THE VERB TENSES

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Year 9 – Grammar booklet

Cuaderno de Gramática

Alumna:_________________

Year 9 – Grammar booklet

SUBJECT PRONOUNS 1ST PERSON SINGULAR 2ND PERSON SINGULAR 3RD PERSON SINGULAR

YO - I TÚ – YOU (ONE PERSON, INFORMAL) ÉL – HE ELLA – SHE USTED – YOU (ONE PERSON-FORMAL) RD

(THERE IS NOT ‘IT’ FOR SUBJECT PRONOUNS, BUT WHEN YOU NEED TO SAY ‘IT’, USE THE 3 PERSON ENDING OF THE VERB – HE / SHE ENDING)

1ST PERSON PLURAL 2ND PERSON PLURAL 3RD PERSON PLURAL

NOSOTROS – WE VOSOTROS – YOU (MORE THAN ONE – INFORMAL) ELLOS –THEY ELLAS – THEY (ONLY GIRLS) USTEDES – YOU (MORE THAN ONE PERSON-FORMAL)

The Present tense / el Presente I play / I am playing  T he Present tense describes an action which is happening at the moment : Ex: I am listening = yo escucho  It also describes an action which happens regularly or repeatedly Ex: Every day I wake up around 7am = todos los días me levanto a eso de las siete.

1. Regular Verbs / los verbos regulares Chop off the –AR, -ER or –IR and add the relevant ending. TIME EXPRESSIONS:

-AR

Endings -ER

-IR

I

o

o

o

You (sg) He She It

as

es

es

a

e

e

We

amos

emos

imos

You (pl)

áis

éis

ís

They

an

en

en

For example: Tomar = to take To form “we take” : TOMAR > tom > tomamos

Year 9 – Grammar booklet

Practice – Práctica 1.

Complete with the correct subject pronoun

a. ______________________ estudiamos español desde hace 3 años b .¿ ______________________ vendéis una casa en el centro de la ciudad? c. ______________________ compro el periódico todos los días d. ______________________ toma tostadas para el desayuno e. ______________________ salen los domingos por la noche f. ______________________ viajas a menudo ¿verdad? g. ______________________ termina el cole a las cuatro y media h. ______________________ empezamos el cole a las ocho y media i. ______________________ hablo tres idiomas: inglés, francés y alemán j. _____________________ lee muchas novelas 2.

Regular –AR verbs. Fill in the appropriate forms, using the verbs in the box below. Trabajar = to work Estudiar = to study Comprar = to buy

A B C D E F G H 3.

I buy She walks You (pl) pay We wear You (sg) prepare He hopes They work I study

I J K L M N O

Esperar = to hope Andar = to walk Llevar = to wear

15

You (sg) enter They hope You (pl) walk We work He buys I walk You (sg) study

Regular –ER verbs. Fill in the appropriate forms, using the verbs in the box below. Aprender = to learn Romper = to break Comer = to eat

A B C D E F G H

Preparar = to prepare Pagar = to pay Entrar = to enter

He eats They drink We sell You (pl) run I learn You (sg) read She believes I break

Leer = to read Correr = to run Beber = to drink

Creer = to believe Vender = to sell Meter = to put I J K L M N O

We learn You (sg) put He runs They read We break I read She drinks

15

Year 9 – Grammar booklet

Regular –IR verbs. Fill in the appropriate forms, using the verbs in the box below.

4.

Discutir = to discuss Escribir = to write A B C D E

Cubrir = to cover Recibir = to receive

They write You (pl) discuss I cover He opens You (sg) climb

F G H I J

Abrir = to open Subir = to climb

10

She climbs I discuss We receive You (pl) write He receives

2. Reflexive verbs = los verbos pronominales Reflexive verbs describe activities where the action is reflected back onto the subject of the verb ex: I wash myself He dresses himself The idea of ‘self’ is conveyed by using reflexive pronouns e.g. I wash myself = me lavo LAVARSE – to wash oneself yo

me

lavo

I wash / am washing (myself)



te

lavas

You wash (yourself)

él/ella Usted

se

lava

He/she washes (him/herself) You wash (yourself)

nosotros,

nos

lavamos

We wash (ourselves)

vosotros,

os

lavaís

You wash(yourselves)

ellos/ellas Ustedes

se

lavan

They wash (themselves)

Practice – Práctica Regular reflexive verbs. Fill in the appropriate forms, using the verbs in the box below. Afeitarse = to shave Lavarse = to wash oneself Llamarse = to be called Casarse = to get married Verse = to see oneself A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O

I wash myself They get angry You (pl) take a shower He is called They get married It becomes You (sg) shave We become I worry You (sg) wash yourself She gets married He shaves They comb their hair We see ourselves You (sg) worry

Ducharse = to take a shower Peinarse = to comb one’s hair Enojarse = to get angry Ponerse = to become Preocuparse = to worry

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Year 9 – Grammar booklet

3. Stem-changing Verbs / verbos con cambio re raíz Some verbs change their stem before you add the ending. This change occurs in the second vowel to the last of the infinitive and is purely for pronunciation reasons. e > ie PENSAR (to think) > pens > piens > pienso u > ue JUGAR (to play) > jug > jueg > juego o > ue PODER (to be able to) > pod > pued > puedo e > ie PEDIR (to ask) > ped > pid > pido These changes only occur for YO, TÚ, EL/ELLA/USTED & ELLOS/ELLAS/USTEDES

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

Yo Tú Él/Ella/Usted Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes

OUE ue ue ue o o ue

RADICAL CHANGE UUE EIE EI ue ie i ue ie i ue ie i o e e o e e ue ie i

-AR

-ER

-IR

Practice – Práctica Stem-changing verbs in the Present Tense 1.

a. b. c. d. e. 2.

a. b. c. d. e.

The following verbs change their stem e -> ie. Fill in the appropriate forms: Empezar Acertar Pensar Recomendar Encender (to begin) (to guess) (to think) (to recommend) (to switch on) she thinks we extend they recommend he begins we recommend

____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

f. g. h. i. j.

I switch on you (sg) begin you (pl) guess I think he switches on

______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

The following verbs change their stem o -> ue. Fill in the appropriate forms. Volver Contar Rogar Aprobar Renovar (to return) (to count) (to ask) (to approve) (to renew) he counts they ask I approve you (sg) return we renew

____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

f. g. h. i. j.

she tries you (pl) ask I count we return you (sg) renew

Extender (to extend)

Probar (to try)

______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

Year 9 – Grammar booklet

3.

a. b. c.

The following verbs change their stem e -> ie. Fill in the appropriate forms. Mentir Invertir Preferir (to tell lies) (to invest) (to prefer)

he tells lies __________________ d. you (sg) prefer ____________________ you (pl) invest __________________ e. I feel ____________________ we feel __________________ f. they tell lies ____________________ 4. Regular stem-changing verbs. Fill in the appropriate forms using the verbs in the box below. Aprobar (o > ue) = to approve Morder (o > ue) = to bite Negar (e > ie) = to deny Fregar (e > ie) = to wash up Servir (e > i) = to serve

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O

Sentir (to feel)

You (sg) deny He approves We serve You (pl) say She counts I approve I bite I deny You (pl) fly We wash up I repeat He repeats They wash up It bites They tell a lie

Volar (o > ue) = to fly Contar (o > ue) = to count Mentir (e > ie) = to tell a lie Repetir (e > i) = to repeat Decir (e > i) = to say

Year 9 – Grammar booklet 5.

Irregular Verbs = los verbos irregulares

Next year we shall see more irregular verbs but in the meantime it is important you know the entire list below as they are some of the most common:

Ser (to be) soy eres es somos sois son Ir (to go) voy vas va vamos vais van Tener (to have) tengo tienes tiene tenemos tenéis tienen Poder (to be able) puedo puedes puede podemos podéis pueden

Estar (to be) estoy estás está estamos estáis están Hacer–(to do/make) Practice Práctica hago haces hace hacemos hacéis hacen Querer (to want) quiero quieres quiere queremos queréis quieren Decir(to say) digo dices dice decimos decís dicen

1. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of ser or estar: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.

Un vaso de cerveza __________ sobre la mesa. Madrid _________ en España. El hombre _________ comiendo en el café. Alfonso _______ profesor. La mujer _______ furiosa. Las camisas ________ de poliester. Yo _______ inglés. El colegio _________ grande y moderno.

2. Learn the above irregular verbs, hide the list and try to write in the 6 forms of each of these irregular verbs: Tener (to have)

Decir (to say)

Poder (to be able to)

Querer (to want)

Hacer (to do/make)

Ir (to go)

Year 9 – Grammar booklet

3. Fill in the appropriate verb forms sing the infinitives given in brackets: Seis hombres (estar) _____________ en un café. Hay un inglés, un francés, un español, un alemán, un ruso y un chino. (Hacer) ____________ mucho calor y todos (tener) ___________ sed. Cada persona (tener) _____________ un vaso de cerveza. Hay también seis moscas en el café, y las moscas (tener) _____________ también sed. Una mosca cae en el vaso del inglés, otra mosca cae en el vaso del francés….etc. El inglés (ir) ___________ a beber y ¡Ve la mosca ! Llama al camarero, que trae otro vaso de cerveza. El francés ve también la mosca que (estar) __________ nadando en la cerveza. (Estar) ___________ furioso, jura, da gritos. El español mira la mosca, (hacer) _________ un gesto y sale del café. El alemán retira la mosca y bebe la cerveza. El ruso bebe la cerveza y las mosca. El chino toma la mosca con los dedos, contempla al pobre insecto, come la mosca y bebe la cerveza.

Time expressions used with the present tense: NORMALMENTE/ GENERALMENTE = usually TODOS LOS DIAS = every day AHORA = now SIEMPRE = always NUNCA = never A VECES = a times MUCHAS VECES = often (many times) DE VEZ EN CUANDO= from time to time HOY = today CADA DIA = every day A MENUDO = often

Year 9 – Grammar booklet

The Preterit tense / el Pretérito I played The Preterit tense is used to describe a single, completed action in the past or an action that took place over a defined period of time. Ex: Last summer I spent 3 weeks in Cuba = el verano pasado pasé tres semanas en Cuba. 1. Regular Verbs / los verbos regulares Chop off the –AR, -ER or –IR and add the relevant ending.

I

-AR

Endings -ER

-IR

é

Í

Í

Hablar - to talk yo hablé

nosotros hablamos

tú hablaste vosotros hablasteis You (sg) He She It

aste

iste

iste

ó





We

amos

imos

imos

You (pl)

asteis

isteis

isteis

They

aron

ieron

él habló

ellos

hablaron

Comer - to eat yo comí

nosotros comimos

tú comiste vosotros comisteis él comió

ellos

comieron

Vivir - to live

ieron

yo viví

nosotros vivimos

tú viviste

vosotros vivisteis

él vivió

ellos

vivieron

Practice – Práctica Fill in the regular Preterites using the infinitives given below. enseñar aprender viajar cruzar (to teach) (to learn) (to travel) (to cross) a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l.

They taught He learned I travelled We wrote You (sg) put She crossed You (pl) wrote I learned We taught You (pl) put They travelled You (sg) crossed

_____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

escribir (to write)

meter (to put)

Year 9 – Grammar booklet 2. Irregular Verbs = los verbos irregulares

Andar (to walk)

anduve, anduviste, anduvo, anduvimos, anduvisteis, anduvieron

Caber (to fit)

cupe, cupiste, cupo, cupimos, cupisteis, cupieron

Dar (to give)

di, diste, dio, dimos, disteis, dieron

Decir (to say)

dije, dijiste, dijo, dijimos, dijisteis, dijeron

Estar (to be)

estuve, estuviste, estuvo, estuvimos, estuvisteis, estuvieron

Hacer (to do)

hice, hiciste, hizo, hicimos, hicisteis, hicieron

Ir (to go)

fui, fuiste, fue, fuimos, fuisteis, fueron

Poder (to be able)

pude, pudiste, pudo, pudimos, pudisteis, pudieron

Poner (to put)

puse, pusiste, puso, pusimos, pusisteis, pusieron

Producir (to produce)

produje, produjiste, produjo, produjimos, produjisteis, produjeron

Querer (to want)

quise, quisiste, quiso, quisimos, quisisteis, quisieron

Saber (to know)

supe, supiste, supo, supimos, supisteis, supieron

Ser (to be)

fui, fuiste, fue, fuimos, fuisteis, fueron

Tener (to have)

tuve, tuviste, tuvo, tuvimos, tuvisteis, tuvieron

Traer (to bring)

traje, trajiste, trajo, trajimos, trajisteis, trajeron

Venir (to come)

vine, viniste, vino, vinimos, vinisteis, vinieron

Ver (to see)

vi, viste, vio, vimos, visteis, vieron

Fill in the irregular Preterits. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l.

Practice – Práctica

It fitted __________________ They saw __________________ We were able __________________ I had __________________ He was (ser) __________________ You (sg) said __________________ They produced __________________ She brought __________________ I gave __________________ You (pl) wanted __________________ I was (estar) __________________ We went __________________

m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t. u. v. w. x.

You (sg) came We walked He did They put I knew We knew You (pl) came She went You (sg) saw I went I was (ser) We said

________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

Year 9 – Grammar booklet

The Imperfect tense / el Imperfecto I used to play / I was playing  It is also used to indicate what used to happen in the past, habitual or repeated actions in the past ex: I used go out every night last summer = solía salir todas las noches el verano pasado  It is also used for description in the past: ex: It was raining every day = llovía todos los días

1. Regular Verbs / los verbos regulares Chop off the –AR, -ER or –IR and add the relevant ending: -AR -ER / -IR I aba ía You (sg) abas ías He/she/it aba ía We ábamos íamos You (pl) abais íais They aban ían BEBER = to drink To form “We used to drink” BEBER > beb > bebíamos

Practice – Práctica Fill in the regular imperfects Comer (to eat)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

firmar (to sign) elegir (to choose) prometer (to promise) Olvidar (to forget) buscar (to search)

I was eating You (pl.) were eating You (pl.) were signing You (sing.) used to search He used to promise They used to promise You (sing.) were choosing We were promising I used to forget You (pl.) used to choose She was searching They were forgetting

______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

2. Irregular Verbs = los verbos irregulares

Ser (to be)

era eras era éramos erais eran

Ir (to go)

iba ibas iba íbamos ibais iban

Ver (to see)

veía veías veía veíamos veíais veían

Year 9 – Grammar booklet

The Future tenses / el Futuro I am going to play / I will playing 1. The Immediate Future In English:

I am going to play He is going to see You’re going to do

Use the appropriate part of the verb IR (to go) + a + infinitive. IR voy vas va vamos vais van Jugar = to play To form “We are going to play” Vamos a jugar Part of IR + a + infinitive

Practice – Práctica 1. Fill in the immediate future tenses using the infinitives given below and the verb ir. amar regresar subir cubrir (to love) (to return) (to climb) (to cover) prometer vender enseñar decir (to promise) (to sell) (to teach) (to say) a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

He is going to return. We are going to cover. I am going to climb. They are going to teach. You (pl) are going to say. She is going to sell. You (sg) are going to promise. It is going to be. They are going to love. I am going to study.

ser (to be) estudiar (to study)

_________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________

2. Fill in the gaps in these future plans using the words in the box. Mañana, __________ a salir con mi madre. Vamos __________ hacer compras en la ciudad de Barcelona. ___________ a coger el tren a las nueve y media, y el tren _________ a llegar en Barcelona a las once. Voy a ___________ ropa para mis vacaciones y un regalo de cumpleaños para mi novio. Mi madre y yo vamos a ___________ en un restaurante donde trabaja mi primo. Mi tía va __________ venir al restaurante también. Mi madre va a ____________ a casa a las tres, y yo voy ___________ quedarme en casa de mi tía. A A A Comer Comprar Va Vamos Volver Voy

Year 9 – Grammar booklet

2. The Future tense of regular verbs / el Futuro de los verbos regulares In English:

I will play He will see You will do

The Future Tense is formed by adding endings onto the infinitive: ENDINGS

I You (sg) He / She / It We You (pl) They Jugar = to play To form “We will play”: Jugaremos Infinitive + ending

hablaré hablarás hablará hablaremos hablaréis hablarán

é ás á emos éis án

Practice – Práctica

Fill in the Future Tenses using the infinitives given below. ir (to go) a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

llamar (to call)

mandar (to order)

You (sg) will call They will understand I will order You (pl) will be He will go We will discover She will order You (sg) will understand I will discover We will go

estar (to be)

descubrir (to discover)

comprender (to understand)

________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

3. The Future tense of irregular verbs / el Futuro de los verbos irregulares Infinitive Caber (to fit)

Future Cabré, cabrás..

Decir (to say) Haber (to have*) Hacer (to do/make)

Diré, dirás Habré, habrás Hare, harás, ...

Infinitive Poder (to be able) Poner (to put) Querer (to want) Saber (to know)

Future podré

Infinitive Salir (to go out)

Future saldré

pondré

Tener (to have*) Valer (to be worth) Venir (to come)

tendré

querré sabré

valdré vendré

*Tener is the verb to own or possess, and you will use it very often. Haber is used rarely, as an auxiliary.

Year 9 – Grammar booklet

Practice – Práctica Fill in the irregular Future Tenses. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l.

I will say We will put She will have You (pl) will do He will want It will fit You (sg) will do It will be worth They will come They will say You (pl) will say She will be able

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t. u. v. w. x.

You (sg) will come He will do They will know I will fit She will make We will go out I will want We will do I will be able We will know He will put You (pl) will want

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

The Conditional tense / el Condicional In English:

I would play He would see You would do

The Conditional Tense is formed by adding endings onto the infinitive:

ENDINGS

I You (sg) He / She / It We You (pl) They

ía ías ía íamos íais ían

hablar comer vivir hablaría comería viviría hablarías comerías vivirías hablaría comería viviría hablaríamos comeríamos viviríamo hablaríais comeríais viviríais hablarían comerían vivirían

Practice – Práctica Fill in the Conditional Tenses using the infinitives given below. preguntar cocinar romper vivir (to ask (to cook) (to break) (to live) a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

They would break He would cook You (pl) would ask We would live She would watch You (sg) would decide I would break They would cook I would decide You (sg) would watch

________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

mirar (to watch)

decidir (to decide)

Year 9 – Grammar booklet

3. The Conditional tense of irregular verbs / el Condicional de los verbos irregulares* Infinitive Caber (to fit) Decir (to say) Haber (to have*) Hacer (to do/make)

Conditional cabría diría habría haría

Infinitive Poder (to be able) Poner (to put) Querer (to want) Saber (to know)

Infinitive Salir (to go out) Tener (to have*) Valer (to be worth) Venir (to come)

Conditional

podría pondría querría sabría

Conditional saldría tendría valdría vendría

*Notice that the verbs that are irregular in the Conditional tense are also irregular in the Future tense.

Fill in the irregular Conditional Tenses. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l.

I would say You (sg)would put I would have We would do She would want It would fit They would do It would be worth He would come He would say We would say I would be able

Practice – Práctica _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t. u. v. w. x.

They would come She would do He would know You (pl) would fit I would make You (sg) would go out You (pl) would want We would go out You (pl) would be able You (sg) would know She would put We would want

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

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THE VERB TENSES

Year 9 – Grammar booklet Cuaderno de Gramática Alumna:_________________ Year 9 – Grammar booklet SUBJECT PRONOUNS 1ST PERSON SINGULAR 2ND PERSON ...

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