirable to test --through repeated use of CORMIX-- different approximations (i.e. with different stratification types and/or parameter values) in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the resulting model predictions. 4.3.5 Wind sloeed When specifying the wind speed (UW) at design conditions, it should be kept in mind that the wind is unimportant for near-field mixing, but may critically affect plume behavior in the far-field. This Is especially Important for heated discharges in the buoyant spreading regions. Wind ispeed data from adjacent meteorological stations is usually sufficient for that purpose. The following guidelines are useful when actual measured data are not available. The typical wind speed categories measured at the 10 m level are: --breeze (0-3 m/s) --light wind (3-15 m/s) --strong wind (15-30 m/s)

In order to prevent an inappropriate system application, CORMIX1 checks the specified geometry for compliance with the three criteria illustrated in Figure 4.5b. These are: (a) the port height (HO) value must not exceed onethird of the local water depth (HD) value, (b) the port diameter value must not exceed HD's value for near-vertical designs, and one-third of HD's value for near-horizontal designs, and (c) the pycnocline value must be within the 40 to 90 percent range of HO's value. The port height restriction results from the fact that CORMIX1 only applies to submerged discharge applications.

If field data are not available, consider using the recommended value of 2 m/s to represent conservative design conditions. An extreme low value of 0 m/s is usually unrealistic for field conditions, but useful when comparing to laboratory data. A wind speed of 15 m/s is the maximum value allowed in CORMIX. 4.4. Discharge Data: CORMIXI

In ordinary design practice, submerged implies a discharge close to the bottom, and not anywhere within the main water column or near the water surface. The port diameter restriction excludes very large discharge diameters relative to the actual water depth since these are 4.4.1 Discharge Geometry unrealistic and/or undesirable. The distance separating the upper and lower layers of the To allow the establishment of a reference ambient density profile type B or C is restricted in coordinate system and orient the discharge to that order to prevent: (a) discharges into the upper reference, CORMIX1 requires the specification of layer or (b) an unrealistically thick plume relative 6 data entries. These specifications, are illustrated to a thin upper, layer. For those few extreme in Figure 4.5a and Include: (a) location of the*' situations that would normally be limited by the above restrictions, Section 7.4 of Doneker and nearest bank (i.e. left or right) as seen by an Jirka (5) contains a number of hints on how to observer looking downstream in the direction of conduct these difficult analyses; only advanced the flow, (b) distance to the nearest bank users should attempt these techniques. (DISTB), (c) port radius (or cross-sectional area Figure 4.5a is a definition sketch giving the geometry and flow characteristics for a submerged single port discharge within the schematized cross-section.

35

UG 13 -

~

CROSS-SECTION

PLAN VIEW

.10ISTB

DoUO9 Apa' Co

Nearest bank

(Special case: HA=HD)

a) Definition Diagram CORMIXI

zj

L

-aq

.%"e .

Range of hint

-Density profile example hint "0.4H

----

hoas033H

Range

•,,.,•of,,•

""

I 1*~~~~ 80 > 45"

80 <45'

h.

D~ D .
.l~~5 Range Rne

D4H/3.of O

b) Limits of Applicability CORMIXI Figure 4.5: CORMIX1 discharge geometry and restrictions

36

I)

located at the center (mid-point) of the diffuser line. The only exception is when the diffuser line starts at the shore; then the origin is located directly at the shore.

4.4.2 Port Discharge Flow For discharge characteristics, CORMIX1 requires the specification of 3 data entries. These specifications include: (a) the discharge flow rate (Q0) or discharge velocity (U0), (b) the discharge density or discharge temperature for an essentially freshwater discharge, and (c) the discharge concentration of the material of interest. The Q0 and UO variables are related through the port cross-sectional area and the program computes and displays the altemate value allowing for User inspection and verification. For a freshwater discharge, discharge density can be directly related to temperature via an equation of state since the addition of any pollutant or tracer has negligilie effect on density.

CORMIX2 can analyze discharges from the three major diffuser types used in common engineering practice. These are illustrated in Figure 4.7 and include: (a). the unidirectional diffuser where all ports (or nozzles) point to one side of the diffuser line and are oriented more or less normally to the diffuser line and more or less horizontally; (b) the staged diffuser where all ports point in one direction generally following the diffuser line with small deviations to either side of the diffuser line and are oriented more or. less horizontally; and (c) the alternating diffuser where the ports do not point in a nearly single horizontal direction. In the latter case, the ports may point more or less horizontally in an alternating fashion to both sides of the diffuser line or they may point upward, more or less vertically.

The specification of the pollutant in the effluent is described in Section 4.7 below. 4.5 Discharge Data: CORMIX2 A generalized definition sketch showing the geometry and flow characteristics for a typical multiport diffuser installation is provided in Figure 4.6a. Due to the great number of complexities which may rise in describing an existing or proposed diffuser design, a few definitions are introduced prior to discussing actual data requirements of CORMIX2.

4.5.1 Diffuser Geometry CORMIX2 assumes uniform discharge conditions along the diffuser line. This includes the Iocal ambient receiving Water depth (HD) and discharge parameters such as port size, port spacing and discharge per port, etc. If the actual receiving water depth is variable (e.g. due to an offshore slope), it should be approximated by the mean depth along the diffuser line with a possible bias to the more shallow near-shore conditions. Similarly, mean-values should be used to specify variable diffuser geometry when it occurs.

A multiport diffuser Is a linear structure consisting of many more or less closely spaced ports or nozzles which inject a series of turbulent jets at high velocity into the ambient receivIng water body. These ports or nozzles may be connected to vertical risers attached to an underground pipe or tunnel or they may simply be openings in a pipe lying on the bottom.

To allow the establishment of a reference coordinate system and orient the discharge to that ref6rence, CORMIX2 requires the specification of 13 data entries. These* specifications are illustrated in Figure 4.6a and include: (a) location of the nearest bank (i.e. left or right) as seen by an observer looking downstream in the direction of the flow, (b) average distance to the nearest bank (DISTB), (c) average diameter (DO) of the discharge ports or nozzles, (d) contraction ratio for the port/nozzle is required (This can range from 1 for well rounded ports --usual value-- down .to 0.6 forsharp-edged orifices),. (e) average

The diffuser line (or axis) is a line connecting the first port or nozzle and the last port or nozzle. Generally, the diffuser line will coincide with the connecting pipe or tunnel. CQBMIX2 will assume a straight diffuser line.' If the actual diffuser pipe has bends or directional changes it must be approximated by a straight diffuser line. The diffuser length is the distance from the first to the last port or nozzle., The origin of the coordinate system used by CORMIX2 is. 37

Cross- Section

Plan -View

U0

0 IST 8 ,,,,

-..

fd

Nearest Bank

a) Definition Diagram CORMIX2

3

D411/5

1Range ~of D

b) Limits of Applicability CORMIX2 Figure 4.6:

CORMIX2 discharge geometry and restrictions

38

C>

C

I7

Cr A

t

L'O

t

I

ID *t90, 0

• ;".

•D €. 90':j

Controls Fonned design

"

Dave'

`8-9o"

Without Control

,8

O

(. log Lf . LO*

Vertical 865 90"~ Ar' a90e

a) Unidirectional diffuser designs, 190 0 CA) ED

/3,d"

Control, Fanned `8 •design

( )d

` P i-

N

*s

-

i

*

0

*s

?

Aw

'.

-

w a

R

.

~

s

0e .0"

c) Alternating diffuser designs. GU 0'

-

/3 o,0

00-o

b) Staged diffuser designs. 00r 0

Figure 4.7:. Configurations of common multiport diffuser types

al

co

log

1. 1 , r

y I

Figure 4.5b for CORMIX1 with the exception of the diameter limit for each port.

height of the port centers (HO) above the bottom, (f) average vertical angle of discharge (THETA) between the port centerlines and a horizontal plane (-45 and 901), (g)for the

4.5.2 Diffuser Discharge Flow

unidirectional and staged diffusers only, the average horizontal angle of discharge (SIGMA) measured counterclockwise from the ambient current direction (x-axis) to the plan projection of the port centerlines" (0 to 3600), (h) approximate straight-line diffuser length (LD) between the first and last ports or risers, (I)distance from the shore to the first and last ports or risers (YB1, YB2) of the diffuser line, () number of ports or risers and the number of ports per riser if risers are present, (k) average alignment angle (GAMMA) measured counterclockwise from the ambient current direction (x-axis) to the diffuser

For discharge characteristics, CORMIX2 requires the specification of 3 data entries. These specifications include: (a) the total discharge flow rate (00) or discharge velocity (U0), (b) the discharge'density or discharge temperature for an essentially freshwater discharge, and (c) the discharge concentration of the material of interest. The Q0 and UO variables are related through the total cross-sectional: area of all diffuser ports and the program computes and displays the alternate value allowing for user inspection and verification.

axis (0 to 180 0), and (I) for the unidirectional and

The specification of the pollutant in the

staged diffusers only, relative orientation angle (BETA) measured either clockwise or counterclockwise from the average plan projection of the port centerlines to the nearest diffuser axis (0 to 901). Note that CORMIX2 always assumes a uniform spacing between risers or between ports, and a round port crosssectional shape.

diffuser effluent is described in Section 4.7 below., 4.6 Discharge Data: CORMIX3 A definition sketch for the discharge geometry and flow characteristics for a buoyant surface discharge Is provided in Figure 4.8. In general, CORMIX3 allows for different types of inflow structures, ranging from simple rectangular channels to horizontal round pipes that may be located at or nearthe water surface. In addition, three different configurations relative to the bank are allowed as illustrated in Figure 4.9. Discharge structures can be: (a) flush with the bank/shore, (b) protruding from the bank or (c) co-flowing along the bank.

As examples of angle specifications, THETA is 0 degrees for a horizontal discharge and it is +90 degrees for a vertically upward discharge, SIGMA is 0 degrees (or 3600) when the ports point downstream in the ambient flow direction and it is 90 degrees when the ports point to the left of the ambient flow direction, GAMMA is 0 degrees (or 1800) for a parallel diffuser and it is 90 degrees for a perpendicular diffuser, and BETA is 0 degrees for a staged diffuser and it is 90 degrees for a unidirectional diffuser'.

4.6.1 Discharge Geometry To allow the establishmernt of a reference, coordinate system and orient the discharge to that reference, CORMIX3 requires the specification of up to 7 data entries. These specifications are illustrated in Figure 4.8 and include: (a). location of the nearest bank (i.e. left or right) as seen by an observer looking downstream in the direction of the flow, (b)discharge channel width (B0) of.the rectangular channel, (c)discharge channel depth (HO), (d) actual receiving water depth at the channel entry (HDO) and (e) bottom slope (SLOPE) in the receiving water body in the vicinity of the discharge channel, and (f)horizontal angle of discharge (SIGMA) measured counterclockwise from the ambient current direction (x-axis) to

CORMIX2 performs a number of consistency checks to ensure the user does not make arithmetical errors when preparing and entering the above data and it also checks the specified geometry for compliance with three criteria to prevent an -inappropriate system application. Figure 4.6b shows the imposed limits of system application for CORMIX2 which are: (a) the port height (HO) value must not exceed onethird of the local water depth (HD) value, (b) the port diameter value must not exceed one-fifth of HD's value, and (c) the pycnocline value must be within the 40 to 90 percent range of HD's value. The restrictions are similar to those shown in 40

J

Ua

Discharge Angle, o" Discharge

a) Plan View

Depth at the discharge, HMo

b) Cross-Section

Figure 4.8:

CORMIX3 discharge channel geometry

41

UG

a) Discharge flush with bank

UO

j b) Protruding discharge

U0

c) Coflowing along downstream bank

Possible CORMIX3 discharge configurations of discharge channel relative to Figure 4.9: bank/shoreline

42

The discharge concentration of the material of interest (pollutant, tracer, or temperature) is defined as the excess concentration above any ambient concentration of that same material. The user can specify this quantity in any units. CORMIX1 predictions should be interpreted as computed excess concentrations in these same units. If no specific pollutant is under consideration, simply specify a discharge concentration of 100%.

the plan projection of the port centerline. In the case of a circular discharge pipe, the (b) pipe diameter and (c) depth of bottom invert below the water surface (water surface to bottom edge of pipe) must be specified, respectively. In all cases, CORMIX3 assumes the discharge is being issued horizontally. CORMIX3 uses the variable HDO for the actual water depth just in front of the channel exit and requires an additional specification for the receiving water bottom slope, again in front of the exit, extending into the receiving water body. These details are important for identifying, cases where plume attachment to the bottom can occur.

4.7 Pollutant Data CORMIX allows three types of pollutant discharges:

In the case of a circular pipb discharge CORMIX3 assumes the outlet is flowing full and that it is not submerged under the water surface by more than Y2 of the outlet diameter. If the discharge outlet has an odd cross-sectional shape (e.g. a pipe flowing partially full) then it should be represented schematically as a rectangular outlet of the same cross-sectional area and similar channel depth.

(a) Conservative Pollutant: The pollutant does not undergo any decay/growth processes.

discharges, channel For open considerable care should be exercised when specifying discharge channel depth.,since this parameter is directly linked to the ambient receMng water depth (stage). This Is especially important for tidal situations.

(c), Heated Discharae: The,-discharge will experience heat loss to the atmosphere in cases where the plume contacts the water surface. It is necessary to specify the, discharge condition in. terms of .exces temoerature ("delta Tr) above ambient in units degC, and the surface ., heat - exchange coefficient in units, W/m 2,degC. Values, of the heat exchange coefficient depend on ambient water temperature and wind speed. The following listing provides a guideline for the selection.

(b) Non-conservative Pollutant: The pollutant undergoes a first order decay or growth process. One needs to specify the coefficient of decay (positive number) or growth (negative number) in units: /day (per day).

To prevent an inappropriate system application, CORMIX3 only allows for a discharge channel depth-to-width aspect ratio of 0.05 to 5. This -prohibits the use of extremely oblong discharge geometry.

,!Typically, the near-field behavior is quite

4.62 Dibcharoe Flow.

insensitive to the choice of theseTyalues,, but it

-

may affect, the prediction results at greater . distances in the far-field.

For discharge characteriistics, CORMIX3 requires the specification, of 3 data entries. These specifications includo: (a) theJtotal discharge, flow rate (QO) or discharge velocity (UO), (b).the dischare density or discharge temperature for an essentially freshwater discharge, and (c) the discharge concentration of the material of interest. The 00 and UO Variables are related through the channel cross-sectional area; the theverification. altemate program computes and displays,and value allowing for user inspection

The discharge concentration (CO) of the material of , interest (pollutant,-:.tracer, or temperature), is defined t as. the 'excess concentration above..anv ambient background concentration of that-same material. The user can ýspecify this -quantity in any units of concentration (e.g. mg/I, ppm, %, 0C). CORMIX predictions should be interpreted as computed excess concentrations in these same units. 43

9 SURFACE HEAT EXCHANGE COEFFICIENT (W/m 2,OC) Values for a lightly heated, natural water surface (local excess temperatures 0to 3 °C) Ambient Water Temp. (°C) 5 10 15 20 25 30

Wind Speed (m/s) 0 1 ' 2

4

6

8

5 5 5 5 6 6

24 27 31 38 45 54'

33 38 44 52 63 76

42 49 59 68 82 100

10 11 12 14 16 19

14 16 18 21 25 30

Ref: "Heat Disposal in the Water Environment", E.E. Adams, D.R.F. Harleman, G.H. Jirka, and K.D. Stolzenbach, Course Notes, R.M. Parsons Laboratory, Mass. Inst. of Techn., 1981.

occur at correct regulatory concentrations

if no pollutant data at all is available, it is most convenient to specify CO = 100 %.

because they are interpreted as excess plume concentrations above ambient.

In case of an ambient background concentration it Is important to treat all pollutant related data items in a consistent fashion. This inclU des the specification of any regulatory values as discussed in Section 4.8 below.

9

4.8 Mixing Zone Data

e: suppose the actual discharge Eamn concentration for, a particular pollutant is 100 mg/I, and values of CMC and CCC for the pollutant are 20 mg/I and 10 mg/I, respectively. If the background ambient concentration for the same pollutant is 4 mg/I, the data entry to CORMIX would be for the discharge concentration = 96 mg/I, for CMC= 16 mg/I, and for CCC = 6 mg/i, respectively. All concentration values listed in the diverse CORMIX output (see Chapter V) must then be interpreted accordingly, and the actual concentration values are computed by adding ,the background concentration value.. E.g. if. the CORMIX predicted value for one. particular point happens to be 13.6 mg/I, then the total concentration value at that point would be 17.6 mg/I. Also, all program mixing zone messages would 44

The user must Indicate: (a) whether EPA's toxic dilution zone (TDZ)'definitions apply, (b) whether an ambient water quality standard exists, (c) whether a regulatory mixing zone (RMZ) definition exists, (d) the spatial region of interest (ROI) over which information is desired, and (e) number of locations (i.e. "grid intervals') in the ROI to display output details. Depending on the responses to the above, several additional data entries may be necessary as described in the following paragraphs. When TDZ definitions apply, the user must also Indicate the criterion maximum concentration (CMC) and criterion continuous concentration (CCC) Which are intended to protect aquatic life from acute and chronic effects, respectively. CORMIX will check for compliance with: (a) the CMC standard at the edge of the TDZ and (b) the CMC standard at the edge of the RMZ, proving a' RMZ was defined. See Subsection 2.2.2 for additional discussion.

D

When a RMZ definition exists, it can be specified by: (a) a distance from the discharge location, (b) the cross-sectional area occupied by the plume, or (c) the width of the effluent plume. The ROI, which is a user defined region where mixing conditions are to be analyzed, is specified as the maximum analysis distance in the direction of mixed effluent flow. The level of detail for the output data within the ROI and thus, for the entire hydraulic simulation, is established by specifying the number of grid intervals that will be displayed in the output files. This parameters allowable range is 3 to 50 and the chosen value does not affect the accuracy of the CORMIX prediction, only the amount of output detail. A low value should be specified for initial calculations to minimize printout lengths while a large value might be desirable for final predictions to give enough resolution for plotting of plume dimensions.

4.9 Units of Measure CORMIX uses the metric system of measurement. When data values are provided to the user in English units, these must be converted to equivalent metric measures. The list at the beginning of this manual gives the five metric dimensions used by CORMIX in the left column, and on the right, their equivalents in some common English units. Pollutant concentrations can be entered in any conventional measure such as mg/L, ppb, bacteria-count, etc. Considering the potential accuracy of CORMIX predictions, 3 to 4 significant digits are sufficiently accurate for most input data values as suggested in the above conversion list. The only exceptions are the ambient and effluent density values. These may require 5 significant digits, especially when simulating the discharge to an ambient density-stratified receiving water body.

45 ý•;

9 46

V CORMIX:Output Features computation .results and (c) flow class descriptions. The paragraphs within this Section aid in the interpretation of that information.

CORMIX is a highly interactive system and conveys information to the user through qualitative descriptions and detailed quantitative numerical predictions. This output can. be viewed on-screen in text mode or graphics mode, can be directed to a printer, and Is stored in subdirectory CORMIXSIM and CORMIX\SIM\CXn files. In this chapter the label n = 1, 2 or 3 designates the appropriate CORMIX subsystem.

The program elements PARAM andCLASS, in particular, provide . essential information on the expected dynamic behavior of the discharge. By actively participating in the interactive process, the novice and intermediate user can derive a substantial educational benefit. and a technical appreciation of. the physical aspects of initial mixing processes. Although advanced users may find some of the presented material somewhat repetitive;, they should still consult the length scale computation results.

5.1 Qualitative .Output: Flow Descriptions After completion of the input data entry. sequences, the system proceeds through the program elements following the flow chart displayed in Figure 3.1. In addition to the routine operational messages provided during program execution, important qualitative information is displayed on-screen about the ongoing analysis of the given ambient/discharge case.. The three general types of descriptive information provided are: (a) descriptive messages, (b) length scale

5.1.1 Descriptive Messages These messages provide both physical information and Insight into the logic reasoning employed _by CQRMIX. Three example descriptive messages are:.

"The effluent density, (1004.5 kg/mA3) is greater than the surrounding waterldensity at the discharge level (997.2 kg/mA3). 'Therefore,: the' effluent is negatively buoyant and will tend to sink . towards the bottom." "STRONG BANK INTERACTION will occur for this perpendicular diffuser The shoreline will type due to its proximity to'the bank (shoreline). "act as a symmetry'-line for the diffuser flow field. The. 'diffuser: length and total, flow variables .are' doubled (or approximately doubled, depending on the vicinity to the shoreline). All of the followingjlength scales are computed on that basis." "The specifled two layer ambient density stratification is'dynamicallyý" important. The discharge"near-field flow will be confined to. the lower layer by the ambient density stratification. Furthermore, it may-be trapped below the .ambient density jump atithe pycnocline."

The preceding example output highlights several features of CORMIX's descriptive messages. These include: (a) conveying' basic informatiori about the'involved mixing processes, (b) 'using a caieful terminology (e.g. "..tenid to sink.);)i (c) describingkey calculation assumptions, and (d)'aleiting the User to senhitiVe

analysis conditions.- In"some' instances, the provided information may be obvious to the user; while in others it may not, particularly for situations involvrig linear ambient stratification. The use ofl a careful terminology Is necessary because messages are presented as the analysis proceeds and subsequent tests-may alter, or

'

47

amplify, initial results. For example, near-field instabilities, which are tested for late in the analysis, can prevent an otherwise sinking plume. 5.1.2 Length Scale Computations

local water depth (HD), this Is an immediate indication to the user that the crossflow is very strong, leading to complete bending of the buoyant jet. If the reverse holds true, the crossflow may be so weak that its deflecting effect is negligible, and the buoyant jet will strongly interact (impinge) with the water surface. In the first instance, a situation as depicted in Figures 2.1 b combined with Figure 2.1a will result, while in the second instance, a flow resembling Figures 2.2c or 2.2d may arise, depending on the relation of the two scales with each other.

The program element PARAM computes so-called 'length scales" which represent important dynamic measures about the relative influence of certain hydrodynamic processes on effluent mixing. : These calculated values are subsequently used in program element CLASS to identify the generic flow class upon which the hydraulic simulations will be based. This flow classification is accomplished through formal dynamic length scale analysis, which is a key aspect of the theoretical Underpinnings for the CORMIX approach. The CORMIX documentation manuals (5,6,7) and related joumal publications provide the theoretical background on length scale definitions and significance, their derivation from principles of dimensional analysis, and their use in the CORMIX flow classification approach.

As another example, consider a buoyant jet discharging into a linearly stratified ambient. If both L•' and Lb' both larger than the pycnocline height (HINT) and even the water depth (HA), this would be an Indication that the existing stratification is so weak that it will not lead to any trapping of the effluent plume within the available vertical space. By making such comparisons, users will gradually get a good feel for the behavior of the buoyant jet, and other mixing processes within the space constraints of the ambient environment. Those interested in design can quickly gain an appreciation. of the length scale measures and their sensitivity to design choices. However, there are limitations to these simplistic comparisons because the "lenhgh scales" are by no means precise measurements for the influence of the different processes. As their name implies they should be taken only as 'scale" estimates. The actual CORMIX classification scheme uses formal criteria when comparing the length scale measures with the geometric constraints or each other. b) Multiport diffusers: Some important length scales for multiport diffusers (CORMIX2) are described in Table 5.2. To a large extent, these scales have a similar meaning for the behavior of the plane buoyant jet as the earlier ones discussed for the round buoyant jet (Table 5.1). However, they are calculated differently because the CORMIX2 system uses the "equivalent slot diffuser' concept to model the overall dynamics of the submerged multiport diffuser (Section 3.1). Except for the immediate close-up zone before the individual jets merge (Figure 2.1d) this concept is a dynamically valid and accurate representation of multiport diffuser flows (6).

Although flow classification is a formal' process using criteria derived from theoretical studies and/or experimental data, a great deal can be deduced about the flow dynamics by comparing the calculated length scales to the actual physical measures of the ambient/discharge situation. Of greatest importance are comparison to such geometric measures as: the available water depth (HD), a pycnocline height (HINT) and the distance to the nearest bank (DISTB). The following discussion provides a brief explanation of the more important length scales and examples on how to make appropriate comparisons in a given application. Users are encouraged to make these comparisons. a) Single port discharges: Some important length scales relating to submerged round buoyant jets (CORMIXI) are described in Table 5.1. All of these scales are defined from an interplay of the momentum and buoyancy flux quantities of the discharge with each other or with the current velocity and stratification gradient variables. As an example, consider a vertically discharging buoyant jet into an unstratified ambient receiving water. When both calculated L,- and Lb values are substantially less than the 48

9

Table 5.1 Length Scales for Single Port Submerged Discharges (Used In CORMIXI and CORMIX2) 12 314 Jet/plume transition length scale LM = M0 / 3 0 /

interpretation: For combined buoyant jet flow, the distance at which the transition from jet to plume behavior takes place in a stagnant uniform ambient. Jetlcrossflow length scale L.. = M,," / u, interpretation: In the presence of a crossflow, the distance of the transverse (i.e.;across ambient flow) jet penetration beyond which the jet Is strongly deflected (advected) by the cross flow. For a strictly co-flowing discharge (0 = 0, a = 0), the length of the region beyond which the flow is simply advected.

Plume/crossflow length scale Lb = J, / u,interpretation:.. The-vertically upward or downward flotation distance beyond which a plume becomes strongly advected by crossflow. Jet/stratification length scale Lm' = M, 114 / 04 interpretation: In a stagnant linearly stratified ambient, the distance. at which a jet becomes strongly affected by the stratification, leading to terminal layer formation With horizontally spreading flows. Plume/stratification length scale L..,' = J.",4 / e• interpretation: In a stagnant linearly stratified ambient, the distance at which a plume becomes strongly affected by the stratification, leading to terminal layer formation with horizontally spreading flows. Notes: M, = Uo0 0, kinematic momentum flux J, = g'oQo, kinematic buoyancy flux 0= Uoao, source discharge volume flux a, = port area ua = ambient velocity U, = port discharge velocity e = ambient buoyancy gradient g = discharge buoyancy = g(p, - po)/pa

notable example Is circulating motions induced in shallow receiving waters due to intermediate-field effects (Section 2.1.1). The immediate close-up zone before the individual jets merge is also not addressed by the two-dimensional length scales. Additional .discussion, of these and other peculiarities can be found elsewhere (6,18).

However, there are some exceptions and additional pcqmplexities to, interpreting, the twodimensional slot, length,, scales., measures described. in Table, 5.2. . In addition to the. predominately two-dim'ensional ,flow, behavior,. some of the large scale dynamics of multipqrt diffusers may also be influenced by other scales. depending on the overall diffuser flow pattern. A 49

Table 5.2 Dynamic Length Scales for MuItiport Diffuser (CORMIX2) in the Two-Dimensional "Slot" Discharge Representation Slot jet/plume transition length scale eM = mo Ijo' interpretation: For combined buoyant jet flow, the distance at which the transition from jet to plume behavior takes place in a stagnant uniform ambient. Slot jet/crossflow length scale em = mo / u, 2 interpretation: In the presence of a crossflow, the distance of the transverse (i.e. across ambient flow) jet penetration beyond which the jet is strongly deflected (advected) by the cross flow. For a strictly co-flowing discharge (8 = 0, a = 0), the length of the region beyond which the flow is simply advected. 13 Slot jet/stratification length scale 9m' = mom / el3 interpretation: In a stagnant linearly stratified ambient, the distance at which a jet becomes strongly affected by the stratification, leading'to terminal layer formation with horizontally spreading flows. 113 Slot plume/stratification length scale Ob' = J I e12 interpretation: In a stagnant linearly stratified ambient, the distance at 'whicha plume becomes strongly affected by the stratification, leading to terminal layer formation with horizontally spreading flows.

Crossflowlstratification length scale 9i = u, / 0. 2 interpretation: Th1 vertically upward or downward floatation distance beyond which aplume becomes strongly advected by crossflow. Notes: mo = Uoqo, kinematic momentum flux per unit length Jo = g'oqo, kinematic buoyancy flux per unit length qo = UonaA/L, source discharge volume flux a, = port area ua

=

ambient velocity

Uo = port discharge velocity e = ambient buoyancy gradient g'0 = discharge buoyancy = g(p, - Po)/Pa n = total number of nozzles LD = overall diffuser length

c) Buoyant surface jets: Some important length scales that describe the nearfield dynamics of buoyant surface jets discharging into unstratified receiving waters (CORMIX3)-are listed in Table 5.3. These scales are defined in a similar manner to the submerged discharged cases but due to the discharge location at the

surface, they have different interpretations. For example, L, is compared to the channel width (BS) instead of the local water depth as it was in submerged case examples; if it exceeds BS, the discharge will quickly interact with the opposing bank.

50

)

Table 5.3 Dynamic Length Scales for Buoyant Surface Jets (CORMIX3) Discharging into Unstratified Receiving Water Jet/plume transition length scale Lm = M,314 / J,

2

interpretation: For stagnant ambient conditions, the extent of the initial jet region before mixing changes over into an unsteady surface spreading motion. Jeticrossflow length scale L, = M,1 2 / u, interpretation: The distance over which a discharging jet intrudes into the ambient crossflow before it gets strongly deflected. 3 Plume/crossflow length scale Lb = J0 / u.

interpretation: A measure of the tendency for upstream intrusion for a strongly buoyant discharge. . Notes: Mo = U00 0, kinematic momentum flux Jo= g'oU0 , kinematic buoyancy flux 0,= U~ao,.source discharge volume flux a. = channel cross-sectional area ua = ambient velocity Uo = channel discharge

velocity g'o= discharge buoyancy = g(pa - Po)/Pa

Table 5.5 lists and describes the broad !categories of flow classes available in CORMIX. CORMIX1,. 2 and 3, consider 35, 31 and 11 distinct flow classifications, respectively. Each flow class identification consists of an alphanumeric label corresponding to, the flow category and a number (e.g. MU2). . Text descriptions of the flow classes are available onscreen during the analysis and can printed from the, files stored within sub-directory 5.1.3 Description of Flow Classes CORMIXMTEXT (Table 3.1). Pictorial illustrations of the flow classes can be found in Appendix A. Program element CLASS, performs a As an example, Figure 5.1 shows the pictorial illustration and text description for flow class S1, rigorous classification, of the -,wgiven a case of an effluent that becomes trapped in discharge/ambient situation, into one of many ambient stratification. It is strongly recommended generic flow classes with distinct hydrodynamic features. In a way, this amounts to identifying a that novice or intermediate users scrutinize these materials to gain a qualitative understanding of general pictorial description. of. the expected flow configuration. ..- . I ,,, '. ,the effluent flow's behavior. d) Tidal reversing flows: Additional length and time scales can be defined for unsteady flows in which the scale of influence of oscillating plume depends on the rate of velocity reversal change at slack tide (8,17). CORMIX will take the actual steady-state predictions and adjust their concentration values according to the time after reversal relative to the time scale T,, and also limit their areal applicability relative to Li.

51

Table 5A Dynamic Length and Time Scales for Discharges into Unsteady Tidal Reversing Flows

Jet-to unsteady-crossflow length scale Lu =

(dud )

interpretation: A measure of the distance of the forward propagation into the ambient flow of a discharge during the reversal episode.

time scale T Jet-to unsteady-crossflow

(

=u

1/4)

interpretation: a measure of the duration over which an effluent may be considered as discharging into stagnant water while the velocity field is reversing. Notes: M. = UoQ,, kinematic momentum flux Idu,/dtI = time rate of reversal of ambient velocity (absolute value)

Table 5.5 Flow Class Categories and Descriptions

COMM:X!; Classes S: Classes V,H: Classes NV,NH: Classes A:

35 flow classes Flows trapped in a layer within linear stratification. Positively buoyant flows in a uniform density layer. Negatively buoyant flows in uniform density layer. Flows affected by dynamic bottom attachment.

Classes MS: Classes MU: Classes MNU:

31 flow classes Flows trapped in a layer within linear ambient stratification. Positively buoyant flows in a uniform density layer. Negatively buoyant flows in uniform density layer.

CORMIX3 Classes FJ: Classes SA:

9 flow classes Free jet flows without near-field shoreline interaction. Shoreline-attached discharges in crossfilow.

CORMIX2:

52

Wall jets/plumes from discharges parallel to shoreline. Upstream intruding plumes.

Classes WJ: Classes PL:

FLOW CLASS S1 This flow configuration is profoundly affected by the linear ambient density stratification. The predominantly jet-like flow gets trapped at some terminal (equilibrium) level. The trapping is also affected by the reasonably strong ambient crossflow. Following the trapping zone, the discharge flow forms an internal layer that is further influenced, by buoyant spreading and passive diffusion. The following flow zones exist: 1) Weakly deflected jet in crossf.low: The flow is initially dominated by the effluent momentum (jet-like) and is weakly deflected by the ambient current. 2) Strongly deflected jet in crossflow: The jet has become strongly deflected by the ambient current and is slowly rising toward the trapping level. 3) Terminal layer approach:'The bent-over submerged jet/plume approaches the terminal level. Within a short distance the concentration distribution becomes relatively uniform across the plume width and thickness. •**

The zones listed above constitute the NEAR-FIELD REGION in which strong initial mixing takes place. *

4) Buoyant spreading in internal layer: The discharge flow within the internal layer spreads laterally while it is being. advected by the ambient.current. The plume thickness may decrease during this phase. The mixing rate is relatively small. The plume may interact with a nearby bank or shoreline. 5) Passive amubient mixing: After some distance the background turbulence in the ambient shear flow becomes the dominating mixing mechanism. The passive plume -is growing in depth and in width. The plume may interact with the upper layer boundary, channel bottom and/or banks. ***

Predictions will be terminated in zone 4 or 5 depending on the definitions of the REGULATORY MIXING ZONE or the REGION OF INTEREST.

Figure 5.1:

***

Example of a Flow Class Description

53

5.2 Quantitative Output:' Numerical Flow Predictions

downstream in the direction following the ambient flow; the y-axis lies in the horizontal plane and points to the left as seen by an observer looking downstream along the x-axis; and the z-axis points vertically upward. Note that when the ambient current direction varies (e.g. due to reversing tidal flows), the interpretation of simulation results becomes more involved since the x-axis and the y-axis will change depending on flow direction.

After execution of the detailed flow prediction in program element HYDROn, the system provides two types of detailed numerical output on effluent plume trajectory and mixing and on compliance with regulations. A concise summary is available on-screen in the final system element SUM and a detailed numerical output file is also generated for inspecting and plotting the plume's behavior after the analysis. 5.2.1 Summary Output in SUM

In addition to the numerical predictions of the plume size, location and chemical concentration, the summary of the near-field region (NFR) conditions describes other relevant plume features such as bottom attachment, bank interaction and the degree of upstream intrusion. This information is useful for both engineering design and for. determining whether important resource areas may be exposed to undesirable chemical concentrations.

The self-explanatory summary output which can be displayed on-screen includes: (a) the date and time of the analysis section, (b) a complete echo of the input data, (c) the calculated flux, length scale and non-dimensional parameter values, (d) the flow classification used for predicting plume trajectory and mixing, (e) the coordinate system used in the analysis, (f) a summary of the near-field region (NFR) conditions, (g) the far-field locations where the plume becomes essentially fully mixed (i.e. uniform concentration) in the horizontal and vertical directions, (h) a summary of the toxic dilution zone (TDZ) conditions, and (I) a summary of the regulatory mixing zone (RMZ) conditions. Although the raw data used to construct this summary output is permanently stored in file 'fn'.CXC within the output sub-directory CORMIX\SIM\CXn, a hard-copy printout should be requested during the analysis session because the raw data file Is unformatted and does not contain the explanatory text that is available during program execution; 'fn' is the filename specified by the user during input data entry.

In case of a toxic discharge, the summary toxic dilution zone (TDZ) conditions will indicate the location along the plume where the local concentration begins-to fall below the specified CMC. CORMIX automatically checks compliance with the three- geometric restrictions listed for mixing zones associated with toxics discharges under altemrative 3 (see Subsection 2.3.3) and the results of these comparisons are displayed. The user -can evaluate the fourth alternative by referring to travel times given at the end of each simulation module in the related output files.

2

When regulatory mixing zone (RMZ) criteria have been specified during input data entry, the geometric, dilution and concentration conditions at the edge of the specified or proposed RMZ are compared to these criteria and/or to the applicable CCC concentration following the practices discussed in Subsection 2.2.4. The results of these comparisons are displayed.

The coordinate system conventions pertain to the origin location and axis direction. In CORMIX1 analyses, the origin is located at the bottom of the receiving water just below the discharge port center and thus, at a depth HD *below the water surface. In CORMIX2 analyses, the origin is located at the bottom of the receiving water, at the midpoint of the diffuser line and thus, at a depth HD below the water surface. In CORMIX3 analyses, the origin is located at the water surface where the discharge channel centerline and receiving water shoreline intersect. The x-axis lies in the horizontal plane and points

5.2.2 Detailed Prediction Output Filefn'.CXn The file 'fn.CXn stored within sub-directory CORMIX\SIM contains the same kinds of information available in the summary output plus the detailed numerical predictions on plume geometry and mixing produced during the hydraulic simulation. Data in that file forms the 54

9

basis for further analysis, inspection, evaluation, and plotting of the plume shape and trajectory. The graphics package also uses the same data to plot on-screen, and print if desired, the plume properties as explained in Section 5.2.3. During program execution, the user has several opportunities to display on-screen or print out this file. It can also be printed at a later date by using the DOS PRINT command or any word processor. CORMIX will not erase any of the files with .CXn (or .CXC) extension that get stored in the CORMIX\SIM sub-directory. Consequently, periodic directory maintenance is recommended to remove old and superfluous files. This is best accomplished with a built-in file manager- (see Main Menu) that deletes the specified files from the hard disk, but also erases their entry from the record keeping file CORMIX\SIM\CXn\summary. The fn'.CXn file is a FORTRAN output file generated by the HYDROn prediction program. As is typical of many FORTRAN outputs, its display features are terse with tight format control and data items labeled in symbolic form only (e.g. "Q0" for discharge flow rate). Complete output file examples can be inspected in Appendices B, C and D. All three CORMIXn subsystems produce a 'fn'.CXn output file with common appearance and features as described in the following paragraphs.

lnw.CXn output reflects that sequence and is a arranged in output blocks for each module. Each simulation module has a "MODnxx' label where "n" is 1, 2, or 3 corresponding to CORMIXn, and "xx" is a two-digit identification number. The two general types of modules are continuous flow and control volume. The continuous flow module type describes the continuous, evolution of a flow region along a trajectory. Depending on the number of grid intervals specified by the user, information on plume geometry, flow, and mixing information along the plume trajectory may be available for a few or many water body locations. Figure 5.2 provides, examples, of typical output from continuous flow modules. The annotations along the right margin illustrate important features of the output" format. Figure 5.2a was taken from a CORMIX1 simulation output file and shows an example of a submerged jet region module (MOD110, equivalent to CORJET). The output contains labeling information on the module, and explanatory notes on profile definitions. It also gives a numerical list on the predictions, first repeating the final values from the preceding flow module and then one line for each user-specified grid interval. This information gives the x-y-z position of the jet/plume centerline, the dilution (S) and concentration (C) at the centerline, and the jet width (B).

a) Lead-In Information: The output starts (and Dilution (S) Is defined as the ratio of the ends), with a ,111...111", "222...222", or '333...333" banner line to accentuate which Initial concentration (at the discharge port) to the subsystem has been used. The date and time of concentration at a given location, irrespective of the analysis session and all important. input data any decay or growth effects ifspecified for a nonare the next items in the file. These are conservative pollutant. However, concentration subsequently followed by the calculated length (C): will include any first-order effects for nonscale values, non-dimensional numbers of conservative pollutants. Dilution (S) given by interest to the specialist, the flow class CORMIX for submerged jet or plume regions is identification, and the coordinate system Is the minimum centerline dilution for the jet/plume. displayed. The control volume and buoyant spreading b) Prediction results for each flow "module": modules give bulk dilutions, which are equivalent As was mentioned previously in Subsection 3.6, to flux-averaged dilutions for these regions. If a the CORMIX prediction methodology utilizes a flux-averaged dilution S is desired for submerged number of simulation modules that are executed, •'jet or plume regions,; the ratio of flux-average to minimum centerline dilution Sf/S = 1.7 and 1.3, sequentially and that correspond to the different flow processes and associated spatial regions for single-port round and multiport plane discharges, respectively. which occur within a given flow class. The 55 .

BEGIN CORJET

(MODIl0): JET/PLUME NEAR-FIELD MIXING REGION

Jet/plume transition motion in weak crossflow. Zone-of flow establishment: LE = 3.39 XE

0.21

THETAE. YE =

0.00 SIGMAE-3.38 ZE =

Profile d~finitions: B = Gaussian l/e (37%) half-width, normal to trajectory S = hydrodynamic centerline dilution C = centerline concentration (includes reactioneffects, X Y Z S C B * 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.0 0.100E+03 0.76 0.21 -3.38 1.00 1.0 0.100E+03 0.76 0.90 -7.41 4.11 1.8 0.562E+02 1.13 3.3 0.300E+02 1.59 1.55 -9.36 9.07 2.23 -i0ý55 14.27 5.4 0.186E+02 2.10 2.95 -11.39 19.56 7.9 0.127E+02 2.63 10.8 0.928E+01 3.16 3.72 -12.02 24.85 Cumulative travel time 18. sec END OF CORJET (MODII0): JET/PLUME NEAR-FIELD MIXING REGION

if

277.06 1.00

any)

a) Submerged buoyant jet module ................................ BUOYANT AMBIENT SPREADING BV - top-hat thickness,

--............................................

BEGG NN M0D341 : Profile definitions:

measured vertically

BH S C = Plume

top-hat half-width, measured horizontally from bank/shoreline hydrodynamic average (bulk) dilution average (bulk) concentration (includes reaction effects, if any) Stage 1 (not bank attached): X Y Z S C BV BH 1.93 -. 82 0.00 8.4 .884E+00 .03 .58 2.07 -. 82 0.00 8.5 .869E+00 .03 .62 2.20 -. 82 0.00 8.6 .856E+00 .03 .65

**

WATERQUALITY STANDARD OR CCC HAS BEEN FOUND **

The pollutant concentration in or CCC value of .850E+00 in This is the spatial extent of standard or CCC value. 2.34 -. 82 0.00 2.48 -. 82 0.00 2.62 -. 82 0.00 2.76 -. 82 0.00 2.89 -. 82 0.00 2.96 -. 82 0.00 Cumulative travel time -

the plume falls below water quality standard the Current prediction interval. concentrations exceeding the water quality 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3

.844E+00 .833E+00 .822E+00 .811E+00 .801E+00 .796E+00 95. sec

.03 .03 .03 .03 .03 .03

.68 .71 .74 .77 .80 .82 Plume is ATTACHED

to LEFT bank/shore. PlUme width is now determined from LEFT

Plume Stage 2 (bank attached): X .Y Z S 2.96 ,00 0.00 9.3 16.05 .00 0.00 31.3 29.13 .00 0.00 96.8 42.22 .00 0.00 220.7 55.31 .00 0.00 411.4 68.39 .00 0.00 675.3 81.48 94.56 101.11

.. 00 .00 .00

0.00 0.00 0.00 Cumulative travel time -

END OF MOD341:

BUOYANT

1017.8 1443.5 1688.9

bank/shore.

C .796E+00 .237E+00 .764E-01 .335E-01 .180K-01 .1iOE-01

BV .03 .03 .06 .10 .16 .23

BH .82 2.59 3.77. 4.76 5.64 6.45

.727E-02 .513E-02 .438E-02

.31 .40 .45

7.20 7.91 8.26

3367. sec AMBIENT SPREADING

b) Far-field flow module (example of buoyant spreading with bank contact)

Figure 5.2:

Examples of continuous flow modules within CORMIX 56

a detailed computation.

The cumulative travel time (M)is given at the end of each simulation module. The travel time can be used to assess the applicability of the steady-state predictions given by CORMIX to time scales appropriate for the particular application.

c) Numerous other supplementary messages on plume behavior (e.g. bottom attachment, bank contact, etc.) and on possible model restrictions (e.g. ambient dilution limitations in a flowrestricted river) are contained in the output as warranted; Figures 5.2 and 5.3 provide but a few examples of these user aids.

Another example of a continuous flow module output is shown in Figure 5.2b. It was abstracted from a CORMIX simulation output file and shows predictions for the far-field process of buoyant ambient spreading (Figure 2.6). Although it is terse, the output file values and commentary generally provide a complete picture of flow conditions. In this example output (Figure 5.2b), evidence of this completeness includes: (a) the prediction output is separated In two stages corresponding to before and after bank interaction, respectively;, due to the typical oblong cross-section of the plume in this stage, width dimensions for the vertical and lateral extent are given and defined; the coordinates for the upper and lower boundaries of the plume are listed as a convenience for plotting; and the system searches for criteria that apply to mixing zone regulations and when a criterion is satisfied, a remark gets inserted in the output list at the appropriate spatial position. (Note: The length dimensions in Figure 5.2b are small as they relate to a laboratory simulation.)

5.3 Graphical Output: Display and Plotting of Plume Features Using CMXGRAPH 5.3.1 Access to CMXGRAPH CMXGRAPH is a specially developed graphics package, written in C++, for the display and plotting of CORMIX (and also CORJET, see Section 6.2) predicted effluent plumes. It uses the prediction files Ifn'.CXn that are stored in the directory CORMIX\SIM, and plots plume features based on the numerical and narrative information contained in these files. The graphics system can be accessed in different ways: (1) Use within CORMIX: Different access modes exist here.

Some -mixing flow processes are so complicated' that no mechanistically-based mathematical description of them is presently available In state-of-the-art science. Those with control processes are best analyzed volume modules as shown in Figure 5.3.

(la) The user can display the plume graphics immediately after the actual prediction and before the file information is stored. This is useful for an Initial inspection and evaluation of results. (1b) It can be accessed at an end of the prediction after the file has been stored, by entering the Post-Processor option in the Iteration Menu. (lc) Itcan be accessed on earlier existing files by directly choosing the PostProcessor option in the Main Menu.

In the control volume modeling approach, the outflow values for a region are computed as a function of the inflow values and are based on conservation principles. An output example for control volumes modules is illustrated in Figure 5.3. It Is taken from a CORMIXI simulation output file and gives predictions for a flow case corresponding to an unstable near-field (Figure 2.2c). Note that a separate listing of inflow variables and outflow variables Is given with appropriate explanations. The tabular listing of plume shape is based on an interpolation routine using a generic plume shape for these upstream intruding motions, rather than,

(2) Use outside CORMIX: The graphics system can be invoked directly by typing: cmxgraph (or simply: cg) filename where filename (including path and extension) is any prediction file generated by CORMIX or by CQRJET, -• • !, 57

BEGIN MOD132: LAYER BOUNDARY IMPINGEMENT/UPSTREAM SPREADING Vertical angle of layer/boundary impingement Horizontal angle Of layer/boundary impingement

= =

UPSTREAM INTRUSION PROPERTIES: Upstream intrusion length = X-position of upstream stagnation point = Thickness in intrusion region = Half-width at downstream end = Thickness at downstream end = In this case, the upstream INTRUSION IS VERY LARGE, the local water depth.

79.65 deg 324.93 deg

328.95 -325.23 0.55 470.97 0.70

m m m. i m

exceeding 10 times

This may be caused by a very small ambient velocity, perhaps in combination with.large discharge buoyancy. Control volume inflow: x 3.72

Y -12.02

Z 24.85

S. C 10.8 0.928E+01

B 3.16

Profile definitions: BV = top-hat thickness, measured vertically BH = top-hat half-width, measured horizontallyin Y-direction

zU

=

upper plume boundary (Z-coordinate) Z-coordinate) (bulk), dilution average (bulk) concentration (includes reaction effects,

ZL = lower plume boundary S i hydrodynamic average

C

=

Ix Y z -325.23 -12.02 28.00 -313.94 -12.02 28.00 -258.63 -12.02 28.00 -203.31 -12.02 28.00 28.00 -148.00 -12.02 -92.68 28.00 -12.02 -37.37 -12.02 28.00 17.95 -12.02 28.00 73.26 -12.02 28.00 128.58 -12.02 28.00 183.89 -12.02 28.00 239.21 -12.02 28.00 Cumulative travel time -

S C 9999.9 0.OOOE+00 46.5 0.215E+01 19.3 0.519E+01 14.5 0.688E+01 12.5 0.802E+01 11.4 0.878E÷01 10.9 0.919E+01 11.0 0.913E+01 14.4 0.694E÷01 19.1 0.522E+01 22.0 0.455E+01 23.2 0.431E+01 3037. sec

BV 0.00 0.13 0.31 0.40 0.47 0.52 0.54 0.55 0.59 0.65 0.68 0.70

BH 0.00 66.61 161.78 218.89 263.91 302.30 336.34 367 *24 395.73

422.30 447.30 470.97

END OF MOD132: LAYER BOUNDARY IMPINGEMENT/UPSTREAM SPREADING

Figure 5.3:

Example of control volume flow module 58

if

any)

zU 28.00 28.00 28.00 28.00 28.00 28.00 28.00 28.00 28.00 28.00 28.00 28.00

ZL 28.00 27.87 27.69 27.60 27.53 27.48 27.46 27.45 27.41 27.35 27.32 27.30

As mentioned, numerous flow features (as evidenced by the different flow classes) can occur. It is difficult to develop a robust graphics package that operates safely for all of these possibilities. The CMXGRAPH system has been widely tested, but occasional crashes can occur for rare flow module combinations and then only for certain plot types. Should a crash occur and the direct access mode (la), listed above, has been used then the current file information will be lost. In those cases, it is safer to first save the current session file data and then exercise the graphics system.

5.3.2 Use of CMXGRAPH The graphics system has a selfexplanatory screen interface as shown in Figure 5.4. The menu is controlled by the keyboard alone by typing the letters that appear in capital on the menu buttons, or by user the four cursor keys when in zoom mode.

The GRAPHICS MENU COMMANDS are as follows: Help

an advice section is available listing the same Information as given here

Quit

exits the graphics system

There exist FIVE PLOT TYPES: Plan

generates a plan view of plume (x-y), as seen from above (entry option)

Side

generates a side view of plume (x-z), as seen by an observer looking from the bank/shore

Traj

generates a side view along trajectory of plume. The view is stretched out along the actually curving centerline trajectory.

c-X

generates a plot of concentration on the plume centerline plotted against downstream distance x

c-D

generates a plot of concentration on the plume centerline plotted against distance along the plume trajectory

The user can CONTROL the plume VIEW: .

-

Near

displays the near-field region only; useful for close-up details (entry option)

Full

displays the complete near- and far-field regions (i.e. the entire prediction results)

SHOW/HIDE FEATURES can be exercised to display additional information: Labels

puts identifier labels (site/case information) on top of plot (entry option)

Wqual

displays information on regulatory mixing regulations (TDZ, RMZ, .. ) on the plot; this is 59

displayed by dotted lines where particular regulations are encountered. Module

shows boundaries of prediction modules

ZOOM/SCALE CONTROL allows control of plot details: Zoom

allows the user to enlarge any RECTANGULAR SECTION of the current plot; this is accomplished by-. - Use CURSOR Control keys to move cursor (up,down,leftfright) -- Cursor SPEED can be modified by typing any number: 1(slowest),2,.. to 0(fastest) - Press RETURN when first comer of desired rectangle has been reached -- Move cursor to find opposite comer and press RETURN to fix opposite comer

sKale

allows the user to FIX SCALE distortion of current plot. The current scale is displayed in a window on the menu bottom (see Figure 5.4). -- Type in desired distortion at the prompt: All subsequent versions of the plot (including zooms will be fixed at this scale distortion. -- Use the sKale button again, to release the scale distortion.

Bkup

back-up to earlier zoomed/scaled versions of current plot

Esc

exit from zoom/scale mode (also Quit or repeated Bkup can be used to exit)

3

Several PRINT OPTIONS are available: pf lle

writes the current plot to a POSTSCRIPT FILE for later printing. The file can be edited and/or printed later using any compatible software (including public domain software, such as Ghostscript). --

Each print file is stored as \filename.Pvn\ where:

filename = CORMIX or CORJET assigned filename, Pvn = file extension indicating a Postscript file, v = P, S, T, X or D, for one of the five view types, n = 0 to 9, increasing file number. - If the total file number for a particular view type exceeds the maximum of ten (10), the first file in the series will be erased and replaced by the new file. psCm

allows a PRINT SCREEN action of the current plot --

The plot is first recreated without the menu interface and plot border.

Then use the Shift-PrintScreen buttons, to print the plot on-line. Important: The PRINTER must have been initialized for GRAPHICS MODE with the DOS command: \graphics [type] /r\ where: [type] = type of printer (e.g.: color4, laserjetii).

--

60

(

COPMIXI Prediction

DEEP^PESERUOIP A-PLANT A SUMMEPSTPIATI Ft CATION

File: sim\SAMPLE

C,'

0

x I 5. 0 0 0

0 C 0

cn 5. 0

0.

5.

Ca 0

x

*0 0

C>

QN

0

Plan

ieum)

.

cxt

The case study materials in, the Appendices show some of the possibilities that can be exercised in the graphics display the plume features described: In the fn.CXn output files. As shown above, the plume is characterized by its centerline trajectory, dilution, and width values. 'For understanding added detail in the plume cross-section, it is important to keep in mind the different concentration distributions and meanings of "plume width'. These are explained in the Supplementai statements at the beginning of each flow module (see Figures 5.2 and 5.3). Also, Figure 5.5 may be useful for further illustration. It gives the cross-sectional distribution of concentration for many of the commonly occurring plume cross-sections in the various regions predicted by the CORMIXn subsystems.

from the centedine, cr is the centerline concentration, e is the natural logarithm base, and b is the local plume half-width. However, this equation can not be used to plot concentration isolines in the control volume or buoyant. spreading regions because they are defined With a top-hat or uniform concentration profile and not a Gaussian distribution. By and large, all CORMIXn predictions are' continuous from module to module satisfying the conservation of mass, momentum and energy principles. Occasionally, some mismatches in plume width can occur as a consequence of enforcing these principles. Most of these will be barely noticeable with the usual plotting resolution and they can usually be safely ignored. Some of the mismatches or discontinuities can be kept to a minimum by specifying a large number for the grid intervals (see Section 4.9) to increase the resolution of the CORMIX prediction. This is especially useful for the final simulations on a particular design case.

In some Instances, users may desire to plot concentration Isolines for the predicted plume shapes. The- information contained in the HYDROn output file for each module and the definitions shown, in, Figure 5.5 are sufficient to construct such plots. In particular, in submerged plume or passive.rnmixing regions having a Gaussian distribution, the following formula can be used

In addition, when bottom attachment or bank interaction occurs, the plume trajectory is assumed to (and simulation predictions do) shift. suddenly to the boundary. In actuality, that shift would be much more gradual and this should be considered when interpreting the results of the CMXGRAPH plots or, alternatively, when plotting plume features by hand.

-b)

c(n)= c

be

where c(n) is the lateral concentration, n is the coordinate position measured tranversely away

62

9D

Submerged jet /plume

c =centerline concentration 0.37 c,

a) Submerged round jet/plume cross-section B = radius S = centerline dilution= o cc

Gaussian profile

I

b) Submerged plane jet/plume cross-section BV=normol width BH = lateral width S = centerline dilution:C cc

0.37cc

miz///

S

.........

Gaussion profile uniform laterally

,81M"VAIRM111½A ....

,•

f ..............

Uniform concentration c

81-

0. 46cc

d) Cross-section during ambient diffusion process BV = vertical width Co BH= lateral width S = centerline dilution

cc• C

;oussion profile

Figure 5.5:

c) Cross- section during buoyant spreading along water surface BV = vertical width BH = lateral width S = average dilution =cc Ccc

c i0.46 ccdc

Cross-sectional distributons of CORMIX predicted jet/plume sections

63

9

64

VI Post-Processor Models CORJET and FFLOCATR: Input and Output Features recent CORMIX system enhancements. CORJET is a type of a jet integral model whose original development in a two-dimensional framework and for a round jet only was first reported in the peerreviewed literature by Jirka and Fong (25). Detailed verification studies with various experimental data sources have been reported (8,26).

The CORMIX system contains three postprocessor options which be accessed directly from within the system or independently outside of CORMIX. In either case, the post-processor options provide additional enhancements to CORMIX in terms of plume display, and more detailed computation of near- and far-field plume features.

The first of the options, the graphics" In jet integral models the hydrodynamic equations governing the conservation of mass package CMXGRAPH, has already been and momentum, and of other quantities as described in Section 5.3. The second option is pollutant mass, density deficit, temperature and/or CORJET, the Cornell Buoyant Jet Integral Model, for the detailed analysis of the near-field behavior .salinity, are solved step-wise along the general curved jet trajectory. The solution yields values of of buoyant jets. FFLOCATR, the Far-Field Plume Locator, for the far-field delineation of the trajectory position itself and of the centerline discharge plumes in non-uniform river or estuary concentrations of these quantities, while the environments is the third option. The latter two actual cross-sectional distribution is fixed a priori (mostly as a Gaussian distribution) in these are described in this chapter. models. Literally several dozen such model developments have been reported in the literature 6.1 CORJET: The Cornell Buoyant Jet Integral over the last thirty years or so of research *on Model these mixing phenomena. Most of these 6.1A.1 General Features developments differ (I) in the degree of simplifying assumptions on the ambient/discharge CORJET is a Fortran model that solves characteristics (e.g. two-dimensional trajectories the three-dimensional jet integral equations for or uniform ambient conditions only), and (ii) in the submerged buoyant jets --either a single round type of closure that is made to specify the jet or interacting multiple jets In a multiport diffuser-- in a highly arbitrary ambient- turbulent 'growth and entrainment behavior in these jets under a variety of forcing conditions. environment. The ambient/discharge conditions Thus, some of these models can be include an arbitrary discharge direction, positive, demonstrated to be unduly limited for practical neutral or negative discharge buoyancy, an applications, and others to be clearly invalid in arbitrary stable density distribution, and a noncertain limiting regimes of plume behavior. uniform "ambient velocity distribution with magnitude and direction as a function of vertical: Whenever a jet integral model is position. . reasonably general in its formulation and has been validated through experimental data Figure 6.1. displays these, general comparison under a number of conditions it can characteristics for the -case of a single port. In be considered, a useful prediction tool for nearcase -of the-multiport diffuser all the discharge field plume analysis. For practical purposes, all port/nozzles point- in ,the . same , direction the models. that meet the above conditions, in (unidirectional or staged design) and the diffuser line can have an arbitrary alignment angle relative, fact, differ little in their prediction results. The deviation among model results 'is usually less to the ambient current (for definitions see section than the scatter In expermental data taht is used 4.5.1). for their ,erification. This holds true also for CORJET as well as another jet integral model, The detailed theoretical basis for CORJET can be found in the documentation report (8) on 65

z 9

pa W)

'S

(z) au .Gaussian profiles

ulg' 9

A g, C pA-

UO, x Figure 6.1:

General three-dimensional trajectory of submerged buoyant jet in ambient flow with arbitrary density and velocity distribution: Case of a single round jet

full non-linear equation of state), with first-order

(27), that has current USEPA support and distribution.

pollutant decay, with variable stable ambient density, and with sheared non-uniform ambient currents, and with the merging of multiple port diffuser plumes. Three specialized features that the PLUMES model cannot deal with are a variable 'current direction at different levels, arbitrary diffuser alignments (with the extreme of a fully parallel alignment, y = 00 in Figure 4.6), and applications to atmospheric plumes (using the concept of potential temperature and density).

Both CORJET and PLUMES, although they differ in their internal formulation and closure assumptions, have a wide generality in discharge/ambient conditions and a reasonable verification base for a variety of conditions. They can deal with three-dimensional trajecto6ies,"with positive, neutral or negative'discharge buoyancy, with conditions of reversible buoyancy (so-called nascent conditionsin freshwatersystems due to the density maximum at 400, requiring use of the

Jet integral models, such as CORJET and

66

D

by entering the Post-Processor option in the Iteration Menu. (1b) It can be accessed on earlier existing files by directly choosing the PostProcessor option in the Main Menu.

PLUMES, appear as useful and efficient tools for the rapid analysis of the near-field mixing of aqueous discharges. They require fairly little input data and are numerically efficient. However, their inherent limitations must be kept in mind.

In either case, once the CORJET option Is chosen the user must first specify whether a CORMIXI or 2 simulation should be analyzed for the Then the near-field with CORJET. CORMIX1 or 2 filename in the CORMIX\SIM directory must be specified. CORJET will run automatically using the input data of the given CORMIX data file.

All jet integral models, including CORJET, assume an infinite receiving water body, without any boundary effects due to limiting dimensions vertically (surface, bottom, or pycnocline) or laterally (banks or shore). Thus, they do not deal with such hydrodynamic effects as jet attachment and near-field instabilities that are so prevalent in many aqueous discharge plumes as emphasized in Section 2.1.1. Furthermore, they are near-field models only and do not give predictions on what 'happens to the entire mixing zone that may often cover larger distances (see Section 2.2.5).

(2) Use outside CORMIX: CORJET can be invoked directly by typing: corjet (or simply: cj) filename where filename (including path and extension) is any specially prepared input data file (see following section). Altematively if one types: codjet (or simply: cj) the model will prompt the user for the input data filename.

In summary, jet integral models if used alone and by an inexperienced analyst are not a safe methodology for mixing zone analysis. They become safe only when used in conjunction with a more comprehensive analysis using the full Therefore, in case of CORMIX system. engineering design applications, CORJET should be employed after prior use of the. expert system CORMIX has indicated that the buoyant' jet will not experience any instabilities due to shallow water or due to attachment to boundaries.

6.1.3 CORJET Input Data File This section for data preparation applies only if CORJET is run independently from the CORMIX system as discussed. above. The checklist given on the following page is useful for data assembly prior to input data entry.

In fact, the CORMIX system has built in several safeguards and warning statements to the user as explained below. When used In that context CORJET becomes a' highly useful addition to the CORMIX system that can provide considerable additional detail and sensitivity analysis in the immediate near-field. of the discharge plume.

In this case, the Fortran model CORJET reads input data file with filename that is userspecified with arbitrary name, extension and For user convenience it is directory. recommended that all such files, be kept in the special directory CORMIX\POST\CJ. The input data file is a Fortran-readable file that is read in open format, that is all pertinent data values are arranged on a line and separated by one or more open spaces. The file consists of five data blocks, each of which must be lead in by 'two dummy lines that are not read. Table 6.1 gives an example of a data file in which the dummy lines are indicated by the # sign.

6.1.2 Access to CORJET CORJET, like the other post-processor options such as the graphics system (Section 5.3.1), can be accessed In different ways: (1) Use within CORMIX: (1a) It can be accessed at an end of the prediction after the file has been stored, 67

Table 6.1 Example of an input data file for CORJET #CORJET INPUT FILE #Title line (50 characters max.): Case2: SINGLE PORT, STRATIFIED, VARIABLE CURRENT #Fluid (l=water,2=air), Density option (l=calculate,2=specify directly): #Fluid (M): Density option (M): Ambient levels (1-10): 1 1 3 #Ambient conditions (if d.o.*l, fill in TA+SA; if 2, fill'in RHOA): #Level ZA TA SA , RHOA UA TAUA 1 0. 12. 30. 0.5 0. 2 5. 15. 29.5 0.8 0. 3 15. 20. 28. 1.2 0. #Discharge conditions (TO+S0, or RHOO as above; if NOPEN=l: set LD=0,ALIGN=0): #NOPEN DO HO UO THETAO SIGMAO CO KD TO SO RHOO LD ALIGN 1 0.5 0. 3.0 45. 45. 100. 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. #Program control: #ZMAX ZMIN DISMAX NPRINT 30. 0. 200. 10

with those for CORMIX (in particular, see Section 4.4 and 4.5 for discharge conditions).

The required input data values (all in SI units) are discussed, in the following. The definition of these values is entirely consistent

Block 1: Identifier LABEL: Any descriptive label/text (should not exceed 50 characters, so that it does not get truncated on the graphics plots) Block 2: Fluid and density specification . IFLUID: 1 (water) or 2 (air, for atmospheric applications) IDENOP: 1: in case of water. Density will be calculated, from specified temperature and/or salinity In case of air: Potential density will be calculated from potential temperature assuming dry adiabatic conditions 2: Density values will be specified directly LEVAMB: Number of levels for which ambient conditions are given (1 to 10) Block 3: Ambient Conditions (specify LEVAMB lines) LEV: Level number (increasing from 1 to LEVAMB) ZA: Specify vertical level (z-coordinate) (m) TA: if IFLUID=1 (water): Temperature at ZA (degC) (omit if lDENOP=2) if IFLUID=2(air): Potential temperature at ZA (degC) (omit if IDENOP=2) SALA: Salinity at ZA (ppt) (omit if IDENOP=2or if IFLUID=2) RHOA: if IFLUID=1: Density at ZA (kg/m3 ) (omit if IDENOP=1) if IFLUID=2: Potential density at ZA (kglm3) (omit if IDENOP=I) UA: Ambient velocity (speed) at ZA (m/s) TAUA: Angle of ambient velocity vector measured CCW from x-axis (deg) (set = 0. unless velocity distribution in vertical is skewed, i.e. spiral-type) Block 4: Discharge Conditions NOPEN: 1: if SINGLE PORT DISCHARGE (i.e. 1 opening) >= 3: number of openings (ports) for MULTIPORT DIFFUSER DO: Port diameter (m) (should include contraction effects if any) HO: Port center height above x-y plane (m) UO: Jet exit velocity (mis) THETAO: Vertical angle of discharge (deg)

68

CHECKLIST FOR DATA PREPARATION

CORJET - CORNELL BUOYANT JET INTEGRAL MODEL- Version 4.10 Date: DOS File Name: Prepared by:. Label: FluidlDensity: Fuid:

I (water) 2 (air)

Density specificaton: 1 (via temp./sai.) 2 (direct)

Number of ambient levels: (1 to 10)

Ambient Data: Elevation (m)

Level No.

. ....

Discharge Conditions: Number of openings: (=1 for single port s.p.)

Discharge, conc. (any'

units)

j

Coefficient of decay (is),,,

Salinity (ppt)

Temperature (VC)

Density (kg/m 3)

.

_....

. -

...

Port diameter (m)

Height above. origin (m)

Exit velocity (m/s).

Vertical. angle (deg)

Discharge temp. (C)

Discharge .sAinity (ppt)

Discharge. density

Diffuser length (m)

(kgimn)

.

Angle of velocity (deg)

Velocity (mIs)

Horizontal angle (deg)

-

Alignment angle (deg).

(=0. 0. If s.p.).

ProgramControl: Max. vertical distance (m):

I

j-.ý-I -_ý- ;--t._ý

.Min.

vertical

distance (mh):

Max. distance along trajectory (m):

Print Intervals: (best5 to 10)

.(=0 if s.p.)

SIGMAO:

Horizontal angle of discharge axis measured CCW from x-axis (deg) Examples: 0. = co-flow, 90. or 270. = cross-flow, 180. = counterflow CO: Discharge concentration (any units that need not be specified) KD: Coefficient of substance decay [negativevalue if growth] (Vs) TO: Discharge temperature,(degC) (omit if IDENOP=-) . SO: Discharge salinity (ppt) (omit if IDENOP=2OR IF IFLUID=2) RHOO: Discharge density (kg/m 3) (omit if IDENOP=1) LD: Diffuser length (m) (set= 0. [non-blank] ifNOPEN=I) ALIGN: Diffuser alignment angle (deg) measured CCW from x-axis (set = 0. ifNOPEN=1) Examples: 0. = parallel diffuser, 90. = perpendicular diffuser Block 4: Program Control ZMAX: Maximum vertical coordinate of interest (m) ZMIN: Minimum vertical coordinate of interest (m) ZMAX and ZMIN are cutoffs for + and - buoyancy, respectivelyl DISMAX: Maximum distance of interest along trajectory (m) NPRINT: Print intervals (any positive number less than 100; recommended value 5 to 10; does not affect accuracy of computationl)

Note on density specification: It is important to note the mutual exclusivity for the indirect or direct density specification as listed above. Omit the values (i.e. leave blank spaces) depending on the value of the IDENOP parameter. This can be seen in the preceding example data file. Up to 10 ambient levels can be specified for density and velocity distribution. This is sufficient to replicate complicated observed ambient profiles. CORJET performs internal consistency checks to test whether the specified density distribution is statically stable.

at the level of origin. The CORMIX system contains upon its installation several CORJET case studies (see also Appendix Q that are installed as CORMIX\POST\CJ\case*.inp. It is recommended to copy one or more of these files and use the copy for constructing any future input data file. 6.1.4 CORJET Output Features Regardless of the access mode (within or outside of CORMIX) CORJET has two output mechanisms, a numerical output file and a graphical display by means of CMXGRAPH.

The coordinate system in CORJET can, in principle be taken as consistent with the CORMIXI and 2 conventions (Section 5.2.1), i.e. the origin at the bottom of the receiving water body. (In fact, this convention is exercised whenever CORJET Is run from within CORMIX.) However, since CORJET does not recognize the dynamic effect of the presence of the actual bottom boundary it is often convenient to set the origin at the center of the discharge port. In that case the port height HO must be entered as 0.0.' x points horizontally in the downstream direction, y laterally across in the horizontal plane, and z vertically upward. In the rare case when the ambient velocity distribution is skewed in the vertical, the definition of the x direction is best made by the direction of the ambient velocity at the level of origin (then TAUA is 0.0 at that levell), but any other convention is possible, too, and can be implemented by the choice of the TAUA value

(a) CORJET Output File: (a.1) Use within CORMIX: The output file gets stored as CORMIX\POST\CJVn.CJX where fn is the CORMIXl or 2 filename that has been specified during the data entry. This file can be viewed onscreen or printed within CORMIX. A typical CORJET output file generated in this access mode is shown in Table 6.2 below corresponding to the input example presented above. The header information starts with the banner iJJJ' and then echoes all the pertinent data that had been supplied to CORMIX and had been picked up for the CORJET simulation. The 70

3)

negatively buoyant cases) equal to the water body bottom. .In neither case does it -compute the actual boundary approach or impingement processes (as does the more complete CORMIX model in which some CORJET elements are, in fact, integrated, starting with Version 3.0). The interpretation of data values in this tabular listing is .consistent with that for CORMIX1 or 2 (see Section 5.2.2).

underlying CORMIXI or 2 flow class is listed. If one of the unstable or bottom-attaching flow classes is encountered in this access mode, then CORJET will not provide any predictions since a pure jet integral model would not be applicable, The tabular listing (see Table 6.2 ) gives the plume values along the trajectory. CORJET will cut off at a vertical level ZMAX that is equal to the water depth at discharge or ZMIN = 0.0 (for

Table 6.2 Example of CORJET output file when accessed within CORMIX CORJET PREDICTION FILE: JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

Version 4.0, March 1995

CORNELL BUOYANT JET INTEGRAL MODEL CORJET: ............................................................................ cormix\post\cj \SAMPLEI. CJX

FILE NAME:

A- PLANT'SUMMER^STRATIFICATION

Label/identifier:

4/12/96--18:40:19

Time of CORJET run:

NEAR-FIELD DATA values for earlier CORMIX1 prediction (metric): DEEP^RESERVOIR Site name/label: A- PLANT SUMMER STRATIFICATION Design case: cormix\sim\SAMPLE1 .CX1 FILE NAME: 06/24/95--22:29:54 Time of CORMIX run: RD

-

STRCNDRHOAS :

30.50

UA

.01

-

CUNITS-

PPM

density stratified environment

C 996.21

RHOAB -

999.61

HINT

-

15.50

2.181

DRHOJ -

83 FLOCLSCorresponding CORJET ambient conditions: LEV 1 2 3

ZA .00 14.75 16.25

RHOA 999.61 998.39 996.21

UA .01 .01 .01

.01 4 30.50 996.21 Pycnocline thickness has been Discharge conditions (metric): UO THETA0 DO HO 3.02 10.00 .254 .60

TAUA .00 .00 .00

.00 set to 1/10 of upper layer thickness. SINGLE PORT CO KD RHO0 SIGMA0 90.00 .35E+04 .OOE+00 998.21

Program control:

ZMAX ZMIN DISMAX NPRINT 10 30.50 .00 1525.00 Flux variables (based on ambient at discharge level): JO .203E-02 Mo .462E÷00 00 .153E+00 Length scales (W) and parameters: 45.31 12.44 Lm .23 LM X LO 3.06 4.88 Lbp Lmp FRO

-

52.01

R

-

.133E-01

GPO Lb

-

601.53

201.31

.2251 Printout every 10 steps Stepsize CORJET PREDICTION: Single jet/plume ; FIc Save Gpc Cc B DIST Y Z Sc X .00 1.0 .13E-01 52.01 13 .00 .60 1.0 .350E+04 .00 .13 1.25 1.4 .16E-01 95.03 1.0 .350E+04 .01 1.23 .82 3.50 4.2 .50E-02 33.42 .37 3.45 1.22 2.5 .142E+04 .04 7.0 .25E-02 21.98 .62 5.75 1.65 4.1 .8523+03 .11 5.65 9.8 .12E-02 19.01 .607E+03 .87 8.00 7.85 2.13 5.8 .22 10.25 12.6 .32E-03 25.46 10.04 2.65 7.4 .4112+03 1.12 .35 11.38 14.0 -. 59E-04 50.81 8.3 .423E+03 1.25 .44 11.13 2.92 Level of buoyancy reversal in stratified ambient. 12.50 15.4 -. 40E-03 16.80 3.19 9.1 .3843+03 1.37 .53 12.22 .325+03 1.63 14.76 18.2 -. 97E-03 8.35 3.68 10.8 .74 14.40 17.01 21.0 -. 133-02 5.70 4.06 12.4 .282E+03 1.88 .99 16.61 19.26 23.8 -. 133-02 4.61 .2483+03 2.14 1.20 18.83 4.20 14.1 19.48 24.1 -. 13:'02 4.56 4.20 14.3 .2453+03 2.17 1.31 19.05 Maximum jet height has been reached. .220E+03 2.401 21.51 26.8 -. 99E-03 4.54 4.05 15.9 1.62 21.05 .196E+03 2.661 23.76 30.0 -. 34E-03 6.68 3.63 17.8 1.99 23.23 .187E+03 2.801 24.89 31.6 .27E-04 22.15 2.19 24.31 3.37 18.8 PROGRAM STOPS! Terminal level in stratified ambient has been reached. END OF CORJET PREDICTION:

Total number of integration steps -

JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

71

106

The main usefulness of CORJET when run in this mode lies in the short and separate display of the near-field buoyant jet only. In some cases, the pertinent regulatory constraints may be limited to that region.

6.1.2(2) ). This file can be viewed on-screen or printed using any text processor: , The CORJET output file corresponding to the input data file of Table-6.1 is listed in Table 6.3. The lead-in data provide an echo of the input data and then lists the calculated length scale and non-dimensional numbers controlling the mixing process.

(a.2) Use outside of CORMIX: The output file gets stored as ffiename.OUT in the same directory for which the user had specified the input file (see Section

Table 6.3 Example of CORJET output file CORJET PREDICTION FILE: JJJJJ33JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ Version 4.0, March 1995 CORJET: CORNELL BUOYANT JET INTEGRAL MODEL ............................................................................

post\cj\case2.OUT Case2: SINGLE PORT, 4/10/96--19:28: 6

FILE NAME: Label/identifier: Time of CORJET run:

STRATIFIED,

VARIABLE CURRENT

Density option: 1 No. of levels: 3 Fluid: Water Ambient conditions: RHOA UA TAUA LEV ZA TA SA .50 .00 .00 12.00 30.00 1022.71 1 .80 .00 15.00 29.50 1021.74 2 5.00 1.20 .00 15.00 20.00 28.00 1019.43 3 Discharge conditions (metric): SINGLE PORT CO KD TO SO RHOO DO HO UO THETAO SIGMAO 995.65 30.0 .0 .00 3.00 45.00 45.00 .10E+03 .OOE÷O .500 Program control: ZMAX ZMIN DISMAX NPRINT .00 200.00 10 30.00 Flux variables (based on ambient at discharge level): GPO .259E+00 = .177E+01 JO = .153E+00 QO .589E+00 MO .106E+02 QSO = -. 177E+02 QTO = Length scales (m) and parameters: = 2.66 Lb 1.22 .44 LM = 3.92 Lm LQ 6.71 Lmp 5.61 Lbp = = 8.33 R = 6.00 FRO Zone of flow establishment (m): .62 ZE .86 .75 YE = LE 1.30 XE 49.43 38.34 SIGMAE34.00 GAMMAETHETAB............................................................................

CORJET PREDICTION: Single jet/plume: Y Z Sc X .00 1.0 .00 .00 1.0 .75 .62 .86 2.81 1.50 2.27 3.0 5.22 1.96 3.28 5.7 2.22 4.07 8.4 7.74 4.74 11.2 10.31 2.40 14.0 12.90 2.52 5.32 15.51 2.61 5.84 16.6 18.12 2.68 6.31 19.2 2.73 6.74 21.7 20.75 7.13 24.1 23.38 2.78 26.4 26.01 2.82 7.48 28.65 2.85 7.80 28.5 31.29 2.88 8.09 30.4 2.89 8.14 30.8 31.82 Terminal level in stratified

Stepsize -

.2659

Printout every

10 steps

dTc dSALc B DIST Save Gpc Cc .00 1.0 .26E+00 18.0-30.0 .100E+03 .25 1.4 .27E+00 20.8-34.7 .1OOE+03 .25 1.30 .83E-01 5.2 -9.9 .334E+02 .64 3.96 4.6 2.1 -5.1 .94 6.62 8.3 .42E-01 .176E+02 .8 -3.3 1.16 9.27 12.1 .26E-01 .118E+02 11.93 15.8. .18E-01 .1 -2.4 .890E+01 1.34 .13E-01 -. 3 -1.9 .716E+01 1.49 14.59 19.5 .96E-02 -. 6 -1.5 .601E+01 1.62 17.25 23.2 -. 8 -1.2 1.74 19.91 26.7 .70E-02 .520E+01 1.84 22.57 30.0 .50E-02 -1.0 -1.0 .460E+01 -. 8 25.23 33.3 .34E-02 -1.1 .414E+01 1.93 36.3 .213-02 -1.3 -. 6 .379E+01 2.01 27.89 .10E-02 -1.4 -. 5 .351E+01 2.08 30.54 39.1 -. 4 2.14 33.20 41.6 .15E-03 -1.5 .329E+01 -. 4 2.15 33.73 42.1 -. 13E-04 -1.5 .325E+01 PROGRAM STOPSI ambient has been reached.

............................................................................

123 Total number of integration steps END OF CORJET PREDICTION: JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

3) 72

accomplished.

The actual tabular listing of the numerical output is divided in two halves by a vertical line. The left half lists data exactly in the same fashion as a CORMIX1 or 2 prediction file (see Section 5.2.2). The right half gives additional detailed information on the following variables: DIST: Save:

Gpc:

(b) Graphics display and plotting of CORJET results: The graphical display and plotting of the CORJET prediction results by means of CMXGRAPH is similar to that of CORMIX results as described in Section 5.3.

distance (m) along the trajectory average (bulk) dilution, defined on the basis of total volume flux within the jet relative to the initial volume flux (discharge) centerline buoyant acceleration

The graphics package can be invoked in either access mode (within or outside of CORMIX) immediately after the computation or independently on any existing CORJET output file Thus, that has been computed earlier. CMXGRAPH has been configured to deal with both CORMIX prediction files and CORJET output files.

(m/s2) dTc: dSALc: FIc:

centerline temperature difference to local ambient relative temperature (°C) (if IDENOP= 1) centerline salinity difference relative to local ambient salinity (ppt) (if IDENOP = 1) local densimetric Froude number (if IDENOP= 2)

6.2

FFLOCATR: The Far-Field Plume Locator

6.2.1 General Features

In this mode CORJET becomes an important engineering tool for design sensitivity analysis --and also for research purposes-- to evaluate the behavior of the near-field processes to some of the ambient/discharge details, some of which had to be simplified (schematized) within the CORMIX approach. The user can learn to understand through repeated use of CORJET that plume mixing can indeed often be represented by simple linear, or even uniform, approximations to the ambient density structure.

Although the main emphasis of CORMIX is on the near-field mixing behavior of discharges it can also be used for providing plume predictions at larger distances in the far-field provided the flow is not highly irregular with pronounced recirculating zones and eddies in the ambient flow. The CORMIX predicted far-field always applies to a rectangular schematized crosssection with a straight uniform channel (see Sections 4.3.1 and 4.3.2). The FFLOCATR is a simple method, for' interpreting the schematized CORMIX far-field plumes within the actual flow patterns in natural rivers and. estuaries. This procedure, based on the cumulative discharge method, is illustrated in Figure. 6.2.

Again, it is emphasized that CORJET when used alone is not a safe prediction methodology because of the limiting assumption of infinite receiving water. For that reason an alert is printed at the end of each CORJET outputfile: Note: CORJET has been used outside the CORMIX system, assuming unlimited, receivi *ng water. Carefully e-xamine all results for

The cumulative discharge method, first proposed by Yotsukura and Sayre (28; see also 19,20),. is a convenient approach of dealing with ,lateral mixing in natural irregular (but not highly due to possible boundary effects irregular with recirculating zonesl) channels. In bottom, , or. lateral surface, boundaries. such channel geometry the passive far-field plume that is vertically mixed, or approaches Previous application of CORMIX assures a vertical mixing, will be positioned around the careful .examination of the interaction of the', "streamline",' or more'precisely the "cu'mulative boundaries has been- discharge line", that passes through theplume discharge with 73

_B.x

'

loox

10a

80X

iBox

..

.

........ ..................... ................

IT

. ....

20

p t u c

e

in w.dngireuar.vesoreture .... 2...Illustration... ............ of..... th cu uatv dichrg method...... form trantin g the C ... .M Xpeite CLI!

a il

37M

Rgue.2:Ilustaton f he umlatvedishage

plume~~~~~~~~~~~~....... tot.ata.lo.hrceit.si

etod.ortraslt.n.te.CR...pedcte.fr.fe.

idn irglrrvrso

74

sure

center when it enters the far-field. Lateral spreading around this line occurs by lateral turbulent diffusion and can be enhanced buoyancy induced processes.

. Further technical details on the FFLOCATR model can be found in the report on CORMIX enhancements (8).

Looking downstream at a particular crosssection (see Figure 6.2a) the cumulative discharge q(y) is defined as

6.2.2 Access to FFLOCATR FFLOCATR can also be accessed in different ways:

y1

q•y')

=

f-a(y )H(y) dy'

(1) Use within CORMIX:

0

(la) It can be accessed at an end of the prediction after the file has been stored, by entering the Post-Processor option in the Iteration Menu.

in which y'is the lateral coordinate pointing from the right bank to the left across the flow (y'differs from y as defined in CORMIX whose origin.is at the discharge location), His the local depth, and ua is the depth-averaged local velocity. When the above equation is integrated across the full channel width B, then the total discharge will result 0. = q(BJ. Hence, if the local values q(y) are dMded by 0 , the results can be presented in normalized form as the cumulative discharge lines ranging from 0% at the right bank to 100% at the left bank. The full distribution of such cumulative discharge- lines in a river or estuary gives an appearance of the overall flow pattern that is important for pollutant transport. Closely spaced' discharge lines are mostly indicative of areas of large depth and higher velocities as they occur in the outside portion of river bends or meanders (as sketched in Figure 6.2a).,

(1b) It can be accessed on earlier existing files by directly choosing the PostProcessor option in the Main Menu. In either case, once the FFLOCATR option is chosen the user must first specify whether a CORMIXI, 2 or 3 simulation should be interpreted for the far-field with FFLOCATR. Then the CORMIX filename in the CORMIX\SIM directory must be specified. Finally, the user must specify the name of the cumulative discharge input data file, or if that dos 'riot yet exist, the user can first create such file by entering data on the cumulative : discharge distribution at several cross-sections.

In the CORMIX schematization of ambient flow characteristics and channelbcross-section It is, in fact, useful to keep in mind the cumlativie transport aspects of the'amibient flow as remarked in Section 4.3.1 and 4.3.2. Thus, the'uniform CORMIX flowi, field with the constant depth laterally is indeed conforming to a cumulative discharge, distributiori with ' equally spa66d discharge' lihes, as Indicated in Figure 6.2b. It is then conceptually straightforward to translate the CORMIX plume prediction back to the actual flow distribution by calculating and plotting the plume boundaries within the given cumulative discharge lines'as'Shown in'Figure 6.3c., The actual plume pattern may then show'some surprising features such as strong "shifting back and-forth" between opposing banks and an apparent "thinning"of the plume width. These realistic plume features're simply dictated by the non-uniform flow field.

(2) Use outside CORMIX: FFLOCATR can be invoked directly by typing. the command line with three arguments: fflocatr CORMIXn

fn

POS'lFFcumdata.FFI

(alternatively, ffl can be typed instead of fflocatr)'where CORMIXn, n = 1, 2 or 3, specifies which earlier CORMIX simulation should be analyzed for the farfield,'fri (yitb. path a nl extension) is the namb of the CORMIX prediction file in the CORMIX\SIM directody, and cumdata' (with directory'design-ation POS''FF and fixed extbrsion FFI)'is the cumulative" discharge input data file' (see 1ollowiiig 75

section)

existing

in

directory

in general, it is more convenient to construct the cumdata.FFIfile outside of CORMIX and store it in the CORMIX\POST\FF directory. This option is described first.

CORMIX\POSTrFF. Alternatively ifone types:

(a) Input Data File Prepared Outside of CORMIX:

fflocatr (or simply: ffl) without the three arguments, the model will prompt the user for the file information.

FFLOCATR is a Fortran program and reads the cumdata.FFI file in open format. An example is shown in Table 6.4 (corresponding to the test case discussed in Appendix B .

6.2.3 FFLOCATR Cumulative Discharge Input Data File

Table 6.4 Example of a cumulative discharge input data file for FFLOCATR SHALLOW RIVER CUMULATIVE DISCHARGE Number of Cross-sections (XS): 3 10% 20% 30% Dist. XS 'Label-' >

<>

<

1 2 3

'STAI' 'STA2' 'STA3'

<

> <

30.5 152.5 305.

> <

6.1 9.2 18.3

> <

12.2 16.8 33.6

>

15.9 21.4 39.3

(applies to Sample2) 40%

50%

60%

70%>

80%

90%

100%

20.7 24.4 45.8

27.5 27.5 48.8

33.6 33.6 51.9

58.0 36.6 54.0

76.3 39.7 56.4

82.4 54.9 61.0

88.5 79.3 67.1

-<

>---

'The required input data values (SI units) are:

Line Is Line 2a Line 3a Line 4a Line 5: Lines 6f:

Any descriptive label. NUMXS = Number of cross-sections (1 to 10) for which discharge data values will be entered NUMXS lines must be entered, each containing the following data: number of cross-section, numbered sequentially beginning with 1 XS = arbitrary label for cross-section, bracketed by apostrophes ' with STALAB = maximum total length of 10 characters (e.g. 'RM595' standing for river mile 595) 10 values, representing the position of the cumulative discharge line (m) YCD = measured from the right bank, beginning with the 10% line, incrementing by 10%, and ending with the 100% line. The 100% line is also equal to the channel width at that cross-section.

Consistency checks are performed on each data file to make sure that the entered values YCD are monotonically. increasing. Essentially two methods can be used for obtaining the values for the cumulative discharge positions YCD in specific cases:

1) On the basis of detailed stream-gaging surveys, for example using the standard methods employed by the U.S. Geological Survey. This is the preferable approach for small to medium streams or rivers.

76

I-

case fn has been interpreted under the actual farfield flow distribution. This file can be inspected on-screen when in CORMIX or externally with any text processor, and can be printed out. No graphics plotting option exists for this file.

2) Using the results of detailed numerical models for the flow distribution in open channel flow. This Is preferable for larger rivers or estuaries. The primary application for FFLOCATR is for bounded channels such as streams, rivers or estuaries. The model will not execute when it encounters a CORMIX file for a design case involving an unbounded ambient flow.

As an example, Table 6.5 on the next page shows the output file that combines the cumulative discharge input data of Table 6.4 with the CORMIX2 plume predictions that are part of Appendix B. The output file preceded by the banner 'FFF' consists of three parts. The first part lists some of the underlying CORMIX data including file information. The second part echoes the complete cumulative discharge input data file.

Nevertheless, it may sometimes be useful to provide a detailed far-field plume delineation also for unbounded flow situations, such as coastal areas or lakes. This can be done when detailed hydrographic data or numerical model predictions describing the flow distribution in the near-shore where the plume may be located are available. A CORMIX simulation can then be rerun specifying a 'bounded channel" with a width equal to some arbitrary bounding offshore streamline. The YCD data can then be specified relative to the value of that chosen streamline. FFLOCATR will thus predict the far-field plume location in the irregular coastal zone (assuming recirculating eddies do not exist in the flow).

The actual results of the FFLOCATR translation routine are given in the third part. For each of the specified cross-sections (stations) the output file lists the station label, the downstream distance, and the position of plume center, left edge and right edge, respectively, each measured from the right bank, and the local centerline dilution and concentration. Data of this kind can then readily be used to prepare plots of far-field plumes superimposed on maps of the actual flow field. This last step has been illustrated in Figure 6.2c.

(b) Input Data File Prepared Within CORMIX: The user can generate the data file with exactly the same data structure as discussed above also within CORMIX. The system will prompt the user for the individual data items (up to 10 cross-sections can be entered) and then for a cumdatafilename. The file will then be stored automatically in directory CORMIX\POST\FF with extension FFI.

It should be understood that the plume centerline in the far-field does not necessarily coincide with the cumulative discharge line that passes through the offshore discharge location (as has been illustrated in Figure 6.2 where a coflowing discharge had been assumed). The plume centedine can shift because of near-field processes, as in case of a cross-flowing discharge, or if bank interaction occurs in the farfield, causing the centerline to shift to one bank/shore.

6.2.4 FFLOCATR Output Features FFLOCATR generates an output file CORMIX\POST\FFVn.FFX indicating that the farfield plume prediction for the CORMIX design

77

Table 6.5 Example of FFLOCATR output file FFLOCATR RESULTS FILE: FFLOCATR:

FAR-FIELD PLUME LOCATOR

Output FILE NAME: Time of FFLOCATR run:

.

Version 1.0, March 1994

POST\FF\SAMPLE2.FFX 1995/ 6/ 2-- 8:54:38

FAR-FIELD DATA values from earlier CORMIX2 prediction: FILE NAME: SIM\SAMPLE2.cx2 Site name/label: B-PLANTASHALLOW-RIVER Design case: LOW-FLOWA7Q10 Time of CORMIX2 run: 09/20/94--15:24:11 Channel characteristics BS = 50.00 HA BANK

=

STRCND=

(metric): -

.30

UA

DISTB -

U

uniform density environment

Pollutant data: CO = 100.00

CUNITS-

.54

=

right

20.00

PERCENT

CUMULATIVE DISCHARGE DATA (m): FILE NAME: POST\FF\SH-RIVER.ffi Data label: SHALLOW RIVER CUMULATIVE DISCHARGE Number of XS: 3 XS'Label-' Dist. 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 1.00% 1 'STAI ' 30.5 6.10 12.20 15.90 20.70 27.50 33.60 58.00 76.30 82.40 88.00 2 'STA2 ' 152.5 9.20 16.80 21.40 24.40 27.50 33.60 36.60 39.70 54.90 79.00 3 'STA3 ' 305.0 18.30 33.60 39.30 45.80 48.80 51.90 54.00 56.40 61.00 67.00 FAR-FIELD PLUME PROPERTIES XS 'Label-' Distance # downstream 1 'STA1 ' 30.50 2 'STA2 ' 152.50 3 'STA3 ' 305.00

(m): Left edge 27.50 27.50 48.80

Plume centerline 20.70 24.40 45.80

Right edge 13.28 17.80 34.32

Dilution 30.1 31.4 33.0

Conc. .332E+01 .318E+01 .303E+01

END-OF FFLOCATR: FAR-FIELD PLUME LOCATOR FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF

9D 78

VII Closure 7.1 Synopsis 7.2 System and Documentation Availability The Comrell Mixing Zone Expert System (CORMIX) is a series of software subsystems for the analysis, prediction, and design of aqueous toxic or cbnventional pollutant discharges into diverse water bodies. The major emphasis is on the geometry and dilution characteristics of the initial mixing zone including compliance with regulatory constraints. The system also predicts the behavior of the discharge plume at larger distances in the far-field.

The CORMIX system programs can be obtained from: U.S. EPA - Center for Environmental Assessment Modeling (CEAM) Environmental Research Laboratory 960 College Station Road Athens, GA 30605-2700 USA Tel. 706-546-3549 (or FTS 250-3590) Fax:706-546-3402 E-mail: [email protected]'ath.epa.gov

The highly user-interactive' CORMIX system is implemented on IBM-PC compatible of three microcomputers and consists subsystems. These are: CORMIX1 for submerged single port discharges, CORMIX2 for submerged multiport diffuser discharges and CORMIX3 for buoyant surface discharges. The basic CORMIX methodology relies on the assumption of steady ambient conditions. However, recent versions also contain special routines for the application to highly unsteady environments, such as tidal reversal conditions, in which transient recirculation and pollutant build-up effects can occur.

As of the release of this manual (late 1996) the following versions of CORMIX are available: CORMIX Version2.1 (1993, without graphics and post-processor features) and Version3.1 (August 1996, as described in this report). The models can be obtained by mail or over the electronic bulletin board operated by CEAM. Information on program installation and computer configuration are also provided by CEAM. The ftp address is: ftpJ/ftp.epa.gov/epa.ceam/wwwhtmVceamhome.htm The distribution versions of CORMIX contain only the executable code of the FORTRAN programs HYDROn; they do not include the source code. The source code can be requested separately by writing to CEAM at U.S. EPA-ERL and giving the reason for code inspection and possible manipulation. The full code, while made up of simple individual is complex with multiple modules, interdependencies; only experienced research personnel should attempt this work when engaged in comparison of model predictions to new field or laboratory data.

In addition, two post-processing models are linked to the CORMIX system, but can also be used independently. These are CORJET (the Cornell Buoyant Jet Integral Model) for the detailed analysis of the near-field behavior of buoyant jets, and FFLOCATR (the Far-Field Plume Locator) for the far-field delineation of discharge plumes in non-uniformriver or estuary environments. This user's manual gives a comprehensive and uniform description of all three CORMIX subsystems; it provides advice for assembly and preparation of required input data; it delineates ranges of applicability of the three subsystems; it provides instruction for the interpretation and graphical display of system output; and It illustrates practical system application through several case studies.

The technical documentation reports(5,6,7,8) are available as U.S. EPA and NITS publications, and have also been issued as technical reports of the DeFrees Hydraulics Laboratory.

79

installation and execution, and advice on the specification of input data as well as interpretation of CORMIX output.

7.3 User Support Technical and scientific support for CORMIX under contract from the USEPA is provided by:

Any high-quality field or laboratory data on effluent mixing processes is a valuable asset for any future development or updates on CORMIX. Transmittal of such data to the following address will be greatly appreciated:

Dr. Robert L. Doneker Department of Environmental Science and Engineering Oregon Graduate Institute PO Box 91000 Portland, OR 97291-1000 Tel. 503-690-4053, Fax. 503-690-1273 email: [email protected]

Prof. Gerhard H. Jirka Institute for Hydromechanics University of Karlsruhe PO Box 6380 D-76128 Karlsruhe, GERMANY Tel. (49) 721/608-2200,'Fax. (49) 721/66-16-86

This includes assistance on problems of system

80

Literature References (8)

Jirka, G.H., P.J. Akar and J.D. Nash, "Enhancements to the CORMIX Mixing Technical System: Zone. Expert Background", Tech. Rep., DeFrees Hydraulics Laboratory, School of Civil and Engineering,' 'Cornell Environmbntal University, 1996, (also to be published by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Tech. Rep., Environmental Research Lab, Athens, GA).

(9)

Doneker, R.L. and G.H. Jirka,'"Expert Systems for Design and Mixing Zone Pollutant Aqueous' Analysis ' of Discharges',' J. Water Resources Planning dnd Management, ASCE, Vol. 117, No.6,679-697, 1991.

Muellenhoff, W. P., et al.,"Initial Mixing Chairacteristics of Municipal Ocean' .. 'Discharges (Vol I & II),' USEPA, Environmental Research Laboratory, Narragansett, RI, 1985."

(10)

Jirka G. H. and R. L.- Doneker, of - Classification "Hydrodynamic" Single Port Discharges', J. Submerged

Doneker, R. L., and G. H. Jirka, "CORMIXi: An Expert System for Mixing Zone Analysis of Conventional and Toxic Single Port Aquatic Dischar§es', U.S. Research EnvironmentalEPA, Laboratory, Athens, GA, EPA-600/600/390/012, 1990.

(11)

Jirka . H. and P. J. Akar, 'Hydrodynamic Classification of Submerged Multiport Diffuser Discharges," J. Hydraulik ''Engineedng, ASCE, (117), 1'113-1128, HY9, 1991.

(12)

Akar, P.J. and G.H. Jirka, "Buoyant Spreading Processes in Pollutant Transport and Mixing. Part I: Lateral Spreading in Strong Ambient Current", J. Hydraulic Research, Vol. 32, 815-831, 1994.

(13)

Akar, P.J.and G.H. Jirka, 'Buoyant Spreading Processes in Pollutant Transport and Mixing. Part I1: Upstream Spreading in Weak Ambient Current', J. Hydraulic Research, Vol. 33, 87-100, 1995.

(14)

Mend~z Diaz, M.M. and G.H. Jirka, Diffuser Multiport of "Trajectory Discharges in Deep Co-Flow", J. Hydraulic Engineering. ASCE, Vol.122, HY6, 1996 (in press).

(1)

"Technical Support Document for Water Quality-based Toxics Control," U.S. EPA, Office of 'Water, Washington, DC,, September, 1991.

(2)

of Control and "Assessment in Contiminants Bioconcentratable Surface Waters,' U.S. ýEPA, Office of Water, Washington, DC, March, 1991.

(3)

Jirka, G. H., 'Use of Mixing Zone Models in Estuarine Waste Load Allocation," Wart Ill'of Techrical Guid nce Manual for Performing Waste Load Allocations, Book Ill: Estuaries, Ed. by R. A. Ambrose and J. L. Martin, U.S. EPA, Washington, D.C., EPA-823-R-92-004, 1992;

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol.117, 1095-1112, 1991.

Akar, P. J. and G. H. Jirka, 'CORMIX2: An Expert System for Hydrodynamic Mixing Zone Analysis of Conventional and Toxic Submerged Multiport Discharges,' U.S. EPA, Environmental Research Laboratory Athens, GA, EPAI600/3-91/073, 1991. Jones, G.R., J.D. Nash and G.H. Jirka, 'CORMIX3: An Expert System for Mixing Zone Analysis and Prediction of Buoyant Surface Discharges', Tech. Rep., DeFrees Hydraulics Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, 1996, (also to be Environmental published by U.S. Environmental Agency, Protection Research Lab, Athens, GA). 81

(15)

Jones, G.R., J.D. Nash and G.H. Jirka, "Buoyant Surface Discharges intQ Water Bodies, Part 1: Classification,' J. Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, (submitted 1996).

(22)

'Technical Guidance Manual for the Regulations Promulgated Pursuant to Section 301 (g) of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (Draft)," U.S. EPA, Washington, DC, August, 1984.

(16)

Jones, G.R. and G.H. Jirka, 'Buoyant Surface Discharges into Water. Bodies, Part 2: Prediction,' 'J. Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, (submitted 1996).

(23)

"Revised Section 301 (h) Technical Support Document,' EPA 430/9-82-011, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC, 1982.

(24) J.D. Nash and G.H. Jirka, "Buoyant Surface Discharges into Unsteady Ambient Flows', Dynamics o.Qf (25) Atmospheres and Oceans, 24, 75-84, 1996.

Chow, V.. T., Open Channel Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959.

Jirka G. H., "Multiport Diffusers for Heat Disposal: A Summary,.. J. Hydraulics Divisn, ASCE, (108), HY12, pp. 142368, 1982.

1981.

(17)

(18)

(19)

(20)

(21)

Holley, E. R. and G. H. Jirka, "Mixing in Rivers," Technical Report E-86-1 1, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC, 1986. Fischer, H. B. eal., Mixing in Inland and CoastalWaters. Academic Press, New York, 1979.. "Water Quality Standards Handbook,' U.S. EPA, Office of Water Regulations and Standards, Washington, DC, 1984.

82

Jirka, G.H. and Fong, H.L.M., 'Vortex Dynamics and Bifurcation of Buoyant Jets in Crossflow', J. Engineering Mechanics Division, ASCE, Vol.107, pp. 479-499,

(26)

Jirka,, G.H., 'Single and Multiple Buoyant Jets in Crossflow".' J. Hydraulic Research. (submitted 1996).

(27)

Baumgartner, D.J., W.E. Frick and P.J.W. Robert, "Dilution Models for Effluent Discharges (Third Edition)*, U.S., EPA, Pacific Ocean Systems Branch, Newport, OR, EPN600/R-94/086, 1994.

(28)

Yotsukura, N.,, and W.W,. Sayre, "Transverse mixing in natural channels", Water Resources Research. Vol.12, 695704, 1976.

Appendix A Flow Classification Diagrams for the Three CORMIX Subsystems

CORMIXI: Submerged Single Port Discharges ..................................................

84

CORMIX2: Submerged Multiport Diffuser Discharges ........................................

88

CORMIX3: Buoyant Surface Discharges ............................................................

91

83

Figure A.1: CORMIXI Classification: Assessment of ambient density stratification and different flow classes for internally trapped

K;;>

<4e" .0"s

60

(Near) Vertical

8H"

"V"

.Deep

<1 Lm

Layer with

"

:,-, Weaok ....

C.... 4"

"Momentum

<1

L,/;>1

Layer with

Deep Layer

. ""

strong Momentum

>-Io

< -I

Buoyancy Dominates

H , ]"Shallow Layer . _. " /

I H " ., _,1- ' ,•

C5 " .

MLme

'

Buoyancy

BUOYANT SUBMERGED DISCHARGES IN UNIFORM DENSITY LAYER

(Near) Horizontal

>, Shalow,

Hg'

CLASSIFICATION

8.<45" 4FLOW

Aertical

Dominates

C I7,"'t•

IS

/•\

•.os'.l

Figure A.2:CORMIXu Classification: Behavior of positively buoyant discharges in uniform ambient layer flow

Wea

_____

_______3

co

Dep,

22oy

.CSallo

NV4

NVS

NIH1

NH2

as.

1113

w.WeSattk M Cii 4a

NH4

NHS5

SPlan Vhew

Figure A.3: CORMIXI Classification: Behavior of negatively buoyant discharges in uniform layer flow (Flow Classes NV and NH)

C>

Cr

,C*m CLASSIFICATION

BOTTOM

ATTACHMENT

Vi. V2 NVI-

H2. NHI. INH2 iNH3. NH4

With Lill

Lill 4CO

nreiculoioIn

Rfeciculolion

Momentum Dominates

Buoyancy Oorlnnles

Figure A.4: CORMIXI Classification: Dynamic bottom attachment of discharge due to wake or Coanda attachment

Tersinlol heiglal Z, AMBIENT STRATIFICATION UNIMPORTANT Approalnmle Ambienl Denally wilih Veellcl MWon Value I

m

NEGATIVELY BUOYANT JET BEHAVIOR DOMINATES

Figure A.5: CORMIX2 Classification: Assessment of ambient density stratification and different flow classes for internally trapped

(112

III

" .....

J POSITIVELY BUOYANT IMULTIPORT DIFFUSER DISCHARGEI IIN UNIFORM LAYER (HEIGHT Hil

"

" Deep Layer SUobIt. Uischa3ge

.

.H

"

dc

"

Shallow Layer

M4

Unstable Discharge

SDiffuser ..



<1 e F ak

rre"

ypo

u IM

C'

ion :

St

Cu ,

Difpusel

Staged Diffuser

Alternating Diffuser

"/AIIgement\

Algmn

Algmn

[n

vstrong

Weak. M-UIVL-- M

IH

'1. •--

S 2 Side View

p

Perpendicular3#5

Perpendicular )•4 S"

-"4S"

LPerpendicular/

Angle

Angle

• Angle

.... •

-MUII"5 P

Weak;a •Shro• iu _

,

\

IF.u'l--- •

"'

9.

"P

PPlan View

Figure A.6: CORMIX2 Classification: Behavior of positively buoyant mUitiport diffuser discharges in uniform ambient layer flow

NEGATIVELY BUOYANT

4ULTIPORT OIFFUSER, DiScHARGE IN UNIFORM LAYER IHEIGHT HS)I

Flow Classes MNU7-MNUI4 (Vertically Fully Mixed) (Correspond Io Flow Classes

MU2- MU9, Respeclively. wilh the Exceplion of Bollom RestroalIlcollon in Ihe For Field) CD o

~Weak >1

Strongo....

Cross-flow >1

C1 ou-How Moserr

lCl•• We Da MNU I

MNU2

S'tde VkIwPePin

MNU3.

1

Diffuser

0

MNU4

We

'

IMUS

i >1DeIong Dilelan€ MNU

0

Bit iluser-

induced Flows Near

ollom

(nol

fully mlied)

Figure A.7: CORMIX2 Classification: Behavior of negatively buoyant multiport diffuser discharges in uniform ambient layer flow

0

( FLOW CLASSIFICATION

FOR

BUOYANT

C, SURFACE

DISCHARGES

to

shorehugging

Figure A.8: CORMIX3 Classification: Assessment of buoyant surface discharges as free jets, shoreline-attached jets, wall jets, or

92

Appendix B CORMIXI: Submerged Single Port Discharge in a Deep Reservoir The stratification can be expected to be horizontally uniform and therefore similar conditions will:'hold at the discharge site. Also, the river inflow is colder than the surface layer of the stratified reservoir. The reservoir has a selective withdrawal structure at the dam, B.1 Problem Statement therefore it can be expected that the river water will flow predominantly in a vertically limited layer, A manufacturing plant (A-Plant) is "that inaydextend from a depth of about 35 m to the deep discharging its effluent Into an adjacent The velocity of that flow Is estimated at surface. reservoir. The plant design flowrate is 3.5 mgd (3 1.5 cm/s (-0.015 m/s), given the 35 m thick about at metal 0.15 m /s). The effluent contains heavy about 1000 m width at that elevation. an and layer a at released is and ppb, a concentration of 3500 hydrodynamic More ` detailed (Note: the of density temperature of 68 °F (= 20 0C). The models for available using investigations, be can concentration low this at effluent stratified reservoir dynamics, can be used to considered equivalent to freshwater. obtain more precise estimates of the velocity field. Generally, however, it cannot be assumed that The existing reservoir has been formed by flooding a river valley: The reservoir length is- the velocity in stratified reservoirs is given by the simple average of the flowrate divided by the about 60 miles. The water level in the reservoir is cross-sectional area.) fluctuating depending on the release operation at the downstream dam with its hydropower The proposed discharge location on the During summer conditions, the Installation. reservoir level is typically at an elevation of .710-ft side slope of the cross-section is also shown in Figure B.I:, a submerged single port discharge at above sea level. This results in a reservoir width an elevation of 610 ft above sea level, i.e. at a of about 4000 ft (z 1200 m) and a maximum local depth of 100 ft (- 30.5 m) below the surface, depth of 310 ft (, 95 m) at the discharge location. is proposed in the initial design phase. The port The mean river flow into the reservoir during the is 10 in (= 0.254 m) and is located 2 ft (= diameter summer low-flow conditions is about 18,540 cfs (= 3 the local bottom. The discharge is m) above 0.6i the of temperature 525 m /s). The typical and is angled upward at 10 0. offshore pointing 0C). (= 13 55 OF is water inf lowing river This case study illustrates the application of CORMIXI to the prediction of the effluent from a small manufacturing plant into a large and deep stratified reservoir.

The discharge is subject to State mixing zone regu!ations Wherebythe mixing zone width is less-than 10% of the width of the water body. Furthermore, the heavy metal in the effluent is considered toxic with CMC and CCC limits of 1200 and 600 ppb, respectively.

Figure B.1 shows the local bathymetry (as obtained from a USGS map) in the v*irifty' f the proposed discharge. Since th• dischrge Is very small relative to the reservoir size •id' the ambient flowrate, it Is expected that mostly local conditions will be important, and not overall Any such (Note: reservoir dimensions. conjecture has to be verified against the final simulation results, and adjustments have to be made if needed.)

Problem Schematization B.2 Preparation

and

Data

Figure B.3 is the data checklist that summarizes the CORMIX1 input for the present problem. The ambient. water body has, been characterized as unbounded in line with the expectation that the discharge plume will be small

Temperature data as a function of depth obtained from field measurements in the center of the reservoir show a significant temperature stratification (see Figure B.2), as is typical for such deep reservoirs during summer conditions. 93

9 Design

tlo

710it

mELEVATION (ft) I

to ,700

-600

500

Di 6scFO Sbo 4(0 Distance From Share (ft)

Figure B.1:

Local details of Deep Reservoir cross-section and CORMIXI schematization

9 TEMPERATURE (C) 20 3

.10 W E

I

I

II

10-

I

I

I

i

I'

I•

I

19.121

20-I

/

201.

----

Cormix Appro. imation

ments 30-

Level

per FIgure 4.4)

apC

40DEPTH (m,)

Figure B.2:

P

Temperature field data as a function of depth and CORMIX1 representation of Type C temperature profile

94

CHECKLIST FOR DATA PREPARATION

CORMIX - CORNELL MIXING ZONE EXPERT SYSTEM - Version 3.1.3.2 SITE Name Design CASE DOS FILE NAME

A-Plant Deep Reservoir Sumner Stratitication ,wlo extension) Sample 1

AMBIENT DATA: . Water body depth "l Depth at discharge Ifujtea•y, Ambient flowrate

Date:Prepared by-

GHJ

Water body is, -unbounded If bounded- Width IL1. Appearance m" j m _Ils or Ambient velocit ....

. -

nms

Max. tidal velocity + .s__" r" " "Ifidalperiod Tidal At time--. hr before/at/after slack: Tidal velocity at this time .. n- .

Manning's n

Wind speed Density data: Water body Is lIiform-

m/s

fresnh~

water

.Average

m

____

'UNITS; Density...kJg/m I Temperature..."C m6. values dwit e If fresh: Specify as denifty/temp..

IfC:

•.U6

/temp.at bottom 0815temp. lump

Specify geometry for CORMIXI or 2 or 3

DISCHARGE DATA:

SUBMERGED SINGLE PORT DISCHARGE - CORMIXI Distance to nearest bank W.righ.t Nearest bank Is on Horizontal angle SIGMA 10 Vertical angle THETA m or-.

0

Port diameter

Portdiameter Diffuser arrangemen

__

rii1?

Port area

SUBMERGED MULTIPORT DIFFUSER DISCHARGE - CORMIX2 Distance to one .. _jfldgh Nearest bank is on... er endpoint m -. Diffuser lenith Total n6mber of openings

46.m0 9

m

Port height

Alignment'

ms /s-"

or. Darcy-Weisbach f

.

",..uf28.1 . if stratified
m

-

m:

____

_

m_ m

__

m

eight -_.___ contraction ratio_

unidlirefional I Staged I Sitern ating or Vertical

MMA

Horizontal angle SIGMA

•______*

___

Relative orientation BETA

angle THETA

BUOYANT SURFACE DISCHARGE - CORMIX3 o Configu " lefttdgt bank Discharge located on Ois.from ban_.... . Horizontal angle SIGMA Diaetr____ Bottom slope m Depth at disharge " Diameter oaf c If rectagum Bottom invert dept Onne pip; m t Eflen.: 016lw rate . Effluet density Heated discharge? ._ Concentration units Conservative substance?

.

0o.153 m,/s -or Effluent velocity " kgsi/r or Effluent temperature If yes: Heat loss . .€o ident .. f :. Effluent concentration .3UU PPb Ifno: Decay coefficient,tday vsto,,

MIXING ZONE DATA: ys.h, is effilueit toxic? WQ stand.iconventional poll.? Xzz;n. Any mixing zone specified? . s/= Renitmn f interest

Re 9Ion of interest i

Figure B.3:

:" 500: , 3500

-

CCC 600 1200 Ifyes: CMC Ifyes: value of standard m_or width-I'i Ifyes: distance

o area

m

, m

. •rld Interwl+• fm¢" di•nlav

Grid intervals for di3ni ýL

--

"

m

m m

I

mis " 0C.. WIrm C

%orm. %orn-

20 20

Data preparation checklist for A-Plant Deep Reservoir design case study using CORMIXI.

95

here). The detailed plume properties are computed in program element HYDRO, and are displayed in the Fortran CORMIX1 prediction file (see Table B.2, discussed in more detail further below).

in size relative to the reservoir width. Furthermore, since (1) the discharge elevation is well above the lowest point of the reservoir and (2) the plume is expected to rise toward te surface, the ambient water depth is taken as 150 ft (=35.0 m) only.

Many important features of the plume prediction are summarized in program element SUM of the session record (see Table B.1). Notably, all aspects pertaining to mixing zone regulations are contained in that summary. For example,, it can be seen quickly from that summary that the present discharge configuration meets all three toxic dilution zone (TDZ) criteria and also the regulatory mixing zone (RMZ) limitation. Obviously, other ambient conditions and discharge variations should be considered in additional simulations before a design such as this should be deemed fully satisfactory.

The depth at the discharge corresponds to the local depth at the discharge location. Because of the sloping bank from the discharge to the near shoreline, the distance to bank (46 m) corresponds to one-half of the actual distance from the outlet to the shoreline at the water surface. The ambient velocity corresponds to the estimate made above for the stratified water body. A Manning's n of 0.02 describes the smooth bottom. Density data is simply entered via the temperature values of the fresh water body. A Stratification Type C Is chosen to describe the actual temperature profile.

B.4 Graphical Displays of Detailed Plume Predictions

The discharge data values summarize the discharge situation as described above. Finally, the mixing zone specifications include a width value of 120 m, corresponding to, 10 % ,of.,the actual width of 1200 m. Information is desired over about one mile (- 1600 m) which represents the region of interest (ROI) limitation.

As for most engineering studies it is desirable to produce graphical displays for visualization of the predicted results. The data contained in the CORMIXi prediction file (Table B.2) form the basis for such plots. Unfortunately, it Is often difficult to display all plume features in one single plot because the plume may contain a lot of near-field details while extending over large distances into the far-field. A short examination of Table B.2 proves that point: The plume gets quickly trapped within a very limited near-field but with considerable mixing (see MOD110 = CORJET of the CORMIX1 prediction). Yet after that the plume extends over large distances into the far-field forming a wide thin layer within the stratified reservoir (see MOD142).

B.3 CORMIXl Session and Results If desired by the user, CORMIXI provides a summary of the data as they are entered, and then a full record of the simulation sequence and final results. This session summary report is shown in Table B.1. Of particular interest to the user are the evaluations in program element PARAM and CLASS. Note, that the computed length scales Lm' and bL' are quite small, indicating that the jet or plume will be trapped quickly by the ambient stratification; thus, this is the first numerical indication that the near-field jet/plume will indeed be small relative to the reservoir. The ambient flow related scales L, and Lb are quite large, indicating that the ambient velocity is very weak. The resulting flow class S3 is dominated by the ambient stratification; the plume will be limited to the lower layer of the stratification. The user should also consult the description of flow class S3 that is available during the CORMIX1 session (not reproduced

Using the graphics package CMXGRAPH, two plots have been prepared to display the jet/plume side view in the near-field, using distorted and undistorted 1:1 scales, respectively, (Figure B.4) and the plan view in the near-field and larger scale far-field (Figure B.5) of the effluent plume. Figure B.4 shows the initial trajectory of the slightly upward curved jet that rises to maximum level of 4.29 m and then gets trapped at an elevation of 3.44 m above the local bottom. In the trapping stage the jet undergoes a complicated transition (MOD1 37) to the horizontally spreading layer. CORMIX1 predicts 96

1)

D

Table B.1 CORMIX Session Report for A-Plant discharge Into Deep Reservoir with summer stratification

CORMIZXSESSION REPORTS X•XXX•XXXXXXXXXXXX

CORHIXX

X•XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX)W

CORNELL MIXING ZONZ EXPERTSYTEM(

June 1995 CORNIX V.3.10 sample 1 SITE NAME/L•BEL, stratitication Sumner DESIGN CASH: SAHPLEZ FIL. NAME: submerged single Port Discharges Using subsystem CORK1Xl: 08/25/96--lS:37:01 Start of sessions hsese..eeetsee esas eeeeeseaaaeeeaeeeoaeettea.etoee* etteaaaee*..eeeeeeesaea*eeeeh SUMMARYOF DINT DATA: AMBIENT PARAKXTERS2

Cross-section HA Average depth RD Depth at discharge VA Ambient velocity Darcy-Weisbach fricti-o factor r a KannLng's Calculated from O9 Wind velocity URCK Utratilication Type Surface temperature Bottom temperature • Temperature below thermoclin. Calculated FRZSH-WAT3R DONSITY values: l5OAS Surface density UOA Bottom density HINT Stratification height RHOAP pycnocline Density below

unbounded

-

35 U 3035 m .015 n/s 0.0096 .02 2 m/9

-

=

- C

.28.1

.

de*C

11.0 deqC

-

19.10 decC 996.2053 kqjx-3

-

999.6071 kg/m^3

1S.5 a (pycnocline level) 998.3866 kq/m^3

Submer"ed Single Port Discharge DIBCKAROE PARAMETERSt - right Nearest bank 46. m DISTS Distance to bank .254 a Do Port diameter 0.0506 m2 AO Port cross-sectional axes 3.01 */s 1O Discharge velocity -. 153 m'3/s 00 Discharge flowrate .6 a -Ho Discharge port height 10 deg THETA Vertical discharge angle 90. deg SIGNA Horizontal discharge angle deqc 20.0 (freshwater) Discharge temperature 995.2051 kq1m^3 RI0 corresponding density 1.3546 kqgjm3 DUEO Density difference .0133 A/9-2 GPO Buoyant acceleration 3500 PPB CO Discharge concentration 0 s/s. KS Surface heat exchange coest. 0 /h 10 Coefficient at decay DISCKARGX/2NVIROMMEMT LENGTH SCRALES: La 0.22 a 1a Lap 12.42 a IE 1 WON-DOIENSIOCAL PARANETRSS Port densimetric Frouds number YRO ' Velocity ratio

45.31 a

Lb -

602.57 is.

4.94 m

Lbm -

3.11 a

-

-

51.96 201.30

NIXING ZONE / TOXIC DILUTION SORE / AREA OF INTEREST PARAERKS: - yes Toxic discharge 1200 FPS l cxC Cxc concentration CCC concentration water quality standard Regulatory mixing zone

CCC

Regulatory mixing zone specification Regulatory mixing zone value . Region of Interest

600 PP8 - given by CCC value • - yes -

width .

120 o. 3500.00 a

i

af(rn la~e)

HTROOvNAMXC CLASSIFIcATION:

is important, the discharge The specified ambient density stratification flow in confined to the lover layer by the ambient density near field stratification. 15.5 m Applicable layer depth - lower layer depth NIXING ZONE EVALUATION (hydrodynamic and regulatory. umary): X-Y-s Coordinate syste: Origin is located at the bottom below the portcenter: 46. a from the right bank/shoare. Number of display steps NSTP - 20 per module.,

97,

..

NZAR-FIELO REGION (NFW) CONDITIONS . . Notai The "VR in the sone of strong Initial mixing. It has no regulatory Implication.. However, this information may be useful for the. discharge, disigner because the nixing in the NFR is usually sensitive to the discharge design conditions. Pollutant concentration at edge of Nir 98.2267 PPS Dilution at edge of NiR 35.6 "I Location: x 98.19 a (centerline coordinates) y 24.63 a 3.43u a-m NFR plume dimansIona. half-width ; 191.56 • thickness .94 X Buoyancy assessemnts The effluent density is less than the Surrounding ambient water density at the discharge level. Therefore, the effluent is POSITIVELT BUOYANT and will tend to rise the surface.

towards

stratification assessments The specified ambient density stratification Is dynamically important. The discharqe near field flow is trapped within the linearly stratiflde ambient density layer. UPSTREMI INTRUSION SUaO.RTs Plums exhibits upstream intrusion due to low discharge buoyancy. Intrusion length Intrusion stagnation point Intrusion thickness Intrusion half width at impingement Intrusion half thickneis at impingement . eeceeeeleeaeaaaeeotet~teee •X D flUZ ,G Recall: The TOZ corresponds to the three (3) Technical Support Document (TSO) for Water 1991 (EPA/50S/2-90-O0). Criterion maximum concentration (CMC) -

ambient velocity or strong 90.24 aS -87.98 a m 1:.29 u 191.86 a .94 a 5 YOIeDeeLT*eeONZORNeee eSUMR criteria issued in the USEPA Quality-based Taxies Control, 1200 FPS

Corresponding dilution 2.9 2 The CKC wea encountered at the following plume positions Plume location: X . .05 m (centerline coordinates) y 3.93 . 1.31 a Plume dimensions: half-width .10 a thickness •10 a CRITERION I "This location in within 50 tines the discharge length scale of

14 -

.22 a.-

.e+++ The discharge length scale TEST for the TD8 has been SATISFIED.

.4•4+•

CRITERION 2: This location in within S times the ambient wataer depth of RD . I+. 30.3 a. ++4.+++ .. The ambient depth TEST for the TDS has baen [email protected] .... fell. CRITERION 31 This location is within one tenth the distance of the extent of the Regulatory Mixing Zone of . 98.19 u downstream. 4++++ The Regulatory Mixing Zone TEST for the TDS has been SATISFIED. ++++++ The diffuser discharge velocity is equal to This exceeds the value of 3.0 m/s recommended in

3.01 s/s. the TSD.

ace All three CKC criteria for the "D8 are SATISFIED for this discharge. ace reeeeeatea~eeaaaaessee RES1hUIATORY mIx ZONE SUMMARY aeeeeeeaeeeeeeeee The plume conditions at the boundary of the specified RM1 are as followes Pollutant concentration 9$.226660 PPS Corresponding dilution 35.6 Plume location:s x 96.19 a (centerline coordinates) y 24.63 m 2 53.43 m Plume dimensions, half-width 191.86 a thickness .94 a At this position* the plume IS CONTACTING the RIGHT bank. Furthermore, the CCC for the toxio pollutant has indeed been net within the RX)S. In particular: The CCC was encountered at the following plume positions The CCC for the toxic pollutant was encountered at the following. plume positions CCC 600. PP3 Corresponding dilution 5. Plume location: x .21 a (centerline coordinates) y 7.83 a

a-. Plume dimensiLons

2.12 S

half-width .10 3 . thickness .10 m tecee~eeaeaaaeaaa#e ee 15INA DESIGN ADVICE AND COMMr)ITS aeaaet eaaaaaceeaa REfINDERt The user must takb note that RYDRODYNANIC MODELING by any known technique is NOT AN EXACT'SCIENCR. Extensive comparison with field and laboratory data has Shown that the CORMIX predictions on dilutions and concentrations (with associated plume geometries) are reliable tor the majority of cases and are accurate to within about +-50% (standard deviationl. As a further safeguard, CORNZX will not give predictions whenever it. judges the design configuration as highly complex end uncertain for prediction. taeteceeaaeeeteaaceaaeeaeeeceeeeeaacacaaaateeaeaaecaeceeej~teti~~eee~~tteaaeaa DESIGN CASK: Susmer Stratification FILE MARK: SATPLEl Subsystem CORNMll: Submerged Single Port Discharges END OF SESSION/ITERATIONS 08/26194--05137,41

98

Table B.2 CORMIX1 Prediction File for A-Plant discharge into Deep Reservoir with summer stratification CORMIXI

PREDICTION FILE:

CORNELL MIXING ZONE EXPERT SYSTEM Subsystem CORMIXI: Submerged Single Port Discharges CORMIX-v.3.1

CASE DESCRIPTION Site name/label: Design case: FILE NAME: Time of Fortran run:

DEEPARESERVOIR A-PLANTASUMMERASTRATIFICATION cormix\sim\SAMPLE1 .cxl 06/24/95--22:29:54

ENVIRONMENT PARAMETERS (metric units) Unbounded section HA 35.00 HD 30.50 UA .015 F a .010 USTAR = .5200E-03 UW a 2.000 UWSTAR- .2198E-02 Density stratified environment STRCNDC RHOAM 997.6240 RHOAS 996.2053 RHOAB 999.6072 RHOAH0= 999.5599 DRHOJ 2.1813 HINT 15.50 ES - .2153E-02 DISCHARGE BANK = DO THETA UO a RHOO CO IPOLL -

Subsystem version: June_1995

PARAMETERS (metric units) RIGHT DISTB 46.00 .254 A0 .051 10.00 SIGMA 90.00 3.020 Q0 .153 998.2051 DRHOO - .1355E+01 .3500E+04 CUNITS= PPB 1 KS - .OOOOE+00

FLUX VARIABLES (metric units) 00 - .1530E+00 MO - .4620E+00 Associated length scales (meters) LO .23 LM a 12.43

NON-DIMENSIONAL PARAMETERS FRO a 51.96 R

HO

-

.60

a

GPO

-

.1530E+00 .1329E-01

KD

-

.OOOOE+00

JO

a

.2034E-02

Lm Lmp

a

45.31 4.94

a

E

- .7730E-03

SIGNJO-

Lb Lbp

a

1.0 602.57 3.12

201.30

a

FLOW CLASSIFICATION 111111111111111111 111 111111111111111111111 1 Flow class (CORMIXI) S3 1 1 Applicable layer depth HS 15.50 1 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 MIXING ZONE / TOXIC CO - .3500E÷04 NTOX a 1 NSTD 1 REGMZ 1 REGSPC2 XINT 3500.00

DILUTION CUNITSCMC CSTD a XREG XMAX

/ REGION OF INTEREST PARAMETERS PPM .1200E+04 CCC CSTD .6000B+03..

a -

.00 3500.00

WREG

-

120.00

AREG

a

.00

X-Y-Z COORDINATE SYSTEM: ORIGIN is located at the bottom and below the center of the port: 46.00 m from the RIGHT bank/shore. X-axis points downstream, Y-axis points to left, Z-axis points upward. NSTEP - 20 display intervals per module BEGIN MOD101: DISCHARGE MODULE X

.00

Y .00

Z .60

S 1.0

C .350E+04

B .13

END OF MOD101: DISCHARGE MODULE BEGIN CORJET

(MODl10): JET/PLUME NEAR-FIELD MIXING REGION

7_99

Jet-like motion in linear stratification with weak crossflow. Zone of flow establishment: LE

-

1.25

XE

THETAE.01

-

YE

10.00 1.23

a

SIGMAEZE

Profile definitions: B - Gaussian l/e (37%) half-width, normal to trajectory S - hydrodynamic centerline dilution C - centerline concentration (includes reaction effects, if X .00 .01 .02 .04 **

Y .00 1.23 2.30 3.48

Z .60 .82 1.01 1.23

S 1.0 1.0 1.7 2.6

C .350E+04 .350E+04 .205E+04 .136E+04

89.45 .82

-

any)

B .13 .14 .26 .39

CMC HAS BEEN FOUND **

The pollutant concentration in the plume falls below 04C value of .120E+04 in the current prediction interval. This is the extent of the TOXIC DILUTION ZONE. .08 4.67 1.45 3.5 .101E+04 .53 .13 5.97 1.72 4.4 .790E+03 .67 .18 7.14 1.97 5.3 .6583+03 .80 -- WATER QUALITY STANDARD OR CCC HAS BEEN FOUND ** The pollutant concentration in the plume falls below water quality standard or CCC value of .600E+03 in the current prediction interval. This is the spatial extent of concentrations exceeding the water quality standard or CCC value. .24 8.32 2.24 6.2 .564E+03 .94 .32 9.49 2.52 7.1 .493E+03 1.07 .40 10.65 2.81 8.0 .437E+03 1.21 .49 11.82 3.10 8.9 .393E+03 1.34 .60 12.99 3.39 9.8 .357E+03 1.48 .71 14.15 3.66 10.7 .328E+03 1.61 .84 15.33 3.90 11.6 .303E+03 1.75 .98 16.51 4.09 12.4 .281E+03 1.89 1.13 17.70 4.23 13.3 .262E+03 2.03 1.27 18.77 4.29 14.2 .247E+03 2.15 Maximum jet height has been reached. 1.45 19.96 4.27 15.1 .232E+03 2.29 1.63 21.15 4.16 16.1 .218E+03 2.43 1.83 22.32 3.97 17.1 .205E+03 2.57 2.04 23.48 3.72 18.1 .193E+03 2.71 2.26 24.63 3.44 19.1 .183E+03 2.85 Terminal level in stratified ambient has been reached. Cumulative travel time 63. sec END OF CORJET (MODil0): JET/PLUME NEAR-FIELD MIXING REGION BEGIN MOD137: TERMINAL LAYER INJECTION/UPSTREAM SPREADING UPSTREAM INTRUSION PROPERTIES: Maximum elevation of jet/plume rise Layer thickness in impingement region Upstream intrusion length X-position of upstream stagnation point Thickness in intrusion region Half-width at downstream end Thickness at downstream end Control volume inflow: X Y Z 2.26 24.63 3.44

S 19.1

C .183E+03

7.64 1.29 90.24 -87.99 1.29 191.87 .95

-

-

m m m m m m m

B 2.85

Profile definitions: BV - top-hat thickness, measured vertically BEH - top-hat half-width, measured horizontally in Y-direction ZU - upper plume boundary (Z-coordinate) ZL - lower plume boundary (Z-coordinate) S - hydrodynamic average (bulk) dilution C - average (bulk) concentration (includes reaction effects, if X -87.99 -84.26 -66.02

Y 24.63 24.63 24.63

Z 3.44 3.44 3.44

S 9999.9 75.2 31.3

C .000E+00 .465E+02 .112E+03

BV .00 .33 .79

100

BH .00 27.13 65.91

any)

ZU 3.44 3.60 3.83

ZL 3.44 3.27 3.04

-47.77 -29.53 -11.28 6.96 25.21 43.45 61.70 79.95 98.19

24.63 24.63 24.63 24.63 24.63 24.63 24.63 24.63 24.63

3.44 3.44 3.44 3.44 3.44 3.44 3.44 3.44 3.44

Cumulative travel time =

23.8 .147E+03 20.8 .169E+03 19.4 .180E+03 19.3 .181E+03 22.5 .155E+03 27.7 .126E+03 32.1 .109E+03 34.4 .102E+03 35.6 .982E+02 6459. sec

1.04 1.19 1.28 1.29 1.22 1.11 1.02 .97 .95

89.17 107.51 123.15 137.02 149.61 161.21 172.04 182.22. 191.87

3.96 4.03 4.07 4.08 4.05 3.99 3.95 3.92 3.91

2.92 2.84 2.80 2.79 2.82 2.88 2.93 2.95 2.96

END OF MOD137: TERMINAL LAYER INJECTION/UPSTREAM SPREADING ** End of NEAR-FIELD REGION

(NFR)

**

In this design case, the discharge is located CLOSE TO BANK/SHORE. Some boundary interaction occurs at end of near-field. This may be related to a design case with a very LOW AMBIENT VELOCITY. The dilution values in one or more of'the preceding zones may be too high. Carefully evaluate results in near-field and check degree of interaction. Consider locating outfall further away from bank or shore. In the next prediction module, the plume centerline will be set to follow the bank/shore. ** REGULATORY MIXING ZONE BOUNDARY is within the Near-Field Region

(NFR)

**

BEGIN MOD142: BUOYANT TERMINAL LAYER SPREADING Plume is ATTACHED to RIGHT bank/shore. Plume width is now determined from RIGHT bank/shore. Profile definitions: BV - top-hat thickness, measured vertically BH - top-hat half-width, measured horizontally in Y-direction ZU - upper plume boundary (Z-coordinate) ZL = lower plume boundary (Z-coordinate) S - hydrodynamic average (bulk) dilution C - average (bulk) concentration (includes reaction effects, if Plume Stage X 98.19 268.28 438.37 608.46 778.55 948.64 1118.73 1288.82 1458.91 1629.00 1799.10 1969.19 2139.28 2309.37 2479.46 2649.55 2819.64 2989.73 3159.82 3329.91 3500.00

2 (bank attached): Y Z S C -46.00 3.44 35.6 .982E+02 -46.00 3.44 42.7 .820E+02 -46.00 3.44 48.4 .722E+02 -46.00 3.44 54.7 .640E+02 -46.00 3.44 61.7 .568E+02 -46.00 3.44 69.2 .505E+02 -46.00 3.44 77.3 .453E+02 -46.00 3.44 85.9 .408E+02 -46.00 3.44 94.8 .369E+02 -46.00 3.44 104.0 .336E+02 -46.00 3.44 113.6 .308E+02 -46.00 3.44 123.4 .284E+02 -46.00 3.44 133.5 .262E+02 -46.00 3.44 143.8 .243E+02 -46.00 3.44 154.4 .227E+02 -46.00 3.44 165.2 .212E+02 -46.00 3.44 176.2 .199E+02 -46.00 3.44 187;4 .187E+02 -46.00 3.44 198.7 .176E+02 -46.00 3.44 210.3 .166E+02 -46.00 3.44 222.1 .158E+02 Cumulative travel time 233246. sec

BV 1.38 .93 .81 .77 .75 .75 .76 .77 .78 .80 .81 .83 .84 .86 .87 .88 .90 .91 .92 .93 .95

BH 262.50 468.27 609.62 728.17 836.14 938.66 1038.24 1136.20 1233.26 1329.86 1426.23 1522.53 1618.85 1715.24 1811.74 1908.37 2005.12 2102.02 2199.06 2296.24 2393.56

Simulation limit based on maximum specified distance = This is the REGION OF INTEREST limitation.

any)

ZU 4.13 3.90 3.84 3.82 3.81 3.81 3.82 3.82 3.83 3.84 3.84 .3.85 3.86 3.86 3.87 3.88 3.88 3'.89 3.90 3.90 3.91

ZL 2.74 2.97 3.03 3.05 3.06 3.06 3.06 3.05 3.04 3.04 3.03 3,02 3.02 3.01 3.00 2.99 2.99 2.98 2,98 2.97 2.96

3500.00 m.

END OF MOD142: BUOYANT TERMINAL LAYER SPREADING

CORMIXl: Submerged Single Port Discharges

End of Prediction File

101

CORMIXI Prediction File:sin.%SAIIPLEL .cxi

OEEP'^RCSERUOWg A-PLANT^SUMMIEP^STRATIFICATION *0 -

a0

T

0I.I

-96

I

I0 -36 I

-d

if

20

x (07 -

Side lieu

Distortion a 2.990

(a) DEEP^AESEgUOIR

Distortion=a

COAIIIXI Prediction File: sim\SA•tPLE .cxl

io

1.000Sie

(b)

OCCP'-AESERUOLA

A-PLANT'^SUflMEA'STRATIF1CAT[ ON

-06.

-40

COIM[ XL Prediction File: sim-,SAMPLCI . cxL

2K 40

@

Disortont.00Side Uliu Along Plan Trajectoryj

Ian Dist (a) 12

(c)

Figure B.4: Different side views of near-field jet/plume discharge in stratified reservoir, a) distorted unscaled view, b) view with fixed undistorted scale, and c) undistorted view along trajectory (in the x-y plane).

102

COQIIXI Prediction

OCEP-PESEPUOtR A-PLANT'-SUflMER^STRATIFI CATI ON

File: uim'.SAMPLEI cxl

II

Distortion *

1.000

Plan Uieu

(a)

CORMIXI Prediction Fitae.simNSAI1PLEL .cxL

A-PLANtT-S~rA-~STRATI FlCAT[ ON

r (b)

Plan view of diffuser plume In a) complete field (near- and far), and b) near-field only. Figure B.5: (Note: since in this simulation the discharge was schematized asan unbounded cross-section, the. resulting plume would actually contact far shoreline when the plume width exceeds the actual crosssection width of. 1000 m. This occurs when BH. 1000 m at x =_1000 m downstream as shown in view a). Thus, if plume concentration data were required after far shoreline contact, a bounded cross-section would need to be specified (BS = 1000) in a new simulation.

103

OEEP-PESERUOIP A-PLANThSUMMEP-STPATI FICATI ON

CORMIXI Prediction File: sim\SAMPLEI .cXl

o V4, M.

S

rlou class S3

Concentration vs Centerline Distance

ist (W) --

Figure B.6: Concentration distribution as a function of distance along plume centerline a few parameters such as the upstream intrusion length, downstream width, and shape of the intrusion. As indicated in Figure B.5, reasonable transition boundaries can be assumed to provide smooth transitions to the far-field processes.

It is also possible to include concentration values, e.g. along the centerline, in plots of this type. This has not been done in these figures in order not to overload them. Alternatively, the concentration distribution following the centedine of the plume is plotted in Figure B.6. The rapid drop-off within the initial buoyant jet region is evident. Also, the thresholds for all water quality parameters and module boundaries have been exercised in the plot. Hence, the locations where the CMC (i.e. TDZ) and CCC values are met have been indicated.

The side and plan views show the wide and thin layer that forms as the plume collapses laterally within the ambient stratification while it is advected by the weak ambient flow. Some discontinuity in the predicted plume dimensions occurs in the transition from the control volume (MOD137) describing upstream spreading to the continuous prediction for ambient buoyant spreading (MOD142). The cause for this discontinuity is the simultaneous interaction of the plume with the channel boundary that occurs within MOD137. CORMIX1 detects such complicated simultaneous processes and wams the user who then can compensate by providing reasonable, mass-conserving transitions.

B.5 Details of Buoyant Jet Near-field Mixing The CORJET model option can be employed if further details within the very initial buoyant jet motion are desired. This option can be exercised internally at the conclusion of the CORMIX design case by choosing the postprocessor. The CORJET output corresponding to this has already been shown as an example in 104

ID

Section 6.1, namely as Table 6.2. That output agrees well with that listed in Table B.2. used

More importantly, CORJET could also be different to examine separately

approximations to the ambient density profile The reader is and/or velocity distribution. following approach, this explore to encouraged 6.1 and Section in explained the procedures E. Appendix in illustrated

105.1

3

106

Appendix C CORMIX1 and 2: Submerged Single Port Discharge and Multiport Diffuser in a Shallow River the discharge reach. River cross-sections were determined by depth measurements at several stations as indicated. For example, Figure C.2 gives the cross-section at the discharge location. All cross-sections exhibit quite some nonuniformity as is typical for a gently meandering alluvial (gravel) river. The indicated water level corresponds to the river discharge of 840 cfs (= 23.7 m3/s) that'was measured during the field survey using the usual USGS stream-gaging methods. The ambient temperature at this flowrate was 20 °C. The discharge pipe (diameter =8 in - 0.2 m) is located about 95 ft from the right bank, and is pointing in the downstream direction.

The design modification of an existing (hypothetical situation) discharge from a plant into a shallow river is considered in this case study. This affords an opportunity to demonstrate the joint use of CORMIX and of a dye field study in order to analyze an existing effluent plume from a single port discharge and to suggest a design conversion to a multiport diffuser with improved mixing characteristics. C.1 Problem Statement An industrial plant (B-Plant) is currently discharging its effluent into an adjacent shallow river. The design flowrate is quite small at 2.1 mgd (- 0.092 m3/s). The river is about 200 to 300 ft wide at the discharge location and the following downstream reach. Water depth is, of course, dependent on the river discharge that is seasonafly variable. An examination of available streamflow records (USGS data) suggests a 7Q10 low flow discharge of 285 cfs (- 8.06 m3/s).

In order to obtain a detailed description of the flow field In the river, reach discharge measurements were conducted at several more downstream stations (200, 400, 750, and 1000 ft, respectively). Figure C.1 includes the cumulative discharge isolines, expressed in % of the total discharge as measured from the right bank, for the reach. These lines provide a useful Indication of the mean flow pattern in such a winding river for subsequent interpretation of observed plume features (see also comments on cumulative discharge method in Section 6.2).

Recent water quality studies in the discharge reach performed during low flow summer conditions have shown occasional coloration problems in the discharge plume that seem to be related to inadequate mixing characteristics of the present submerged single port discharge. For that reason the plant operator is considering an improvement of the'discharge. structure. C.2 Existing Single Port Discharge: Dye Field Study and CORMIXl Comparison - An Initial field study was conducted in order (1) to measure the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the discharge reach with.special. emphasis on the first 1000 ft downstream, and (2) to determine plume concentrations by means of a dye Injection into the plant effluent.

A dye test was carried out by continuously discharging a fluorescein dye solution into the plant effluent. The dye concentration exiting the discharge pipe~was'560 ppb with a temperature of 2200C. Dye concentration were measured at the trarisects indicated In Figure C.1, and have been plotted in Figure C.3 as a function of distance from the right bank. The observed concentration profiles show decreasing peak (maximum) values distances. downstream increasing' witfi Observations indicated a vertically mixed plume at all locations. In the display of Figure C.3 the plume centerline position is clearly shifting relative to the fight bank, and the plume width occasionally appears to slightlycontract in width.

Figure C.1 shows the plan geometry of 107

An initial CORMIX1 evaluation was carried out to ascertain its applicability in this somewhat

Figure C.1: Plan view of downstream reach of Shallow River with cumulative discharge measurement stations and distribution

Water Level for Discharge. Q 840 cs Z 217 me/si 165 .1.A•f0SO

Left'

Bank*,& -Bank* '• ""-:A Vertical 2 Scale

It

(ftof

Figure C.2:

Dlis~cha•r-g L

Measured Profile

Distance

Right

__-

200

1 CORMAIX

100

River cross-section at discharge location

2 108

(ft)

750

Scale 200

100

1C so

250 200

Distance From Right Bank (ft)

Figure C.3:

150

a

Measured dye concentration plotted as a function of distance from right bank

irregular flow environment. For this purpose, the cross-section was schematized as a rectangular cross-section putting emphasis on- the depth The conditions around the discharge location. average and local depths at this flow rate are both 1.9 ft or (* 0.6 m). Information from the cumulative discharge data was used. Note that the cumulative discharge data shows the discharge located f *the 60 % line, i.e. it is, hydraulically closer to: the left bank, while it appears geographically closer. to the right! This Is reflected in the schematizatidn: Within the 165 ft (o, 50 m) wide rectangular channel, the discharge Is located 20 m from the left bank. The roughness of the slightly winding, but otherwise clean natural channel has been specified by a Manning's n value of 0.03.. Figure C.4 is the data checklist prepared for the CORMIXI session, While Table C.1 represents the detailed CORMIXI Prediction File (the session report is not given here). CORMIX1 predicts that the plume gets rapidly mixed over the shallow depth; and Is*primarily influenced by' farfield mixing processes, a feature that is quite

consistent with observations. The dye concentration. distribution predicted by CORMIXI in the schematic rectangular channel are plotted in Figure C.5 and show a much more regular mixing pattern than the earlier Figure C.3. However, matters can be readily reconciled when both field data and CORMIXI pre.dictions are interpreted as a function of cumulative discharge (for example by means of. the far-field post-processor FFLOCATR, although the details of the FFLOCATR application are not shown herein). This has been done in Figure C.6 where both distributions are directly superposed on the cumulative discharge pattern. The agreement isexcellent. This entire procedure,. points out the need for high-quality, field -.data if detailed interpretations and predictions of discharge plumes are desired. C.3 Proposed Multiport Diffuser Discharge Under 7Q10 flow Conditions: CORMIX2 Predictions I

109

The following strategy is pursued in order

CHECKUST FOR DATA PREPARATION

CORMIX - CORNELL MIXING ZONE EXPERT SYSTEM - Version 3.1,3.2 Design CASE

uyg Tesi;

DOS FILE NAME

Dye 1

Prepared by. GHJ

-

(w/o extension) bounded54 118184 Water body Is 0.6 I If bounded: Width VV2 Appearance nm 3 ms i+.Mm 1s or Ambient velocity

AMBIENT DATA: Water body depth Depth at discharge0.. ituaft Ambient ilowrate if

Date:

Shallow Ri ver

SITE Name

Max. tidal velocity . ___ _hr Tidal period At time__.h__r before/atlaft slack: Tidal velocity at this time or: Darcy-Weisbach f

0.03

Manning's n Wind speed Density data: Water body is

2 f

If unformn

_ __ri/s __ m/s

rns

water

UNITS: Density...kglm2 I Temperature... 0C dem~itnteme. values If fresh: Specify as 20.0 Average xAmui)Utemp. Densityltemp. at surface

Ifstratiffed%

Stratification type If B/C: Pycnocline height

_A/Q. m

Density/temp. at bottom If C: Density/temp. fump

Specifygeometi for CORMIX1 or 2 or 3

DISCHARGE DATA, SUBMERGED SINGLE PORT DISCHARGE Jlftmd . Nearest bank Is on .0 Vertical angle THETA . Port diameter Port hei ht Is m or

- CORMIXI Distance to nearest bank Horizontal angle SIGMA Port area

SUBMERGED MULTIPORT DIFFUSER DISCHARGE - CORMIX2 Distance to one l.eftfr•.h Nearest bank is on ndpoint mn, Diffuser length ei htm Total number of openings wit contraction ratio Port diameter unidirectional I staged / altematno rvri Diffuser arrangern AlignmenI

MA

angle THETA

_ aj

_

_

_

__

Relative orientation BETA

-7

BUOYANT SURFACE DISCHARGE - CORMIX3 nWtrdi .Inblligbtbank Configur Discharge located on from banl; Horizontal angle SIGMA __1;._Dist ._ Bottom slope In Depth at discharge "icul Diameter_ m or• I If - Bottom Invert depth m W I• d:• DepthEffluent Flow rate" Effluent density Heated discharge? Concentration units Coniservative substance?

0.092 m3/s or. Effluent velocity kg/rn or. Effluent temperature Ifyes: Heat loss coefficient t-nL Effluehtf concentration -Dot Ifno: Decay coefficient. vesilnm

MIXING ZONE DATAno Iseffluenttoxic'? • WO stand./conventional poll.? * .. • Any mixing zone specified? Region of interest

Figure C.4:

1000

m m m

_

Horizontal angle SIGMA

*

rn.

CCC Ifyes: CMC Ifyes: value of standard m or width Ifyes: distance or area m

Grid intervals for display

m _

S

m m -

mis

22.0 OrW/m2 ,*C -

560 -

Iday

-

-

% or m % or rm2

20

Data preparation checklist for Shallow River dye test evaluation and verification

using CORMIXI

D 110

Table CA CORMIXI Prediction File for dye test in Shallow River CORMIXi PREDICTION FILE:

11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111i1111111

11111111111111

CORNELL MIXING ZONE EXPERT SYSTEM Subsystem CORMIXI: Submerged Single Port Discharges

CASE DESCRIPTION Site name/label:

CORMIX-v.3.10

ShallowARiver

Design case:

DyeATest

FILE NAME: Time of Fortran run:

cormix\sim\dyel 04/14/96--11:03:24

.cxl

ENVIRONMENT PARAMETERS (metric units) Bounded section 30.00 QA as 50.00 AS a .60 HA .60 HD UA .790 F = .08• 4 USTAR UW 2.000 UWSTAR- .2196E-02 Uniform density environment 998.2051 STRCNDU RHOAM DISCHARGE BANK DO THETA U0 RHOO a CO IPOLL -

PARAMETERS (metric units) LEFT DISTB 20.00 .200A0 A .031 H0 SIGMA .00D .00 .092 2.929 00 DRI400 = .4337E+00 GPO 997.7714 .5600E+03 CUNITSppb KD 1 . KS - .0000E+00

FLUX VARIABLES (metric units) MO - .2694E+00 00 - .9200E-01

Associated length scales LQ

-

.18

Subsystem version: June_1995

LM

ICHREG= 2

.8081E-01

-

.15

-

.9200E-01 .4260E-02

-

.0000E+00

JO

-

.3920E-03

Lm Lap

-

.66 99999.00

SIGNJO0

1.0

(meters) -

NON-DIMENSIONAL PARAMETERS FRO 100.31 R

23.70

-

18.89

-

Lb Lbp

-

.00 99999.00

3.70

FLOW CLASSIFICATION 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 1 1

Flow class (CORMIXl) Applicable layer depth HS -

MIXING CO NTOX NSTD REGMZ XINT

H5-0 .60

1 1

ZONE / TOXIC DILUTION / REGION OF INTEREST PARAMETERS CUNITSppb - .5600E+03 0 0 0 1000.00 XMAX 1000.00

X-Y-Z COORDINATE SYSTEM: ORIGIN is located at the bottom and below the center of the port: 20.00 m from the LEFT bank/shore. Z-axis points upward. X-axis points downstream, Y-axis points to left, NSTEP - 20 display intervals per module

BEGIN MOD101: DISCHARGE MODULE COANDA ATTACHMENT immediately following the discharge. X

Y

Z

.00

.00

.00

S 1.0

C

B .14

.560E+03

END OF MOD101: DISCHARGE MODULE

BEGIN CORJET (MODIlO): JET/PLUME NEAR-FIELD MIXING REGION Bottom-attached jet

motion.

.111

Profile definitions: B - Gaussian I/e (37%) half-width, normal to trajectory Half wall jet, attached to bottom. S - hydrodynamic centerline dilution C - centerline concentration (includes reaction effects, if X .00 1.05

Z

.00 .00

.00 .00

1.0 1.2

.560E+03 .4833+03

.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 -

1.7 2.1 2.6 3.0 3.4 3.8 4.2 4.6 5.0 5.3 5.7 6.0 6.4 6.7 7.0 7.4 7.7 8.0 8.3

.337E+03 .263E+03 .216E+03 .185E+03 .163E+03 .146E+03 .132E+03 .121E+03 .112E+03 .105E+03 .983E+02 .927E+02 .878E+02 .834E+02 .795E+02 .761E+02 .729E+02 .701E+02 .675E+02 14. sec

.00 2.10 .00 3.15 .00 4.21 .00 5.26 .00 6.31 .00 7.36 .00 8.41 .00 9.46 .00 10.51 .00 11.56 .00 12.62 .00 13.67 .00 14.72 .00 15.77 .00 16.82 .00 17.87 .00 18.92 .00 19.97 .00 21.03 Cumulative travel time

B

C

S

Y

any)

.10 .16

.21 .26 .29 .32 .35 .38 .40 .42 .44 .46 .48 .50 .51 .53 .55 .56 .57 .59 .60

END OF CORJET (MOD110): JET/PLUME NEAR-FIELD MIXING REGION .............................................................................

BEGIN MOD133: LAYER BOUNDARY IMPINGEMENT/FULL VERTICAL MIXING Control volume inflow: Z Y X 21.03

.00

.00

B

C

S 8.3

.60

.675E+02

Profile definitions: BV - layer depth (vertically mixed) BH - top-hat half-width, in horizontal plane normal to trajectory ZU a upper plume boundary (Z-coordinate) ZL - lower plume boundary (Z-coordinate) S - hydrodynamic average (bulk) dilution C . average (bulk) concentration (includes reaction effects, if any) S 8.3

C .675E+02

BV .00

BH .00

ZU .60

ZL .60

.60

8.3

.675E+02

.60

.11

.60

.00

.60 .60

8.3 8.3

.675E+02 .675E+02

.60 .60

.15 .19

.60 .60

.00 .00

.60

8.3

.675E+02

.60

.22

.60

.00

.60

8.3

.675E+02

.60

.24

.60

.00

.00

.60

8.8

.637E+02

.60

.27

.60

.00

.00

.60

9.9

.568E+02

.60

.29

.60

.00

.60 .60 .60 travel time -

10.8 11.4 11.6

.517E+02 .493E+02 .482E+02

.60 .60 .60

.31 .33 .35

.60 .60 .60

.00 .00 .00

X 20.43

Y .00

20.55

.00

20.67 20.79

.00 .00

20.91

.00

21.03

.00

21.15

21.27 21.39 21.51 21.63

Cumulative

.00 .00 .00

Z .60

15.

sec

END OF MOD133: LAYER BOUNDARY IMPINGEMENT/FULL VERTICAL MIXING BEGIN MOD1S3: VERTICALLY MIXED PLUME IN CO-FLOW

Phase 1: Vertically mixed, Phase 2: Re-stratified Phase 1: The plume is VERTICALLY FULLY MIXED over the entire layer depth. This flow region is INSIGNIFICANT in spatial extent and will be by-passed. Phase 2: The flow has RESTRATIFIED at the beginning of this zone. This flow region is

INSIGNIFICANT in spatial extent and will be by-passed.

112

END OF MOD153: VERTICALLY MIXED PLUME IN CO-FLOW **

End of NEAR-FIELD REGION

(NFR)

**

The initial plume WIDTH values in the next far-field module will be CORRECTED by a factor 3.25 to conserve the mass flux in the far-field! The correction factor is quite large because of the small ambient velocity relative to the strong mixing characteristics of the dischargel This indicates localized RECIRCULATION REGIONS and internal hydraulic JUMPS. Flow appears highly UNSTEADY and prediction results are UNRELIABLE!

- -- -- - -- - -- - -- -- - -- -- - --- -- - -- -- -- -- -- - -- -.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

BEGIN MOD141: BUOYANT AMBIENT SPREADING Discharge is non-buoyant or weakly buoyant. Therefore BUOYANT SPREADING REGIME is ABSENT. END OF MOD141: BUOYANT AMBIENT SPREADING BEGIN MOD161: PASSIVE AMBIENT MIXING IN UNIFORM AMBIENT Vertical diffusivity (initial value) Horizontal diffusivity (initial value) -

.970B-02 mA2/s .242E-01 mA2/s

The passive diffusion plume is VERTICALLY FULLY MIXED at beginning of region. Profile definitions:' BV - Gaussian s.d.*sqrt(pi/2) (46%) thickness, measured vertically - or equal to layer depth, if fully mixed BH - Gaussian s.d.*sqrt(pi/2) (46%) half-width, measured horizontally in Y-direction ZU - upper plume boundary (Z-coordinate) ZL . lower plume boundary (z-coordinate) S - hydrodynamic centerline dilution C - centerline concentration (includes reaction effects, if any) Plume Stage 1 (not bank attached): X Y Z S 11.6 .00 .60 21.63 .60 25.3 .00 70.55 33.8 .00 .60 119.47 .60 40.5 .00 168.39 .00 .60 46.3 217.30 266.22 .00 .60 51.5 .60 56.1 315.14 .00 364.06 412.98

.00 .00 .00 461.90 .00 510.81 .00 559.73 608.65 .00 .00 657.57 .00 706.49 755.41 .00 .00 804.33 .00 853.24 902.16 .00 951.08 .00 .00 1000.00 S• Cumulative tra vel time

.60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 -

C

.482E+02 .222E+02 .166E±02 .138E+02 .121E+02' .109E+02 .998E+01

60.5 .926E+01 64.5 .869E+01, 68.3 .820E+01 71.9 .779E+01 .744E+01 75.3 78.5 .713E+01 81.7 .686E+01 84.7 .661E+01 87.6 .639E+01 90.4 .619E+01 93.2 .601E+01 95.8 .584E+01 98.4 .569E+01 101.0 *555E+01 -1249. sec

BH 1.12

BV .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60: .60 .60

2.44

3.26 3.92 4.48

4.98 5.43

5.84 6.23 6.60 6.95 7.28 7.59 7.90 8.19 8.47

8.74 9.01 9.27

9.52 9.76

.60

zU

ZL

.60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60 .60

.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00

1000.00 m.

Simulation limit based on maximum specified distance = This is the REGION OF INTEREST limitation. END OF MOD161: PASSIVE AMBIENT MIXING INUNIFORM AMBIENT ..........Submerged..Single Port.Discharges ..

CORMIXl: Submerged Single Port Discharges

..

113

End-- of.Pr.diction.File

End of Prediction File

Downstream

~Distance (ft)

-.

.1000

750

D

S.. 200

.0-

Di.stan'e From



10

2100

:

50

0 0 100 Cunmlative o0scharge (%) 100 80 o .40 20 10

Figure C.5: Dye concentrations predicted by CORMIXI plotted as a function of distance from right bank in schematized channel

Data CRMI~l

-Field

- - -

Prediction

r4 0"y

FScale

20 ppto

9-PUNT

Oft

Figure C.6: Comparison of measured field dye distribution and CORMIXI predictions within cumulative discharge pattern

114

D

to improve the near-field mixing characteristics of the existing discharge: (1) Utilization of.a multiport diffuser to increase the initial entrainment of ambient water into the multiple effluent jets, and (2) shifting of the discharge location toward the right bank to delay the contact with the left shorefline that -with the present installationseems to occur at a downstream distance of 1000

ft. The design study is carried out for the low flow ambient condition given by the 7Q10 discharge (285 cfs = 8.1 m3/s) as is typical for water quality studies on riverine sites. Temperatures of the discharge and ambient and channel roughness is assumed unchanged. The new local and average depth for this flowrate is calculated to be - 0.3 m from the formula given in Section 4.3.1. State water quality regulations call for a demonstration of plume concentrations at the edge of a mixing zone that is limited to one fourth (114) of the river width. With an average river width of 250 ft, this corresponds to a width limitation of 250/4 - 62 ft (- 19 m). (Note: The acfuarwidth limitation must be handled within the schematized cross-sections as specified. For the schematic channel width of 50 m this represents a 19/50 = 38% width limitation specification as used in CORIMX2.)

Furthermore, a high initial dilution of 29.8 is attained in a short region (labeled the Macceleration zone", MOD271) following the high velocity multiport discharge. These results are plotted in Figure C.8 using the graphics package CMXGRAPH. In order to illustrate the capabilities of the graphics program these plots include (a) the un-scaled plan view as it first appears on screen, (b) a re-scaled plan view that is undistorted (1:1) to show the actual long and narrow plume shape and river stretch, and (c) a side view of the near-field only with 1:2 vertical distortion. The user should explore the manifold features of the graphics package. Obviously, predicted plan plume shapes should be interpreted with the cumulative discharge method. The far-field plume locator FFLOCATR (Section 6.2) is designed for exactly that purpose. The two data files examples in Section 6.2 (input: Table 6.4, output: Table 6.5) are, in fact, applications for the present design case. Hence, the results of Table 6.5 when plotted on the river plan view with the cumulative discharge isolines are shown in Figure C.9 and exhibit realistic plume shapes. After the rapid initial mixing in the near-field the plume is growing only very slowly in the far-field (MOD261). At the 1000 ft transect, the plume stays clear of the left bank. The concentration distribution along the plume centerline is plotted in Figure C.10 for the near-field only, as very slow additional mixing occurs at larger distances (see Table C.3). As regards the regulatory mixing zone (RMZ) the prediction results indicate that it will be encountered at a considerable distance downstream, at about 354 m (- 1200 fit), i.e. outside the region plotted in Figure C.10. The dilution at that location is 33.5, corresponding to a local centerline concentration value of 3.0 %.

Obviously, a number of design solutions, with different diffuser configurations and locations, need to be investigated. One of several feasible solutions is presented in the following: A 15 mn (,- 49 ft) long diffuser consisting of 7 nozzles is installed in perpendicular, co-flowing arrangement centered at the 40% cumulative discharge position. (Note: In the actual coordinate position, this corresponds to a distance of about 70 ft from the right bank; see Figure C.1.) The nozzle diameter Is 2.5 in (• 0.0635 m).

Finally, it is Illuminating to compare the performance of the proposed multiport diffuser design with the existing single port situation, both under 7Q10 low flow. This is also included in Figure C.10 by plotting the plume centerline concentrations. (Note: The data sheet, session record, and output file for this CORMIX1 application are omitted for space reasons.) Clearly, the multiport design achieves much more

The CORMIX2 simulation is summarized in Figure C.7 (data preparation checklist), Table C.2 (session report), and Table C.3 (prediction file). Inspection of the session record and prediction file shows that the plume becomes rapidly mixed over the very shallow water depth. 115

single plume out of the 7-nozzle arrangement to provide more detail in the near-field; the user has been prompted by several messages within CORMIX2 to perform this additional prediction.

rapid initial mixing by capturing more of the ambient entrainment flow as the diffuser is spread over portion of the river width. Figure C.1O also

includes an additional CORMIX1 prediction for a

116

CHECKLIST FOR DATA PREPARATION

CORMIX - CORNELL MIXING ZONE EXPERT SYSTEM B-Plant Shallow River LOW HOW /qlU (wlo extension) ._Sample 2.

SITE Name Design CASE DOS FILE NAME

-

Version 3.1,3.2

Date: Prepared by: GHJ

boundedflimlersumded Water body is,, rm 50, Ifbounded: Width 0.3 m */M Appearance m U .m/s " EmTls or Ambient velocity M/s .. . Max. tidal velocity ___hr Ifidal Tidal period hr befloreaafler slack: Tidal velocity at this time ____ rn/s At time or: Darcy-Weisbach f 0.03 Manning's n m/s 2 Wind speed UNITS: Density...kglm I Temp'erature....C Density data: ,values V ,tmf fresh12111 water Iffresh: Specify as Water body Is 20_ Average darity/temp. " Ifunifam AMBIENT DATA: Water body depth Depth at discharge Ifsteady- Ambient flcwrate

Density/temp. at surface

If stratified,

Density/temp. at bottom

A

Stratification type

IfC: Density/temp. jump

m

If B/C: Pycnocline height

Specify geometry for CORMIXI or 2 or 3

DISCHARGE DATA:

SUBMERGED SINGLE PORT DISCHARGE - CORMIXI ' bank arest fledgbht Nearest bank Is on Horizontal angle SIGMA Vertical angle THETA Port diameter

_

_ m or.

m

....

Port area

--

mn

m

P

SUBMERGED MULTIPORT DIFFUSER DISCHARGE - CORMIX2 m 1 Distance to one endpoint hwdght Nearest bank Is on 27.5 m to other endpoint m .15 Diffuser length 0. 09 mn Port heightm 7 Total number of openings 1.0 -"00635 m with contraction ratio Port diameter unidirectional he1taed /•atermatim.miackgak t Diffuser arrangement/type 0 Horizontal angle*SIGMA ' 0 90 Alignment angle GAMMA 90 Relative orientation BETA 0 0 Vertical angle THETA BUOYANT SURFACE DISCHARGE - CORMIX3 Conflgu lefigbht bank Discharge located on Horizontal angle SIGMA

,

___n.Dist.

Depth at discharge

Ifirecnn_ g

e

annel: Depth

Effluent: Flow rate Effluent density .. Heated discharge? Concentration units Conservative substance?

3 m/s , 1s or: Effluent velocity C 2 0 kg/m3 or. Effluent temperature - W/mi,-?, Ifyes: Heat loss coefficient =1no " 100 Effluent concentration % /day If no: Decay coefficient .yesii,

_DDV_0.0i

MIXING ZONE DATA-

Is effluent toxic?

ailo.

WQ standJconventional poll.? =/no .nst Any mixing zone specified? Region of interest

Figure C.7:

rotrudinaleo-fowing . m Bottomslope. rn m Diameterr or: ILCEUIa" m Bottom invert depth - g, rnm from bank-

1000

Ifyes: CMC

CCC

-

_._ .... If yes: value of standard m or width--38'If yes: distance orarea

m

Grid Intervals for display

% W=

%aor

2

20

Data preparation checklist for Shallow River. design case for multiport diffuser using CORMIX2 117,.

Table C.2 CORMIX Session Report for B-Plant discharge into Shallow River with multiport diffuser

CORIX SESSION REPORT: CORMXI:

CORNELL NIXING ZONE EXPERT SYSTEM

June 199S

.CORNIX v.3.10

B-PLANT SHALLOW-RIVWR

SITS X,•IE/LPBELs

DESIGN CASE:

LOW-FLOW 7Q10 ,.

FILE HAqs"

SAPLE2•

Using subsystem CORMIX: Start of session:

Submerged Nultiport Diffuser Discharges 06/24/95--22:3S:06

.*e**e5t555tt**555t*tS**,t**5.t*eee*t*ttte***e**e******te****e5O**eeete**ebee

SUMMARY OF InPUT DATA:

AMBIENT PARAMETERS. cross-section width .Channel regularity Ambient flowrate Average depth Depth at discharge Ambient velocity Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Calculated fr•o

w bounded 50.0 , 3S ICHRZG = 2 .1 QA 0.30 A 0.30 HD 0.S400 UA. 0.1054 1 I

U^3/2 m

m

m/s

0 03

-.

Manning' s .n

a

2 UK Wind velocity STRCND - U Stratificatioil Type 20.0 5 Surface temperature 20.0 Bottom temperature Calculated FRESH-WATER DENSITY values: " 990.2051 RHOAS Surface density 398.201 RHOAZ * Bottom density

./a degC degC kg/u^3 1kg/m=3

Submerged Multiport Diffuser Discharge DISCHAGE PARAMETERS: unidirectional perpendicular DITYP£E Diffuser type L. - 15.0 a Diffuser length right Nearest bank . YB2 27.5 a 2 2.5 m. XI Diffuser endpoints 7 NOP•E• lZumber of openingis . 42.SO a Spacing between risers/openings SPAC 10.063S a DO Port/Nozzle diameter 0.0014 m 30 Equivalent slot width 0.0031 %^2 A.O Total area of openings 4.14" m/ * ,0 Discharge velocity 0.092 m3/e Qo Total discharge flowrate 0.09 a HO Discharge port height unidirectional without fanning BETPE Nozzle arrangement 90 deg GAMMA Diffuser alignment angle 0 dog THETA . Vertical discharge angle 0 deg SIGMA Horizontal discharge angle' 90 deg BETA Relative orientation angle 22.0 degC Discharge temperature (freshwater) 997.7714 kg/m=3 RHO0 corresponding density 0.4336 kg/U=3 0 a DR11 Density difference :.0043 m/s92 GPO Buoyant acceleration 100 PERCENT Co Discharge concentration 0 m/a KS Surface heat. exchange coeff. 0 /a KD Coefficient of decay FLUX VARIABLES PER UNIT DIFFUSER LENGTH: qO Discharge (volume flux) .0 Momentum flux jo Buoyancy flux

-

-

=

0.006133 me2/s 0.02S452 a^3/e*2 0.000026 m^3/s^3

DISCHARGZ/ZNVIRONMENT LENGTH SCALES : 2S.80 a IM 0.08 a In = 0.00 m lq = 99999.0 a la 99999.0 a lb, -" 99999.0 a 1m" a (These refer to the actual discharge/environment length scales.) NO*-DiMENaIONAj PARAMETERS: Slot Froude number Port/nozzle Froude number Velocity ratio

FRO PRD0o R

NIXING ZONE / TOXIC DILUTION ZONE / AREA Toxic discharge, Water quality standard specified Regulatory mixing zone Regulatory mixing zone specification Regulatory mixing zone value Region of interest

118

• -

1653.66 252.2$ 7.68

OF INTEREST PARAMETERS: no = no . yes - width 19 m Wm2 if =" 1000.00 a =

area)

tt

*s*tt*t

ttttttt*.ee.******eea

t

HYDRODYAMIC nLowCLASS

eeee*5w*..tt~**.e**tttt

tt

ittt

**ttt*eet .tt

t*5

SSIFICAZION: -

K

---

I

This flow configuration applies to a layer corresponding to the full water depth at the discharge site. 0.20 aa Applicable layer depth . water depth xxXING zoNE EVALUArION (hydrodynamic and regulatory summary): X-Y-Z Coordinate system: Origin is located at the bottom below the port centers 20 a from the right bank/shore. Number of display steps NSTEP - 20 per module. NEAR-FIELD REGION (NPR) CONDITIONS : It has no regulatory mixing. Notes The NFX is the zone of strong initial However, this Information may be useful for the discharge implication. designer because the mixing in the NPR is usually sensitive to the discharge design conditions. 3.3S38 pERCENT Pollutant concentration at edoe of NPH .00 n y . (centerline coordinates) z . .30 m 6.72 m half-width NPR plume dimensions: .30 a thickness = Buoyancy assessment: The effluent density is less than the surrounding ambient water density at the discharge level. Therefore, the effluent is POBSITIVLY BUOYANT and will tend to rise towards the surface. Near-field instability behavior: The diffuser flow will experience instabilities with full vertical mixing in the near-field. There may be benthic impact of high pollutant concentrations. FAR-FIELD MIXING SUMMARY: 7. SO a Plume becomes vertically fully mixed ALREADY IN NEAR-VXLD at downstream and continues as vertically mixed into the far-field. 5*5*5*te**5tt***5 TOXIC DILUTION ZONE SUMMARY ** t555*5***5et*et5e*5*5*** No TOZ was specified for this simulation. tt ttttttttttt* ttttttt5 UREGULATORY NIXING ZONE SUMMARY tttttt tttttte tttttt The plume conditions at the boundary of the specified PAZ are as follows: 2.9S•534 PERCENT Pollutant concentration 32.8 . corresponding dilution a 384.SS . x location: Plume .00 a y (centerline coordinates) .30m z. 9.S0 half-width Plume dimensions: .30 a thickness * 55a*5a*5**55e5**55**5* FINAL DESIGN ADVICE AND COMMENTS CORMIX2 uses the TWO-DIMENSIONAL SLOT DIFFUSER CONCEPT to represent the actual three-dimensional diffuser geometry. Thus, it approximates the details of the merging process of the individual Jets from each port/nozzle. In the present design, the spacing between adjacent ports/nozzles (or riser assemblies) is somewhat greater (in the range between It is unlikely three times to tan times) the local water depth. that sufficient lateral interaction of adjacent jets will jets/plumes may merge individual the However, occur in the near-field. soon after in the intermediate-field or in the far-field. CORMIX2 may have LIMITED APPLICABILITY for this discharge situation. The results may be somewhat unrealistic in the near-field (minimum dilution may be overpredicted), but appear to be applicable for the intermediate- and far-field processes. The user is advised to use a subsequent CORNIXI (single port discharge) analysis, using discharge data for an individual diffuser jet/plume, in order to compare to the present near-field prediction. The user must take note that HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING by any known REMINDER: technique is NOT AN EXACT SCIENCE. Extensive comparison with field and laboratory data has shown that the CONMNI predictions on dilutions and concentrations (with associated plume geometries) are reliable for the majority of cases and are accurate to within about +-Olt (standard deviation). As a further safeguard, CORMIX will not give predictions whenever it judges the design configuration as highly complex and uncertain for prediction. DESIGN CASE: FILE NAMBE: Subsystem CORMIX2t END OF SESSION/ITERATION:

LOW-FLOW 7Q1o SAPLE2 submerged Kultiport Diffuser Discharges 04/14/•6--11:16s37

119

Table C.3 CORMIX2 Prediction File for B-Plant discharge into Shallow River with multiport diffuser

n7

CORMIX2 PREDICTION FILE:' 22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222 CORNELL MIXING ZONE EXPERT SYSTEM Subsystem CORMIX2: Subsystem version:

Submerged Multiport Diffuser Discharges

CORMIX v.3.00

July 1994

CASE DESCRIPTION Site name/label:

B-PLANT SHALLOW-RIVER

Design case:

LOW-FLOWA7Q10

FILE NAME:

cormix\sim\SAMPLE2

Time of Fortran run:

06/24/95--22:36:15

.cx2

ENVIRONMENT PARAMETERS (metric units) Bounded section BS HA UA

50.00 AS .30 HD .540 F

-

15.00 QA .30 .10' 5 USTAR -

-

8.10

ICHREG- 2

.6199E-01

UW 2.000 UWSTAR- .2198E-02 Uniform density environment STRCND- U RHOAM - 998.2051 DIFFUSER DISCHARGE PARAMETERS (metric units) Diffuser type: DITYPE- unidirectional_perpendicular BANK LD DO

-

-

RIGHT DISTB 15.00 NOPEN .064A0 a

Nozzle/port arrangement: GAMMA U0 a RHO0 -

CO IPOLL

-

1

CUNITSKS

YBl SPAC .0031H0

-

12.50 2.50 .09

-

YB2

-

27.50

unidirectional without-fanning

90.00 THETA 4.150 QI 997.7714 DRHOO -

.1000E+03

20.00

7

-

.00 SIGMA a .00 .092 - .9200E-01

.4337E+00 PERCENT .OOOOE+00

GPO

- .4260E-02

KD

-

90.00

.0000E+00

FLUX VARIABLES - PER UNIT DIFFUSER LENGTH (metric units) q0 - .6133E-02 mO a .2545E-01 jO - .2613E-04

Associated 2-d length scales (meters) iQ-B .001 im a 28.81 im lmp 99999.00 lbp 99999.00 la

BETA

r SIGNJO-

1.0

.09 99999.00

-

FLUX VARIABLES - ENTIRE DIFFUSER (metric units) Q0 - .9200E-01 MO - .3818E+00 JO .39203-03

Associated 3-d length scales (meters) LO

.15

-

LM

-

24.53

NON-DIMENSIONAL PARAMETERS FRO 1653.66 FRDO 252.28 (slot) (port/nozzle)

Lm

-

Lmp

=

1.14

99999.00

Lb

Lbp

-

.00 99999.00

7.68

R

FLOW CLASSIFICATION 222222222222222222222222222222222222222222 2 Flow class (CORMIX2) MU2 2 2 Applicable layer depth HS .30 2 222222222222222222222222222222222222222222 MIXING CO NTOX NSTD REGMZ

ZONE / TOXIC DILUTION / REGION OF INTEREST PARAMETERS - .1000E+03 CUNITSPERCENT 0 0 1

REGSPCXINT

-

2 1000.00

XREG

-

XMAX

-

.00 1000.00

WREG

19.00

-

AREG

-

.00

X-Y-Z COORDINATE SYSTEM: ORIGIN is located at the bottom and the diffuser mid-point:

20.00 m from the RIGHT bank/shore. X-axis points downstream, Y-axis points to left, Z-axis points upward. NSTEP - 20 display intervals per module

2,-

BEGIN MOD201: DIFFUSER DISCHARGE MODULE

120

Due to complex near-field motions:

EQUIVALENT SLOT DIFFUSER (2-D) GEOMETRY

Profile definitions: BV - Gaussian l/e (37%) half-width, in vertical plane normal to trajectory BH - top-hat half-width, in horizontal plane normal to trajectory S - hydrodynamic centerline dilution C - centerline concentration (includes reaction effects, if any) X .00

Z .09

Y .00

S 1.0

BV .00

C .1003+03

BH 7.50

END OF MOD201: DIFFUSER DISCHARGE MODULE BEGIN MOD271: ACCELERATION ZONE OF UNIDIRECTIONAL CO-FLOWING DIFFUSER In this laterally contracting zone the diffuser plume becomes VERTICALLY FULLY .30m). MIXED over the entire layer depth (HS Full mixing is achieved after a plume distance of about five layer depths from the diffuser. Profile definitions: BV - layer depth (vertically mixed) BH - top-hat half-width, in horizontal plane normal to trajectory S - hydrodynamic average (bulk) dilution C - average (bulk) concentration (includes reaction effects, if any) Y X .00 .00 .00 .38 .00 .75 .00 1.13 .00 1.50 .00 1.88 .00 2.25 .00 2.63 .00 3.00 .00 3.38 .00 3.75 .00 4.13 .00 4.50 .00 4.88 .00 5.25 .00 5.63 .00 6.00 .00 6.38 .00 6.75 .00 7.13 .00 7.50 Cumulative travel time

Z .09 .09 .10 .10 .10 .11 .11 .11 .11 .12 .12 .12 .13 .13 .13 .14 .14 .14 .14 .15 .15 -

S 1.0 11.2 15.4 18.6 21.4 23.8 26.0 28.0 29.8 29.8 29.8 29.8 29.8 29.8 29.8 29.8 29.8 29.8 29.8 29.8 29.8

BV .00 .08 .15 .23 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30

C .100E+03 .894E+01 .649E+01 .536E+01 .468E+01 .420E+01 .385E+01 .358E+01 .335E+01 .335E+01 .335E+01 .335E+01 .335E+01 .335E+01 .335E+01 .335E+01 .335E+01 .335E+01 .335E+01 .335E+01 .335E+01 11. sec

BH 7.50 7.39 7.30 7.22 7.15 7.09 7.04 6.99 6.95 6.91 6.87 6.84 6.82 6.80 6.78 6.76 6.75 6.74 6.74 6.74 6.73

END OF MOD271: ACCELERATION ZONE OF UNIDIRECTIONAL CO-FLOWING DIFFUSER BEGIN MOD251: DIFFUSER PLUME IN CO-FLOW Phase 1: Vertically mixed, Phase 2: Re-stratified Phase 1: The diffuser plume is VERTICALLY FULLY MIXED over the entire layer depth. This flow region is INSIGNIFICANT in spatial extent and will be by-passed. .............................................................................

Phase 2: The flow has RESTRATIFIED at the beginning of this zone. This flow region is

INSIGNIFICANT in spatial extent and will be by-passed.

END OF MOD251: DIFFUSER PLUME IN CO-FLOW .............................................................................

** End of NEAR-FIELD REGION (NFR) ** The initial plume WIDTH values in the next far-field module will be CORRECTED by a factor

1.24 to conserve the mass flux in the far-field!

.............................................................................

BEGIN MOD241: BUOYANT AMBIENT SPREADING Discharge is non-buoyant or weakly buoyant. Therefore BUOYANT SPREADING REGIME is ABSENT.

,121

END OF MOD241: BUOYANT AMBIENT SPREADING BEGIN MOD261: PASSIVE AMBIENT MIXING IN UNIFORM AMBIENT Vertical diffusivity (initial value) Horizontal diffusivity (initial value) -

.372E-02 m^2/s .930E-02 m^2/s

The passive diffusion plume is VERTICALLY FULLY MIXED at beginning of region. Profile definitions: BV - Gaussian e.d.*sqrt(pi/2) (46%) thickness, measured vertically or equal to layer depth, if fully mixed BH - Gaussian s.d.*sqrt(pi/2) (46%) half-width, measured horizontally in Y-direction ZU - upper plume boundary (Z-coordinate) ZL - lower plume boundary (Z-coordinate) S - hydrodynamic centerline dilution C - centerline concentration (includes reaction effects, if any) Plume Stage 1 (not bank attached): X Y Z S 7.50 .00 .30 29.8 57.13 .00 .30 30.4 106.75 .00 .30 30.9 156.38 .00 .30 31.5 206.00 .00 .30 32.0 255.63 .00 .30 32.5 305.25 .00 .30 33.0 354.88 .00 .30 33.5 **

C .335E+01 .329E+01 .323E+01 .3181+01 .313E+01 .308E+0l .303E+01 .298B+01

BV .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30

BH 8.37 8.53 8.68 8.83 8.98 9.13 9.27 9.42

ZU .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30

ZL .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00

REGULATORY MIXING ZONE BOUNDARY **

In this prediction interval the TOTAL plume width meets or exceeds the regulatory value a 19.00 m. This is the extent of the REGULATORY MIXING ZONE. 404.50 .00 .30 34.0 .294E+01 .30 9.56 .30 454.13 .00 .30 34.5 .290E+01 .30 9.69 .30 503.75 .00 .30 35.0 .286E+01 .30 9.83 .30 553.38 .00 .30 35.5 .282E+01 .30 9.96 .30 603.00 .00 .30 36.0 .278E+01 .30 10.10 .30 652.63 .00 .30 36.4 .275E+01 .30 10.23 .30 702.25 .00 .30 36.9 .271E+01 .30 10.36 .30 751.88 .00 .30 37.3 .268E+01 .30 10.48 .30 801.50 .00 .30 37.8 .265E+01 .30 10.61 .30 851.13 .00 .30 38.2 .262E+01 .30 10.73 .30 900.75 .00 .30 38.7 .259E+01 .30 10.86 .30 950.38 .00 .30 39.1 .256E+01 .30 10.98 .30 1000.00 .00 .30 39.5 .253E+01 .30 11.10 .30 Cumulative travel time 1828. sec Simulation limit based on maximum specified distance This is the REGION OF INTEREST limitation.

-

.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .09 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00

1000.00 m.

END OF MOD261: PASSIVE AMBIENT MIXING IN UNIFORM AMBIENT Because of the fairly LARGE SPACING between adjacent risers/nozzles/ports, the above results may be unreliable in the immediate near-field of the diffuser. A SUBSEQUENT APPLICATION OF CORMIXl IS RECOMMENDED to provide more detail for one of the individual jets/plumes in the initial region before merging. CORMIX2: Submerged Multiport Diffuser Discharges End of Prediction File 22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222

D) 122

COPMIX2 Prediction File: sim\SAIMPLE2 .cx2

B-PLANT^SHALLOW-P[IER LOW-FLOW-7O0O

~sa*'shme

4

left

IW

•-I*

'R .

... ................ . .... .......

-0

rf~,I

~

*

Ci

0o

200

Distortion a

Plan Uieu

10.993

1000

X (M) -

(a)

COR1IIX2 Prediction

B-PLANT-SHALLOU-RIVER LOW-FLOU-7010 -0p.-

File: sim\SAMPLE2

~.

•-r---.n-n.n.-nA

.....

406

....

Oistortion a 1.00

Ib .,,4

•.

sob I ..

ab

Plan Uieu

.cx2

bodo X (at) ---

(b)

B-PLANT^SHALLOW-R[UER LOW-FLOWA7010

CORMIX2 Prediction File: im,,SAIMPLE2 .cx2

............

-S -4 -0 -S

n..fl..n.n..m..nun.numn...rn.n..~n.n..n.~nn.*

Sottma

to Oistortion =

2.000

I

Side Uieu

4;'

X (A)

(C)

Figure C.8: CORMIX2 prediction for B-Plant multiport diffuser discharge in Shallow River. Examples of different graphics plots: a) Plan view over entire reach, b) equivalent undistorted plan view, and c) side

view of near-field only,

.

1.23

.....

I IRD- 150 Oft

ff

DPLAT ~-~\-

(7 noazles)

Figure C.9: Results of cumulative discharge interpretation of CORMIX2 prediction for B-Plant multiport diffuser discharge in Shallow River CORMIX2 Prediction for Probosed 7-Nozzle Multiport Diffuser CORMIXI Prediction for Plume From One Nozzle of Multloort Diffuser

-

20-

'I Plume Centerline

15

.

-

CORMIXI Prediction for Existing

-

Single Port Discharge

Concentration

(%)

10. 5

".

i

,.,-, 200

-

.1-

.,

. S

.

400

i

L

600

&..

.

. i

A

800 1000

Distance. Along Plume (ft)

Zone of Merging

Figure C.10: Predicted plume centerline concentrations for multiport diffuser design (CORMIX1) in comparison to single port design (CORMIX2)

124

Appendix D CORMIX3: Buoyant Surface Discharge In An Estuary surface discharge plume for this situation will be quite variable in •appearance and mixing characteristics due to the tidal reversal, a steady state simulation will be performed to illustrate the basic CORMIX3 application in a time invariant ambient receiving water. "Furthermore, this simulation will be Used aia basis for comparison in the next selection, where tidal CORMIX simulations are appropriately performed in order to determine the 'time evolution in this highly unsteady environment.

Estuarine conditions are characterized by highly variable ambient conditions during the tidal cycle. This case study provides a short application example for 'a buoyant surface' discharge from a large manufacturing 'plant discharging its process water into an estuary. D.1 Problem Statement A manufacturing plant (C-Plant) is using process water at a capacity of 2.2 m3/s (- 50 mgd). The process water is essentially fresh water with a discharge temperature of 20.0 0C and contains copper at a concentration of 80 pg/I. The plant is located at the shore of an estuary. Figure D.1 shows the bottom bathyrnetry at the plant location; two transects have been measured and show a relatively rapid drop-off from the MSL line to a depth of about 5 m below MSL. It is proposed to build a discharge channel with a bottomelevation of about 1.0 m below MSL and a width of 2.0 m. Thus, given the tidal variation at the discharge location indicated in Figure D.1, the actual channel depth will vary from a maximum of about 1.8 m at MHW to a minimum of about 0.5 at MLW, with corresponding adjustments in the discharge velocity. Figure D.2 shows .data from oceanographic field surveys near the discharge site with ambient velocity variations from about +0.7 m/s for flood tide and to about -0.7 m/s for ebb tide. Figure D.2 also shows the tidal elevation variations from -.7 m above MLW at ebb to +1.1 m above MLW at flood. The estuary has brackish water with mean salinity of about 26 ppt, yielding a density of about 1018 kg/m 3 (see Figure 4.3 as an aid). State regulations specify a mixing zone of about 250 m extending in any direction from the discharge point. The CMC and CCC values for copper are 25 and 15 pg/I, respectively. D.2 Steady State Simulation (for reference).. Although it is to be expected that the 125

Assume that the conditions one hour after low water slack tide (t = 11.7 h) represent that in a large steady river (see condition (b), Figure D.2). This design condition is represented by a water level 0.35 m below MSL and an ambient velocity of 0.22 m/s. As shown in Figure D.1, the ambient water body is schematized as unbounded, with an average depth of 6 m at MSL, a local depth of 2.5 m at MSL (1.5 m below the discharge channel mouth), and a bottom slope of 110.

Figure D.3 presents the input data checklist and Table D.1 shows the CORMIX3 prediction file (the session report is omitted here for brevity) for the steady state reference condition one hour after low water slack (LWS). The shallow discharge channel (depth of 0.65 m) produces a relatively weak free jet (flow class FJ1). After only 4.5 m offshore distance, the initial jet momentum is overwhelmed by the high discharge buoyancy, and forms a surface plume which is weakly deflected by the ambient crossflow (MOD313). In this region, buoyant forces rapidly thin and spread the plume horizontally. Both the CCC and CMCOare met within this,region, (and also within the regulatory mixing zone) as is displayed by CORMIX in the prediction file. The plume then becomes strongly deflected (MOD323) and finally contacts the shoreline some 1560 m downstream. The plume then becomes attached to the shoreline, and spreads through passive ambient diffusion and weak buoyant forces (MOD341),- until the: end of the region of interest (2000 m). Figure D.4 shows the above behavior.

Dist. From MSL

+2 0

(M)

-2

/

-4 ± Discharge ,ransect 4. Channel -6 -I co. "CORM ---Sche'atIzation S I I I

Distance Offshore

300

200

100

0

iransect II

(M) Figure D.1:

Bathymetric conditions in Estuary in vicinity of C-Plant surface discharge

1.0 Floo

0. 0.6 0.4

-3

• -0.2

>

90

11



1

1413

1

17

18

.2 .4

9

I

4

.3

In

F

.0.4 -0.6 -0.38

Ebb

ildai EaevaidoI

Figure D.2: Oceanographic data for Estuary showing tidal elevation and current. A complete tidal analysis might include simulations for all time instances labeled a to g. 126

v

:HECKLJST FOR DATA PREPARATION

CORMIX - CORNELL MIXING ZONE EXPERT SYSTEM -Version 3.10 SITE Name

Design CASE DOS FILE NAME

AMBIENT DATA: Water body depth uepth a; atsw1Jiau d i u± a...' Ambient flowrate I

5.65

Prepared by: ULD tiaomýeft nbounftd m

Water body is If bounded: Width

M

A

5,,2

_

__

M

VP

At time

3

. _.

ls or: Ambient velocity

M"a. tidal velocity . _ hr hr bef~orelattaffr slack. Tidal velocity at this tfme "".

1 Tidal "IMf period Manning's n Wind speed Density data: Water body is !f uniform:

Date:

.. q,, i,..., 4 grat - 1 hr. after slack av S.s. ,(w/o extension) Samplel

mMs mIs _mis

_

or: Oarcy-Weisbach f MIS

frbmak water -- :,

,

r , ..... . -•.,< •••s•:

UNITS: Density...kglml I Temperature...-C ,emlpJes dnsity If fresh: Specify as Average density/temp. :• ., A . ,.:,:. . .- •,'' 31111A -

Density/tamp, atsurface.4-

It stratifled:

enstytemp. at

Stratification type"AJBC

-...

"

If BIC: Pvcnociine hiht'-

."

, z.

f C: Density/temp. iurn'-

Scedfv aeometrv for CORMIXI or 2 or 3

DISCHARGE DATA:

SUBMERGED SINGLE PORT DISCHARGE - CORMIXI earest bank le.oftfdht Nearest bank is on Horizontal angle SIGMA Vertical angle THETA m or: Port area Port diameter m

_

m m_

SUBMERGED MULTIPORT DIFFUSER DISCHARGE - CORMIX2 -. Distance to one lefuraht Nearest bank is on -or endpoint m Diffuser length -height m Total number of openings _ with contraction ratio Port diameter uridirectional I staced I attematino or vertIcal Diffuser arrangeme _ angle SIGMA MMA _Horizontal Alignme Relative orientation BETA angjle THETA

m m m

BUOYANT SURFACE DISCHARGE - CORMIX3 Configuration flush/yFgb==9,-4M *afrght bank Discharge located on If potruding, Dist. from bank .... 0... Horizontal angle SIGMA 1 m0 Bottom slope m 2.15 Depth at discharge m Diameter ular m oor. I Width 2 If rectanaoulr m Bottom invert deMh Dioe: m dtrchare channel* Death n aq Effluent Flow rate Effluent density Heated discharge? Concentration units

m3ls or. Effluent velocity kg/mrn or. Effluent temperature If yes: Heat loss coefficient X231.. Effluent concentration .ut-D-L 2.a

22 Ito

-

. MIs IC WlmC

|

MIXING ZONE DATA: yesthin, Is effluent toxic? WO stand./conventional poll.? yjsgna yesfri Any mixing zone specified? Region of interest

Figure D.3:

2000

25 If yes: CMC If yes: value of standard If yes: distance _._m m

CCC

_-.

orwidtL.U or area

Grid intervals for . sp_ y

is %arm

%aore

20

Data preparation checklist for CORMIX3 steady-state simulation for C-Plant estuary discharge 127

C.&j~flt4CAX.A..T.
Table D.1 CORMIX3 Prediction Steady-Sate Prediction File for Surface Buoyant Discharge CORMIX3 PREDICTION FILE: 33333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333 CORNELL MIXING ZONE EXPERT SYSTEM Subsystem CORMIX3: Subsystem version: Buoyant Surface Discharges CORMIXv.3.10 June_1995 . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CASE DESCRIPTION Site name/label: Design case: FILE NAME: Time of Fortran run:

C-PLANTAESTUARY STEADYASIMULATIONAONEAHOUR^AFTERASLACK cormix\sim\SAMPLE3 .cx3 06/24/95--22:32:20

ENVIRONMENT PARAMETERS (metric units) Unbounded section HA 5.65 HD 5.65 UA .220F .025 USTAR UW 2.000 UWSTAR- .2198E-02 Uniform density environment STRCNDU RHOAM - 1018.0000 DISCHARGE PARAMETERS (metric units) BANK RIGHT DISTE .00 SIGMA 90.00 HDQ 2.15 Rectangular channel geometry: BQ 2.000 HO .650 UO 1.692 QO 2.200 RHOO 998.2051 DRHOO - .1979E+02 CO - .8QOOE+02 CUNITSMUG-P-L IPOLL 1 KS .OOOQE+0O FLUX VARIABLES (metric units) 00 - .2200E+01 MO - .3723E+01 Associated length scales (meters) LQ 1.14 LM 4.14 NON-DIMENSIONAL PARAMETERS FRO 3.62 FRCH -

4.80

.1230E-01

Configuration: flush_discharge SLOPE 11.00 A0 GPO

-

.1300E+01 .2200E+01 .1907E+00

KD

-

.OOOE+00

JO

-

.4195E+00

Lm

-

8.77

R

-

7.69

AR

-

Lb

.325

39.40

FLOW CLASSIFICATION 333333333333333333333333333333333333333333 3 Flow class (CORMIX3) FJI 3 3 Applicable layer depth HS 5.65 3 333333333333333333333333333333333333333333 MIXING ZONE / TOXIC CO - .8000E+02 NTOX 1 NSTD 1 REGMZ 1 REGSPC1 XINT 2000.00

DILUTION] REGION OF INTEREST PARAMETERS CUNITSMUG-P-L CMC - .2500E+02 CCC CSTD CSTD - .1500E+02 XREG XMAX

-

250.00 2000.00

WREG

-

.00

AREG

X-Y-Z COORDINATE SYSTEM: ORIGIN is located at the WATER SURFACE and at center of discharge channel/outlet: .00 m from the RIGHT bank/shore. X-axis points downstream Y-axis points to left as seen by an observer looking downstream Z-axis points vertically upward (in CORMIX3, all values Z - 0.00) NSTEP - 20 display intervals per module

C

TRJBUO 3.401

TRJATT 1.000

TRJBND 1.000

TRJNBY 1.000

TRJCOR 3.400

DILCOR 1.000

BEGIN MOD301: DISCHARGE MODULE Efflux conditions: X Y .00 .00

Z 0.00

S 1.0

C .SOOE+02

BV .65

END OF MOD301: DISCHARGE MODULE

128

BH 1.00

.00

BEGIN MOD302: ZONE OF FLOW ESTABLISHMENT Control volume inflow: X Y Z .00 .00 0.00

S 1.0

C .800E+02

BV .65

BH 1.00

Profile definitions: BV - Gaussian 1/e (37%) vertical thickness BH - Gaussian l/e (37%) horizontal half-width, normal to trajectory S - hydrodynamic centerline dilution C - centerline concentration (includes reaction effects, if any) Control volume outflow: X Y Z .13 4.11 0.00 Cumulative travel time -

S 1.4

C .576E+02 2. sec

BV 1.09

BH 1.41

END OF MOD302: ZONE OF FLOW ESTABLISHMENT .............................................................................

BEGIN MOD311: WEAKLY DEFLECTED JET (3-D) Surface JET into a crossflow Profile definitions: BV - Gaussian 1/e (37%) vertical thickness BH - Gaussian i/e (37%) horizontal half-width, normal to trajectory S - hydrodynamic centerline dilution C - centerline concentration (includes reaction effects, if any) X Y Z .13 4.11 0.00 .13 4.14 0.00 .13 4.16 0.00 .13 4.18 0.00 .13 4.20 0.00 .14 4.23 0.00 .14 4.25 0.00 .14 4.27 0.00 .14 4.29 0.00 .15 4.32 0.00 .15 4.34 0.00 .15 4.36 0.00 .15 4.38 0.00 .15 4.41 0.00 .16 4.43 0.00 .16 4.45 0.00 .16 4.47 0.00 .16 4.50 0.00 .17 4.52 0.00 .17 4.54 0.00 .17 4.56 0.00 Cumulative travel time -

S 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4

C .576E+02 .575E+02 .574E+02 .573E+02 .572E+02 .571E+02 .570E+02 .569E+02 .568E+02 .567E+02 .566E+02 .565E+02 .564E+02 .563E+02 .562E+02 .561E+02 .560E+02 .559E+02 .558E+02 .558E+02 .557E+02 3. sec

BV 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.29 1.29 1.29 1.29 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.31 1.31 1.31 1.31 1.32 1.32 1.32 1.32

BH 1.65 1.66 1.66 1.66 1.66 1.67 1.67 1.67 1.67 1.68 1.68 1.68 1.68 1.69 1.69 1.69 1.69 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70

END OF MOD311: WEAKLY DEFLECTED JET (3-D) BEGIN MOD313: WEAKLY DEFLECTED PLUME Surface PLUME into a crossflow Profile definitions: BV - Gaussian 1/e (37%) vertical thickness BH - Gaussian 1/e (37%) horizontal half-width, normal to trajectory S - hydrodynamic centerline dilution C - centerline concentration (includes reaction effects, if any) X .17 .41 .67 **

Y 4.56 6.86 9.16

Z 0.00 0.00 0.00

S 1.4 2.3 2.9

C .557E+02 .343E+02 .279E+02

BV 1.32 .82 .66

BH 1.70 4.48 6.76

CMC HAS BEEN FOUND **

The pollutant concentration in the plume falls below CMC value of in the current prediction interval. This is the extent of the TOXIC DILUTION ZONE.

129

.250E+02

8.88 .58 3.3 .244E+02 0.00 11.46 .96 10.93 .52 3.6 .220E+02 0.00 13.76 1.28 12.95 .48 4.0 .202E+02 0.00 16.05 1.62 14.94 .45 4.3 .188E+02 0.00 18.35 1.99 16.93 .42 4.5 .177E+02 0.00 20.65 2.38 18.92 .40 4.8 .167E+02 0.00 22.95 2.80 20.91 .38 5.0 .159E+02 0.00 25.25 3.25 22.90 .36 5.3 .152E+02 0.00 27.54 3.72 ** WATER QUALITY STANDARD OR CCC HAS BEEN FOUND ** The pollutant concentration in the plume falls below water quality standard or CCC value of .150E+02 in the current prediction interval. This is the spatial extent of concentrations exceeding the water quality standard or CCC value. 24.90 .35 .146E+02 5.5 0.00 29.84 4.22 26.92 .33 5.7 .140E+02 0.00 32.14 4.75 28.93 .32 5.9 .135E+02 0.00 34.44 5.30 30.96 .31 6.1 .1313+02 0.00 36.74 5.87 33.00 .30 .126E+02 6.3 0.00 39.03 6.48 35.05 .29 6.5 .123E+02 0.00 41.33 7.11 37.11 .28 .119E+02 6.7 0.00 43.63 7.76 39.18 .28 6.9 .116E+02 0.00 45.93 8.44 41.25 .27 7.1 .113E+02 0.00 48.23 9.15 43.34 .26 7.2 .110E+02 0.00 50.52 9.88 248. sec Cumulative travel time END OF MOD313: WEAKLY DEFLECTED PLUME .............................................................................

BEGIN MOD323: STRONGLY DEFLECTED PLUME Profile definitions: BV - top-hat thickness,measured vertically BH - top-hat half-width, measured horizontally in Y-direction S = hydrodynamic average (bulk) dilution C - average (bulk) concentration (includes reaction effects, if X 9.88 84.15 158.42 232.69 **

Y 50.52 123.86 154.39 176.11

Z 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

S 7.2 7.5 7.8 8.1

C .110E+02 .107E+02 .103E+02 .985H+01

BV .26 .23 .22 .22

any)

BH 43.34 60.96 77.07 92.39

REGULATORY MIXING ZONE BOUNDARY **

In this prediction interval the' plume distance meets or exceeds 250.00 m. the regulatory value This is the extent of the REGULATORY MIXING ZONE. 107.24 .22 8.6 .934E+01 0.00 193.50 306.96 121.77 .23 9.1 .876E+01 0.00 208.23 381.23 136.02 .25 9.8 .815E+01 0.00 221.14 455.50 150.02 .26 10.7 .750E+01 0.00 232.70 529.77 163.77 .28 11.7 .685E+01 0.00 243.21 604.04 177.26 .30 12.9 .621E+01 0.00 252.88 678.31 190.49 .32 .560E+01 14.3 0.00 261.87 752.58 203.46 .34 15.9 .5043+01 0.00 270.29 826.84 216.17 .36 17.7 .452E+01 0.00 278.21 901.11 228.65 .39 19.7 .406E+01 0.00 285.70 975.38 240.91 .41 21.9 .365E+01 0.00 292.82 1049.65 252.95 .44 .328E+01 24.4 0.00 299.61 1123.92 264.79 .47 27.1 .2953+01 0.00 306.11 1198.18 276.45 .50 30.0 .267E+01 0.00 312.34 1272.45 287.93 .54 33.1 .2413+01 0.00 318.34 1346.72 299.25 .57 .219E+01 36.5 0.00 324.11 1420.99 310.43 .61 40.1 .199E+01 0.00 329.69 1495.25 7000. sec Cumulative travel time END OF MOD323: STRONGLY DEFLECTED PLUME ............................................................................. .............................................................................

**

End of NEAR-FIELD REGION (NFR) **

.............................................................................

BEGIN MOD341: BUOYANT AMBIENT SPREADING Profile definitions: BV - top-hat thicknessmeasured vertically BH - top-hat half-width, measured horizontally from bank/shoreline S - hydrodynamic average (bulk) dilution C - average (bulk) concentration (includes reaction effects, if any)

130

Plume Stage 1

(not bank attached): S C Y Z 329.69 0.00 .199E+01 1495.25 40.1 329.69 0.00 .199E+01 1498.55 40.3 329.69 0.00 1501.84 40.5 .198E+01 329.69 0.00 .197E+01 1505.13 40.6 329.69 0.00 .196E+01 1508.42 40.8 329.69 0.00 1511.72 41.0 .195E+01 329.69 0.00 41.1 .195E+01 1515.01 329.69 0.00 1518.30 .194E+01 41.3 329.69 0.00 .193E+01 1521.59 41.5 1524.89 329.69 0.00 41.6 .192E+01 329.69 0.00 1528.18 41.8 .191E+01 329.69 0.00 42.0 .191E+01 1531.47 329.69 0.00 42.1 .190E+01 1534.77 329.69 0.00 42.3 .189E+01 1538.06 1541.35 329.69 0.00 42.5 .188E+01 329.69 0.00 1544.64 42.6 .188E+01 329.69 0.00 1547.94 42.8 .187E+01 329.69 0.00 1551.23 43.0 .186E+01 329.69 0.00 1554.52 43.2 185+E01 329.69 0.00 43.3 .185E+01 1557.81 1561.11 329.69 0.00 43.5 .184E+01 Cumulative travel time 7299. sec

X

BV .63 .63 .63 .63 .63 .64 .64 .64 .64 .64 .64 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .66 .66 .66

BH 319.79 320.29 320.79 321.29 321.79 322.29 322.78 323.28 323.78 324.27 324.77 325.27 325.76 326.26 326.75 327.25 327.74 328.23 328.73 329.22 329.71

Plume is ATTACHED to RIGHT bank/shore. Plume width is now determined from RIGHT bank/shore. Plume Stage 2

X

(bank attached):

Y

1561.11 .00 .00 1583.05 .00 1605.00 .00 1626.94 .00 1648.89 1670.83 .00 .00 1692.78 .00 1714.72 .00 1736.66 1758.61 .00 1780.55 .00 .00 1802.50 .00 1824.44 .00 1846.39 1868.33 .00 .00 1890.28 1912.22 .00 1934.17 .00 .00 1956.11 .00 1978.05 2000.00 .00 Cumulative travel time

z 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -

S

C

43.5 .184E+01 44.6 .179E+01 45.7 .175E+01 46.8 .171E+01 48.0 .167E+01 49.1 .163E+01 50.3 .159E+01 51.4 .156E+01 52.6 .152E+01 53.8 .149E+01 55.0 .146E+01 56.2 .142E+01 57.4 .139E+01 58.6 .136E+01 59.9 .134E+01 61.1 .131E+01 62.4 .128E+01 63.6 .126E+01 64.9 .1231+01 66.2 .121E+01 67.5 .118E+01 9294. sec

BV .66 .67 .69 .70 .71 .73 .74 .76 .77 .78 .80 .81 .83 .84 .85 .87 .88 .90 .91 .93 .94

BH 659.39 662.33 665.27 668.21 671.16 674.11 677.06 680.01 682.97 685.92 688.88 691.83 694.79 697.75 700.71 703.67 706.62 709.58 712.54 715.50 718.46

Simulation limit based on maximum specified distance . This is the REGION OF INTEREST limitation.

2000.00 m.

END OF MOD341: BUOYANT AMBIENT SPREADING

CORMIX3: Buoyant Surface Discharges End of Prediction File 3333333333333333333333333333333333333333333 333333333333333333333333333333333

131

C-PLANT-ESTUIARY STEAOYASIIIULATIONAONEAHOURAAFTERASLACK

COlPMIX3 Prediction File: si~t\SAMPLE3 .cx3

Plan Uieu

(a)

C-PLANTAESTUAPY STAYSMLTO-ON-HUýFE-LC

COPRI[X3 Predictiton File: sim-%SAMPLE3 .c x3

X fII

S

a N.

N,. '11

1

..

U

Concentration vs Centerline Distance

01a St en'--'

(b) Figure D.4: CORMIX3 prediction of surface discharge from C-Plant into Estuary using a steady-state simulation. a) Plume shape in near- and far-field, and b) concentration along plume centerline.

132

D

Section D.2 (see Figure D.2, time b). To perform a CORMIX tidal simulation, four additional pieces A high variation in both ambient velocity of data are required: and tidal elevation occurs during the tidal episode 1) the tidal period (usually 12.4 hours for shown in Figure D.2. The changing water height - a semi-diurnal tidal cycle) produces a discharge velocity which varies from 2) the time of simulation (in hours relative 0.61 m/s (at high water stack) to 2.2 m/s (at low to slack tide) water slack). When combined with the large 3) the ambient velocity at the time of buoyancy flux, this produces flows which change simulation 4) the maximum velocity which occurs from momentum dominated jets to highly buoyant plumes in a short period of time. Simultaneously, during the tidal cycle the time-variant ambient velocity (which ranges From this data, CORMIX calculates the rate of from stagnant to 0.75 m/s) produces flows which reversal (duj/dt) and related unsteady length are free and unattached at slack tide, yet become -scales (Lu, T., 11. 1mnn , see Table 5.4), and strongly shore-hugging at maximum flood or ebb determines the spatial extent of CORMIX currents. applicability and the re-entrainmerit and build-up caused by the reversal of ambient current. (Note: Ifa simulation is performed at slack tide, then the In such highly tim e-vairiant ambient conditions, it is recommernded. .that .several time of simulation is t = .0 h, and the ambient CORMIX predictions be performed at critical velbcity is set to u. =,O, m/s.) However, in order to calculate the reversal rate, "CORMIX requires tidal conditions throughout a' reversal episode: input of the ambient velocity'at an other time near These critical tidal conditions are identified as: reversal (for example, at one hour before or after 1) Shortly after slack tide: Effects of reslack tide). This Information is only used to entrainment of discharge from* the previous half-cycle are greatest. "determine the limit of spatial applicability for the However, the flow is evolving rapidly in slack tide simulation. time, causing CORMIX tidal predictions to For this application,. the time of simulation be limited in spatial extent. ' Several predictions should be made at hourly or is one hour after slack tide. The ambient velocity half hourly intervals following the reversal. at this time is u8 = 0.22 m/s, and the ambient and 2) Maximum flood and. ebb currents: discharge channet depths are the same as in Section D.2. The maximum ambient velocity These representgextremes of along-shore extent and shoreline interaction. R1e- . during. the' tidal' cycle, Is 0.75 m/s. For this simulation, the data preeparation checklist is given entrainment will be lessimportant at these in Figure D.5. times. For the present scenario, it is "suggestedthat up to seven simulations be performed at the times Table D2 lists the CORMIX session report indicated on Figure D.2 by the letters a-g. In tihe and Table D.3 the CORMIX3 prediction file for following section, a detailed simulation is this tidal application.'" Two important performed corresponding to time b; one hour after consequences are evident when comparing Table slack tide. The results are contrasted for that D.3 ahd Table D.1 (corresponding steady-state case to the steady-state assumption simulated in simulation): 1) a concentration build-up in the the preceding. near-field, and 2).theterminiat!ion :of the plume predictibn after .some distance.:ý The latter distance is the region over which a reasonably DA Tidal simulation one hour after slack tide steady-state plume can establish Itself within the -time-varying tidal environment. '-The theoretical background for these procedures is given in the A detailed example of the tidal simulation report on recent CORMIX enhancements (8). capability of CORMIX is presented in this section, using conditions corresponding to those in D.3 Detailed Tidal Simulations

'.

133 .

CHECKLIST FOR DATA PREPARATION

CORMIX - CORNELL MIXING ZONE EXPERT SYSTEM - Version 3.1,3.2 SITE Name' Design CASE DOS FILE NAME

C-Plant Estuary Tidal simulation 1 hr after slick (W/o extension) Sample 3T

AMBIENT DATA* Water body depth Depth at discharge if iteadt Ambient flowrate

Water body is If bounded: Width 5.65 m Appearance 5.65 m mes or Ambient'velocity . L-

" If strfied Stratification type If B/C: Pycnocllne height

r

.

.u

~ mis Mm tidal veloct 124 at thL& time,. ____ms: ]g~-"-'/affrhr-slack: TidaI.vefocity

..If~dt 'Tidatperiod L•" At fti "" Manning's n Wind speed Density data: Water body is ILiform*

Date: Prepared by. GHJ1

or Darcy-Weisbach f

.2

0-025

M/IS

fi&Wsal water

UNITS: Density...kg/mO I Temperature...C densibtmIL values If fresh: Specify as 1018.0. Average density/I.

. .

Density/temp. at surface" Ddnsi/temnp. at bottom IfC: DensA/temp. Jump

I m" -

S ecif 'e:a

DISCHARGE DATA-

-.

for CORMIXI or 2.or 3

.'" 'SUBMERGED SINGLE PORT DISCHARGE - CORMIXI rest bank . .. Nearest bank is on Horizontal angle SIGMA Vertical angle THETA Port area

m or.

Port diameter.,,.,___

_

11112

SUBMERGED MULTIPORT DIFFUSER DISCHARGE - CORMIX2 Distance to one i•fright _ Nearest bank Is on or endpoint m

In

Diffuser length

Total number of openings Port diameter . Diffuser arrangemen MA Alignment , angle THETA

______m ieight m ,_ with contraction ratio .____ "sted I altem unidirectional __ Horizontal angle SIGMA •_ Relative orientation BETA

BUOYANT SURFACE DISCHARGE - CORMiX3 hofl Configuration INdgbLbank Discharge located on " Iferotnading: Dist. from bank a go Horizontal angle SIGMA Bottom slope ?J5 m Depth at discharge Diameter 2-0 m or IfL irGcl Width If rectanular Bottom invert depth Rpie 0. 6L5jm dfgcharoe channel: Depth

Effluent: Flow rate Effluent density Heated discharge? Concentration units Conservative substance?

Figure D.5:

m

.-. -

m in M-1/

kg/m or Effluent temperature fresh2. Ifyes: Heat loss coefficient Xstsno Effluent concentration mug-D-L If no: Decay coefficient ve4hf=

2000

cCC 15 25 Ifyes: CMC _-_ _ Ifyes: value of standard Ifyes: distance 250 m or width ...or area

m

Grid intervals for display

.

-

2..20Lm 3 /s 3 or. Effluent velocity

MIXING ZONE DATA., yeflam Is effluent toxic? WO stand./conventional poll.? Xzlng .Ytg13 Any mixing zone specified? Region of interest

m 0

Th -Wl/r,OC 1

/day

%orm %or m

10

Data preparation checklist for C-Plant discharge into Estuary design case for unsteady tidal conditions using CORMIX3 134

.

Table D.2 Into Estuary with unsteady tidal conditions discharge C-Plant CORMIX Session Report for CORMIX SESSION REPORT: CORMIX: CORNELL MIXING ZONE EXPERT SYSTEM C-PLANT ESTUARY TIDAL SIMULATION ONE HOUR AFTER SLACK SAMPLE3T Buoyant Surface Discharges " 66/24/0S%-22:33:33

SITE NANE/LABEL: DESIGN CASE: FILE NAME: Using subsystem CORMIX3 Start of session:

*a**tft*ae.**ett.*aa*tett**,*tt.tafstt~ttsttt.ttttttttattftttte~***e**e*ett*tf

SUMMARY OF INPUT DATA: ANBIENT PARAMETERS: Cross-section Average depth Depth at discharge Darcy-Weisbach friction factor mind velocity TIDAL SIMULATION at time Instantaneous ambient velocity Maximum tidal velocity Rate of tidal reversal Period of reversal Stratification Type Surface density Bottom density

unbounded 5.65 S S.6S .015 2 1 , .22 .7S . 0.2200 12.4 - U 1018 . 1018 -

HA HD P TIM Tsin UA Ua-AX dUA/dt T STRCUD RHOAS RHOAS

a a a/s hours m/r a/s (W/u)/hour hours kg/m'3 kg/a^3

Buoyant Surface Discharge DISCHARGE PARANETERS: right bank/shoreline . Discharge located on . flush discharge Discharge configuration 0.0 a - DISTE Distance from bank to outlet 90 deg SIGHmA Discharge angle a 2.1S IHDO outlet Depth near discharge 11 dog SLOPE discharge at slope Bottom Rectanguilar discharge: , 1.3000 U^2 * Discharge cross-section area' Ac 2 = BO Discharge channel width .,5S a HOa Discharge channel depth 0!22 + . AR Discharge aspect ratio 2.199990 m 3/s QO Discharge flwrato1 1.69 C/o UO Discharge velocity dogc .20 . Discharge temperature (freshwater) 998.2051 kg/m*3 RHO1 Corresponding density 19.7948 kg/m-3 DRHO Density difference .1907 a/@*2 GPO ' Buoyant acceleration 0 KUG-P-L CO " Discharge concentration 0 a/* * KS Surface heat exchange cooff. /s 0 = KD decay of Coefficient DISCHARGE/ENVIRONMENT LENGTH SCALES: in = 1.14 a LQ . 4.13 a L" . SCALES: TIDAL UNSTEADY Lu a 0.2228 hours Tu =

8.77 a

Lb

Lain=

39.34 '

NON-DIMBNSIONAL PARAMETERS: a PRO Densiastric Froude number . PRCU channel densimetric Prouds no. "7.69 . . Velocity ratio MIXING ZONE / TOXIC DILUTION ZONE / AREA Toxic discharge 0CC CKC concentration CCC CCC concentration Water quality standard Regulatory mixing zone Regulatory mixing tons specification Regulatory mixing zone value Region of interest

-

39.39 i 2.57 a

3.62 (based on LQ) 4.80 (based on N0)

OF INTEREST PARAMETERS: = yes 25 •UG-P-L 15 MUG-P-L = -given by CCC value ". yes -- distance 2S0 a {t2 if area)' = • a00.00 3 -

HYDRODYNAMIC CLJSIFICATION: -----------

rPl. SFLOW CLASS C-----------------------

I,~•

, "

"

'i • "' I....'

.

"

MIXING ZONE. EVALUATION (hy.drodynaic and regulatory summary): X-Y-Z Coordinate system: Origin is located at water surface and at centerline of discharge channeli 0.0 u from the'Aight bank/shor•.• 20.por apdu'l.,". P Number of display steps NMTES

135 ,

-

-.

~

~

~

''fl

SM.. .'-b~M..

~

-

~

t1>k+.z~.,,~t;t..

NRAR-WIELD REGION (NIR) CONDITIONS : It has no regulatory mixing. Note: The NFR is the zone of strong initial However, this informatio? may be useful for the discharge implication. to the sensitive usually is NIR the in mixing designer because the' discharge design conditions. .0000 MU--P-L Pollutant concentration at edge of NFR .0 Dilution at edge of NP .00 m x NiX Location: .00 a y * (centerline coordinates) 2..

in..

.

half-width thickness -

NiX plume dimensions:

.00 = .00 a

EfrmCTAD TIDAL ASStS.M2NT: Because of the unsteadiness of the ambient current during the tidal reversal. CORMIX predictions have beef TEMINATED at: 282.05 m X 187.66 a y = .00Ca Lu For this condition ATEMR TIDAL REVERSAL, mixed water from the previous half-cycle becomes re-entrained into the near field of the discharge, increasing pollutant concentrations compared to steady-state predictions. A pool of mixed water formed at slack tide will be advected downstream in this phase. ***ts~i~t*5*******TOXIC DILUTION ZONE SUMMARY ****CC*5*5*9 Recall: The TOE corresponds to the three (3) criteria issued in the DasIA Technical Support Document (TSD) for Water Quality-based Toxics Control, 1991 (EPA/s0s/2-90-001). 25 MUG-P-L Criterion maximum concentration (CXC) 2.2 3 Corresponding dilution The CMC was encountered at the following plume position: 1.04 a x = Plums location: 12.OS m y (centerline coordinates) Z . .. 00 a 9.41 m half-width . Plume dimensionst .$6 a thickness. CRITERION 1: This location is within SO times the discharge length scale, of 1.14 a. Lq . SAISFIED. +++4-.. 'TDZ has been .. +.. The discharge length scale TEST for te CRITERION 2s This location to within 5 times the ambient water depth of 5.65 a. HD +.+....... The ambient depth TEST for the TDO has been SATISFIED.+++÷+.H.. CRITERION 3: This location is within one tenth the distance of the extent 250.00 a downstream. of the Regulatory Hixing Zone of The Regulatory Mixing, Zone TEST for the TDO has been SATISPIED. ++t+++ ..... 1.69 w/os. The diffuser discharge velocity is equal to This is below the value of 3.0,=/s recommended in the TeD. All three CXC criteria for the TDZ are SATISPIED for this dischirge. ' teeereeeeeetesettslt

R•REGULATORY

MIXING

ZONE SUMMARY

CCC

***C*5ete*tt*****tt

The plume conditions at, the boundary of the specified R14Z are as follows 17.960500 MUG-P-L = Pollutant concentration 4.4 4 corresponding dilution 2S0.00 a x = Plume location: y = 176.10 m (centerline coordinates) .00 m 29588 a 9 half-width Plume dimensions: .21 m thickness At this position, the plume is NOT IN CONTACT with any bank. However, the COC for the toxic pollutant has not been met within the RME. In particular: The CCC was ancountered at the following plume positions The CCC for the toxic pollutant was encountered at the following plume position: 1E MUG-P-L = CCC S,3 Corresponding dilution 6.02 m x = Plume location: 37.32 a y a (centerline coordinates) .00.0 2=31.48 . half-width Plume dimensions: - .30 m thickness . CC*CCC**CCC *WC55*555*CWC*eeFINAL DEIsGiN ADVCE AND COMMENTS REMINDER: The user must take note that HYDRODYNANIC MODELING by any known technique Is NOT. AN EXACT SCIENCE. Extensive comparison with field and laboratory data has shown that the CORIIX predictions on dilutions and concentrations (with associated plums geometries) are reliable for the majority of cases and are accurate to within about +-So% (standard deviation). As a further safeguard, CORXZX will not give predictions whenever it judges the design configuration. as highly complex and uncertain for prediction. DESIGN CASE: PILE NE: T subsystem CORNIX3 END OF SEEEION/ITSRATION:

....

TIDAL SfMULATION ONE HOUR AFTER SLACK SAXPLE3T Buoyant Surface4esDis-1 04/I4/36.-11:24tI3

138

Table D.3 CORMIX3 Prediction File for C-Plant discharge into Estuary with unsteady tidal conditions CORMIX3 PREDICTION FILE: 33333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333 CORNELL MIXING ZONE EXPERT SYSTEM Subsystem version: Subsystem CORMIX3: June_1995 CORMIX_v.3.10 Buoyant Surface Discharges .............................................................................

CASE DESCRIPTION Site name/label: Design case: FILE NAME: Time of Fortran run:

C-PLANTAESTUARY TIDALASIMULATIONAONEAHOURAAFTERASLACK cormix\sim\SAMPLE3T.cx3 06/24/95--22:34:03

ENVIRONMENT PARAMETERS (metric units) Unbounded section 5.65 5.65 HD HA 1.000 h Tidal Simulation at TIME .750 dUa/dt12.40 h UAmax PERIOD.025 USTAR .220 F UA 2.000 UWSTAR- .2198E-02 = UW Uniform density environment RHOAM - 1018.0000 STRCND= U DISCHARGE PARAMETERS (metric units) .00 DISTB BANK RIGHT 2.15 90.00 HDO SIGMA RectanguLlar channel geometry: .650 2.000 HO 2.200 1.692 00 UO 998.2051 DRHOO - .1979E+02 RHOO CUNITSMUG-P-L - .8000E+02 CO = OOOOE+00 KS 1 IPOLL -

.220

flush-discharge

Configuration:

11.00

SLOPE -

GPO

= .1300E+01 - .2200E+01 = .1907E+00

KD

= .OOOOE+00

FLUX VARIABLES (metric units) - .3723E+01 MO - .2200E+01 00

J0

-

Associated length scales (meters) 4.14 1.14 LM LO

LM

-

.2229 h Lu

-

Tu

Tidal:

AO

NON-DIMENSIONAL PARAMETERS 3.62 FRCH FRO

4.80

R

(m/s)/h

.1230E-01

AR

-

.325

.4195E+00 8.77 Lb 39.347 Lmin

39.40 2,573

7.69

-

FLOW CLASSIFICATION 333333333333333333333333333333333333333333

3 3

3 3

FJl 5.65

Flow class (CORMIX3) Applicable layer depth HS -

333333333333333333333333333333333333333333 MIXING ZONE / TOXIC - .8000E+02 CO 1 NTOX 1 NSTD 1 REGMZ 1 REGSPC2500.00 XINT -

DILUTIOI I / REGION OF INTEREST PARAMETERS MUG-P-L CUNITS- .2500E+02 CMC - CSTD CCC CSTD - .1500E+02 XREG XMAX

250.00 3500.00

-

WREG

-

.00

AREG

-

X-Y-Z COORDINATE SYSTEM:

ORIGIN is located at the WATER SURFACE and at center of discharge .00 m from the RIGHT bank/shore. channel/outlet: X-axis points downstream Y-axis points to left as seen by an observer looking downstream Z-axis points vertically upward (in CORMIX3, all values Z - 0.00) NSTEP - 20 display intervals per module C

TRJBUO

TRJATT

TRJBND

TRJNBY

TRJCOR

DILCOR

3.401

1.000

1.000

1.000

3.400

1.000

BEGIN MOD301: DISCHARGE MODULE Efflux conditions: Y X .00 .00

Z 0.00

S 1.0

C .BOOE+02

BV .65

, 137

BH 1.00

.00

END OF MOD301: DISCHARGE MODULE BEGIN MOD302: ZONE OF FLOW ESTABLISHMENT Control volume inflow: x Y Z .00 .00 0.00

S 1.0

C .800E+02

BV .65

BH 1.00

Profile definitions: BV . Gaussian 1/e (37%) vertical thickness BH - Gaussian 1/e (37%) horizontal half-width, normal to trajectory S - hydrodynamic centerline dilution C - centerline concentration (includes reaction effects, if any) Control volume outflow: x Y Z .13 4.11 0.00 Cumulative travel time -

S 1.4

C .586E+02 2. sec

BV 1.09

BH 1.41

END OF MOD302: ZONE OF FLOW ESTABLISHMENT .............................................................................

BEGIN MOD311: WEAKLY DEFLECTED JET (3-D) Surface JET into a crosaflow Profile definitions: BV - Gaussian 1/e (37%) vertical thickness BH - Gaussian 1/e (37%) horizontal half-width, normal to trajectory S - hydrodynamic centerline dilution C - centerline concentration (includes reaction effects, if any) X Y Z .13 4.11 0.00 .13 4.14 0.00 .13 4.16 0.00 .13 4.18 0.00 .13 4.20 0.00 .14 4.23 0.00 .14 4.25 0.00 .14 4.27 0.00 .14 4.29 0.00 .15 4.32 0.00 .15 4.34 0.00 .15 4.36 0.00 .15 4.38 0.00 .15 4.41 0.00 .16 4.43 0.00 .16 4.45 0.00 .16 4.47 0.00 .16 4.50 0.00 .17 4.52 0.00 .17 4.54 0.00 .17 4.56 0.00 Cumulative travel time -

S 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4

C .586E+02 .585E+02 .584E+02 .583E+02 .582E+02 .581E+02 .580E+02 .580E+02 .579E+02 .578E+02 .577E+02 .576E+02 .575E+02 .574E+02 .573E+02 .572E+02 .571E+02 .571E+02 .570E+02 .569E+02 .5688+02 3. sec

BV 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.29 1.29 1.29 1.29 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.31 1.31 1.31 1.31 1.32 1.32 1.32 1.32

BH 1.65 1.66 1.66 1.66 1.66 1.67 1.67 1.67 1.67 1.68 1.68 1.68 1.68 1.69 1.69 1.69 1.69 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70

END OF MOD311: WEAKLY DEFLECTED JET (3-D) .............................................................................

BEGIN MOD313: WEAKLY DEFLECTED PLUME Surface PLUME into a crossflow Profile definitions: BV - Gaussian 1/e (37%) vertical thickness BH - Gaussian i/e (37%) horizontal half-width, normal to trajectory S - hydrodynamic centerline dilution C - centerline concentration (includes reaction effects, if any) X .17 .41 .67 .96 **

Y 4.56 6.86 9.16 11.46

Z 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

S 1.4 2.3 2.8 3.1

C .568E+02 .354E+02 .291E+02 .256E+02

BV 1.32 .82 .66 .58

BH 1.70 4.48 6.76 8.88

CMC HAS BEEN FOUND **

The pollutant concentration in the plume falls below CMC value of

138

.250E+02

in the current prediction interval. This is the extent of the TOXIC DILUTION ZONE. 1.28 13.76 0.00 3.4 .233E+02 .52 10.93 1.62 16.05 0.00 3.7 .216E+02 .48 12.95 1.99 18.35 0.00 3.9 .203E+02 .45 14.94 2.38 20.65 0.00 4.2 .192E+02 .42 16.93 2.80 22.95 0.00 4.4 .184E+02 .40 18.92 3.25 25.25 0.00 4.5 .176E+02 .38 20.91 3.72 27.54 0.00 4.7 .170E+02 .36 22.90 4.22 29.84 0.00 4.9 .164E+02 .35 24.90 4.75 32.14 0.00 5.0 .159E+02 .33 26.92 5.30 34.44 0.00 5.2 .155E+02 .32 28.93 5.87 36.74 0.00 5.3 .151E+02 .31 30.96 ** WATER QUALITY STANDARD OR CCC HAS BEEN FOUND ** The pollutant concentration in the plume falls below water quality standard or CCC value of .150E+02 in the current prediction interval. This is the spatial extent of concentrations exceeding the water quality standard or CCC value. 6.48 39.03 0.00 5.4 .147E+02 .30 33.00 7.11 41.33 0.00 5.6 .144E+02 .29 35.05 7.76 43.63 0.00 5.7 .141E+02 .28 37.11 8.44 45.93 0.00 5.8 .138E+02 .28 39.18 9.15 48.23 0.00 5.9 .136E+02 .27 41.25 9.88 50.52 0.00 6.0 .134E+02 .26 43.34 Cumulative travel time = 248. sec END OF MOD313: WEAKLY DEFLECTED PLUME BEGIN MOD323: STRONGLY DEFLECTED PLUME Profile definitions: BV - top-hat thickness,measured vertidally BH - top-hat half-width, measured horizontally in Y-direction S = hydrodynamic average (bulk) dilution C - average (bulk) concentration (includes reaction effects, if

any)

X 9.88 84.15 158.42 232.69

Y Z S C BV BH 50.52 0.00 6.0 .134E+02 .26 43.34 123.86 0.00 4.9 .163E+02 .23 60.96 154.39 0.00 4.6 .174E+02 .22 77.07 176.11 . .0.00 4.5 .178E+02 .22 92.39 **REGULATORY MIXING ZONE BOUNDARY ** In this prediction interval the plume distance meets or exceeds the regulatory value = 250.00 m. This is the extent of the REGULATORY MIXING ZONE. 282.05 187.67 0.00 4.5 .177E+02 .22 102.26 Cumulative travel time 1485. sec CORMIX prediction has been TERMINATED at last prediction interval. Limiting distance due to TIDAL REVERSAL has been reached. END OF MOD323: STRONGLY DEFLECTED PLUME ..............................................................................

CORMIX3: Buoyant Surface Discharges End of Prediction File 33333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333

The results of the tidal simulations are shown graphically in Figure D.6. The most obvious difference in the tidal CORMIX prediction at this time is that the maximum predicted downstream distance is limited to 275 m inthe xdirection. Furthermore, a significant increase in the pollutant concentration (copper) is observed

at the edge of the RMZ (compare Figure D.4b and D.6b at a distance of 250 m downstream) in the tidal application as a result of tidal re-entrainment. As a result, the copper concentration at the RMZ is.18 pg/L as,opposed to 10 pg/L for the steady state simulation, which exceeds the CCC at this distance.

139

C-PLANT-ESTUAPY TI DAL'-S[MUL ATI ON-ONE -HOUR-A FTEP -SLACK

CORMIX3 Prediction Fi I e: si m-SAMPLE3T. cx3

-b

-9

PLan Uieu

(a)

C-PLANT-ESTUARY TI OAL-5[flULATI ON-ONE-HOUR-AFTER-~SLACK

COPMIX3 Prediction File: sim\SAMPLE3T.cx3

2

4

Concentration vs Centerline Distance

W) -

-

(b) Figure 0.6: CORMIX3 prediction of surface discharge from C-Plant into Estuary using a unsteady tidal simulation, a) Plume shape in near-field only (prediction is terminated after this region), and b) concentration along plume centerline. 140

Appendix E Two Applications of CORJET Two case studies are presented here illustrating the application of the post-processing model included within CORMIX, namely CORJET, the Cornell buoyant jet integral model. As discussed in Section 6.1 is an important tool for predicting additional details within the near-field of a submerged discharge. Both case studies are included in the normal CORMIX installation package.

in the same direction, i.e. along the coastline. The water depth at the discharge location is of the order of 30 m.

The CORJET data preparation checklist for this design case is given as Figure E.1. Density data is specified in this "case via temperature and salinity. The programcomputes *internally the actual density distribution using the full (UNESCO) equation-of state. It should be noted that in case of multiple ambient levels It is repeated here that CORJET, as any jet Integral model, if used alone and by an - CORJET assumes outside the specified range (e.g. above 15 m in this case) that the data are inexperienced analyst, is not a safe linearly continued from the last specified interval. methodology for mixing zone analysis. It is advised to use it only in conjunction with the more* If uniform ambient conditions exist only a single level must be specified. comprehensive CORMIX system. Therefore, in case of engineering design applications, CORJET The port height HO in the Input data should be employed after prior use ofthe specification is set to 0.0 m; thus, the coordinate expert system CORMIX has indicated that the system is conveniently set at the discharge buoyant jet will not experience any height. Another value for the actual height above Instabilities due' to shallow water or due to the water bottom could be used too, but attachment to boundaries. remember that CORJET, as all integral models, does not compute actual bottom interaction effects (see Section 6.1.1). A maximum E.1 Submerged multiport diffuser In deep computation height of 30 m and distance of 200 water m is specified to stop the computation. 'The number of print intervals is set to 10, In order to A short diffuser consisting of 11, ports and a total lengtlh of 20 m is discharging fresh water at* provide sufficient detail. a temperature of 30 0C into the stratified coastal -A prior application of CORMIX (using a ocean. The diffuser ports are each 0.5 m in linear density approximation Type A) has shown diameter'. and' well-rounded in their iinternal hydraulic6 design so that no further exit flow that a stable multiport diffuser flow' class MS results for this case. The reader is encouraged to contractio0 will occur. The nozzles are oriented ascertain thatl Thus, CORJET is indeed with a vertical angle of 45 0 upward and a applicablefor this case. horizontal angle of 45 0 pointing into the ambient crossflow (see, multiport diffuser +definition Table EA1 shows the input :data file as diagram, Figures 4.6 and 4.7). The diffuser has extenally` Using a line eMditr The prepared 0 an alignment of 60 With respect to the ambieni CORJET prediction file is shown in Table E.2. current. The discharge flow has a concentration The file echoes the input data, but also lists the of 100 % of some conservative substance. computed density values, and all important parameters and non-dimensional numbers. Note Detailed measurements in the water that all parameters and scales are referenced to column: gi've the' 'distribution "of temnperature, salinity and current Velocity asa-f unction of the- values of ambient conditions at the level of discharoe. The second half of the output table vertical distance. The current at each level flows gives the predicted plume conditions. 141

CHECKUST FOR DATA PREPARATION

CORJET - CORNELL BUOYANT JET INTEGRAL MODEL- Version 4.1 CASE5PD. INP

DOS File Name:

Label:

Date:

4/12/96

Prepared by.

GHJ

Case 5: MULTIPORT DIFFUSER, STRATIFIED, VARIABLE CURRENT

Fluid/Density: 1 (water) Fluid:

Density specification:

Number of ambient levels: 3

I (via tempJsal.)

(1 to 10)

Amibient Data: Elevation

Temperature

Salinity

Dens!t

velocity

Angle of

(i)

CC)

(ppt)

(kgmi)

(m/s)

velocity (deg)

1

0

12.0

30.0

0.5

0

2

5

15.0

29.5

0.8

0

3

15

20.0

28.0

1.2

0

Level No.

Discharge Conditions: Port

Height above

diameter (m)

origin (m)

0.5

0.0

Coefficient of decay (,/s)

Discharge temp. ('C)

Discharge salinity (ppt)

0

30.0

Number of openings: (=1 for single port 3.p.)

11 Discharge. conc. (any units) ,100

Program Control: Mn. vertical Max vertical (m): 0.0 distance(m): 30.0 dsa

Figure E.I:

Exit velocity (m/3)

3.0 Discharge density 3 ) (kghnI

0.0 Max. distance along 200.0 tMrectory(m):

Vertical

Horizontal

angle (deg)

angle (deg)

45.0 Diffuser length (m)

45.0 PjAlignment angle (deg)*

(=0. if s.p.)

(= 0.if u.p.)

20.0

60.

Pritlnt"ieals (best5tolO) 1.0

Data preparation checklist for CORJET simulation of multiport diffuser discharge into stratified coastal waters with arbitrary velocity distribution

142

Table E.1 CORJET input data file for multiport diffuser discharge into stratified coastal waters #CORJET INPUT FILE

#Title line (50 characters max.): CaseS: MULTIPORT DIFFUSER: STRATIFIED,

VARIABLE CURRENT

#Fluid (l-water,2-air), Density option (1=calculate,2=specify directly): #Fluid W(): Density option (M): Ambient levels (1-10): 1

1

3

#Ambient conditions (if d.o.-l, fill in TA+SA; if 2, fill in RHOA): TA SA RHOA UA TAUA #Level ZA 1 0. 12. 30. 0.5 0. 2 5. 15. 29.5 0.8 0. 3 15. 20. 28. 1.2 0. #Discharge conditions (T0+S0, or RHO0 as above; if NOPEN=l: set LD=0,ALIGN=O): #NOPEN DO HO D0 THETAO SIGMA0 CO ED TO SO RHOO LD ALIGN 11 0.5 0. 3.0 45. 45. 100. 0. 30. 0. 20. 60. #Program control: #ZMAX ZMIN DISMAX NPRINT 30. 0. 200. 10

Table E.2 CORJET prediction file for multiport diffuser discharge into stratified coastal waters CORJET PREDICTION FILE: JJJ3JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

CORJET:

CORNELL BUOYANT JET INTEGRAL MODEL

FILE NAME: Label/identifier: Time of CORJET run:

Ambient conditions: No. of levels: 3 LEV ZA TA SA RHOA 1 .00 12.00 30.00 1022.71 2 5.00 15.00 29.50 1021.74 3 15.00 20.00 28.00 1019.43 Discharge conditions (metric): DO

HO

Version 4.1, April 1996

post\cj\caseSmpd.OUT CaseS: MULTIPORT DIFFUSER: STRATIFIED, 4/13/96--15:56:58

UO

Fluid: Water UA TAUA .50 .00 .80 .00 1.20 .00

Density option: 1

For each port:

THETAO SIGMAO

KD

TO

.500 .00 3.00 45.00 45.00 .IOE+03 .OOE+0 MULTIPORT DIFFUSER conditions: NOPEN LD SPAC ALIGN QOtotal 11 20.00 2.00 60.00 6.480.6480E+01

30.0

Program control: ZMAX ZMIN 30.00 .00

DISMAX 200.00

VARIABLE CU

CO

SO .0

RHOO 995.65

NPRINT 10

Flux variables (based on ambient at discharge level): For each port: QO .589E+00 MO .177E+01 JO .153E+00 GPO .259E+00 QTO .106E+02 OSO - -. 177E+02 For multiport diffuser (per unit length): qO

-

.324E+00

mO

-

.972E+00

JO

-

.841E-01

Length scales (m) and parameters: For each port: LO .44 LM = 3.92 Lm Lmp 5.61 Lbp 6.71 For multiport diffuser (per unit length): lQ=B .108 1M 5.07 lm = lmp 8.16 lbp = 10.37 FRO

=

8.33

FR02

-

2.66

Lb

-

1.22

3.89

lq*

-

.74

R

-

6.00

ZE

=

.86

17.92

Fa

=

1.14

.75

YE

-

.62 49.43

(port) (2-D slot) Zone of flow establishment (m): LE

-

1.30

THETAE=

38.34

XE

-

SIGMAE=

34.00

GAMMAE=

CORJET PREDICTION: Stepsize = .2659 Printout every 10 steps Individual jet/plumes before merging:. X Y Z Sc Cc B I DIST Save Gpc dTc dSALc .00 .00 .00 1.0 .100E+03 .25 .00 1.0 .26E+00 18.0-30.0 .75 .62 .86 1.0 .100E+03 .25 1.30 1.4 .27E+00 20.8-34.7 2.80 1.50 2.27 3.0 .333E+02 .64 3.96 4.6 .83E-01 5.2 -9.9 Merging of individual jet/plumes to form plane jet/plume:

143

Horizontal jet/plume half-width BH - B + 10.00 .82 5.55 4.5 .223E+02 1.78 2.85 4.26 6.62 .90 6.3 .159E+02 3.01 5.31 1.84

6.6 6.4

.54E-01 .38E-01

3.1 -6.5 2.1 -4.7 1.6 1.3 1.1 .8 .6 .5 .3 .2 .1

7.96 10.61 13.26 15.91 18.57 21.22 23.88 26.53 29.18

1.88 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89

3.22 3.41 3.59 3.77 3.94 4.11 4.27 4.43 4.58

7.4 8.4 9.5 10.6 11.7 12.8 13.9 15.1 16.2

.136E+02 .118E+02 .105E+02 .940E+01 .8528+01 .7798+01 .717E+01 .664E+01 .619E+01

1.09 1.27 1.45 1.63 1.81 1.99 2.17 2.34 2.51

9.27 11.93 14.59 17.25 19.91 22.57 25.23 27.89 30.54

7.5 8.6 9.7 10.7 11.8 12.9 14.0 15.1 16.1

.32E-01 .28E-01 .24E-01 .21E-01 .19E-01 .17E-01 .158-01 .14E-01 .13E-01

31.84

1.89

4.73

17.2

.580E+01

2.68

33.20

17.2

.12E-01

34.49 37.15 39.80 42.46 45.11 47.77 50.43 53.08 55.74 58.39 61.05 63.71 66.36 69.02 71.68 74.34 76.99 79.65 82.31 84.97 87.62 90.28 92.94 95.60 98.26 100.91 103.57 106.23 108.89 111.55 114.20 116.86 119.52 122.18 124.84 125.90

1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89

4.87 5.01 5.15 5.28 5.41 5.53 5.65 5.77 5.88 5.99 6.09 6.20 6.29 6.39 6.48 6.57 6.65 6.74 6.81 6.89 6.96 7.03 7.09 7.16 7.22 7.27 7.33 7.38 7.43 7.47 7.51 7.55 7.59 7.62 7.65 7.66

18.3 19.4 20.5 21.5 22.6 23.6 24.6 25.6 26.5 27.5 28.4 29.3 30.1 31.0 31.8 32.6 33.3 34.1 34.8 35.5 36.1 36.7 37.3 37.8 38.3 38.8 39.2 39.6 40.0 40.3 40.6 40.8 41.0 41.1 41.2 41.2

.545E+01 .5158+01 .488E+01 .464E+01 .443E+01 .424E+01 .407E+01 .3911+01 .3778+01 .364E+01 .352E+01 .342E+01 .332E+01 .323E+01 .315E+01 .307E+01 .300E+01 .293E+01 .287E+01 .282E+01 .277E+01 .272E+01 .268E+01 .264E+01 .261E+01 .258E+01 .255E+01 .252E+01 .250E+01 .248E+01 .246E+01 .245E+01 .2448+01 .243E+01 .243E+01 .243E+01

2.85 3.02 3.18 3.34 3.49 3.64 3.79 3.94 4.08 4.22 4.35 4.48 4.61 4.73 4.85 4.96 5.07 5.17 5.27 5.37 5.46 5.54 5.62 5.70 5.77 5.83 5.89 5.95 6.00 6.04 6.08 6.11 6.13 6.15 6.16 6.15

35.86 38.52 41.18 43.84 46.50 49.15 51.81 54.47 57.13 59.79 62.45 65.11 67.77 70.42 73.08 75.74 78.40 81.06 83.72 86.38 89.03 91.69 94.35 97.01 99.67 102.33 104.99 107.65 110.30 112.96 115.62 118.28 120.94 123.60 126.26 127.32

18.2 .11E-01 19.3 .97E-02 20.3 .891-02 .828-02 21.4 22.4 .751-02 .698-02 23.4 24.3 .638-02 .58B-02 25.3 26.2 .54E-02 27.1 .49E-02 28.0 .45E-02 .428-02 28.9 .388-02 29.7 30.5 .35E-02 31.3 .32E-02 .298-02 32.1 .27E-02 32.8 33.5 .248-02 .22E-02 34.2 .20E-02 34.9 .18E-02 35.5 36.1 .161-02 36.6 .14E-02 .12E-02 37.1 .11E-02 37.6 .93E-03 38.1 .80E-03 38.5 .67E-03 38.9 39.2 .56E-03 .45E-03 39.5 39.8 .35E-03 40.0 .26E-03 .17E-03 40.2 40.3 .948-04 .23E-04 40.3 40.3 -. 35E-05

Terminal level in stratified ambient has been reached.

-3.9 -3.4 -3.0 -2.7 -2.4 -2.2 -2.0 -1.8 -1.7

.0 -1.6 -.1 -. 2 -. 2 -. 3 -. 3 -. 4 -. 4 -. 5 -. 5 -. 6 -. 6 -. 6 -. 7 -. 7 -. 7 -. 8 -. 8 -. 8 -. 9 -. 9 -. 9 -. 9 -. 9 -1.0 -1.0 -1.0 -1.0 -1.0 -1.1 -1.1 -1.1 -1.1 -1.1 -1.1 -1.1 -1.1

-1.5 -1.4 -1.3 -1.2 -1.1 -1.0 -1.0 -. 9 -. 9 -. 8 -. 8 -. 7 -. 7 -. 7 -. 6 -. 6 -. 6 -. 6 -. 5 -.5 -. 5 -. 5 -. 5 -. 4 -. 4 -. 4 -. 4 -. 4 -. 4 -. 4 -. 4 -. 3 -. 3 -. 3 -. 3 -. 3

PROGRAM STOPSI

............................................................................

475 Total number of integration steps END OF CORJET PREDICTION: JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ3JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ Note: CORJET has been used outside the CORMIX system, assuming unlimited Carefully examine all results for possible boundary receiving water. effects due to surface, bottom, or lateral boundaries!

144

The CORJET program when called within the normal CORMIX installation after its execution automatically links to the graphics package CMXGRAPH so the user can inspect the predicted plume, rather than looking at the output file. Many graphics options (see Section 5.3) exist to fully evaluate the plume geometry and concentration distributions. Three examples of graphics output are shown in Figures E.2 and E.3. Figure E.2 shows the plan view, side view, and side view along the trajectory, respectively, of the plume, all with a plot scale fixed to 1:1, i.e. undistorted. All these figures have been produced with the Postscript-file print option (I) of CMXGRAPH (in contrast to all the figures in Appendices B to D that were made with the screen print (C) option). Such an undistorted is always preferable for the viewer of such plots in order to get an unbiased picture of the mixing pattern. Note the merging of the individual jets in the plan view. Figure E.3 gives the concentration distribution along the plume centerline trajectory, showing the rapid drop-off in this jet mixing process. E.2 Smoke plume In stratified atmosphere with skewed wind velocity As mentioned in Section 6.1 CORJET is also applicable for atmospheric conditions in which case the concept of potential density based on the perfect gas equation with adiabatic conditions is employed. Furthermore, the wind conditions in -the lower atmospheric boundary layer with its greater freedom laterally often has a skewed velocity distribution with, different wind directions at different levels above the giound. This is the topic of this case study. An industrial chimney with a height of 40 m above ground discharges hot gases at a temperature of 200 0C into the atmosphere. The

145

discharge has a diameter of 3 m and an exit velocity of 10 m/s. A discharge concentration of 100 % exists for a fairly rapidly decaying substance with a decay rate of 1 per 10 min or 0.0028/s. Typical measurements, for example using a tracked rising balloon, give the distribution of temperature and wind velocity as a function of height above the ground. This is shown in the CORJET data preparation checklist given as Figure E.4. Density data is specified in this case as air temperature, the program will convert density inputs internally to potential density as a function of temperature. The wind velocity vector with increasing height deviates increasingly from the direction at ground level. In this example the coordinate system has been set at ground level so that the chimney (i.e."port") height is equal to 40 m. Table E.3 shows the input data file for this case, while Table E.4 is the CORJET prediction file. The file echoes the input data, but also lists the potential density values, and all important parameters and non-dimensional numbers. Predicted plume properties are shown graphically as Figures E.5 and E.6. Figure E.5 shows the plan view and the side view, respectively, of the plume, both with a plot scale fixed to 1:1, i.e. undistorted. The plan view shows that the plume follows the variable direction of the wind as it rises to higher levels. Figure E.6 gives the concentration distribution along the plume centerline trajectory. The added effect of plume decay would be discernible only in the detailed output file (Table E.4) where the'centerline concentration Is not merely the Inverse of the hydrodynamic centerline dilution (the effect of pure mixing) but lower because of the internal chemical decay effect.

CORJET Prediction Case5: MULTIPORT DIFFUSER: STRATIFIED. VARIABLE CU --[-

File: postcJcaseSmpd.OUT

-.-

-..

is

i PloIOIsnsme.

so Plan View

a

7S

I0

Ii III

.

.

.

.

125 X M) --.-

1.006

(a)

CORJET Prediction CaseS: MULTIPORT DIFFUSER: STRATIFIED. VARIABLE CU

File: postcjcase&mpd.OUT

Sd V ice

Side View

125

X(M)

Phi 0lsmrisa • 1.000'

(b)

CORJET Prediction CaseS: MULTIPORT DIFFUSER: STRATIFIED, VARIABLE CU

File: postcjcase5mpd.OUT

-----------------------

Side View Along Plan Trajectory Phi Olsefl16

-

1.000

(C) CORJET prediction for multiport diffuser discharge into stratified coastal waters as plotted Figure E.2: with graphics package. a) Plan view, b) side view, and c) side view along trajectory both with plot scale fixed at 1:1 (undistorted).

146

3)

CORJET Prediction CaseS: MULTIPORT DIFFUSER; STRATIFIED, VARIABLE CU

File: postclcase5mpd.OUT

ST a I. 0*

.

so$

..

.

. 75

Concentration vs Centerline Distance

too

1.

O1st 1m)

=g

CORJET prediction for multiport diffuser discharge into stratified coastal waters as plotted Figure E.3: with graphics package. Concentration along centedine trajectory.

147

CHECKUST FOR DATA PREPARATION

CORJET - CORNELL BUOYANT JET INTEGRAL MODEL- Version 4.1 Date: by: Prepared

DOS File Name: CASE3AIR. INP Label:

4/12/96 GHJ

Case 3: CHIMNEY, STRATIFIED AIR, VARIABLE WIND

Fluid/Density: X("a*ec) Fluid: 2 (air)

Densty specification:

Number of ambient levels: 4

1 (via temp.IA)

(1 to 10)

•xdrj

Ambient Data: Level No.

Elevatlon (W)

Temperature (C)

1

0

12.0

2

50

12.0

3

100

12.5

4

200

13.0

Density (kglm')

Salinity (ppt)

Velocity (mIS)

Angle of velocity (deg)

-

2.0

0

-

-

5.0

15

-

-

6.0

25

-

6.5

30

Discharge Conditions: Number of openings:

(=1 for single port s.p.) 1 Discharge cone. (any

Coefficient of decay (Js) 0.0028

Exit velocity

(mrs) 10.0

angle (deg) 90.0

angle (deg) 0.0

Discharge temp. ('C)

Discharge salinity (ppt)

Discharge density

Diffuser length (m)

Alignment angle (deg)

(O. if &Lp.)

( 0. if s.p.)

origin (m) 40.0

Figure E.4:

200

(kg/m 3)

0.0

200.

Program Control: U•n. vertical Max. vertical distance (m):

Horizontal

Height above

units) 100

Vertical

Port

diameter (m) 3.0

distance (m):

Max. distance along 0

tralectory(nm):

1000

0.0

Print intervals: 30 (best5to 10) 30

Data preparation checklist for CORJET simulation of chimney discharge into stratified atmosphere with skewed wind velocity distribution

148

Table E.3 CORJET input data file for chimney discharge into stratified atmosphere with skewed wind #CORJET INPUT FILE #Title line (50 characters max.): Case3: CHIMNEY, STRATIFIED AIR, VARIABLE WIND #Fluid (l=water,2=air), Density option (1-calculate,2=specify directly): #Fluid (1/2): Density option (1/2): Ambient levels (1-10): 2 1 4 #Ambient conditions (if d.o.-1, fill in TA+SA; if 2, fill in RHOA): #Level ZA TA SA RHOA UA TAUA 1 0. 12.0 2.0 0. 2 50. 12.0 5.0 15. 3 100. 12.5 6.0 25 4 200. 13.0 6.5 30. #Discharge conditions (TO+S0, or RHOO as above; if NOPEN=l: set LD=O,ALIIGN=0) : #NOPEN DO HO U0 THETAO SIGMAO CO KD TO SO RHOO LD ALIGN 1 3.0 40. 10.0 90. 0. 100. .0028 200. 0. 0. #Program control: #ZMAX ZMIN DISMAX NPRINT 30 1000. 0. 200.

Table E.4 CORJET prediction file for chimney discharge into stratified atmosphere with skewed wind CORJET PREDICTION FILE: JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ CORJET: CORNELL BUOYANT JET INTEGRAL MODEL Version 4.1, April 1996 FILE NAME: Label/identifier: Time of CORJET run: Ambient LEV 1 2 3 4

post\cj\case3air.OUT Case3: CHIMNEY, STRATIFIED AIR, VARIABLE WIND 4/13/96--16:12:15

conditions: ZA .00 50.00 100.00 200.00

No. TA 12.00 12.00 12.50 13.00

of levels: 4 SA RHOA .00 1.24 .00 1.24 .00 1.24 .00 1.23

Fluid: Air UA TAUA 2.00 .00 5.00 15.00 6.00 25.00 6.50 30.00

Discharge conditions (metric): SINGLE PORT DO HO UO THETAO SIGMAO CO 3.000 40.00 10.00 90.00 .00 .10E+03 Program control: ZMAX ZMIN 200.00 .00

DISMAX 1000.00

KD .28E-0

Density option: I

TO 200.0

SO .0

RHOO .75

NPRINT 30

ambient at discharge level): .707E+03 JO * .275E+03 .OOOE+00

Flux variables '(based on Q0 - .707E+02 MO QTO .133E+05 QSO

Length scales (m) and parameters: LQ 2.66 LM 8.26 Lp 11.97 Lbp 14.42 FRO = 2.92 R 2.27 Zone of flow establishment (m): LE .00 XE .00 THETAE= 41.69 SIGMAE12.00

Lm

GPO

-

.390E+01

-

6.04

Lb

=

3.23

YE GAMMAE=

.00 41.69

ZE

-

40.00

............................................................................

CORJET PREDICTION: Single jet/plume: X Y Z .00 .00 40.00 .00 .00 40.00 15.18 3.42 49.21 31.38 7.54 56.20 47.86 12.09 62.22 64.47 16.97 67.60

Stepsize Sc 1.0 1.0 4.5 9.6 15.8 22.7

Cc .OOE+03 .100E+03 .221E+02 .104E+02 .634E+01 .440E+01

B 1.50 1.50 3.53 5.18 6.64 7.96

.6042 DIST .00 .00 18.13 36.25 54.38 72.51

1.49

Printout every Save 1.0 1.4 6.6 13.8 22.5 32.2

30 steps

Gpc dTc dSALc .39E+01188.0 .0 .41E+01204.4 .0 .12E+01 41.6 .0 .63E+00 19.5 .0 .39E+00 11.8 .0 .27E+00 8.1 .0

81.13 97.83 114.52 131.21 147.88 164.52 181.14 197.71 214.26 230.77 247.25 263.71 280.14 296.56 312.96 329.34 345.70 362.05 378.39 394.72 411.03 427.33 443.62 459.90 476.17 492.43 508.68 524.92 541.15 557.37 573.58 589.79 605.98 622.17 638.36 654.53 670.69 686.85 703.01 719.15 735.29 751.42 767.54 783.66 799.77 815.88 831.98 848.07 864.16 880.24 896.32 897.39

22.13 27.54 33.18 39.03 45.08 51.31 57.72 64.29 71.02 77.88 84.85 91.92 99.07 106.30 113.58 120.93 128.34 135.79 143.29 150.83 158.41 166.03 173.69 181.39 189.11 196.87 204.66 212.48 220.33 228.20 236.11 244.03 251.98 259.96 267.96 275.98 284.03 292.09 300.18 308.28 316.41 324.56 332.72 340.90 349.10 357.32 365.55 373.80 382.07 390.35 398.65 399.20

72.51 77.06 81.30 85.29 89.05 92.63 96.03 99.27 102.38 105.37 108.25 111.04 113.75 116.39 118.96 121.47 123.91 126.30 128.64 130.92 133.16 135.35 137.49 139.58 141.64 143.65 145.62 147.54 149.43 151-.28 153.10 154.87 156.61 158.31 159.98 161.61 163.21 164.77 166.30 167.79 169.25 170.68 172.08 173.44 174.77 176.07 177.34 178.57 179.78 180.95 182.09 182.17

30.3 38.4 47.0 55.9 65.1 74.5 84.2 94.0 103.9 113.8 123.7 133.8 143.9 154.1 164.4 174.7 185.1 195.6 206.1 216.6 227.2 237.8 248.4 259.0 269.6. 280.3 290.9 301.4 312.0 322.5 333.0 343.5 353.8 364.2 374.4 384.6 394.8 404.8 414.8 424.6 434.4 444.1 453.6 463.1 472.5 481.7 490.8 499.8 508.6 517.4 525.9 526.5

.330E+01 .260E+01 .213E+01 .179E+01 .154E+01 .134E+01 .119E+01 .106E+01 .963E+00 .879E+00 .808E+00 .747E+00 .695E+00 .649E+00 .608E+00 .572E+00 .540E+00 .5118+00 .485E+00 .4628+00 .4408+00 .421E+00 .403E+00 .386E+00 .371E+00 .357E+00 .344E+00 .332E+00 .321E+00 .310E+00 .300E+00 .2918+00 .283E+00 .275E+00 .267E+00 .260E+00 .253E+00 .247E+00 .241E+00 .235E+00 .230E+00 .225E+00 .220E+00 .216E+00 .212E+00 .208E+00 .2048+00 .200E+00 .197E+00 .193E+00 .190E+00 .190E+00

9.18 10.30 11.36 12.35 13.29 14.18 15.02 15.83 16.60 17.35 18.06 18.75 19.42 20.07 20.71 21.33 21.93 22.52 23.10 23.66 24.21 24.75 25.28 25.80 26.31 26.80 27.29 27.76 28.23 28.68 29.13 29.57 30.00 30.42 30.83 31.23 31.62 32.01 32.39 32.76 33.12 33.47 33.82 34.16 34.49 34.81 35.13 35.43 35.73 36.03 36.31 36.33

90.64 108.76 126.89 145.02 163.15 181.27 199.40 217.53 235.66 253.78 271.91 290.04 308.17 326.29 344.42 362.55 380.67 398.80 416.93 435.06 453.18 471.31 489.44 507.57 525.69 543.82 561.95 580.08 598.20 616.33 634.46 652.59 670.71 688.84 706.97 725.09 743.22 761.35 779.48 797.60 815.73 833.86 851.99 870.11 888.24 906.37 924.50 942.62 960.75 978.88 997.01 998.21

42.8 54.0 65.8 78.1 90.7 103.7 116.9 130.4 144.1 157.8 171.7 185.6 199.6 213.7 228.0 242.3 256.7 271.1 285.7 300.2 314.8 329.5 344.1 358.8 373.5 388.1 402.7 417.3 431.9 446.4 460.9 475.2 489.6 503.8 517.9 532.0 545.9 559.7 573.4 587.0 600.4 613.8 626.9 639.9 652.8 665.5 678.0 690.3 702.5 714.5 726.2 727.0

Terminal level in stratified ambient has been reached.

.0 6.0 .20E+00 .16E+00 4.7 .0 .0 3.8 .13E+00 .11E+00 3.1 .0 .90E-01 2.6 .0 .77E-01 2.3 .0 .0 2.0 .67E-01 .0 1.7 .588-01 .52E-01 1.5 .0 .47B-01 1.4 .0 .42B-01 1.2 .0 .39E-01 1.1 .0 .0 1.0 .35E-01 .0 .9 .32E-01 .30E-01 .9 .0 .27E-01 .8 .0 .0 .7 .25E-01 .0 .7 .23E-01 .6 .0 .228-01 .0 .6 .20E-01 .198-01 .5 .0 .17E-01 .5 .0 .0 .5 .168-01 .0 .4 .15E-01 .0 .4 .148-01 .0 .4 .13E-01 .3 .0 .12E-01 .0 .3 .11B-01 .0 .3 .10E-01 .95E-02 .3 .0 .88E-02 .3 .0 .81E-02 .2 .0 .74E-02 .2 .0 .0 .2 .68E-02 .0 .2 .63E-02 .0 .2 .57E-02 .0 .2 .52E-02 .47E-02 .1 .0 .428-02 .1 .0 .38E-02 .1 .0 .348-02 .1 .0 .0 .1 .30E-02 .0 '.1 .26E-02 .0 .1 .22E-02 .0 .1 .18E-02 .0 .0 .158-02 .0 .0 .12E-02 .0 .0 .87E-03 .0 .0 .578-03 .0 .0 .29E-03 .0 .0 .158-04 .0 .0 -. 19B-05 PROGRAM STOPSI

1653 Total number of integration steps END OF CORJET PREDICTION: JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ.7i1J

150

CORJET Prediction CaseS: CHIMNEY, STRATIFIED AIR, VARIABLE WIND

File: postclcase3air.OUT

-9

-9

-9v

-b

Plan View PlotOIstelom .

(a)

X(m)

1.000

File: postcjcase3alr.OUT

CORJET Prediction Case3: CHIMNEY, STRATIFIED AIR, VARIABLE WIND

_Ii -9v

-9

-9

Side View (b)

X(m) -4

Plbtolmniob 1.000

Figure E.5: CORJET prediction for chimney discharge into stratified atmosphere with skewed wind profile as plotted with graphics package. a) Plan view, and b) side view along trajectory both with plot scale fixed at 1:1 (undistorted).

151

File: postcjcas93alr.OUT

CORJET Prediction Case3: CHIMNEY, STRATIFIED AIR. VARIABLE WIND 2

Ise

300

40a

s00

Concentration vs Downstream Distance X

750

X(M)-v

Figure E.6: CORJET prediction for chimney discharge into stratified atmosphere with skewed wind profile as plotted with graphics package. Concentration along centerline trajectory.

152

I

Smc~ 2-000 c,

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES STATE OF GEORGIA GROUNDWATER USE REPORT (Print or type all Information)

Standard Condition No. 3 SThis form shall be submitted to the Division within fifteen (15) day; after the reporting period specified on the perit under Southern Nuclear Operating Company - Vogqile Bectric Generating Plant Permittee

Permit No.

For six month period from

01740003

Specific Conductivity

Aquifer used by well(s) numbered: Make-up Wells #1 and #2A. Construction Well #3. irrigation Well k4, Tactical Training Well #5, Training Center Well, Recreation AreaWell, &WeliTW-1.

Cretaceous Sand

This report Is on the

-NA-

mmhosicm ft.

45.1

Static water level (SWL) Pumping water level (PWI.)

52.B fL

Number of hours shutdown for SWL measurement Method of measurement: (

Well no.

MU.1

Date measured

2-15-2000

1479 ft. Wellno. Elevation (Use additional sheet ifnecessary)

MU-1

Date measured

2-15-2000

•57 mi.n

(

) Ground;

ft.

155.4

Elevation

Number o continuous hours pumped tor PWL measurement

) Air Line; ( X ) Probe; ( ) Tape; (

(X ) Top of casing:

Measurement frm-:

thru 02-29-2000

09-01-1999

(

) Other(Specify) )

Other (Specify)

*Obtdnand sub.mt apWftVe Sets of maa~wonaftS as bdcaWeWow ONLYI WEIL twelsaW [email protected]¶ From1ONLY 2WELLS WS14' Wefewn 16v10 Foo 6-a Ficai1i-irvw~s-s~tfrom -ONLY From 16-2Owetf**s-eet tma

64 min

Take readings fram the highest yield well(s), uskig t•e same well(s) each tnme. For additional wells, follow tis format

3WELLS ONLYMWW.9

Monthly amount of water puimped from alquler in ihousands of gal,

Metlod used to determine zrnpage

Mx) Flow meter Other (Specify) Use: For a cousumetive use for central water suoiv. eoormfa Water, process waler for operatlon of Units I &2. and Irrioation of

Average hours pumped e day:

8.0

SUCH OTHER PERTINENT INFORMATION FURNISHEID BY THE PERMITTEE OR REQUIRED BY THE DIVISION. I certify that the above information is true to best of my knowledge ;and belilef.

Signed

I

As

Title General Manager- VogUe ElectIrl Generating Plant

Date

13,fdi~zob~

I DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES STATE OF GEORGIA GROUNDWATER USE REPORT . Print 6t'tvoe all Ianrmatiolt This form shall be submitted to the Division within fifteen (15) days after the reporting period speciffed on the perimt under Standard Condition No. 3 Permiite

Southern Nuclear Operating Companv

Permit No.

017-0003

-

Vocitle Elec c Generajinq Plant For six month period from 09-01-4999

This report Is on the

Cretaceous Sand

Specific ConductMty

NA

I

thru 02-29-2000

Aquifer used bywe ll(s) numbered: Make-up Wells #1 and #2A. Construction Wel #3. Irrigation WelN#4, Tactical Training Well #5, Training Center Well, Recreation Area Will, &Well TW-1.

mmhos/cnr

Static water level (SWL)

63.5

ft.

Pumping water level (PWL)

93.5 ft.

Elevation

162.2

ft.

Well no.

MU-2A Date measured

1-13-2000

Elevation

132.2

ft.

Wellno.

MU-2A

1-13-2000

Date measured

(Use additional sheet Ifnecessary)

Number of hours shutdown for SWL measurement

Number of continuous hours pumped for PWL measurement

40.5 hr

45 min

Method of measurement( ) Air Une: ( X ) Probe; ( ) Tape; ( ) Other (Specify) Measurement from: ( X ) Top of casing; ( ) Ground; ( ) Other (Specify) 'obtain w4 m601~ a5W~ciMlat sela d rm

below

iur""1 a$ hkid1±

FtmM15 wel$a Iso ftfm

OMY IWELL

Ffm-04.6.vi"&sltfra

ONLY 2 WELLS

Pro. 11-15 mds-a satlroin

ONLY3WELLS

Fmm' 16-20 wediasasrcUm

ONLY4 WELLS

Take readlfgs from thu highest yield wel(s). using the same well(s) each tkne. For additional wel0s, follow this format

7 J

Monthly amourt of water pumped from aquifer In thousands of gal.

MONTH

TOTAL

Monthly

MAX. DAY

AvgJDay

Method used to determine pumpage

X) Flow meter

LL__

___

__

N

~~~Use: For a0017swnrrtlve U22 for centrlwt clooina water. orocess water

_sumb&

of Uni I &I and foloft

_oMatl

Average hours pumped per day:.

ANNUAL AVG. DAY

GRAND TOTAL

for

SUCH OTHER PERTINENT INFORMATION FURNISHED BY THE PERMITTEE OR REQUIRED BY THE DIVISION.

I certify that the above infoimation is true to best of my knowledge and belief. Signed

Title General Manager - Vogde Electric Generating Plant

Date

I2? /4d't ATi ~5~D

-

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES -,STATE OF GEORGIA

"~

-.

I

.*



,Sf~c 2ooo 6

-GROUNDWATER USE REPORT S(Print at h-56 all hkfocmadwon

'This form shag be submitted to thO DivsIon with 5fteen (15) days afterthe reporting period speoified on the perint under Standard Condition No. 3 , I:, .i

IPewmltee,

Permit No.

Southern Nuclear Operating Compai

ny -

017-0003

This repot Is on the,

YogL&Electric Generatino Plant For six month period from

Cretaceous Sand

ISpec& conductivý

Static water level (SWL) Pumping water level (PWL)

44.7 ft. Elevation 61.0 ft.L lEievaton

t155.8Wi..w no. ?t. Wefl no. (Useadditlonal sheet if ocessary) 30 mil

Fft" 16-M

kin"

K

~I4Ug*P

60

udWe4

et*um

MU-. DI~ate meared 0-25.00 MU-1I Date measured '08-26-00

149.3

•Nurrberofcontiuoshourspumpedfor PWLmeasurement

Method of meas•.reert ( )Air Une: (X) Probe; ( )Tape; Measurement from: (X ) Top of casing; ( ) Ground;

r.~,

thru 08-31-2M

Aquffer used by well(s)G k'nbomd: Ma-W Wels #i ard 2A, C6= tru We #3;,Irrogation We #4,actical Training Well #5, Training Center Weon, Recreation Area Welli,&Wel 1W-1.

Number of hour$shudown for SWL measurement

F 19 4a tsag*

03C1.22000

( (

) Other (Spedfy) ) Other (Specify)

T

Takce readhigs finn ftbtighes Yofd vWOI~). using fte same wefl(cfeach ftie. For

OWlVI2WEIJA

VMY4 WIMLL

M&"~hf Mounot of later pumped torn aquer hinftiu&WndsI ad.

MONTrH

71OTAL 28R.51ow6921

Apr1

34W4.1.965

June

33911.1'.

"uy

33211677.7

Augs GRAND TOA

Monthly AVOiDay

MAX. DAY

mardi

Metild used to determilne purnpage

meter

X 1151.6

1701.5

-te

Seiy

1130A 1140.1

40M.9

17522

20483.5

ANNUAL AVG.I DAY

12

98. 1038.5

Average hours pumped per day, 9-S

'SUCH OTHER PERTINEIIT.INFORMATION FURNIS$ED BY THE PEFIMITTEEOR REQUIRED BY-THE DIVISION.

(-

I certify lWat the above InformiaSon Is true o best of my knowledge and belief..

Sigd

31 n

Tiee

Date

I

I DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES STATE OF GEORGIA GROUNDWATER USE REPORT (Piian ortvne all knimaiator) This form shall be submitted to the Division withn fifteen (15) days after the ruporting period specified on the permit under Standard Condition No. 3 Permittee

Southern NuclearOneratna Company,

Vogte Electrc Generating Pla

Permit No.

017-0003

For six month period from

This repcn is on the

Cretaceous Snd

Specifi Conductivity .Z Staft water level (SWL)

..

03-01-2000

thn 08-31-2000

Aquifer used by well(s) numbered: Make-up Weds 01 and #2A Construction Well 03. Irrigation Wei #4KTactical Trainin Wei 0, Traiing Center Wellk Recreation Area Well, &Wei 1W-1.

mmhoWf ;r 583 ft. 72.3 It.

Purrg water level (PWL)

Number of hours shutdown for SWL measuremen!

.Elevation- 162.5 fL, Wl no. Eevation 148.0 IL Wei no. (Use addizional shee i necessary) 8 mo.

and ne !~a~1'

Finn 1t.5~qfrnh5*a,~ -

Date measured

08-24-00

1W-I

Daft measure

0824-00

Number of conftuous hours pumped for PWL measurement 31 min

Method of rneasuremen ( ) Air Une; ( X) Probe; ( ) Tape;w Measurmentfrom: (X ) Top of casing; ( , )Ground; Vbtak ad wmbi StUMA Ff".14mansalM

"W-1i

) Other (Specif* ) Other O (Specify)

as~f~*iracm4 bel ONL IWEL ULVRW.LSu*in

Takre readkWg 1m toe hgtie yield weNks), the 2e

ONLY 3 WELLS

d3~

wiell(s) eachbm For sa elo hsfra

Morthly wnouxtt d wuter pinped banm aquifer In lhoLsards df gal. MO"Monthly TOTAL

MAX( DAY

Metho used to deftermnne przpag$ AvqiDay Flow n meWe

Averag thow pompW per dar:

ANNAL AV1 .JDAY

CiAMO TOTAL

SUCHOTHER PERTINENT INFORMATION FURNISHIED BY THE FERMITTEe OR REQUIRED 1BY THE DIVISION.I cerlify that the abovE information is true to best of my knowledge and belief.

Signed

Tide

Date

General Manager - Vogde Electric Genoratkv Plant TOTL. P.04

I DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES STATE OF GEORGIA

2Zoolq

'5$j~

GROUNDWATER .USE REPORT lPrlnt or tvoe all informntioni

This form shall be submitted to the Division within fifteen (15) days after the reportng period specified on fte permit under Standard Condition No.3 Permittee

Southern Nuclear Operatfig Company

Permit No.

017-0003

-

For six month pelod from

thru 02-28-2001

09-01-2000

Aquifer used by well(s) numbered: Make-up Wels #1 and 9M Construction Weft.#3.-Irdiga tli Well #4. TactIcal Training Well #5, Training Center Well. Recreation Area Well, &Well TW-1.

Cretaceous Sand

This report Is on the

VogUe Electric Generating Plant

• +•

Specific Conductivity NA mmhos/cm

, )Tape; ( ) Other(Specify) ( ) Other (Specify) ) Ground;

AirUne; ( X )Probe;

(X ) Top of casing;

Measurement from:

"60 bW &M l~ eaW 'Ot"Feid *OXM

(

ONLY I WELL

S01Ow*H e~ ftm Fwgrn&

ONLY 2WELLS

t1-16wag .sit hcin

ONdLY3WELLS

Fmm~ M2.0 wiu" Weftmi

ONLY4WELLS

Fro

30 min

_

Ws bdcWad bloGw aMjtft#&n&Y

lYWS j W 66rn Prm 1-

2-09-2001 2-09-2001

Number of continuous hours pumped for PWL measurement

30 min

Number of hours shutdown for SWL measurement Method of measurement(

MU-2A Date measured MU-2A' Date measured

155.0 , ft. Wel no. Elevation 70.7 ft. 105.3 ft. . Elevation,..120A. ft Wel no. (Use additional sheet If necessary)

Static water level (SWL) Pumping' waterlevel (PWL)

Take readngs from toe highest yield well(s). using the same well(s) each time. For additional wells. folow thIs tonrat

Monthly-umount of water pumped from aquifer in tiousands of gal.

TOTAL

MAX. DAY,

Montl Avg.Day

September

44868.7

2172.7

1495.6

October

538.9

3170.2

1719.3

November

3161.3 47151.2 *" "......,,.+'+ , .: • .• ..

December

48712.8 "+:':

' ""+..

January

37495.5

.

February

MONTH

GRAND TOTAL

ERN



1571.7 •

3288.7

+§ 1571.4A

2605.7

1209.5

37756.6

2124.8

1348.5.

209283.7, T..A.

I DAY ANNUAL AVG.ED S F

1300.2 EEQU.

Method used to determine purmnpage

(X)

Flow meter

Other (Specify) ++

use: For a onsumftuse forcentralwMe bsucoo.ha water, orocess waterfK p

Avera

of Urnis I1&I. ari k"oationt

hours pumped per day E.

SUCH OTHER PERTINENT INFdRi•A. TiON FURMSHED, BY THE PERMITTEE OR IREOIRE

12A

13Y THE DIVISION.

I certify that the above Information is true to best of my knowledge WW bqlief. Signed

- /~,~< 44/

Title

General Manager - Vogue.Electrk GeneratingF

Date%

Y1).2,60 .. ,. .. t.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........

I

v-

f

...

I DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES

STATE OF GEORGIA

GROUNDWATER USE REPORT

I

.PrInt Di Vte a infmatbon This form shall be submitted to the Division wthin fifteen (15) days after the reporting pedod specified on the permit under Standard Condition No. 3. Permittee

Southern Nuclear Operating Compay n

Permit No.

017-0003

This report• son the

Vo0t0e Electric Generating Plant

-

Aquifer used by well(s) numbered: Make-up Wells 91. and #2A, Construction

- Cretaceous'Sand

Specific Conductivity NA Statc water level (SWL) Pumping water level (PWL)

Well #3, 'rr galton Wei #4, Tactical Training Well #5, Training Center Well, Recreation Area Well, &Well TW-i.

mmhos€laL Elevation Elevation

58.9 ft. 71.2 ft.

162.1 .149.8

(Use additional sheet if n Number of hours shutdown for SWL measurement Method of measurement (

35 miin

Date measured Date measured

TW-11 TW-1

ft. Well no. %ft Wellno.

2-28-2001 2-28-2001

sý )

Number of continuous hours pumped for PWL measurement

30 miin

( ) Tape; ( ) Other (Specify) ( ) Other (Specify) ( ) Ground;

) Air Line; ( X ) Probe:

( X ) Top of casing;

Measurement from:

thru 02-28-2001

For six month period from 09-01-2000

ONLY I iic.

Take readings from the highest yield well(s),

Fran

OYeWELL

USing the same well(s) each tine. For

Fran11 waUsgaNfroff

ONLY3WELLS

format additional wells, folow fthi

Franm 1-20 wells-& so from

ONLY 4 WELLS

waidsubn*ap.f

rci 4

sIm

Monthly amount of water pumped from aquier in ftxosands of gaL

TOTL TOTAL

MONTH

MMonthly MAX. DAY

Method used to determine pumpage

AvgJDay

(X)

Flow meter (Specify)

______Other

o eta a osoieu Use; Fo suoely. coowli water. nommess water for

________.___ _

d______oortio Unit I & 2.and

____________~~~~~D

Average hours pumped per day:

ANNUAL AVG. I DAY

GRAND TOTAL

Irlation Of

SUCH OTHER PERTINENT INFORMATION FURNISHED BY THE PERMITTEE OR REQUIRED BYTTHE DIVISION. I certify that the above Information is true to best of my knowledge aid belief.

Title

Signed

i~f (-I-

General

/

Manager - Vogtie Electric Generating Plant

Date

lu

OU3GTLE TECH. SUPPORT

FROM

09:23

SEP-14-2:•i

bP't-, r•-iwl'

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES STATE OF GEORGIA

a.,r--Ir o

I

.

.

StJC Zool 6

GROUNDWATER USE REPORT

U.,

(Prd or tree as Iormiablon) days after to rpong Perod spedfied on th per* (15) fiteen wvithin Division the to "Nbs form shall be submitted

under

Standard Cond•iton No. 3 Peirnhee

Sothem NuclearOperatig Compny Vogte Bleatr

Permit No.

017-0

For six month perfod

vnmhosckm

Spcf Cl Conductivity -Ia Static water leve (SWL)

46.5

pumpin water leI (PNL.)

62.6

Elevation ft. A~. - evetiora

154.0

ft.

We no.

MU.I

Date meas•ued

08-31-01

147.0

ft.. Well no.

:MU-1

Date rmesured

0831-01

(Use addtnal *hee If necessay) rerment

shuown forS#nLime )AlrUne;

Metod ofmessurement(

Number ofcontTnuous hour pumped for PWLmeasurement

23day

(X)Probe; ( )rape;( ( ) Ground:

and 110 ut 0uft

WIvmwh

?w'i 1-5 weU amw

1 rin

) Other(Specay). ) Other(epelfy)

(X )Top of casing;

Measurement from:

thrU 0831-2001

m 03-01-2001

Aquifer used by wel(s) nurn"emd: Make-up Wells #1 end V2A, Constructon We #3, Iigation Well #4. Tactcal Trainkg Well #5, Trlinlng Center Wk.' Recreation Area Welt, & Well TW-I.

Creaceous Sand

ThIs report Is n the*'

Numberofho

Gener~Un Plant

crux w9u

Tal.- readkW *=frmte highet Yield well(s), using the same weff(s) each Urne. For

CMV OK IE.

adoomt

~wels,6is

km=

Monfty Mount a water pumped rom aquer In thoupads of VL

TOALMM.DA

MAX. DAY

TOT"AL.

MetOwd uWe lo determine purinpag

MON

AvQDay (X)

1395.3

March

43253.3

Apri

42M3.3

1?8.$

May

45649.5

20at.3

1431.1

_

Flow meter

Ofthr(Specify.

1472.6

water a Forco•m'na

.akv

____________.__

June

46330.7

2A338

1544A

J-

4.1,7W.6

187L3

152

August

47W5.121.6540

GqRAND TOTAL

27M"3.'

ANNUAL AVG.I DAY

1484.7

w oicex 2mat

Average hom PWipd per day.

SUCH OTHER PERTINENT INFORMATION FURNISHED PYTHE PERMITrEE OR REOUIRED BY THE DMVISiON.

1I24 '.

I certify that the above Infornation is tru to best of my knowledge andbelief.

Tele

Signod

~ ~~/1,fI

~~

Geneal

I-IL,(-

arer - Veape EeCftri

owte; 3erefte~~a Mant 1~

at

t

•:k]-'-14--1•

IU

, ILrr.J

Ia

A~:-UI ,'.'-.

IK

,'tR..

"•a'V

..

a. ý

8..

I

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES STATE OF GEORGIA GROUNDWATER USE REPORT all kInomaiin) (Pein 6r ftYD reporting perlod specified on the permit under This korm shai be submitted to the Dvsion within fifteen (IS) days aftwter 3 No. Standard Condition Penmitnee

Southern Nuclear Operating Company

Permit No.

017-0003

-

YeoiU Elcftri Generatng Plant lhni 08-31.2001

For six month pedod from 03-01-2001

Aquifer used by well(s) numbered: Make-up Wes #1 and 92A, Constrction W61 #3, Itigation Well $4, Tactcal Trairin Wei #5, Training Center Well, Recreation Area Well, &Wel TW-1.

This repow ison 04.' Cretaceoi* Sand 3ivj4 mmhOsafa"

Specific Conduc"

Static water level (SWL)

68.9 ft.

Pumping water level (PWL)

73.0 it.

MU-2A Date measured 08-31-01

IL We11no. IL. Welno. (Use additlonal shad I necessary) Elevation

.157.1

Elevallon

153-0

41 min

Number of hours shutdown for SWL measurement

MU-2A Dam measured

08-31-01

Number of contrnuous hours pumped for PWL measuremert

193 min

)Air Une; (X) Probe; ( ).Tape; ( ) Other (Spocify) Method of measurement ( ) Other (Specify) ( ) Ground: (X ) Top of casing; Measurmwent from: woum 9ft d mommaftr, &Aff.md

V"*

~e

asvsumbt

Monthla

irU

adItamal Wells, follow thius Aonna

3 WflLS

id awaONLY Faim1141wdt

~

Wing the same vmflls) ewh time. For

NLY I Wifts

[email protected]'wt

~tw ~~~run ~

Take readkngu from ft highMs yield WON~).

cwy Iwris.

twtuUg Fl~II15

~

Ow

[email protected],lu.~ #V=WU

ofwaterpumped fS-on aqu~eriu IhwrdiolganL••

MAX. DAY

TOTAL

..

Method used to deteumins pimzpage

Monthly AvgJDay (X)

_ ___ _

Flow meter

Other (Specriy)

__

N ;-use:

F a

Averoge hour, pumped pet day:

ANNUAL AVO. I DAY

GRAND TOTAL

w• j. Cee,,a.wler

SUCH OTHER PERTINENT INFORMATION FURNISHED BY THE PERMITTEE OR REQUIRED BY THE DIVISION. Icertify that the above Infonbmaon Is true to best of my knowledge and befief. Signed

i dL.T/±)fk-~~~~ 1 I

U'

Title

General Manaeger - Vootl Electr

Date

I-)

Generating Plant

1 1TGTA

P.0l3

1.4:44

IMRR-13-2W2I

tAJUIt I-Wt.-"-.

t-tU'

bkX-rLr

f

Au

I

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES STATE OF GEORGIA

.SýJ

:5N L -Z~o :? 0

~RtXJWflWATFR U~E REPORT after Uio reportin period specifid on the permIt under

to the D~sion wfthin lOftumn (15) da" rns form shell be subrmitted W-i J.V Cn!t...4w Penmirre

I PerMRt No.

Southern Nudear OaratiaCmpay - Vce Ele••'c Generatin Pant.

This rep~onIs an the-

. V

For six month period from 09-01-2001

017-0OOM TUCrOU

,802-28-002

AquIfer ubed by well(s) numbered: Make-up Wells #1 end #2A. Constructon Well. Wei #3. Irrigation Well #4, Tactical Trainng Well #5, Training Center

Sand'

Recreation Area Well. &Weg'lw-1. SOWcfi Codctiity WA

mrsho~stvr .4529 ft. 61.2 ft.

Static water level (SWL)

Pumping water level (PW.L) Number of ho

shutdwP for WL meaen t

MU-1 Date measured 02-21-02 MU-1 DWte measured 02-2142

154.6 it. Wellno. Elevai•n 1149.3 ft Wen no. Elevation (Use addifiohal $beet if nece"ary)

Number of conftirous hour pumped for PW mesremegt im,, .

19day

) Other(Specify) (,)Tspe;( methodofmeasurement: ( )AIr Une; (X)Probe; ( ) Other(Specify) (X ) Top of casing; ( ) Ground; Measurement from: W Fftffi 41i

fnP,,i61CWW"WftuI

ONLYZW5.LS

W ftm Pmw11.13 mubgre

CM~Y a KLLS

C

Mcmfth arnt"oufl? wawe Pmzped tra aquifer in fthoinds df FVL

MONTH

I

I.

Sepeme

45363.4

1952.6

Ocber

4673.7

1"27.6

~--

-.

(X)

7''13. 1753.1

November

MetOd W~d to Getm~enw pumznpe

Monthly AvgJDay

MAX. DAY

TOTAL t

-

Tame reading Suti to hi0Me¶ 1ed VqlS). wung toe sarn we(s) each tkne. For adcttonf vWeI, (Wlowtt (ffinat

ONLY IW1L

SWk

Flow meter

1473.3

Othr (Specft)

1450.

Use: aiifw3iLmr

IBWuW19

145&.2

Dec~ier4581VMS78. 166731.1 164.6

1281.6

38994.6

199W.7

13W2.7

25835.0

ANNUAL AVG. I MIkW

January

Feruaiy

GRAND TOTAL

146.4

W-A0

Ow2eretiof U"iIt & 2- sm! Mq~aMi of

Average hours p

ped per day

11.9-

REOLIIRED BY THE IDIVIION. SUCH MTHR PERTN~eiT INFORMVIAON FURNiSHED BY ThE PERMYrVEE OR I certify that fte abofe Irformnation is bmd to best of mny knowledge and beinef. Date

Signed General Manaer

-

I

Vogfe Eleti Gerating lnt

•1

14:44

/

-•

I-Id.q

,W

--XurrL.,,

%AUI.•L-= Orz'.

I

RESOURCES DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL. OF GEORGIA ,STATE

I

GROUNDWATER USE REPORT

.

..

Pun or typ al inf..iatl....n)

.

____._.....

This form shaw be submitted to the Divislon w" Standard Condition No. 3 Permite

Southern Nuclear Operating 2omp

Permit No.

017-0003

fifteen (15) days after the reporfin period spec-fi*d on the pemnilunder

-

Voge Electric Generatin Pla•t

Aquifer used by well(s) numbered" Make-up Webs #1 and #2A. ConstrJuct Well #3 lrdgation Well 14. Tactlcal Trainng Well #5. Trainh9 Cerftr Wed. Recreation Area Well, &Well TW-.

Cretaces Sand

This repor is on the

Specf. Conductivt WA

thu02-28-2002

.0-01-2001

For six month period from

mmh osm 75.1

stalibwater level ({WL)

ft.

9V_.Z r

Pumping water I"v (PWL)

Well no.

Elevation

150A9

ft.

Elevaton

133.3

ft. Well no.

MU-2A Date measured

02-27-02

MU-2A Date measured 02-27-02

(Use additlonal itmet If ecessary) Number of hours Ohutdown for SWL. masuremrent

Methodo" meas

( ) Air Line: ( X) Probe; ( ) Tape: ( )Ground (X)Topofcasing

w

Measurementfrom:

PiV4ime sLml &to -M" Won"

II

. ,4

IS

0,

) Oter (Specify)

( (

) Oftr(Speclly) Take radg om ft hlgWst yeld wql(s), using tf sanernwe(s) each tMme. For addrtional wAlls, folow Mhformta

9

ONLYMSa Wi.. O

11 6., *b'w. FPMM I

Number of continuous hours pumped for PWL measurement 72 min

a days

II

4Wef.&.LN -

MmruUly amourA of wAter pumnped fron aquifer Inthousand. of gal

I memwU~osed to Odereuirue puznpage

(X)

Flow meter Other (Specify) Use Fe t= atiuml

;m0 mca

rinev4nn~uqr rwreephawaut

~

02eMlon 59 unib I A2Iad liowln ft

Aveemgo bows pumped per dayI

IPERTlNENT INFORMATION FURNISHED BY THE PERMITTEE OR REQUIRED BY THE DIVISION. I certify that the above Wformatlon Is true to best of my nowledge and beget. Signed

Title

General Manager. Vogde Electric Generalng Plant

.Date

/?i411rA iYzTDTFL P.04

FROM

12:19

SEP~- 12-2W-42

LUOTIE TECH.

I-c -

-tJPF'RT

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES STATE OF GEORGIA

53C_

I

P. 03

9-r ENV •ERU

lOO7A6

GROUNDWATER USE REPORT

.

. .

-,

. ...

.

EPrInt Co hino ail imftma" ,- - - -.. _.LL.. . ..L,_•

.- ,..

:.

This form shall be subitnted to the Dwrlon within fiteen (IS) day= ar S

• j ..

.

•Io reporting period Specified on the permt under

andard Conditioni No. 3

_

:

_-

Pcrmintee

Soothem Nuclear Operatlng Company - Voyqe Eloctric Generating Plant

Permit No.

017-0003

For six month pedod from _0_3.O-2002

This report is on the

Cretaceous Sand

Spv~Codutiit

iQ....mmhostcm

Static water level (SWL Pumping water level (PWL)

-.....

-

thru 08-31-2002

Aquifer usod by well(s) numbered: Make-up Wells 41 and 2A, Construction Wal #3, IrrigatiornWell 4, Tactical Trarinng Well #5. Training Center Well. Recteation Area Well, & Well TW-1, 49.7 54.7

It. ft-

Number of hours shutdown for SWL me.rement

Elevation Elevaton

150.8 145.8

Well no. Wel no. (Use addilional sheet Ifrecessary) 0.5 hi.

MU-i MU41

)

Other(Spoecify)

_

Take readncg from the ghest yield well(s), Lusng the same well(s) aach lime For addRItormi wells, foIow týs format

ON&Y3WELIS OF&V 4 W2LLS

From 1fi-M otf-a * Fmnrw

0.6 hr.

) Other (Specify)

ON&Y* WELL11

Froni11.175w4e".9mtom

Date measured, 08-14-02 Dale measurod 08-14-02

Number of oontinuous hours pumped for PWL measurement

Methodofmeasurement( )AirUne. ( X) Probe, ( ) Tape;( Measurement *rmn: (X Top of casing; ( ) Ground; (

5'0 .ý ufl~sse~f~

ft. ft.

I

Montl~y amorit at water pianped from aquier in t'iousnds of gWJ.

MONTH

TOTAL

KUX. DAY

45179.6

*680.4

monthly AvgiJDay I

4

MardtIt

Meth-od used to deormlne ptunpage

1457.4

-

-

(X)

Flow meter

4..

APnl

40141.5

1906.2

may,

3921A

3020-9

1284.0

422863

249

1409.S

July

363M5.9

1821.6

1173.1

Auguet

21M38.0

1060.8

914.1

232132.9

ANNUAL AVG. I DAY

3IMA.1

Other (Specify) Use: For a ==ZbmedyjAA Iolenrl'~~ Ip~pbl.acoling water, pmoces jaten1go

June

;

GRAND TOTAL

UCH OTHER PERTINENT NF

(-¶fity

1346.1

eetlnof vaneIt12. arld irdioty0n

10.6

Av~terihokui pumped per day

FURNISHED BY THE PERMTTEE OR RE'QUIRED BY THE DIVISION.)

that the above Informaiton is true to best of my knowledg and btlief." Signed

Title G

Mihg"

Vogob 0ecfti GeheraisnoPint

Date

."

SEP-12-2002.

LUOGTLE TECH.

FRIM

12.220

'TO

SUPPORT

P.04

SNC ENU SERU

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES STATE OF GEORGIA

GROUNDWATER USE REPORT (P..•r or DU all infrom wo dais after the reponktg perlod specified on the permit under (15) fifteen within Divis•on to the submitted This form shall be .•tAnda•d Cnditlon No. 3 Standard Conclitlon No. 3 Permittee

Southern Nuclear O0aerr

permnit No.

017,03.

This report is on the

Specific Conductivity

- VoZt Electric Getwating PaN*

CoMn

mmho/cnm 33.8

SaIc water level (SWL) Pumping water level (PWL)

.

Number of hours shutdown for SWL measurement

Measurement from:

Well no.

Rec Ctr Date measured

08-23-02

114.5 It. Welno. Elevation (UsM addtional sheet if necessary)

Rec Ctr Date measured

08-23-02

It.

53.Y

134.4

Elevation

0.5 hr.

(X ) Top of casing-,

WhWu w'da UO&

prflzo

*0! t4

) Ground;

(

01MS6XwieI

ONLY I WE.LL

9d "ML From 6-10 we~lwa

omywLIsu

*sedF'oM 10-20a~~

4 from

(

) Other (Specify) ) Other (Specify)

as Indczi#4 bgiws

Fiw, 1-3 u%% a M~fr~fi li~mONLY Fga 1-15w!~e

ft.

Number of contnuous hours pumped for PWL measurment 0.5 hr.

) Ar Line: ( X ) Probe: ( ) Tape;

Method of measuremert (

thru. 08-31-2002

Aquifer used by we0(s) numbero d: Make-up Weas 41 and *2A, Construction Well #3. Irdgagon Well #4, Tactic al Training Well #5, Traiing Center Well. Recreation Aroa Well &Wel TM -.1.

Cretaceous Sand

-_4g$-

03 1.=02

For sx month period from

_

Take readng from the highest yield wuel(s). us4ng th same welk(a) each time. For addiftnal wells, follow this formal

3 WELILS ONLY 4WLLS

Mm"arymounl Of wlater wnmped from aquter In thousarids oil931.

I.

Method used to deterine ptxnqtge

C)

Flow merer

Other (Specify) Use;

~agj~rrJp -ortof at nit I A 2. and -ofta~gu

co o"I

1=04l%

Average hour jxsnped per 4W.: I

SUCH OTHER PERTINENT INFORMATION FURNISHED BY THE PERMITTEE CA REQUIRED BY THE DIVISION.

9

I certfy that the above information is true to best of my knowledge and belief.

Sig~d A~ f

Tid

Date

neral Manager -Voole Electric Generating Plant GecL~G TOTAL

P.

A4

I Southern Nucleir

Operating Company, Inc.

P C.aox I M

,3it-ingrarm.AlIe

r.r"3521?-123r-

SOUTHERN A COMPANY Energy to Serve You r Wo rd'.

ENV-02-187

September 13,

2002

FEDERAL EXPRESS Vogle Electric Generating Plant Ground Water Use Permit No. 017-0003 Semi-Annual Report Mr. Bill Frechette Senior Geologist Water Resources Management Branch State of Georgia Environmental Protection Division 205 Butler Street, S.E., Room 1166 Atlanta, Georgia 30334 Dear Mr. Frechette: Water In accordance with standard condition #3 of the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant Ground Report. Use Water Use Permit (No. 017-0003), enclosed is the semi-annual Ground 2A, we Additionally, due to problems encountered in measuring water levels in Make-up Well water pumping and static have designated the Recreation Center well for measuring and reporting by you with levels and specific conductivity required by the permit. This change was discussed this that understood Ms. Amy Greene, of my staff, in a telephone call on August 30, 2002. It is change is acceptable to EPD. If you have any questions, please contact Amy Greene at (205) 992-5809. Sincerely,

Wayne C. Car', Manager Environmental Services WCC/ABG

Enclosure

I

ENV-02-187 Mr. Bill Frechette State of Georgia Environmental Protection Division Pago Two brc:

J. T. Gasser (w/o) G. R. Frederick W. F. Kitchens (w/o)

1.A. Bailey (w/o) 1. A. Kochcry (wlo) B. D. Carter (w/o) A. E. Wilder (w/o)

S. Sundaram (w/o) C. M. Burke

REES Routc T. C. Moorer I K. W. McCracken I A.H. Lovoy ES Files E.03.34 SNC Documcnt Management - Vogde

I

SVC BLDG 2ND FLOOR

:

7068263787

PAGE

03

1'-

immIA- Prot

(IL

MR.i

Groundwater Use Report, to the Division tMiceeach yeAr,'within the reporting period specfied on the Thls form shall be submitted

Groundwater Withdrawal Permit under Standard Condition No. 3.

_________________

L Ifrritln

~ltr

Information

~

2~'~

bK;

Emaih: [email protected] i ne: (20S) 992-6387 i Contact Person: W. C. Can" Plant Company / Permlttee: Southern Nuclear Operating Company / VogUe Electric Generating Address: P. 0. Box 1295, Birmingham, Alabama 35201 (No. and Street)

(rip)

(Statel

(City)

For six (6) month period from July 2002 thru December 2002 GW Withdrawal Permit No.: 017 - 0003 I Countv where well(I is located: Burke Ciunty. G;A i

....



............





N/ N/A

/2002 /2002 12002 e(bin

J3uly ,hAugust

Y Oc.fo]e

Septeber

1N/A

2002

N/A

/2002

B..

I

"-

...........

;

Aa ~Flow a lilA gal N/A gal gaNlAn N/yA gal

gal

N/A

gal _gau

meter"

0y [ Other (specify

below)

gal gal

mtlon Is true to the best of my knowledge.

October 2002

I

Vogtle Electric Generating Plant- Permit No. 017-0003

Annual Specific Conductance* Obtained from:

MU-I Well

Obtained on:

08/14/02

Value (pmhos/cm):

150

Obtained from: Obtained on: Value (omhos/cm):

Rec Well 08/23/02 405

*Submitted with previous report on 0913/02.. ,

D

I

VogUe Electric Generating Plant - Permit No. 017-0003 Annual Specific Conductance Obtained from:

MU-1 Well

Obtained on: Value (pmhos/cm):

06105/03 175

Obtained from: Obtained on: Value (pmhos/cm):

Rec Well 06/05/03 230

aI

S.

.~V

I--.

01/29/ 2003

13:53

AE0 94 PAGE

LO N FLOOR SCBD BLDra 2ND SVC

7068263797

Groundwater Use Report

on the This form shall be submitted to the Division twIce eacb year, within the reporting period specified Groundwater WV drawal verrnit unuer StfanUaru

ouuuuon 140.

(Print onfALLormation Phone: (20S) 991-6387'

Contact Person: W. C. Carr

1Eal

tarwtec~o

Company / Permittee: Southern Nuclear Operating Company I Vogtle Electrlc Gnerating Plant Address: P.O0. Bo 1295, Birmingham, Alabama 35201_. For six -(6) month WWio from 3ul 2002 thru December 2002

GW Withdrawal Permit No.: 017 - 0003 County where weff(s) is located: Burke CQUnUY. MA This reporxt is on the 0%K.t=&5Wsar•

/2002 12002 August /2002 [September /2002 October

INovember

December

/2002

36365800 28338000 2S129700 26532400

4

gal gal gal gal

11173100 914100 837700 855900

gal gal gal

±31362400

gal

1045400

gal

-2370 32137900 179866200

/2002

Static water level (SWL)*"*

50.8

Pumping water level (PWL)*** 55.7 I

aquif'er(s) used by well(s) numbered LW:"

it. ft.

-agal

al gal

I 1036700

Avr Average hours pumped pernIA

gal Eevaon,49.7 Elevation 144.8

(use adftwrni

12 flow meter Other (specify below)

ft. t. "Well

o.1U-,

Date measured 12-04-02

no. MU-i

Date measured 12-04-02

sheet It necessary)

measurement 0U. Number of hrs shutdown for SWL measurement D.. Number of continuous hrS pumped 1or PWL [I Other.(speciy) [: Tape N Probe 0 Air line Method of measurement:

Measurement from:

0

Top of casing

[I Ground

.

El Oter (specify)

October 2002

I

GaJikJ!"14a :;!

:i•"• •i•

Protectlion tlmm l of Natra'l| RMoor1: s ,

•:/: 'I~~Dep~

"a

iJzoq Groundwater Use Report on the spoefied reportinrgperiod the witln Division twice each year, This form shall be submittedto the Grundwater5Witdiawal Permit under Standard'Condition rNo. 3.

7

-

30 I.

rn

,

d , k'

'fii - ,G2al~

D

lr

pme

atnngam 3S201....•:_=IAem,•r AL .......

0.640 1295.... Address: P'03: 4.

February

V.. /2.003

Mardh

/2003

"AprIL .

20607400

2544•7800

gal

. 1200.1X

21725800

gal

724200

Pupingw'ater level (PWL•)*** 50.2

ande

gal

Well no. M~U-i:.: hspme ~

Numrber'c6? hris shutdWn for SW4imasuierFlent U~. Nubr(cntinoJ

...

D:a~te m~easue 06.05'.-03 W

esrmn

' rb~0Tape

imT,g*fqcaqLrao

I Measuýreent from

____......

r Ote(specfy)_ W&ud0 te (specify

,Alrlne 0ýefeo

-Md

___.......

gal

ft

Elevatonl•50.3.

;.ft,

OtC.(specfy below)

gal

13000

.gal

r neces(aty) 820900

M.eadiioa

f

below: Obtain and submit appropriate sets of water level measurements as indicated

the Division. And such other pertinent information submitted by the applicant or required by I

1 ecerify

i

tat

th

a

t

the

est

o

my-kowle

ski Oftbr 2=0

I

P"Miauft

[email protected])

GroundWater Use ReportThis formtshall be Submitlted to the Division twice each year,Nai. withln the reporting::-"perlod specified on the t•rnlarnt41u~tI~u WVihdl~~rfr ~ntit Don,,I9 l 4~nrIrA •lm 4rl~rin ]: "'"-•"

(Printor tpe ALL In1`brMaon). Pemite

Infomaio

jContact Per-oh: W. C.Ca

Phone: (205) 992-6387 Email:.. [email protected] Company/I Perrnittee: SouthernNuclear Operating Co~npany/IVog~e Ele~ctcGenerating Plant Address: P. ). Boc 1295, Birmingham, AL 35201 (Nm

and 5bEet)

(city)

(tt)(0

GW Withdrawal Permit No.: 017- 0003 For six (6) month period from January 2003 thru June 2003 County where well(s) Islocated: Burke County. GA This report is on the Cretaceous Sand aquifer(s) used by well(s) numbered M IMI I-7A TW-I_-

Rpr. ("A

Static water level (5WL)v

mnei M--_ WM-4

ý7..5 ZI

Pumping water level (PWL)***44.1

-

. M J Elevation 143.5 • "Ift j Well no. Rec. ft. Elevation 124.1, ft. Well no. Rec.

Date measured 06-05-03 Date measured 06-05-03

.(useaddionai sheet itnecessay)

Number of hrs shutdown for SWL measurement M. Number of continuous his pumped for PWL measurement 0U. Method of measurement: 0 Air line 0 Probe [:! Tape 0 Oftr(spedf) __ ....-. MeMrmrmknt fronm



I"

JIM Tnn 4 9

I certify that the boVon

-a Uan to thieIbetof: y knbwlfdge.-

Signed Chemistry Superintendent

Tidle



DaOec.ober"200. skl October 2002

I I

e

~~5NCý

ZOO-2 1,-.

JI

M

GW~JmenwiPetol

(

D•,.patmeeI of NatmwaJ ,Mouco~s

Groundwater Use Report

This form shall be submitted to the Division twice each year, within the rePlrtg period spedfled on the v

I.IUI'I

V

rIlll ziulmlg&

u UIIUl

.uv.t%f'.a.I

llUUl4i

Iau

[email protected]:ureont..Aom C.nty• whereels)n W: b Southr Nucear Operating Company Vyge Eetric Generating Plantwl Company IP e Cret: Address: P.O0. Box 1295, Birmingham, AL 352DI•" (Z• (St~e) faCy) (ft and g~ejd bemo Dc tm 2003 frorn.July period month (6) six iFor GW Withdrawal Pemrnl No.: 017 - 0003 •:",,..:.

County where well~s) Is located: B•rkre County_ GA

aquier~s) used by wells) numbered M-

Th~s report ison the CafNMSlnd MI7A-•A MI

TW-I. - S-9;_ Rp. ('W-V andv IW-4I

I w Fiow meter

gai

II August

/2003

gal

N/A

QISeptember -

October

I

1*

rWmnIPJ

/2003 " /2003 /2003

12003

t

.~~I

Y

-

"-

gal gal gal

N/A

N/A N/A

1K.

Static water level (SWL)r* 25.0 Pumping water level (PWL)*** 44.7

I

-

-

g

N/A

oallI

-

Wse addftowiw

gal 1 gallI I

WA

-

M/A

j Average hours pumped

fI. ft.

Elevaton 143.2 Elevation 123.5

ft. ft.

gal

N/A I

J0[ Other (spef below)

N!A

Date measured 12-05-03 Date measured 12-05-03

Well no. Rec. Well no. Rec.

eet ne E!ýg

Number of hrs shutdown for SWL measurement M,. Number of continuous hts pumped for PWL measurement 0. 0 Other (specify) [0 Tape ID Probe [ Air line Method of measurement:

0[

ED Top of casing

Measurement from:

And-

s

o

o

.

Ground

0

b..

Other (specify)

.ti

n

-

o.

Is true to the best of my knowledge.

l

I

VogUe Electric Generating Plant - Permit No. 017-0003 Annual Specific Conductance Obtained from: Obtained on: Value (pmhos/cm):

MU-1 Well 12/05/03 138-

Obtained from: Obtained on: Value (pmhoslcm):

Rec Well 12/05/03 291

j

I

Deprleu el NawreI ResoUra

Groundwater Use Report

Division twice each year, within the reporting period specfled on the to the submitted form shall behl~klt~us This ,unAbrn _€t-=nd:,l r~ttnditlonr No. 1.. Darw-,l ,-,,~.,..,,,..,.4

,(Print or WeALL Inormation_ Email: [email protected] (205) 992-37 Cntac Person: W. C. Carr Company I PermIttee: Southern Nuclear Operating Company / Vogtle Electric Generating Plant Address: P.O. Box 1295, Birmirngham, AL 35201 Kfty) (Nao. and Wteet) County where well(s) Is lowted: Burke County, GA This report Ison the Cretaceous Sand

July August September October November December

/2003 12003

/2003 /2003

/2003 /2003

-and

aquifer(s) used by well(s) numbered E&L-I&

N-4

gal gal gal gal

29006400 28191900 28645900 25512600 120453700 24300500 156111000

Static water level (SWL)*** 45.1 Pumping water level (PWL)*** 49.8

rO)

For six (6) month period from July 2003 thru December 2003

GW Withdrawal Permit No.: 017 - 0003

-1-

,cor.Com

gal gal gal ft. It.

Elevation 155.4 Elevation 150.7 Oise aduonat

gal -1 Row meter 0 Other (specify below) gal

935700 909400 954900 823000 681800 783900 ft. ft.

t ne52 qeet

gal gal gal

Well no. MLJ4 Well no. MU-1

_

I Average hours pumped per day 7,. Date measured 12-05-03 Date measured 12-05-03

)

Number of hrs shutdown for SWL measurement M. Number of continuous hrs pumped for PWL measurement 0. 0 Tape C0 Other (specfy) . 0 Probe CI Air line Method of measurement: ~I Tonof casino fl Ground []Other (sedfvy) , I~i wrpnner ftarom Obtain and submit appropriate sets ofwater level measurements as indicated below:

And such other pertinent information submitted by

appllc*ant or*'required by the Division.

Is true to the best of my knowledge.

Date

:5Jc -"•

w,

.•

OvL. ZX

70B8263787

14:57

07/0712004

"•

fellkt'

L"r#"tt

s.zi4

r w1%..

I

2004.q .

Groundwater Use Report

rW n the rin ong pedod d:e,•W on the Thisform shall be .submtted to the ivision twice each yer, ,.. Groundwater Withdiawal Permit under Standard Condition No. 3.•

C.Par _omd PqrsoW.c.V.,

,

..

Phone: .... (205)

387

z_

Ccxopaný*'/ Per•Uie: S=ourn'Nudear.Opet•V. Comrany IVogUe Mecic GeeAtng Plant Adress: 'P. C). Bb MS9, BlIffnngtam, AL 35201 .1 wr.a W

Md3

GWPemitNo.;017Wthdawa 003

w h eAe Well(s) Is

Burke"

For 's

U.Nurrb

ofWWn0usiws punime frbPW

D flIrud

1,'0

o

JO06*

reet

' -1 ýzý'-1

...

U. -

- --

lC

at thie,abovoi Informautionl k tr~ie to the beit Of iny

Date

-0:

WAsui=

N-/A -/2W February'nS

I.m meseh jNumber of hrs shutdWn for PW& IAiI6roe Mefthodofmen ItntfeIn Mo~teiwyruwin* wm

(Ot hi(

or b; (6)mont perio frqrn January 2W0 tI~ou une,2004.. Aohtedm aCou/A...

r[e~fge.~

27

C4 K~tch~r2OO2~

I

Use Report

Groundwat

ed on the

tted to the Division twice each year, within the reporting peod

This form shall be su

I Permit under Standard Conditlon.No. 3.•.., v.

Groundwater Withdra

Iatin•t...' nGener

a Operig Copay / Vogte Electric Company I Permitee: Southern N 35201 Address: P. O. Box 1295, Birmigham, C . No. ad . .

County where well(s) s opted: Sa This report ison the qn

1t



For six (6) month period frog(July 2003 thru December 2003

GW Withdrawal Permit No.: 017,' 0003

.2

or992

+

-

Contact Person: W.•Ca

,

.

. .. ' aduer(s) used by well(s) numbered tj,

.. .

W4

July August

/2003, /2003

29006400 .al 28191900

gal .90

September

/2003

28645900*

gal/

954ft

October November._.

/2003 I/2003

al

8 681800

0 Row meter galu 0 Other (specify be.ow) gal _"_ gal " gal gal."!I

December

12M,3

gal,

7839Q

gal

.

5700

25512600 f 20453700

24300500- _7 156111000

Staticwater leel(M .L)...45.1 Pumping water level (P•W)*** 49.8

gledayi

ft. fl

155. evat

MU-1

Date measured 12-05-03

ell nMU-1

Date measured 12-05-03

"ELeatjon ft. Well ft..

150.7

Average hours pumped

.

add~oMa shed if

Number of hrs shutdown for SWL meas

Method of measuremrent:

I certit

htt~

[IAlr~ie'

ent Qj. Number -of contInuous hrs PUM

~Probe

01 Tape

for R& measurem

0 Oth er s e )

t U.

. ... ....c.. . ,

o9no~~to Is tuet to the best of my knowledge. amss

Signied a. Dudle Cartr ChemLsiySutein

litle,

7-. t.ten:de-t

January 16, 2004 Date ^.4.1

--

I

Endosure,.,w Mr. Bill Frechette

State of Georgia Environmental Protection Division Page Two

bo... P. D. ROshton (w6o)

"

W.F. Kitchens, A. Harris (w(o)

C. L. Buck (wlo) S. Sundaram (w/o)

D.G. Goodwin

T. D. Blalock (wlo)

J. B. Wetherington (w/o) SNC Document. Management

-

Vogtle (with reieipt)

P!

,q,

~...

I 87/0772804

PAGE

SVC ELDG 2ND FLOOR

70S82S3787

14:57

87

Groundwater Use Report

This form shall be submitted to the Division twice each year, within the repofttng perio specitled an the Groundwater Withdrawal Permit under Standard Condition No. 3,

.

(Print or MeALL nforfmation) cotact Person W. CCa r

Phone: (205) 992-637

Emai.: wNcarrs6utemcom•n_ Company / Permltee, Southern Nudear Operatin Company / Vogde Electrc Generating Plar•t' Address P.O. Bamc 1295, BirmiNham, AL 35201

GW wfthd.dl Pemi No.: 017.-o003 County wher lwel(s)

For su (6)mnthm peio fro 3anua 200 thu June 20

1s.oa4wd" C fit . GA

uThisreport ison the Cnreta 2-0SW- a•nd ....

.3anuary Mardt

" ' r

S

/2004

36257200

gal

1169600

124tqMM

17318W

gal

614900gk

/2004

21041400

gad

578800

0upe

Methodoun rement of Hesrmenthfrom:

m

"" _otiu* aquifehs) used I-*by well(s) numbent *

,Mil, 9 I[

l

hQL

W

[j.We .m (,spec be"' -gad

rome fkln TaquifOer(s)peah MNT

Syte Toptfa

IPumpin water levmel (PWI)*** S1.4

ft,

lU fround

MonthlyAer

Elevation 149.1

ft.

detemin

ag

Webl no. Iri1

punpa

Date measured 06-08-04

Number of hrs shutdown 1or MLI measurement 01 Number of continuous hs .pumpedfor PWL measurement.0,

Metl'

of easurement:

I"3 Air line

Mesueen mm-

sc

[3 Tape

[I oter(spa*f)

0I Top of cgg C3 Ground 0• Ot (spe )

Obanadsb

Ari

19 Probe

ote

i

petnn

lpoUit

inomto

esO

sumte

1ae

lee

..)

th

mWS1elet

,. is

plcnSrrqirdb

ini

atdbl

h

iiin

I certify that the aboigm Information is true to the best of my knowledge. •k•

Chemftiy Manaqe

Dage ald

Mbaber 2002

I

C 5 NC_ ?k'oo*

.. v. irmental Protection

of Natural R4imps

e". lU.ai.flai

Groundwater Use Report

This form shall be submnitted.to the Division twce eac.h year,. within t•e reporting periodsip'ecified on the'

",

Groundwater Withdrawal Permit under Standard Condition INo. V.

i

Q05

Contad Person!: Tom Msoorero•

US

Company]l Perm~e Southern, Nuclear Operating Company Ivogie: glectricGenerating Plant ..... ... . Addre~ss P. 0. Box 1295, Birmingham, AL 35201 -..

k

,

..

...

No.:.-d017t.4 0003

F' br a _ ....

"W ........

.an•w

(N

.

_w • ,0.:. ........ o•- oo3 .::... I~ s(6) mon...

....

..

.

.-

: .

.

30.



De em

-Ci0y4

.

:..::""..."-'

e 2004• p)

period from July..4triDcmbr20 '.....".,

:.:,

1r theQd~sbwel~s)nu Sad1'br Thisreprt

o6.unty wher.•.well(s)Islocated: Burke QourifGt

gal

.. a ...

gal

§,

:24420

.200-C.-,X,: j•

.... D:ecerrib•t"

"

2175S700

204 Noeme-

..gal

"

2W6G5900

94150'•lf0 235ýW

.,

E:Other(Mxclry below) . .... ' .

_..gal. gal.

,

gal'

701800

gal..

71$W .-

al

-. 673:100, ,...

]Average hours pumped

per day 6i.6

......

Total::-•: ,Zan Mont .Sta.idwatiý level (S•L)•.*

6a.g g.|•:::

30

30498100 29187600 :217059DO

12004:•:,: Juy 20,:"'August'•' ./2004 ,September -October-.... /2W_...

iElewatlon45453" :::

46O.,:.0

PumInp.• waer level (PWL)*** 50.2%... .. _: ...

1m 20q• ...... ...e"measurd

MU... ...... el... no;J-"'

ft.,:, l le*16on150.33, :-ft *Well no. MU-1- ••Dater . easure 12-02-04": "- , • .. .' " '- ... a dditon alshet a wk ry) " :~~~~~~(Use

o:f doniquos hrs pumped for PWL maueet05 _Number of~hM shutdown fior SWik measuremen QS;ul1. .ie "'y .V6 -l•;(ý Ta• " •Probe Method.!peasuremnent; :-r:.Ar0n

*i.k

a

.

162 W ELL

. .-

..

WELL,

S)!

..

....

.....

....

well[s) e'a&.t,

.ir ..

.

.

of my knowledge. best istrue to the information I certify that the above ,? .:. -•-- . :- : ..: • .. :. ,,::--t . .: •... • r ,, /, •IF

JJ•f

Sined.,...•

Clifton L. Buck, Chemi02

Thie 01-05-05 Date

. .. ;. . ,

anager

,. .S.

Return Report To:

f

.. :'

: 4'I:r4

-

-

Georfja Environmnental Pýrotection Division, M&I Goundwsiter Unit Floyd Tower East, Suite 1058:. Atlanta, Georgia 30334 OOC66bý1202

I

Protection Enuvronmenta! ..•• : D•pdflmn.z! l81 adItdl iUf4sor' ...

.:..

Groundwater, Use Report

This !orm shall be submitted to the Divisio"n twice'each year, within the reporting period'specifted on the Groundwater Withdrawal Permit under Standard Condition1No. 3.

,

or

i,

ALL inforifatronat Email: [email protected]:

(205S 992-5807

A Phon

Contc. Person: Tom Moorer

Crnpany / Permittee: Southern Nucear Operating Company t VogtteElecti Generating Plant Address: P. 0. Box 1295, Birmingham, AL 35201 (No. andet

ZI)

yt_

.

For sbi (6) month perlod from July 2004 thru December 2004.,

GWWithdrawal Permit No.: 017 - 0003 County where well(s) is located: Burke County. GA This report Is on the Cretaceous Sand

aquifer(s) used by well(s).numbered.M (in gallons)

Method

-e

....

gal Flow meter..

/

• "gal.

/. • -. I .... I

Six M.o..th-:Granc• TotaI

__.___.....__

.

. : . :_,•,:,

§atic water level,(SWL.)*** 28 SPumping .water level (PWL)*** 47.4

-

gal' ....

"...g'al "- =." ...... .:.i.. a.•

~~~(Use afddtonal Muge

(sp

gal-, gal.

_her y below) ,

:

Average hburs pumped gal .; . day :. ,er.I. Date measured 12--02-04 : Date measured 12-02-04

ft.'. Well no. Per. ft. Well no. Rec

Llevation I1,40.2 E t ft.I Elevation 126A8 "

..

..

ga__l___.o-t

.gal]

.

/

if ncsay

'Number of hrs shutdown for SWL measurementi.•: Number or continuous, hrs- pumped for PWL measurement 05

0

EI Air line'

Method of measurement: Measurmn ro:0Tpo

0

ang

Probe God

El Tape 0 Other (specify) 0 Oter (pecfy)

is"11 e

Aj 11-15 web i Fmm~ 9

* -

.*.

.

.

.4

I certify that the above inormation islfue to the.best of my knowledge.

Sig-ned

"

Clifton L. Buck, Chemistry Manager "hUe 01-05-05 Date

Return Report To: Georgia Environmental Protection Division M&l Groundwater Unit Floyd Tower East, Suite 1058 2 Martin Luther Kingjr. Drive Atlanta, Georgia 30334 October 2002

I a

C

4.

VogUe Electric Generating Plant - Permit No. 017-0003

64.

Ainual Specific Conductance Obtained from: Obtained on: Value (pmhos/cm):

MU-1 Well

Obtained from: Obtained on: Value (pmhos/cm):

Rec Well 12/02/04 170

12102/04 174

I

|

Southern Nuclear

Operating Company. Inc. Post Office Box 1295 Bifntngham, Alabama 35201-1295 Tel 205.992.5000

A

SOUTHERN COMPANY Energy toServe YourWorld"

File: E.03.34 Log: EV-04-1284 July 28, 2004

FEDERAL EXPRESS Voqtle Electric Generating Plant Ground Water Use Permit No. 017-0003 Semi-Annual Report Mr. Bill Frechette Municipal & Industrial Groundwater Permitting Unit State of Georgia Environmental Protection Division 2 Martin Luther King, Jr. Drive SE East Tower, Suite 1058 Atlanta, Georgia 30334 Dear Mr. Frechette: In accordance with standard condition #3 of the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant Ground Water Use Permit (No. 017-0003) and Rule 391-3-2-.08, enclosed is the semi-annual Ground Water Use Report for the first half of 2004. Please note that the amount reported for January 2004 is significantly higher than other months in the reporting period. It has been determined that the totalizer for Well MU-1 malfunctioned during the month and actual water used was substantially less than reported. There is not enough Information available to estimate the effect of the totalizer malfunction on water usage in January 2004. Southern Nuclear Operating Company is therefore conservatively reporting the value as shown on the totalizers. Although the reported value is substantially higher than the actual use, no permit limits were exceeded. The totalizer was repaired on January 27, 2004 and subsequent values reported are correct. If you have any questions, please contact Amy Greene at (205) 992-5809. Sincerely,

Wayne C. Carr, Manager Environmental Services WCCIABG:ahl

Company, Updated (SNC 2005) Southern Nuclear Revision 13, January 31.

Final Safety Evaluation Report,

MArCE Lk4OA0Jr-

Water Users Savannah River Basin Fact Sheet

US Army Corps of Engineers Savannah District THURMOND LAKE

sORKs AUGUSTA WAteR AUGUSTA HNDI

PLANT OPERATIONS PLANT VOGTLE

Major Water Users Providing water supply to area communities and industries is a very important function of Hartwell, Russell and Thurmond Lakes. However, many people are unaware that the lakes and dams also work together in providing water supply needs below Thurmond Dam all the way to Savannah, Georgia. In fact, the majority of major water users on the Savannah River are on the Georgia side, below Augusta. 80% of the water used is cleaned and returned to the river. The Savannah River National Wildlife Refuge also needs a steady flow of fresh water to preserve the ecological balance within its freshwater ponds, located near the mouth of the Savannah River. Hartwell Dam &Lake P.O. Box 278 5625 Anderson Highway Hariwell, GA 3D643-0278 706-856-0300 1-883-893-0678 www~sas.usace.army.miftakesflartwenf

I

Richard B. Russell Dam & Lake 4144 Russell Dam Drive Elberton, GA 303635-9271 706-213-3400 1.80-944-7207 www.sas.usace.armyrny~Iiiakes/gijseIi

J. Strom Thurmond Dam & Lake Rt. 1, Box 12 Highway 221 Clarks Hill, SC 29821-9703 864-333-11100 1-800-533-3478 www.sas.uaaoe.army.miiL~akesfljhunyond

U5AC F M 1cV US Army Corps

of Engineers Savannah District

SAVANNAH RIVER BASIN COMPREHENSIVE RECONNAISSANCE STUDY

JULY 1999

SAVANNAH RIVER BASIN COMPREHENSIVE RECONNAISSANCE STUDY, 1. STUDY AUTHORITY-

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Savannah

District, is conducting a Savannah Rivet Basin Comprehensive Study"(SRBC),as outlined in the Water Resources Development Act of 1996, Section 414 (Public Law 104-303). The SRBC shall address the current and future needs for flood damage prevention and reduction, water supply, and other related water resource needs in the Savannah River Basin. The scope of the study shall be limited to an analysis of water resources issues that fall within the traditional civil works mission of the USACE. In addition, the study will be coordinated with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the ongoing Savannah, River Basin Watershed Project (SRBWP) being conducted by the Agency of the Savannah River Basin. 2. STUDY PURPOSE., The purpose of this expedited reconnaissance! study is to identify water reallocation issues in the Savannah River Basin and evaluate the extent of Federal interest in locally cost. shared feasibility studies for water resource needs, as identified in Enclosures 1-7 of this report. Because the current allocations and designated uses of the Federal reservoirs in the Savannah River Basin are now outdated, there is a need for a comprehensive reevaluationoof upstream and downstream uses and requirements.

Such a

comprehensive water resources study would include the development of an updated plan addressing current and future needs in the .basin, examine reallocation of storage at Corps of Engineers multi-purpose projects, and develop a better management structure to address basin water resources issues, including environmental restoration opportunities.

3.

LOCATION OF PROJECT/CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. The project area consists of the main stem of the Savannah River Basin which includes all or portions of 44 counties within Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina (Figure 1). The surface area of the basin is comprised of approximately 10,577 square miles, of which approximately 5,821 are in Georgia; 4,581 square miles are in South Carolina; and 175 square miles lie in North Carolina (Figure 2).

I

The senators in Georgia are Honorable Max Celand and Hlon6rable Paul Coverdale and those in South Carolina are Honorable Strom Thurmond and Honorable Fritz Hollings. Table 1

displays the representatives of the congressional districts within the basin area. Table 1. Congressional Districts and Representatives in Savamiah'River Basin Siaite

'

Congr's4ionalDisirict

Representative

1

Jack Kingston

9

Nathan Deal

10

Charlie Norwood

S11

John Linder

2

Floyd Spence

3

Linsey Graham

Georgia

South Carolina

The 1998 population estimate of the portions bf the counties withifx the study area is 1.08 million, with the majority located in Georgia (637,310 people). The city of Savannah, located in Chatham County in Georgia, is the largest municipality in the study area, with an estimated population of 136,262 as of 1996. The city of Augusta, located in Richmond County in Georgia, had a 1996 estimated population of 41,783. Augusta is situated in the central portion of the basin ad is the largest city in the study area.

Due to the differing types of issues facing the upper and lower portions of the basin, the Savannah River Basin water issues are separated into the upper region and the lower region. The upper region is comprised of the city of Augusta and the basin area north of Augusta, and is characterized by urban areas, recreation developments and farming centers. The lower region consists of the area south of Augusta and is characterized by sparsely populated areas, wetlands and agricultural uses.

2

4.

DISCUSSION, OF PRIOR STUDIES, REPORTS, AND. EXISTING WATER

PROJECTS.

This study is based on existing studies and analyses which have been

conducted for the SRBC and the Savannah River Basin Watershed Project (SRBWP). The SRBWP was initiated in 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with its goal being to implement a multi-agency environmental protection project that incorporates the authorities and expertise of all interested stakeholders in the future management and protection of the Savannah River Basin's resources. This effort is still ongoing and involves a number of basin stakeholders.

The SRBWP's direction is established by thepolicy Committee, but also includes seven other committees.

These are the Management Committee and six Resource Management

Committees for the following resources: Water Quality, Fish & Wildlife, Recreation & Cultural Resources, Water Quantity/Navigation/Hydropower, Land Use & Wetlands, and Industry & Economic Development. Each Resource Committee has developed a Baseline Assessment of their assigned resource; these Baseline Assessments can be found in Volume 2. of the Management Committee's Report (EPA, 1995). The Policy Committee is working with various action teams to develop and implement a Watershed Strategy (EPA, 1997) to.address 26 priority issues of the basin that were identified by the Management Committee (EPA, 1995). At least nine of these issues have been linked: to the Corps SRBC study as a possible means by which to address and resolve these issues. The SRBWP supported the SRBC study, and the USACE, Savannah District, has been an active participant in the SRBWP. The following is a list of reports and studies which were used to develop the scope for this study: An Assessment of Issues Affecting the Savannah River Basin. Prepared for the USACE, Savannah District and StromThurmond Institute, Clemson University, 1992. Economic Impact Analysis as a Tool in Recreation Program Evaluation.

USACEWES,

Environmental Laboratory, Department of Park and Recreation Michigan State Univerity, USDA Forest Service, Timber/Land Management Planning Staff. 1992. Savannah River Basin Drought Contingency Plan.: *U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Savannah -District, 1989.

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Savannah River Basin Watershed Project, Initial Assessment and Prioritization Report for the Savannah River Basin. Volume 1. Management Committee of the Savannah River Basin Watershed Project, 1995. Savannah River Basin Watershed Project, Initial Assessment and Prioritization Report for the Savannah River Basin. Volume 2. Managerent Committee of the Savannah River Basin Watershed Project, 1995. Savannah River Basin Watershed Project. Watershed Implementation Strategy for the Savannah River Basin. Policy Committee of the Savannah River Basin Watershed Project, 1997. Savannah River Basin Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, -Water Resources Management Study. Preliminary Basin Assessment. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Savannah District, 1990. 5. PLAN FORMULATION. Through a review of existing documents and conversations with the Federal and non-Federal sponsors, seven broad categories have been identified as having the potential for feasibility studies. Recognizing that thee issues have been identified in the past, this Reconnaissance Study is concentrating on re-validating these issues and developing detailed study plans for fuiture feasibility studies. Table 2 summarizes the seven categories. They are as follows: water supply allocations, flood control, hydropower, water quality, fish and wildlife issues, aquatic plant control, and recreation issues. Each is discussed in the attached Enclosures 1-7. Many of these issues stem from the successive droughts of the 1980's which brought about new concerns over water usage throughout the basin. Aný important area of concern is the need for additional water supply. The continued, drought-induced drawdown prompted concerns about providing more stable pool levels for recreation, while causing heightened concerns over water quality in the lower Savannah River.

Furthermore, hydropower

customers face curtailment of power production during these drought conditions. The present reservoir operations represent a*balance of storages and releases which provide maximum hydropower generation while maintaining conservation pool levels and providing releases which meet downstream water supply and water quality needs. However, there are additional concerns, including the need for additional water supply storage for upper basin 4

and developing downstream users, for boosting low flows during droughts, and for generating "flushing" flows for the low6r river basin wetlands and bottomland hardwoods. With the redefining of the 100-year flood discharge level at Augusta, the use of flood control storage in the reservoir projects needs to be revisited. Table 2. Summary of Issues to be Evaluated in Feasibility Studies Upper Basin Needs vs. Downstream Needs Water Supply Allocations * Lake Levels for Recreation/Commercial Activities * In-lake reallocations * Downstream In-River Allocations * Groundwater Cap/FutureCoastal Supply * Future Demands * Inter-basin Transfers Flood Control; * Flood Control Below J. Strom Thurmond Lake * Storage Reduction • Flood Plain Mitigation Hydropower * Maintain or Modify Current Levels " Regional Affects of Reallocations I Water Quality and Flow * Discharge Permits and Droughts " Saltwiater Intrusion * DO Impacts in Savannah Harbor * Impacts to Lake WQ from Development Fish and Wildlife * Estuarine Issues * Instream Flow Requirements 'Lake Issues * Wetland Impacts . Aquatic Plant Control. *Istream • ' InLake Recreation * Lake Levels for Recreation/Commercial Activities * Regional Economic Value of Recreation

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6. FISH AND WILDLIFE PLANNING AID REPORT. The planning aid report evaluates existing fish and wildlife resources within the Savannah River Basin study area and identifies problems, opportunities, and planning objectives for these resources.

The extensive forested wetlands of the. Savannah River below Augusta are important habitat to many significant commercial and recreational fish and wildlife species, as well as to endangered and threatened plants and animals. These wetlands are also important for flood control and purification, soil enrichment, erosion control, and support for downstream fishing. By modifying the natural flow regime, reservoir construction in the Piedmont has caused loss and degradation of forested wetlands and aquatic habitat along the lower Savannah River. The Corps' actions in the lower river, dredging and placement of pile dikes associated with construction and maintenance of the navigation channel to Augusta, have also affected the hydrological conditions in the forested wetlands and aquatic habitat. Reservoir construction also has blocked passage of anadromous fish to historic spawning grounds.

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has recommended-eight studies and actions to address the problems identified in the Savannah River Basin Project. The Corps have responded to these recommendations and stated how they will be addressed. The Corps responses follow the U.S. Fish and Wildlife recommendations 1. In conjunction with fish and wildlife agencies and other stakeholders, determine and implement a Savannah River flow regime that provides for diverse and productive fish and wildlife habitat. The flow regime evaluation should include detennination of the quantity, duration and periodicity of flows needed to support aquatic and wetland functions.

Comment: The Corps will ensure this activity is included in the SRB Comprehensive Study Feasibility study. 2. Evaluate the potential to reduce salinity intrusion in Savannah Harbor, and restore tidal freshwater marsh and striped bass habitat, by modifying management and operation of L. Strom Thurmond Reservoir.

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Comment:

This activity will be addressed under the Savannah Harbor Ecosystem

Restoration Study. Should the results of that study indicate that releases from J. Strom Thurmond would be necessary, the effects of that release would be address with in the SRB Comprehensive Study.

3.

Evaluate the extent and impact of development in the Savannah River flood plain

subsequent to construction of Corps flood control projects. Comment: The Corps will ensure this activity is included in the SRB Comprehensive Study Feasibility study.

4.

Do not conduct any dredging maintenance activities on the Savannah to Augusta

navigation project and seek deauthorization of this navigation project. Comment: The Corps is currently reviewing the status of the New Savannah Bluff Lock & Dam under Section 216 Authority. .Upon completion of that study we will review the need to act further as suggested by FWS. 5. In conjunction with fish and wildlife agencies,. determine need for further restoration action on cutoff bends. Comment: The reconnaissance report for the Lower Savannah River Basin Study examined a number cutoff bends, and recommended some level of action for a number of these. Subject to identification and willingness to cost-share in feasibility studies, the authority of the Lower. Savannah River Basin Study still remains open. 6. Continue to ensure anadromous fish passage at New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam using lock operations or upstream flow releases.

Evaluate removal of this. obstruction to

anadromous fish. Ensure that fish passage is continued if the disposition study leads to a new lock and dam manager.

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Comment: The Corps is currently reviewing the status of the New Savannah Bluff Lock & Dam under Section 216 Authority, to include anadromous fish passage.. Upon completion of that study we will review the need to act further as suggested by FWS. 7. Improve water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen level, below J. Strom Thurmond Dam.

Comment: The Corps is currently designing DO enhancing means in the turbine rehabs for JST. Upon operation we will review the need for further residual measures. 8. Evaluate instream flow impacts of surface water withdrawal in the piedmont region of the basin. Comment: The Corps; will ensure this activity is included in the SRB Comprehensive Study Feasibility study. 7. FEDERAL INTEREST. Changing water needs in the 44 county study area over the past 50 years provides the necessary justification for reevaluation of the functions of the Savannah River Basin projects, such as Hartwell, Russell and Thurmond Lakes. Many of the problems in the basin today were not relevant and were not considered when these projects were originally formulated. Just in the past 10 years, population growth in the basin area and resulting increases in demand for various water resources has increased the need for further study to ensure that the projects best serve current and future needs. Population growth in the study area increased II percent from 1990 to 1998 and is projected to increase another 16 percent through the year 2010.

8.

PRELIMINARY FINANCIAL ANALYSIS.

A letter of intent from the Georgia

Department of Natural Resources and the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources is included (Enclosure 8).

8

9. RECOMMENDATIONS. It is recommended that the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources and the USACE, Savannah District proceed to the feasibility phase. Prior to conducting feasibility studies, a Project Study Plan (PSP) will be prepared. The PSP will include cost estimates of feasibility studies for the various water use issues presented herein and the Federal cost sharing breakdowns will be discussed.

Date: 30 July 1999

Joseph K. Schmitt Colonel, U.S. Army Commanding

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Enclosure One

Water Supply Allocations Identified Issues: Future Water Demand. The Savannah River Basin provides surface water to over 500 users, including public supplies, agriculture and industrial facilities. These users primarily depend on surface water to satisfy current and future demand. Many groundwater users in the lower basin will be forced to utilize surface water supplies to replace groundwater supplies that are experiencing lower quantities and quality. The need for meeting future lower river users requirements stems from the states of Georgia and South Carolina have capped current groundwater use at existing levels, directing that future coastal water supply requirements will be met with surface water from the Savannah River. As future growth continues it is expected that pressures will mount to use water from the Savannah River Basin to meet water supply needs in neighboring growth centers. Already, 150 million gallons is scheduled for transfer from Lake Keowee to the city of Greenville in the year 2030. At present, there is no standardized regulation for managing surface water users in an efficient manner; users are regulated by agencies within each state. As demand increases with the high rate of community development that is currently taking place, users will look to surface water supplied by the Federal reservoirs as well as the Savannah River. Increased use of the surface water supply will mandate standardized water management practices. Alternative Plans and Evaluations: The high quality of life offered by the basin is evidenced by the rapid growth in the study area, which indicates that demand for water will increase.

Thus, municipal and industrial water use studies would be performed in the

feasibility phase. Such studies would be conducted in order to properly assess water demand (which reflects the high growth rates in the basin area) and the ability of current storage allocations to satisfy the demand. Possible solutions, to be evaluated in the feasibility phase, for satisfying the present and future water demands of communities situated near the reservoirs in the upper basin as well 10

as those in the lower basin area include the reallocation of lake water storage currently used for hydropower or flood control.

An important factor to evaluate when studying the

feasibility of reallocation of in-lake water is the benefit of maintaining constant lake levels to preserve recreation and commercial activities. Additionally, in-lake reallocations of storage from hydropower and flood control uses to downstream in-river allocations should be evaluated in the feasibility phase.

Interbasin water transfers may become an option as communities near the Savannah River Basin continue to develop. The feasibility of future interbasin transfers and regulating those transfers should be evaluated.

C-)

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Enclosure Two Flood Control Identified Issues: One of the original purposes of the reservoirs was to regulate river flow to alleviate flooding. Because there has not been a major flood over the past 50 years, Federal Emergency Management Agency established a new 100-year discharge in the Augusta, Georgia area. This lowered the 100-year floodplain elevation. The result has been increased floodplain development below Thurmond Lake. Thus, there is a need to re-evaluate floodplain uses to acknowledge the development that has taken place and re-evaluate stormwater management plans/practices. With introspection of the floodplain and its uses comes the opportunity to identify areas for floodplain management and ecosystem restoration. Alternative Plans and Evaluations: Potential feasibility level studies would include an update of flood control storage levels to reflect the lower 100-year floodplain elevation and an evaluation of the reallocation of flood control storage to other needs.

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Enclosure Three Hydropower Identified Issues: Water is used in 14 hydroelectric power plants in the Savannah River Basin. Hydropower is one of many diverse water uses in the basin which competes with various other uses, such as fish and wildlife habitat and recreation. In the past, there have been impacts on water quality, fish and wildlife, recreation, and water supply from hydroelectric facilities.

When this

happens, operating procedures for hydropower facilities may be altered, which can impact the ability of power plants to meet power generation requirements. In examining the possibility of providing for other uses of current storage, the impacts to current storage levels for hydroelectric power production must be examined. However, it is entirely possible that some alternatives may maintain or increase current levels of hydroelectric power output.

With the possibility of changing the storage designated for hydroelectric power, the level of storage required to meet seasonal needs in other basin should be reassessed. Currently, the combined system of Altamaha/Chattahoochee/Flint

(ACF), Alabama/Coosa/Tallapoosa

(ACT), and SRB projects are used to meet the regional capacity and energy needs of the Georgia-Alabama-Carolina marketing area of Southeastern Power Administration (SEPA).

Alternative Plans and Evaluations: When evaluating other uses of current in-lake storage, the impacts to the water storage for hydropower should be examined, based upon economic and operational feasibility. A hydropower optimization study has been suggested for the feasibility phase.

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Enclosure Four Water Quality and Flow

Identified Issues: In general, water quality in the. Savannah. River Basin is acceptable for the uses it supports. Improvements in water quality have been observed from a reduction in the use of certain pesticides, improved -erosion control, and better management of municipal and industrial wastewater. However, increased deyelopment in the basin area and use of fertilizers may result in negative impacts to water quality in the future. Many water quality issues have been identified for the basin; however, some issues are being studied under other projects and will not be addressed in this report. In addition. to new communities being cgnstructed near the basin, there are many, older developments along the lakes which are. suspected of having leaking septic tanks and drainfields. This could be contributing to the degradation of the water quality being observed in the lakes. In addition to the water quality issues mentionedabove, two water flow issues have also been identified for the feasibility phase.. The first issue refers to the area of the, basin near the city of Savannah, where a specific amount of freshwater flow .is needed to limit the amount of saltwater intrusion that can occur. This is important, as the surface water in the-lower basin will be depended upon to meet future water demands., Additionally, changes in salinity can result in changes, in plant rand animal species in the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge, which is managed for freshwater species. The, second flow issue involves the low flow releases below Thurmond Lake. These flows. should be, evaluated to,.ascertain whether, the proper flow is provided to allow adequate assimilation for the current level of wastewater discharge permits.

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Alternative• Plans and Evaluations:, Potential feasibility studies include evaluatingthe, reallocation of stored water- quantities to provide ,dedicated storage for,release during low flow periods, There is also aneed for the; development of an improved model of low. flow releases which incorporates the increased demands of the future.

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Enclosure Five Fish and Wildlife Identified Issues: Human activities in the basin have influenced and changed aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Significant factors contributing to the changes in aquatic habitat are reservoir construction, hydropower generation and pollution.

Agriculture, silviculture and urban land use has

resulted in changes to the terrestrial habitat in the basin.

Of critical concern is the effect of flow releases during droughts on the habitat in the Savannah River estuary (in the lower basin area). Estuarine wetlands are highly productive natural systems which provide spawning, nursery and feeding habitat for commercial and sport fish and also provide important habitat for other wildlife.

Low flows entering the

harbor area directly affect the amount of saltwater that proceeds upstream. As the salinity increases in the estuary, the more likely that plants and animals will be negatively impacted. Extensive water quality studies have been performed on the lakes in the upper basin area and contaminants are known, however there is speculation that contaminants entering the lakes from the tributaries are also causing degradation. Economic growth and expansion in the area are attracting contractors and developers to the lake areas. Such waves of development will inevitably diminish wildlife habitat. Often the impacts of community growth and development on habitat loss are not given sufficient consideration. Wetland impacts have occurred to the lower Savannah floodplain areas due to alteration of the once natural flow regime by regulation of flow from several impoundments. Studies are needed to identify the nature of impacts and if the reservoirs can be used to alter flows to simulate flushing events Alternative Plans and Evaluations: Feasibility studies corresponding to the development of land around the lakes involves assessing the land holdings at the lakes and reservoirs for current and future value for wildlife habitat.

15

Suggested feasibility studies relating to poor land use practices which impact habitat are, conducting Indexes of Biological Indicators (IBI) and also evaluating land use changes along Savannah River tributaries. There has been very limited research conducted on the lower basin area as it relates to fishery habitats.

Most of the interest in feasibility studies relates to Instreamn Flow Incremental

Methodology (IFIM) covering specific stretches of the river. There is interest in determining the magnitudes of flows most beneficial to fish swimming upstream from the New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam (NSBL&D) and successfully spawning. Another lower basin study was suggested that would investigate the level of flow that would be advantageous to fish nurseries out of the channel as well as in the channel. Striped bass have been extensively studied in the Savannah Harbor area, but there is interest in studying the population that is located between the harbor and the NSBL&D to determine if there is successful spawning and the ideal flow requirement. Feasibility studies are warranted to analyze scheduled releases from the reservoirs in the context that they can be used to simulate natural flushing events and prevent the intrusion of saltwater.

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Enclosure Six Aquatic Plant Control Identified Issues: Aquatic plant growth is a topic of concern in numerous reservoirs of the Southeast. Many states have undertaken active programs to remove and control several exotic plant species, which if left unmonitored, can render waterbodies inaccessable. The three Federal reservoirs have aquatic plant control programs in place. However, instream measures to reduce the amount of aquatic growth in the reaches of the Savannah River below J. Strom Thurmond need to be identified and actions proposed to regulate growth. Alternative Plans and Evaluations: Feasibility studies should include surveys of the Savannah River reaches to determine which areas contain excessive aquatic plant growth. These areas can then be targeted for aquatic plant control measures, such as biological control(e.g: triploi carp), physical removal, and chemical application.

Another control

measure would be prevention through education, such as implementing best management practices at industrial/municipal facilities and at cleaning stations at public boat launches.

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Enclosure Seven Recreation Identified Issues: Recreational access was not initially an authorized use of the Federal reservoirs. Utilization of reservoir land for recreation purposes was provided for under Section 4 of the Flood Control Act of 1944 and the Outdoor Recreation Act of 1956.

Because Hartwell and

Thurmond attract millions of visitors each year, fluctuations in the water level which lead to reductions in visitation can result in economic impacts to the local economy. Alternative Plans and Evaluations: In order to address the potential impacts from low lake levels, it will be necessary to determine the water level of the lakes that is required to support recreational facilities and activities. In addition, there is also interest, at the feasibility phase, in determining the value of recreation opportunities at the reservoirs.

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RECONNAISSANCE PLANNING AID REPORT ON SAVANNAH RIVER BASIN STUDY

Prepared by: Edwin M. EuDaly Under the Supervision of Roger L Banks, Field Supervisor Division of Ecological Services Charleston, South Carolina July 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Southeast Region Atlanta, Georgia

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................

iii

INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................................................

1

AUTHORITY ......................................................................................................

1

PURPOSE AND SCOPE ..............................................................................

I

PRIOR STUDIES AND REPORTS ................................................................

1

DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA ............................................................................

3

FISH AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES ......................................................................

7

FISH

.........................................................................................................................

7

WETLANDS ...........................................................................................................

8

WILDLIFE .............................................................................................................

9

ENDANGERED SPECIES ....................................................................................

10

PROBLEMS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND PLANNING OBJECTIVE ..........................

11

FUTURE FWCA ACTIVITIES AND FUNDING NEEDS ..........................................

15

RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................................................................

15

LITERATURE CITED .................................................................................................

16

APPENDIX A - Elements of Consensus on American Shad Management in the Stretch of Savannah River Between Strom Thurmond (Clarks Hill) Dam and Augusta

i

LIST OF FIGURES

Number 1

Page Counties in the Savannah River Basin Study Area

2 Savannah River Basin Study Area

4 5

ii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This planning aid report evaluates existing fish and wildlife resources within the Savannah River Basin study area and identifies problems, opportunities, and planning objectives for these resources. The extensive forested wetlands of the Savannah River below Augusta are important habitat to many significant commercial and recreational fish and wildlife species, as well as to endangered and threatened plants and animals. These wetlands are also important for flood control and purification, soil enrichment, erosion control, and support for downstream fishing. By modifying the natural flow regime, reservoir construction in the Piedmont has caused loss and degradation of forested wetlands and aquatic habitat along the lower Savannah River. The Corps' actions in the lower river, dredging and placement of pile dikes associated with construction and maintenance of the navigation channel to Augusta, have also affected the hydrological conditions in the forested wetlands and aquatic habitat Reservoir construction also has blocked passage of anadromous fish to historic spawning grounds. The Service recommends the following studies and actions to address the problems identified in the Savannah River Basin project In conjunction with fish and wildlife agencies and other stakeholders, determine and implement a Savannah River flow regime that provides for diverse and productive fish and wildlife habitat The flow regime evaluation should include determination of the quantity, duration and periodicity of flows needed to support aquatic and wetland functions. The flow regime study should include an evaluation of the potential to reduce salinity intrusion in Savannah Harbor, and restore tidal freshwater marsh and striped bass habitat, by modifying management and operation of J. Strom Thurmond Reservoir. The study should also evaluate the extent and impact of development in the Savannah River flood plain subsequent to construction of Corps flood control projects. With regard to the navigation project to Augusta, we recommend that the Corps seek deauthorization of this navigation project and determine the need for further restoration action on cutoff bends. We also recommend that you continue to ensure anadromous fish passage at New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam using lock operations or upstream flow releases and evaluate removal of this obstruction to anadromous fish. In addition, we recommend that efforts to improve water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen level, below J. Strom Thurmond Dam, continue. Instream flow impacts of surface water withdrawal in the Piedmont region of the basin also need to be evaluated. iii

SAVANNAHRIVER BASIN STUDY

INTRODUCTION AUTHORITY

Section 414 of the Water Resources Development Act of 1996 authorized the Savannah River Basin Comprehensive Water Resources Study. The Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act (48 Stat. 401, as amended; 16 U.S.C. 66.1 et seq.) (FWCA) authorized the 1j.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (Service) involvement in this study. The Service prepared this report with funds transferred from the Corps under the National Letter of Agreement between our agencies for funding of FWCA activities. PURPOSE AND SCO;PE The purpose of this study isto conduct a comprehensive study to address the current and future, needs for flood damage prevention and reduction, water supply, navigation and environmental restoration. This planning aid report evaluates existing fish and wildlife resources within the lower Savannah River 4tudy area and identifies problems, opportunities, and planning objectives for these resources. PRIOR STUDIES AND REPORTS The Service proyided Areconnaissance leyelPlanning Aid Report (PAR) in August 1985 which provided fish and wildlife resource information on the Savannah River Basin and identified -. problems opportunities and planning objectives relative to these resources. In December 1989 the Service provided another reconnaissance level PAR addressing water allocation and new water. supply requests in the $avapnah River Basin. In November 199.1, the Service provided a. reconnaissance Planning Aid Report that sprveyiedfish and:wildlife conditions in the river from... Augusta to Savannah and discussedlpotential restoration meas~ures:, In May,1995,.the Service provided a draft Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act Report on restoration of cut off bends from Savannah to .4ugusta:.In February 19,96.the.Service provided a final Fishand Wildlife Coordination,ActReport on restoration measures in the lower, Savannah River Basin, The Service has completed several reports on SayanqahHarbor. :The Service proyided Savannah Harbor Comprehensive Study (SHCS) planning aid letters to the Corps dated March 21, 1981, July 23, 1981, and September 18, 1981, expressing concerns related to dredged material disposal, Savannah NWR, harbor deepening, and harbor extension. The Service submitted a SHCS Planning Aid Report (PAR) on September 16, 1982, which provided: (1) an analysis of wetland resources in the study area; (2) an evaluation of the impacts of tide gate operation on Savannah NWR and striped bass habitat; and (3) a habitat evaluation procedures study of potential spoil areas. On December 1, 1983, the Service completed a second SHCS PAR which provided: (1) an evaluation of fish and wildlife resources on two new potential dredged material disposal areas; (2) resource categories and general mitigation goals and measures for all potential spoil areas; and (3) further analysis of freshwater supply problems on Savannah NWR.

The Service provided a reconnaissance level PAR on September 27, 1984, which analyzed impacts of harbor extension on fish, wildlife, and wetlands of Savannah NWR and adjacent areas. The PAR also identified information and studies needed to adequately assess impacts of harbor extension. In November 1986, the Service provided a Draft FWCA Report on the SHCS. This report evaluated existing and future fish and wildlife resources in the study area and identified problems, opportunities, and planning objectives for these resources. In addition, using information available at that time, the report evaluated fish and wildlife impacts of tide gate operation and harbor deepening. The report also questioned the reliability of the Corps' hydrodynamic model and recommended adequate verification befoire using the model for evaluation of harbor deepening. The Service provided a revised SHCS Draft FWCA Report in November 1990. This report concluded that deepening of Savannah Harbor in conjunction with continued operation of the tide gate project would exacerbate currently unacceptable fish and wildlife impacts. The Service opposed channel deepening until such time as the impacts of the tide gate project were completely offset and strongly recommended that the Corps remove the tide gate and fill New Cut. The Service provided a Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act Report on Savannah Harbor -

Closure of New Cut in June 1991. The Service supported the plan to close New Cut and take the tide gate out of operation. The Service provided a Reconnaissance Planning Aid Report on Port Wentworth Deepening Project in December 1993. The purpose of the Corps' study was to evaluate deepening of Savannah Harbor in the vicinity of Port Wentworth from Station 102 + 000 to Station 112 + 500. In August 1996 the Service provided a Reconnaissance Planning Aid Report on Savannah Harbor Expansion. The Service recommended that a reliable Savannah Harbti hydrodynamic model be developed to estimate impacts of the alternative plans on river system salinity patterns. The Service expressed concern that the project could increase salinity levels in the lower Savannah River system. An increased salinity level would adversely impact managed wetlands, tidal freshwater wetlands, and striped bass habitat on and near Savannah National Wildlife Refuge. The service also expressed concern that moderate incremental increases in the salinity level may become cumulatively significant if depth of the harbor is repetitively increased over time.

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77)

DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA

The Savannah River basin, with a surface area of about 10,577 square miles, of which 5,821 square miles are in Georgia, 4,581 square miles are in South Carolina and 175 square miles are in North Carolina. The basin includes portions of 27 counties in Georgia, 13 counties in South Carolina and four counties in North Carolina (Figure 1). Although the basin is predominantly rural, metropolitan areas are experiencing significant growth and development pressures. The growth is occurring primarily in the cities of Augusta and Savannah, Georgia, although many smaller cities and towns are also growing. The study area drains portions of three physiographic provinces: the Blue Ridge mountains, the Piedmont and the Coastal Plain. In its middle and upper reaches the river flow is regulated by several reservoirs, including three large multipurpose Corp projects (Hartwell Lake, Richard B. Russell Lake and Thurmond Reservoir) and two large private power reservoirs (Lakes Keowee and Jocassee) (Figure 2). The Blue Ridge Mountain province is characterized as a region of dissected rugged mountains with narrow valleys underlain by acid, crystalline, metamorphic rock of pre-Cambrian origin. Elevations range from about 1,000 to 5,000 feet M.S.L. Streams have narrow to moderately wide flood plains that are nearly level and are frequently flooded in the winter and spring. Moderately deep to deep soils formed mainly from schist, gneiss, and granite occur on the ridges and side slopes. Original topsoil on the slopes has a gray sandy surface. The more productive soils on the terraces and river bottoms are loams and clays. Most of the Blue Ridge province in the basin is forested but a few small farms are located in the valleys and coves. About 30 percent of the basin in the Blue Ridge province is owned and managed by the U.S. Forest Service in the Nantahala National Forest and Chattahoochee National Forest. Located southeast of the mountains, the Piedmont province consists of gently rolling to hilly slopes with narrow stream valleys in the northern part and broad inter-stream areas in the southern part. This area is underlain by acid crystalline and metamorphic rock of Pre-Cambrian origin. Elevations range from about 600 to 1,000 feet M.S.L. In the upper Piedmont, the level to nearly level flood plains adjacent to creeks and rivers are flooded frequently for short periods. The predominant soils on these flood plains are mostly well drained to somewhat poorly drained and loamy. In the southern Piedmont flood plains are moderately wide and the bottom lands along the major streams and their tributaries are subject to frequent overflow in winter and early spring. These river bottoms drain slowly and remain wet for long periods. The red upland soils of the Piedmont are generally well drained. These soils are acid and low in nitrogen and phosphorus in their native state with gray, loamy to sandy surface layers. Subsoils are red to dark red with sandy clay to clay textures. Much of the original topsoil has been eroded due to poor cultivation practices leaving the clay subsoil exposed. The Coastal Plain is a region of gently to moderate slopes underlain by marine sands, loam, and clays. Elevation ranges from approximately 10 to 500 feet M.S.L. Although sandy and infertile in the native state, most Coastal Plain soils are productive when fertilized and limed. Except for

4

5

6

the lowland areas, Coastal Plain soils are well drained and consist of light gray, sandy surface zones underlain by friable yellow, sandy clay loam to clay subsoils. Agriculture is important in the Coastal Plain, comprising about one third of the land use and most of the remaining area is forested. Throughout the study area Coastal Plain there is little development on the Savannah River and the flood plain ranges up to more than two miles in width. Palustrine forested wetlands (swamps) cover most of the flood plain. Water discharge in the Savannah River varies considerably both seasonally and annually, even though it is largely controlled by releases from the Corps' J. Strom Thurmond Dam located about 20 miles northwest of Augusta, Georgia. Discharge is typically high in winter and early spring and low in summer and fall, but regulation by upstream reservoirs has reduced natural flow variations. At the New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam 12 miles downstream of Augusta average discharge is about 10,000 cubic feet per second (cfs). The range in water year 1998 was about 4,300 cfs to 42,700 cfs. Average discharge at Clyo (Effingham County, Georgia) is 12,040 cfs with a range for water year 1998 of 6,280 cfs to 52,600 cfs (Cooney et al. 1999). Tidal effects extend upstream to approximately river mile 45. The Corps maintains andoperates three large multipurpose projects in the basin. Hartwell Dam and Lake (55,950 acre summer pool) is located 89 miles upstream of Augusta and was filled in 1962. Richard B. Russell Dam and Lake (26,650 acre summer pool) is located 59 miles upstream of Augusta and was filled in 1984. The Corps is seeking to operate Russell as a pumped storage project. J. Strom Thurmond Dam and Lake (70,000 acre summer pool) is located 22 miles upstream of Augusta and was filled in 1954., The authorized project for the Savannah River between Augusta and Savannah, Georgia, provides for a navigation channel 9 feet deep and 90 feet wide from the upper end of Savannah Harbor (mile 21.3) to the head of navigation just below the 13th Street bridge (mile 202.2), a distance of, 180.9 miles. The project also includes the lock and dam at New Savannah Bluff, located about. 12 miles downstream from Augusta. Channel modifications, including deepening, widening, snagging, construction of bend cutoffs, and construction of pile dikes, have been made on the river to provide the 9-foot depth. However, by 1980, shipping on the river had virtually ceased, and channel maintenance was discontinued. Also, due to the lack of commercial traffic, a study is currently underway on the disposition of the New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam The existing authorized Savannah Harbor navigation project provides for a channel 44 feet deep and 600 feet wide across the ocean bar; 42 feet deep and500 to 600 feet wide to the vicinity of Kings Island Turning Basin;,and 30 feet deep and 200 feet wide to a point 1,500 feet below the Houlihan Bridge (Highway 17). The terminus of the existing channel for Savannah Harbor is at approximately river mile 21. The project provides turning basins for vessels at various locations in the harbor.

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,

.

7

FISH AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES FISH A comprehensive five year fishery survey concluded that the lower Savannah River supports an abundant, diversified fish community, but has a low tomoderately utilized fishery (Schmitt and Hornsby 1985). Based on number and weight collected the most abundant game fish were largemouth bass, chain pickere!, black crappie, yellow perch, redbreast sunfish, bluegill, redear sunfish, warmouth, flier, and pumpkinseed. Important non-game fish include longnose gar, bowfin, white catfish, channel catfish, common carp, spotted sucker, silver redfiorse, striped mullet, and brown bullhead. The most important forage fish are gizzard shad and a number of minnow species. Anadromous fish found in the lower Savannah River are striped bass, American shad, hickory shad, blueback herring, shorthose sturgeon, and Atlantic sturgeon. In southern waters (south of Cape Hatteras, NC) striped bass occupy riverine and estuarine waters and don't frequent the open ocean. During the early part of the 19th century, anadromous fish (with the exception of sturgeon) annually migrated as far as the headwaters of the Savannah River, through the Tugaloo River and up the Tallulah River to Tallulah Fails, Georgia, approximately 384 river miles from the ocean. After 1846 the Augusta Diversion Dam acted as a barrier to inland migration of anadromous species. Completion of the New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam (NSBLD) in 1937 further restricted spawning migrations to below river mile 265. During the late 1950's through the early 1960's, the Corps' Savannah River navigation project constructed 38 cuts across meander bends and as a result shortened the river by 78 miles. Therefore, New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam is now located at river mile 187.3. The Stevens Creek Dam, a South Carolina Electric and Gas hydroelectric project, was constructed upstream of the Augusta Diversion Dam in 1914. Anadromous fish are still an important component of the River's sport and commercial fisheries. Large numbers of American shad and blueback herring, and lesser numbers of striped bass and sturgeon migrate to the NSBLD facility which is the first major obstruction to passage on the river. However, some fish have continued to migrate to historical spawning grounds above the facility. The fish pass upstream by swimming through fully opened dam gates at flows of 16,000 cfs or higher, and by swimming through the navigation lock when it is operated in a manner suitable for fish passage. Because of the national importance of anadromous fishery resources and the historical significance of the Savannah River in supporting these resources, in 1986 the Service initiated studies aimed at restoring full anadromous fish passage to historical spawning grounds above NSBLD. This cooperative effort among the Service, Corps of Engineers, Georgia Wildlife Resources Division, and South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) has continued to the present Various combinations of lock operation and flow releases from J. Strom Thurmond reservoir have been used to facilitate fish passage at NSBLD. On-going studies led by the SCDNR are attempting to assess the effectiveness of fish passage efforts. Results to date indicate that both methods are effective for upstream passage of American Shad.

8

In 1992, the Service, the South.Carolina Department of Natural Resources and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources approved an "Elements on consensus on American shad

management in the stretch of Savannah River between Strom Thurmond (Clarks Hill) Dam and Augusta. Goals identified for this reach of the Savannah River included (1) the continued lockage of American Shad at NSBLD, (2) the design and implementation of an upstream fish passage mechanism at the Augusta Diversion Dam and (3) similarly at the Stevens Creek Dam, (4) improvement of poor dissolved oxygen. and (5),safe downstream passage mechanisms for out migrant anadromous fish, if deemed necessary (Appendix A). The lower Savannah River provides extremely important striped bass habitat. Prior to initiation of tide gate operation in 1977, the primary spawning area for striped bass in the Savannah River system was the tidal fresh water zone,approximately 18-25, miles from the river mouth, specifically the Little Back River (McBay,1968; Rees 1974). Salinity changes due to the tide gate operation (1977-1992) reduced the extent of this tidal freshwater zone. Studies indicated significant declines in numbers of striped bass eggs and larvae in the lower Savannah River system during this period.-These declines were related to increased salinity and modified transport patterns caused by the tide gate and associated hydrologic modifications (Van Den Avyle et al. 1990, Winger and Lasier 1990). The Little Back River, due to its unique physical characteristics, is the only suitable area within the Savannah River System for efficient collection of brood fish for Georgia statewide propagation and stocking program of striped bassand hybrid, bass (white bass x striped bass). .In the early, 1980's, an ayerage of 4,291 kilograms of striped bass were harvested annually. by sport fishermen in the Savannah River downstream of the NSBLD (Scmitt and Hornsby 1985.) Since 1989, because of the documented reproduction decline, there has been a striped bass harvest moratorium on the Savannah River downstream of NSBLD. WETLANDS Palustrine forested wetlands dominate the extensive alluvial plain of the Savannah River. The wettest parts of the flood plain, such as swales, sloughs, and back swamps are dominated by bald cypress, water tupelo, and swamp tupelo. Slightly higher areas, which are usually flooded for much of the growing season are often dominated by overcup oak and water hickory. Most of the Savannah River, floodplain consists of lowx relief flats or terraces. These areas are flooded during most of the winter and early spring:and one or two months during the growing season. Laurel oak is thedominant species!on these flats and green ash, American elm, sweetgum, spruce pine, sugarberry, and swamp palm are often present. Swamp chestnut oak, cherrybark oak, spruce pine, and loblolly pine are found on:the highest elevations of the floodplain, which are only flooded infrequently during the growing season.

, I

.

-

...

On the Savannah River downstream of Interstate Highway 95 tidal palustrine emergent wetlands, also known as tidal freshwater marsh, becomes prevalent. Tidal palustrine emergent wetlands., are flooded twice daily by tidal action in the study area. These marshes are yegetated with a

9

diverse mixture of plants including giant cutgrass, spikerushes, and up to 58 other plant species (Pearlstine et al. 1990, Applied Technology and Management 1998). In palustrine emergent wetland, primary productivity is high, falling in the range of 500 to 2000 grams/square meter/year (Odum et al. 1984). The quality of primary production of the'fresh marsh community is also high. , Major primary producers in the salt marsh community are grasses that have little immediate nutritional value to fish and wildlife but support an important detritus based food web (Teal 1962). In contrast, the fleshy broad-ledf plants characteristic of fresh marshes generally are high in nitrogen and low in fiber content and there is a high incidence of direct grazing or feeding on these plants (Odum et al. 1984). Fresh marsh vegetation also contributes to the food web base that supports the study area's freshwater fishery. The leaves of thelarger macrophytes in this community are used as attachment places by mollusks, insect nymphs, rotifers, hydra, and midge larvae, all important fish foods. The submerged littoral zone is vital to the development of freshwater fish, as well as some marine and estuarine species, as these areas are the principal spawning sites and provide nursery and juvenile habitats. WILDLIFE Wildlife associated with forested wetlands is numerous and diverse. The furbearers are an important component of these wetlands and include beaver, muskrat, mink, otter, bobcat, gray fox,' raccoon, and opossum Deer, turkey, and even black bear in the more isolated areas, use the bottomlands. Palustrine emergent wetlands also provide excellent habitat for furbearers including the mink, beaver, and river otter. Terrestrial species from surrounding areas often utilize the fresh marsh edge for shelter, food, and water; these include raccoon, opossum, rabbit, and bobcat. The study area is part of the Atlantic Flyway and forested wetlands provide important wintering habitat for many waterfowl species and nesting habitat for wood ducks. Many species of woodpeckers, hawks, and owls use the bottomlands and swamps.Neotropical migratory birds, many of which are decreasing in abundance, depend upon contiguous tracts of forested swamps for breeding and as corridors during migration. Robbins et al. (1989) found that the most area-sensitive bird species required at least 2,800 acres of contiguous forest to be present. The extensive forested wetlands of the Savannah River flood plain provide very valuable habitat for these birds. The American swallow-tailed kite, a state (SC) listed endangered species, can be observed on the study area. Swiallow-tailed kites nest in and are closely associated with palustrine wetlands. Palustrine emergent wetlands also provide habitat for many bird species. Resident, transient, and migrating birds of both terrestrial and aquatic origin utilize food and shelter found in this community; some species use freshwater marshes for nesting and breeding. Waterfowl feed upon fresh marsh vegetation, mollusks, insects, small crustaceans, and fish found in the fresh

10

marsh community. Wading birds such as the wood stork, great blue heron, little blue heron, green heron, snowy egret, and great egret also heavily utilize the tidal freshwater marsh. The study area provides excellent habitat for a large number of reptiles and amphibians. Wetland. habitats support many kinds of frogs including bullfrog, bronze frog, southern leopard frog, and several species of tree frogs, cricket frogs, and chorus frogs. Turtles found in the wetlands include river cooter, Florida cooter, pond slider, eastern chicken turtle, snapping turtle, mud turtle, and stinkpot. Snakes found in the wetlands include red-bellied water snake, banded water snake, brown water snake, eastern mud snake, rainbow snake, and eastern cottonmouth. The American alligator can be observed on streams and ponds of the Coastal Plain study area. ENDANGERED SPECIES Federal Endangered (E), Threatened (T), and Candidate (C) species that are likely to occur in the Savannah Basin Study Area include:

Mammals: Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) - E West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatust - E Birds: American peregrine falcon (Falcoperegrinusanatum) - E Bald eagle (Haliaeetusleucocephalus) - T Red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoidesborealis)- E Piping plover (Charadriusmelodus) - T Wood stork (Mycteria americana)- E Kirtland's warbler (Dendroicakirtlandii)- E Reptiles: Eastern indigo snake (Drymarchoncoraiscouperi) - T Amphibians: Flatwoods salaniander (Ambystoma-cin'gulatum)- T Fishes:Shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrunl - E, Plants: Canby's dropwort (Oxypolis canbyi) - E Chaff-seed (Schwalbeaamericana)- E . Schwei'nitz's sunflower (Helianthusschweinitziih)- E Small whorled pogonia (Isotria medeoloides) - T

Pondberry (LinderamelisSifolia)--E Rough-leaved loosestrife (Lysiiachiaasperulaefolia)- E

11

-E Bunched arrowhead (Sagittariafasciculata) White irisette (Sisyrinchium dichotomum) - E Dwarf-flowered heartleaf (Hexastylis naniflora)- T Mountain'sweet pitcher plant (Sarraceniarubrassp.jones4 - E Harperella (Ptilimniumnodosum) - E Swamp-pink (Heloniasbullata) - T Smooth coneflower (Echinacealaevigata)- E Seabeach amaranth (Amaranthuspumilus) - T Persistent trillium (Trilliuimpeisistens) - E Relict trillium (Trillium reliquum) - E Little amphianthus (Amphianthuspusillus) - T Miccosukee gooseberry (Ribes echinellum) - T Bog asphodel (Nartheciumamericanum)- C Maintenance and enhancement of habitat for endangered and threatened species is an important Service goal. The species listed above should be taken into consideration in any future federal projects. PROBLEMS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND PLANNING OBJECTIVES Representative of Georgia Department of Natural Resources have expressed concern with maintaining adequate instream flows and habitat in piedmont tributary streams that flow into the Corps reservoirs. Population growth and development are increasing demands for surface water withdrawals. Modification of instream flows can lead to loss of aquatic habitat quality and quantity and reduced biodiversity and productivity. Stream sediment input andrnon-point source pollution also are frequently associated with development. These stream modifications need to be evaluated and identified problems need to be addressed. Upstream of Augusta, the Stevens Creek pool experiences low dissolved oxygen for two to three months each year due to unaltered hypolimnetic releases from J. Strom Thurmond Dam. Through the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission licensing'process the Service, SCDNR and GADNR are seeking to restore passage of anadromous fish at the Augusta Diversion Dam and Stevens Creek Dam to the base of Thurmond Dam. Cooperative efforts underway in conjunction with turbine renovation at Thurmond Dam should improve dissolved oxygen below the dam. Design of the new system is underway and the system could be installed by the year 2001. This improvement would help ensure survival of spawned American shad fry and improve the resident aquatic community. The extensive forested wetlands of the Savannah River below Augusta are importanthabitat to many significant commercial and recreational fish and wildlife species, as well as to endangered

and threatened plants and animals. These wetlands are also important for flood control and purification, soil enrichment, erosion control, and support for downstream fishing.

12

By modifying the natural flow regime, reservoir construction and operation in the Piedmont has caused loss and degradation of forested wetlands along the lower Savannah River. The character of southeastern forested wetlands is determined by many factors including. (1) duration and periodicity of flooding; (2) depth of flooding; (3) intensity of stream flow; (4) quantity, nature and deposition rates of sediment carried by the stream, and (5) chemical aspects of the water (Bozeman and Darrell 1975).. Regulation of river flow at the reservoirs has significantly modified all these factors. One result has been the succession of many of the remaining forested wetland communities to drier habitat types. This has reduced the richness and diversity of the river swamp and eliminated and degraded wetland habitats and associated values and functions that are important for fish and wildlife. Reduced river flow to the seasonally flooded wetland have also.made it possible for. landowners to convert hundreds of acres of this habitat type to agriculture and pine plantations and . residential development which are less productive for wildlife. Riverine fish communities benefit from natural spring floods. Overbank flooding allows for inundation of extensive spawning habitat. Flood water slowly recedes allowing the larval and juvenile fish to contribute to the river,'s population. Temporary connection of the natural oxbow lakes, on the flood plain to the river, which allowed for the movement ofadult fish into the frequently isolated oxbows, and the emigration of younger fish to the river, is especially important. The carbon cycle of Coastal Plain rivers also is closely tied to overbank flooding. Productivity (primary and advanced) suffers with the loss of flood episodes. Due to reduced flooding resulting from upstreamn dams and the~construction of cutoffs,,these natural mechanisms to recharge the riverine fish populations have been reduced. There is little-question that fish populations in the river and floodplain downstream of Augusta have been reduced. In addition, water quality in the Coastal Plain tributary system has been degraded..Under unregulated conditions, tributaries were subject to pulses of high flow, which helped flush the system and thereby reducedthe organic content and nutrient levels and increased dissolved oxygen. Therefore, under unregulated conditions, these blackwater tributaries wereoligotrophic systems that exhibited good water quality. The lower portion of Ebeneezer Creek, designated a Georgia., Scenic River and a National Natural Landmark at riyer mile 45 is a prime example, This areat. contains a backwater swamp with old-growth bald cypress-water tupelo. Ebeneezer Creek has. become plagued with nuisance aquatic vegetation, declining water quality, and fish kills. :Reduced flushing due to river flow modification is thought to be a contributing factor to these problems, More study is needed to assess the extent and magnitude of all of theseflow regime impacts. The Corps' actions in the lower river,. dredging and placement of pile dikes associated with maintenance of.thenavigation channel to Augusta, are also affecting the hydrologicalpconditions in the forested wetlands. Shortening of the river by 30percent has steepened the gradient of the river and undoubtedly led to channel degradation'. Sediment buildup at the entrance to waterways since the channel modificatipns, in combination with the lower flows resulting from the reservoirs has; reduced water flow into swamps, creeks, and lakes. Changes in vegetative communities and lower population levels of wildlife may result from these reduced flows.. 13

In addition, the channel cuts have increased current velocity in the new channel and degraded the quality and quantity (78 miles) of high value fish habitat in the cutoff meander bends. Some of the meander bends have filled so that flow has been essentially eliminated under all except flood conditions. Some of the meander bends contain flow during high river discharge but do not support flows during low flow periods. The cutoff bends have'accumulated organic matter that reduces dissolved oxygen in the water during low flow/warm water conditions. Fish and macroinvertebrate habitats have been adversely affected under these conditions and fish recruitment may be reduced. Site specific data is needed to'assess the magnitude of this water quality problem at specific cutoff bends and to develop appropriate remedies. The following example illustrates the flow regime and stream modification' problems. The City of Savannah has experienced declining water quality (pH) at its pump station on Little Abercorn Creek. City officials believe that this problem is caused by reduced flow and wetland flushing from tributaries of the Savannah River. The tributaries that flow into Little Abercom Creek include Bear Creek and Mill Creek. The entrance to Bear Creek is located on Savannah River Cutoff Bend Number 3. Reduced flow iný the cutoff bend resulting from construction of the cutoff has reduced flows info Bear Creek. Mill Creek is partially fed water by channels'bff of the Savannah River at Flat Ditch Point. Reduced flow in this cutoff bend resulting from construction of cutoff number 4 has reduced flows into Mill Creek. In additionl to affecting the city water supply these flow conditions reduce the duration and depth of flodding in adjacent Savannah National Wildlife'Refuge and privately owned wetlands. Flushing of detritus and nutrients fromthe wetlands is reduced as is access to the flood plain for larval arid juvenile fish.- Wetland ' vegetation species composition may change over time due to the reduced floodifig§The tidal fresh marsh on Savannah NWR supports an extremely diverse plant community providing food, cover and nesting habitat for a wide Variety of wildlife species. Tidal freshwater marsh is relatively scarce in comparison to coastal-brackish and salt marshes. Because of tidal freshwater marsh scarcity and its high fish and wildlife value, a primary Service goal is to restoreand maintain tidal freshwater marsh in the lower Savannah River. Past harbor modifications, including harbor deepening, have greatly increased salinity levels throughout much of-Savannah NWR and reduced the quantity of tidal freshwater marsh. According to our preliminaiy evalu ation, Savannah NWR contained about 6,000 acres of tidal freshwater marsh when it was established in 1927,- By 1997, due io the cumulative impacts of harbor deepening, tidal freshwater marsh had declined to 2,800 acres, a reduction of 53 percent. Measures to reverse this habitat degradation need to be evaluated and implemented. Prior to 1977, the Savannah River supported the most important naturally reproducing striped bass population in the State of Georgia but production of striped bass eggs in the Savannah River estuary has declined by about 95 percent since that time. Tide gate operation, in conjunction with the cumulative impacts of harbor deepening, caused a number of impacts, including increased salinity and loss of suitable spawning habitat throughout most of Little Back River and the lower Savannah River. Striped bass eggs and larvae were also transported through New Cut and then rapidly downstream to areas with toxic salinity levels. It was hoped that the tide gate restoration 14

project would improve most of these conditions, Unfortunately, in spite of supplemental stocking and an increase in adult numbers, the striped bass population has not recovered as anticipated. The failure of recovery may be due, in part, to the cumulative impacts of harbor deepening. An interagency Section 1135 environmental restoration project, led by the Corps' and GADNR, is currently underway to identify and implement striped bass restoration measures in Back River. The following planning objectiyes were developed considering the above problems. 1. Implement a Savannah River flow regime that will provide diverse and productive fish and wildlife habitat in the lower Savannah River. The flow regime should be established by evaluating the quantity, duration and periodicity of flows needed to support aquatic and wetland functions. 2. Evaluate the potential to reduce salinity intrusion in Savannah Harbor, and restore tidal freshwater marsh and striped bass habitat, by modifying management and operation of J. Strom Thurmond Reservoir. 3. Evaluate the extent and impact of development in the Savannah River flood plain subsequent to construction of Corps flood control projects. 4. Allow the Savannah River to establish a new hydraulic equilibrium by no longer maintaining the Augusta to Savannah navigation channel and associated structures. 5. Restore Savannah River cutoff bends to natural conditions where fish and wildlife and/or other benefits can be demonstrated. 6. Maintain small (fishing) boat access to those cutoff bends providing significant fishing opportunities. 7. Gather water quality and morphometry survey information on selected cutoff bends to help determine the need for restoration or other actions at additional cutoff bends. 8. Maintain and enhance fish passage at the New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam or remove this impediment to fish passage., 9. Improve water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen level, below J. Strom Thurmond Dam. 10. Evaluate instream flow impacts of surface water withdrawal in the Piedmont region of the basin.

FUTURE FWCA ACTIVITIES AND FUNDING NEEDS Projecting the specific FWCA activities that would be necessary to adequately describe existing 35

fish and wildlife resources, assess impacts and evaluate alternative plans, and develop necessary conservation measures is difficult because the scope of the potential study has not been well defined. Required activities will be directly related to problems evaluated and potential solutions and their likely impacts upon fish and wildlife resources. For planning purposes, we have assumed that future studies would focus on the flow regime. The Service would anticipate providing assistance in scoping, designing and analyzing the results of studies needed to evaluate flow problems. In addition, study results would be used to prepare Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act Reports evaluating fish and wildlife habitat with and without the project and providing recommendations on management measures. Our funding estimate for these activities is $60,000. Should the study continue, detailed scopes of work and associated funding needs will be developed under our transfer funding agreement. RECOMMENDATIONS The Service recommends that the Corps perform the following actions to address the problems associated with the Savannah River Basin project. 1. In conjunction with fish and wildlife agencies and other stakeholders, determine and implement a Savannah River flow regime that provides for diverse and productive fish and wildlife habitat. The flow regime evaluation should include determination of the quantity, duration and periodicity of flows needed to support aquatic and wetland functions. 2. Evaluate the potential to reduce salinity intrusion in Savannah Harbor, and'restore tidal freshwater marsh and striped bass habitat, by modifying management and operation of J. Strom Thurmond Reservoir. 3. Evaluate the extent and impact of development in the Savannah River flood plain subsequent to construction of Corps flood control projects. 4. Do not conduct any dredging maintenance activities on the Savannah to Augusta navigation project and seek deauthorization of this navigation project. 5. In conjunction with fish and wildlife agencies, determine need for further restoration action on cutoff bends. 6. Continue to ensure anadromous fish passage at New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam using lock operations or upstream flow releases. Evaluate removal of this obstruction to anadromous fish. Ensure that fish passage is continued if the disposition study leads to a new lock and dam manager. 7. Improve water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen level, below J. Strom Thurmond Dam. 8. Evaluate instream flow impacts of surface water withdrawal in the piedmont region of the basin.

LITERATURE CITED 16

Applied Technology and Management. 1998. Savannah Harbor expansion environmental impact statement. Georgia Ports Authority. Savannah, Georgia. 244 pp. T. W. Cooney, K. H. Jones, P. A. Drews, S.W. Ellisor and B. W. Church. 1998. Water resources data for South Carolina - Water year 1998. U.S. Geological Survey Report SC-981. Columbia, South Carolina. 546 pp. Bozeman, J.R., and J. R. Darrell. 1975. The river swamp ecosystem and related vegetation. A study of Georgia's Coastal area. Ga. Dept. of Nat. Resour., Off. Planning Res., Atlanta. 37 pp. McBay, L. G. 1968. Location of sexually mature striped bass. Ga.Game and Fish Comm. Coastal Region Fish Invest. Report. Job 11-1:27-48. Odum, W. E., T. J. Smith laI, J. K. Hoover, and C. C. Mclvor. 1984. The ecology of tidal freshwater marshes of the United States east coast: a community profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. FWS/OBS-83/17. Pearlstine, L., W. Kitchens, P. Latham, and R. Bartleston, 1990. Application of a habitat succession model for the wetlands complex of the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge. Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Florida. Gainesville. Rees, R. A. 1974. Statewide Fish. Invest. Ga. Game and Fish Div. Final Rept. Fed. Aid Proj. F-215 study 14 job 1. llpp. Robbins, C. S., D. K. Dawson, and B. A. Dowell, 1989. Habitat area requirements of breeding forest birds of the middle Atlantic states. Wildlife Monograph No. 103. 34 pp. Schmitt, D. N. and J. H. Hornsby. 1985. A fisheries survey of the Savannah River. Georgia Department of Natural Resources Final Report for Project Number F-30-12. Atlanta, Georgia. 91 pp. Teal, J. M. 1962. Energy flow in the salt marsh ecosystem of Georgia. Ecology, 43(4): 614-624. Van Den Avyle, M., M. Maynard, R. Klinger, and V. Blazer, 1990. Effects of Savannah harbor development on fishery resources associated with the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge, Georgia Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Georgia. Athens. Winger, P. V., and P. J. Lasier. 1990. Effects of salinity on striped bass eggs and larvae. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Fisheries Contaminant Research Center, Univ. of Georgia, Athens. Report submitted to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Savannah District.

17

APPENDIX A

18

United States Department of the Interior= FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE P.O. BOX 12559 217 FORT JOHNSON ROAD CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA 29('°

October 15,

1994

Honorable Lois D. Cashell Secretary Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 825 North Capitol Street, N.E. Washington, D.C. 20426 Dear Ms. Cashell: The attached document entitled "Elements of Consensus on American Shad Management in the Stretch of Savannah River Between Strom Thurmond (Clarks Hill) Dam and Augusta":presents background and details of a preliminary management plan addressing restoration of access to historical anadromous fish spawning habitat in the Savannah' River, South Carolina and Georgia.*

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service hereby submits this document under Section 10(a) (2)(a) of the Federal Power Act for your information and use., Sincerely yours,

L-.Banks S Roger Field Supervisor RB/SG Attachment..

mr

* ELEMENTS OF CONSENSUS ON AMERICAN SHAD MANAGEMENT IN THE STRETCH OF SAVANNAH RIVER BETWEEN STROM THURMOND (CLARKS HILL) DAM AND AUGUSTA On June 11, 1992 an interagency meeting was held to ascertain those elements of the Fish and Wildlife Service Goals for Savannah River anadromous fish (especially American Shad) management which were held in common by all area resource agencies. The area resource agencies in attendance included the US Fish and Wildlife Service (F&WS), Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GA DNR), and South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources (SCWMRD). The US Soil Conservation Service (SCS) was invited to attend to acquaint the State fisheries agencies with the special efforts of the Georgia Resource Conservation and Development (RC&D) Council. The soil conservation agent acts as the RC&D coordinator for the 14 county council. The position of the F&WS is that habitat expansion and enhancement of the stretch of the Savannah River between Strom Thurmond (Clarks Hill) Dam and New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam (NSBLD) to anadromous species spawning use would be beneficial to the stocks of those fishes, especially. American shad. American shad are known to have had historical Savannah River spawning migrations of over 385 miles. The first major dam built on the Savannah River, the Augusta Diversion Dam, was constructed in 1845 at then approximate river mile 285. In about 1938 the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE) constructed the New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam at what was then approximate river mile 265. Subsequent COE projecfs cut valuable meanders from the lower river to shorten the river channel by approximately 78 miles, so that NSBLD is now located at river mile 187.3. Nearly half of the Savannah River spawning habitat once available to anadromous fishes has been lost. Restoring use of as much river as is possible is desirable-for nationally important fish species. Construction of fish ladders, with concomitant expansion of suitable spawning and nursery areas, has increased run sizes of American shad in selected northeast rivers. American shad have already responded positively to passage into the NSBLD pool. There is no reason to believe that successful utilization of habitats further upstream could not also be obtained. The current Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's relicensing of both the Augusta Diversion Dam and Stevens Creek projects presents a unique temporal window of opportunity to provide American shad passage above these facilities through prescriptive authorities delegated to the Secretaries of Interior and Commerce by Section 18 of the Federal Power Act. Five elements of F&WS goals for this area were identified. They involve (1) the continued lockage of American shad at New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam, (2) the design and implementation of the upstream fish passage mechanism at the Augusta Diversion Dam and at the (3) Stevens Creek Dam, (4) improvement of poor dissolved oxygen, and (5) safe downstream passage mechanism for outmigrant anadromous fishes if deemed necessary.

Three areas of consensus were initially identified by the interagency group. 1.

The group agreed that continued lockage of American shad to the NSBLD pool is desirable.

2.

The group agreed that dam discharge water quality parameters, including dissolved oxygen levels, should at least meet each State's minimum quality criteria. Thus, the low DO late summer discharges of Strom Thurmond Dam need upgrading.

3.

It was agreed by the group that it would be beneficial to evaluate American shad population responses, possibly as monitored by commercial and recreational harvest, to the passage provided. It was further agreed that the means for such evaluation would best be determined by an interagency committee. This committee would design a study plan and meet periodically to evaluate the data generated by the identified work plan. Monies required to pursue this effort would be jointly sought and delegated to cooperators engaged in the actual field work, as arranged for by the committee. American shad commercial harvest rate catch per unit effort (CPUE) data has been compiled by SCWMRD for some 12 years. The group agreed that although this data has several weaknesses, it is a very valuable data base and its collection should continue to possibly show long term trends. Sources of new monies to continue the compilation of this data is desirable and should be encouraged by the interagency committee.

Formation of the Savannah River Anadromous Fish Interagency Committee (SRAFIC) then is the immediate first need to further action on the consensus items.

Georgia Department of Natural Resources 205 Butler Street. SE., East FloydLonice Tower, Atlanta, Commnissioner orgia 30334 C.BDarrett -i•,.

Harold F. Rebeis, Director Environmental Protection Division July 27, 1999

Colonel Joseph K. Schmitt, District Enginer U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 100 West Oglethorpe Avenue P.O. Box 889,

Savannah, Ge o'rgia 31402-0889 RE:

Savannah River Basin Reconnaissance Study Reference: DACW21-98-D-0019, 0027

Dear Colonel Schmitt: We appreciate the opportunity to work with your staff on efforts concerning the proposed" Savannah River Basin Reconnaissance Study. We believe this program can be of great benefit in dealing with some of the existing issues in the bailn, such as water supply allocatiom', flood control;,hydropower, water quality and flow, fish and wildlife, aquatic plant control, and' recreation.. We would like to continue to the next step of this study process, which is to develop a preliminary cost estimate foi feasibility studies. We understand we will have toenter into an agreement and sign a Feaibility Cost SharingAgreement before a feasibility study ca begin. This should-not be construed as any commitment of funds at this tizu. We are prepa to discuss thte siiidy costs-and 'r`oposed improvements at the appropriate time. Sincerely,

Harold F. Reheis Director HFR:hw cc:

Lonice C. Barrett David Waller Nolton 0. Johnson Alan W. Hallum

South Carolina Department of

Natural Resources Paul A. Sandifer, Ph.D. Director

July 29, 1999

Alfred H. Vang *

Deputy irectorfo

Water Resources, Land Resources & Conservation Districts alr

Colonel Joseph K Scbmitt, District Engineer U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 100 West Oglethorpe Avenue P.O. Box 889 Savannah, GA 31402-0889

Geological Survey

Re: Savannah River Basin Reconnaissance Study, Reference DACW21-98-D-0019, 0027 Dear. Colonel Schmi,. We appreciate the opportunity to work with your staff on efforts concerning the proposed Savannah River Basin Reconnaissance Study. We believe ths program will be of great benefit in solving some of the existing issues in the basin, such as water supply allocations, flood control, hydropower, water quality and flow, fish and wilife, aquatic plant control, and recreation. . We would like to continue the next step of this study process,-wich is to develop a preliminary.cost esti"mnate for feasibility studies. Wo understand we willhave to enter into an, agreement and sign a Feasity Cost Sharing Agreement before a feasibility study can begin. This should not be construed as any commitment of funds at this tine., We are prepared to discuss the study costs and proposed improvements at the appropriate tim Sincerely,

Deputy Director AHV-jk

2221 Devine Street • Suite 222 EQUAL OPPORTUNITY AGENCY

*

Columbia, S.C. 29905 - Telephone: 803/734-9100 PRINTED ON RECYCLED PAPER 0

)

0445ZOODo http://water.usgs.gov/ http://water.usgs.gov/data.html //NATIONAL WATER INFORMATION SYSTEM //DATA ARE PROVISIONAL AND SUBJECT TO CHANGE UNTIL PUBLISHED BY USGS //RETRIEVED: 2006-07-05 20:45:23 //WARNING //WARNING The stage-discharge rating provided in this file should be //WARNING considered provisional and subject to change. Stage-discharge //WARNING ratings change over time as the channel features that control //WARNING the relation between stage and discharge vary. Users are //WARNING cautioned to consider carefully the applicability of this //WARNING rating before using it for decisions that concern personal or //WARNING public safety or operational consequences. f/WARNING //FILE TYPE="NWIS RATING" (ADAPS, GWSI, QW)" DESCRIPTION=" Georgia District Database //DATABASE NU•BER=l " TIME ZONE="EST" DSTFLAG=N //STATION AGENCY="USGS 0 NUMBER-"021973269 //STATION NAME="SAVANNAH RIVER NEAR WAYNESBORO, GA" 2" LABEL-"Discharge DCP, in cfs" //DD NUMBER=" //PARAMETER CODE="00060" //RATING SHIFTED="20060705200000 EST" //RATING ID=" 1.0" TYPEs"STGQ" NAME="stage-discharge" //RATING REMARKS-"" //RATING EXPANSION-"logarithmic" //RATINGINDEP ROUNDING-"2223456782" PARAMETER-"Gage height IN feet"o//RATINGDEP ROUNDING="2222233332" PARAMETER-"Discharge IN cfs" //RATINGDATETIME BEGIN-20050119135400 BZONE=EST END=20050930235959 EZONE=EST //RATINGDATETIME BEGIN-20051001000000 BZONE=EST END=23821230190000 EZONE=EST //SHIFTPREV BEGIN="20060324134500" BZONE-"EST" END=* -------------- " EZONE-"---" //SHIFT PREV STAGE1-"6.00" SHIFTl-"0.24" STAGE2-"8.70" SHIFT2-"0.24" STAGE3-"12.00"

# //UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # #

SHIFT3-"0.00"

# //SHIFTPREV COMMENT-"Channel scour." # //SHIFTNEXT BEGIN=" -------------- n BZONE"---" END="--------------- " EZONE="---" # f/SHIFTNEXT STAGE1=-"---" SHIFTl-"---" STAGE2-"---" SHIFT2.-,---" STAGE3."---" SHIFT3-.# //SHIFTNEXT COMMENT-" DEP SHIFT INDEP 16N 16N 16N 3230 0.24 5.76 3240 0.24 5.77 3250 0.24 5.78 5.79 0.24 3260 3270 0.24 5.80 3280 0.24 5.81 5.82 0.24 3280 3290 0.24 5.83 3300 0.24 5.84 3310 0.24 5.85 3320 0.24 5.86 3330 0.24 5.87 3340 0.24 5.88 3350 0.24 5.89 5.90 0.24 3360 3370 0.24 5.91 3380 0.24 5.92 5.93 0.24 3380 3390 0.24 5.94 3400 0.24 5.95 3410 0.24 5.96 5.97 0.24 3420 5.98 0.24 3430 3440 0.24 5.99 3450 0.24 6.00 3460 0.24 6.01 6.02 0.24 3470 3480 0.24 6.03 3490 0.24 6.04 3500 0.24 6.05 6.06 0.24 3500 6.07 0.24 3510 6.08 0.24 3520 3530 0.24 6.09

STOR 1s *

6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 6.20 6.21 6.22 6.23 6.24 6.25 6.26 6.27 6.28 6.29 6.30 6.31 6.32 6.33 6.34 6.35 6.36 6.37 6.38 6.39 6.40 6.41 6.42 6.43 6.44 6.45 6.46 6.47 6.48 6.49 6.50 6.51 6.52 6.53 6.54 6.55 6.56 6.57 6.58 6.59 6.60 6.61 6.62 6.63 6.64 6.65 6.66 6.67 6.68 6.69 6.70 6.71 6.72 6.73 6.74 6.75 6.76 6.77 6.78 6.79 6.80

0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24

3540 3550 3560 3570 3580 3590 3600 3610 3620 3630 3640 3640 3650 3660 3670 3680 3690 3700 3710 3720 3730 3740 3750 3760 3770 3780 3790 3800 3810 3820 3830 3840 3850 3850 3860 3870 3880 3890 3900 3910 3920 3930 3940 3950 3960 3970 3980 3990 4000 4010 4020 4030 4040 4050 4060 4070 4080 4090 4100 4110 4120 413.0 4140 4150 4160 4170 4180 4190 4200 4210 4220

j7)

6.81 6.82 6.83 6.84 6.85 6.86 6.87 6.88 6.89 6.90 6.91 6.92 6.93 6.94 6.95 6.96 6.97 6.98 6.99 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19 7.20 7.21 7.22 7.23 7.24 7.25 7.26 7.27 7.28 7.29 7.30 7.31 7.32 7.33 7.34 7.35 7.36 7.37 7.38 7.39 7.40 7.41 7.42 7.43 7.44 7.45 7.46 7.47 7.48 7.49 7.50 7.51

0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24

4230 4240 4250 4260 4270 4280 4290 4300 4310 4320 4330 4340 4350 4360 4370 4380 4390 4400 4410 4420 4430 4440 4450 4460 4470 4480 4490 4500 4510 4520 4530 4540 4550 4560 4580 4590 4600 4610 4620 4630 4640 4650 4660 4670 4680 4690 4700 4710 4720 4730 4740 4750 4760 4770 4780 4790 4800 4820 4830 4840 4850 4860 4870 4880 4890 4900 4910 4920 4930 4940 4950

7.52 7.53 7.54 7.55 7.56 7.57 7.58 7.59 7.60 7.61 7.62 7.63 7.64 7.65 7.66 7.67 7.68 7.69 7.70 7.71 7.72 7.73 7.74 7.75 7.76 7.77 7.78 7.79 7.80 7.81 7.82 7.83 7.84 7.85 7.86 7.87 7.88 7.89 7.90 7.91 7.92 7.93 7.94 7.95 7.96 7.97 7.98 7.99

8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 8.17 8.18 8.19 8.20 8.21 8.22

0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24

4960 4970 4990 5000 5010 5020 5030 5040 5050 5060 5070 5080 5090 5100 5110 5130 5140 5150 5160 5170 5180 5190 5200 5210 5220 5230 5250 5260 5270 5280 5290 5300 5310 5320 5330 5340 5350 5370 5380 5390 5400 5410 5420 5430 5440 5450 5470 5480 5490 5500 5510 5520 5530 5540 5550 5570 5580 5590 5600 5610 5620 5630 5640 5660 5670 5680 5690 5700 5710 5720 5730

9

9

8.23 8.24 8.25 8.26 8.27 8.28 8.29 8.30 8.31 8.32 8.33 8.34 8.35 8.36 8.37 8.38 8.39 8.40 8.41 8.42 8.43 8.44 8.45 8.46 8.47 8.48 8.49 8.50 8.51 8.52 8.53 8.54 8.55 8.56 8.57 8.58 8.59 8.60 8.61 8.62 8.63 8.64 8.65 8.66 8.67 8.68 8.69 8.70 8.71 8.72 8.73 8.74 8.75 8.76 8.77 8.78 8.79 8.80 8.81 8.82 8.83 8.84 8.85 8.86 8.87 8.88 8.89 8.90 8.91 8.92 8.93

0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.22

5750 5760 5770 5780 5790 5800 5810 5830 5840 5850 5860 5870 5880 5890 5910 5920 5930 5940 5950 5960 5970 5990 6000 6010 6020 6030 6040 6060 6070 6080 6090 6100 6110 6130 6140 6150 6160 6170 6180 6200 6210 6220 6230 6240 6250 6270 6280 6290 6300 6310 6320 6340 6350 6360 6360 6370 6380 6390 6410 6420 6430 6440 6450 6470 6480 6490 6500 6510 6510 6530 6540

8.94 8.95 8.96 8.97 8.98 8.99 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 9.16 9.17 9.18 9.19 9.20 9.21 9.22 9.23 9.24 9.25 9.26 9.27 9.28 9.29 9.30 9.31 9.32 9.33 9.34 9.35 9.36 9.37 9.38 9.39 9.40 9.41 9.42 9.43 9.44 9.45 9.46 9.47 9.48 9.49 9.50 9.51 9.52 9.53 9.54 9.55 9.56 9.57 9.58 9.59 9.60 9.61 9.62 9.63 9.64

0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17

6550 6560 6570 6590 6600 6610 6620 6630 6650 6660 6670 6670 6680 6690 6710 6720 6730 6740 6750 6770 6780 6790 6800 6810 6830 6830 6840 6850 6860 6880 6890 6900 6910 6920 6940 6950 6960 6970 6970 6990 7000 7010 7020 7030 7050 7060 7070 7080 7100 7110 7120 7130 7130 7150 7160 7170 7180 7190 7210 7220 7230 7240 7260 7270 7280 7290 7290 7310 7320 7330 7340

9.65 9.66 9.67 9.68 9.69 9.70 9.71 9.72 9.73 9.74 9.75 9.76 9.77 9.78 9.79 9.80 9.81 9.82 9.83 9.84 9.85 9.86 9.87 9.88 9.89 9.90 9.91 9.92 9.93 9.94 9.95 9.96 9.97 9.98 9.99 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 10.16 10.17 10.18 10.19 10.20 10.21 10.22 10.23 10.24 10.25 10.26 10.27 10.28 10.29 10.30 10.31 10.32 10.33 10.34 10.35

0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.16 0.16

0.16 0.16 0.16

0.16 0.16 0.16

0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15

0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.13

0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12

7360 7370 7380 7390 7410 7420 7430 7440 7460 7460 7470 7480 7500 7510 7520 7530 7550 7560 7570 7580 7600 7610 7610 7620 7630 7650 7660 7670 7690 7700 7710 7720 7740 7750 7760 7770 7770 7790 7800 7810 7830 7840 7850 7860 7880 7890 7900 7920 7930 7940 7940 7950 7970 7980 7990 8010 8020 8030 8050 8060 8070 8080 8100 811o 811o 8120 8140 8150 8160 818o 8190

10.36 10.37 10.38 10.39 10.40 10.41 10.42 10.43 10.44 10.45 10.46 10.47 10.48 10.49 10.50 10.51 10.52 10.53 10.54 10.55 10.56 10.57 10.58 10.59 10.60 10.61 10.62 10.63 10.64 10.65 10.66 10.67 10.68 10.69 10.70 10.71 10.72 10.73 10.74 10.75 10.76 10.77 10.78 10.79 10.80 10.81 10.82 10.83 10.84 10.85 10.86 10.87 10.88 10.89 10.90 10.91 10.92 10.93 10.94 10.95 10.96 10.97 10.98 10.99 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06

0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07

8200 8210 8230 8240 8250 8270 8270 8280 8290 8310 8320 8330 8350 8360 8370 8390 8400 8410 8430 8440 8440 8450 8460 8480 8490 8500 8520 8530 8540 8560 8570 8580 8600 8610 8610 8620 8640 8650 8660 8680 8690 8700 8720 8730 8740 8760 8770 8780 8780 8800 8810 8830 8840 8850 8870 8880 8890 8910 8920 8930 8950 8950 8960 8970 8990 9000 9010 9030 9040 9060 9070

11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14 11.15 11.16 11.17 11.18 11.19 11.20 11.21 11.22 11.23 11.24 11.25 11.26 11.27 11.28 11.29 11.30 11.31 11.32 11.33 11.34 11.35 11.36 11.37 11.38 11.39 11.40 11.41 11.42 11.43 11.44 11.45 11.46 11.47 11.48 11.49 11.50 11.51 11.52 11.53 11.54 11.55 11.56 11.57 11.58 11.59 11.60 11.61 11.62 11.63 11.64 11.65 11.66 11.67 11.68 11.69 11.70 11.71 11.72 11.73 11.74 11.75 11.76 11.77

0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06

0.06 0.06 0.06

0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06

0.06 0.06 0.06

0.06 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03

0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03

0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02

0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02

9080 9100 9110 9120 9120 9140 9150 9160 9180 9190 9210 9220 9230 9250 9260 9270 9290 9300 9300 9320 9330 9340 9360 9370 9380 9400 9410 9430 9440 9450 9470 9480 9480 9490 9510 9520 9540 9550 9560 9580 9590 9610 9620 9630 9650 9650 9660 9680 9690 9700 9720 9730 9750 9760 9770 9790 9800 9820 9830 9830 9840 9860 9870 9890 9900 9910 9930 9940 9960 9970 9990

11.78 11.79 11.80 11.81 11.82 11.83 11.84 11.85 11.86 11.87 11.88 11.89 11.90 11.91 11.92 11.93 11.94 11.95 11.96 11.97 11.98 11.99 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 12.14 12.15 12.16 12.17 12.18 12.19 12.20 12.21 12.22 12.23 12.24 12.25 12.26 12.27 12.28 12.29 12.30 12.31 12.32 12.33 12.34 12.35 12.36 12.37 12.38 12.39 12.40 12.41 12.42 12.43 12.44 12.45 12.46 12.47 12.48

0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10100 10100 10100 10100 10100 10100 10100 10200 10200 10200 10200 10200 10200 10200 10200 10300 10300 10300 10300 10300 10300 10300 10400 10400 10400 10400 10400 10400 10400 10500 10500 10500 10500 10500 10500 10500 10600 10600 10600 10600 10600 10600 10600 10700 10700 10700 10700 10700 10700 10700 10800 10800 10800 10800

10800 10800 10800 10900 10900 10900 10900 10900 10900 11000 11000 11000

12.49 12.50 12.51 12.52 12.53 12.54 12.55 12.56 12.57 12.58 12.59 12.60 12.61 12.62 12.63 12.64 12.65 12.66 12.67 12.68 12.69 12.70 12.71 12.72 12.73 12.74 12.75 12.76 12.77 12.78 12.79 12.80 12.81 12.82 12.83 12.84 12.85 12.86 12.87 12.88 12.89 12.90 12.91 12.92 12.93 12 .94 12.95 12.96 12.97 12.98 12.99 13.00 13.01 13.02 13.03 13.04 13.05 13 .06 13.07 13.08 13.09 13.10 13.11 13.12 13.13 13 .14 13.15 13.16 13.17 13.18 13.19

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11000 11000 11000 11000 11100 11100 11100 11100 11100 11100 11100 11200 11200 11200 11200 11200 11200 11200 11300 11300 11300 11300 11300 11300 11400 11400 11400 11400 11400 11400 11400 11500 11500 11500 11500 11500 11500 11500 11600 11600 11600 11600 11600 11600 11700 11700 11700 11700 11700 11700 11700 11800 11800 11800 11800 11800 11800 11800 11900 11900 11900 11900 11900 11900 12000 12000 12000 12000 12000 12000 12000

13.20 13.21 13.22 13.23 13.24 13.25 13.26 13.27 13.28 13.29 13.30 13.31 13.32 13.33 13.34 13.35 13.36 13.37 13.38 13.39 13.40 13.41 13.42 13.43 13.44 13.45 13.46 13.47 13.48 13.49 13.50 13.51 13.52 13.53 13.54 13.55 13.56 13.57 13.58 13.59 13.60 13.61 13.62 13.63 13.64 13.65 13.66 13.67 13.68 13.69 13.70 13.71 13.72 13.73 13.74 13.75 13.76 13.77 13.78 13.79 13.80 13.81 13.82 13.83 13.84 13.85 13.86 13.87 13.88 13.89 13.90

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

12100 12100 12100 12100 12100 12100 12200 12200 12200 12200 12200 12200 12200 12300 12300 12300 12300 12300 12300 12400 12400 12400 12400 12400 12400 12400 12500 12500 12500 12500 12500 12500 12600 12600 12600 12600 12600 12600 12600 12700 12700 12700 12700 12700 12700 12800 12800 12800 12800 12800 12800 12800 12900 12900 12900 12900 12900 12900 13000 13000 13000 13000 13000 13000 13100 13100 13100 13100 13100 13100 13100

13.91 13.92 13.93 13.94 13.95 13.96 13.97 13.98 13.99 14.00 14.01 14.02 14.03 14.04 14.05 14.06 14.07 14.08 14.09 14.10 14.11 14.12 14.13 14.14 14.15 14.16 14.17 14.18 14.19 14.20 14.21 14.22 14.23 14.24 14.25 14.26 14.27 14.28 14.29 14.30 14.31 14.32 14.33 14.34 14.35 14.36 14.37 14.38 14.39 14.40 14.41 14.42 14.43 14.44 14.45 14.46 14.47 14.48 14.49 14.50 14.51 14.52 14.53 14.54 14.55 14.56 14.57 14.58 14.59 14.60 14.61

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

13200 13200 13200 13200 13200 13200 13300 13300 13300 13300 13300 13300 13400 13400 13400 13400 13400 13400 13400 13500 13500 13500 13500 13500 13500 13600 13600 13600 13600 13600 13600 13700 13700 13700 13700 13700 13700 13800 13800 13800 13800 13800 13800 13800 13900 13900 13900 13900 13900 13900 14000 14000 14000 14000 14000 14000 14100 14100 14100 14100 14100 14100 14200 14200 14200 14200 14200 14200 14300 14300 14300

14.62 14.63 14 .64 14.65 14.66 14.67 14.68 14.69 14.70 14 .71 14.72 14.73 14.74 14.75 14.76 14.77 14.78 14.79 14.80 14.81 14.82 14.83 14.84 14.85 14.86 14.87 14.88 14.89 14.90 14. 91 14.92 14.93 14.94 14.95 14.96 14.97 14.98 14.99 15.00 15.01 15.02 15.03 15.04 15.05 15.06 15.07 15.08 15.09 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 15.14 15.15 15.16 15.17 15.18 15.19 15.20 15.21 15.22 15.23 15.24 15.25 15.26 15.27 15.28 15.29 15.30 15.31 15.32

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

14300 14300 14300 14400 14400 14400 14400 14400 14400 14500 14500 14500 14500 14500 14500 14600 14600 14600 14600 14600 14600 14600 14700 14700 14700 14700 14700 14700 14700 14800 14800 14800 14800 14800 14800 14900 14900 14900 14900 14900 14900 14900 15000 15000 15000 15000 15000 15000 15000 15100 15100 15100 15100 15100 15100 15200 15200 15200 15200 15200 15200 15200 15300 15300 15300 15300 15300 15300 15400 15400 15400

*

15.33 15.34 15.35 15.36 15.37 15.38 15.39 15.40 15.41 15.42 15.43 15.44 15.45 15.46 15.47 15.48 15.49 15.50 15.51 15.52 15.53 15.54 15.55 15.56 15.57 15.58 15.59 15.60 15.61 15.62 15.63 15.64 15.65 15.66 15.67 15.68 15.69 15.70 15.71 15.72 15.73 15.74 15.75 15.76 15.77 15.78 15.79 15.80 15.81 15.82 15.83 15.84 15.85 15.86 15.87 15.88 15.89 15.90 15.91 15.92 15.93 15.94 15.95 15.96 15.97 15.98 15.99 16.00 16.01 16.02 16.03

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

15400 15400 15400 15400 15500 15500 15500 15500 15500 15500 15500 15600 15600 15600 15600 15600 15600 15700 15700 15700 15700 15700 15700 15700 15800 15800 15800 15800 15800 15800 15900 15900 15900 15900 15900 15900 15900 16000 16000 16000 16000 16000 16000 16100 16100 16100 16100 16100 16100 16100 16200 16200 16200 16200 16200 16200 16300 16300 16300 16300 16300 16300 16300 16400 16400 16400 .16400 16400 16400 16500 16500

16.04 16.05 16.06 16.07 16.08 16.09 16.10 16..11 16.12 16.13 16.14 16.15 16.16 16.17 16.18 16.19 16.20 16.21 16.22 16.23 16.24 16.25 16.26 16.27 16.28 16.29 16.30 16.31 16.32 16.33 16.34 16.35 16.36 16.37 16.38 16.39 16.40 16.41 16.42 16.43 16.44

16.45 16.46 16.47 16.48 16.49 16.50 16.51 16.52 16.53 16.54 16.55 16.56 16.57 16.58 16.59 16.60 16.61 16.62 16.63 16.64 16.65 16.66 16.67 16.68 16.69 16.70 16.71 16.72 16.73 16.74

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

16500 16500 16500 16500 16500 16600 16600 16600 16600 16600 16600 16700 16700 16700 16700 16700 16700 16800 16800 16800 16800 16800 16800 16800 16900 16900 16900 16900 16900 16900 17000 17000 17000 17000 17000 17000 17000 17100 17100 17100 17100 17100 17100 17200 17200 17200 17200 17200 17200 17300 17300 17300 17300 17300 17300 17300 17400 17400 17400 17400 17400 17400 17500 17500 17500 17500 17500 17500 17600 17600 17600

D

16.75 16.76 16.77 16.78 16.79 16.80 16.81 16.82 16.83 16.84 16.85 16.86 16.87 16.88 16.89 16.90 16.91 16.92 16.93 16.94 16.95 16.96 16.97 16.98 16.99 17.00 17.01 17.02 17.03 17.04 17.05 17.06 17.07 17.08 17.09 17.10 17.11 17.12 17.13 17.14 17.15 17.16 17.17 17.18 17.19 17.20 17.21 17.22 17.23 17.24 17.25 17.26 17.27 17.28 17.29 17.30 17.31 17.32 17.33 17.34 17.35 17.36 17.37 17.38 17.39 17.40 17.41 17.42 17.43 17.44 17.45

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

17600 17600 17600 17600 17700 17700 17700 17700 17700 17700 17800 17800 17800 17800 17800 17800 17900 17900 17900 17900 17900 17900 18000 18000 18000 18000 18000 18000 18000 18100 18100 18100 18100 18100 18100 18200 18200 18200 18200 18200 18200 18300 18300 18300 18300 18300 18300 18400 18400 18400 18400 18400 18400 18400 18500 18500 18500 18500 18500 18500 18600 18600 18600 18600 18600 18600 18700 18700 18700 18700 18700

17.46 17.47 17.48 17.49 17.50 17.51 17.52 17.53 17.54 17.55 17.56 17.57 17.58 17.59 17.60 17.61 17.62 17.63 17.64 17.65 17.66 17.67 17.68 17.69 17.70 17.71 17.72 17.73 17.74 17.75 17.76 17.77 17.78 17.79 17.80 17.81 17.82 17.83 17.84 17.85 17.86 17.87 17.88 17.89 17.90 17.91 17.92 17.93 17.94 17.95 17.96 17.97 17.98 17.99 18.00 18.01 18.02 18.03 18.04 18.05 18.06 18.07 18.08 18.09 18.10 18.11 18.12 18.13 18.14 18.15 .18.16

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

18700 18800 18800 18800 18800 18800 18800 18900 18900 18900 18900 18900 18900 19000 19000 19000 19000 19000 19000 19000 19100 19100 19100 19100 19100 19100 19200 19200 19200 19200 19200 19200 19300 19300 19300 19300 19300 19300 19400 19400 19400 19400 19400 19400 19500 19500 19500 19500 19500 19500 19600 19600 19600 19600 19600 19600 19700 19700 19700 19700 19700 19700 19800 19800 19800 19800 19800 19800 19900 19900 19900

18.17

0.00

18.18

0.00

18.19 18.20 18.21 18.22 18.23 18.24 18.25 18.26 18.27 18.28 18.29 18.30 18.31 18.32 18.33 18.34 18.35 18.36 18.37 18.38 18.39 18.40 18.41 18.42 18.43 18.44 18.45 18.46 18.47 18.48 18.49 18.50 18.51 18.52 18.53 18.54 18.55 18.56 18.57 18.58 18.59 18.60 18.61

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

18.62

0.00

18.63 18.64 18.65

0.00 0.00 0.00

18.66

0.00

18.67 18.68 18.69 18.70 18.71 18.72 18.73 18.74 18.75 18.76 18.77 18.78 18.79 18.80 18.81 18.82

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

18.83

0.00

18.84 18.85 18.86 18.87

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

19900 19900 19900 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 20100 20100 20100 20100 20100 20100 20200 20200 20200 20200 20200 20200 20300 20300 20300 20300 20300 20300 20400 20400 20400 20400 20400 20400 20500 20500 20500 20500 20500 20500 20600 20600 20600 20600 20600 20600 20700 20700 20700 20700 20700 20700 20800 20800 20800 20800 20800 20800 20900 20900 20900 20900 20900 20900 21000 21000 21000 21000 21000 21000 21100 21100

18.88 18.89 18.90 18.91 18.92 18.93 18.94 18.95 18.96 18.97 18.98 18.99 19.00 19.01 19.02 19.03 19.04 19.05 19.06 19.07 19.08 19.09 19.10 19.11 19.12 19.13 19.14 19.15 19.16 19.17 19.18 19.19 19.20 19.21 19.22 19.23 19.24 19.25 19.26 19.27 19.28 19.29 19.30 19.31 19.32 19.33 19.34 19.35 19.36 19.37 19.38 19.39 19.40 19.41 19.42 19.43 19.44 19.45 19.46 19.47 19.48 19.49 19.50 19.51 19.52 19.53 19.54 19.55 19.56 19.57 19.58

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

21100 21100 21100 21100 21200 21200 21200 21200 21200 21200 21300 21300 21300 21300 21300 21300 21400 21400 21400 21400 21400 21400 21500 21500 21500 21500 21500 21500 21600 21600 21600 21600 21600 21600 21700 21700 21700 21700 21700 21800 21800 21800 21800 21800 21900 21900 21900 21900 21900 22000 22000 22000 22000 22000 22100 22100 22100 22100 22200 22200 22200 22200 22200 22300 22300 22300 22300 22300 22400 22400 22400

19.59 19.60 19.61 19.62 19.63 19.64 19.65 19.66 19.67 19.68 19.69 19.70 19.71 19.72 19.73 19.74 19.75 19.76 19.77 19.78 19.79 19.80 19.81 19.82 19.83 19.84 19.85 19.86 19.87 19.88 19.89 19.90 19.91 19.92 19.93 19.94 19.95 19.96 19.97 19.98 19.99 20.00 20.01 20.02 20.03 20.04 20.05 20.06 20.07 20.08 20.09 20.10 20.11 20.12 20.13 20.14 20.15 20.16 20.17 20.18 20.19 20.20 20.21 20.22 20.23 20.24 20.25 20.26 20.27 20.28 20.29

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

22400 22400 22500 22500 22500 22500 22500 22600 22600 22600 22600 22700 22700 22700 22700 22700 22800 22800 22800 22800 22800 22900 22900 22900 22900 22900 23000 23000 23000 23000 23000 23100 23100 23100 23100 23200 23200 23200 23200 23200 23300 23300 23300 23300 23300 23400 23400 23400 23400 23400 23500 23500 23500 23500 23600 23600 23600 23600 23600 23700 23700 23700 23700 23700 23800 23800 23800 23800 23900 23900 23900

20.30 20.31 20.32 20.33 20.34 20.35 20.36 20.37 20.38 20.39 20.40 20.41 20.42 20.43 20.44 20.45 20.46 20.47 20.48 20.49 20.50 20.51 20.52 20.53 20.54 20.55 20.56 20.57 20.58 20.59 20.60 20.61 20.62 20.63 20.64 20.65 20.66 20.67 20.68 20.69 20.70 20.71 20.72 20.73 20.74 20.75 20.76 20.77 20.78 20.79 20.80 20.81 20.82 20.83 20.84 20.85 20.86 20.87 20.88 20.89 20.90 20.91 20.92 20.93 20.94 20.95 20.96 20.97 20.98 20.99 21.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

23900 23900 24000 24000 24000 24000 24000 24100 24100 24100 24100 24200 24200 24200 24200 24200 24300 24300 24300 24300 24300 24400 24400 24400 24400 24500 24500 24500 24500 24500 24600 24600 24600 24600 24600 24700 24700 24700 24700 24800 24800 24800 24800 24800 24900 24900 24900 24900 25000 25000 25000 25000 25000 25100 25100 25100 25100 25200 25200 25200 25200 25200 25300

25300 25300 25300 25300 25400 25400 25400 25400

21.01 21.02 21.03 21.04 21.05 21.06 21.07 21.08 21.09 21.10 21.11 21.12 21.13 21.14 21.15 21.16 21.17 21.18 21.19 21.20 21.21 21.22 21.23 21.24 21.25 21.26 21.27 21.28 21.29 21.30 21.31 21.32 21.33 21.34 21.35 21.36 21.37 21.38 21.39 21.40 21.41 21.42 21.43 21.44 21.45 21.46 21.47 21.48 21.49 21.50 21.51 21.52 21.53 21.54 21.55 21.56 21.57 21.58 21.59 21.60 21.61 21.62 21.63 21.64 21.65 21.66 21.67 21.68 21.69 21.70 21.71

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

25500 25500 25500 25500 25500 25600 25600 25600 25600 25700 25700 25700 25700 25700 25800 25800 25800 25800 25900 25900 25900 25900 25900 26000 26000 26000 26000 26100 26100 26100 26100 26100 26200 26200 26200 26200 26300 26300 26300 26300 26300 26400 26400 26400 26400 26500 26500 26500 26500 26500 26600 26600 26600 26600 26700 26700 26700 26700 26700 26800 26800 26800 26800 26900 26900 26900 26900 26900 27000 27000 27000

21.72 21.73 21.74 21.75 21.76 21.77 21.78 21.79 21.80 21.81 21.82 21.83 21.84 21.85 21.86 21.87 21.88 21.89 21.90 21.91 21.92 21.93 21.94 21.95 21.96 21.97 21.98 21.99 Z. 00 22.01 22.02 22.03 22.04 22.05 22.06 22.07 22.08 22.09 22.10 22.11 22.12 22.13 22.14 22.15 22.16 22.17 22.18 22.19 22.20 22.21 22.22 22.23 22.24 22.25 22.26 22.27 22.28 22.29 22.30 22.31 22.32 22.33 22.34 22.35 22.36 22.37 22.38 22.39 22.40 22.41 22.42

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

27000 27100 27100 27100 27100 27200 27200 27200 27200 27200 27300 27300 27300 27300 27400 27400 27400 27400 27400 27500 27500 27500 27500 27600 27600 27600 27600 27700 27700 27700 27700 27700 27800 27800 27800 27800 27900 27900 27900 27900 27900 28000 28000 28000 28000 28100 28100 28100 28100 28200 28200 28200 28200 28200 28300 28300 28300 28300 28400 28400 28400 28400 28500 28500 28500 28500 28500 28600 28600 28600 28600

0

22.43 22.44 22.45 22.46 22.47 22.48 22.49 22.50 22.51 22.52 22.53 22.54 22.55 22.56 22.57 22.58 22.59 22.60 22.61 22 .62 22 .63 22.64 22.65 22.66 22.67 22.68 22.69 22.70 22.71 22.72 22.73 22.74 22.75 22.76 22.77 22.78 22.79 22.80 22.81 22.82 22.83 22.84 22.85 22.86 22.87 22.88 22.89 22.90 22.91 22.92 22.93 22.94 22.95 22.96 22.97 22.98 22.99 23.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

28700 28700 28700 28700 28800 28800 28800 28800 28900 28900 28900 28900 28900 29000 29000 29000 29000 29100 29100 29100 29100 29200 29200 29200 29200 29200 29300 29300 29300 29300 29400 29400 29400 29400 29500 29500 29500 29500 29600 29600 29600 29600 29600 29700 29700 29700 29700 29800 29800 29800 29800 29900 29900 29900 29900 30000 30000 30000

¾>

5.3

(AEC 1974) Atomic Energy Commission 1974, Final Environmental Statement related to the proposed Alvin W. Vogtle Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, 3, and 4, Georgia Power Company, Directorate of Ucensing, Washington, D.C., March.

OEM

P OAA ama

CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81 OF

Monthly Station Normals of Temperature, Precipitation,

and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971 -2000

09 GEORGIA NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE, DATA, AND INFORMATION SERVICE NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER ASHEVILLE, NC

UniedStte ; Climate Kzma

CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81 Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971-2000 GEORGIA

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

Page 2

C United

17

ote••i

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CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81 Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971-2000

GEORGIA

Page 3 NOTES

Product Description: This Climatography includes 1971-2000 normals of monthly and annual maximum, minimum, and mean temperature (degrees F), monthly and annual total precipitation (inches). and heating and cooling degree days (base 65 degrees F). Normals stations include both National Weather Service Cooperative Network and Principal Observation (First-Order) locations In the 50 states, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Pacific Islands. Abbreviations: No. = Station Number In State Map COOP ID = Cooperative Network ID (1:2=State ID, 3:6=Station Index) WBAN ID= Weather Bureau Army Navy ID, if assigned Elements = Input Elements (X=Maximum Temperature, N=Minimum Temperature, P=Precipitation) Call = 3-Letter Station Call Sign, if assigned MAX = Normal Maximum Temperature (degrees Fahrenheit) MEAN = Average of MAX and MIN (degrees Fahrenheit) MIN = Normal Minimum Temperature (degrees Fahrenheit) HDD = Total Heating Degree Days (base 65 degrees Fahrenheit) COD = Total Cooling Degree Days (base 65 degrees Fahrenheit)

Latitude = Latitude in degrees, minutes, and hemisphere (N=North, S=South) Longitude = Longitude In degrees, minutes, and hemisphere (W=West, E=East) Elev = Elevation in feet above mean sea level Flag 1 = * If a published Local Climatolog/cal Data station Flag 2 = + if WMO Fully Qualified (see Note below) HIGHEST MEANIYEAR = Maximum Mean Monthly Value/Year, 1971-2000 MEDIAN = Median Mean Monthly Value/Year, 1971-2000 LOWEST MEANIYEAR = Minimum Mean Monthly Value/Year, 1971-2000 MAX OBS TIME ADJUSTMENT = Add to MAX to Get Midnight Obs. Schedule MIN OBS TIME ADJUSTMENT = Add to MIN to Get Midnight Obs. Schedule

Note: In 1989, the World Meteorological Organization (`NMO) prescribed standards of data completeness for the 1961-1990 WMO Standard Normals. For full qualification, no more than three consecutive year-month values can be missing for a given month or no more than five overall values can be missing for a given month (out of 30 values). Stations meeting these standards are Indicated with a '+' sign in Flag 2. Otherwise, stations are Included in the normals if they have at least 10 year-month values for each month and have been active since January 1999 or were a previous normals station. Mao Legend: Numbers correspond to 'No.' in Station Inventory; Shaded Circles indicate Temperature and Precipitation Stations, Triangles (Point Up) indicate Precipitation:Only Stations, Triangles (Point Down) indicate Temperature-Only Stations, and Hexagons indicate stations with Flag I1 =

%

Computational Procedures: A climate normal is defined, by convention, as the arithmetic mean of a climatological element computed over three consecutive decades (WMO.1989). Ideally, the data record for such a 30-year period should be free of any Inconsistencies in observational practices (e.g., changes in station location, Instrumentation, time of observation, etc.) and be serially complete (i.e., no missing values). When present, inconsistencies can lead to a nonclimatic bias In one period of a station's record relative to another, yielding an "inhomogeneous" data record. Adjustments and estimations can make a climate record *homogeneous" and serially complete, and allow a climate normal to be calculated simply as the average of the 30 monthly values. The methodology employed to generate the 1971-2000 normals is not the same as In previous normals, as Itaddresses Inhomogeneity and missing data value problems using several steps. The technique developed by Karl at al. (1986) is used to adjust monthly maximum and minimum temperature observations of conterminous U.S. stations to a consistent m~dnight-to-midnight schedule. All monthly temperature averages and precipitation totals are cross-checked against archived daily observations to ensure Internal consistency. Each monthly observation Is evaluated using a modified quality control procedure (Peterson et al.,1998), where station observation departures are computed, compared with neighboring stations, and then flagged and estimated where large differences with neighboring values exist Missing or discarded temperature and precipitation observations are replaced using a weighting function derived from the observed relationship between a candidate's monthly observations and those of up to 20 neighboring stations whose observations are most strongly correlated with the candidate site. For temperature estimates, neighboring stations were selected from the U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN; Karl etal. 1990). For precipitation estimates, all available stations were potential neighbors, maximizing station density for estimating the more spatially variable precipitation values. Peterson and Easterling (1994) and Easterling and Peterson (1995) outline the method for adjusting temperature inhomogeneities. This technique Involves comparing the record of the candidate station with a reference series generated from neighboring data. The reference series Is reconstructed using a weighted average of first difference observations (the difference from one year to the next) for neighboring stations with the highest correlation with the candidate. The underlying assumption behind this methodology is that temperatures over a region have similar tendencies in variation. If this assumption Is violated, the potential discontinuity Is evaluated for statistical significance. Where significant discontinuities are detected, the difference In average annual temperatures before and after the Inhomogeneity is applied to adjust the mean of the earlier block with the mean of the latter block of data. Such an evaluation requires a minimum of five years between discontinuities. Consequently, If multiple changes occur within five years or if a change occurs very near the end of the normals period (e.g., after 1995), the discontinuity may not be detectable using this methodology. The monthly normals for maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation are computed simply by averaging the appropriate 30 values from the 1971-2000 record. The monthly average temperature normals are computed by averaging the corresponding monthly maximum and minimum normals. The annual temperature normals are calculated by taking the average of the 12 monthly normals. The annual precipitation and degree day normals are the sum of the 12 monthly normals. Trace precipitation totals are shown as zero. Precipitation totals Include rain and the liquid equivalent of frozen and freezing precipitation (e.g., snow, sleet, freezing rain, and hail). For many NWS locations, Indicated with an -' next to 'HOD' and 'CDD' in the degree day table, degree day normals are computed directly from daily values for the 1971-2000 period. For all other stations, estimated degree day totals are based on a modification of the rational conversion formula developed by Thorn (1966), using daily spline-fit means and standard deviations of average temperature as Inputs. References: Easterling, DR, and T.C. Peterson, 1995: Anew method for detecting and adiusting for undocumented discontinuities Incdimatolooical time series. Intl. J. Cfhn., 15, 369-377. Karl, T.R., C.N. Williams, Jr., P.J. Young, and W.M. Wendland,1986: Amodel to estimate the lime of observation bias associated with monthly mean maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures for the United States, J. Cuim. Appi. Met., 25,145-160. Peterson, T.C., and D.R. Easterling, 1994: Creation of hom-ogeneous composite dlimatological reference series. Intl. J. Clir., 14,671-679. Peterson,T.C., R. Vose, R. Schmoyer, and V. Razuvaev, 1998: Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCNI quality control of monthly temperature data. Intl. J. Ct/rn., 18, 1169-1179. Thorn, H.C.S., 1966: Normal dearee days above any base by the universal truncation coefficient Month. Wea. Rev., 94,461-465. World Meteorological Organization, 1989: Calculation of Monthly and Annual 30-Year Standard Normals, WCDP-No. 10, WMO-TD/No. 341, Geneva: World Meteorological Organization.

Release Date: Revised 02/2002*

National Climatic Data CenterlNESDIS/NOAA, Asheville, North Carolina

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CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81 Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971-2000

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CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81 Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971-2000 GEORGIA Page 7

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CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81 Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971-2000

Climate Nor,.ls 197)1-2000 J tV.

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40.3 59.9 64.4 71.8 78.3 85.2 71.1 62.9 78.1 47.5 51.1 58.2 64.1 72.2 57.6 50.3 65.4 35.1 37.8 44.6 49.9 59.1 37.7 52.7 52..5 44.0 ,71.4 72.. 78 9 i7, 52.4 70. 8 :51.6 .3'. 6( '43 .3-"51.6 43.0 6o. 0 49.7'. 41.4ý1 ý33.6 .49.2 61.9 65.8 73.1 79.3 85.6 90.1 92.3 91.0 87.1 79.6 71.7 64.1 78.5 51.7 54.8 61.2 66.7 73.8 79.3 82.0 81.1 77.3 68.5 60.7 67.6 53.6 41.4 43.7 49.3 54.0 61.9 68.5 71.6 71.1 67.5 57.3 49.6 43.1 56.6 532.4 opo;4 ,71..3-'77. 9ý' 84.3' 62. 4' !'5 9.0o 70. 739.5'; 43..P50.8 N58.3 66.2"73.2' 77>'76 .2"'06 59.5' .47..2' ,396 '66t.8 66'.Q.Q 1 31$6 .47.6 56.8 61.7 69.3 76.6 83.1 88.8 91.1 90.4 86.3 77.8 68.6 59.8 75.9 45.5 49.0 56.1 62.7 70.5 77.0 80.0 79.3 74.9 64.8 56.0 48.3 63.7 34.2 36.3 42.8 48.8 57.8 65.2 68.8 68.2 63.4 51.7 43.3 36.7 51.4 N75.6' 66.5 -57. 2] 61--. 5 75-.1-' 82.3, .88,4. 64.4 '42. 74a6.2 :,53.0 60'.7 '68.7 ,76.10 611'NS'52,9 45.0 67,. 6 6..6'V&G..6 ý417,4.3 3-9. -32.7->.•4 8.5 58.8 62.8 70.6 77.6 84.1 89.6 91.4 90.7 86.7 78.6 70.0 61.6 76.9 47.6 51.2 58.6 65.2 81.0 72.6 78.7 80.0 75.8 66.1 58.1 50.3 65.4 36.4 39.5 46.6 52.8 61.1 67.7 53.9 53.,6 46.1 70.5 69.2 39.0 64.8 73 . 080Q,5,'687.2 72.) 6 .254.-2 72.,0' 9O~:.88~ 82. 5 4 .'46',0 :5.5?'S'60.-9,:69.1. 76-3, 2,7 i4t a8 61.'8' 6f.5 619:3> 8'4.. 62,7 .50.97 50.9 z42-.2' 35.3 51.9 56.8 65.0 72.9 80.0 86.5 89.4 87.9 82.3 72.9 63.3 54.6 72.0 42.7 46.7 54.3 61.6 69.8 76.8 80.0 78.9 73.3 62.8 53.4 45.4 62.1 33.5 36.5 43.6 50.4 59.5 67.1 70.6 69.9 64.3 52.3 52.8 43.5 36.2 839' b 689.6 56N.", C'9K Nj$.7' 7 6 56 0.68 N9.1ý' 95.7 ,44>8t 4814' 55 9: '6470. -77.5N 80.8:73-8 "793 63.1' .54-4_ 46.19 48,' 57-2W 65:4 69'.6 6PA4.'62.. , A49. 6 41ý9ý.. .34 .7 62.2 66.1 72.9 79.0 86.1 90.4 92.1 91.5 88.5 80.8 72.4 64.3 78.9 49.5 52.8 59.4 65.0 72.8 78.5 80.9 80.4 77.1 59.1 51.7 67.3 66.2 36.8 39.5 45.8 50.9 59.4 66.6 69.6 69.2 65.6 53.7 45.8 39.1 53.5 N''"4' ý. 5 67.•' 74.4 ,'4.:80;.&6 8 4.0 8< 17N7N7 '53 .7' 61.97 F9.0,. ý72.) 71.9 N 6-2 61ý.I' 6,0'.7' 54.7 .414-3 34.4' .27.71 42 .86. 59.6 63.9 71.6 78.6 85.4 90.7 92.3 92.1 88.3 62.6 78.1 71.3 80.3 48.2 52.0 59.0 65.5 73.2 79.2 81.4 81.0 76.8 67.1 58.8 50.7 66.1 54 .1 36.8 40.1 46.3 52.4 61.0 67.7 70.4 69.9 65.2 53.9 46.3 38.8

NMEA

IMNTST

MAR

53.0' '10.4'

62.8 023 BYRUNSWIC

FEB

652.2 72.5 .4.:52.64 59.8

MAX" MEAN MIN MAX MEAN MIN

Page 8

53.4 43.9

:W.651,9,7.

68.1 56.2 44.2

75.2

82.4

88.2

62.9 50.5

70.9 59.3

77.5 66.7

58$.1N66-57.48.63.

60.2 49.2

64.6 52.7

71.1 59.0

38.2

40.8

46.9

251.8", "51.6''3.6 49.5 39.7 29.8

55.1 43.4 31.7

63.5 50.9 38.3

78.1 65.6 53.1

85.0 73.2 61.4 ")2 .4-.9 .'

89.9 79.1 68.2 85 .4,

92.4 84.0 75.5

90.7 83.0 75.2

.74;7 .65A.'

'56.9

86.5 79.3 72.1

7<1'fi, 85.3 74.7 64.0 82,6 70o.459812 87.5 77.1 66.7

79.2 70.7 62.1

72.0 63.1 54.2

64.6 55.8 47.0

659.6 .61.6'

54.2

76.3 64.1

58.5 47.8

67.4 55.9

51.9 44.4 37.1 72,8 '62. 4' :3-.0 5592 0.1:. 42:3 AS-.5' 3 7-.7.; 31. 5 79.4 70.8 63.0 67.0 58.7 51.6 54.6 46.5 40.2

. 82,'6

397432,3, 51.14 58,92 66.7 74.2: 78.0_3.7 .0 28.9 '41 30.2 45.6,...54&. 6a, ,8, ý7.4U.SV'§5

'7 1.0,

1

s 9.t

53.5 78.2

69.5 60.8

'4673

74.8 63.7 52.5 71••.3 46.8 77.7 66.3

54.9 54 . 9, 54.56 '.7,1.5 I.9.2: 5

70.3 >59.3' 51.0 '4.0' 5e-•.7 '45.9 3#.1 J 4,4 81.9 72.2 62.1 52.6 71.2 59.8 50.5 42.6 32.5 38. 8,3_32 60.4 17.$62 -7 '53.5

"72-2:"78,.8,'N85,5S 88 ,7%,.88.2

•:64.5

95N.6

72,..7 63.9

77J.0'-76,1. 7Z64, .-.44~,53.314. .fil.4.~5 71.6 78.4 85.4 88.6 87.6 58.4 66.5 74.2 77.7 76.8 45.2 66.8 54.6 63.0 66.0

.49.4

'54 .'32.-45.3,, 38,4

~378,1

.82.'4j: 8-3 N74. ¶6 ,,4, 91.2 89.6 80.8 79.6 70.4 69.5 '89.0 88.6, 780] 76~1 66-a- 64.7 91.8 91.2 81.6 81.0 71.4 70.7

55.3 80.1 66.3

ý'37.9; 3;L1

70.7 59.3

47.9 7 1.3 47,4

\

United Statea 1871 -

2fISAISI

CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81 Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971-2000

A0

A1

GEORGIA

I

No. Station Name

Element JAN

Page 9 FEB

MAR

APR

TEMPERATURE NORMALS (Degrees Fahrenheit) MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV

77. 5

041 CLAYTON 1 SSW

MAX MEAN MIN

041 COLAYBTO124OA

MAX

045 COLEUM

MEAN MIN MAX" MEAN

MR

IN. ~M

4. 4 >..

,4.7.8<,50.8 :~4~38.1'2 49.1 53.1 37.8 40.4 26.5 27.7 6iA 6S914

56.9 46.8 36.6

4 .5

61.6 50.3 39.0 56. 2,

40ý '444

0

29.4 ¼A 045 COLUMBUS

054

047 COVIELE

05i C

049

CEOVIN

TO

508.25

30.93:

6.2

MEAN

49.0 39.5

54.2 43.3 32.4

63.0 51.4 39.8

DBLT

29.9

MAX -MIN,

57.5 46.4 35.2

MEAN 054 DAOLKONEG

1 V

MAX MEAN

MIN 0567 065

LETON

44

NMAX

UBLI

'72.3. 71.9 59.4 46.9

4'64.17

7ý,O

62.1 49.6 37.0

5V0 78.1 64.0 49.9

MAX ýMEAN

44

067 ELBRTN 2AINE

70.3 57.2 44 .1

36 .~1< _38A4,: 415-8-, 51.1 56.4 64.9 72.8 40.0 43.4 51.1 58.4 28.9 30.3 37.3 44.0

MEAN

MEIN

EXPEi-FRIMSENAT

5S4,4.0463§1

'MEAN,

MEAN

427,47

4.3

~53- 8

63.2 50.6 37.9

66.1 54.0 41.9

74.1 60.9 47.7

MEAN

69.3 56.3 43.2

75.9 62.4 48.8

4 _.9,45,e

.5..

72..9,a

68.3

56.0 43.6 78.6 66.8 55.0

71.16

64.1

59.2 46..7-

52.8 41.4

67.6

59.2

75.8

56.7 45.7

49.1 39.0

65.1 54.4 71 .8

ii:59.:8 :

.)

82.0 67.7 53.4

92.1

87.3

81.2

76.5

70.3

6S.7

78.3 65.8 53.3

69.0 57.1 45.1

89.0 78.3 67.6 91.4 80. 6 69.8,. 84.8 73.3 61.7

88.1,a,

83.5 72.7 61.8 07, 5: 765.4 65.3 79.1 67.3 55.5

45 840 49,4941 '45-8.837.6: 64.1 73.8 52.4 61.6 40.7 49.3

85.8 74.0 62.1

-444

64.4, 91.2 78.6 65.9

1

87.7 74.3 60.9

92.2 79.7 67.2

92.1' 80.4 68.6

9Qd.s9

41.3'

57.-:4 46'.1 72.9 61.3 49.7

30,.9 54.7 44.2 33.6

477i7

C6.0 70.5 56.9 43.2

61.1 48.1 35.1

52.4 40.4 28.4

69.1 56.2 43.4

472. 4. 31..3 52.6 42.8 33.0 2. 3. 510.2 38.0 60.1 48.4 36.6 6-t; 9

470

3:8.ý6."

534.:6

53.1 41.7 30.2

71.4 59.0 46.5

82,6'

69.,I 644 4534 81.8 88.9 87.5 72.2 58.8 77.5 76.3 70.3 58.7 45.3 66.0 65.1 8ý9U9%88-5,. 83;'6' .19_0h.771.-V:72.4 61. 9 93.0 81.0 69.0 92-1

53.8

78.8" 69 9'.6*2.40 -.

7Q0,9__4

79.5 66.7 53.9

047.7 77.1 65.5

60.5 49.5 38.4

.68,17

.77_9%76*7'.170.'7":5ý9. 62 50.'6 466444 :65.2 p587..? 46.'2' 38.2. 88.5 82.8 73.0 62.4 79.3 86.1. 89.4 67.7 79.3 78.3 72.3 75.4 51.4 60.8 69.1 68.0 61.8 48.6 40.4 56.0 64.6 86.0 '10 92. 8 ' 119,.4 2.87.27z 79.'2 '1.7 81.37 .80.I 76.1'I ,.66.2'57' -54 .,53.2. '44.759,.3,.66.2. 1P .9,4' , 744 6144 85.5 91.3 87.4 78.4 69.2 94.0 92.4 72.2 79.1 82.4 81.0 75.8 56.3 65.3 64.2 52.2 43.3 58.8 66.9' 70.7 69.6 92.0t 91.13,8.1 ,78.6.t 8,8

'48,4~571,4> 79.5 87.0 66.4 73.4 53.3 59.7 74

66.3 53.8 41.2

7 66-

;Tht? 8&~286.8,

MAX MEAN MNI MAX~44

67.5. '.9,76.91 54.5:. 86.0 77.0 76.2 65.8 54.5 66.4

52.6

fi744'0 .66.0 '6O0.0

77.9 65.2 52.5 69.4" s56.6' _43¼8 74.2 60.9

MEAN MIN

AINNE

64.9 52.9,:,43.9' .37-.6 70.3 61.0 52.1 57.1 48.2 40.5 28.9 35.4 43.9

80. 91.0 81.3 71.5

70. 2.66

.3,4

~38.4

MMAX. MEAN

MIN

.9.9 75•5. 69.2",64.4 83.9 78.8 72.8 67.4 61.6 56.0

794, 81.3. 80

85.3 91.1 93.3 73.2 79.7 82.3 61.0 68.3 71.2 ?6.Q $2:P.9 64.2 -,71. ,8 52.3 <60'.7 52.1 57.6 66.3 81.5 87.8 90.6 41.7 45.7 53.7 69.1 76.2 79.5 31.3. 33.7 41:.10 68.3 65.6, 56.61 79.2 '59',7? 644.2 21.0' 78.9 9.85.5 290~.6 92.3~ 48 S2.2 59-2, Ot1. 5 4 44 4. 4 6'. ,70,7'. 49.1 53.6 61.5 70.3 76.9 86.3 83.0 37.7 40.9 47.9 55.3 62.8 70.2 74.1 26.2 28.1 34.3 40.2 48.7 57.3 61.9

06 DALTON 1MAX

065

64.2' 5

V783 81--2 '7,0.2' 84.9 73.5 62.0

:0Q.9 4:7.9 76.5 83.2 91.7 89.5 64.2 72.3 79.2 82.0 51.8 61.3 72.3 68.8 724.92 79'.4 .8 6.-S

69.4 57.6 45.7

70.1 62.4 50.6 57.8 36.8 45.4 A48.7,_ 53?t4ý6113'

MAX MEAN MIN MAX MIN, MEAN

BELIN

:65:.8t 73,.3

57.9 46.9 35.8

MAX MEAN MIN JW M MEAN

COMMERCNEG4A

84.3 89 '4 7~' '57;.4 63,8", 71.7 so0.0<4,,59.0': 66. 2 40 68.8 75.3 60.6 82.0 47.3 54.7 62.3 69.9 33.9 40.6 49.3 57.7 734L :79> 0O:•':•85:•6 .".9 0.4

DEC ANNUAL

80.8 67.8 54.7

88.2 77.1 66.0 'e8a-sý

445;44 62.6 49.5 36.4

71.0

60.1 49.2 78.0

52.91 77.2 64.8 52.4

•730

5~3,7, 45.ý6 3 4 45 4I1_7 65.2 73.0 52.6 60.2 47.4 39.9

,I."> 980-9

7:•"3 ,r&.71 5ý8,2:150.8

94.1 82.1

92.8 81.4

89.2 78.2

81.8 69.7

74.5 62.3

67.5 55.3

70.1

69.9

67.2

57.6

50.1

43.1

79.5 66.9 54.3

81.1 68.6

S56 .1 .74_2

4

59.5 49.3

64.0 52.8

71.8 59.8

39.1

41.6

47.8

410.7ý

42:.8

48k.,7

44s.,?,.82 55,6 78.1 65.9 53.6

83.9 72.9 P:.9

4347

88.9 78.7 68.4

77.7 80.6 79.9 76.3 67.0 71.1 70.8 66.7 56.3 :93".3ff1. 3-i7 ,3' 9.8 82.6 `81.4 77.6 6.688 90.1

88.9

7.1.,8. 7Z. 4

'0852.3, 44.

-78.7'-7775.:.71ý7 85.8

47;.6, 76.6 66.1 55.5

69.0 61.7 51.6 58.4 47.7 41.4 72 40,:• ',64.2,

60.8 531.5 6ý7,6 57: 7i 49,5£ ý4241'4

+

,.18.9 67*.7 56.5

United States Climate omals

1971-2iJAM00D

CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81 Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971-2000

GEORGIA

Page 10 1

No. Station Name

Element JAN

FEB

MAR

a08

-MAX'

56.*4

64."6

5 .1

TEMPERATURE NORMALS (Degrees Fahrenheit) MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV

APR

89 .3,

DEC ANNUAL

6`78. .822.

73.0 63.7 54.7 71.8 MEAN '6941 $67.5-7.4.761.44 52.7 44'.6 60.7 . 3;: '49.8 41.6- 34.4A 49.5 68:.•:, 6712.3 55,6B 31A4' 33,5:4D.3: 47.3.1.33 082 GLENNVILLE 60.3 63.9 70.6 MAX 77.3 84.3 89.7 86.2 92.1 90.4 78.2 70.5 62.5 77.2 49.2 51.9 58.3 MEAN 64.8 72.6 67.1 59.0 51.4 79.0 81.7 80.5 76.5 66.0 38.0 39.*8 45.9 MIN 52.3 60.9 68.3 66.7 55.9 47.4 71.2 70.5 40.3 54.8 4 8., 7.:3. 08 ,GRENVIILtE ' A 54.9. 69,97 67 2V. 74.44' 01.6,7. 90.3 .89' 81347 .3.3.3.3 lEAN:ý 46K46,2 -53,:3 60.,0 68.2' 75.5 -78.9.< ý78.0' 72.12 ,-61.6> 52.,7.344.6 .361.2 ,454 55A - 63.5 67.4 66.5 60,7 48,.3. 39. 32.71 48.5 086 HARTWELL MAX 81.9 51.3 56.1 87.9 64.6 72.7 79.5 85.9 89.4 72.2 63.6 54.5 71.6 41.5 45.0 53.0 75.7 MEAN 60.7 68.7 79.5 78.4 72.4 61.5 52.5 44.4 61.1 NIN 31.7 33.9 41.3 48.6 57.8 65.5 69.6 68.8 62.8 50.7 41.4 34.2 50.5 .79-. 70.3 't6s,'5 ,13:1 .376.7 61.4 8380--5,10" 8. 90.9.3 ,93 .4>9 775 6~2.2 .654;4' 72..42 79.3 47.:07 50.5 -5 7-. 1 66.1. "57A'4 "49,6 65.3 50.3.8>59.7: 67<7. :52.8P'.,44.4 37.8 53.1 MIN 088 HESLEN 48.4 53.4 61.1 MAX 69.7 76.0 82.3 85.7 84.7 79.6 70.3 60.4 51.3 68.6 0907 IRWINTON 37.9 41.0 48.1 MEAN 56.0 63.7 71.2 75.0 74.3 68.8 57.8 48.7 40.8 WN 56.9 MA 27.3 28.6 35.1 42.3 51.3 60.1 64.2 63.8 45.3 58.0 37.0 30.3 45.3 MEAN .379-.6 71'.6- 64 11 .61.9.3:S5.'7 7.32: 9.3 835.4~ 90..5 9 < . j 7.3~ MIN 50,3. -7664.8 79.0>7, :,MEAN -. 6i5~57.3 4-8.3.3! 51..5, 57.9 164.1'' 71.3 77-3 .3.34 51.0 -341 '6fl3-7.3 4314A, ,351,3 .342:093 3,6.5 090 IRWINTON 4 WNW 56.5 61.0 69.2 76.7 MAX 83.1 89.3 92.0 90.7 85.9 76.7 68.6 59.6 75.8 45.3 49.0 56.2 MEAN 63.5 70.9 77.7 80.8 79.9 75.0 64.5 55.9 48.3 63.9 34.11 50.3 36.9 43.1 58.7 66.1 69.6 69.1 64.1 52.3 43.1 36.9 52.0 MIN 601 LOUISVILLE 1 E MAX 47.1~ 52.1. 66,.0,4. .68.9 76-0; 87.4 ý85.7 84.6ý 79.2 6943 54>5. MEAN .3S8.3.1 At9-49-7 57.'6570f32 .1 58-4~ 49.5 .,41-5 7.,747 69.1 .34 . ..4 * ... 3 .•.. .. .3 ..3M. . . . '45,5. 53.'9-61.7, 65. 6. .. $ ,7 '58:$9 .47.,.39.6326 47.5 62.3 65.6 72.5 78.9 85.5 90.5 93.5 91.5 87.2 79.5 72.0 64.2 78.6 50.5 53.5 60.0 66.3 73.7 79.9 82.7 81.3 76.9 67.9 59.7 52.2 67.1 38.6 41.4 47.5 66.6 53.7 61.9 69.2 71.8 71.0 56.2 47.3 40.2 55.5 :79.-2 '62.$ ,66<8.3B,73.8h 33.393.3 i.63 <. 80.3, 90.7 .4.16 80.1l '72.3~ 50.6, 53'.6ý 60.0 59.6 5. .367,4 469 40.4 54.6 70.-I. 619.5 '65.4 -54.1, 092 48.4 53.4 LAESN 4 NE 62.2 MAX 70.6 77.7 84.3 88.1 87.1 51.6 81.6 71.6 61.1 69.8 MIN 38.5 41.9 49.8 MEAN 56.9 65.0 72.7 76.9 75.7 69.9 58.7 49;3 41.2 58.0 103 LUMPKI 23 SE MAX3 28.6 30.4 37.4 65.7 64.3 43.2 52.3 58.1 MIN 61.1 45.7 37.4 30.8 46.3 1097 LAUIAVETTE 1SE MAX 53.0. 57, 865.9 89: , , •8 82., 2,7,9 4, 733.2 .6 . 55.31 272.$5 MEAN MEAN 44K- 45'51t52'.7 59,9 67. 9-.75. 2, ,78.74 77- 7 72;,1, 60.860,1 .0952.,ý2-4 *4.5 MIN MNI 8i4,0, 67.4 .6~. Q.5,. 40Q 33 .7, 75.6 56.7 61.2 69.0 76.4 83.8 89.5 92.0 90.4 76.3 67.5 58.8 85.4 45.3 48.8 55.9 63.2 71.2 78.0 MEAN 81.0 79.7 74.6 63.7 63.8 55.2 47.4 33.8 36.3 42.7 49.9 69.9 68.9 58.5 66.5 63.7 51.2 42.8 36.0 51.7 MEAN' 101 LOUMISVLL S1 60. 2 64 6112 MAX 780 MIN MEAN 47f741. 57.7 .64'.0GS-7.3 57.0 49-.4 1-n26':378.0o 81.3.3 80.:2 ,75,]5 '64-9'69..6 64_9..3>63.3 .4. 3. -~.47.6', -5 .7' 4_ 36.5,: 51.9 74.7 81.0 86.3 56.0 60.7 67.5 86.9 88.7 84.8 75.9 67.6 58.3 74.2 GNL A-- ME:AN 104 MA6i&LbA 44.5 47.5 53.9 61.0 68.7 74.9 78.1 77.8 73.6 62.8 54.2 46.5 62.0 33.0 34.3 40.3 47.2 67.3 66.8 62.4 56.3 63.5 49.6 40.8 34.6 49.7 175:L9.8293', 4' 69' 103 . LMPEIN 2 SILE MAX -76 -6•: 67•.8 5i9,2i 75.5 b93..... tk's,,. T>, •/.3.N)'; :3, >.3. 3 :56162 48.9 568,5 MEAN .63.7. .62 47J'71.0< 78.047.18, 639 5 5-1 4i 42,.5' ;36.3:. 52.0 MEIN 55.6 60.4 67.9 75.5 82.5 88.2 90.6 90.0 86.0 76.2 67.8 58.3 74.9 43.5 47.5 54.7 61.9 69.7 76.4 79.2 78.4 73.6 62.6 53.6 46.0 62.3 109Adi IDDLE MID i4i AP"MAX( 67.7 66.8 31.4 34.6 41.4 61.2 48.3 56.9 64.5 S48.9 39.3 33.7 49.6 3Ž .3 .3~ .34MEAJN 6 •8-c;0: 6.3.42,,: 91:,.6• .60.i 8 5.3 73,. 1.8.9 .3.343.3 .... MIN< 8-21.5" 1.54 177.4 419..7. 532'. _0 2 6 2 67.0 67-3-8', S59.7S22.2 6-.:_719.379.3A 10 LMRSHALVIiLL .3.39 MA7 33411. .Z>4.7_4 68 ý7;,: 70~ .55.2 MEAN 58.9 63.0 70.7 92.7 91.0 86.5 77.5 84.4 78.2 69.4 60.6 90.2 76.9 MNI 47.4 50.6 58.2 64;5 72.2 78.3 81.2 79.8 75.1 65.5 57.1 49.5 65.0 107 METERMEAN 69.7 51.5 60.0 68.5 63.6 44.7 38.4 35,9 38.1 45.6 66.4 52.9 GAINESVILLE

~79,81

c4&:5->

~

~6-r-5

109,

-M 6NIDVLLE

XPET

::7722 '68. 2- : 5.9.1r

7i6,S ••-S83%. 3 89,7

MI

MAX MEAN

4

75.9

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CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81 Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971-2000

Iej-Unitd &ateg fPY SClimate Norntala [

J

-

GEORGIA JrMAv

Page 11

v A I

No. Station Name

Element JAN

115 MUTRE ý2. ESE"

MAX

117 NAHUNTA 3 E

,118 1ASflVI~LL

MAX MEAN MIN

4 .N!.. MEAN. MISN MAX MEAN MIN X >!.-i':',5" MAX -:

119 NEWINGTON

12. 2 IEWNA-' N• 4-:NE;:,

123 PLAINS SW GA EXP STN

.15QUITMAN2N

MAX MEAN MIN MAX'

'<

MIN' MAX MEAN

128 ROME

MEAN ..

130 SAPELO ISLAND

132 SILOA

3 N M

MIN., MAX MEAN MIN

MAX MEAN MIN

132 SILAMNSBOR

1376 STAITNSB

MAX MEAN MIN MAX MEAN

T

136' TAI£OTO=

,";•

"4*

140 THONASTON 2 S

141•THOMASVILLE

!'4 . MAX MEAN MAX MEAN MEAN

3 NE

:MAX

FEB

MAR

APR

TEMPERATURE NORMALS (Degrees Fahrenheit) MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV

DEC ANNUAL

77.99:69.9 .

"62.6 -71.3 50-.. 2 - : -2 4i. 60.0. 81.2 802'2.2;7-3, S67.:0 59. 1., 52. 3 .70. 9ý *70- .2 : 66.4 ý56,0'- 48. 3 42.0 399 42.3. -48.3 S55 . 6 63.0 65.7 71.7 78.1 84.3 88.7 91.0 89.9 85.9 79.1 71.5 64.5 77.8 50.6 52.7 58.5 64.6 71.9 78.0 80.7 79.9 76.3 67.8 s9.2 66.0 52.2 38.1 39.7 45.2 51.1 59.5 67.2 70.4 69.9 66.7 56.5 46.9 39.9 54.3 6i2.1,' 42 70.4 79.1,- '71.7.. 64.3 177.5 49.2 51:6, S.4 '63l'.970. 8 77.-a 79.2- 79••7.'0 Q . 657:-5'7 64.,8 . -0. 52.3 , 43. '. 36.. 57.-:8'65.4- G7.9- 67.,a' ý63,3 524. 0' 36.2 38.,7, 44.4ý 49 58.5 62.8 69.2 76.5 83.7 89.3 92.3 89.9 85.1 77.4 69.0 61.2 76.2 46.6 50.0 56.5 63.5 72.0 78.3 81.6 79.8 74.6 64.4 65;0 55.9 48.8 34.6 37.1 43.8 50.5 60.3 67.3 52.5 42.8 36.3 52.5 .•0.8 ,69.6 64.0 .73ý.2 64.2 54.8 52.4'1-57.5 - 65.4 73.3 79.7 86.. 8 88.9.;,. 87.8 82.6 72. 2 60.3 ";.i•-' 152.5 44.0 67.9' 75. 60.7 4.7_3-, 560,,63.R' 67'.7-6.8 61..,5 4.'0ý 40. 7.z 33.2 4:9o.2 57.2 61.6 69.0 76.3 83.5 89.1 91.2 90.3 86.0 77.7 68.7 60.3 75.9 45.3 49.0 56.4 79.9 78.8 74.1 63.1 71.1 77.3 64.0 55.6 48.0 63.6 33.4 6.43.8 9.8 58.7 65.5 .50.2 42.4 35.7 51.1 92.068, 91.ý4 88.2 80.3 72A,:64., 96.2 "62S.1 9'6..3 61 80.9<:: 80,: •63>76.•6,65,6, .73.2, 78..9 671.59.3 52,0 53.9'-0* 4 6". 40.0jD -54.1 49.6 55.2 63.8 71.9 78.5 84.6 71.5 62.0 52.6 87.7 86.5 81.0 70.4 39.4 43.3 51.1 58.5 66.3 73.6 77.5 76.5 70.7 59.3 50.5 42.3 59.1 .67,.4. 6% 60,3 47,,.0 38.9. .31.9 47,7 4. 9. 48L•,0a 1.55 ... 75.2 '82.2 68,5- 91..4_89..8 84.9 '.68 616.-9, 59.6 74 . 8 63. 6 54-7., 47-,4 63.1 133.9 .35.5'-..42_65 ý70 0 6 9.0.6 63.5' 51.4i 42.5S 36.1. 51.5 60.1 62.1 68.0 74.5 81.0 86.4 77.2 69.7 61.7 89.8 88.3 84.5 75.3 51.0 52.9 59.0 65.4 72.9 78.8 81.8 80.8 77.4 69.1 60.6 52.9 66.9 58.4 41.9 43.7 49.9 56.2 64.7 71.1 73.7 73.3 70.3 6'., 9 51.5 44.1 77 -'2' 7:?8-1 70•.$:, 62.6 '77.3 84.3ý8~ 90.3 8. 51sf4 -66-. 65'.3.72.18" 7$8.. 82.1- 80.8 .76.7' .:,-i. 1 5s8.7 -56.1 -46.,9 , 40.1-, 53.4 58.4 66.5 74.4 81.8 88.8 91.6 89.8 84.4 75.0 65.7 56.0 73.8 42.7 46.3 53.7 80.0 61.1 69.0 76.6 78.7 73.1 62.4 53.6 4s.3 61.9 32.0 34.1 40.9 68.4 67.6 61.8 47.7 56.2. 64.4 49.9 79iS,'5~4 90•.2' 41. 46. , 39.9S ,.50.0 53,0 ',59.,6.7 ý65. 1, 72.2-. -7,@.0 BO.,9 .79.7 - 76. 0 :.53.L5 '38.2 "13.9.44,9: 69.,3 G68.5,,, 64..8 58.3 63.0 70.3 77.3 84.1 90.1 92.3 91.2 86.5 77.6 69.5 61.7 76.8 47.0 50.2 56.8 81.0 80.1 75.6 65.2 56.7 49.5 63.6 71.3 78.4 64.6 ,49A,, ,58.15, 66,6 52.7 43,9 37.3 69..6 69,0 64.6 52.4 . 6-8.`5 :8 8 3,. 3, .'74.0 : .65.6 5"56. 73.5 5 61.> 6:6'75,9 . ,61.3 ' 52. 8 45.2 78.9 77,68 48..5 .39.9 33.8' 49 .3 56.5 61.3 68.7 75.4 81.5 87.6 89.7 88.8 84.4 76.4 67.8 58.5 74.7 43.7 47.2 54.2 61.1 68.7 75.5 78.6 78,0 73.2 63.1 54.3 45.8 62.0 8 46.8 55.9 63.4 49. 40.7 33.1 67.5 67.2 62.0 49.2 91.5 90.9 87.8 80.9, 74-0 :65.8 63.2, 340.4: ý6?7.073.2,43. 2, 9 .A.4 51 7 .V~S5.fr608 66.2 _73 1.678.8 81'..4.,- 80.6 _77. 1 .68.5- 61.1,"53.8 '7.4 I8. 2 , 4,4.0- .891.6 05.9 73.3 -7 8,ý-7

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CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81 Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971-2000

rimsiiezomis 165 U-JJO

GEORGIA No. Station Name

Element JAN

1-49 WAYCROSS WSMO.

MAX

Page 121 FEB

MAR

TEMPERATURE NORMALS (Degrees Fahrenheit) MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV

APR

,7'4 85

-50.8; 53.8: 60'.5

150 WAYNESBORO 2 NE

MAX MEAN MIN

150 WAINDESBRO12SNE

MAX MEAN

152 WINDER 1 'SSE

MAX MEAN MIN

56.5

60.9

68.7

45.3 34.0

48.6 36.3

56.1 43.4

44.3' 33.4' 49.7 40.2 30.7

47,5 35-3, 55.2 43.8 32.3

54.9 42'.171 63.2 51.0 38.8

.

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61_.6' 82.9 70.3 57.7 82.5

j8,4' 71.6 58.4 45.2

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648..0 88.7 76.8 64.9 819.2.

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DEC ANNUAL 1:::8.2

_7S6:-O

89.2 78.4 67.6 9.1 86.7 76.4 66.1

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CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81 Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971-2000

. .. 1971°2000

GEORGIA

Page 131 PRECIPITATION NORMALS (Total in Inches) MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV

No. Station Name

JAN

:001;ABBSV;LL9'4S 602 ADA'I'RSVI,LLE 5S'E SE

3293.30 4.2 1V 4.4f"-, 3.900' 3.32" >5$ 4.,92 5.vz1 3.63.-66 3.54' 4.30. 4' 0-2: 3,..78 5.19,3. .%88 >4 .'Q 3,;9 248: 4,72 >4 i3.38532 .3:.11 ' 6.12 4.78 5.71 3.54 3.86 4.88 6.32 4.38 3.77 5.42 4.32 5.47 4.44 4.19 3.50 4.64 4.11 4.03 4.83 3.93 4.80 3.16 5.50 3.34 3.04 5.49 6.01

004 ALBANY 3 SE 005 ALLATOONA DAM 2 006 ALMA BACON COUNTY AP 0$,

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4,j,3_2 4.53 5.01 4.97

5.2 3 5.52 6.30 6.06

2.94t 4.39. 8 ,.8 344, 2.99 3.16 5.66 4.35 4.30 4.14 3.88 3.58 5.10 4.6.4.3~8. 3.77

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4.00 7.42 6.85 3. 519

5.48 5.11 6.25

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4.59 5.33

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61.74

CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81 Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971-2000

(P; Clinate UnitedNormals States

r MAI

GEORGIA No. Station Name 07ff' EXPERIMENT.;I! 0731 FAIRMOUNTT q.zC072 ,tA_:Q 17,~4 073 FITZGERALD 074 FOLKSTON 3 SW 075 FOLKSTON 9 SW 'O7ýORSYifl6 iNNIW .077 'PORT"'GAINES, O?8,_IpOýZ STEWART~ 079 FRANKLIN 2 080 GAINESVILLE 081 GIBSON 08 0b84 085 086 087

JAN ''''I '.1

GODFREY 3 NE, GREENVILLE HAMILTON 4 W HARTWELL HAWKINSVILLE

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5.04 5.30 5.41

5.07 4.54 4.48

MAR

APR

PRECIPITATION NORMALS (Total in Inches) MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV

4 .08'

t3,8s,

3'.'88

5% 8,8 4.84. .04 3.90 2.6' 2.36_5,40 4.52Z 4.88 2.98 3.04 4.42 4.29 3.13 3.33 5.97 4.49 3.22 3.52 6.02 :>3',. 2O' 3.D7r 3.14' 6.20 6 ,52 '83,24S. 5.289 5.176 5.88 4.20 3.84 3.98 6.14 4.06 4.33 3.82 4.90 3.07 3.03 3.95 3 .99 3,4'3.18i"3' 3.7 3.81"3.68: 3.57 4 t1IZ- 3.78 37 5.60 4.27 3.08 3.34 5.90 3.54 4.40 4.11 4.58 3.43 3.13 4.07 :5;28; e.1]:•:,s 3-:2:0 5•.4€8

~4-2

~6.554..93

2-9 5 .ý94' .3 -44 6.19 5.25 6.64 5.07 4.81 4.64 4.68 3.62 4.45 3.13 3.26 5.49 4.49 3.53 4.26 2.84 3.46 5.53 1.754,91,3.725,15, 4 .827 5.412 -3.50' '3.19 3.,4,1

4900,LINCOLNT6N 2 LQJJTSVILLE'IE .,UMBk2RC-IT " T 'YLUMPKIN 2 SE MACON MIDDLE GA RGNL AP MARSHALLVILLE

109 MIDVILLE EXP STA 110 MILLEDGEVILLE 111 MILLEN 4 N 13.2i MONTEZUMA .. 't 2i:0'"' 3.a13'PO14TICELLO., 413.4t MORGAN 5" 24Wi<" 115 MOULTRIE 2 ESE 116 MOUNT VERNON 117 NAHUNTA 3 E 118 NASHVILLE 4 N, r -. ' ,119' NEWINGTON."

"

5.'. 01.: 4.14,43.37

4.23 4.53 6.37 6.43 7.04 7.28 .4.•741>27 5.28- 3. 53"' 5.23 4.14 4.21 39ii4. ý4.,3 5.34 4.00 4.36

3.42 4.81 4.81

3 34-

2.06 3.1'01 2 03ý 2.40 3.07 3.18

DEC ANNUAL ',4.35

4'. 42 2.94 3.49 2.83 2.80

i !;• i: 3164, :i3•.82

,5085 51.53 45.34 50.08 52.56 46',45

3,29ý

3.27. 3.01 3.92 2.89 2.98 0' 3.27' 3."1 2.70 3.-93,.. 316 3.39 3.01 2.39 4.08 3.89 3.77 3.55 3.60 2.67 4.02 3.97 4.50

3..87 4. 29 2,42 3.13 2.31 2.51

3.39 4.40 3.39

2.6,9: 4.30 4.36 3.11 2.74 3.30'. 3..73' 3.97 3.90 3.36

v2.82'0 2.2

3.06 4.53 4.54 3.47 3.50 3.7,1 4.466 4.44 4.53 3.88

4.32 52.67 54.75 45.92 47.32. 47.44 49,4S 48.94 51.96 46.52

.7 ,6~6.14 4.27 4,63>4,0 -378: :2. 5Th>3'.X9_'4.03i *45,84ý 3.33 4.79 3.97 4.01 5.04 5.02 60.76 5.96 5.65 4.46 3.00 2.71 3.12 49.53 5.82 6.4,0 .99 2.98 2.42 2.98 48.70 4;.79'ý4'3;.-7-4 >3.46; i3 4•• ,9 3.97: .4.174-' 3.74,3.3 21 2.89 .352s9. 4:o05 47,69 4.,61. 3,361.`4 3.72' 2..82'. 3.78. 4.42 50:.78 5.93 5.28 6.62 4.48 4.57 4.48 4.63 3.62 4.78 3.37 5.20 5.36 58.32 5.37 4.90 6.22 4.53 3.54 4.03 5.38 3.83 3.43 3.05 4.26 4.84 53.38 5.07 4.76 5.16 3.71 3.86 3.88 3.81 4.61 3.71 3.27 3.70 3.78 49.32 41 9..5, 4 11i9,-'.1C 4 4t .0&38'341 :3.36> '31.iý 34 5 45.90 3.0,8 42,43> 2.8-4,..7 373 3'.5 4.4. 585 •5: 3Y:. '5I.27 2 ••, ,- .4 2•51>, 3.05: 44'.42. 5.31 4.73 5.75 3.81 3.23 3.97 5.36 3.64 3.16 2.48 3.75 4.05 49.24 5.00 4.55 4.90 3.14 2.98 3.54 4.32 3.79 3.26 2.37 3.22 3.93 45.00 4.87 4.69 4.44 2.95 3.26 3.85 5.20 1.95 3.26 3.41 2.82 3.58 44.28 s.•4, 6;Z4, '4-.41 [3.94' 4,31 4.16 -4.,47 '3,.,8,34X13" 42..,32 '4..A23. ,"53.71,' 58>5.6ý6 4.03. 2.92" 2.78. 3,143, £tZý7' ,3,05 _4,26' .54.1 -,4.66' 3 ¶.63 ý47,48 4.94 4.06 4.54 3.08 2.96 4.06 4.13 4.54 3.50 3.01 2.89 3.19 44.90 4.94 4.37 5.12 3.31 3.01 3.74 3.88 4.39 3.61 2.93 3.56 3.71 46.57 4.28 4.03 4.35 2.76 3.01 4.56 4.81 4.16 .0.0 2.83 2.64 3.52 43.85 3.47', 3.c263.32 5.43.82> 3.26I 2'.`50 3.5:s5i; 3.7-22, 46 .24 :4,77-4 Sj5'. 4.44;20' 3.714 2-.90' 3.52. '.3 8 1 4 8 g )ý.61 .3,45>3.S51 3.347'7'379' 4.4'8 '5, 6§4. i4 3.: 54 ý 5.69 4.56 5.61 3.43 3.42 5.21 5.33 4.64 3.84 2.39 3.19 3.62 50.93 4.59 3.78 4.30 3.05 2.48 4.06 3.37 4.17 2.26 2.40 2.69 3.34 40.49 4.23 3.87 4.52 2.79 3.17 6.19 6.24 7.80 4.51 3.00 2.51 2.97 51.80 ,2.6,12 :-3 2 4. 4 9 , 4. 8 '33 3 .9. 2. '62' 2'"V7&3.9 90'" 74.1 4'27 34 .24'9 .54 '"5-29' 535.5.46, -4:18 ,2,t14 2-62,' 3.61, .45. 4 2 37, 3'.99 41-,6$' 1.14',OQ '3 .24ý 2' 15A. 6'48. '4-i.27 5.98 5.01 5.95 4.28 4.22 4.16 4.77 4.37 4.70 3.71 4.04 4.35 55.54 4.92 3.77 4.29 2.84 3.38 5.22 5.78 5.71 4.17 3.07 2.61 3.13 48.89 5.54 4.70 5.23 3.49 3.40 4.52 5.58 3.72 3.16 2.36 3.78 3.88 49.36 :.30.30' S 174 ,S3 '.5.47'6 3.54 3.7:1" ,4943.2:3.12> .;52 2 . 1B 92.34'2 :4. 1b 53,79 '4ý.47- 5.30 3 6.1 3,15' 4ý91' '6-130,%5.24 '4 .f3.11 3'24' .83 3 512;06 -4. 25 ý4.02 u3'.i52 3.21A.4. 52: 4.61: '51.20 5.44 5.13 3.82 6.13 3.52 3.57 3;56 2.98 4.39 3.36 4.51 4.77 51.18 5.37 4.87 6.67 4.88 4.25 4.60 4.83 4.43 3.93 3.40 4.55 4.38 56.16 5 01 4.39 5.08 3.19 2.78 3.63 4.32 4.63 3.84 2.68 3.22 3.65 46.42 51.84 4 .07 3.1533.3-7 3.85 2.57' 2.99_ 3. 95;,.'2.2- '3,64, 3.501 .. 9 q.4 ,6.[04> '7.20½ 5.08 3'2'2.40 '2. 81 49.58 S5 25 41.7V2 05'f2 ',2;7-5..3.45' 3.59 4.84 4.35 5.09 3.26 3.39 3.47 4.69 4.19 3.15 2.82 3.20 3.57 46.02 4.84 3.88 4.43 3.23 3.09 4.73 5.05 5.15 3.52 2.72 2.97 3.46 47.07 5.68 5.35 6.69 4.68 4.26 4.57 3.90 3.77 3.93 3.23 4.55 4.71 55.32 2.78, 32O0' 4.74. 5'C36$ 6.07 3.57 '2. 78' 2 .45 31.6ý4 4 .6 . -4 ' 85 4-67 _4.98 3.3>57, 455.29 t ,24.,,32t3450 4. 047 5,ý1019t4t-.'7 .4,.7,7' '4.02 13.79 .2.Blk.ý1 .3.81 4.54 50.18,

5 30< .99,

.49ICGSTPN S 097 LAFAYETTE 5 SW 098 LA GRANGE 099 LEXINGTON 1 NW

.121 NORCROSS 122 PATTERSON 123 PLAINS SW GA EXP STN &124'PRESTONP j125 QUITMAN' 2 NW 6.2 RESACAI 127 RINGGOLD 2 SE 128 ROME 129 SANDERSVILLE '1,30SAPELO ISAD 1334 SWAVANNM MUNICIPAL AP. .,.32 SIL.W 3 N 133 SPARTA 134 STILLMORE 135 SUMMERVILLE '136,.SRRENCY.2 ,W.t,..,. 137'.SWAIN4SBORO Z136""TALEOTTPN

FEB

5 '' 4 .50 48-2 5.46 4.83 6.04 5.03 5.06 4.34 4, 33%66,

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101 "'9.103 104 105

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Page 14

eli\

uanited staes

CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81 Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971-2000

',jClmate Normals

1-197 0

Page 151

IGEORGIA I

GEORGIA JAN

No. Station Name 1'3,$9 TAYW,,RSVILLE

142 143 144 45:

FEB 4.398

3S.U3 5. 01

TIFTON EXP STA TOCCOA U OF GA PLANT SCI FARM YALE' Kk,2"

148 WAYCROSS 4 NE 149 WAYCROSS WSMO 150 WAYNESBORO 2 NE Si51.; WEST ,' :POIN ., -'-;j.W•, ,:",: •s. ,-.'.-•••.:''

MAR

24.8*

5.31 6.27 5.15

4.33 5.36 4.52 o 5 5.307 41.627

,.....-A:-'"• ...-

15"2 WINDER ' SSE;153,WOOD~BURY 154 WOODSTOCK

4.95 5.32 4.71

5.62

PRECIPITATION NORMALS (Total in Inches) MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV

APR

5.471 -613.97, 379 '6.,06 3.85 .3.44-3.36ý S~44. 00 .3.41- 3.64.4 5..65•, Z.P2 ; 5.25 5.03 3.48 3.19 4.11 4.54 4.09 6.29 4.36 "5.04 4.75 5.03 5.10 5.26 3.64 :4< 3.99 3.92 4.05 4.04 o:•::8 '" 4•1• ý:.2'6.47466 4.•444'-.68ý 3.59' 3.62: 5.40, 4..17 4.82' 3. 2 4.27i.-. '3,81 '3 :•:.8:, 4,, ,::9

3.63 .4.47 3.31 4.35 4.07 4.72

2.94 2.39 3.03

3.39 2.61 2.96

5.80 5.43 4.64

4.95

.3.87. 3.94 ý:4.t02' 3'.: S. 4.28 4.60

3.78 3,,50. 3.60

5.74

•::.,: : '5,:• • :

.

6.07 5.88 4.69

6.46 6.02 4.97

'4".2,5

4..50 3.47 4.26 4.12 "'4.09 3.98 3)! .• 42:

3.83 3.83 3.75

-5 "15,ý3.48. 3.47* 4. 923.71 98 §.

V1, 4 4.51

3.2-

4.16

.4 8!

3.49

DEC ANNUAL

3. •01' 3. 81.

3.88"

2 51- 3.72'...' 3.01l 3.34. 2.58 3.18 4.54 4.73 3.18 4.12 3.62 4.594 ,3.45 3.47" 3.24: 3.38 2.94 2.76 2.45 2.69 3.36 2.71 293.98 -3.~74, 36 36 •42,•s 3.46 4.22

4',.2 3.59 3.68 5.08 4.02 4.71 3.89 3.60 3.20 3.03 3.59 4,.83 377 4.3, 4.32

:49.72 54. 07" 46.99 60.81 50.01 56.91 50.10 46.94 50.44 47.31 47.20 52.95s` 463 49 ,4A4 52.95

',¾••,,•:<. , :

: •.-:•: -:<:i,.!. :;:.'•;

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CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81 Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971-2000

F97 1=

GEORGIA Element JAN

No. Station Name

I

OCDD HDD CDD H

004 ALBANY 3 SE ,005 ALLATOONA DAM

'.

006 ALMA BACON COUNTY AP '601,"ALPHARETTA

4 SSW<

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008 AMERICUS 3 SW

010 ASHBURN 3 ENE

'siO'o 556 0 787

HDD CDD HDD CDD, HDD CDD

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MAR

'355

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396 6 60.9

APR 157"

99 74 ,2192

432 5 790,

HDD CODD

HDD* CDD*

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523 1 "''7465, 1 2 508 352 12 10

016 BAINBRIDGE INTL PAPER C HDD CDD 19',ýB IkSVILLE EXi STA' 'HDD' 'w,CDD~ 020 BLAKELY HDD CDD 022 ýBROKZET 1 W "D 023 BRUNSWICK 0

DRNSWICK R24 U 1MCKINNN AP

027 BYRON EXPERIMENT STN

HDD CDD HDD

396 20 A'43 S.'

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2 274

75 73

9 249

0 404

66 82

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0 425

',54'227,

1 333

391 0 466

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130 58 1'79

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294 20

94 .' 2172;, 108 18 44 199

43, 0 374 275 0 422

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34 139

795

613,•. 0•"•::4j -. 0" 4

505 0 .

350 5

216 31

.7"14 63 80

'118' 4 259

035 CARTERSVILLE

HDD CDD

767 0

604 0

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054

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055 DALLAS

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259 23 49

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331 9

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053 CUTHBERT

404 4 6$9,

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588 0 407

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517 0

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17

348'_"183 0 3 444 299 410'> 239' 0 1 464 324

40,

DEC ANNUAL 424 14, 468 12

408

'

681

50 181 156 51 2013.440.', 6 -30 101 292 91 21 93.- 370,. 54' .: 6 74 240 109 31 360"' 1236

371 18 698: ' .0 524 5

'

1820 2415 2106 2264 3357 1549. 1550 2482 !."1327

622 0o 465 6 610

2421 1942 2955 2036 2197 ,.2861.

.1785 352 600 2827 8 1 1810 • 2523 '317'.:' :547 506 74,1• -1•'1 459 2385 0 0 74 1 220 429 1880 492 143 476 361 43 17 2317 314ý 5477 '90-6 1o o 0 .:246' 213% B7. 1 ' 1.ý 0. 0 67 0 225 1 452 1938 507 496 353 132 2338 39 9 80" -260 4,90! ý"':.2210 480,442 292 >101.,.. '204-6' 24."' 0 0 36 136 316 0 1308 586 556 429 210 80 30 2942 "39" 167 356'* .1542 .182" 64 537506 '394 3 0 0 112 291 540 2444 489 452 293 84 19. 7 1981 219.'.' 452 ý-!O70 '3534 ;180 '4 02 : ' 3611.. 1393'. 0 0 1 69 229 428 1865 515 495 364 130 38 11 2350 206 '421 '683 0 21 0 393

0 384

0 502

0 430

0 366 01 372. 0 461

'.Z.53 '16 1 56 5 0 79 260 423 [94"K 8' "'0

26Z,>.- 241, 0 0 506 491

77 '

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429

193 22

66 119

2 297

533. 0 411

258 6 150w'

108 81

9 213

534 3 329

64 81

2 258

0 424

213 18

74 119

4 270

126 58

11 262

~179

15 200 17 1' 2 316

202 441 42 5 '2N'4'43,

695 0 702

93" 2. 96 266 114 27 .263i: .306 •6. ' 1. 103.' ': 1 73 222 356 149 46

0. 486 9 760o 0' 396 17 "482'

-Y~7 263

24,

493 0

184

: :0-

0 463

3 279 'ý667' "2-

12 218

3531 1 350

'2144, 41 252 29

393 0 497

A402,

548 0 04'V

NOV

",62 138 83 124

0•

371 ,344

..1927

048 COLUMIBUS

0. 499 0 492

OCT

422:" 0 525 0 3:77; 0 463

0 494

0

370 216 6 29 4224422"''

HDD CDD

,

25"1, 1 361

8 0 243 410 15,28'~ 46ý 12614',. 351 150 26 1 52 170 354

030 CAMIlLLA 3 SE

044, CO.•

0 428

76 82

457 0

"9

5310o 0 507

-451:

621 0

EXP STATION,-'

0 42U6 0 407 3

HDD CDD HOD'

ýb'qcAlxmO

DEGREE DAYS (Total) JUN JUL AUG SEP

'62'

.',17' 10" 117 24 48 193 8262 42"

346 11 '36i 1 212 37

Q-,Q ',0$ 536 0 >564

.

47 97

104ATHEN§ BEN kP?0'1 014 ATLANTA HARTSFIELD AP

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6,

241 30 '419

300 167 13 49 ',606 \4416 0" 0, 6' 616 449 294 0 0 17 55 5 2 -364' o~' 9 554 390 228 0 3 29

MAY

29'

'448 0 512

.L

0 398

'511 0 375

'334 9. 14 200

182 424 31 6 '82 264 502 j345 104z 26. 0 26 238 481 288 134 22 3 .157.. 386 412 236,' :4 8 0 1 69 241 342 117 484 24 I. 38 ýý'279 ' 509 0 361

21 190

I

207 39

436 4

'

674 0 469 , 7 737 0 646 ' 0, 451 12 .72 701 0

3467 1417 3456,. 1426 2171 2118 4102

839 1720 2379 2154 3338 1467 2323.

3828

1076 .3004 115791916 2288 '4078

I

3505 1403

Unked Stats

'

CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81 Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971-2000

Cliate Normals

Page 171

GEORGIA If

V A fAr I

a0 0 a

No. Station Name

Element JAN

056

HDD CDD,

DALTONA

'793

062 DOUGLAS 1DO 065 DUBLIN

CDD 'IID

2

-

539 0 587

FEB

MAR

"668

4..427

392 6 '

433

227 28

APR

DEGREE DAYS (Total) JUN JUL AUG SEP'

MAY

'19 1t4- 5 7 ''22 "'138V 78 8 78 245

'1' '312 0 408

CDD

HDD

066 EASTRMANTI

2336'; ,1.j24 9 0 238 416 59 3 14 13i~4 2ý73 157 36 1 32 150 319 54; 'p4.''9

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360

0

0

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93 75 212

A::j = 10• 9: L:; 36. CDD

073 FOPRISTMENO'NT FITGRSATL6DN 00

HDD E-IDD

073 FITGHERAILD

HDDO CDD HOD HDD CDD

380 4

684 0

537 0

CDD

076 FORTSYTEW6ART 0786 HOARTEANES

09 0

530 0

ODD HDD CDD HDD CDD

ARTINEAINLES

082 GLEUNVILLE

086 HAUTIELL '081'HWCISZL

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HDD CDD Ho

44,,411. 0 0 504 468

2BHDD

HELEN

CDD HDDo

M) EOMEARVILLE

230 27

75 78

is,2 61 377 10

169 20

5 249

0 422

281

440

43 134

1 317

84 114 223 29. 3ýP ý:::. 51 1.77, 9 0 O 151 432 392 230 54 62" 419" 4774-', 362 '147-72 0 0 1 524 492 341 123 .12'0't 0"' ' 0. 529 507_ ' 396, lSOB; 175 0 0 9 424 388 208 45

090 IRWINTON 4 osi'X

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ASPiR I NNW'

303 12

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HDD CDD HD"

620 0 S834 ';', -

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470 4 4-

097 LAFAYETTE 5 SW

EDD ODD

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6 .23 450 289 1 16 '49",:479

' '.,6;20" 2" 100 17 55 200 7'

821 0

131, 49 88

333 194 10 38 -33b 'iZ4$4i 648 0

4*73 2

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105 MARSHALLVILLE

HOD ODD

619 456 0 0 5~51½'395'

297 13 245,

106 49

upIILEOGE:VILLE Ili

MiLLEN 4 N

.,

689 .0

257 38 .9r 295-

472

249 26 4671 2 351 11 188 ,44 236 31 72' 389 7

11 •526 -9 483 10 : "23 0 604 0 '397 12 452 10 323 634 0

3377 16 22 2068 2250 .23"07 2250*o 2145 2224 3523 * 1345 2889 1631 1651 2355 1981 2301 13223 3018 1553

2101 345

ý43, O40 0 413

2213 10 2 3 0

503 0 287

34 23 137

0 489 *330

44219

0 445

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459',

'

0 548

311: 2 301

0 462 300 0 503

'

148' 0 357

0 367

4'77,- 343 0 23 169 333

424, 0 495

391. 0 454

517,

645

490

355

0

0

11

40 17 207

30~5, 0 390

215t 30 142

390 3 300

147 26

'122 '<'14" 671 491 336 0 0 15 •-491•ý'.338.,85

219 3 289

10" 173 48 374 1551 46 14 163 2539 634 16~~' 378• ' 3099 1531 0 50 7 63 218 431 1911 127 36 10 2277 160'•- 37 8'1 .z 3003 `54 17ý 640 384 156 3062 0 45 10 1661 •<:2182 ''95'263. '228.; ;'33 244 490 3939 0 21 1 1021 94< 257' 463 1.i999. '108'.24' "6 104 296 527 2405 89 22 7 2023 .727 23 471 3758 0 1127 56 210 409 1724 143 12 48 2468 '73: 231i $-1745 404 23 45 <146' 449 16 225 475 738 3747 27 2 1233 0 1387-

389'

121 82

311 15

552

;/6

2482 2000

• '491] ''4'

126 34

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307: 0 480

'7,;f','•.'4 7 ' 9Y:

DD

103 LUNPKIN 2 SE

367 . 0 381 8

857,9524941'1 251 89 4 235 89 9 15

101 LOUISVILLE 1I

461 7y33.8 0 0 506 376

38144 2.4>44

CDD

_CDP,

092 JESUP 4

DEC ANNUAL

414'

-4'

•43;Ž '88 25 ý410 168 41 2 0 O 46 439 284 99 544 728>ý '562,ý .95 5 ý 174 '""24'l129, 294' "424'. 509 374 233 75 7 0 0 3 6 24 69 242 419 516 1700>1,, 527 '7372 9.'82"7 43', <1 0 144- e36' '4'33 729 561 383 161 37 1 0 31 151 323 449 0 0 9 657L 4507 251 9' '127% '0 7;737. 240'' _429, 5 01. " 0' -24, 275 842 110 672 10 0 523" 0 5 67 195 308 0 0 442 10

7tP77tnDDq

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94 131

32.•6" ..380 .495" 1 0 0 328 481 510 :,•:'1•'.0.::'' ::.0: :': 20

~3?;

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234 1 333

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695

CDD

NOV

182

'

'765,, 571 0 :775

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94~

EDO ODD O"

558 3

411 7

241 29

90 75

HOD COD

610 0

462 0

314 12

126 33

40 186

.

1 342

'280$t447 13 0 235 398

18 192

0 370

504v

17

0 0 6 406 394 265 07:70 -41 51 4812ý .305: 8 0 O 440 415 266 .5414 0 502

'511-' 0 457

4,7t: "438' 0 0 473 447

141 71

339 15

576 0

:522

•2122ý 2732 1630 423.64

2115 589 2754 0 1769 412 17471 14, 4 2491: "4:3 370' '140:, 94 265 3 492 2167 109 27 12 305 2159 143' t348",'i..• 0• 3794 267, 127 312 3 536 2508 287 88 17 7 1926 140 63

352 8

fL

United States

'

\)climate Normals

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CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81 Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971-2000

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Element JAN

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MAY

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CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81 Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971-2000

,Clmte Norna- ®r

1TEU1W210

Page 19) IGEORGIA Element

No. Station Name 003 ALLEY

3S

MIN MAX

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

HIGHEST MEAN MEDIAN. LOWEST MEAN

MIN MAX 004 ALBANY 3

JAN

HIGHEST MEAN YEAR LOWEST MEAN YEAR OBS TIME ADJUSTMENT O0S TIME.ADJUSTMENT: SE HIGHEST MEAN MEDIAN LOWEST MEAN HIGHEST MEAN YEAR LOWEST MEAN YEAR OBS TIME ADJUSTMENT OBS TIME ADJUSTMENT

462.

5.9 2 59'.8 53,7 42.4 38.4 z1974" 1990 1997 1977 1978, 1971

6.23.2 1999 1983

704' 1991, 19971

61.3 70.2 51V-1.462.3 47.2 -1.8 38.4 1974 1977 1.2 0.2

67.4 58.1 1'.2 52.5 1997 1971 1.8 0.3

57.3 51.1 -1.8' 41.9 1990 1978 1.7 0.4

69.8 63.2 59.8 1999 1983 0.9 0.3

76.6 71.9 68.3 2000 1971 0.8 0.2

NORMALS STATISTICS JUN JUL AUG SEP '85 8 884 2 82.2 80.6 75.7 79,4 78.8 1986 1999 1998 1997 1975 1981 75,7 7'o.s .1 .Q 00 3 0'0. 82.7 84.7 84.9 80.6 78.4 81.7 75.7 77.0 77.7 1998 1998 1999 1974 1997 1975 0.6 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.0

NOV

OCT

DEC ANNUAL

8,0o. 3, -72,.4. 66.9,.:62.7 : -s . 6 5.9 o. 76.82 • 67.5 61.7-.; 51 :4 :"44.8 74.0 1983 >2 -01 -1 80.5 76.8 73.5 1980 1975 0.2 -0.1

1985. 1987 -0.:7 -1..7' 71.8 66.7 59.8 1985 1987 0.7 -0.1

1985' 197.6 -. 1 -1:.i4 64.5 57.5 49.4 1985 1976 1.0 0.0

1971 200o0 -1..2 -1.6 58.8 49.7 41.6 1971 1989 1.2 0.1

'7133

60'

51.7

42,3

-1980

-i

84.9 65.2 38.4 1999 1977

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~

MIN MiAX 008 AMERICUS

HIM MAX

MEDIAN LOWEST MEAN HIGHEST MEAN YEAR LOWEST MEAN YEAR ORS TIME ADJUSTMENT 0S TIME ADJUSTMENT:: 3 SW HIGHEST MEAN MEDIAN LOWEST MEAN HIGHEST MEAN YEAR LOWEST MEAN YEAR CBS TIME ADJUSTMENT CBS TIM4E ADJUSTMENT

Q09~A9PI$8.Nl>

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' -0. 3 0.3'-,:-!.1$ * ', -01.6 70. -.51. 61.9 67.3 65.6 51.4 54.7 60.8 41.9 44.8 56.0 1997 1974 1990 1996 1977 1978 -0.9 -0.9 -0.9 -0.6 -1.1 -- 0.5

43.9

67-5: 75,5 6068 70.6

198167.6 1991 1998 4.'81.47 1983 1997 1972 0.3 0.5 0.4 -0.3 0.8 0.2

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5543'1'.

. 46.1 4638, 1976

78. 1998 1974

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52•3 •: 594.5

~1993

0.3 -0. 0.4 i2.0 76'.5 83.3

631. 5.6.

71.1 66.1

75.1 73.3

1981 1983 -0.5 0.0 0.

1998 1976 -0.4 0.8 70.2

1981 1974 -0.3 0.6 0.2

1983 0.9

19976 1972 0.48 0-.3 0.2 03;0.3

69.5 64.9

676.8 82.8 4 2' 72.078.

1999800 67.6 74.51951981 81.4 1983 19976 '19972 62.5 70.2 77.2 0.0 -0.1 -0.2 0.20.2 0.Q3

:75.5'' 73.9-' 6829 34.-9-': 43.7

1984 1985 671.596.9 19817 1976 0.4 0.4 -0.i '0.0 73.9 .68.1 84.7 83.4 79.6 82.2 - 80.8 77.3 68.5 60.5 79.0 79.2 74.9 62.6 52.8 1986 1987 1990 1985 1985 1984 1981 2000 1987 1976 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 -0.6 -0.9 -0.5 -0.4 -0.5 -0.7 -0.5 64.9 5.7, 75:.8 81.41 '8Q10.1 57 -7 '. 710.7 9.7 4.302 t 74.0; _'73',4"67.. 7 '54.0Q'42-8' 1986 19907 1998 1984 1985 1988 1992 1982 1987 1976 0.4 '1.41 0.0 -0.12 -20.3 0.0 -0.1 0.0, -0.1 0.1 84.2 82.9 79.8 71.2 64.2 80.2 79.2 74.9 55.5 64.8 76.9 71.3 76.3 59.0 48.6 1999 1980 1986 1984 1985 1971 1974 1983 1987 1976 0.3 0.3 0.8 1.0 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.0 .01.-0.1

1976'

5 507

-1.31 ;a.0-

78'765.9

'199S 1998 1992: 1914

85.4 79,4

854. 77.8,

76.2

75.1

1993 '1999 .1984 1981 0.0 0.2

34.7 1984 .50.8 19189 1.0

60 0 28.3 1993 1977

84.7 67.5 41.9 1986 1977

41.6 35.2 1984' 2000 1.0 0.1 56.8 47.7 41.1 1984 1989 1.2 0.1

78 1. 6 7 . 4 A'. 2 ~',59 61.3' 53.0' 44.9 72.5 69.8 54.9 47.5, .37,3 1980 1971, 1985 ' 197 1983 19157 -1984 28000 0.5 10.4' 0.3 1 0.4 -0.1 71.3

0.0 65.7

0.2 57.6

65.9

S7.7

50.1

60.3 1984 1987 0.4 -0.1

50.8 1985 1976 0.4 0.0 '1.1' 4: 5

42.4 1971 1989 0.6 0.1

'

82'7

Q-2. 61.7 53.3 44.9 1971 2000 -0.9 -0..6 49.6

84_.3 83.13 785. 1978 1971 1977 69.5 082.8 8¼.2543& 462~.'45 1.3 1.0 1.1 64.9 2'6.0'78,.8 81.1. 47.7 51.0 4582' 0.0 7580. -0.0 75.3 0.1 00.4 0.3 1986 11987 1978 1974. 1990 1997 1981' 19876 1981 5g;.6 1984 1981618 1,977 1978 1971: -0.2. .0.0 -00. 56.~ .45.8' 36.19 .0.0 -0.1 - 0.2 1984' 1985 :18 60.6 53.21" 54.4 83 .8 78.4' 67.71 4. 81.3D 85.34 1976' 1976'. 2000 43.0 46.9, 54.6: .0.0 0.0 0.0 47 .5 56.464.8 .71.5 '75.83 75.0' 69.38 397.3 29.3 0.0 -- 0.0o - 0.0 1974 1990 1997, 1981 -1996 1981ý 1,993 1980 198 69.8 62.0 53.7 1976 1971' 1983 19973 19974 19841 1976 1977' 1978 45.2 62.6 53.9 0.0 0.0, 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 0.0 0.0 0.'0 56.2 44.2 37.2 0.0 0-.0 0.0 01.0 0.0. 0.0: 1985 1984 1984 04.0 06.0 03.0 1976 1976 2000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

V6.8

85.8 66.6 38.2 1986 1977

27.2 1986 1977

84.2 63.5 34.4 1986 1977

61.5

3327 1993 1977

84.3 65.3 38.9 1986 85.4V 1977

853

61 ,.'3

85.4 62.0 29.3 1993 1977

CUfM%~ • U~N nited Norn'ls StesA& 1Z -20001

•CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81 Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971-2000

Page 201

IGEORGIA No. Station Name

Element

016 AUISTEA BUSH

HIGHEST'MEAN MEDIAN.

L LOWEST MEAN MIN OBSTZMEiADJU9TMENT MAX OHS TIME. ADJSTMN 016 BAINBRIDGE IN HIGETMA LOWEST MEAN HIGHEST MEAN YEAR LOWEST MEAN YEAR MIN OBS TIME ADJUSTMENT A OBS TIME ADJUSTMENT 019 BLAIRSVELLE E: HIGHEST MEAN MEDIAN LOWEST MEAN HIGHEST MEAN YEAR1, LOWEST MEAN YEAR OBASTIME ADJUSTMENT - N, 020 BLAKELY

HIGHEST MEAN MEDIAN LOWEST MEAN MAZ OBS IMEADJUSTMENT' HIGHEST MEAN YEAR LOWEST MEAN YEAR MIN OBS TIME ADJUSTMENT MAX OBS TIME ADJUSTMENT

LOWEST MEAN HIGHEST LOWEST MEAN MEAN YEAR YEAR MIN OBS TIME ADJUSTMENT AXOHBS' TIME ADJUSTMENT HIGHEST MEAN MEDIAN LOWEST MEAN MEAN YEAR 0272BROONLETPERIHIGHEST HIGHEST MA LOWEST MEANM3EDIAN YEAR MIN OBS TIME ADJUSTMENT MAX OBS TIME ADJUSTMENT 0.4BRUNSWICK M)C-k6iivA~ >t'MEDIANLOWEST MEAN' HIGHEST;MEANLYEAR. LOWEST MEA' Y'EAR~ ý.MIN IQBS TIME.ADJUJST)ENTJ:, MAX ORS,8T],ME, ADJUSTMENT-,-_ 027 BYRON EXPERIM HIGHEST MEAN MEDIAN LOWEST MEAN HIGHEST MEAN YEAR LOWEST MEAN YEAR MIN OHS TIME ADJUSTMENT MAX OHS TIME ADJUSTMENT -CALHIOUN ,EXP S,, HIGHEST MIEAN"

023 BRUNSWICK

JAN

FEB

MAR

544.7

67. 48.8

62.2 55.4

35,3

40.2

50.3

1974 19977

1,990 398,

1997 1971

APR

MAY

NORMALS STATISTICS JUN JUL AUG SEP

59.0 1999 70.2,8 64.9. 1982 0.0

0. , 0.30. 0.'0 63.5 60.0 66.5 70.8 49.0 53.2 59.1 1.O2..0.9' .04 64.7 39.7 42.2 53.9 60.6 1974 1977 1.3 0.2 4 9..2' 3 23,.3 1974 1977,

66.7 74.3 1998 1998 70G7.6 5.2. 7.47 81.5 1997,,1972 0,0I' 0.0 77.6 72.4 69.4 2000 1911 0.1 0.2

85.2 78.5 75.4 1998 1979 0.0 0.2

1990 1997 1999 1978 1978 1983 0.9 1.0 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.2 454$ .ý 39-;6. :46_..0, '5k34 <61.9 .69.• : 4 30.9-,40.7, 493,:, 57.4, 64.8, 1990 '1997 1981,. 1991>ý1981 1976 11996 19830.1973- 19740 :01.0 1 0 0 I-~ 3 ', O210'ý,3: .yQ 90,A;--&.: '2 62.3 59.4 65.5 70.9 77.0 83,9 47.4 52.1 56.8 65.2 73.0 79.2 38.0 42.9 53.4 60.9 69.1 76.3 1974 1990 1997 1999 2000 1998 1977 1978 1971 1983 1976 1997 1.3 0.9 1.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 59.2 5 .7 62.9

,0.3

.

.

63.8

71.3 69,1

0.32 ' 4 o.6 '52.9! ,5". 1974 1990 1997 1991 20 0 1977 19,78 1971- 1983 1987,. 1.3: 1. 1. 9 0.9,, 0.0,; 0 3. .2. 0.2 ,4. 0 ,.3 67.6 62.1 67.9 72.9 80.1 52.5 57.2 62.7 68.5 75.8 44.9 47.6 57.2 63.8 71.1 1974 1990 1997 1991 1991 1977 1978 1996 1993 1988 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 .0.0

62.8 56.2

-0.9 79.9 77.0 74.3 1980 1983 -0.2 -0.1 70.2

67.4 62.3 59.2

1993. 1975 0.0 84.4 81.2 77.7 1998 1975 0.0

"12 .9 71' 70,V1,69A. ,I>976. 19,926

84.9

83.'

78.3

7.1, 73.S

810.

7.

78.07 6.6s-

72.3

199181 1972 0.0

1998 4980 1974, A1976 0.4 '0.3

1980 1981 -0.3

86.0

87.1 84.0 81.5 1986 1984 0.0 0.10

82.1 79.3 77.2 1977 1994 0.0 0.0

81.2 77.7 1981 1997

0.0 0.0

74.8

81.5

70.5 67.3

77.8 73.5

6'74.0

84.9 82.9 80.7 1975 1994 0.0 0.0

63.3

56"3

47.8

DEC ANNUAL

55.4 6.26+2 ,54.:'3. .46.5, .

85.5

.63.2

38.5

1987:' 1976 ,20QP 0.02' 0,b b .0 0..0. '0_.0 9_0

73.8

66.6

60.4

85.2

66.3 39.7

1998 1977 76.9

1998'

65.5 58.7 49.1 1986 1976

0.4

0.4

-0.1 71.0

0.0 64.0

65,6:

'7.0.48 .'64.5 .37.J' 486.1 42.0

60.2 1984

19876

58.9 50.3 44.4 1971 2000 0.1 56.9

1985 2

1971

1976 1,91,

85.0

83.6

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84.3

66.0 38.0 1999

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1.2

1989 ..

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75.8

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55.5

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1985 1971 1976 1989 0.0 0.0 00, 0.0 9•• 9.ý 56 62.35

1987

0.

.1977

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1,995> 1998: 1985

00'f.0 0_0

54.8 23'.31.

2 1!i993

69.941,5531.8 :Z. S 5 ••9 4S.3,!

80.9 79.4 74.0 35.2 40.4 50.2 78.0 76.6 72.4 1974 1990 1997 1999 1998 1981 1993 1980 1980 1977 1978 1980 1983 1976 1997 1984 1981 1984 1.2 1.0 1.1 0.0 0 71. 0.0 69 . 3,' 7-0.2.5. 0.0 -0.1 -0.3 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0 -0.1 49 .4'50, 0, 5 ,. 0" 62.8 71146)TI 74.4. 8a8 80.&'39.5'-43.01 51.1' --78.0 -75.92 7.0,0, 0. , 0., -L'' OWESTS MEAN~ 27:54 )~5,45,4( 52.6 700.0. 73.3 '73."5 6'7-0 ýHIGHEST. MEAN Y~EAR 119811 1,987 A998 199 1,995 '1980 L'OW~ESTpMEANq YEAR'.: 19ý78'. 1971' -1983 19,81 1972 1791992'191 ' IN o141 TiS-,TME;-ADjusTMEiNT4 -0.0-> Q0.>-<:0A• 7O'0~.0 0.0< 0,0. 0.0'%0.;00,.0 ,.,;uMAXZOBS "T1,n1 APJSIMENT;.t 00<. 'Q.02'>-&..0" 030 CAM4ILLA 3 SE HIGHEST MEAN 62.6 59.4 64.9 69.5 76.2 82.7 85.2 84.8 81.4 MEDIAN 48.6 53.0 59.1 65.6 73.7 79.2 81.6 81.0 76.7 LOWEST MEAN 40.3 43.6 -52.9 61.0 69.3 75.4 78.3 77.8 74.3 HIGHEST MEAN YEAR 1974 1990 1997 1999 1998 1986 1986 1987 1980 LOWEST MEAN YEAR 1977 1978 1996 1993 1992 1997 1994 1994 1999 WIN OBS TIME ADJUSTMENT 1.2 1.6 1.7 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.2 MAX OHS TIME ADJUSTMENT 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 -0.1

~Y'

NOV

70..4

68.0 58.4 51.5 61.0 51.7 44.0 1985 1986 1971 1987 1976 1989 0.4 0.5 0.5 -0.1 0.0 0.1 61.6 56.2 47.6 5.8O 38.4 66.7 55s.9 62947 48,.8ý.3.:7 30.7. *1985 21985 -1971' 1987.- 19.76:1989

81.0 76.2 73.7 1980 1975 -0.2 -0.1

~17

54.7 49.1

0.0 83.4 80.2 77.8 1999 1979 -0.1 0.1 0.0 76e,'9 7.5'3

16.8

84.3 80.8 78.9 1999 1984 -0.1 0.0

592,8' 42.1' 5 '.S 556 1941990,' '199.7' 1999$ 1998 1998 1993 ,1992 1976, 47,1_ '978. 50.6' 1996, 55,7 0.0 U.0 0'.0 58.4 45.7

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83.0 88.Q 76.1 1999 1981

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1ý985 1r4 1976-19.89

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0.

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63.5 55.9

56.0 47.6

58.8

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1984 1987

1985 1976

1971 2000

1993 1977

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1985 1987

1986 1976

1971 2000

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United States Ltate N

C

CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81 Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971-2000

Page 21

GEORGIA No. Station Name

Element HIGHEST MEAN MEDIAN LOWEST MEAN HIGHEST MEAN YEAR

03'CARROLLTONLE

MIN OBS 0 TIME )ADJUSTMENT - MAX OBS TIME AbJUSTMENT 035 CARTERSVILLE HIGHEST MEAN LOES EAN YEAR, MEDIAN LOWEST MEAN HIGHEST MEAN YEAR LOWEST MEAN YEAR MIN OBS TIME ADJUSTMENT MAX OBS TIME ADJUSTMENT

6Y7 CELAIT

3 NW HIGHEST MEANN MEDIAN LOWEST MEAN HIGHEST MEAN YEAR . LOWEST MEAN YEAR INO IME ADJUSTMENT OBS TIME4 ADJUSTMENT HIGHEST MEAN MEDIAN LOWEST MEAN HIGHEST MEAN YEAR LOWEST MEAN YEAR OBS TIME ADJUSTMENT OBS TIME ADJUSTMENT HIGHEST MEAN S48

MAX 040 CLAXTON

MIN MAX COREI

'LOWEST

MEAN

HIGHEST MEAN YEAR LOWESTMEAN YEAR

JAN

FEB

4591. 58.6 40.5 43.4 31.18 35.8 1990 1974 1978 1971 1.0 1 0.2 0.4 49.0 51.3 39.8 43.4 28.1 35.8 1974 1990 1977 1978 1.2 1.7 0.2 0.4 .49.3: 50.89

MAR

APR

MAY

NORMALS STATISTICS JUN JUL AUG SEP

59.0 50.9 445.7 1997 1971 1. 0.3' 57.0 51.1 44.4 1997 1971 '1.7 0.3 576.72

63.5 5816 54.92 1981 1983

70.8 66.A 62. 1998, 1976'

77.9 73.t 769.3 1998 1974

28.1 '35,2" 45.5, 1977 1.31

1978 -1.9

1971, 2';

61.6 .56.9 64.2 50.9 57.0 47.4 38.2 42.7 52.6 1974 1990 1997 1996 1978 1977 40.25 1.3 443.0<55.' 1.7 1.9 0.2 0.4 0.3 19741990 1997, 49, 40 ,' 55,i 47.4 38.3 4221 25.9 32.9 '41.9 19910 1997 1974' 1977 1 178 1971

0.3 b. 63.0 70.7 58.1 1.0 66.7 -.1-, 62.5 54.9 1981 1987 1982 1973 1.0 0.9 0.3 0.3 564.8, 72.7'58.6.'66.3

54.36 62.3 p1999 '1998 1976'

67.9

75.4 82.7 71.7 77.8 68.2 73.0 2000 1981 1983 1997 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 647.1- 73.2 62.1 -70.0'

58.1 1999 1983 0.9 0.3 596. 854.8'

1991. 1991 1983 ,1997

MIN OBS TIME AJUSTMENT>. MAX OpS, TIME ADJUS4TMENT 044 COLQUITT 2 W HIGHEST MEAN MEDIAN LOWEST MEAN HIGHEST MEAN YEAR LOWEST MEAN YEAR MIN)095 TIME ADJUSTMENT MAX 095 TIME ADJUSTMENT HIGHEST ME9 04i COLM4 U f4~

,

Mt IN 046 COMMERCE

MNI MAX

MNI Ka x 048 CORNELIA

MNI MAX

04.0

64.1 50.7 40.5 1974 1977 -1.1 -1.8

59.8 53.9 44.0 1990 1978 -0.9 -1.6

66.8 60.7 55.3 1997 1971 -0.9 -2.0

0.8 0

73.4

73.9 1993 1964 0.7 0.1. 81.9 77.7 73.4 1993 1971 0.4 0.1

72.96 19839 1984 0.,5 0.0' 81.0 76.6 73.6 1995 1981 0.3 0.0

64.9 1998 1984 0.6 -0.1 75.8 71.4 66.5 1998 1982 0.3 -0.1

76.23

70.8

74.29 1999 1992

68-.1 1998 1984

85.7 80.8 78.9 1986 1984 0.4 0.1

83 .5 79.8 77.7 1999 1981 0.3 0.0

80.'5 75.2 72.9 1980 1989 0.3 -0.1

73.6-0.0 70.4 -0.1 1993 1979"

0.2 77.6 74.4 0;:I 70.2 1986 1974 0.1 0.2 78.6'' 7.4.3 784. 70.5 75.1 1998 1 996 1974. 1984

1983

63.6

8077'.797.69

1998 1972

82

0.2 0.3, t0.3 77.6 84.2 70.3 65.8 73.1 79.2 61.6 69.9 75.8 1999 1998 1998 1983 1976 1997 -0.3 -0.5 -0.4 -0.9 '_--1.2 --1.5 .."...'"'•C•"""""1"" 'C' .6' .13 76.8'$,83.6 63.,7 71.8. 79.4' 598- 68.1 755.1,

47.2,' 50,P.% 7.7

ý"OWES7 MEAN, HIGHEST 'MEAN. YEAR: 174 1990, 19 97 ."'LOWEST-.MEAN. YEAR' ,19177 1978W 1±971' ,1983, 197,6.11997 MEDIAN 039, TIME'ADJUSTMENT' SMA T35MX ANPýfl4Ekt& 4 NN HIGHEST MEAN 51.5 50.0 58.0. 64.0 70.8 78.2 MEDIAN 40.6 44.5 50.8 59.1 66.6 75.1 "1.0?"0.9' 0.1' LOWEST MEAN 29.7 38.7 45 '4 54.0 62.5 70.0 HIGHEST MEAN YEAR 1974 1990 1997 1977 1998 1978 1972 LOWEST MEAN YEAR 1977 1978 1971 1983 1997 OHS TIME ADJUSTMENT 1.7 1.7 1.0 0.9 0.1 1.2 OHS TIME ADJUSTMENT 03 0.3 0.2 "0.2- 0.4 0. 1772 848 ,509.W9572m64;.8 40.ý8 65-1 72.7 ý79,8 7. 51.0', 7, L HIGHEST' MEAN, 4 4'4 6 1 .5. 69.5 7 621 37 -411.5, 5 . HI'SGHEST.'MEANQ YEAR' 1974 41990; 19971 1999 1998 99 ""LOWEST. MEA )(EAR' 1983 1961997 O13S TIM-E `ADJUSTM4ENT 0.0 0.1 0-O2 OB3S:TIME ,ADJU$TKEN1T,' HIGHEST MEAN 49.6 48.0 55.5 61.3 69.0 75.9 MEDIAN 38.1 42.2 48.9 56.5 64.3 72.1 26.2 33.3 42.7 LOWEST MEAN 53.0 58.1 61.3 1974 1990 1997 1999 1998 1981 HIGHEST MEAN YEAR LOWEST MEAN YEAR 1977 1978 1971 1973 1976 1974 095 TIME ADJUSTMENT 1.0 0.9 0.1 1.2 1.7 1.7 0.2 OHS TIME ADJUSTMENT 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3

OCT

~S.<,,

28.1

49.8:419 "53.142.0' 34 5

71.1 65.3 57.9 1985 1987 0.8 -1 65.62

65.9 57.0 50.7 1985 1976 1.1 0.0 56.7

58.5 49.5 41.4 1971 1989 1.3 0. 48.0

85.7 64.7 38.2 1986 1977

72.76 -67.1 56. 9. 48.,, -0.23 o.4 710.8 0_o. 7 654.6 0-:1.o 65. 5 40. 4

40,3

0.3

-0.3

84.7

83.3

79.8

81.3

80.4

76.5

78.3 78.9 1986 1999 1975 1994 -0.2 -0.3 -0.7 -0.7 -85.'3. 84.4. 82.1,808,

73.9 1980 1983 -0.4 -1.0 79.6 76.1

1984 1975 0.9

'1992'

0s.0,

1975

,0.

80.6 75.6 76.9 70.9 74.0 67.7 00 Q-0.1 1999 1992 0.30.0

1980 1984 0.3 -0 .1

1985 1976 1.0

75.0 68.5 58.5 67.7 61.1 51.2 1985 1986 1987 1976 -0.7 -1.0 -1.6 -1.3 '7.,64.3

,18.6 78.3. 73.2 -0,.1 ý199)81.9 19.99 75.4 _1980, 71.3 1984

1993 1975 0.5 0.1

81.9 59.2 .28.1 1993 1977

1993

.0.4

0.0

2000 0.9'9 0.1 51.1 41.8 34.0 1984 1983 1.0 0.1 50.0 p

802 ,59,.2 31.8 .1993 197.7

1971 1989 1.

1998 1976

82.6 78.5 73.8 0.i

DEC ANNUAL 51 4,2.? 3.:7

19, .84 1985 1987 1976 1.4 0 S0.

1988 1973

1975

NOV

64,1 58.5 5.P9.4'51.5i ,53.0' 43.0. ,1971' 9518 ,1987%_1976 0.7,aT 0,9. -0.1' 0.0 68.9 59.6 60.2 50.2 55.0 42.2 1984 1985 1988 1976 0.8 1.0 -0.1 0.0 567. 57.97

0.0

33.8 1971 2000 1.0. 61.6 52.1 44.5 1971 1989 -1.2 -2.0 580

011I

76.9 55.9

1~97.7

84.7 66.7 40.5 1986 1977

853'

:-35,8065.o

1985 1971, 1976' 1976K 1989', '0.0" 0.0" 0.0

1993,

65.6

59.7

50.4

60.4 55.2 1984 '1987 0.8 -,0.1 7i"d14'

50.3 44.8 1985 1976 1.0 0.0 64.4,

42.9 35.9 1984 2000 1.0 0.1

82.6 59.8 29.7 1993 1977

82.4 80,7" 76.3 78.7' 79.0: 73.4, S.9.5.:4.';48 '1986,41999 ;1990 19l76 42000o '1971 '11976 1983 0,4 0.4 0,6 0'0Ž'0.,-0.3 '0,2l 0_42 0.0Ot-9.1 '0. Q4 63.2 58.6 49.4 72.9 78.1 81.0 48.8 40.7 58.2 76.0 73.6 68.5 71.0 71.2 65.4 52.5 41.6 33.7 1985 1985 1984: 1993 1999 1998 1976 1989 1979 1992 1984 1976 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.0 -_0.1 -0.1 0.0 10.1

~1976 ~0,1

65.ý5 '33,3 . 1986>191.7

81.0 57.2 26.2 1993 1977

(NRC 1985) U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1985, Final Environmental Statement Related to the Operation of Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2, NUREG1087, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Washington, D.C., March.

Pergarno"

AbouphaklSavbmww VoL.2k.NoL. M p 379-39-%1994 CtIO9 md;c C B"eist 1m= Ltd Poted In Utah. AZ !Ot xwvW IMS-23104 $640+LOD

"

COOLING A MODEL FOR SEASONAL A1D ANNUAL TOWER IMPACTS* A. 3. PoucAsrmo Environmental Asesent and Information Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, WIL60439, USA. . * W.E.Dn . Department or Mechanical Engineeing, University of Much at Urbana-Champaign, Urbna, IL 61820, USA. and

F. A. CAZNAR.T' .Physim

Departmn Univ

ty

.of noisat Cthico,

cgoI, I •60

US..

(F~krn rscietrd6Jaraary1993 and InfinaliJnn#1 August 199) Abstract-The Argonne National iaboritory/Unilversit~y of Mhuins Seasonal/AnnualCoofing Tower, impc model proides pedictions o ajeson4 monthly, a annual cooling tower Impacts from'any number of echanic&-or natural-dra.t coolng 'toe. T model tycally r-quirts Eve Years or hourly suuface meteorotogical data 'and. concurrent -twice-daily mixing heights in addition to baskc data on the thermal peuformanc of the cooling towe. noe model predicts average plume length, rise, drift deposition, fogging.& I ad ahadoWin.. Themodl se caleoz scheme in which the five years orhoudly srace data ame placed into about 100 cateoris bsedon spcia p &,.clingelaiioshiP. Wit" this dnduced number ofas to toe run for long-term Impact eauationt advaned x otahe-rt mods for plume Impacts a then applied. For multpl plumnes, the methodology ~incles variation of thic merging patterns and ofthe wake effcfts from tower housings for different wind directious.

extesivemodl ith xpemnletaldatafor vaidalon ts oanpnen subode rmsudies s h Inthe United Staes Eiro'anextnsleatbas f Aet~ an o colin toer lums dMd~ was aceunialited

and aalyd, asis In t diation of sperior Other data, not wed in ode~l, development,.provided for indepedet model * o. e.aidation of each submoadz is • and typical results are giv ora reprsentative natural-dri .oolng towerJinstallatlon and for a ,typical linearmehaial-drft cooing tower arrangemnt. Key *wdndem: Environmental Impacta of =gy generation, cooling tower, plumeimodd, driftdeposition, fogsin&g kng, shadowing. . L INTRDUtflON

.........

....

,

.

ienrin! ttosmteUie States of clod*ri Am -ricarequir.. h• t the o•t, nt i n., ronme.ta.

imputs lbe aissýs port and.envro

by the ~pliue .And (5) ground-level hurtidi 1aus all of thewe impacts are related to the, plume,, prediction of cooinetde 0h priMary Vong$4erad0o4i tepuehseCome

,.Owing

.increa

conuctin i

'environmenta.asemts of the cooling

Nealy every environmeptal te-., ,towers in the United States of America.

ntralmpc t statementmswth tvlu. of t ate cooling, towes eitherp;',th, propoe cOgling aveag environmental bth , f impacts plume agrelunctions (sh-&j ushn 1 sytaora aresoale'te. atrutie h reduction on crops or drifteposition). In ota Casey. poteniaades ICm Ppat fClpgoes ta flts heimpactdepends on~worst-eaSew behavior(such asL be onsdeed n~I~e(1) akestkhec npact of tevisible. ILlong plume over a,rcsort beachfrpml) hs plue xtnt) (patal (2 grunddesiton fdrft the. assesment +methoology mqust. provide reliable droplets containing high concentrations -ofdissolved nueia rdcin fbt vrg n os-case. or 9speindedsoidto haIt are emitfed by ftheoso , belaviori The model presented in ths paper is suit4 hd able fior determinin~g avera~ge impacts, rather than. 'C toweru (3 ~rudlvlfgigadiig For3t-c;&e impact The c nral ccquirement forL an, ttv Work suppote by the Electric Power Reiewch Tn- ýenvironena impact evaluation Isteq0 adttUtethroughInfteragenyareement P906-1 WiO heus. predi~ction of fthepotential effects. averagd over, at Departzentof~nrgy. five. yeasusing, repraepetative mawerolojica .S 379 nme..

-,

,*least

~..

390

A. . PoLCAuMo d A.

conditions for the site. The problem is how to use this large database to make affordable computer calculations of climatological averages of the environmental impacts. It would be desirable to make detailed calculations for every hourly record, but the large number of records to be processed makes this procedure too expensive with Integral-type (or more com. plex) models.

limits of applicability are established) for categories of hourly cases that correspond to significantly d!fferent plume size and behavior (Dunn, 19.80 Average and

Idealized sets of input data are used to produce these

limit computations .to a set of typical meteorological

representative plumes.The use of an integral model is Important in predicting the detailed plume environment within which the drift droplets are falling and evaporating, as well as in predicting any fogging or Icing. The present method diffemr from the previous approach In that categories are based on nondmien. sional parameters that have been shown to corrtlate well with plume length and rise, rather than on fixed 'range in the dimensional meteorological data. Cat. egory ranges are also dynamically allocated to ensure nearly equal population In each category. For richly populated plume length categories, a further breakdown by wind speed and, if needed, by stability class range is used to define a category. The improvbemnt, then. are that the bhourly cases assigned to a category correspond to nearly the same plume size and behavior, while different categories have simgnlantly dilfeit plumpiedtcýons. Thus, there will be no biases or laAk of risolution introduced by using sparsely populated categories. Furthermore, the categories *are selected- by scknning the entiia -meteorological database, and the speflt tower ih.eri behavior is modeled for each hourly record in evaluating the

conditions. This decision was based on the widely

nondimens-onal parameters.Thu', site-specific cat-

accepted observation that only a limited number of significantly different plumes occur at a given site. For the reduced set af typical, conditions-a,;a' validated

egory selection is achieved. To implement this method, the-AN4I

The earliest method developed, cembodied in the Oak Ridge Fog and Drift Model (ORFAD), employed simple formulas to calculate gross plume properties for each measurem•nt record (Laverne, 1974 The hourly results were added to running totals, and averages were then computed and presented in tabular or graphical form. The ORFAD methodology was an

improvement over previous subjective methods in that it gave quantitative predictions. However, the large number of records to be processed required the use of only the simplest plume and drift modils. Moreover, the results of these formulas were shown (Polcastro at at, 1980a;Carhart at aL, 1982) to compare poorly with plume observations. Therefore. the reliability of the end results of an ORFAD-typo computation Is ques. tionable. Recognizing these limitations, the del"eope of the

Swis model KUMULUS (Moore, 1977) sought to

'

SACTI

moadel,0cotiains hree se.parate Progr ams,* which are integral plume d,'drift submodel was run. The rults run sequentially. Tho first,, called PREP. Is a prewere then summed and averaged with respect to a processor that examines.'thi overall meteorological frequency table of the occurrence of1he typical-tase. *database usin it to sei up the categories tobe used by wind direction. To obtain the typical metcorolo- and t6 prepare injut dati fairthi repretentative, cases gical input, each data recor4 was classified according for detailed Womputation. The second, named MULT, to range in wind speed, hbzndity, temperature, and oerfbrms ihe detailed plum. and drift computations lapse rate. In one applicatfoiiof this method (Moore, for the representative case The final program, identi1977), the total number of plume categories was 400, -fled as TABLES, merses the outputs of the prebut because of the infrequent occurrence of many processor step and the plume/drift computation step categories, the number was reduced to 80 typical cases to produce predictions or environmental impacts for and 10 extreme cases. each ground subsector surroiuntng the installation. Although the KUM LUS model approach reIn addition to requiringS.A reliable method flor presented a significant advancemeit in technique, it assigning hourly reordis to categsories bof simiar still suffered fim several deficiencies. Fusit, the range plumes, accurate prediction requir=s i plum and drift In behaviors within a given mcegory' differs from model with the stato-ofthe-art submodcls available. category to category and Is ge=aly unknown a These subuiode Include those for (1) sin'gle plumnes;

plat No assurance exists that two plumes from (2) multiple plumes, including realistic merging and different categories will be any less similar than two tower wake effcts; (3) single'plume drift deposition; from the same category. Second, the selection o( (4) multiple plume enhincements of drift dep idon; parameter ranges is difficult, and our experience shows (5)grotund fogging and'grouind Ice depoition;. and (6) that plume categories depend on tower characteristics (not included in the category scheme) and the particu. lars of the site. The present model--The Argonne National Laboratory/University of Illinois Seasonal and An-

shadown&g. At. present, no long-term ave•.ap validation data

exist for- th environmental impacts lfsted.above,.

except for shadowing. Because the overall ipodd cannot be validated directly, strong validation or the nual Cooling Tower Impact (ANLIUI SACTI) mo- core submodels, . necessary for the results to be. del--is similar to the KUMULUS model approach in considered reliabld. Among altcrnatfie foimulatlbns that a small number.of detied pl&=m computation, foW eacbh submodel, the one selected shbtild ethe best* are performed with a validated plume model (whose performing among the available options The

A model for seasonal and annual cooling tower impacts Syracuse 83-87 NDCT (700MWe): Annual

393

Syracuse 83-87 LMDCT9 (700MWe): Winter

Total Solar Energy Deposition Loss (%)

Plume Rime Ice (Hours)

11

0*

A 4,~~ 0 )I

l2**

0

Maximum Value= 76. -4

.

,

I

2.5

East-West Distance (km) Syracuse 83-87 LMDCTs (700 We): Annual

Total Solar Energy Deposition Loss

- 4st-0.75

-

D0

0.(75

1.50

East-West Distance (kmn) Fig. 14. Ground contours of Nous of rime icing for d6 linear mechanical-draft towers example averaged over the winter season (Julian days 355-059). T"e innermost contour is 50 h.

occurs with these winds. Near the towers the maximum number of icing hours ispredicted to be 76, and the 50-h contour reaches only 0.5 km from the center. The 1-h contour lies within 1.5 km of the towers, which normally would fall within 'plant boundaries. For this site and tower installation, icing might be a problem within the plani boundaries in winter, but would probably never Impact the surrounding community. Fogging would be more frequent, however, and could cause difficulty if the towers were too near a public roadway or other transportation corridor. 4

2.5 --

;

0

i 2.5

-

East-West Distance (km) IFI. 13. Ground contours of percentage of total annual. sola energy.los as a-rotult of shiadowing for (a) the naturalraft tower exmle and (b) thlnear mccbai•lcal-draft towers Xxample Unlabeledcontours am I and 2%.

produces less shadowing than the linear mechanical;

draft t6wers; at all distances, bdtespcciaily tifer the towers. Finally. •4.g114 shows the predicted hours of rime icing at ground locations: surrounding the towers for

th linear 'mechanical-draft example for the winter season. The model predicts it few houri oicingcduring

the spring as well, but none during sumpAi or fal It is of Interest that icing is' t~icict occur. only with winds from the W, .WSW, and SW directions at Syracuse. Ground icing requires a conjunction of high winds and below-freezing temperatures. ;ihlch only AE(A)25:33

I.

CONCLUSIONS

The ANL/UI system of codes for modeling seasonal and annual cooling tower environmental impacts embodies an efficint and reliable methodology for predicting the physical impacts of cooling tower emissions.The systcm can be run on widely available microcomputer systems. The codes and sample input data for test cases are available for a nbminal fee from the Electric Power Research ltstituie (EPRI. 3412 HillviewAve. Valo Alto, CA 94304). Our use of extensive U.S. and European data in the calibration and validation of the model is the main eason for the theoretical advances embodied in the model ind for its kccui-ate predictive performance. Because each submodel has been Wlibrated and validated with the data. valable, cact5 represents state-ofthe-air predictive aocuracy. Basic physical principles have been emphasized in. each submdel. The drift submodels are particularly complete in their physical bisis, containtng no adjustable painit ' In these

A. J. PouCAmo Of a.

394

submodels, all coefficients have a direct physical and experimental basis. The category scheme allows state-of-the-art submodels to be combined into a detailed integral model that can be used with reasonable computer resource requirements. The system meets the requirements of most regulatory bodies. It has been extended for small towers for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) by adding an improved tower performance submodel and taking into account the effects of turbulent atmospheric dispersion (as opposed to ballistic deposition) on the distribution of drift droplets (Policastro et al, 1988. The USEPA has used the model in evaluating the relative environmental impacts of hexavalent chromium emitted from refinery cooling towers. These improvements to the model are, however, not included in the version available from EPRI. To make further progress in modeling seasonal/ annual cooling tower impacts, it will be necessary to obtain long-term average data for impacts such as drift deposition, shadowing, and plume frequencies. Data on fogging and icing near towers would assist in validating those particular submodels in the ANL/UI system, and would also provide a stringent test of the plume submodel downwash formulation. Acknowledgements--This work was performed at Argonne

National Laboratory under Interagency agreement RP90I-6 between EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy and under subcontract at the University of Illinois at Urbanapuumpalgn and the University of Illinois at Chicago. The authors wish to thank the project coordinator, John Bartz of EPRI, for his support for and assistance in developing the research program. We also thank Mr Larry Coke and Mt Michael Wastag for their work in developing portions of the code, carrying out data analysis and assisting in testing the model with field and laboratory data. RWEEXNCZS

Towers, VoL 2. Mathematical Model for Single-Source (Single-Tower) Cooling Tower Plume Dispersion. Electric Power Research Institute Report CS-1683. Palo Alto CA. Carhart R1.A., Policastro A. J. and Ziemer S. (1982) Evaluation of mathematical models for natural draft coolingtower plume dispersion. Atmospheric Environment 16. 67-43. Ca'hart R. A., Policastro A. J. and Dunn W. (1992) An improved method for predicting seasonal and annual shadowing from cooling tower plume Atmospheric Environment 26A, 2845-2852. Caspar W. et 4f. (1974) Measurements of the atmospheric conditions and observation of the cooling tower plume. In Untersuchung ax eanem Naturiug-Nalk8,hlturm (edited by Ernst 0.). Vereln Deutscher Ingenleure. Fortschrilts-Be. ncht der VDI Zeitschrlft, Relhe 15, Nr. 5. Juli Davis L R, Shirazi M. A. and Siegel D. L. (1977) Measurement of buoyant jet entrainment from single and multiple sources. Paper No. 77-S.1101 of AICHE-ASME Heat Transfer Conference, Salt Lake City, UT, 15-17 August Dunnw W. E. (1980) Predicting the seasonal and annual impacts of cooling tower plumes and drift. Proc. IAHR Cooling Tower Workshop. San Francisco, CA, September. Dunn W. ., Cooper (3. K. and Gavin P. M. (1980) Evaluation of Mathematical Models for Characterizing Plume Behavior from Cooling Towers. Vol, 3. Plume Rise from Mechanical Draft Cooling Tower U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report NUREG/CR-158t/Vol. 3. Dunn W. .•, Gavin P. and Boughton B. (1981) Studies on mathematical models for characterizing plume'and drift behavior from cooling towers, VoL 3. Mathematical Model for Single-Sourcc (Single-Tower) Cooling Tower Drift Dispersion. Electric Power Research Institute Report CS-1683, Palo Alto, CA. Environmental Systems Corporation (1977) Cooling tower drift dye tracer experiment Chalk Point Cooling Tower Projec PPSPCPCTP. August, pp. 92-95. Gavin P. M. (1978) Dynamics and thermodynamics of an evaporating salt-water drop. M.S. thesis, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering. University of 11linois at Urbana-Champaign, U.S.A. Gavin P. M. (1983) A theoretical and experimental Investigation of evaporation from drops containing nonvolatile solutes. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-

Champain. US.A.

Oregoric M.(1979) An experimental Investigation ofmerging buoyant jets ins crossfiow. Masters thesia. Oregon State University, Corvalis OR. Baer et aL (1974) Untersuchung an etnem Natura.Umccann T. 7. (1991) User's manual FOG00 , FOGX, and Nalkilbhlturm (edited by Ernst %3).Verein Deutscher Ingenleure Fortschrifts-Berit der VDI Zeitschriftl Rele FOOPP compqtermodek, laliburton NUS Corporation, Attn- Jim Holian, Brown and Root Environmental, 910 1S, Nr. S,JuIL Clopper Rd., Gaithersbur& MD 20878-1399, February. Bremer et al. (1973) Bedcht fiber die meteorologische Messede am Standort Llnen vore 27.11.1972 Zur Hahitsky 1. (1977) Wake and dispersion models for the Teifiberprfifung und Vercinerung des numerischen MoEBR-IJ building complex. Atmospheric Environment 11, dells SAUNA. Arbeitsgruppe iber die meteorologischen 577-596. Auswirkungen der Klhltfirme. Delust Ilr Luftreinhaltung Hanna S. I. (1975) Predicted and observed cooling tower der Schweizerschen Meteorologisachen Zeatralanstalt, plume rise and visible plume length at the John B. Amos Payern. Switzerland. power plant Atmospheric Environment 10, 1043-1052. Brog P. a aL (1984) Untersuchung des Betrlebsverhaltens, Hosker R. P. Jr (1979) Flow diffusion near obstacles. In der Emission und der Schwadenausbreitun& durchgef-uhrt Atmospheric Sdence and Power Ptroduction, Chapter 7 am Naturzu-Naoklhlturm des Kernkraftwerks Philippe. (edited by Randerson D.), DOE/rI-27601, pp. 241-326.

burg, Block, 1 (revised by Hofmann W. May 1982.). In

NTIS, Springfield, VA.

Naturzug-Nafikihturm des kanlrajlwerkes Phllippsulrg Kannberlg L D. (1978) Plumes from three and four cooling (Block !}. Ergeblnaae der Schvdnenausbretunuaechnungen towers. In METER Annuai Reporfor 1978. Department of (edited by Ernst 0.4 Fortschritt-Berichte der VDI ZeitscEnergy, Oak Ridge Nationsal Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. Kannberg L and Onishi Y. (1978) Plumes from one and two hriften, Reihe IS,Nr. 306 pp. 164-220. cooling towers. In Envlronntio Effects of Atmospheric Carhart R. A. and Policastro A.J. (1991) A second-generaHearlMoistur Releases Cooling Towers, Cooling Ponds, tion model for cooling tower plume rise and dispersion-IL Single sourcs. Amospherk Environment25A, 1559-1576. and Area Sornes (edited by Torrance K. and Watts R.), ASME, New York, NY. Presented at Second ALW Carhart R. A., Policastro A. 1, Zlemer S., Hash K. and Dunn W. (1981) Studies on Mathematical Models for ASME Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Characterizing Plume and Drift Behavior From Cooling Palo Alto, CA, 24-26 May.

7-

A model for seasonal and annual cooling tower impacts Kramer M. L and Seymour D. E. (1976b) John E. Amos Cooling Tower, Flight Program Data December 1975-March 1976. American Electric Power Service Corporation, Environmental Engineering Division, Canton, OH. Kramer M. L et al. (1976a) John E. Amos Cooling Tower, Flight Program Data December 1974-March 1975. American Electric Power Service Corporation, Environmental Engineering Division, Canton, OH. Laulainen N. S., Webb R. 0., Wilber K. R. and Vlanski S. L (1979) Comprehensive study of drift from mechanical draft cooling towers, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, EY-76-C-06-1830, Richland, WA, September. Laverne M. E. (1976) Oak Ridge Fog and Drift Program (ORFAD) User's Manual. Report No. ORNLlrM-5021, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. Meyer J. H. (1975) Chalk Point surface weather and ambient atmospheric profile data, first intensive test period, 15-19 December, 1975 (revision). Applied Physics Lab., Johns Hopkins University, PPSP-CPCTP-4REV (and Environmental Systems Corporation document PPSPCPCTP-4). Meyer J. H. and Jenkins W. R. (1977) Chalk Point surface weather and ambient atmospheric profile data, second intensive test period, 14-24 June, 1976. Applied Physics Lab, Johns Hopkins Univ., PPSP-CPCTP- I t (and Envir. onmental Systems Corporation document PPSP-CPCTP12). Meyer J. H. and Stanbro W. D. (1977) Chalk Point cooling tower project, cooling tower project final report FY 1977, volumes I and 2. Cooling Tower Drift Dye Tracer Experiment, June 16 and 17, 1977. JHU PPSP-CPCTP-16. The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland. Meyer J. H. and Stanbro W. D. (1978) Separation of Chalk Point drift sources using a fluorescent dye. In Cooling Tower Ehvironment-1978, a symposium on environmental effects of cooling tower emissions, 2-4 May. 1978. Chalk Point Cooling Tower Project Report PPSPCPCTP-22, WRRC Special Report No. 9, Baltimore, MD. May. Meyer J. H., Eagles T. W, Kohlenstein L C, Kagan L. A. and Stanbro W. D. (1974) Mechanical-draft cooling tower visible plume behavior: measurements, models, predictions. Presented a&Cooling Tower Environment-1974, symposium sponsored by US. Atomic Energy Commission. University of Maryland. 4-6 March. Moore R. D. (1977) The KUM ULUS Model for Plume and Drift Deposition Calculations for Indian Point Unit No. 2. Environmental Systems Corporation, Knoxville, TN. Orville H. D., Hirsch J. H. and May L E. (1980) Application of a cloud model to cooling tower plumes and clouds. J. appL Met. 19, 1260-1272. Policastro A. J. and Wastag M. (1981) Studies on Mathematical Models for Characterizing Plume and Drift Behavior From Cooling Towers, VoL 1. Review of European Research. Electric Power Research Institute Report CS-1683, Palo Alto, CA. Policastro A. J, Carhart R. A., Ziemer S. E. and Haake K. (1980a) Evaluation of Mathematical Models for Characterizing Plume Behavior from Cooling Towers. Dispersion From Single and Multiple Source Natural Draft Cooling Towers, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report NUREG/CR-158 I/Vol. 1.

395

Policastro A. J,, Dunn W. E., Breig M. L and Ziebarth J. P. (1980b) Evaluation of Mathematical Models for Characterizing Plume Behaviour from Cooling Towers. Salt Drift Deposition from Natural Draft Cooling Towers, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report NUREG/CR1581/Vol. 2. Policastro A. J, Carhart R. A. and Wastag M. (1981a) Studies on Mathematical Models for Characterizing Plume and Drift Behavior From Cooling Towers, Vol. 4. Mathematical Model for Multiple-Source (Multiple-Tower) Cooling Tower Plume Dispersion. Electric Power Research Institute Report CS-1683, Palo Alto, CA. Policastro A. J., Dunn W. E., Brcig M. and Haake K. (1981b) Studies on Mathematical Models for Characterizing Plume and Drift Behavior From Cooling Towers, VoL 5. Mathematical Model for Multiple-Source (Multiple-Tower) Cooling Tower Drift Dispersion. Electric Power Research Institute Report CS-1683, Palo Alto, CA. Policastro A. L, Dunn W., Carhart R. A, Coke L, Wastag M, Gavin P. and Boughton B. (1984) User's Manual: Cooling-Tower-Plume Prediction Code. Electric Power Research Institute, Report No. EPRI CS-3403-CCM, April 1984. Polkastro A. J, Coke L, Maloney D. and Dunn W. E. (1988) Mathematical modeling of chromium emissions from refinery cooling towers. ANL report prepared for Source Receptor Analysis Branch, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S.E.P.A., Research Triangle Park, NC, 15 April Pryputniewicz R. J. and Bowley W. W. (1975) An experimental study of vertical buoyant jets discharged into water of finite depth. Trans. ASME J. Heat Transfer, May, 274-281. Slawson P. R. and Wigley P. M. (1975) The effects of atmospheric conditions on the length of visible cooling tower plumes. Atmospheric Envrronment 9, 437-445. Slawson P. R. and Coleman J. H. (1978) Natural draft cooling-tower plume behavior at Paradise steam plant, part II. Tennessee Valley Authority, Division of Environmental Planning. TVA/EP-78-01. February. Slawson P. R, Crawford T. L. Goodman C. H. and Chainpion B. R. (1979) Observations of the mechanical draft cooling tower plumes at Plant Gaston (data report). Environmental Fluid Mechanics Group. Department of Mechanical Engineering. University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, and Southern Company Services Inc., Birmingham, AL February. Viollet M. P.-L (1977) Etude de jets dans des courants traversiers et dane des milieux stratfiWs, These de DocteurIncnieur, Universit6 P. et M. Curie, Paris. Webb R. 0. (1978) Drift measurements from mechanical draft cooling towers. Cooling Systems Project Group, Environmental Systems Corporation, Knoxville, TN, Octobcr. Winisrski L and Frick W. (1978) Methods of improving plume models. Cooling Tower Environment-1978, Proc. Power Plant Siting Commission, Maryland Dept. of Natural Resources. PPSP-CPCTP-22. WRJ•C Special Report No. 9. Wu F. H. and Koh I. C (1977) Mathematical model for multiple cooling tower plumes, W. M. Keck Laboratory of Hydraulics and Water Resources, Report KH-R-37, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, July.

AP1000 DOCUMENT COVER SHEET TOG: RFS#.

llii5aa-7A t APIOOO DOCUIMEN4T NO.5

Permanent File:

jREVSO INNO.

APP-00-Xl-0 1

Pao1of5 g1e s

o-

.

S

RFS ITEMS#

SSIGNED T T

witers

WORK BREAKDOWN #: 0000

ALTERNATE DOCUMENT NUMBER: ORIGINATING ORGANIZATION: Westinghouse Electric Co., LLC TITLE:

AP1000 Siting Guide: Site Information for an Early Site Permit DCP #/REV. INCORPORATED IN THIS DOCUMENT REVISION: Class 3 change to correct values in Items 2 of Section 4 and to add spent fuel information to Section 3.

ATTACHMENTS:

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PROPRIETARY CLASS 2 This document Is the property of and contains Proprietary Information owned by Westinghouse Electric Company LLC andlor Its subcontractors and suppliers. It Is transmitted to you in confidence and trust, and you agree to treat this document In strict accordance with the terms and conditions of the agreement under which it was provided to you.

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WESTINGHOUSE CLASS 3 (NON PROPRIETARY)

document Is released for use.

AP1000 Siting Guide: Site Information for an Early Site Permit Application

Page 2 of 51

CONTENTS

I

' . .......... '. ....... . ...... . ....... . Back...ro..d. 1NT1ODUCTION... ... i4 .. D.;....:. ...... ..... ......;...... ;...... e. ......................... •....... ... ,...:.. 1.1 Background ...... ........... .............. ..... ......2

1.2 1.3

. .................... ..... ............... 4 , ...... ........... .......... . Pu o and Goal ........... .......... Report Stiucture ................................................... ........... .... ................. .............................. 5

2 DETAITLED DISCUSSION OF SITING CRITERIA . .... ... ......

......... .... ,............. ..... 6

......

2.1

Health and Safety Criteria .........................................................................................................

2.2 2.3

Environmental Criteria............................................................................................................... Sociocconomics Criteria .........................................................................................................

2.4

Engineering and Cost-Related Criteria ..................................................

3 ADDITIONAL DETAIL SITE INTERFACES,..

................ ..

13 17 1......................8....1.

.....

.

3.1

Security Criteria........ .............. ............................................................

3.2

Grounding and

3.3 3.4

Raw Water Criteria ............ ............................................ Detail Site Interface Dimensionsimensions.......................................

3.5

Dciail Fuel and Waste S

;,-.-.......

...... ............ 22,

......... 22

6ightning Criteria.......................................

.22 .................

: ............... : ......

Information ................................................

4 OTHERPLANT PARAMETER ENVELOPES............-"--.............

.

.....

......- 22

.................... 23. .............

5 SITE RELATED COMBINED LICENSE IlFORMATION ITEMS .........................

3 of51

6

.2.

41

APP-OOOO-XI-01-l3.doc

APP-OOO0-XI-O01 Revision 3

INTRODUCTION Part of the EPRI Early Site Permit Demonstration Program was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. "Siting Guide: Site Selection and Evaluation Criteria for an Early Site Permit Application" has been issued to serve as a roadmap and tool for applicants to use in developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country.. This AP1000 document (APP-0000-XI-001) can be used in conjunction with the EPRI Siting Guide: Site Selection and Evaluation Criteria for an Early Site Permit Application for evaluating the siting of an API000 to a potential site. It also has sufficient information to support the plant/site interface portions of a Combined License application. 1.1

Background

In November 1990, the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (NPOC) prepared a strategic plan for building new nuclear power facilities. An essential element in the strategy (Building Block 5) consisted of initiating a project to obtain Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval through newly issued 10 CFR Part 52 (Early Site Permits; Standard Design Certifications and Combined Licenses for Nucdear Power Reactors). The plan was designed to be implemented either through attainment of an early site permit (ESP) or through the submission of, and NRC approval of, a combined construction and operating license (COL) application for a design certified ALWR under the NRC standardiiation rule. In 1990 Sandia National Laboratory issued a Request for Quotation to test the ESP process in a demonstration program. In early 1991, the Joint Contractors were formed and selected by the DOE through SNL to implement the Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. The Joint Contractors were assisted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) and developed a phased approach to the preparation, review, and application to NRC for acceptance of an early site permit. An output of this effort was the EPRI Siting Guide. 1.2

Purpose and Goals

The EPRI Siting Guide has been designed to be responsive to 10 CFR 52, 10 CFR 100, and related regulations and guidance, and form a framework or roadmap for an applicant to use in developing a detailed siting plan for a specific region of the country. The purpose and scope of this AP1000 siting information document (APP-0000-X1-0O1) is to provide specific AP1000 information relating directly to the Siting Guide. It is based upon providing information for a single API 000. If siting a twin unit, values should be doubled except for the acreage required. To determine the amount of land area required for a twin station a site specific plot plan should be developed. 4 of 51 APP-OOOO-X1-001-43.doc

APP-0000-XI-0 01 Revision 3

1.3

Report Structure

This section provides an overview of the balance of the report. Section 2.0 presents API000

design information in the same order and format as criteria are presented in Section 3 of the EPRI Siting Guide. The discussion of the bases for'criteria and the use ofdesign infbrmation is contained in the Siting Guide and not repeated here. Note that all data in this AP 1000 document

is reference in that the data is controlled in some other AP1000 design document. Section 3 of this AP1000 Siting Guide contains detailed site interface information not addressed in the EPRI Siting Guide. Section 4 contains other information identified as Plant Parameter Envelopes that

are not covered in the balance of this document Section 5 is an addition to the information presented in the EPRI siting Guide. The section contains a listing of the ite related Coinbined License (COL) information items identified in the AP1000 Design Control Document. hese

COL information items are not necessarily required for an Early Site Permit, but they' are required to be part of a COL for an AP1000. As such, this information will ultimaely be required by NRC and should be considered in the planning for site licensing activities.

Page 5 of 51 APP--OO-.XI-O0l-R

.doc

APP-OOOO-XI-OO1 Revision 3

2.. DETAILED DISCUSSION OF API000 SITING INFORMATION This section provides detailed APIOO1 siting informatibn for each siting criterion ofthe'EPRI Siting Guide. This information is presented so that it can be applied to an ESP.orCOL application anywhere in the continental United States. Accordingly, some -customization" of utility,functions may be appropriate for specific regions; and some information may not be applicable for some siting applications. Each applicant should also conduct a review of the materials in this document; the state siting, emergency planning, and environmental regulations applicable to the region of interest; and the physical characteristics of the region of interest. Plant Parameters Envelopes (PPEs) define the envelope of the AP1000/site interface conditions that, if not satisfied by the site, may preclude locating AP1000 on the selected site. An ESP or COL applicant can utilize PPEs to represent a bound on whether an API000 can be considered for the site without firther analysis and justification to NRC.

2.1

Health and Safety Criteria

Z2.11 Accident Cause-RelatedCriteria 2.1.1.1

Geology/Seismology

Current NRC regulations identify three geologic, seismologic, and soil parameters that must be evaluated to determine the suitability of prospective sites. First, the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) must be determined to establish a vibratory ground motion design basis, and detailed information regarding capable tectonic structures and sources are needed to determine the SSE. Second, the occurrence of, or potential for, surface faulting or deformation must be identified and evaluated to permit evaluation of site conditions with respect to standard facility designs. Third, other geologic conditions (e.g., geologic hazards and soil characteristics) that could affect the safety of a facility must also be evaluated. The following site parameter criteria are intended to provide applicants with specific values included in the AP 1000 Design Certification for use in ESP and COL application. The criteria discussed in the following geology/seismology sections provide a set of conditions within which an APIO00 can be sited without additional licensing.

Page 6 of Sl

APP-000-XM-001 -R3.doo

APP-0000-X 1-001 Revision 3

2.1.1.1.1

Vibratory GroundMotion

See Section 4, Table Item 1.5. 2.1.1.1.2

Capable Tectonic Structuresor Sources

The AP1000 Design Certification provides for no fault displacement potential within the investigative area. 2.1.1.1.3

Sudface Faultingand beform7tion

With regard to surface faulting and defonration, no absolute exclusionary criteria have been identified for AP 1000 other than the fault displacement criteria addressed in 2.1.1.1.2. 2.1.1.1.4

Geologic Hazards

With regard to geologic hazards, no absolute exclusionary criteria have been identified for API000. Therefore, geologik hazards should be addressed as an avoidance criterion. The following ge0oogic and related man-made conditions should be avoided in locating a facility: * Areas of active (and dormant) volcanic activity; * Subsidence areas caiu-sed by withdrawal of subsurface fluids such as oil or groundwater, including areas which may be effected by future withdrawals; * Potential unstable slope areas, including areas demonstrating paleolandslide, characteristics; * Areas of potential collapse (e.g., karstic areas in limestone, salt, or other soluble formations); * Mined areas, such as near-surface coal mined-out areas, as well as areas where resources are present and may be exploited in the future; Areas subject to seismic and other induced water waves and floods. 2.1.1.1.5"

Soil Stability

With regard to soil stability, the AP 1000 structural design is based on the AP600 design. AP600 has an average allowable static soil bearing capacity requirement of 8000 pounds per square inch, or greater and a shear wave velocity requirement of-1000 ft/sec or greater. The current AP?1000. Design Certification is based upon a rock foundation with the average allowable soil bearing capacity to be greater than or equal to 8400 lb/ft2 over the footprint of the nuclear island at its excavation depth. The shear wave velocity shall be greater than or equal to 3500 ft/sec based upon low-strain, best-estimate soil properties over the footprint of the nuclear island at its excavation depth. There are no constraints on soils surrounding the nuclear island. No liquefaction potential is assumed. We expect to expand the licensed soil stability requirements for AP1000 to be at least those of AP600 at the time of Combined License application or before. Page 7 of 5t. APP-OOOO-XI-OOI-R3.doc

APP-OO0O-XI-O01 Revision 3

2.1.1.2

Cooling System Requirements

Since API 000 is a passive nuclear plant, it requires no safety-related heat sink to reach safe shutdown other than the water contained in its passive cooling system tank located atop the reactor building. Thus a safety-related ultimate heat sink system similar to traditional nuclear plants is not required. The ultimate heat sink for a passive plant is air, which is motivated by vessel. natural convection over the containment The API 000 has two nonsafety-related systems for discharging waste heat from the plant These are a conventional circulating water system to remove the waste heat related to power production and a smaller service water system. The service water system in AP1000 has its own cooling tower, which is separate from the circulating water system. The circulating water system pump discharge lines connect to a common header which connects to the inlet water boxes of the condenser as well as supplies cooling water to the Turbine Cooling System (TCS) and condenser vacuum pump seal water heat exchangers. AP1000 circulating water requirements can vary greatly depending on site specific conditions and limitations. The AP!O00 requires no more or no less circulating water than any other similarly sized nuclear plant. Esseiitially the plant needs to reJect approximately 2/3 of 3415 MWt or about 2270 MWt. If the plant uses a cooling tdwer, site ambient air temperature and humidity conditions, and the design rise across the cooling tower/ condenser are needed to estimate the required flow rate. (A very rough estimate is that the required flow rate is somewhere between 450,000 gpm to 850,000 gpm). The AP1000 design used as a reference for Design Certification assumes a-circulating water system with a cooling tower, a flow rate of 600,000 gpm, and a 25.2 *Frange. Make-up for a circulating water system that utilizes a cooling tower can be estimated to be up to 4% of the circulating water flow rate. The service water system consists of two 100-percent-capacity service water pumps, automatic backwash strainers, a two-cell cooling tower with a divided basin, and associated piping, valves, controls, and instrumentation. The service water pumps, located in the turbine building, take suction from piping which connects to the basin of the service water cooling tower. Service water is pumped through strainers to the component cooling water heat exchangers for removal of heat. Heated service water from the heat exchangers then returns through piping to a mechanical draft cooling tower where the system heat is rejected to the atmosphere. Cool water, collected in the tower basin, flows through fixed screens to the pump suction piping for recirculation through the system.

Page 9 of 51 APP-OOOO-XI-O01-R.doc ! !

APP-0000-X 1-001 Revision 3

NOMINAL SERVICE WATER FLOWS AND HEAT LOADS AT DIFFERENT OPERATING MODES Component "

WSSPumps and

Cooling Water

Cooling TowerCells

Pumps and Heat

(Number Normally

Flow

Heat Transferred

Exchangers

is Service)

(gpm)

(Btu/hr)

1

1

8,000

83x10'

Cooldown

2

2

16,000

Refueling

2

2

16,000

296x10' (148x10' per cell) 74xi0'

Plant Startup

2

2

16,000

96xl06

Minimum to

2

2

14,400

Normal Operation

(Full Load)

(Full Core Offload)

Support Shutdown Cooling and Spent

240xi0'

(120x 106 per cell)

Fuel Cooling

A small portion of the service water flow is normally diverted to the circulating water system (CWS) basin. This blowdown is used to control levels of solids concentration'in the SWS. [An alternate blowdown flow path is provided to the waste water system (WWS) for times when the CWS is not operating.] This design affords a single blowdown interface from'the CWS to the site. Make-up for the service water cooling tower is estimated to be 80 gpm nominally. Potable water and-sanitary drain requirements can be estimated based on the assumption that there may be up to 300 operating persornel required for the first single unit*xid uip'to 420 operating personnel required for the first twrinauit. TheAPl000design for these systems is based upon 1000 persons on site and 100 gallons/day/person. 2.1.1.2.1

PPE Section 2.7.15

Cooling Water Supply

Ma

Requirement p Flow Rate (Closed

APlO00 Value See Section 4, Table Item 2.7.15

Cycle. Systemps): 2.7.16 2.8.15

Maimulm Consumption of Raw Water

2.10.11

(Closed Cycle System)

I S..:

.

ý -.

See Section 4, Table Items 2.7.16, 2.8.15 and 2.10.11

I

Page 9of51 APP.O.000-XI-1 -R3.doc

APP-0000-X 1-001 Revision 3

AP1000 Value

Requirement

PPE Section 2.7.17 2.8.16 2.10.12

See Section 4, Table Items Monthly Average Consumption of Raw Water-,, 2.7.17,2.8.16 and 2.10.12 (Closed Cycle Systems)

2.9.2

Cooling Water Flow Rate

See Section 4, Table Item 2.9.2

(Cooling Tower)

2.1.1.2-2 Ambient Temperature Requirements

APIOD Value

Requirement

PPE Section

See Section 4, Table Item

2.1.1

Normal Maximum Ambient

2.1.2

Normal Maximum Wet Bulb .. Temperature with 1%. Exceedance

See Section 4 Table Item ~2.1.2 2.1T2 . ..

2.1.3

Normal Minimum Ambient Temperature with 1%Exceedance

See Section 4, Table Item 2.1.3

2.1.5

Safety Ambient Temperature Maximum with 001 Exceedance2..

See Section 4, Table Item

2.1.6

Temperature with 1% Exceedance

Maximum Safety wet Bulb

2.1.1

2.1.5 See Section 4, Table Item'

Temperatur with0O% Exceedance21. 2.1.7

Minimum Safety Ambient Temperature with 0% Exceedance

See Section 4, Table Item 2.1.7

2.7.3 2.8.2

Approach Temperature

See Section 4, Table Items 2.7.3 and 2.82.

2.1.1.3

Flooding

The maximum flood level assumed for API 000 is the plant design grade elevation. The standard grid coordinate system for AP1000 labels plant grade as plant elevation 100 ft. Structural analyses have assumed grade to be at 100 ft. Actual grade will be a few inches lower to prevent surface water from entering doorways; Adverse effects of flooding due to high water or ice effects do not have to be considered for sitespecific non-safety-related structures and water sources outside the scope of the certified AP1000 design. Flooding of intake structures, cooling canals, or reservoirs or channel diversions would not prevent safe operation of the plant. Page 10 of SI

APP-0000-XI-001-R3.doc

APP-OOOO-XI-O01 Revision 3

2.1.1.4

Nearby Hazardous Land Uses

--

.

-

APIO00 has no specific requirements or restrictions on nearby land use over and above those generally imposed by NRC for plants of this type. There are designprovisi'ns for detection of aerosols that may be toxic to the main control room staff and there are combined license applicant action items requiring identification of nearby hazardous land usfe ... 2.1.1.5

Extreme Weather Conditions

See Section 4, Table Item 1.

2.1.1.5.1

'Winds

The design wind is specified as a basic wind speed of 145 mph with an annual probability of occurrence of 0.02 based on the most severe location identified in American Society of Civil Engineers," Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures," ASCE 7-98. This wind speed,

is the 3 second gust speed at 33 feet above the ground in open terrain (ASCE 7-98, exposure C). This basic wind speed of 145 mph is the 3 seco6nd gst speed that hasIbcome the*basis~of wind designicodes since 1995. It corresponds to the 110 mph fastest mile wind used as the basis for the AP600 design in accordance with the 1988 edition of ASCE 7-98. Higher winds with a probability of occurrence of 0.01 are used in the design of seismicCategory I structures by using an importance factor of 1.15. 21.1.5.2 Precipitation There are no additional AP1000 requirements or restrictions. 2.1.2 Accident Effects-Related 2.1.2.1

Population.

There are no additional or specific AP1000 requirements or restrictions related to population

concentration ordistribution. See Section 4, Table Item 9.6.6.

2.1.2.2

Emergency Planning

There are no additional or specific AP1000 requirements or restrictions related to emergency planning. 2.1.2.3

Atmospheric Dispersion

See Section 4, Table Item 9.1.

Page II of Sl APP-OOOO-XI-001-Rl.doc

APP-0000-XI -001 Revision 3

2.1.3 OperationalEffects-Related 2.1.3.1

Surface Water- Radionuclide Pathway

See Section 4, Table Item.I.

.'

There are no additional or specific AP1000 requirements or restrictions related to radionuclide pathways. 2.1.3.1.1

Dilution Capacity

There are no additional or specific AP1000 requirements or restrictions related to dilution

capacity. 2.1.3.1.2

Baseline Loadings

There are no. additional or specific AP 1000 requirements or restrictions related to baseline loadings. 2.1.3.1.3

Proximityto Consumptive Users

There are no additional or specific AP1000 requirements or restrictions related to proximity of consumptive users. 2.1.3.2

Groundwater Radionuclide Pathway

There are no additional or specific AP1000 requirements or restrictions related to the groundwater radionuclide pathway. 2.1.3.3

Air Radionuclide Pathway

There are no additional or specific APO0 requirements or restrictions related to air radionuclide pathway. 2.1.3.3.1

TopographicEffects

There are no additional or specific API000 requirements or restrictions related to the site topography as it relates to air radionuclide pathway. 2.1.3.3.2

Atmospheric Dispersion

See Section 4, Table Item 9.2. Page 12 of SI

APP-ODONOXI-OMl-Rldcoc

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

2.1.3.4

Air-Food Ingestion Pathway,

There are no additional or specific APIO00 requirements or restrictions related to the air-food ingestion pathway. 2.1.3.5

Surface Water - Food Radionuclide Pathway

There are no additional or specific API000 requirements or restrictions related to the use of irrigation waters in downstream areas is a potential pathway for radionuclides.' 2.1.3.6

Transportation Safety

There are no additional or specific APIO00 requirements or restrictions related to potential impacts from facility operations on transportation safety that could occur as a result of increased hazards such as fog and ice from the operation of cooling systems (e.g., cooling towers and cooling reservoirs).

2.2

Environmental Criteria

2.2.1 Construction-RelatedEffects on Aquatic Ecology 2.2.1.1

Disruption of Important Species/Habitats

There are no additional or specific AP1000 requirements or restrictions related to the disruption of important species or habitats. 2.2.1.2

Bottom Sedimeht Disruption Effects

There are no additional or specific AP 1000 requirements or restrictions related to bottom sediment disruption effects. The nature and extent of construction and cooling water'relited disruption is site specific. 2.2.1.2.1

Contamination

There are no additional or specific AP1000 requirements or restrictions related to contamination. 2.2.1.2.2

Grain Size

There are no additional or specific AP1000 requirements or restrictions related to grain size.

Page 13 ofSlAP-0000-

3.doc

APP-OOOO-XI-001 Revision 3

2.2.2 Constnuction-RelatedEffects on TerrestrialEcology 2.2.2.1

Disruption of Important Species/Habitats and Wetlands

There are no additional *orspecific AP1000 requirements or restrictions related to constructionrelated effects on terrestrial ecology.

2.2.1.1

Important SpeciesM-abitats

There are no additional or specific AP1000 requirements or restrictions related to constructionrelated effects on important species or their habitats.

2.2.2.1.2

"Groundcover/Habitat

There are no additional or specific APIO0O requirements or restrictions related to construction related effects on groundcover. 2.2.2.1.3

Wetlands

There are no additional or specific AP1000 requirements or restrictions related to constructionrelated effects on wetlands, 2.2.2.2

Dewatering Effects on Adjacent Wetlands

During construction, dewatering is required for AP1000 to the depth of 40 feet below the working grade elevation for the excavation of the Nuclear Island. The footprint of this excavation is an irregular rectangle about 260 feet by 160 feet. In addition, dewatering will be required for the site specific circulating water system. At a minimum this excavation will include the condenser waterbox sump under the turbine building, the circulating water pipe trench and the pump house or cooling tower sump. After plant completion, dewatering is not

required. 2.2.2.2.1

Depth to Water Table

See Section 4, Table Item 1.8.2.

2.Z2.2.2

ProximalWetlands

There are no additional or specific AP1000 requirements or restrictions related to the proximity of wetlands.

Page 14 of 51 APP-0000-XM-001-R3.doc

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

2.2.3 Operational-Relafed Effects on Aquatic Ecology 2.2.3.1

Thermal Discharge Effects

2.2.3.1.1

MigratorySpecies Effects

There are no additional or specific AP1000 rYequirements or restrictions related to potential effects on migratory species water and land use during construction. 2.2.3.1.2

Disruptionof ImportantSpecies/Habitats

There are no additional or specific AP 1000ruements or restrictions related to the disruption of important species or their habitats during plant operation. 2.2.3.1.3

Water Quality

Most of the values presented below for AP1000 are estimates for use in preliminary,site investigations. API000 is designed to be adaptable to a variety of cooling water sources. Details of blowdown rates, constituents and concentrations will be site specific. They are a function of the type of cooling (cooling tower or once through), the inlet water quality and the cycles of concentration. Once-through discharge temperature and temperature rise will most likely be dictated by inlet temperature, inlet flow rate and local environmental regulations. The values presented should envelop most sites in the United States. They are as follows:

PPE Section

Requirement

AP1000 Value

2.7.4 2.8.3 2.10.2

Blowdown Constituents and Concentrations

See" Blowdown Constituents and Concentrations" table directly beb•0this table

2.7.5 2.10.3

Bl1wdownFlow Rate (Mechanical Draft & Pond)

See Section 4, Table Items 2.7.5 and 2.10.3

2.8.4

Blowdown Flow Rate (Natural Draft)

See Section 4, Table Item 2.8.4

2.7.6 2.8.5 2.10.4

JBowd Te (cosedcycli)

rture .

See Section 4T, Table Items 2.7.6, .. S a.:i 2.10.4

2.7.9 2.8.8 2.10.7

Cycles of Concentration (Closed Cycle)

Se ,Secýoiio 4, Tabe Items:2.i7.9, 2.8.8 and 2.10.7

2.9.1

Cooling Water

See Section 4, Table Item 2.9.1

Discharge Terp (Once--

___....__

page is of 51I APP-0000-XI-0I-R3.doc

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

APIO00 Value

Requirement.

PPE Section

through) 2.9.3

2.9.5

Cooling Water Temperature Rise

See Section 4, Table Item 2.9.3

(Once-through)

___

Heat Rejection Rate

See Section 4, Table Item 2.9.5

(Once-through): Blowdown Constituents and Concentrations Concentration (ppm)'.

Constituent

River Source

Chlorine demand

10.1

Well/Treated Water

Envelope .10.1

Free available chlorine 0.5 .0.5, Chromium,_____

Copper

6

6

Iron

0.9

3.5

3.5

zinc

-

0.6

0.6

Phosphate

-

7.2

7.2

Sulfate

599

3,500

3,500

Oil and grease

-

Total dissolved solids

-

17,0000)

17,000")

150

150

Total suspend.d solids 49.5 BOD, 5-day

..

(1) Assumed cycles of concentration equals 4 These parameters define the thermal and water quality impacts that cooling system blowdown effluents will have on the receiving water body for the various cooling system configurations. 2.2.3.2

Entrainment/Impingement Effects

2.2.3.2.1

EntrainableOrganisms

There are no additional or specific API000 requirements or restrictions related to entrainable organisms. Page 16 of 51 APP.-O00XZI-001R3.doc

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

2.2.3.3

Dredging/Disposal Effects

2.2-3.3.1

Upstream ContaminationSources

There are no additional or specific API000 requirements or restrictions related to potential upstream contamination sources.. 2.2.3.3.2

RateSedimenta ats

There are no additional or specific API000 requirements or restrictions related to sedimentation rates.

2.2.4 Operational-RelatedEffects on TerrestrialEcology 2.2.4.1

Drift Effects on Surrounding Areas

2.24.1.1,

Important Species !-abtitat Areas

There are no additional or.specific AP1000 requirements or restrictions related to the plants operational drift effects on important species habitat areas. 2.2.4.1.2

Source Water Suitability

There are no additional or specific APlOOOIr

iements or restrictions related to the drift effects

of site source water including evaporation rate and concentrations of dissolved solids

2.3

Socloeconomics Criteria

The sitingi construction and operation of a nuclear power station can place stresses on the local labor supply, transportatioin facilities, and community services. An evaluation-of suitability of.

nuclear power station'sites khould include an assessment of impacts of construction and operation,'including tiaýsission and transportation corridors, and potential problems relating to community services (e.g., schools, police and fire protection, water and sewage, and health

facilities). Incompatible land uses, referred to as "nearby ]hazardous land uses,", are discussed in

Sectign 3,1.,1.4. The followg section•.discuss the socioeconomic and environmental justice criteria associated wiit*hcnstruction and operation ofa nuclear power faciity.• .. :• 2.3.1 Socioeconomic - ConstructionRelated Effects See Section 4, Table Item 29.4.

Page 17of51

APP-000-XI-OOI-R3.doc

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

There are no additional or specific APIOOO requirements or restrictions related to construction workforce or other construction related socioeconomic effects.

2.3.2 Socloeconomics- Operation The operation of a single AP 1000 requires a labor force of about 300 skilled workers (including security personnel and an allowance for attrition) for the first plant and about 200 each for follow plants. If twins are paced on one site the first twin requires about 420 skilled workers (including security personnel and an allowance for attrition) and follow twins require about 320.

2.3.3 Environmental Justice There are no additional or specific AP1000 requirements or restrictions related to environmental justice 23.4 Land Use There are no additional or specific API000 requirements or restrictions related to land use. Land uses that are incompatible with nuclear power facilities because of the hazards they pose to safe operation are categorized as "nearby hazardous land uses;" these are discussed in Section 2.1.1.4.

2.4

Engineering and Cost-Related Criteria

This section addresses those criteria that are cost-sensitive. Consideration of these criteria allows important site-related cost diffeientials to be considered in the site selection prcess. Because of the amount of detailed design work incorporated into the AP?1000 design, cost estimates for it should be considered relatively reliable. This is due to the amount of reusable design created for AP600 and the resulting detailed bill of material developed during the design phase. Cost estimates specified in these criteria should be developed in constant-year dollars, taking into account timing of each expense and a consistent discount rate. For example, a "present value" for operational costs such as water pumping and transmission losses should be developed so these costs can be directly compared with construction costs. All costs should be discounted to a single year. 2.4.1 Health and Safety Related Criteda A number of these issues are also addressed in Section 3.1 and from a site suitability perspective, it may be helpful to revisit these evaluations as part of the development ofthe Engineering and Cost-Related criteria. Correlation with the health and safety utility functions may be helpful in evaluating cost.

Page 18 of 51

APP-0000-X1001-R3.doc

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

2.4.1.1

Water Supply

There are no additional or specific API000 requirements or restrictions related to the cost of water supply. The analysis in this section addresses the costs associated with supplying the facility water requirements, in light of future, competitive, non-facility consumption rates. 2.4.1.2

Pumping Distance

There are no additional or specific AP1000 requirements or restrictions related to the cost of constructing pumping stations and infratucture developments necessary to transport water from the source to the site. 2.4.1.3

Flooding

Flooding was initially treated in Section 2.1.1.3. The site storm drain system should be adequate to remove expected precipitation without flooding, There are no additional or specific API000 requirements or restrictions related to the cost of flooding protection.. 2.4.1.4

Vibratory Ground Motion

For the AP1000, site cost increments that are a function of Peak Ground Acceleration do not exist as a result of standardization. There may a cost associated with site soil preparation for foundations of non-tafety-related buildings or construction load paths. 2.4.1.5

Soil Stability

Soil stability was initially treated in Section 2.1.1.1.4 from the standpoint of soil properties and their relationship to the suitability of foundation conditions. For this criterion, the applicant should estimate the cost of site-specific foundation design features and associated construction requirements that might arise from soil conditions (e.g., slope stability). 2.4.1.6

Industrial Site Remediation

The purpose of this criterion is to capture costs associated with any enviriomental cleanup activities, that may be required at industrial sites before they can be developed for a nuclear power facility. There are no. additional or specific A.1000 requirements or esuction rlated to the cost of remediation. . 2.4.2 TransportatIon or Transmission-RelatedCriteria

.

AP1000 has been designed to allow shipment by rail. It is preferable toship larger units (assembled from the rail shippable units) by barge. An access and transportation plan will be

Page 19 of 51 APP-O00-XI-001-R.dnc

APP-OOOO-XI-O01

Revision 3

required for each site to optimize the balance between offsite fabrication, shipping and onsite assembly. See Section 4, Table Item 29.1. 2.4.2.1

Railroad Access

See 2.4.2 above. An adequate railroad-spur is recommended, but not required. 2.4.2.2

Highway Access

There are no additional or specific API000 requirements or restrictions related to highway access.

2.4.2.3

Barge Access

See 2.4.2 above. Adequate barge and load handling facilities will be required if barge delivery is appropriate for the site in question. 2.4.2.4

Transmission Cost and Market Price Differentials

2.4.2.4.1

TransmissionConstruction

APIOOO has no requirement for redundant connections to transmission grids. There are no additional or specific AP]OO0 requirements or restrictions related to transmission. 2.4.2.4.2

Electricity Market Pfice Differentials

There are no additional or specific APIOOO requirements or restrictions related to electricity market price differentials. 2.4.3 CriteriaRelated to Land Use and Site Preparation 2.4.3.1

Topography

The standard APtOOO design is based upon a relatively level site. Site plot plans for a variety of circulating water suoply options are shown On APlO0O drawings APP-OOOO-X2-010 through APP-0000-X2-022. The standard API000 plot plans showing construction laydown, access and assembly areas are AP1000 drawings APP-0000-X2-810 through APP-0000-X2-822. The costs associated with any topographic features that would translate into site-specific differences in site preparation costs. For example, extensive cutting and filling, grading, and blasting could be factors that differentiate among sites.

Page 20 of 51 APP-0000-XI-00.1-R.doc

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

2.4.3.2

Land Rights

There are no additional or specific AP1000 requirements or restrictions related to land rights.

2.4.3.3

Labor Rates

A significant portion of AP1000 can be fabricated in a shop or shipyard. This reduces the expected amount of site labor for a plant of this type and size. The impact of this construction approach may require negotiations with impacted labor unions both at the site and at the fabrication factories.

Page21 of Sl APP-0000-XI-OI-R3.doc

APP-O000-XI-001 Revision 3

3

ADDITIONAL DETAIL SITE INTERFACES

3.1

Security Criteria

The AP1000 Design Certification is based upon the existence of an adequate site boundary security system. There are no additional or specific AP1000 requirements or restrictions related to land right

3.2

Grounding and Lightning Criteria

The APIO00 Design Certification is based upon the existence of an adequate station grounding system and a connection between it and the lightning protection system. There are no additional or specific API000 requirements or restrictions.

3.3

Raw Water Criteria

The APIO00 raw water treatment system will be based upon an adequate supply of surface water, clear well water or municipal water.

3.4

Detail Site Interface Dimensions

These AP 1000 documents define detailed site interface dimensions. API000 Document Number

Document Title

APP-0000-X2-010

APl000 Single Unit Site Plot Plan Plant with Pumphouse

APP-0000-X2-011

API 000 Single Unit Site Plot Plan Plant with Cooling Tower

APP-0000-X2-020

API000 Twin Unit Site Plot Plan with Separate Pumphouses

APP-0000-X2-021

AP 1000 Twin Unit Site Plot Plan with Common Pumphouse

APP-0000-X2-022

APl000 Twin Unit Site Plot Plan with Cooling Tower

APP-0000-X2-810

AP1000 Single Unit Construction Plot Plan Plant with Pumphouse

Page 22 ofS5

APP-OOOO-X1-001.IU.doc

APP-O000-XI-001

Revision 3

APP-0000-X2-811

AP1000 Single Unit Construction Plot Plan Plant with Cooling Tower

APP-0000-X2-820

AP 1000 Twin Unit Construction Plot Plan with Separate Pumphouses

APP-O000-X2-821

API 000 Twin Unit Construction Plot Plan with Common Pumphouse

APP-0000-X2-822

API bOO Twin Unit Construction Plot Plan with Cooling Towers

APP-0000-X4-901

APl000 Plant Grid Coordinates & Column Line Identification View A-A

APP-0000-X4-902

AP 1000 Plant Grid Coordinates & Coluiýi Line Identification Views B-B

APP-0000-X4-903

API 000 Plant Grid Coordinates & Column Line Identification Views C-C

APP-0030-X4-001

AP1000 Plant Grid Coordinates & Column Line Identification Plan

APP-0031-X4-001

Yard Arrangenient Fuel Tank Storage/Transfer Facility

APP-0031-X4-002

Plant Grid Coordinates for Fuel Tank Storage/Transfer Facility Plan

APP-0035-X4-001

Yard Arrangement CWS Cooling Tower

APP-00350-X4-001

Yard Arrangement CWS Cooling Tower Area

APP-0036-X4-O01

Yard Arrangement Hydrogen Storage Tank Area

APP-00360-X4-001

Yard Arrangement Hydrogen Storage Tank Area

APP-0070-X4-001

APOGO1 Plant Grid Coordinates & Roof Plan

3.5

Detail Fuel and Waste Shipping Information 3.5.1 Information on Annual Fuel Requirements 3.5.1.1 Standard Technical Configuration" Reactor Power Plant Power Number of Plants per Unit

3400 MWt 1117 - 1150 MW. I

3.5.1.2 Expected Fuel Loading Initial Core Fuel Loading

84.5 MTU

Page 23 of 51 APP-0000-XI-001-R3.doc

APP-0000-XI-001

Revision 3 Annual Average Fuel Loading 24.4 MTU 3.5.1.3 Average Fuel Enrichment (initial load) 2.35 weight % U-235 3.40 weight % U-235 4.45 weight % U-235

Region 1 Region 2 Region.3 3.5.1.4 Fuel Form Total mass Uranium mass Volume (FA, envelope) Outside Dimensions Number of Assemblies (Initial) Number of Assemblies (Reload)

1730 lbfassembly 0.5383 MTU/assembly

13404.3 in3

8.426xS.426x188.8 in 157

63 on 18 month cycle

3.5.1.5 Fuel Materials 211,588 lb UO2 Fuel Structure and Cladding 43,105 lb Zircaloy or ZIRLOTm 270 lb Alloy 718 (top & bottom Grids for 157 assemblies)'

3.5.1.6 Expected Typical Transport

Truck

3.5.1.7 Fresh Fuel Transport Containers Capacity Shipping

2 assemblies per container 6 containers per truck

3.5.1.8 Fuel reload data:

Cycle Length Capacity Factor Reload fuel reuikement Average Enrichment

18 months - 520 EFPD @ 3400 MWT 95% including refueling outage 68 Fuel Assemblies 4.51 w/o U235

3.5.1.9 Spent fuel data: At 5 years decay, the average spent fuel assembly curie content: 8.506E+04 curies Actinides

Fission Products

4.450E+05 curies

Total

5.301E+05 curies

3.5.1.10 Spent fuel data: At 5 years decay, the average spent fuel assembly curie content: 8.506E+04 curies Actinides 4.450E+05 curies Fission Products 5.3 01E+05 curies Total

Page 24 of 51 APF-0000-XI-001-R3.oc

APP-O000-XI-001 Revision 3 3.5.1.11 Spent Fuel Shipping Information Quantity of spent fuel (MTU): Truck Cask To be provided later Rail Car Cask To be provided later 3.2.1.12 Average Fuel Bumup

Expected

21000 MWD/MTU (3400 MWtx 520 efpd /14.5 MTU)

Design

60000 MWD/MTU

3.2.1.13 Estimate of Decay Heat in watts per MTU after 5 years of decay While we use ORIGEN, we have not used it for decay heat calculation for AP1000. We therefore have estimated decay heat based on ANS 1979 standards, with 0 sigma margin, at five years to be 1.1 27E-4 watts/watt. With core power of 3400 MW and core loading of 84.5 MTU, the estimated specific decay heat for API000 is 4530 watts/MTU. 3.5.1.14 Estimates of spent fuel inventories and radioactivity ORIGEN results for spent fuel inventories and radioactivity are addressed by AP1000 document APP-SSAR-GS2-496. This is based on one burned APOOO assembly, decayed to 5 years. (Note that ORIGEN was run assuming a core loading of 83.6 MTU.) The 5 year decay data is in the last column (as label indicates). Also note that the inventory units are total Curies (based on 532337.6 grams for an assembly).

Page 25 of 51 APP-000-XI-00!-R3.doc

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

3.5.1

Information on Expected Low Level Waste Production 3.5.2.1 LLW Production Volume

1964 cubic feet per year (average, as shipped)

Activity

1830 curies per year (average, as shipped)

3.5.2.2 LLW from Decommissioning No AP1000 specific estimate has been made. Information from Sizewell indicates 6200 cubic meters of LLW from decommissioning. The AP1000 value should be significantly less (maybe baif) considering the design differences.

Page 26 of 51

APP-0000-XI.001-Rldoc

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

OTHER PLANT PARAMETER ENVELOPES (Value)

Structure, System, Component

1. Structures 1.1

Foundation Embedment

39' W"to bottomof Basemat from Plant

Grade 1.2

Height

1.4

Precipitation (for Roof Design) 1,4.1 Maximum Rainfall Rate 1.4.2

19.4 infti(6.3 in/5 mnn)

Snow Load

75 lbs/sq It on ground with exposure factor and importance factor of 1.2 (safety) of

ad1.0 (~-aey 1.5

1.8

Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) Design Response Spectra 1.5.1

1.52

Peak Ground Acceleration

0.30g0t base jfounratlon or at grade

1.5.3

Time History

Envelope SSE Resp Spectra

1.5A

Fault Displacement Potential

None

Site Water Level (Allowable) 1.6.1 Maximum Flood (orTsunami) 1.82

1.9

modified Regulatoy Gulde 1.60

Maximum Ground Water

SO Properties Design Bases 1.9.1 Uquefacion 1.92.

Plant grade or plant elevation 100 feel See Section 2.1.1.3 Less than 98 feet with plant grade defined

at 100 feet.': ...

None. See Section 2.1.1.1.5

Minimum Bearing Capacity (Static)

Greater than or equal to 8,000 Pounds per Square foot over the footpdnt of thl nudear island at Its excavation depth. ,See Section

2.1.1.1.5....' 1.9.3

. .

Minimum Shear Waye Velocity

" •

Greater than or equal to 1000 It/sec based

on low strain best estimate toll properties. See Section 2.1.1.1.5 1.11

Tornado (Design Bases) 1.11.1

Maximum Pressure Drop

2.0 PSID

1.11.2

Maximum Rotational Speed

240 MPH

1.11.3

Maximum Translational Speed

60 MPH

1.11.4

Maximum Wind Speed

300 MPH

Page 27 of 51 APP-OOOO-XI.OOI-R3.doc

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

(Value)

Structure, System, Component

1.12

2.

1.11.5

Missile Spectra

A 4000 pound automobile at 105 mph horizontal and 74 mph vertical, a 275 pound 8 inch shell at 105 mph horizontal and 74 mph vertical, and a 1 inch diameter steel ball at 105 mph horizontal and 105 mph vertical, 'ýr,

1.11.6

Radius of Maximum Rotational Speed

150 it

1.11.7

Rate of Pressure Drop

1.2 psVsec

Wind 1.12.1

Basic Wind Speed

145 MPH. See Section 2.1.1.5.1

1.12.2

Importance Factors

See Section 2.1.1.5.1

Normal Plant Heat Sink Ambient Air Requirements 2.1 Normal Shutdown Max Ambient 2.1.1 Temp (1% Exceedance) 2.1.2

Normal Shutdown Max Wet Bulb Temp (1% Exceedance)

2-1.3

Normal ShUtdown Min Ambient

Also see discusslon in Section 2.1.12 100 OF db/T77F wb coincideant

80 OF wb non-colncident

-100F

Temp (1% Exceedance)

2.1.5

Rx Thermal Power Max Ambient Temp (0% Exceedance)

115 *F db/80 *F wb coincident

2.1.8

Rx Thermal Power Max Wet Bulb Temp (0% Exceedance) Rx Thermal Power Min Ambient Temp (0% Exceedance)

81 0F wb non-coincient

2.1.7

-40OF

22

Blowdown Pond Acreage

24 Ir blowdown

2.3

CondensedHeat Exchanger Duty

7.54E9 Btuihr

2.6

Maximnum Inlet Temp Condenser/Heat Exchanger Mech Draft Cooling Towers Acreage 2.7.1

Also see discussion In Section 2.1.12

2.7

916F

25 acres

2.7.3

Approach Temperature

10 OF

2.7.4

Slowdown Constituents and Concentfraons

See Section 2.2.3.1.3

2.7.5

Blowdown Flow Rate (CIrc and

2.7.8

Blowdown Temperature (Circ and Service Water)

100 F

27.7

25.2 F

2.7.8

Coollng Tower Temperature Range Cooling Water Flow Rate

2.7.9

Cycles of Concentration

4

000 (24,500 max) gpm

Service Water)

Page 28 of Sl

600,000 gpm (nominal)

APP-0004.X-001-R3.doc

APP-O0OO-XI-O01 Revision 3

(Value)

Structure. System, Component 2.7.10

Evaporation Rate Service Water)

(Circulating and

15.000 gpm

7.54E9 Btu/hr

2.7.12

Heat Rejection Rate

2.7.13

Height

2.7,15

Makeup Flow Rate (Circulating and Service Water)

17.16

Maximum Consumption of Raw Water (Circulating and Service Water)

30.000 gpm

2.7.17

Monthly Average Consumption of Raw Water (Circulating and

21,000 gpm

60 ft .21,000 gpm

Service Water)

2.8

2.7.18

Noise

55 dba at 1000 f4

2.7.22

Stored Water Volume

7,000.000 gal Also see discussion In Section 2.1.1.2 2.3 acres without basin 101F

Natural Draft Cooling Towers Acreage 2.8.1 2.8.2

Approach Temperature

2.8.3

Blowdown Constituents and Concentrations

See Section 2.2.3.1.3

2.8.4

Blowdown Flow Rate (Circ and ; ServiceWater)

6.000 (24,500 m) gpm

2.8.5

Blowdown Temperature (Circ and Service Water)

100 OF

2.8.6

Cooling Tower Temperature Range

252OF

2.8.7

Cooling Water Flow Rate

600,000 gpm ,

2.8.8

Cycles of Concentration

4

2.8.9

Evaporation Rate (Circulating and Ser.oe Water)

15.000 gpm

2.8.11

Heat Rejection Rate

7.54E9 Btulhr

2.8.12

Height

500 ft

2.8.14

Makeup Flow Rate (Circulating

21.000 gpm

and Service Water) Maximum Consumption of Raw

30,000 gpm

2.8.16

Monthly Average Consumption of

21,000 gpm

2.8.17

Norse

55 dba at 1000 ft

2.8-20

Stored Water Volume

5.500.000 gal

2.8.15

Water (Crculating and Service Watep Raw Water (Circulating and Service Water)

Page 29 of 51 APP-OOOO-X1-001-R3.doc

APP-0000-XI--001 3

Revision

Studure, System, Component 2.9

2.10

Once-Through Cooling Cooling Water Discharge 2.9.1 Temperature

(Value) Also see discussion in Section 2.1.1.2 88 OF

2.9.2

Cooling Wafer Flow Rate

850,000 gpm

2.9.3

Cooling Water Temperature Rise

18 OF

2.9.4

Evaporation Rate

14.500 gpm

2.9.5

Heat Rejection Rate

7.7629 Btubhr. See Sections 2.1.1.2.

Ponds 2.10.1

Acreage

Also see discussion In Section 2.1.1.2 Site Specifi

2.10.2

Slowdown Constituents and Concentrations

See Section 22.3.1.3

2.10.3

Blowdown Flow Rate

Site Specific

2.10.4

Slowdown Temperature

S4t Specific

2.10.5

Cooling Pond Temperature Range

2.10.6

Cooling Water Flow Rate

2.10.7

Cycles of Concentration

2.10.8

Evaporation Rate

Site Specific site Specfi Site Specific site Specific

2.10.9

Heat Rejection Rate

7.54E9 Btu/hr

2.10.10

Makeup Flow Rate

Site Specific

2.10.11

Maximum Consumption of Raw Water Monthly Average Consumption of Raw Water

Site Specific

Stored Water Volume

Site Specific

2.10.12 2.10.13

SAiSpecili.

3.

Ultimate Heat Sink

None. See Section 21.1.2

4.

Containment Heat Removal System (Post-Acddent) Ambient Air Requirements 4.1 Maximum Ambient Air 4.1.1 Temperature (0% Exceedance)

115 OF db/80O F wb

4.1.2

Minimum Ambient Temperature

-40 OF

(0% Exceedance) 5.

Potable Water/Sanitary Waste System Discharge to Site Water Bodies 5.2 Flow Rate 521 5.4

30,000 gal/day normal (single unit) 42,000 galday normal (twin uni) 100,000 gal/day (max)

Raw Water Requirements Maximum Use 5.4.1 5.4.2

100.000 gal/day 30,000 gal/day normal (single unit) 42.000 gal/day normal (twin unit)

Monthly Average Use

Page 30 of 51

APP-O00O.XI-OO1-R3.doc

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

(Value)

Structure, System. Component 6.

Demineralized Water System Discharge to Site Water Bodies 6.2 Flow Rate 6.2.1 6.4 Raw Water Requirements 6.4.1 Maximum Use 6.4.2

7.

8.

9.

25 expected (70 max) gpm

200 gpm 75 gpm

Monthly Average Use

Fire Protection System 7.1 Raw Water Requirements Maximum Use 7.1.1

625 gpm

7.1.2

Monthly Average Use

225,000 gaeftoo (5 gpm)

7.1.4

Stored Water Volume

775,000 gallons

Miscellaneous Drain Discharge to Site Water Bodies 8.2 Flow Rate 8.2.1

25 (50) gpm

Unit Vent/Airborne Effluent Release Point Atmospheric Dispersion (CHI/Q) (Accident) 9.1 9.1.1 0.5 mile, 0-2 hr

0.61 E-3 seckm

9.1.2

2 ille, 0-8 hr

1.35E-4 sec/m

9.1.5

2 mile, 8-24 hour

I.OE-4 secAn?

9.1.3

2 mile, 1-4day

5.4E-5 sec/rn 3

9.1.4

2 rmae, 4-30 day

2.2E-5 sec/mn

9.2

Atmospheric Dispersion (CHVQ) (Annual Average)

Site Boundary 2.0E-5 sedmO

9.3

Containment Leakage Rate

0.5%/day (+35 scth/ms line BWR only)

9.5

Dose Consequences 9.5.1 Normal

IOCFR20. IOCFR50 APP I

9.5.2 9.5.3 9.6

IOCFR -20,-50 APP I,-100

Post-Accident Severe Accidents

25 rem wb In 24 [email protected] 0.5 mi <1E-6/rx-yr

Release Point 9.6.1 Configuration (Horiz vs Vert)

Vertical

9.6.3

Elevation (Normal)

9.6.4

Elevation (Post Accident)

Ground Level

9.6.6

Minimum Distance to Site

0.5 mile

Boundary

9.7

9.6.7

Temperature

50-120 -F (estimate)

9.6.8

Volumetic Flow Rate

171. 500 SCFM (Norm)

Source Term Gaseous (Normal) 9.7.1

See Table 4

9.72

Gaseous (Post-Accident)

See Chap 15 Tables Reg Guide 1.70

9.7A4

Tritium

350 dcyr

-

Page 31 of Sl A•P-POOO-X!-001-R.doc

APP-0000-X1-001 Revision 3

(Value)

Structure, System, Component 10. Uquid Radwaste System Dose Consequences 10.1 Normal 10.1.1 10.1.2

10 CFR 50, Appendix I 10 CFR 20 10 CFR 20 10 CFR t00

Post-Accident

102

ReTease Point Flow Rate 10.2.1

1.4 gpm average

10.3

Source Term Uquid 10o:&1

0•.8 cl/yr, see Table 5

10.3.2

1010 cLvr

TnIturm

11.

Gaseous Radwaste System

12.

Solid Radwaste System Acreage 12.1 Low Level Radwaste Storage 12.1.1 12.2

Solid Radwaste 12.2.1 Act[VO

2 yea• @ expected generation rate I year @ maximum generation rate

1830 cffyr

12.2.2

Principal Radionudides

See Table 1

12.2.3

Volume

1984 cu ftyr avg expected shipped

13.

Reactor Coolant System

14.

RCS Cleanup System

15.

CVCS Letdown Subsystem

1.

CVCS Purification Subsystem

17. CVCS Shim/Bleed Subsystem 18.

Spent Fuel Storage Spent Fuel Dry Storage 18.3 Acreage 18.3.1

15 acres

18.3.2

Minimum Distance to Nearest• Residence

3500 ft

18.3.3

Minimum Distance to Power Block

1500-2200 It

18.3.4

Storage Capacity

S0 years dry storage

19. Steam Generator Blowdown System 20.

Standby-Gas Treatment System

21.

Auxilary Boler System Exhaust Elevation 21.1 21.2

Flue Gas Effluents

See Table 2

21.3

Fuel 21.32

No. 2

21.4 22.

150 ft above plant grade

Type

158,000.000 Btulhr

Heat Input Rate (Btuihi)

Condensate Cleanup System

Page 32 of 51 APF-0000-XIOO1I-R3.doc

APP-0000-XI-001

Revision 3

(Value)

Structure, System, Component 23.

Gas Storage System

24.

Heating, Ventiation and Air Conditioning System 24.1 Ambient Air Requirements 24.1.2 Non-safety HVAC max ambient temp (1% Exceedance) 24.1.3

Non-safety HVAC min imbient

100 OF db/77 OF wb coincident

-10 OF

temp (1%Exceedance) 24.1.4

Safety HVAC max ambient temp

115 OF db/B0 OF wb coincident

(0% Exceedance) 24.1.5

Safety HVAC min ambient temp (0% Exceedence)

24.1.6

Vent System max ambient temp

(5% Exceedance) (1% Exceedance) 24.1.7

25.

95 OF dry bulbIT7 F coincident wet bulb 100 OF dbf77 OF wb coincident

Vent System min ambient temp (5% Exceedance)

-5 F

(1% Exceednce)

-10 OF

OnsltelOffs'de Electrical Power System

25.1

Acreage 25.1.1

25.3 26.



-40 OF

Switchyard

12 acres

Duty Cycles

35 peak-to-peak per day

Standby Power System 26.1 Diesel Capacity Md/V)

2 x 4000 kW

25.2

Diesel Exhaust Elevation

50ft

26.3

Diesel Flue Gas Effluents

See Table 3

26.4

Diesel Fuel 26.4.1 Resupply Time

7 days

26.4.2

No. 2 ON Per ASTM D 975

Type

26.5

Diesel Noise

55 dba at 1000 ft

26.6

Gas-Turbine Capacity MW)

None

26.7

Gas-Turbine Exhaust Elevation

None

26.8

Gas-Turbine Flue Gas Effluents

None

26.9

Gas-Turbine Fuel 26,9.2 Type

None

26.10

Gas-Turbine Noise

.

27.

Severe Accident Features

28.

Plant Characteristics 28.1 Access Routes 28.1.3 Heavy Haul Routes 28.1.5 282

None

4 acres

Spent Fuel Cask Weight

100 tons

27 acres

Acreage

Page 33 ofSl5 APP-OOOO-XI01-0!-3.doc

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

(Value)

Structure. System. Component 28.4

Megawatts - Thermal

3415 MWL

28.5

Plant Design Life

60years

28.6

Plant Population 28.6.1 Operation

About 300. See Section 2.32

28.8.2 28.9 29.

1000 p

Refueling'

-

leoi

-

93%

Station Capacity Factor

Construction Access Routes 29.1 Constnxcon Module Dimensions 29.1.1 Shipping Dimensions (it) Reactor Vessel

22 (Dia) x 34 (L)

Steam Generator

20 (Dia) x 804)

Turbine Rotor

IS (DIa)x 29 (L)

Generator Stator

18 (Dia) x 40()N 12(H) x 12(M x80(L) 90(1) x 82CM x 93 or

Modules by Rai Modules by Barge

1300a)x 51(H) 29.1.2

Heaviest Construction Shipment

Heaviest Shipment Weight Reactor Vessel

652.000 lbs

Steam Generator

1.464.000 lbs 350,000 lbs

Turbine Rotor

29.2

Generator Stator

1,020.000 lbs

Modules by Rail

160,000 lbs.

29.22 29.3 29A 29.5

1,900,000 lbs.

Modules by Barge Acreage Laydown Area 29.2.1

10 acres

Temporary Construction Fac'ltes

2.38 acres

Construction Noise 29.3.6

78-101 db @ 50 ft

Plant Population Construction 29.4.1

1200 monthly maxdmum

Site Preparation Duration

18 months with construction and test of 4 to 5 years

Page 34 of 51

APP.0000-Xl.001-R3.doe

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

Table 1.. Principal Radionuclides in Solid Radwaste' Radlonuclide

PWR (Clyr)

Fe-55

311.488

Fe-59

Co-60

287.256

Mn-54

22.428

Cr-51

0.29151

CO-58

62.289

NI-63 H1-3

316.386

C-14

0.285

Nb-95

0.3233

Ag-110m

0.04604

Zr-95

0.07163

Ba-140

0.08725

Pu-241

0.114027

La-140

0.04011

Other

29.982

1.6057

Total (rounded to nearest hundred) Notes: (1) See PPE Section 12.2.2

j.r¸

1100

Page 35 ofSl APP-OOOO.-XI-0O0 I-R3.doe

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

Table 2 Yearly Emissions Auxiliary Boilers' Pollutant

2

Dlscharged.

-

APSO0

Quantity (Ibs)

Particulates

17,250

Sulfur oxides

51,750

Carbon monoxide 50,100

Hydrocarbons Nitrogen oxides

Notes: (1) See PPE Section 21.2. (2) Emissions are based on 30 days/year operation for each of the generators.

Page 36 of 51 APP-0000-XI-00l-R3.doc

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

Table 3 Yearly Emissions From Diesel Generators (DG) 1 kW Two 4000DGS

Pollutant

Discharged2

Standby

Two 35 kW

Ancillary DG~s

22

Sulfur Oxides

2 Ibs)Quantity2 (Ibs) Quantty <10 <800 <5 <2,500.

Carbon Monoxide


<30

<600

<11

<12,000

<140,

Particulates

Hydrocarbons Nitrogen oxides

Notes: (1) See PPE Section 26.3. (2) Emissions are based on 4 hrs/month operation for each of the generators.

Page 37 of 51 APP-0000-X !-001 -R3.doc

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

Table 4 EXPECTED ANNUAL AVERAGE RELEASE OF AIORNE• RADIONUCLIDES AS DETERMINED BY THE PWR-GALE CODE, REVISION I (RELEASE RATES IN Ci/yr) Building/Area Ventilation Noble Gases")

Waste Gas System

Cont.

Auxiliary Building

Thrbine Building

Condenser Air Removal System

Total

Kr-85m

0.

3.0E+01

4.0E+00

0.

2.OE+00

3.6E+01

Kr-85

1.65E3+02

2.4E+03

2.9E+01

0.

1.4E+01

4.IE+03

Kr-87

0.

9.0E+00

4.0E+00

0.

2.0E+00

1.51E+01

Kr-S8

0.

3.4E-+0l

8.03+00

0.

4.0E+00

4.6E+Oi

Xe-131m

1.42E+02

1.6E+03

2.3E+01

0.

1.1E+01

1.8E+03

Xe-133m

0.

8.5E+01

2.0E+00

0.

0.

8.7E+01

Xe-133

3.OE4-0l

4.5E+03

7.6E+01

0.

3.6E+01

4.61+03

Xe-135m

0.

2.0E1+00

3.0E4-0

0.

2.OE+O0

7.0E+00

Xe-135

0.

3.0E+02

2.3E+01

0.

1.IE+01

3.3E402

Xe-138

0.

1.0E400.

3.0E+00

0.

2.0E+00

6.OE+00

Total

I.IE+04

Additionally: H-3 released via gaseous pathway C.-14 released via gaseous pathway

350 7.3 7.3

m

Ar-41 releasd! via containment vent

34 Building/Area Ventilation Turbine Building

Condenser Air Removal System

Total

1.IE-01

0.

0.

1.2E-01

3.8E-01

2.01-04

0.

4.OE-01

IodinesO')

Fuel Handling AreaM

Cont.

Auxiliary Building

1-131

4.5E-03

2.3E-03

1-133

1.6E-02

5.5E-03

Building/Area Ventilation Radionuclide('

Waste Gas System

Cont.

Auxiliary Building

Fuel Handling Area(

Total

Cr-51

1.4E-05

9.2E-05

3.2E-04

1.8E-04

6.1E-04

Mn-54

2.1E-06

5.3E-05

7.8E-05

3.0E-04

4.3E-04

~c6)

Page 38 of 51 APP-0000-XI-00!-R3.doc

APP-0000-X1-001 Revision 3 Co-57

0.

8.2E-06

0.

0.

8.2E-06

Co-f8

8.7E-06

2.5E-04

1.9E-03

2.ME-02

2.3E-02

CO-60

!.4E-05

2.6E-05.

5.IE-04

.2E-03

8.7E-03

Fe-59

I.8E-06

2.7E-05

5.0E-05

0.

7.9E-05

Sr-89

4.4E-05

1.3E-04

7.5E-04

2.1)-03

3.01-03

Sr-90

1.7E-05

522-05

2.9E-04

8.0E-04

1.2E-03

Zr-95

4.8E-06

0.

1.0E-03

3.6E-06

1.0E-03

Nb-95

3.7E-06

1.8-05"

3.02-05

2.4E-03

2.5E-03

Ru-103

32.E-06

1.6E-05

21.3-05

3.8E-05

8.0"-05

Ru-106

2.7E-06

0.

6.06-06

6.9E-05

7.8E-05

Sb-125

0.

0.

3.9E-06

5.7E-05

6.1E-05

Cs-134

3.3E-05

2.5E-05

5.4E-04

1.7E-03

2.3E-03

Cs-136

5.3E-06

3j.E-05

4.&P-05

0.

9.5E-05

Cs-137

7.7E-05

5.5&-05

7.2E-04

Ba-140

2.3E-05

0.

4.0E-04.

0.

4.2E-04

Ce-141

2.2E-06

1.3E-05

2.6E-05

4.4E-07

4.1E-05

N~ots:..

32.FE-03 .603

..

I. The appearance of 0. in the table indicates less than 1.0 Ci/yr for noble gas or less than 0.0001 Ci/yr for iodine. For particulates, release Is not observed and assumed less than I percent of the total particulate releases. 2.. The fuel handling area is within the auxiliary building but is considered separately.

Page 39 of 51 APP-OOOO-XI.OO-R3doe

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

Table 5 RELEASES TO DISCHARGE CANAL (CI/YR) CALCULATED BY GALE

'~zc)

CODE Nucllde

Shim Bleed

TIrbine lBuilding

Misc. Wastes.

Combined Releases

Total Releases(*

0.00061

0.00163

0.00070

0.00183 0.00130 0.00100 .0.00020 0.00336 0.00044 0.00041 0.00013 0.00024

Corrosion and Activatioin Products

Na-24

0.00053

Cr-51

0.00068 0.00048 0.00037 0.00008

MN-54 Fe-5S Fe-59 Co-58 Co-60 Zn-65 W-187 Np-239 Br-34 Rb-88 Sr-89 Sr-90 Sr-91 ýY-91m Y-93 z,-95 Nb-.9g5 Mo-99 TC-99m Ru-103 Rh-103m Ru-106 R11-'06 Ag- 1l 0m Ag-t10 Te-129m

0.00125 0.00016 0.00015 0.00004 0.00008 0.00001 0.00010 0.00004 0.0 0.00001 0.0 0.00003 0.00010 0.00009 0.00028 0.00027 0.00183 0.00183 0.02729 0.02729 0.00039 0.00005 0.00004

To-1290.00006

Te-131m To-131 1-131 Te-132 1-132 1-133 1-134 Cs-134 1-135

0.00003 0.00001 0.00512 0.00009 0.00054 0.00211 0.00030 0.00370 0.00144

0.00008

(

0.0 .0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00001 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Fission Products 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 ',0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -, 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 .

.

.

0.00001

0.0 0.0 0.00001 0.00001 0.00011 0.00011 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00004 0.0 0.00001 0.00003 0.0 0.00001 0.00002

0.00001 0.00002 0.00002 0.00021 0.00021 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00015 0.0 0.00007 0.00033 0.0 ' 0.00002 0.00041 1

0.00049 0.00037 0.00008 0.00126 0.00017 0.00015 0.00005 0.00009 0.00001 0.00010 0.00004 0.00001 0.00001 0.00002 o0.00005 0.00005 0.00013 0.00013 0.00185 0.00185 0.02761 0.02761 0.00039 0.00005 0.00005 0.00006 0.00003 0.00001 0.00531 0.00009 0.00062 0.00252 0.00031 0.00373 0.00137

0.00002 0.00027 0.00010 0.00001 0.00002 0.00001 0.00009 0.00023 0.00021 0.00057 0.00055 0.00493 0.00493 0.07352 0.07352 0.00105 0.00014 0.00012 0.00015 0.00009 0.00003 0.01413 0.00024 0.00164 0.00670 0.00081 0.00993 0.00497

Page 40 of 51 APP-0000-XI.001-R3.doc

f ; I

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

Table 5 RELEASES TO DISCHARGE CANAL (CI/YR) CALCULATED BY GALE CODE Shim Bleed

Nuclide

Combined

Misc. Wastes

Building

Releases

Total Releases")

60.0 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.00002 0.0 0.0 0.0. 0.0

0.0 0.00003 0.00002 0.00003 0.00005 0.0 0.00001 0.0 0.00001

.•00024 0.00500 0.00468 0.00207 0.00279 0.00004 0.00007 .0.00005 0.00119

°0.00063 0.01332 0.01245 0.00552 0.00743 0.00009 0.00019 0.00013

0.00023 0.00496 0.00464 0.00203 0.00272 0.00003 0.00006. 0.00005. 0.00117 1

Cs-136 Cs-137 Ba-137m Ba-140 La-140 Ce-141 Ce-143 Pr-143

Ce-1,4 Pr-144 All others Total' (except tritium )

Turbine

.0.00117

_

0.00001 0.09398-1. , _•

,.

,

0 .00001 . 0.09623 . . . . . .. _ _,,____ _.

0.0 0.00182

0.00043 .... .. __

___. _____...

.

...

1.010 curies per year

Tritlum release

0.00316 0.00316

,.

:0V.00119

0.00001.,

0.0 - 0.0

, .

__..

. ,_....

__..

0.00002 0.25623 . .. . ..

Notes: 1. The release totals include an adjustment of 0.16 Cityr added by PWR-GALE code to' account for anticipated operational occurrences such as operator errors that result in unplanned releases. 2. An entry of 0.0 indicates that the value Is less than 10-5 Ci/yr.



.

•.

. •

.

:

,.

.

. .

,.-A-

lige 41 of 51 APP-0000-XI-00l-3.doC t

APP-00 0-X1-001 Revision 3

SITE'RELATED COMBINED LICENSE.

INFORMATION ITEMS This section provides a listing of the Combined License (COL) information items identified in the AP1000 Design Control Document (DCD) that are site related. The 'AP 1000 DCD (APP-GW-GL-700) includes identification of information items which must be provided to NRC during a COL application process. In addition to the site related items listed below there are items are related to additional detail in the plant design and to the COL applicant's organization information. It is important for a COL applicant to plan for the submittal of required site related COL information items and include planning for data acquisition in the Early Site Permit process. The following information items and their referenced DCD sections are site related and should be acknowledged during Early Site permit planning.

Item Number 2.1-1

Subject Geography and Demography

DCD Subsection 2.1.1

Combined License applicants referencing the APIOOO certified design will provide site-specific information related to site location and description,

exclusion area authority and control, and population distibution. Site In-fonation- Ste-speci infomnnaton on tie site and its location will include political subdivisions, natural and nman-made features, population, highways, •raa waterways, and other significant features of the =e Exclusion Area- Sie-specific information on the exclusion area will include the size of Ot aea and the exclusion area authority and control. Activity that may be penmittd within the exclusion area will be Included in the discussion. Population Distribution - Site-spefic information will be included on population distribution.

2.2-1

Identification of Site-specific Potential Hazards

2.2.1

Combined 11cense appr ts rcferncing the APIOW0 ctied demign wig provide site-specific formation related to the idenification of potential hazards within the site vicinity, including an evaluation of potential acciddas and 'bcrlfy that the fiequcncy of siWspecii potential hazards is consistat with the criteria outlined In Section 2. The si-specfic inifrmaon wHiprovide a review of aicraft hazards inbrnation on nearby transportation routes, and information on potenial Industrial and military hazars.[

Page 42 ofS! APP-0000-XI-00l-R3.doc

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

2.3-1

Regional Climatology

2.3.6.1

Combined License applicants referencing the API 000 certifled dcsignwill address site-specific infonmation related to regionalcldnatology.

2.3-2

Local Meteorology

2.3.6.2

Combined License applicants rcfrnfc

the API 000 certificd design will

address: site-pecific local mecteorology information

2.3-3

Onsite Meteorological Measurements Program

2.3.6.3

Combined ULcese applicants rferencing the APIOOO ocrie design will address the slte~pecific onsit metorological measurements program.

2.3-4

Short-Term Diffusion Estimates

2.3.6.4

Combined Ucensea pplicas= referenocng he APIO00 certified &sign will addr the site-speciic WQ values specified in subsection 2.3.4.For a site sclected that exceeds the boundlngX/Q value the Combined License applicant will address how the radiological consequences associatd th the controlli design basis accident contih to meet die dose refnce'Qvalues given in I (R Part 50.34 and control room operator dosec lirmits given in General Design Critcria 19 using sltc-spccficX(Q values. Th Combined iUcense applicant should • consider topographical daracter, ,cs Inth vicnity ofth s•t for restrictions of horizontat and'or vertical plumespread, cumnneling or other changes jn airflow ftr tories, and other unusual o diton affecting at-osphcric transport and diffusion between the source and receptor. No fither action h required for sites within the bounds of the site paramcters fio atmospheric dispersion

2.3-5

Long-Term Diffusion Estim•aes

2.3.6.5

Combined UIese applicants referencing the APIOOOcet•fied design will

addres long-tam difforion estimates andXIQ valueis spec~ifd in subsection 2.3.5. Th Combined Ucense applicant hould consider topographical chaacteristics in the vicinity ofthe site for restricti6s ofborizont andWor vertical plume spread, dhanmeling or other changes in airflow trajectorie and

other unusual conditions: affecting amiospherle trarmiso and diftlso'nbetweeni the souroc an rd•eptors. No fhuthr action Isrequired for sites within the bounds. of th site pwaamemtr 1ibatmospheric disp•rson.

2.4-1

Hydrological Description

2.4.1.1

Combined License applicants referecing the APIOOO certified dsgnwuil describc major hydrologic features an or in the vicinity ofthe site Including critical ckvsato offic audear bland and access rutes to the plant.,

2.4-2

Floods

.

2.4.1.2

Combined Uccnsc applicants rcfrencing the API000 ecrtficd dcsignwll address the following ske-specflc, lbomation onhsWtocal looding and potential flooding ftctors. Including the effect of local intense precipitation. 0

Probable Maximum Flood on Stream and Rivers - Sitespecific information that will be used to deteminc the design basis flooding at the site. This informaion will Include the probable maximum flood on streUas and

Page 43 of5l APP-0000.X1-001-R3.doc

APP-0000-XI-001

R•vision 3 river. .

Dam Failures - Site-specific Information on potential dam failures. Probable Maximum Surge and Seiche Flooding - Sitespecific information on probable maximum surge and sicl'eflooidlng. Probable Maximum Tsunami Loading - Slit-specific Information on probable maximum tsunami loading. Flood Protection Requirements - Site-specifli information on flood protection requiremcnts or verification that flood protection is not required to meet the site parameter for flood levd.

No fiuther action is required for sidts within the bounds of the site paramte fio flood level.

2.4-3

2.4.1.3

Cooling Water Supply Combined Lice= applicants will address dte water supply sources to provide makeup water to the serice wae system cooling towe.

2.4-4

2.4.1.4

Groundwater applicants referening the APO000 certifid design will Combined lic address sltespecific informaioon on groundwater. No fuather action Is required for sites within the bounds of the site parameter for ground watr.

2.4-5

Site Effects of Accidental Release of Liquid Effluents in Ground and Surface Water

2A.1.5

Combined License applicants reerenin the API 000 cerified dsign will address site-specific Intrmation on the abilty of the ground and surface water to d'spe•sc, dilute, or concentrate accidenta releases of liquid effluents. Effects of these icleases on existing and known future use ofsurface water rources will also be addressed.

2.4-6

Flood Protection Emergency Operation Procedures

:2.4.1.6

Combined License applicants referencing the AP 000 certified dcsign will address any flood protection emergency procedures required to meet the site parmnter for flood leve.

2.5-1

Basic Geologic and Seismic Information

2.5.1

Combined lIcense applicants referencing the API000 crtified design will address the following sitc-specific geologic and scismic infotmation *

* *

Regional and site physiography

* Oeomorphology Strafigraphy Lithology

Page 44of 51 APP-0000-XI-001-R3.doe

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3 S *

Structural geology Tectonics

seismicity

2.5-2

Site Seismic and Tectonic Characteristic Information

2.5.2.1

Combined License applicants reftrencing the APIOOO certified design will address the following site-specific information related to seismic and tectonic characteristics ofthe site and region: avity.with geologic striucture or Coerelatin ofCazthqunkc6

tectonic provinces

Maximum earthquake potential Seismic WM• tnmissio characteristics of the site

Safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) ground response spectra The Combined License applicant must demonstrate that the proposed site meets the following requirements: fiedpeak goudacctclrat'ion at thefond'ationlevelIis 'The Avee

less than or equal to aO30g safe shutdown earthquake..

The site design response spectra at the foundation level in the free. field are less than or equal to those givcn In Figures 3.7.1-1 and 3.7.1-2.

2.5-3

2.5.3

Surfaice Faulting Combined Lc= applicants referencing the API000 certified deslgnwill address surface and subsurface geological and geophysical irdnmatio Including the potential for surfac or near-surface fdlting affecting tie site.

2.5-4

2.5.4.6.1

Site and Structures Site and Striuý -Site-specific Information regarding the underlying site conditions and geologic features il be addressed. This infomton will Include site topographical &kaures, bs will as the locaions of seismic C.. ategoiy'l t

2.5-5

Properties of Underlying Materials

2.5.4.6.2

The Combined Uccs applicanrt will establish the properties oftlictfoundation' soils to be within the range considered for design of the nuclear island basemat Properties of Underlying Materials--A determýiion 9f6th static and dynanmic Iextt, . ins I rmation will incliucda disýcuionof thc typequantity. addressed. and purpose .1offield exploýios asiwell as-logs'oflborings and tes pits. Resuts of field plate load tests, field pentmability ests, and othe special field tests (€.g'g, bore-hole extensoteter orpressuremeter tests) will also be provided. Results of . Sgeophysical surveys will be presented intables and profiles. Data vy.be provided pertaining to site-specific soil layers (including ftirthiccnesse th basema and the umderying densidtes, modulL, and Poisson's ratios) b be pridd... pro Plot p rk

Page 45 of 51 APP-0000-XI-O0-Rl.doc

APP-OOOO.XI-O01 Revision 3 Labortory Investigations ofUndrlyin Materials - Information about the number and type of laboratory tests and tde location of samples used to investigate underlying marids will be provid•c Discussion ofthe results of laboratory tests on disturbed and undisturbed soil and rock samples obtained flora field Investigations will be provided.

2.5-6

Excavation and Backfill

2.5.4.6.3

Excavation and Backfill - Information concerning the extent (horizontal and vertical) of seismic Category excavations, fills, and slopes, if ay will be addressed. The sources, quantities, and static and dynamic engineering properties of borrow materials will be described In the site-specifac application. The compaction requirements, results of field compaction tests, and fill material properties (such as moisture content, density. pnrncability compressibility, and gradation) will also be provided. Information will be provided concerning the specific soil retention system. 1br example, the soll nailing system, including the length and sie of the soil nails, which is based on actual soil conditions and applied construction surcharge loads. Information will also be provided on die waterproofing system along the vertical face and the rnudmat.

2.5-7

Ground Water Conditions

2.5.4.6.4

Ground Water Conditions - Groundwater conditions will be dscribed relative to the foundation stability of the safet-related structures at the site. The soil propertics-of the various layers uwder possible groundwater conditions during the life of the plant will be compared to die range of values issumed Int standard design in Table 2-1 of fe DCD.

2.5-8

Response of Soil and Rock to Dynamic Loading

2.5.4.6.5

Response of Soil amd Rock to Dynamic Loading- The Combined Ucense applicant will establish the dynamic charactristics of the soil and rock to be used in the soil structure Interaction analyses and the foundation design for soi -l shes. For rock sites the dynamic caractristic. will be compared to the assumptions made Inthe standard design regarding the variation of shear wave velocity and material damnping.

2.5-9

2.5.4.6.6

Liquifaction Potential Liquefacin Potential- Soils under and around scismic Category I structures will be evaluated for liquefaction potential for the s specific SSE ground motn. This should intludejusfication ofthe slcion ofthe soil pres as well as the magnitude, durat, anud nmber ofexciatl6n cycles of the earthquake used in th, liquefaction lotental cvaluafion (e.g-, laboratory tests, field tests, and published data). Lquefaction potential will also be evaluated to address seismic margin.

2.5-10

2.5.4.6.7

Bearing Capacity Bearing Capacity - The Combined Ucense applicant will verify that the sitespecific sol staft bearing'capacity Isequal to or greater than the value documented m TableaZ ofthe DCD. The Combined License applicant will verl* tha the dymnkrCsite-specific bearing capaitly Isequal or greater than the scismic bearing demand.

2.5-11

2.5.4.6.8

Earth Pressures Earth Pressures- Te Cormnbin Ucense applicamt will describe the design for static and dynamic feral earth prssunrs and hydrostatic groundwater

Page 46 of 51 APP-OOO0-XI-00 -R3.doc

APP-OO00-XI-001 Revision 3 pressures acting on plant safety-related facilities using soil parameters as. evaluated in previous subsections.

2.5-12

2.5.4.6.10

Static and Dynamic Stability of Facilities Static and Dynamic Stability of Facilities- Soil characteristics affecting the stability of the nuclear island will be addressed Including foumdation reboumd. setllement, and differenial settlement.

2.5-14

2.5.5

Stability of Slopes Combined License applicants retfrncing te APIOOO defsvig

address site-

specific Information about the static and dynamic stability of soil and rock slopes, the failure ofwhich could adversely affiect the nuclear island.

2.5-15

2.5.6

Embankments and Dams Combined License applicants tefrencing the APIODO design will address stcspecific information about the static and dynamic stability ofcmbankments and damns the failure of which could adversely affect the nuclear Island.

3.3-1

Wind and Tornado Site Interface Criteria

.3.3.3

Combined Ucense applicants referencing the AFIO0O certified design will address site hntef= c ria for wind and tornado.

3.4-1

Site-Specific Flooding Hazards Protective Measures

3.4.3

The Combined License applicant will demonstrate that the site satisfies the interface requirements as described In Section 2.4 of the DCD. If these criteria cannot be satised because ofsltc4spcifio flooding hazards, the Combined Licens applicant may propose protective measures as discussed in Section 2.4 ofthe DCD.

3.5-1

External Missile Protection Requirements

3.5.4

The Combined Ucense applicant will deinonstrate that the site satisfies the interface requirements provided In Section 2.2 of the DCD. This requires an evaluation for those external events ihat produce missiles that are more energetic than the tornado missiles postulated for design Ofthe APIOO. or additional analyses of the API000 capability to handle the specific hazard.

3.7-1

Seismic Analysis of Dams

'3.7.5.1

Combined Li cnse applicants referencing the AP 1000 eitf.cd design will evaluate dams whose failure could affect the site Interface flood kvel specified in subsectIon 2.4.1.2eoftlhe DCD. The evaluation ofthc safty ofexisting and new dams will arie the ste-specific safe shlutdown earthquak.

6.4-1

Local Toxic Gas Service and Monitoring

6.4.7

Combined Ucnse aplicants rcferecingthe ýAPlO00 certified design are

rsponsiblc for the amount and location ofpossible sources oftoxic chemicals in or nea theplant and girseismic Categry1 Class!E toxic gas monrtohgas requiaed. Regulatory Guides 1.78 and 1.95 address control room protection

for toxic chemicals, and for evaluating offsite toxic ieleascs (including the

potential for toxic rcleases beyond 72 hours).In accordance with the guidelines of Regulatory Gludes 1,78 and 1.95 In order to meet the requirements of TMI

Page 47 of SI APP-000-XlIOMl-R3.doc

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3 Action Plan It=m In.D3A and GDC 19. Combined Ucense applicants re.rencing the API000 certified design are responsible for vcrif•$g that procedures and training for control mom habitability are consistent with the intaet of Generic Issue 33 (see Section 1.9 ofthe DCD)

8.2-1

Offsite Electrical Power

8.2.5

Combined Licen.e applicants referencingthe API000 certified degn will address the design of the ac power transmission system and Its testing and Inspection plan.

8.2-2

Plant/Site Technical Interfaces

8.2.5

The Combined License applicant win address the technical interfices for this nonsafty-related system listed In Table 1.3-I and subsection 8.Z2. These technical intrhces Include those for ac power requiremcnts from offsiie and the analysis ofthe offsite transmission system and the setting ofprotective

devices.

8.3-1

Onsite (Grounding and Lightning) Electrical Power

8.3.3

Combined License appilcanls referencing the APIOO1certifed design will address the design of groundinLknd lightning protection. The Combined License applicant idil e•tablish plant procedures as required for: 6 Clearing ground fault on the ClasslE de system 0

Checkng sulfated battery plates or other anomalous conditions through periodic inspections



Battery maintenance and survelllanc

surveillance requfiemnt Section 3.8) 0

refl

(for battery

to DCI Chapter 16,

Periodic testing ofpenetration protective devices Diesel generator operation, inspection, and maintenance In accordance with manuheturers' recommendations.

9.5-2

Fire Protection Analysis Information on Adjacent Structures

9.5.1.8

The Combined License applicant will address qualification requirements for individuals responsible for development of the fire protection pr6gram. training offlreflghfing personnl, administrative procedures and controls governing tha

fire potwc*

malziteac.

programn during plant opertimn, and Jim protection system

The Combined License applicant will provide site-specifbi flre protection analysis information for the yard area, the administration building, and for other outlying buildinp consistent with Appendix 9A ofthe DCD.

Tim Combined License applicant will address BT? CMEB 9.5-1 issues Identified in Table 9.5.1-1 of the DCD3 by the acroym WA.' The Combined License applicant will address updating the list ofNFPA exceptions after design cetiicfltlon, if necessary. The Combined Llccnse applicant will provide an analysis that demonstrates that operator actiom which minimize the probability ofthe potential for spurious ADS actuation as aresuktof &fire can be accomplished within 30

Page 48 of 51 APP-O0000X1-001-k13doc

APP-0000-XI-001

Revision 3 minutes following detection of the fim

9.5-9

Cathodic Protection of External Tanks

9.5.4.7

Combined License applicants rcferencing the APIOOO certified design %%ill address the sitc-specific nced for cathodic protection in accordance with NACE Standard l.P-0 1-69 for external metal surfaces of Metal tanks in contact with the ground. Combined Licnse applicants referencing the APIO0C certified design will address sit-spedfic factors in the fme oi storage tank instaltion specification to reduce fti effects of sun beat Input Into the stored fel, the diesel fuelspecifications grade and the fuel properties consistent with manuwurer recommendations, and will addres measures to protect against fbel delgadatlon by a program of fuel sampling and testing.

10.4-1

Circulating Water Supply

10.4.12.1

Te Combined License applicant witl address the final configuration of the plant circulating water system Including piping design pressure, the cooling tower or other site-specific heat sink.

As applicable, thi Combined Uicense ap-plicant will adesthe acceptable

i ange the specific chemical selektd for use, In the Laglier or Stability CWS water chemistry control, pH adjuster, coriosion inhibltor, scale inhibitor, dispersant, algicide and blocide applications reflecting potential variations in. site water chemistry and in micro macro biological lifefoms. Abiocide such as sodium hypochorite is recommended. Toxic gases such as chlorine amrnot recommended. The Impact of toxic gases on the main control room I). . compatibility it addressed in Section 6A ofh DCt

10.4-3

Potable Water Biocide

10.4.12.3

The Combined 1cense applicant wilt address the specific biocide. A biocide such as sodium hypoehtorite Is recommecded. Toxic gases such as chlorine ar not recommended. The impact of toxic gascs on the main control room compatibility Is addressed in Section 6.4 ofthe DC).

11.2-1

Liquid Radwaste Processing by Mobile Equipment

11.2.5.1

The Combined Lcense applicant wilg discuss how any mobile or temponuy equipment used for storing or processing liquid radwaste conforms to Regulatory GOide 1.143. For eixample, this Includes discussion of equipment containing radioactive liquid irad%%astc In the nonseisnilc Radwaste Building.

11.2-2

Cost Benefit Analysis of Population Doses (Liquid)

11.2.5.2

The analysis perfonmed to detemine bflsite dosc due to liquid effluents Is based upon the APIODO generic site parameters included in Chapter I and Tables I 1.2- and 11.2.6 of the DCI". The Combined License applicant will provide a she specific et-bhenefit analysis to address the requirements of 10 CFI. 5 xPp'endlx I, regarding population doses due to liquid effluents. .

11.2-4

Dilution and Control of Boric Acid Discharge

•11.2.5.4

The Combined License applicant will determinc the rate ofdl•l•harge ad the required dilution to maintain acceptable conceItrations. Ade to Section 1 .I5 of the 1361) fkr discussion gofthe program'to control reess.

discuss dhe planned iltscharge: flow rate Tie ConiviinedUcn a'pplicant Whill for borated wastes and contr61tsfor limiting the boric acid cninhtrtidon in the .OWd ''"".Water circulatigdw system

Page 49 of 51 APP-0000-X!-001-R3.doe

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3

11.3-1

Cost Benefit Analysis of Population Doses (Gas)

11.3.5.1

The analysis pertormed to determine offsite dose due to gaseous effluents Is based upon the API000 gencrio site parameters Included In Chapter I and

Tables 113-1, 113-2 and 113-4 of the DCD. The Combined License applicant will provide a site specific cost-benefit analysis to demonstraft compliance with 10 CFR 50, Appendix L regarding population doses due to gaseous effluents.

11.5-2

Effluent Monitoring and Sampling

11.5.7

The Combined License applicant will develop an oflfite dose calculation manual that contains the mcthodology and paranleters used for calculation of otfie doses resulting from pscous and liquid effluents The Combined License applicant will address operational setpotats ht to radiation monitors and add programs. for monitoring and controlling the release of radioactive material to the environment, which eliminates the potential for unmonitored and uncontrolled release. The ofibite dose calculation manual will include planned discharg flow rAtes.

The Combined License applicant Isresponsible for the s•-speci•ic and program aspects ofthe proce; and efflient monitoring and sampling per ANSI N13.1 and Regulatory Ouldes 1.21 and 4.15.

11.5-3

I0 CFR 50,Appendix 1

11.5.7

The Combined Licens applicant Is responsible for addressint the 10 CFP. A, Appendix I guidelines for maximally exposed offfite Individual doses and population doses via liquid and gaseous effluents.

13.3-2

Activation of Emergency Operations Facility

13.3.1

Combined License apIplicants .,refereneing the API 000 cerilied design will'\c address emcrgency'planning Including post-72 hour ac•tom and is communication interface. Combined Ucense applicants refrrec'lng the APIO00 certified design will address the activation of the emergency operatlons fthility consistent with current operating practice and NUREOG.0S EMA-REP-l except for a loss of offiste poweran loss of all onslt AC power. For this initiating condition, the Combined LicenGs applicant shall inmediately activate th emergency opcrationrs facility rather than bringbig it to a standbystatus. To initially and continuously assess the course of an accident thr mergncray response purposes, Combined License applicants referencing the API 000 certified design will address the capability for promptly obtalnrtng and analyzin$ grab samples of reactor coolant and containment atmosphere and sump In accordance with the pidance of Item ILB. ofNUREG-0737.

.13.6-1

Security Plans, Organization and Testing

13.6.13.1

Combined License applicants referncing the AP1OOO certified design will address site-specifc infobrmation ~latcd to the security, contingency, and guard training plans. Those plans will Include descriptions of the tests planned to show operational status, maintenance of the plant security system, the security organization, communication, and response requircmnts.. The Combined License applicant will develop the comprehensive physical security program which includes the security plan, contingency plan, id guard training plan. Each COL applicant will describe Inits physical security plan how the requirements of 10 CFR Part 26 will be met At least 60 days before loading fucL, the Combined Licen applicant will confirm that the security systemi and programs described inUtsphysical security plan, saegjuards contingency plan. and training and qualifc•on plan have achieved operational staln and am available for the stafl's inspection. Operational status means that Page 50 of Sl APP-Wooo-XI-00o-R3.doc

APP-0000-XI-001 Revision 3 the security systems and programs arm fuinctioning. The determination that operational status has been achicved will be basedon tests conducted under realistic operating conditions of sufficient duration to demonstrate that

the equipment is property operating; procedures have been developed, approved, and implemented; and personnel responsibility for security operations and maintenance have been appropriately trained and have demonstrated their capability to perform their assigned duties and responsibilities.

13.6-3

Site-Specific Security System

13.6.13.3

Combined License applicantsreferencing the API 000 certified design will address site-specific information related to the maintenance and testing of the plant security system including the intrusion detection and assessment system, the access control fatures specified in subsections 13.6.6, 13.6.7.2, and 13.6.73 of the DCD, and the vehicle barrier system. The Combined License applicant will address in its safeguards plans how the physical protection systcm will provide the protection stated in subsection 13.6.3.2 of the DCD.

14.4-5

Testing Interface Requirements

14.4.5

The combined license applicant is responsible for testing thai may be rcquired of structures and systems which arc outside the scope ofthis design certification. Test Specifications and acceptance criteria are provided by the responsible design organizations as Identified in subsection 14.23. The Interfacingsystems to be consideredfor testing We talkn fr•m Tablel.1-I and include as anininum, dhe following. stor draiss a * * * * * S

site specific seismic sensors ofisite ac power systems ccirculating water heat sink raw and saniay water systems individual equipment associded with the fire brigade portable personnel monitors and radiation survey Instruments equippment associated with the physical security plan

Page 51 of Sl APP-0000-XI -)0 I-R3.doc

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Vogtle Early Site Permit Application Environmental Reference - NRC

SNC Vogtle ESP Chapter 5 Sections 5.2 to 5.9 In• Ital Ion 5.2 • -.:: ,,ORMIXIM,i~xing.gone Applic~ati~ons,• This'page contains iifomatMoIn ...

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