VERB TENSES SIMPLE PRESENT / PRESENT CONTINUOUS 1. Every Monday, Sally (drive) drives her kids to football practice. 2. Usually, I (work) work as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I (study) I’m studying French at a language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris. 3. Shhhhh! Be quiet! John (sleep) is sleeping. 4. Don't forget to take your umbrella. It (rain) is going to rain. 5. I hate living in Seattle because it (rain, always) always rains. 6. I'm sorry I can't hear what you (say) are saying because everybody (talk) is talking so loudly. 7. Justin (write, currently) is currently a book about his adventures in Tibet. I hope he can find a good publisher when he is finished. 8. A: Do you want to come over for dinner tonight? B: Oh, I'm sorry, I can't. I (go) am going to a movie tonight with some friends. 9. The business cards (be, normally ) are normally printed by a company in New York. Their prices (be) are inexpensive, yet the quality of their work is quite good. SIMPLE PRESENT / PRESENT CONTINUOUS A Trekking Journal November 12, 1997 Today (be) is the second day of my trek around Mount Annapurna. I am exhausted and my legs (shake) are shaking; I just hope I am able to complete the trek. My feet (kill, really) are really killing me and my toes (bleed) are bleeding, but I (want, still) still want to continue. Nepal is a fascinating country, but I have a great deal to learn. Everything (be) is so different, and I (try) am trying to adapt to the new way of life here. I (learn) am learning a little bit of the language to make communication easier; unfortunately, I (learn, not) don’t learn foreign languages quickly. Although I (understand, not) don’t understand much yet, I believe that I (improve, gradually) am gradually improving. I (travel, currently) am currently travelling with Liam, a student from Leeds University in England. He (be) is a nice guy, but impatient. He (walk, always) is always walking ahead of me and (complain) (is) complaining that I am too slow. I (do) am doing my best to keep up with him, but he is younger and stronger than I am. Maybe, I am just feeling sorry for myself because I am getting old. Right now, Liam (sit) is sitting with the owner of the inn. They (discuss) are discussing the differences between life in England and life in Nepal. I (know, not) don’t know the real name of the owner, but everybody (call, just) just calls him Tam. Tam (speak) speaks English very well and he (try) is trying to teach Liam some words in Nepali. Every time Tam (say) says a new word, Liam (try) tries to repeat it. Unfortunately, Liam (seem, also) also seems to have difficulty learning foreign languages. I just hope we don't get lost and have to ask for directions. SIMPLE PAST / PAST CONTINUOUS 1. A: What (you, do) were you doing when the accident occurred? B: I (try) was trying to change a light bulb that had burnt out. 2. After I (find) found the wallet full of money, I (go, immediately) immediately went to the police and (turn) turned it in. 3. The doctor (say) said that Tom (be) was too sick to go to work and that he (need) needed to stay at home for a couple of days. 4. Sebastian (arrive) arrived at Susan's house a little before 9:00 pm, but she (be, not) wasn’t there. She (study, at the library) was studying for her final examination in French. 5. Sandy’s in the living room watching TV. At this time yesterday, she (watch, also) was also watching television. That's all she ever does! 6. A: I (call) called you last night after dinner, but you (be, not) weren’t there. Where were you? B: I (work) was working out at the fitness center. 7. When I (walk) walked into the busy office, the secretary (talk) was talking on the phone with a customer, several clerks (work, busily) were busily working at their desks, and two managers (discuss, quietly) were quietly discussing methods to improve customer service. 8. I (watch) was watching a mystery movie on TV when the electricity went out. Now I am never going to find out how the movie ends. 9. Sharon (be) was in the room when John told me what happened, but she didn't hear anything because she (listen, not) wasn’t listening. 10. It's strange that you (call) called because I (think, just) was just thinking about you. 11. The Titanic (cross) was crossing the Atlantic when it (strike) struck an iceberg. 12. When I entered the bazaar, a couple of merchants (bargain, busily) were busily bargaining and (try) (were) trying to sell their goods to naive tourists who (hunt) were hunting for souvenirs. Some young boys (lead) were leading their donkeys through the narrow streets on their way home. A couple of men (argue) were arguing over the price of a leather belt. I (walk) walked over to a man who (sell) was selling fruit and (buy) bought a banana. 13. The firemen (rescue) rescued the old woman who (be) was trapped on the third floor of the burning building. 14. She was so annoying! She (leave, always) was always leaving her dirty dishes in the sink. I think she (expect, actually) actualle expected me to do them for her. 15. Samantha (live) lived in Berlin for more than two years. In fact, she (live) was living there when the Berlin wall came down. 1
SIMPLE PAST / PAST CONTINUOUS Last night, while I was doing my homework, Angela (call) called. She said she (call) was calling me on her cell phone from her biology classroom at UCLA. I asked her if she (wait) was waiting for class, but she said that the professor was at the front of the hall lecturing while she (talk) was talking to me. I couldn't believe she (make) was making a phone call during the lecture. I asked what was going on. She said her biology professor was so boring that several of the students (sleep, actually) were actually sleeping in class. Some of the students (talk) were talking about their plans for the weekend and the student next to her (draw) was drawing a picture of a horse. When Angela (tell) told me she was not satisfied with the class, I (mention) mentioned that my biology professor was quite good and (suggest) suggested that she switch to my class. While we were talking, I (hear) heard her professor yell, "Miss, are you making a phone call?" Suddenly, the line went dead. I (hang) hung up the phone and went to the kitchen to make dinner. As I (cut) was cutting vegetables for a salad, the phone rang once again. It (be) was Angela, but this time she wasn't sitting in class. SIMPLE PAST / PRESENT PERFECT 1. A: Did you like the movie "Star Wars"? B: I don't know. I (see, never) have never seen that movie. 2. Sam (arrive) arrived in San Diego a week ago. 3. My best friend and I (know) have known each other for over fifteen years. We still get together once a week. 4. Stinson is a fantastic writer. He (write) wrote ten very creative short stories in the last year. One day, he'll be as famous as Hemingway. 5. I (have, not) haven’t had this much fun since I (be) was a kid. 6. Things (change) have changed a great deal at Coltech, Inc. When we first (start) started working here three years ago, the company (have, only) only had six employees. Since then, we (expand) have expanded to include more than 2000 full-time workers. 7. I (tell) told him to stay on the path while he was hiking, but he (wander) wandered off into the forest and (be) was bitten by a snake. 8. Listen Donna, I don't care if you (miss) missed the bus this morning. You (be) have been late to work too many times. You are fired! 9. Sam is from Colorado, which is hundreds of miles from the coast, so he (see, never) has never seen the ocean. He should come with us to Miami. 10. How sad! George (dream) dreamt of going to California before he died, but he didn't make it. He (see, never) never saw the ocean. 11. In the last hundred years, travelling (become) has become much easier and very comfortable. In the 19th century, it (take) took two or three months to cross North America by covered wagon. The trip (be) was very rough and often dangerous. Things (change) have changed a great deal in the last hundred and fifty years. Now you can fly from New York to Los Angeles in a matter of hours. 12. Johnny, I can't believe how much you (change) have changed since the last time I (see) saw you. You (grow) have grown at least a foot! 13. This tree (be) was planted by the settlers who (found) founded our city over four hundred years ago. 14. This mountain (be, never) has never been climbed by anyone. Several mountaineers (try) have tried to reach the top, but nobody (succeed, ever) has ever succeeded. The climb is extremely difficult and many people (die) have died trying to reach the summit. 15. I (visit, never) have never visited Africa, but I (travel) have travelled to South America several times. The last time I (go) went to South America, I (visit) visited Brazil and Peru. I (spend) spent two weeks in the Amazon, (hike) hiked for a week near Machu Picchu, and (fly) flew over the Nazca Lines. SIMPLE PAST / PRESENT PERFECT Since computers were first introduced to the public in the early 1980's, technology (change) has changed a great deal. The first computers (be) were simple machines designed for basic tasks. They (have, not) didn’t have much memory and they (be, not) weren’t very powerful. Early computers were often quite expensive and customers often (pay) paid thousands of dollars for machines which actually (do) did very little. Most computers (be) were separate, individual machines used mostly as expensive typewriters or for playing games. Times (change) have changed. Computers (become) have become powerful machines with very practical applications. Programmers (create) have created a large selection of useful programs which do everything from teaching foreign languages to bookkeeping. We are still playing video games, but today's games (become) have become faster, more exciting interactive adventures. Many computer users (get, also) have also got on the Internet and (begin) (have) begun communicating with other computer users around the world. We (start) have started international communities online. In short, the simple, individual machines of the past (evolve) have evolved into an international World Wide Web of knowledge. PRESENT CONTINUOUS / PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS 1. It (rain) has been sraining all week. I hope it stops by Saturday because I want to go to the beach. 2. A: Where is Gary? B: He (study, at the library) is studying for his German test on Wednesday. In fact, he (review) has been reviewing for the test every day for the last week. 3. You look really great! (You, exercise) are you exercising at the fitness center ? 4. Frank, where have you been? We (wait) have been waiting for you since 1 P.M.. 5. A: What is that sound? 2
B: A car alarm (ring) is ringing somewhere down the street. It (drive) is driving me crazy - I wish it would stop! It (ring) has been ringing for more than twenty minutes. 6. Joseph's English (improve, really) is really improving, isn't it? He (watch) has been watching American television programs and (study) (has been) studying his grammar every day since he first arrived in San Diego. Soon he will be totally fluent. 7. A: You look a little tired. (You, get) are you getting enough sleep lately? B: Yes, I (sleep) am sleeping relatively well. I just look tired because I (feel) have been feeling a little sick for the last week. A: I hope you feel better soon. B: Thanks. I (take, currently) am currently taking some medicine, so I should feel better in a couple of days. PRESENT CONTINUOUS / PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS Mr. Smith: So tell me a little bit about yourself, Mr. Harris. I would like to find out a little bit more about your background. Mr. Harris: I (work) have ben working in the insurance industry for over ten years. I worked for Met Life for six years and World Insurance for four and a half. During that time, I heard many good things about Hollings Life Insurance and that's why I (apply) am appluing for the new sales position. Mr. Smith: Tell me a little about your hobbies and interests. Mr. Harris: In my spare time, I hike in the mountains outside of town, volunteer at the Sierra Club and play tennis. In fact, I (compete) am competing in a tennis tournament this weekend. Mr. Smith: Really, how long (you, play) have you been playing tennis? Mr. Harris: I (play) have been playing since high school. I love the sport. Mr. Smith: Great! We like dedication here at Hollings Life. You mentioned you volunteer at the Sierra Club. I (work, currently) am currently working with them on the sea turtle project. We (try) are trying to create a wildlife sanctuary near the bay. Mr. Harris: Do you know Frank Harris? He's my brother. He (work, presently) is presently working on the same project. Mr. Smith: I know Frank quite well. Any brother of Frank's would be a welcome addition to Hollings Life. Just one more thing, we (look) are looking for somebody who is fluent in Spanish; many of our clients are from Mexico. Mr. Harris: No problem. I (study) have been studying Spanish since elementary school. Mr. Smith: Sounds like you are the perfect candidate. SIMPLE PAST / PAST PERFECT I can't believe I (get) got that apartment. I (submit) submitted my application last week, but I didn't think I had a chance of actually getting it. When I (show) showed up to take a look around, there were at least twenty other people who (arrive) had arrived before me. Most of them (fill, already) had already filled out their applications and were already leaving. The landlord said I could still apply, so I did. I (try) tried to fill out the form, but I couldn't answer half of the questions. They (want) wanted me to include references, but I didn't want to list my previous landlord because I (have) had had some problems with him and I knew he wouldn't recommend me. I (end) ended up listing my father as a reference. It was total luck that he (decide) decided to give me the apartment. It turns out that the landlord and my father (go) had gone to high school together. He decided that I could have the apartment before he (look) looked at my credit report. I really lucked out! SIMPLE PAST / PRESENT PERFECT / PAST PERFECT 1. When I (arrive) arrived home last night, I discovered that Jane (prepare) had prepared a beautiful candle-lit dinner. 2. Since I began acting, I (perform) have performed in two plays, a television commercial and a TV drama. However, I (speak, never even) have never even spoken publicly before I came to Hollywood in 1985. 3. By the time I got to the office, the meeting (begin, already) had already begun without me. My boss (be) was furious with me and I (be) was fired. 4. When I (turn) turned the radio on yesterday, I (hear) heard a song that was popular when I was in high school. I (hear, not) hadn’t heard the song in years, and it (bring) brought back some great memories. 5. Last week, I (run) ran into an ex-girlfriend of mine. We (see, not) hadn’t seen each other in years, and both of us (change) had/have changed a great deal. I (enjoy) enjoyed talking to her so much that I (ask) asked her out on a date. We are getting together tonight for dinner. 6. When Jack (enter) entered the room, I (recognize, not) didn’t recognise him because he (lose) had lost so much weight and (grow) (had) grown a beard. He looked totally different! 7. The Maya established a very advanced civilization in the jungles of the Yucatan; however, their culture (disappear, virtually) had disappeared by the time Europeans first (arrive) arrived in the New World. 8. I (visit) had visited so many beautiful places since I (come) came to Utah. Before moving here, I (hear, never) had never heard of Bryce Canyon, Zion, Arches or Canyonlands. PRESENT PERFECT / PAST PERFECT / PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS / PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS 1. It is already 9:30 pm and I (wait) have been waiting here for over an hour. If John does not get here in the next five minutes, I am going to leave. 2. Sarah (climb) has climbed the Matterhorn, (sail) (has) sailed around the world, and (go) (has) gone on safari in Kenya. She is such an adventurous person. She (experience) has experienced more by now than most people do in their entire lives. 3
PRESENT AND PAST TENSES AND NON-CONTINUOUS VERBS (los sentidos involuntarios -ver, oír...- no usan tiempos continuos) 1. a. Look, I (have) have two tickets for the circus. b. Look, I (hold) am holding two tickets for the circus. 2. a. We (be) had been there for more than half an hour by the time the show began. b. We (wait) had been waiting there for more than half an hour by the time the show began. 3. a. Sam (sit) was sitting in the seat next to me when the clown threw a bucket of water at me. b. Sam (be) was in the seat next to me when the clown threw a bucket of water at me. 4. a. One clown was juggling while he (balance) balanced a glass of wine on his head. b. One clown was juggling while he (have) had a glass of wine on his head. 5. a. I (love) have loved the circus ever since I was a child. b. I (go) have been going to the circus ever since I was a child. 6. a. Right now, I (see) (can) see two elephants doing tricks in the ring. b. Right now, I (look) am looking at two elephants doing tricks in the ring. PRESENT AND PAST TENSE REVIEW Lars: Excuse me, which movie are you waiting for? Tony: We (wait) are waiting for the new Stars Wars Phantom Menace movie. In fact, we (wait) have been waiting here for more than five hours. Lars: Five hours? When did you arrive? Tony: We (get) got here at 6:00 o'clock this morning. More than forty people (stand, already) were already standing here waiting for tickets when we arrived. Lars: I can't believe that! Are you serious? Tony: Yeah, people (take) take Star Wars movies seriously. In fact, this particular showing has been sold out for over a week. We (wait, just) are waiting in line to get a good seat in the theater. Lars: When did you buy your tickets? Tony: I (buy) bought them last week by phone. I (know) knew tickets would be hard to get because I (hear) had heard on the news that a group of people in Los Angeles (wait) were waiting in line for almost a month to buy some. Lars: I don't believe that! Tony: It's true. They (camp) had camped out in front of Mann's Chinese Theater in Los Angeles for about a month because they (want) wanted to be the first people to see the movie. WILL / BE GOING TO 1. A: Why are you holding a piece of paper? B: I (write) am going to write a letter to my friends back home in Texas. 2. A: I'm about to fall asleep. I need to wake up! B: I (get) will get you a cup of coffee. That will wake you up. 3. A: I can't hear the television! B: I (turn) will turn it up so you can hear it. 4. We are so excited about our trip next month to France. We (visit) are visiting Paris, Nice and Grenoble. 5. Sarah (come) is going to come to the party. Oliver (be) is going to be there there as well. 6. A: It is so hot in here! B: I (turn) will turn the air conditioning on. 7. I think he (be) will be the next President of the United States. 8. After I graduate, I (attend) am going to attend medical school and become a doctor. I have wanted to be a doctor all my life. 9. A: Excuse me, I need to talk to someone about our hotel room. I am afraid it is simply too small for four people. B: That man at the service counter (help) will help you. 10. As soon as the weather clears up, we (walk) will walk down to the beach and go swimming. WILL / BE GOING TO Mark: What are you doing with those scissors? Beth: I (cut) am going to cut that picture of the ocean out of the travel magazine. Mark: What (you, do) are you going to do with it? Beth: I (paint) am going to paint a water color of the ocean for my art class, and I thought I could use this photograph as a model. Mark: (You, do) will you do me a favor Sam? Sam: Sure, what do you want me to do? Mark: I (change) am going to change the broken light bulb in the lamp above the dining room table. I need someone to hold the ladder for me while I am up there. Sam: No problem, I (hold) will hold it for you. Gina: Ted: Gina: Ted:
Where are you going? I (go) am going to the store to pick up some groceries. What (you, get) are you going to get? I (buy) am going to buy some milk, some bread, and some coffee. 4
John: Jane: John: Jane:
Wow, it's freezing out there. I (make) will make some coffee to warm us up. Do you want a piece of pie as well? Coffee sounds great! But I (have) am going to have dinner with some friends later, so I'd better skip the pie. I (go) am going to go to dinner tonight too, but I'm having a piece of pie anyway.
Frank: Tom: Frank: Tom:
I heard you're taking a Spanish class at the community college. Yeah, I (go) am going to go to Guatemala next spring and I thought knowing a little Spanish would make the trip easier. I (visit) am going to visit my brother in Marseilles next year. Maybe I should take a French class. I have a course catalogue in the other room. I (go) will go get it, and we can see whether or not they're offering a French course next semester.
WILL / BE GOING TO Michael: Do you think the Republicans or the Democrats (win) will win the next election? Jane: I think the Republicans (win) will win the next election. John: No way! The Democrats (win) will win. Susan: We (go) are going to go camping this weekend. Would you like to come along? Sam: That sounds great, but I don't have a sleeping bag. Susan: No problem. I (lend) will lend you one. My family has tons of camping gear. Barbara: I (buy) am going to buy a new car this weekend, but I'm a little worried because I don't really know much about cars. I'm afraid the salesman (try) will try to take advantage of me when he sees how little I know. Dave: I used to work for a mechanic in high school and I know a lot about cars. I (go) ‘ll go with you to make sure you are not cheated. Gina: Fred and I (visit) are going to visit Santa Fe next summer. Have you ever been there? Margaret: My family lives in Santa Fe! I (give) will give you my parents' phone number. When you get to Santa Fe, just call them and they (give) will give you a little tour of the town. They can show you some of the sights that most tourists never see. Pam: Can you see my future in the crystal ball? What (happen) will happen next year? Fortune Teller: You (meet) will meet a man from the East Coast, perhaps New York or maybe Boston. You (marry) will marry that mystery man. Pam: Forget the man! I want to know if I (get) will get a new job. SIMPLE PRESENT / SIMPLE FUTURE 1. Today after I (get) get out of class, I (go) will go to a movie with some friends. (“when”, “after” funcionan igual que “if”: las temporales y las condicionales van con presente + futuro con “will”) 2. When you (arrive) arrive in Stockholm, call my friend Gustav. He (show) will show you around the city and help you get situated. 3. A: Do you know what you want to do after you (graduate) graduate? B: After I (receive) receive my Master's from Georgetown University, I (go) will go to graduate school at UCSD in San Diego. I (plan) plan to complete a Ph.D. in cognitive science. 4. If it (snow) snows this weekend, we (go) will go skiing near Lake Tahoe. 5. Your father (plan) plans to pick you up after school today at 3:00 o'clock. He (meet) will meet you across the street near the ice cream shop. If something happens and he cannot be there, I (pick) will pick you up instead. 6. If the people of the world (stop, not) do not stop cutting down huge stretches of rain forest, we (experience) will experience huge changes in the environment during the twenty-first century. 7. If Vera (keep) keeps drinking, she (lose, eventually) will eventually lose her job. 8. I promise you that I (tell, not) will not tell your secret to anybody. Even if somebody (ask) asks me about what happened that day, I (reveal, not) will not reveal the truth to a single person. 9. She (make) will make some major changes in her life. She (quit) will quit her job and go back to school. After she (finish) finishes studying, she (get) will get a better paying job and buy a house. She is going to improve her life! 10. Tom (call) will call when he (arrive) arrives in Madrid. He (stay) will stay with you for two or three days until his new apartment (be) is available.
SIMPLE PRESENT / SIMPLE FUTURE (y otras formas para planes) Michael: After you (leave) leave work, will you please drop by the grocery store and pick up some milk and bread. Marie: No problem, I (pick) will pick up the groceries and be home by 6 o'clock. Michael: Great. You will probably get home before I (do) do. Ari: By the time we (get) get to the movie theater, the tickets are going to be sold out. Sarah: Don't worry. I told Jane we might be arriving just before the movie (start) starts. She (buy) is going to buy our tickets and meet us in the lobby. Ari: That place is huge! We (find, never) will never find her in that crowded lobby. Sarah: Calm down, we (meet) are going to meet each other near the entrance.
Terry: If the weather (be) is good tomorrow, maybe we should go to the beach. Jennifer: I have a better idea. If it (be) is nice out, we'll go to the beach; and if it (rain) rains, we'll see a movie. Terry: I guess we will have to wait until we (get) get up in the morning to find out what we are going to do. Max: Sean: Max: Sean: Max:
What are you going to do tomorrow after work? I (meet) am going to meet some friends at the café across the street. Would you like to come along? No thanks! My brother is coming to town and I (pick) am going to pick him up from the airport at 7 o'clock. We (be, probably) will probably be at the café until 9 o'clock. Why don't you join us after you (pick) pick him up. Sounds good. We (see) will see you around 8 o'clock.
Lucy: Dwain: Lucy: Dwain:
I (call) will call you as soon as I arrive in Dublin. If I am not there when you (call) call, make sure to leave a message. I will. And please don't forget to water my plants and feed the cat. I promise I (take) will take care of everything while you are in Ireland.
RELATIVOS MATCH THE CORRECT PIECES AND MAKE RELATIVE PHRASES 1. A kitchen a cupboard someone travels to it 2. A sofa bed an instrument you can make holes with it 3. A drill a piece of furniture you can either sit or sleep on it 4. A destination a passage you keep valuable things in it 5. A corridor the place you cook in it 6. A microphone a room people walk along it 7. A safe a tool people speak into it A kitchen is a room in which you cook / a kitchen is the place (which) you cook in A sofa bed is a piece of furniture on which you can either sit or sleep / ... furniture (which) you can either sit or sleep on. A drill is a tool with which you can make holes / a drill is a tool (which) you can make holes with. A destination is the place to which someone travels / a destination is the place (which) someone travels to. A corridor is a passage along which people walk / a corridor is a passage (which) people walk along. A microphone is an instrument into which people speak / a microphone is an instrument (which) people speak into. A safe is a cupboard in which you keep valuable things / a safe is a cupboard (which) you keep valuable things in.
WRITE RELATIVE PHRASES 8. Brian Reeves, the journalist - his tape recorder was stolen Brian Reeves is the journalist whose tape recorder was stolen 9. Steve Wilshaw, the architect - he knew Howard at school Steve Wilshaw is the architect who knew Howard at school 10. Rex Carter, the farmer - Howard bought his land. Rex Carter is the farmer whose land Howard bought. 11. Louise Hollins, the model - her name was in Howard’s diary. Louise Hollins is the model whose name was in Howard’s diary. 12. Hawk Delbray, the lawyer - he looked after Howard’s interests Hawk Delbray is the lawyer who looked after Howard’s interests INSERT RELATIVE PRONOUNS Keswick, which lies at the heart of the Lake District, is the perfect place for a holiday, ane the Derwent Hotel, which overlooks the town, is the perfect place to stay. Peter and Debbie Jackson, who bought this small hotel three years ago, have already won a reputation for excellence. Peter, whose cooking attracts people from far and wide, was once Young Chef of the Year. The comfort of guests, whom the owners treat almost as members of the family, always comes first. Omar Sharif, who once stayed at the hotel, described it as ‘marvellous’. And the Lake District, which has so much wonderful scenery, will not disappoint you. REWRITE THIS LETTER I’ve had a quiet week (I certainly needed it) which I certainly needed. Bob and Cheryl (you met them last year) whom you met last year were here all last week. They’re now running a computer software business (it’s doing very well) which is doing very well. Cheryl (she studied programming at college) who studied programming at college writes the programs. Bob (his subject was business studies) whose subject was business studies handles the financial side. He explained it all to Martin (Martin isn’t very interested in business) who isn’t very interested in business. On Saturday we went to a Chinese restaurant (someone had recommended it) which someone had recommended. It was very good. REWRITE 1. Crossford has only two hundred inhabitants. It’s miles from anywhere. Crossford, which is miles from anywhere, has only two hundred inhabitants. Crossford, which has only two hundred inhabitants, is miles from anywhere. 2. St. Michael’s Church dates from the 14th century. It’s a fine building. St. Michael’s Church, which dates from the 14th century, is a fine building. St. Michael’s Church,which is a fine building, dates from the 14th century. 3. Mr. Perkins is a bit deaf. He couldn’t hear the phone. Mr. Perkins, who is a bit deaf, couldn’t hear the phone. 4. Someone’s suitcase got lost. It was Colin. It was Colin’s suitcase who got lost. 5. A road leads to the farm. It isn’t suitable for cars. A road which isn’t suitable for cars leads to the farm. 6. Our teacher lives ten miles away. She stayed at home during the bus strike. Our teacher, who lives ten miles away, stayed at home during the bus strike. Our teacher, stayed at home during the bus strike, lives ten miles away. 7. Diamond is a very hard substance. It’s used for cutting. Diamond, is a very hard substance, is used for cutting. 7
Diamond, which is used for cutting is a very hard substance. 8. Someone got everything we needed. It was Kevin. It was Kevin who got everything we needed. 9. Someone knows all about it. It’s the secretary. It is the secretary who knows all about it. 10. Mandy’s name was missed off the list. She wasn’t very pleased. Mandy, whose name was missed off the list, wasn’t very pleased. SPECIAL “WHICH” it means he can’t get about very easily / it’s made her very depressed / that was very rude of him / that left the ground very wet / that was very kind of her / it’s a nuisance / that caused a traffic jam / that was rather careless of you 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
My phone is out of order today which is a nuisance It poured with rain all day, which left the ground very wet. My brother is disabled which means he can’t get about very easily. Jessica’s mother paid for the meal which was very kind of her. You left the keys in the car which was rather careless of you. Miranda has lost her job which has made her very depressed. The police blocked off the road which caused a traffic jam. Jeremy didn’t answer my letter which was very rude of him.
EXPLAIN THE MEANING OF THESE WORDS he steals from a shop / he doesn’t eat meat / he designs buildings / he breaks into a house and steals things / he doesn’t drink alcohol / he buys something from a shop 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
An architect is someone who designs buildings. A burglar is someone who breaks into a house and steals things. A vegetarian is someone who doesn’t eat meat. A customer is someone who buys something from a shop. A shoplifter is someone who steals from a shop A teetotaller is someone who doesn’t drink alcohol.
MIX THE PHRASES INTO ONE 1. A girl was injured. She is now in hospital. A girl who was injured is now in hospital. 2. A man told me you were out. He answered the phone. A man who answered the phone told me you were out. 3. A waitress was very impolite and impatient. She served us. A waitress who was very impolite and impatient served us. 4. Some boys have bow been releases. They were arrested. Some boys who have bow been released were arrested. Some boys who were arrested have now been released. PICK THE MOST APPROPRIATE ENDING he invented the telephone / she runs away from home / they’re never on time / they stole my car / they used to hang on that wall / it makes typewriters / it gives you the meanings of words / it won the race / it can support life / it was found last week 1. Gerry works for a company which makes typewriters. 2. The book is about a girl who runs away from home. 3. What was the name of the horse which won the race. 4. The police have caught the men who stole my car. 5. Alexander Bell was the man who invented the telephone. 6. Where are the pictures which used to hang on that wall? 7. The police are still trying yo identify the body which was found last week. 8. A dictionary is a book which gives you the meanings of words. 9. I don’t like people who are never on time. 10. It seems that Earth is the only planet which can support life. COMPLETE THESE PHRASES we met her yesterday / we wanted to visit / Tom tells them / Tom recommended it / we had it for dinner / you lost them / Ann is wearing it / the police arrested him / I invited them to the party 1. Have you found the keys (which) you lost? 2. I like the dress (which) Ann is wearing. 3. The museum (which) we wanted to visit was shut when we got there. 4. Most of the people (whom) I invited to the party couldn’t come. 5. I didn’t like that woman (whom) we met yesterday. 8
6. 7. 8. 9.
The fish (which) we had for dinner was really delicious. We stayed at the hotel (which) Tom recommended. The stories (which) Tom tells are usually very funny. The man (whom) the police arrested has now been released.
RELATIVES WITH A PREPOSITION you were with her last night / I am living in it / I slept in it / they were talking about them / she is married to him / I work with them / we wanted to travel on it / I applied to it / we went to it. 1. The bed (which) I slept in was too soft. 2. I didn’t get the job (which) I applied to. 3. The man (whom) she is married to has been married twice before. 4. The party (which) we went to wasn’t very enjoyable. 5. Who was that girl (who) you were with last night? 6. The flight (which) we wanted to travel on was fully boarded. 7. I enjoy my job because I like the people (whom) I work with 8. I wasn’t interested in the things (which) they were talking about. 9. The house (which) I am living in is not in very good condition. En todas las frases la preposición puede quedar a la izquierda del relativo, pero en esete caso el relativo no puede omitirse. You were on holiday and you met some people who had had some bad experiences. Write “I met ...” 1. Some people / their car broke down. I met some people whose car broke down. 2. A man / his wife became ill and was taken to hospital. I met a man whose wife became ill and was taken to hospital. 3. A woman / her husband was arrested by the police. I met a woman whose husband was arrested by the police. 4. A girl / her passport was stolen. I met a girl whose passport was stolen. 5. A couple / their luggage disappeared. I met a couple whose luggage disappeared. USE “WHERE” I can buy postcards there / I was born there / she had bought it there / we spent our holidays there / people are buried there / we can have a really good meal there. 1. I recently went back to the town where I was born. 2. The dress didn’t fit her, so she took it back to the shop where she had bought it. 3. Do you know a restaurant where we can have a really good meal? 4. Is there a shop near here where I can buy a postcard? 5. The place where we spent our holidays was really beautiful. 6. A cemetery is a place where people are buried COMPLETE THESE PHRASES (her) dog bit me / they haven’t got a car (for this reason) / John is staying (there) / I didn’t write to you (for this reason) / we first met (on that day) / The Second World War ended (in that year) / (his/her) parents are dead / you telephoned (that evening) 1. Do you remember the day when we first met? / on which we first met? 2. An orphan is a child whose parents are dead. 3. The reason why I didn’t write to you was that I didn’t know your address. 4. Unfortunately I wasn’t at home the evening when you telephoned. 5. I protested to the woman whose dog bit me. 6. The reason why they haven’t got a car is that they can’t afford one. 7. Do you know the name of the hotel where John is staying? / in which John is staying? 8. 1945 was the year when the Second World War ended / in which the Second World War ended. NON-DEFINING PHRASES 1. She showed me a photo of her son. Her son is a policeman. She showed me a photo of her son, who is a policeman. 2. We decided not to swim in the sea. The sea looked rather dirty. We decided not to swim in the sea, which looked rather dirty. 3. The new stadium will be opened next month. The stadium holds 90.000 people. The new stadium, which holds 90.000 people, will be opened next month. The new stadium, which will be opened next month, holds 90.000 people 4. John is one of my closest friends. I have known John for eight years. John, whom I have known for eight years, is one of my closest friends 5. That man over there is an artist. I don’t remember his name. That man over there, whose name I don’t remember, is an artist. 9
6. Opposite our house there is a nice park. There are some beautiful trees in this park. Opposite our house there is a nice park where there are some beautiful trees. 7. The storm caused a lot of damage. Nobody had been expecting the storm. The storm, which nobody had been expecting, caused a lot of damage. 8. The postman was late this morning. The postman is nearly always on time. The postman, who was late this morning, is nearly always on time. The postman, who is nearly always on time, was late this morning. 9. We often go to visit our friends in Bristol. Bristol is only 30 miles away. We often go to visit our friends in Bristol, which is only 30 miles away. 10. Mr. Edwards has gone into hospital for some tests. His health hasn’t been good recently. Mr. Edwards, whose health hasn’t been good recently, has gone into hospital for some tests. 11. Jack looks much nicer without his beard. His beard made him look much older. Jack looks much nicer without his beard, which made him look much older. 12. I went to see the doctor. The doctor told me to rest for a few days. I went to see the doctor, who told me to rest for a few days. 13. Thank you for your letter. I was very happy to get your letter. Thank you for your letter, which I was very happy to get. 14. A friend of mine helped me to get a job. His father is the manager of the company. A friend of mine, whose father is the manager of the company, helped me to get a job. His 15. Next weekend I’m going to Glasgow. My sister lives in Glasgow. Next weekend I’m going to Glasgow, where my sister lives. 16. The population of London is now falling. London was once the largest city in the world. The population of London. Which was once the largest city in the world, is now falling. 17. I looked up at the moon. The moon was very bright that evening. I looked up at the moon, which was very bright that evening. 18. We spent a pleasant day by the lake. We had a picnic by the lake. We spent a pleasant day by the lake where we had a picnic. MORE NON-DEFINING PHRASES (Extra info, non necessary) 1. Mr Carter is very interested in our plan. I spoke to him on the phone last night. Mr Carter, to whom I spoke on the phone last night, is very interested in our plan. 2. This is a photo of our friends. We went on holiday with them. This is a photo of our friends, with whom we went on holiday. 3. The wedding took place last Friday. Only members of the family were invited to it. The wedding, to which only members of the family were invited, took place last Friday. 4. I’ve just bought some books about astronomy. I’m very interested in astronomy. I’ve just bought some books about astronomy, in which I’m very interested. En las oraciones entre comas la preposición puede ir a la izquierda del relativo o al final de la frase subordinada de relativo, pero el pronombre relativo no puede omitirse. COMPLETE This means I can’t leave the country / this was very nice of him / this makes it difficult to contact her / this was perfectly true / this makes it difficult to sleep / this was a pity / I thought this was very rude of them 1. She couldn’t come to the party, which was a pity 2. Jill isn’t on the phone, which makes it difficult to contact her. 3. They said they didn’t have any money, which was perfectly true. 4. I haven’t got a passport, which means I can’t leave the country. 5. He offered to let me stay in his house, which was very nice of him. 6. Mary didn’t thank us for the meal before they left, which I though was very rude of them 7. The part of town where I live is very noisy at night, which makes it difficult to sleep.
COMPARATIVES SUPERIORITY CROWDED, EARLY, EASILY, EXPENSIVE, INTERESTED, LARGE, NEAR, OFTEN, QUIET, THIN 1. This jacket is too small. I need a larger one. 2. You look thinner. Have you lost weigh? 3. He’s not so keen on his studies. He’s more interested in having a good time. 4. You’ll find your way around the town more easily if you have a map. (Los adverbios siempre com “more”. Comprueba las excepciones) 5. You’re making too much noise. Can you be a bit quieter? 6. There were a lot of people on the bus. It was more crowded than usual. 7. You’re late. I expected you to be earlier. 8. You hardly ever write to me. Why don’t you write a bit more often? 9. The hotel was surprisingly cheap. I expected it to be much more expensive. 10. It’s a pity you live so far away. I wish you lived nearer. COMPLETE WITH COMPARATIVE + THAN 1. Sorry I’m late. It took me (long) longer to get here than I expected. 2. My toothache is (painful) more painful than it was yesterday. 3. She looks about 20, but in fact she’s much (old) older than she looks. 4. The problem is not so complicated. It’s (simple) simpler than you think. 5. Your English has improved. You speak a lot (fluently) more fluently than you did when we last met. 6. Health and happiness are (important) more important than money. 7. We always go camping when we go on holiday. It’s much (cheap) cheaper than staying in a hotel. 8. I like the countryside. It’s (healthy) healthier and (peaceful) more peaceful than living in a town. IRREGULAR COMPARATIVES BETTER, WORSE, FARTHER, FURTHER, OLDER, ELDER (+ THAN) 1. We complained about the food in our hotel. But instead of improving, it got worse. 2. Your work isn’t very good, I’m sure you can do better than this. 3. Ann’s younger sister is still at school. Her elder sister is a nurse. 4. Our team played really badly this afternoon. We played worse than we have ever played before. 5. You’re standing too near the camera. Can you move a bit farther away? 6. Is Jim younger than Tom? - No, he’s older. 7. The damage to our car wasn’t so bad. It could have been much worse. 8. If you need any further information, please contact our office. GRADUAL COMPARATIVES 1. As I waited for my interview I became (nervous) more and more nervous. 2. That hole in tour pullover is getting(big) bigger and bigger 3. The suitcase seemed to get )heavy) heavier and heavier as I carried it along the road. 4. As the day went on, the weather got (bad) worse and worse. 5. As the conversation went on, he became (talkative) more and more talkative. 6. Travelling is becoming (expensive) more and more expensive. 7. Since she’s been in Britain her English has got (good) better and better. AS ... AS 1. My salary is high, but yours is higher. My salary isn’t as high as yours. 2. You know sa bit about cars, but I know more. You don’t know as much as I (do) 3. I still smoke, but I used to smoke a lot more. I don’t smoke as much as I used to 4. I still feel quite tired, but I felt a lot more tired yesterday, I don’t feel as tired today as I felt yesterday. 5. They’ve lived here for quite a long time, but we’ve lived longer. They haven’t lived here as long as we have. 6. I was a bit nervous before the interview, but usually I’m a bit more nervous. I wasn’t as nervous as I usually am 7. The weather is still unpleasant today, but yesterday it was worse. The weather isn’t as unpleasant as it was yerterday. REWRITE 1. It’s warmer today than yesterday. It isn’t as cold as it was yesterday. 2. The station was nearer than I thought. The station wasn’t as far as I thought. 3. I go out less than I used to. I don’t go out as often as I used to. 4. The hotel is cheaper than I expected., The hotel isn’t as expensive as I expected. 5. There were fewer people at this meeting than at the last one. There weren’t as many people at the last meeting as at the last one. 6. The exam was easier than we expected. The exam wasn’t as difficult as we expected COMPLETE WITH JUST AS + ONE OF THESE WORDS BAD, COMFORTABLE, EXPENSIVE, QUICK, WELL-QUALIFIED 1. Let’s walk. It’s just as quick as taking the bus. 11
2. 3. 4. 5.
I’m going to sleep on the floor. It’s just as comfortable as sleeping in that bed. Why did he get the job? I’m just as well-qualified as him. I thought you were nice, but you’re just as bad as everybody else. You won’t find a cheaper restaurant than this. They’ll all be just as expensive.
THE SAME AS 1. (Your hair / colour / mine) Your hair is the same colour as mine. 2. ( I arrived here / time / you) I arrived at the same time as you. 3. (You made / mistake / I made) You made the same mistake as I made. 4. (Tom / age / George) Tom is the same age as George. SUPERLATIVE 1. It’s a very cheap restaurant. It’s the cheapest (restaurant) in the town. 2. It was a very happy day. It was the happiest (day) in my life. 3. She’s a very intelligent student. She is the most intelligent student in the school. 4. It’s a very valuable painting. It is the most valuable painting in the gallery. ONE OF THE 5. He’s a very rich man. He’s one of the richest men in the world. 6. It’s a very old castle. It’s one of the oldest castles in Britain. 7. He’s a very good player. He is one of the best players in the team. 8. It was a very bad experience. It was one of the worst experiences in my life. 9. He’s a very dangerous criminal. He is one of the most dangerous criminals in the country. REWRITE 1. I’ve never had such a funny day. That’s the funniest day I’ve ever had. 2. He’s never made such a bad mistake. It’s the worst mistake he’s ever made. 3. I haven’t tasted such good coffee for a long time. That‘s the best coffee I’ve tasted for a long time. 4. I’ve never slept in such an uncomfortable bed. This is the most uncomfortable bed I’ve ever slept in 5. I’ve never had such a big meal. It’s the biggest meal I’ve ever had. 6. I’ve never met such a generous person as Ann. Ann is the most generous person I’ve ever met. 7. I’ve never had such a food friend as you. You are the best friend I’ve ever had. 8. I haven’t had to make such a difficult decision for years. This is the most difficult decision I’ve had to make for years. SUPERLATIVE 1. (What / large / city / your country) What is the largest city in your country? 2. (Who / famous singer / your country) Who is the most famous singer in your country? 3. What / popular sport / your country) What is the most popular sport in your country? 4. (What / expensive thing / you / ever bought) What is the most expensive thing (which) you have ever bought? 5. (What / happy day / your life) What has been the happiest day in your life? 6. (What / stupid thing / you / ever done) What is the most stupid thing (which) you have ever done? 7. (Who / intelligent person / you know) Who is the most intelligent person that you know? 8. (Who / beautiful person / you know) Who is the most beautiful person that you know? USE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE There are lots of hotels in Blexham. You ger a (wide) wider choice than in most places. The Crown is the (famous) most famous because Charles Dickens once stayed there. It’s also one of the (old) oldest. The Metropole is a (big) bigger and a (modern) more modern hotel. It’s also (comfortable) more comfortable than the Crown. The Metropole is the (expensive) most expensive hotel in town, and so it’s (popular) more popular with business people than with tourists. Personally I can’t think of anything (boring) more boring than a big modern hotel. My own favourite is the Down Court Hotel, which is (small) smaller and (pleasant) more pleasant than the Metropole. The staff at Down Court are (helpful) more helpful than at the other hotels. Down Court is also a (nice) nicer place than the others. The Metropole is the (noise) noisiest hotel in town because it’s on the main road. The Bristol has a good restaurant. But you need to book a table because it’s the (busy) busiest place in Blexham. IRREGULAR FORMS FARTHER, FARTHEST, BETTER, BEST, WORSE, WORST A: I’m not used to country walks. How much farther is it? B: Not far. And it gets better. We’ve done the worst part. Look! The path goes doen the hill from here. I hope you’re feeling better now. A: I feel dreadful actually, worse than before,. B: Oh, dear. Do you want to have a rest? A: No, the best thing would be to get there first. I’m not fit, you know. This is the farthest I’ve walked for a very long time.
COMPARATIVE OR SUPERLATIVE A: I’m going to the Lake District next week. We’re going (early) earlier than usual. 12
B: I’d love a holiday in June, but it’s (sensible) more sensible for the children to go in the school holidays. A: I know, But May or June are the (dry) driest and (nice) nicest months. Sometimes we go in September, which is the (beautiful) most beautiful time of the year, with the leaves in the trees changing colour. B:Maybe it would be (sensible) more sensible to go in winter than in summer. It would certainly be (cheap) cheaper . It might be (good) better than August. I can’t think of a (bad) worse time to go than August. COMPARISON OF QUANTITIES MORE, MOST, LESS, LEAST A: Our new car is smaller, so it uses less petrol. They tested some small cars and this one costs the least to run of all the cars in the test. It’s very economical, B: Can you get three people in the back? A: Not very easily. We had more room in our old car. Most cars take five people, but not this one. AS ... AS 1. A car / a motorbike / expensive - A motorbike isn’t as expensive as a car. 2. Japan / China / big - Japan isn’t as big as China 3. Metal / plastic / strong - Plastic isn’t as strong as metal. 4. An armchair / a stool / comfortable - A stool isn’t as comfortable as an armchair. 5. A pop song / a symphony / long - A pop song isn’t as long as a symphony. 6. The sun / the moon / bright - The moon isn’t as bright as the sun. THE FASTER THE BETTER 1. (The rent is high). The bigger a flat is the bigger the rent is. 2. (You learn quickly) The younger you are the more quickly you learn. 3. (The roads are quiet) The earlier you leave the quieter the roads are 4. (The choice is wide) The bigger a supermarket is the wider the choice is 5. (I get confused) The more I try to work this out the more confused I get. 6. (You can speak fluently) The more you practise a language the more fluently you can speak. 7. (The beaches get crowded) The hotter the weather is the more crowded the beaches get. 8. (The computer is useful) The bigger the memory is the more useful the computer is. 9. (The problem will become serious) The longer we do nothing the more serious the problem will become TRANSLATION 1. Hace frío, pero ayer hizo más frío. Fue el día más frío del año. It is cold today, but it was colder yesterday. It was the coldest day of the year. 2. Tu amigo es menos inteligente de lo que él se cree., Your friend is less intelligent than he thinks. 3. La película no es tan buena como yo creía. The film is not as good as I thought 4. Elena es la chica más guapa del mundo. Elena is the prettiest girl in the world. 5. Es el libro más interesante que he leído en mi vida. It is the most interesting book that I have ever read. 6. Es el soldado más duro del ejército. He’s the hardest soldier in the army. 7. Éste es el mejor de sus libros. This is the best of his books. 8. La vida se está poniendo cada vez más difícil. Life is becoming harder and harder. 9. Cuanto antes mejor. The sooner the better. 10. Cuanto más rico eres más amigos tienes. The richer you are the more friends you have AS ... AS 1. John is 30 years old. Peter is 15. John is twice as old as Peter 2. John is 30 years old. Peter is 15. Peter is half as old as John 3. Athens is older than Rome. Rome isn’t as old as Athens 4. My room is bigger than yours. Your room isn’t as big as mine. 5. You got up earlier than me. I didn’t get up as early as you. 6. We played better than them. They didn’t play as well as we did. 7. I’ve been here longer than you. You haven’t been here as long as we (have)
AS / THAN 13
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Athens is older than Rome. I don’t watch TV as much as you. You eat more than me. I feel better than I felt yesterday. Jim isn’t as clever as he thinks. Belgium is smaller than Switzerland. Brazil isn’t as big as Canada. I can’t wait longer than an hour.
TRANSLATION 1. Mi hermana no es tan inteligente como mi hermano. My sister isn’t as clever / intelligent as my brother. 2. Ann no bebe tanta cerveza como Brian. Ann doesn’t drink as much beer as Brian. 3. Tenemos la misma profesora que ella. We have the same teacher as her. 4. En Barcelona no hay tantos teatros como en Madrid. In Barcelona there aren’t as many theatres an in Madrid. 5. Bill no tiene tantos amigos como tú. Bill doesn’t have as many friends as you 6. Me siento mejor que ayer., No estoy tan cansado. I feel better than yesterday, I am not as tired. 7. Madrid es la ciudad más grande de España. Madrid is the biggest city in Spain. 8. ¿Tiene zapatos más baratos? - Estos son los más baratos. Have you got cheaper shoes? - These are the cheapest. 9. Es la historia más larga que he oído. Itg’s the longest storey I’vce ever heard. 10. Es la cara más bonita que hemos visto. It’s the prettiest face we’ve seen. 11. Es la mejor profesora de la escuela y la persona más inteligente que he conocido. She’s the best teacher in the school and the most intelligent person I’ve ever met. 12. En esta ciudad la catedral es más antigua que el ayuntamiento, pero el castillo es el edificio más antiguo. In this city the cathedral is older than the town hall, but the castle is the oldest building.