The Role of Phonological Awareness of Tamazight in Promoting the

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PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ALGERIA MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

University of Setif Faculty of Letters and Social Sciences Department of Foreign Languages

The Role of Phonological Awareness of Tamazight in Promoting the Oral Performance of English Secondary School Learners The Case Study of Second Year Students in the Secondary School of Barbacha – Bejaia-

Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Magister Degree in Applied Linguistics and Foreign Language Teaching

Submitted by: AIT AISSA Mouloud Board of Examiners

Président: Dr ATAMNA EL-KHIAR Maître de Conférences A Université des Frères Mentouri Constantine Supervisor: Dr KESKES Said

Maître de Conférences A Université Ferhat Abbas Setif

Examiner : Dr BELOUAHAM Riad Maître de Conférences A Université des Frères Mentouri Constantine

2010

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DEDICATION

I dedicate this research



To my dear parents and family



To my supervisor Dr. KESKES Said



To all my teachers



To all my colleagues and friends



To all my dear pupils at the secondary school of Beni -Mouhli

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my sincere appreciation and gratitude to all those who have advised and assisted me throughout this language research project. First of all, I would like to express my deepest sincere appreciation to my supervisor Dr KESKES Said, who has greatly supported me during the process of this work, he directed me throughout the research with his valuable objective comments and careful scrutiny, without whom I would have failed to present this research in this way, indeed, this man is of a great importance for my academic pursuits. Secondly, I would like to thank Pr SAADI Hassen for all the encouragements. He was a source of inspiration, a person who made me think about this kind of language research –when I presented my research proposal about Arabic influence on leaning / teaching English, he asked me to think about the influence of Tamazight on English. In fact, it was the occasion when I started to think about it, and I was very happy when my supervisor agreed to start working on this issue. I wish to extend my genuine sincere appreciation to my special friend BOUROUBA Djahid for the time dedicated helping me, and without whom I would have faced difficulties in preparing the first chapter concerning Tamazight sounds . My sincere gratitude also goes to all the teachers of my post graduation studies. Dr. HAMADA Hacen, Mr BOUZIDI Boubaker, Dr. LAKHEL-AYAT Karima, and Dr DERRADJI Salah for all their contributions. I would like also to express my special thanks to all the members of my family, my parents, brothers, sisters, close relatives for all their true encouragement, love and support.

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Finally, a special word of appreciation and sincere feelings of being very grateful and lucky to all the members of the jury who accepted to evaluate, and safe my work Dr. ATAMNA EL-Khiar, and Dr. BELOUAHAM Riad.

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ABSTRACT The influence of the native language in learning a foreign language is certainly indispensable. This influence can either be positive or negative. In order to observe the circumstances under which the influence is positive or negative, this study was conducted on the phonological aspects of the native language –Tamazight- and the target language –English-. This research highlights the problems and difficulties that Tamazight speakers may encounter when learning / pronouncing English sounds, it compares the phonological system of Tamazight with that of English and sorts out similarities and dissimilarities at segmental and suprasegmental levels in the teachinglearning situation at Algerian secondary school. The present study focuses on contrastive units between Tamazight and English in the sound system and how these contrastive units cause difficulties. That is to say, how English sound features from simple to complex levels are pronounced by learners of Tamazight speakers. All the sample population is algerian teachers and learners of English. The results suggest that the sample population has difficulties in pronounce sounds which do not exist in their mother tongue such as: the consonant sound / η / and especially vowels like diphthongs and triphthongs. In addition to complex syllable structure, the study suggests that some sounds have been found to pose some difficulties due to the differences with the native language, and that difficulty is attributable to the native language influence. Other sounds were produced with much less difficulty due to the fact that they are already present in the native language. This study provides insights and assists foreign language teachers with some teaching strategies in pronunciation regarding the influence of the native language. It aims also through some recommendations to reduce or eliminate future problems and achieve good English pronunciation.

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

1- CAH

Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis

2- F L A

First Language Acquisition

3- F L L

Foreign Language Learning

4- H C A High Commission for Amazigh 5- O T

Optimality Theory

6- P A M Perceptual Assimilation Model 7- Q

Question

8- S P M Speech Perception Models 9- S L M Speech Learning Model

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 01: Methodological Framework ...............................................................

07

Figure 02: Tamazight Vowel Sounds Distribution.................................................

31

Figure 03: Tamazight Syllable Structure ..............................................................

34

Figure 04: Tamazight Linkage Syllable..................................................................

36

Figure 05: English Short Vowel Sounds Distribution ...........................................

54

Figure 06: English Long Vowel Sounds Distribution ............................................

55

Figure 07: English Diphthong Vowel Sounds Distribution ...................................

56

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 01: Tamazight Consonant Sounds................................................................. . 26 Table 02: Tamazight Consonants Chart... ................................................................ 27 Table 03: Tamazight Syllable Structure.................................................................

35

Table 04: English Consonant Sounds.....................................................................

51

Table 05: Chart of English Consonant Phonemes...................................................

52

Table 06: Basic Tongue Positions for English Vowels...........................................

53

Table 07: English Possible Syllable Consonant Structures......................................

59

Table 08: Contrasting Learning/Acquisition between English and Tamazight...........74 Table 09: Learning /Acquisition Process...............................................................

75

Table 10: Contrasting English Consonant Sounds with Tamazight........................

77

Table 11: Contrasting English Vowel Sounds with Tamazight ............................... 79 Table 12: Contrasting English Consonants Sounds Distribution with Tamazight................................................................................................................... 81 Table 13: Contrasting English Syllable Structure with Tamazight........................... 85 Table 14: Contrasting English Intonation Patterns with Tamazight..........................87 Table 15: Native Language Speakers................................................................. ......91 Table 16: Languages Learnt at School......................................................................91 Table 17: Speaking English with Tamazight Accent................................................92 Table 18: Difficulties in Learning English Skills in Relation to Tamazight.............93 Table 19: Opinions about Good Pronunciation in Relation to Tamazight ...............94 Table 20: English Pronunciation Symbols ................................................................95 Table 21: English Accent in Relation to Tamazight .................................................95

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Table 22: Pronunciation Learning Regarding Tamazight

......................................96

Table 23: Pronunciation Difficulties Regarding Tamazight......................................97 Table 24: Degree of Difficulty between Vowels in Relation to Tamazight..............99 Table 25: Influence of Tamazight Sounds on Learning English Sounds..................99 Table 26: Relationship between Tamazight and English Accent............................. 100 Table 27: Influence of Tamazight on English Pronunciation Teaching ...................100 Table 28: Extent of Tamazight Influence..................................................................101 Table 29: Influence of Tamazight Consonant Sounds on English Ones ..................101 Table 30: Kind of Influence.......................................................................................102 Table 31: Relationship between Tamazight and English Vowels.............................102 Table 32: Kind of Tamazight Influence on Vowels..................................................103 Table 33: Relation between English Short/Long Vowels and Tamazight ................104 Table 34: Influence of Tamazight on English Diphthongs........................................104 Table 35: Influence of Tamazight on English Triphthongs ......................................105 Table 36: Relationship between Tamazight and English Syllable Structure...........106 Table 37: Kind of Influence on English Syllable Teaching .....................................107 Table 38: Difficulties in Teaching English Stress.......................................................108 Table 39: Kind of Influence of Tamazight on English Stress.................................. 108 Table 40: Difficulties in Teaching English Intonation............................................ 109 Table 41: Kind of Influence of Tamazight on English Intonation ..........................109 Table 42: Influence of Tamazight Sound System on English Sound System...........110 Table 43: Grapheme System of Tamazight................................................................144 Table 44: Letter Correspondences / Contrasts between Tamazight and English......146

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CONTENTS DEDICATION........................................................................................................

I

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS....................................................................................

II

ABSTRACT............................................................................................................

IV

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.................................................................................

V

LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................

VI

LIST OF TABLES..................................................................................................

VII

CONTENTS............................................................................................................

IX

GENERAL INTRODUCTION Introduction………………………………………………………………….……

01

1. Statement of the Problem....................................................................................

01

2. Aim of the Study.................................................................................................

03

3. Research Questions.............................................................................................

04

4. Significance of the Study....................................................................................

04

5. Organization of the Work...................................................................................

05

6. Research Methodology.......................................................................................

06

6.1. Choice of the Subject......................................................................................

06

6.2. Questionnaire for Learners..............................................................................

06

6.3. Questionnaire for Teachers ...........................................................................

07

6.4. Scope of the Study .........................................................................................

07

6.5. Population and Sampling................................................................................

07

6.6. Limitations of The Study................................................................................

08

6.7. Choice of the Method......................................................................................

08

6.8. Data Collection ..............................................................................................

08

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6.9. Methodological Framework............................................................................

09

1. CHAPTER ONE: TAMAZIGHT SOUND SYSTEM Introduction.............................................................................................................

11

1.1. Language Repertoire of Algerians...................................................................

11

1.1. Spoken Languages in Algeria........................................................................

12

1.1.1. Tamazight...............................................................................................

12

1.1.2. Arabic.....................................................................................................

15

1.1.3. English...................................................................................................

16

1. 2- First Language Acquisition.............................................................................

17

1.2.1 Language Acquisition in the Child...........................................................

17

1.2.2 Phases of First Language Acquisition.......................................................

19

1.2.2.1 Pre – natal Phase...............................................................................

19

1.2.2.2 Babbling Phase..................................................................................

20

1.2.2.3 Words Phase .....................................................................................

21

1.2.2.4 Sounds and Pronunciation Phase .....................................................

23

1. 3. Tamazight Sound System................................................................................

24

1.3.1 Segmental Features....................................................................................

24

1.3.1.1 Consonant Sounds..........................................................................

25

1.3.1.1.1 Chart of Consonant Sounds......................................................

26

1.3.1.1.2 Description of Consonant Sounds............................................

27

1.3.1.2 Vowel Sounds................................................................................

30

1.3.1.2.1 Description of each Vowel.......................................................

31

1.3.1.2.2 Distribution of Vowels in Words.............................................

32

1.3.2 Suprasegmental Features............................................................................

33

1.3.2.1 Tamazight Syllable Structure............................................................

33

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1.3.2.1.1 Tamazight Possible Consonants Clusters......................................

35

1.3.2.2 Stress...............................................................................................

36

1.3.2.3 Intonation........................................................................................

37

Conclusion..............................................................................................................

38

2. CHAPTER TWO: ENGLISH SOUND SYSTEM Introduction.............................................................................................................

39

2.1. English Language Status..................................................................................

39

2.2. Foreign Language Learning / Teaching...........................................................

40

2.2.1 Role of Age...............................................................................................

40

2.2.2 Learning English as a Foreign Language .................................................

41

2.2.3 Teachers’ Role in Learning English as a Foreign Language....................

41

2.2.4 Speech Perception Models...................................................................

42

2.2.4.1 Speech Learning Model................................................................

43

2.2.4.2 Perceptual Assimilation Model.....................................................

43

2.2.4.3 Optimality Theory.........................................................................

44

2.3.

Importance

of

Phonological

Awareness

in

Foreign

Language

45

Learning..................................................................................................................

45

2.3.1 Relationship between Phonological Awareness of the Native Language and the foreign Language........................................................................................

45

2.3.2 Significance of Phonemic Awareness in a Foreign Language....................

47

2.4. English Sound System...................................................................................

49

2.4.1 Significance of Pronunciation.....................................................................

49

2.4.2 English Segmental Features........................................................................

50

2.4.2.1 Consonant Sounds................................................................................

51

2.4.2.1.1 Consonants Chart.........................................................................

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2.4.2.2 Vowel Sounds.......................................................................................

52

2.4.2.2.1 Description of English Vowels.....................................................

53

2.4.2.2.2 Production of English Vowels......................................................

53

2.4.2.2.3.1 Short Vowels........................................................................

53

2.4.2.2.3.2 Long Vowels......................................................................

55

2.4.2.2.3.3 Diphthongs.........................................................................

56

2.4.2.2.3.4 Triphthongs..........................................................................

57

2.4.3 English Suprasegmental Features...............................................................

57

2.4.3.1 English Syllable Structure....................................................................

57

2.4.3.1.1 English Possible Syllable Structures............................................

58

2.4.3.2 English Stress .......................................................................................

60

2.4.3.3 Intonation..............................................................................................

60

Conclusion..............................................................................................................

62

3. CHAPTER THREE: CONTRASTIVE ANALYSES OF ENGLISH AND TAMAZIGHT Introduction.............................................................................................................

63

3.1. Foreign Language Learning Theories..............................................................

64

3.1.1 Contrastive Analysis Theory......................................................................

64

3.1.2 Contrastive Analysis of Phonology............................................................

66

3.1.3 Error Analysis Theory................................................................................

67

3.2. Role of the Native Language.........................................................................

68

3.3. Foreign Language Learning Difficulties........................................................

69

3.4. Techniques of Comparison.............................................................................

70

3.4.1 Similarities..................................................................................................

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3.4.2. Differences.................................................................................................

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3.5. Contrastive Analyses of Tamazight and English.............................................

72

3.5.1 Contrastive Analyses of Tamazight and English Learning/Teaching.......

72

3.5.2 Contrastive Analyses in Phonology..........................................................

75

3.5.2.1 Segemental level ...............................................................................

75

3.5.2.1.1 Sound Correspondences between Tamazight and English........

75

3.5.2.1.3 Common Consonant Sounds between Tamazight and English.

77

3.5.2.1.4 Non-English Consonant Sounds................................................

78

3.5.2.1.5 Non-Tamazight Consonant Sounds...........................................

78

3.5.2.1.6 Vowel Sounds Correspondences................................................

78

3.5.2.1.7 Common Vowel Sounds ...........................................................

80

3.5.2.1.8 Non – English Vowel Sounds....................................................

80

3.5.2.1.9 Non –Tamazight Vowel Sounds................................................

80

3.5.2.1.10 Chart of Consonants Sounds Correspondences.......................

80

3.5.2.1.11 Contrastive Analyses of Vowel Chart......................................

83

3.5.3.2 Suprasegmental Level ...............................................................................84 3.5.3.2.1 Contrastive Analyses of the Syllable Structure ...........................

84

3.5.3.2.1.1 Common Syllable Structures................................................

86

3.5.3.2.1.2Non-Tamazight Syllable Structures.......................................

86

3.5.3.2.1.3 Non English Syllable Structures...........................................

87

3.5.3.2.2 Contrasting English Intonation Patterns with Tamazight .............

87

Conclusion..............................................................................................................

89

4.

CHAPTER

FIVE:

RESULTS,

ANALYSES

AND

RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction.............................................................................................................

90

4.1. Findings ..........................................................................................................

90

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4.1.1 Section A Findings From Learners’ Questionnaire ...............................

90

4.1.2 Section B Findings from Teachers’ Questionnaire ................................

100

4.2. Analyses of Findings.....……….............…………………….....……………

111

4.2.1 Analyses of Findings from Learners’ Questionnaires ............................

111

4.2.2 Analyses of Findings from Teacher’s Questionnaire …...……………..

113

4.3. Discussion.....……………………………………….................……..............

115

4.4. Recommendations for Future Research ….....………......…………...............

117

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………......

119

GENERAL CONCLUSION.................................................................................

120

BIBLIOGRAPHY …………………......………................……………………..

122

APPENDICES APPENDIX 01 Pre –questionnaire for Learners ..................................................

128

APPENDIX 02 Pre –questionnaire for Teachers .................................................

131

APPENDIX 03 Questionnaire for Learners ..........................................................

134

APPENDIX 04 Questionnaire for Teachers .........................................................

138

APPENDIX 05 Grapheme System of Tamazight..................................................

143

APPENDIX06 Letter Correspondences between Tamazight and English..........

145

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Introduction It is obvious that foreign language teachers / learners want to distinguish foreign language features from those of their native language in regard to pronunciation. However, this aim rarely turns into reality perhaps because English pronunciation achievement is far more complex than it may seem especially for adults learners. However, a much better understanding of them will help us to determine the learners‟ phonological performance in the target language and enable teachers to structure lessons that will improve pronunciation. The present study discusses the phonological issues of the native language – Tamazight- as well as that of –English- in teaching / learning context in an Algerian secondary school by looking into the potential influence resulted from the native language while learning English pronunciation by identifying the patterns in their English speech resulting from the influence of Tamazight. 1. Statement of the Problem Algerian foreign language classroom is characterized by the teaching of English and the introduction of Tamazight into Algerian school curricula. In this case, it seems to us that it becomes extremely important to look into Algerian foreign language classroom reality. The results of the pre- questionnaires conducted with teachers / learners have prompted our interest to help teachers / learners overcome their linguistic obstacles through focusing on some specific difficulties we face with English pronunciation. This may be due to the gap between their native language and the foreign language pronunciation. According to Singer (2006:5) “ There exists an abundance of research with other language groups such as Hispanic, French and so on but not with Afro –Asiatic languages”. Therefore, Tamazight deserves to be investigated with a view to compare it with English and classify problems related to pronunciation.

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Though many learners have attained a comprehensible level of English speech, there is still a room for improvement. Despite their success in grammar and vocabulary, many of them still lack some of the subtle nuances of English pronunciation that makes their speech more comprehensible. So we decided to look into issues related to pronunciation to improve their learning of English, and help teachers to design their lessons. To learn a foreign language, one must learn the language grammatical structures, lexicon, phonological features. Gass and Selinker (2008:259) “ pronunciation is arguably one of the most important language skills, in the sense that, with clear pronunciation learners can be easy to understand even when their grammar and vocabulary are not at best, while poor pronunciation can make a learner very difficult to understand even if his / her grammar is technically excellent, because pronunciation is linked to the development of other linguistic skills”. In order to manoeuver more easily in the foreign language classroom, we ought to pinpoint the origins of the students limitations in English by looking at the conventions of their mother language Swan and Smith (2004, cited in Singer, 2006:31) and from there, we devise a plan to help teachers / learners overcome these marked challenges related to the pronunciation. According to Florez (1998, cited in Singer, 2006:12) “Limited pronunciation skill can undermine learner‟s self-confidence, restrict social interactions and negatively affect estimations of a speaker‟s credibility”. We are going to make a contrastive study to discover similarities and dissimilarities between Tamazight and English. According to Lado‟s view (1957:59) “similar structures will be easy to learn because they will be transferred and may function satisfactorily in the foreign language. Those structures that are different will be

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difficult because when they are transferred, they will not function satisfactorily in the foreign language and will therefore have to be changed”. By noting the extent of these problems of understanding the difficulties experienced by teachers / learners of English, we have decided to conduct a research to identify the phonological errors by focusing on both segmental and suprasegmental features, since they are considered as interrelated and complimentary sound features of any given language that foreign language learners may have problems while learning them as expressed clearly in the pre-questionnaires. 2. Aim of the Study On the basis of previous facts about foreign language classroom reality, our intention is to see how we could possibly look into the possible relationship between the phonological systems of Tamazight and English. We need to improve our understanding of Algeria‟s English classroom reality through providing sufficient information in terms of whether there is a link between the phonological awareness of the mother tongue and that of English. The aim is to help English teachers / learners improve the teaching / learning of pronunciation on the one hand, and open the door for English teachers into the source of difficulties on the other hand. Then, design and prepare lessons of pronunciation based on taking into consideration properties of the sound systems that these languages have in common and those in which they differ. It is hoped that the findings of the research help English teachers to have a general idea about the potential problems that Algerian (Tamazight speakers) learners of English would encounter in pronunciation, as well as teachers. So English foreign language teachers can accommodate these problems by allowing more time to focus on the difficulties that are more likely to cause problems in order to improve their lessons

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related to pronunciation and help learners overcome their difficulties resulted from their mother tongue. 3. Research Questions Consistent with previous contrastive studies done between languages in the phonological aspects (segmental and suprasegmental features), and on the basis of the findings and their contribution in promoting the teaching / learning of the foreign language pronunciation, we can ask the following questions: a. What is the role of the phonological system of Tamazight in teaching / learning the phonological system of English? b. How do the phonological structures of the native language and the target language constrain / help foreign language learning/ teaching? c. What should teachers take into considerations in order to achieve a good foreign language pronunciation? d. Are there differences and similarities between the phonological structures of the mother tongue –Tamazight- and the target language –English- ? 4. Significance of the Study There have been an abundance of research which investigated the difficulties that may encounter learners of a foreign language and more particularly the influence of the previous acquired languages, when they come to perform in different language skills such as; vocabulary, grammar, etc. Other studies investigated pronunciation difficulties and made contrastive analyses between the structures of the mother tongue and the target language such as English, Spanish, etc, in order to sort out similarities and differences for the sake of suggesting solutions for difficulties and eliminating future problems that may result from native language influence when learning / teaching foreign language.

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The significance of the present study lies in the fact that it investigates the contrastive facts between Tamazight and English and looks into Tamazight speakers difficulties with English pronunciation in both levels -segmental and suprasegmental features-. Results of the study may provide insights for English teachers that may improve the teaching of English pronunciation. 5. Organization of the Work In order to create a viable theoretical framework of this study, it is necessary to carefully review currently available literature related to the topic. Our work will be divided into four chapters. The first chapter will be devoted to the phonological system of Tamazight as the native language of the intended population. Many aspects are discussed such as; the situation of Tamazight within Algerian context, the historical background, the domain of use, then, the acquisition process and finally the phonological system of Tamazight which involves both segmental and suprasegmental features. The second chapter discusses the background of English and it‟s phonological system. This chapter is devoted to the following broadlines; foreign language learning / teaching, the role of phonology in learning a foreign language and the sound system of English referring to the segmental and suprasegmental features. This chapter paves the way to make contrastive analyses between English and Tamazight about the points highlighted in chapters one and two. The third chapter discusses contrastive analyses between Tamazight and English, taking into consideration the points highlighted in chapters one and two. Starting from literature background about Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis, tables of comparison are displayed about the correspondents / contrasts facts. And the last one discusses results, analyses and recommendations.

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6. Research Methodology In order to carry out this research, a particular method is needed to analyse the situation being studied. Tt presents the method and details the research methodology and principles underpinning it. Finally, it concludes with the scope of the research. Questionnaires were administered to both teachers and learners. There are two types of questionnaires: pre- questionnaires for both teachers and learners to develop more clearly their views about teaching/learning English in relation to their mother language, and post questionnaires to deepen our understanding of the problems pointed out in the pre – questionnaires to establish a baseline for suggesting recommendations. Questionnaires were administered to collect data from the intended sample population of 60 learners of English in an Algerian secondary school and 05 teachers who are working at the same school. 6.1. Choice of the Subject It concerns problems experienced by Tamazight students who are learning English at a secondary school level in Algeria in Tamazight speaking environment. The sample population includes teachers and learners. 6.2. Learners’ Questionnaire The questionnaire for learners includes general and specific questions, they are grouped into two sections: the first section consists of questions which are more general that seek to find out general information; the second section consists of questions which are specific to the way they learn English and experience problems with pronunciation.

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6.3. Teachers’ Questionnaire They are of two types: the first one concerns questions about general information, while the second one deals with some specific questions about the difficulties that may be encountered while teaching English and the possible sources of difficulties for learners who speak Tamazight. 6.4. Scope of the Study This study is about how Amazingh learners of English get influenced by their native language sounds when they perform in the target language seeking to reveal the possible similarities and differences between Tamazight and English concerning pronunciation issues. 6.5. Population and Sampling The sample population concerns the second year learners at the secondary school of Barbacha and teachers of English language working there. The population is from Tamazight speaking background. We chose them because we suppose they are trained enough in English pronunciation and more particularly at the segmental and suprasegmental levels. The sample study is chosen randomly from the whole secondary school population. According to Lecler (2006:1) “approximately 27.45% of the Algerian whole population are Amazighphones who speak one of the several varieties of Tamazight”. In this respect, we deal with the population of the North of Algeria. The linguistic background of the sample population is full of contradictions and paradoxes. Their native language is Tamazight; but when they joined school they learned and used Arabic as the language of instruction. In addition, they learnt French as the first foreign language.

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The most striking fact between Tamazight and English in the Algerian context is that they do share nothing. As a result, we think that Tamazight would influence learners‟ of English. 6.6. Limitations of the Study The results obtained do not seek any generalization because they concern the study of the sample. We are perfectly aware that there are many other factors which can have some impacts on the learner‟s pronunciation quality of English. Such factors are learner‟s motivation, classroom management, allocated time for each language /subject matter etc. So the case study results are not generalisable but may be so only, if we have accumulated sufficient amount of other results in other researches conducted under the same circumstances. 6.7. Choice of the Method Since the aim of the study is to discover similarities and differences between Tamazight and English in issues related to pronunciation to determine difficulties that may be encountered by Amazigh learners when learning English, then the appropriate method to structure the study is a descriptive one that enables us to delimit the contrasts and correspondents facts between the phonological system of Tamazight and that of English. 6.8. Data Collection In order to answer our research questions, both teachers and learners have been provided with pre- questionnaires to see their potential difficulties when they come to teach /learn English pronunciation. Once this checked to exist, other questionnaires have been assigned to teachers / learners to deepen our understanding of the problems pointed out in the pre-questionnaires. The analyses of these questionnaires make the basis to recommendations.

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6.9. Methodological Framework In order to illustrate clearly the method followed in this research, it seems better to summarize it in the following framework. Tt displays all the details that are involved in the study starting from the general introduction to the practical section and conclusions.

Research Purpose

-

Discover

similarities

and

differences between phonological systems. -

Suggest recommendations that can

Research Questions be used in teaching pronunciation. Research Method

-

Can

Tamazight

phonological

system hamper or favour teaching / learning the phonological features of Research Sample English?

Data Gathering Tools

Recommendations

-

Descriptive

-

Group of 2nd Year Secondary

School at an Algerian school. -

Conclusions

Pre - questionnaires and Post -

questionnaires for teachers and learners.

-

Evaluation of the findings.

Figure 7: Methodological Framework

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In fact, this chapter describes the research methodology followed in this study in terms of the different means such as: methods and tools, the questionnaires for both learners and teachers as means to sort out their views about the possible difficulties. Also, it embraces the description of the sample population and it‟s linguistics background.

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Introduction This chapter is about the background of Tamazight language situation and its phonological characteristics. It is the starting point in our research to describe the sound system of Tamazight in order to see its influence on learning the sound system of the target language, by looking into the similarities and differences between them in pronunciation. This chapter is organized through three interrelated parts. The first part is about the description of linguistic landscape in Algeria: Tamazight, Arabic, and English and more particularly Tamazight as the native language and English as the target language. The second part is about the first language acquisition, which involves the description of the child‟s language and the different stages of acquisition, in order to shed light on the differences that may exist between first language acquisition and foreign language learning. The third is designed to the phonological features of Tamazight at both levels, segmental features such as consonant sounds and vowel sounds, and suprasegmental features such as syllable structure, stress, and intonation. This part will give us an opportunity to have some facts to be compared with the phonological characteristics of the target language, as the ultimate aim which is stated clearly in the title. 1.1. Language Repertoire of Algerians Algeria is one of the largest countries in the North African region. That is to say, it is so important to discuss the linguistic composition of Algerians. In Algeria, a repertoire can be used to describe the phenomenon of multilingualism that consists of knowing of one or more vernaculars and at least one formal written language. According to Laitin (1992, cited in Mouhleb, 2005:21) “Language repertoires are the set of languages that a citizen must know in order to take the advantage of a wide range of

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mobility opportunities in his or her country”. That is to say, mastering some spoken languages that can be used for communication and some written languages for administration and official use. The following section describes the different languages used in Algeria. 1.1. 2 Spoken Languages in Algeria A spoken language is the basic tool of communication and the key into understanding one‟s background and mentality. All Algerians speak at least two languages; which have made up our dialect of “Darja”. In addition, the use of English starts to emerge between Algerians today more than ever before as a foreign language. Algeria with its strategic location at the crossroads of Africa, Europe and the Middle East means that for centuries this country has been open to a variety of linguistic influences, some of them seem to have left little traces, while others have developed enormous importance and left great traces. There are three languages which must be mentioned in any account of language issues in Algeria; Tamazight, Arabic, and French as basic spoken and written languages in Algerian society. 1.1.2.1 Tamazight Tamazight is known to be the indigenous language of the population of North Africa for over fifty centuries (El Aissati, 2001:1). This language is primarily a spoken language in Algeria. In an article (-Le Monde- of 13 November 1992, cited in El Aissati, 2001:1) it is claimed that 40% of the population in Algeria speak Tamazight. The term Tamazight covers a number of related dialects of the Hamito-Semitic family (Afro-Asiatic languages) which are spoken not only in Algeria, but also in Morroco, part of Tunisia, and parts of adjoining sub-Saharan countries. This term is used as a means of drawing together and uniting otherwise disparate groups of people and the dialects (kabyle, Chaoui, Tashelhit, etc). Though the presence of Tamazight in

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Algeria (North Africa) is recognized as having existed for some 5000 years ago (Boukous, 1995:18), it has never been codified (never written) and script-Tifinagh is unknown and unpopular in Algeria. It has, therefore, survived very much as the language of communication for a large part of Algerians for different long historical periods. Until recently, the Latin alphabet has been favoured Titmatine and Suleiman (1996, cited in Mouhleb, 2005:17) for the reason, that it is “the most appropriate to use for Tamazight because it is practical and scientifically adequate, this choice would ensure a rapid development of Tamazight especially within education ». On the other hand, they do not exclude other solutions based on Arabic and Tifinagh characters. In addition, many efforts were made for the elaboration, standardization and codification of this language. For example, (Chaker,1997:95), they tried to develop a standardized grammar in the 1980„s; as a result, we find dozens of books and dictionaries in Kabyle using the Latin alphabet that have been published. Consequently, Tamazight has developed a corpus of novels, short stories, collections of poetry and plays since 1970. People speaking Tamazight embraced Islam when the Arab brought it to the North Africa in the seventh century. But in the beginning, they did not adopt Arab language for every day use and Tamazight remained the language of communication; the working language “une langue à valeur symbolique qui façonne

l‟imaginaire des

Amazighphones et definit leur identité culturelle collective face à l‟alterité” Boukous (1995, cited in Dawn, 2005:1488). However, some remarkable facts could be noted about this language. The original speakers had to withdraw toward mountainous regions. In general, this language tends to be associated with rural and village life and marginalized in modern society. There are decreasing numbers of monolingual Tamazight speakers Malherbe (1995, cited in Dawn, 2005:1487). On the other hand,

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this may have a positive effects because thanks to it, Tamazight survived successfully as a spoken language. According to Giles (1973, cited in Driedger and Church, 1974). “Minority group speakers who are concentrated in the rural area may stand a better chance of surviving as a dynamic linguistic community by virtue of the fact that they are in frequent verbal interaction and can maintain language, feelings, and solidarity”. As a result, in recent years after independence, the cultural movement of Tamazight has been gaining strength by calling for an official recognition which resulted in the establishment of the HCA “High Commission for Tamazight” in 2002. Tamazight was recognized as a national language, but not as an official one, it does not enjoy a status of an official recognition used as a language of administration and instruction beside Arabic. But in any case, this step is considered as a positive action that has been undertaken in favour of Tamazight. There is no doubt that Tamazight still has an important weight within Algerian modern society. Here ,we can highlight points like the introduction of this language into the school system during the beginning of 1990‟s, the program of Tamazight teaching was started and this process was accompanied by training teachers specialized in the teaching of this subject. Algerian Education Ministry is trying to generalize the teaching of Tamazight all over the national territory. To do this; it needs to train enough teachers, professors, inspectors, researchers, etc. This process is followed by two important questions: the first one, whether varieties of Tamazight (Tachelhit, Takbaylit, etc) or the standard and common language should be taught; the second one, is related to the type of alphabet to write it with: Arabic, Latin, or Tifinagh. At the end, some of the Amazigh cultural movements and trends have proposed and continue to propose the teaching of Common Standard Tamazight using the Latin script.

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Another aspect of development, in addition to the teaching, concerns the media. We should recall that there is a public radio that broadcasts daily in Tamazight (Soummam Radio) and news in a national T.V channel. In addition, some magazines deal with linguistic, anthropological and historical subjects related to Tamazight language and culture. Tamazight has a considerable number of speakers and domains of use and enjoys an important status within Algerian society even if the scale of use of Tamazight is reduced in large parts of Algeria due to historical reasons related to the competition between languages. So, it still needs enormous efforts and resources to be carried out in the teaching and using of Tamazight within Algerian modern context, playing thus a role of cohesion and solidarity among Algerian people (Moustaoui, 2006:11-17). 1.1.2.2 Arabic Algeria is a multilingual country; the majority of the population is Arabophone. Arabic has always been a language of prestige with two levels: classical Arabic (the written, standardized form), and dialectal Arabic ( the spoken, non-standardized form). Classical Arabic is used for religion context, education, official use, written functions, and it is used by both Algerian Arabic speakers and native Tamazight speakers; although very few people are fluent in it. The second form is the dialectal one used for informal and spoken context (Mouhleb, 2005:9). According to Boukous (1995:35) “ a new form of Arabic is emerging called intermediate”. This form acts as a semi-formal one used by educators in radio and television. As far as this language is concerned, the Algerian state, after independence has pursued a language policy called “Arabization” According to Marley (2005:1487) “ this language policy aimed at creating a monolingual nation” especially to eradicate French,

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colonial influence, distancing Algerian nation from France as a means for cementing unity between Algerian people (Mouhleb, 2005:10 ). Arabization has been set down in the Constitution. Article three states that “the Arabic language is the national and official language”. According to Boumedienne (Previous president of Algeria between 1965-1979)“ The transformation of the Algerian man and the recovery of identity should be achieved by actively pursuing the program of Arabization, which constitutes an essential instrument for the restoration of our national personality and which must come out from the use of the national language in all areas of economic, social and cultural life” EL Moudjahid (15.05 1974, cited in Mouhleb, 2005:10). Arabic enjoys an outstanding position within Algerian society and plays an important role since it maintains communication between speakers at all levels, and expresses different aspects of Algerian culture, and most importantly as a Lingua Franca among Tamazight speaking people. 1.1.2.3 English English enjoys a status of a second foreign language. It was introduced into the Algerian school curricula after independence in Middle, Secondary levels as well as at University level for two reasons: - The great status of this language in the worldwide community. -The new language policy of the country whih came as a response to the needs of the Algerian modern society. The use of English within Algerian context is still limited to the fields of education and marketing (Oil companies from English speaking countries working in Algeria). Finally, we can say that the Algerian linguistic context is characterized by language complexity since Algerian society has had a long tradition of multilingualism.

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1.2. First Language Acquisition Since this chapter is devoted to Tamazight phonology, it is worth referring to the literature background related to the way how this language is acquired. We will start by discussing child‟s language, and then, the phases of development of first language acquisition. 1.2.1 Child Language Acquisition According to Bloomfield (1933, cited in Gass and Selinker, 2008:90) the child starts to produce non-adults language forms as a window to construct different linguistic skills such as; grammar, phonology, vocabulary, etc. For example, Behaviourists stated that children are actively involved in creating the grammar of their first Language, they make sense of the language they are exposed to. For example, children construct grammar units by overgeneralization of rules, such as; those that govern tenses; i.e., “goed”, “comed”, and” singed” instead of saying “went”, “came” and “sang”, as a sign of immaturity. Here, interested parents would note the child‟s utterances selected from recognizable words. Brown and Wells (1985) made observations between mother and child interaction. They started to observe a feasible organic growth of grammatical systems and subsystems. An infant is biologically ready to learn language with a mental representation as a basic tool for speech and understanding in terms of generative grammar Chomsky( 1965, cited in Lamrque, 1997:64-68). Marcus et al (1992, cited in Gass and Selinker, 2008:89 ) worked on Brown‟s data from children language, they suggested a graph to measure the development of overregulation (overgeneralization) rate which varies across children. In the graph; the first tail represents correct performance on irregular forms (come – came), (go-went), the trough represents a large number of errors (goed, comed, etc). The second tail shows

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the child‟s recovery to correct performance on both regular and irregular forms. This process is considered as an indication of the development of acquisition process of child‟s language which depends on the organization and reorganization of rules and representations. Chomskyan theory stated that child‟s language acquisition depends on commonalities existing between languages at the abstract level: according to Chomsky (1965, cited in Lamrque, 1997:65) “universal features that any language has in its own system”. On the other hand, other cross- linguistic studies showed differences existing between languages in which each language selects possible distinctive values and features, which may affect child‟s language acquisition, such differences may exist between many languages. For example, Italian and English, Italian does not need to have a noun or pronoun, this means that, sentence structure can be fulfilled by verb+ object. While English, the subject must be expressed by either a proper noun or a pronoun, this means that sentence‟ s structure can be fulfilled by subject +verb + object – this difference is called – Null Subject Parameter –. So Italian and English children have to determine first which parameter is set. That is to say, which particular parameter language selects in order to acquire a sentence structure first and then language. And any attempt to correct child‟s errors will not be successful unless the child is ready to make the change towards the more adult- like form without any direct intervention by adults. Hyam (1992, cited in Lamarque, 1997:64-68) used data from CHILD‟s base to explore the child‟s setting of the Null Parameter for English speakers. He found a rapid increase in the establishing and realizing of subject in English sentence structure in a 5 month period from month up to 03 years. As a result, English is not a Null- Subject Language. As far as child‟s first language acquisition is concerned, children acquire

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phonemes. According to Major and Kim (1999, cited in Spek, 2001:77), in the beginning they become perceptually attuned to how those phonemes are phonetically implemented by mastering contrastive units. These units guide development of the language specific articulatory motor routines needed, to put into practice the appropriate phonemes in their specific context e.g., to produce /t/ in initial position in a word as opposed to the final position. For example, children acquiring Spanish and English, they learn to produce different kinds of contrastive units between /t/ and /d/. The L1 Spanish child learner learns to produce an unaspirated /t/ while the English child learner learns to produce an aspirated /th/. As a result, children can soon be identified as belonging to a specific speech community. Finally, child‟s language acquisition varies from one child to another due to the varieties existing between languages. That is why, the process of child„s language acquisition undergoes different phases towards a full successful acquisition of language. Here, we will discuss the phases of first language acquisition. 1.2.2 First Language Acquisition Phases Children use language by manipulating various means to communicate their needs. In the beginning, they use means; most of them are not precisely like the regular speech sounds of adult‟s language. For example, infants use “cooing”, “smiling” sound to play with such language and sometimes displaying some sound features as loudness and pitch Foster-Cohen (1999, cited in Gass and Selinker, 2008:31). The following are the phases that any child goes through towards a full acquisition of his /her first language. 1.2.2.1 Pre-natal Phase During the first six months, the establishment of the phonemic system in the infant seems to take place. Human beings are supposed to be born with a genetic disposition for language Dehaene et al ( 1971, cited in Raymond, 1994:3), at birth, babies can

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discriminate all of no less than one hundred phonemes of natural human languages (any child is ready to acquire any human natural language), with a slight preference for those phonemes of the mother tongue which the infant is exposed to. A new born in a Tamazight speaking community is ready to acquire this language because the infant is equipped with phonemes related to his language, the same is true for someone born in an English speaking environment. In all cultures; mothers help their infants. The language heard remodels the map of acquisition and perception (speech sounds that are performed by adult‟s speakers). That is to say, the infant selects from the available phonemes that are best fit with the language he/she is exposed to. Thus, the child‟s experience of contrasts with neighbouring phones is essential. In addition, these aspects of language acquisition are accompanied by physiological changes in the infant. By the age of six, the larynx the voice box with the vocal cords of a baby is similar to that of primates making speech production more possible. These changes mark the onset of the babbling phase as a sign that the development of language production can now start. 1.2.2.2 Babbling Phase This phase begins when some physiological changes occur in the infant‟s speech organs as said before. It takes place in the six months of age, when children start to produce consonants – vowels sequences like bababa, dadada, mamama, etc. which may be understood as words like father, mother, etc. Children acquire suprasegmental features of pronunciation like stress, and intonation. For example, manipulating stress on the second syllable of the sound da‟da followed by body movements to express the following word – pick me up daddy! According to Vihman (1996:25) “ the relationship between babbling and pure words at the age of six months shows that there is a decrease in babbling and increase in words and children start to have awareness of words”.

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Bloomfield (1933, cited in Gass and Selinker, 2008:34) also had a contribution to this point, assuming that stimulus and response condition is a direct cause for babbling. Suppose, for instance, that day after day the child is given his/her doll and says; da da , immediately after bath. This action would continue until the child forms a new habit in the form of babbling. That is, if one day the mother forgets to give him a doll, he may nevertheless cry da - da - da - after his bath, but he would ask for the doll by establishing a connection between stimuli – response condition. Jakobson (1941:1) proposed that children babble the sounds of all languages ( born with genetic disposition for all languages ), and there is a discontinuity between babbling and first words. He suggested that a physiological linkage has a profound effect on the sound systems that infants must go through and experience. For example, the consonant- vowel sequences (cv cv cv cv ), co- occurrence patterns found in babbling (consonant- vowel pairs in most of the world‟s languages ). And infants can also discriminate between languages with different rhythms Ramus (2002, cited in Velleman, 2008:28) and also within one language system with many consonantal contrasts such as voicing as / d/ versus / t/. During this age, infants respond to changes in pitch, duration, discriminate syllable, start to attend more to their names than the others, and then towards longer attendance to longer words in their own language. At this point, another phase begins from babbling into words. Otherwise, phonetically speaking, from CV CV CV CV structure into the CCC V CCC and CCCVCCCC structure. 1.2.2.3 Words Phase In the second half of the first year infants are increasingly able to recognize word‟s boundaries of the language they are exposed to. 10 month old infants display consonants and sequences of consonants and vowels from their own language and

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respond more to disyllabic sequences in single words and if the disyllabic sequences include medial consonant sequences that are common in their language Morgan (1996, cited in Gass and Selinker, 2008:32). In addition, they also stated that babies are associating segmental phonological cues with the prosodic cues that mark word boundaries more precisely. At 11 month, babies have an ability to attend longer lists of familiar over unfamiliar words as an indication that word acquisition has began by the ability to segment the speech stream into word level units despite the lack of pauses between units with an ability to show an intentional responses towards words occurring in running speech. We should remember that word recognition in children is different from that of adults as far as the function and meaning of the words are concerned. Words in child‟s language fulfill a number of functions, they can refer to objects, grammatical functions, serve a social functions and their dimensions. But words in adult‟s language seem to be different, for example, the word “allgone” is a one word in child‟s language even though it comprises two words “all” and “gone” in regard to adult‟s language. In addition, children overextend the meaning of the words with which they are familiar. According to Gibson (1986, cited in Gass and Selinker, 2008:34) children at the age of 19-20 month use the word “ bunny” to refer to doll, hen, shoe, car, people, produce, etc. At the same time, children under- extend the meaning of the words they know by using them in restricted contexts than words in the adult‟s language. Here, this problem may be due to the poor vocabulary that children have in their language when they use the overextension in meaning and the lack of experience in the environment of communication with others (children or adults) also to the under extension in meaning Gass and Selinker ( 2008:33). This phase is characterized by the recognition of the nature of acquisition which varies from one language to another (Germanic / English /Tamazight / French) and the

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function / meaning of recognized words by children are different when we come to compare them with correspondent words carried out between adult. In fact, this phase of acquisition is very important since it enables the child at least to communicate in a low level with others. 1.2.2.4 Sounds and Pronunciation Phase At the level of word acquisition, as said before, child‟s word is different from that of adult‟s in meaning and function. This fact may be due to the lack of experience and poor vocabulary. Another supposition can be applied with sound and pronunciation acquisition. The sound and pronunciation acquisition in the child is not identical to that of adult‟s speech, children start to distinguish some sounds early and they are likely to benefit from the fact that the speaker‟s pronunciation of difficult contrast (e. g. , /f / versus /v/ ) in English, is usually distinct rather than overlapping Velleman and Vihman ( 2008:6), it is the case also with the following sound in Tamazight (e. g. , /z/ like Azzeka vs Azeka) are also distinct rather than overlapping. Children begin to tail their vocal production to input speech patterns, eventhough, they produce full meaningful words like adult‟s pronunciation, but some differences in pronunciation and sound still exist. Common examples are substitutions: as in the word “rabbit” they would pronounce it “wabbit “substituting /r/ with /w/. Another difference may appear in deletion of syllables, as in ”dido” for the word “potato”, and in “tein” for the word “train” Ingram (1986, cited in Gass and Selinker, 2008:34), and simplification, such as “fis” inferred for the word “fish”. These phenomena can be explained by pronunciation abilities and putting sounds in their appropriate positions, since they can make a regular substitution. This means that they can perceive all the three different sounds but they do not place them appropriately especially in perception. In short, if you want to imitate his /her sound, they would get angry because they can clearly perceive well a difference

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although they do not make a difference in their own speech, which means that they master perception ability well before production ability. Finally, this phase is characterized by a gap between perception ability and production ability. Children have the ability to perceive pronunciation and sound features of the language being exposed to before having the ability to produce them perfectly, and they tend to use their ways up to their level when they move from perception stage towards production stage. In sum, First Language Acquisition in the child is characterized by overgeneralization phenomenon. We can say; for the sake of a perfect perception and production of any language acquisition is not a perfect and enough process but must be fostered by learning as a key element towards differences, difficulties and contrastive facts within one language or with other languages (second language, etc). That is why; we think that highlighting some contrastive facts in pronunciation between Tamazight and English would help the identification of the potential problems related to English pronunciation, with a view to providing insightful remarks about these two languages in terms of what they have in common and in the way they differ. 1.3. Tamazight Sound System In this section, we discuss the phonological characteristics of Tamazight at both levels: segmental inventories; as consonant sounds, vowel sounds and the distribution of each sound, also suprasegmental features: as syllable structure, stress and intonation. Here, it is worth to refer that Tamazight is among the less studied languages. 1.3.1 Segmental Features of Tamazight The most important question in phonetic theory is related to the type of sounds a language has. This is about vowel and consonant inventories . Every sound is either a vowel a consonant or segmental feature.

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1.3.1.1 Consonant Sounds Consonants are usually described in terms of obstruction of an air flow which is complete or partial in the mouth called place of articulation, and how the sound is made, called the manner of articulation and also whether the vocal cords vibrate (voicing or not) (Roach, 2005:26-36). The following table presents the consonant sounds of Tamazight with their different realizations: Consonants

Examples

Meaning in English

ba

Baba

Father

ba

Lebni

Building

ca

Acamar

Beater

ca

Uccay

Eating

ca

Yečča

Eat

da

Yedder

Alive

da

Adar

Feet

da

Asurdi

Money

fa

Afus

Hand

ga

Agawa

Seller

ha

Ahwawi

Happy man

ha

Ihemmel

Love

ja

Ajgu

Part of the tree

ja

Tajjalt

Cloth

ka

Ayefki

Milk

ka

Akal

Land

la

Tilelli

Freedom

la

Llufan

Baby

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ma

Tamurt

Country

na

Sin

Two

qa

Aqcic

Boy



Aγrum

Bread

ra

Rwiγ

Disturbed

ra

Rwiγ

Satisfied

sa

Asif

River

sar

Asefsaf

Long tree

ta

Tafat

Light

ta

Aftir

Food

wa

Amattar

Begger

xa

Awtul

Rabbit

ya

Scdem

Work

za

Yusef

Proper name

za

Azekka

Tomorrow

za

Azekka

Grave

εa

Aεiban

Handicap

kw

Tarkuwnt

Corner

gw

Agwem

Bring water

Table 1: Tamazight Consonant Sounds, adapted from Mammeri (1990: 15) 1.3.1.1.2 Chart of Consonant Sounds There are two parameters in determining consonant sounds. The place of articulation (speech organs that are responsible for producing consonant sounds), and the manner of articulation (characterizes the stream of the air by partial or complete

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obstruction). The mentioned two parameters identify the position of the consonants. The following table illustrates the chart of Tamazight consonant phonemes. Place of Articulation

šžž

x.r

Laryngeal

sş z z

glottal

k.g

uvular

f

velar

palatal

Post alveolar

Alveolar tţ dd

b

fricative

dental

Labia-dental

bilabial

stop

labial

Manner of Articulatio n

q

?

h

Ĥ

Affricate nasal

m

lateral Approxima nt

n l

w

j

Table 2: Tamazight Consonants Chart, adapted from Sadiqi (1997:33) 1.3.1.1.3 Description of Consonant Sounds The table above presents the main consonant sounds of Tamazight, Now, we discuss briefly the way each sound is produced, the number of allophones each sound has, the position of each sound in words, and an example is provided to each sound. Phoneme /b/ is a labial, plosive, and voiced (fortis) consonant. It can be replaced in general by /p/ in borrowing cases such as: [lbosta] = post, [lbulis] =police, [lbiru] =bureau. It comes rarely before voiced consonants and vowels, and can occur before a devoiced consonant with a tendency to be devoiced, such as in [ikubt] [axam] = home. Phoneme /t/ is an alveolar, and plosive (lenis) consonant. It has many allophones according to the phonetic situation in which it acts, as in [ith afth/ = ready. It is not aspirated when it precedes a consonant, between two vowels, between a vowel and consonant, and between a consonant and a vowel as in: [Imta] = hide, [Atfl] = snow.

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Phoneme /t/ is an alveolar plosive (lenis) consonant as in [tamtut] = woman. Phoneme /d/ is an alveolar plosive (fortis) consonant like /t/. /D/ that comes mostly in front of voiced consonants and vowels as in [udm] = carry. Phoneme /k/ is a velar, plosive, (fortis) consonant. It has other allophones and is mostly aspirated when it is in initial position or when followed by a vowel [a] as in [Kh ijin] = you. It becomes unaspirated when it is between two vowels and in front of [C] as in [açusam] = handicap. Phoneme /g/ is a velar, plosive, (fortis) consonant. It comes before consonants and vowels as in; [gwz] = go down ,[tagwnt] = door. Phoneme /q/ is a uvular, plosive, voiced consonant as in; [iqaridn] = money. Phoneme /? / is a laryngeal, plosive, voiced consonant as in; [? awal] = word. Phoneme /m/ is a nasal, labial consonant, which appears in the following contexts (v…v), (c…v) and (v…c) as in [imi] => mouth, [Asmum] => Companion, [Umlil]=> White (coulour). When it comes before or after a consonant, it can form a whole syllable in itself. Between two consonants, /m/ is mostly followed by a shwa as in [Mdl]=enter, [Small]=show. When it comes before devoiced one consonant, it tends to become devoiced one as in [mite] = hide, [Mka] = like this. Phoneme /n/ is an alveolar, nasal consonant-like /M/ sound. It appears mostly in the following contexts (v…v), (c…v) and (v…c) as in [anf] = open. In addition, the phoneme /n/ does not appear between two consonants without the presence of a vowel or a shwa. In such contexts the /n / mostly becomes syllabic as in [sans]=host, [Sanfl] =hide. Phoneme /f/ is a labio-dental, fricative, devoiced consonant. It has a tendency to appear in front of vowels and devoiced consonants as in [ afuss] = hand .

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Phoneme /s/ is an alveolar, fricative, devoiced consonant. It has many allophones according to the phonetic contexts where it functions. When it appears before a voiced consonant is mostly followed by a full vowel or by a shwa as in [asi ]=take. Phoneme /s/ is an alveolar, fricative, devoiced consonant, as in the following examples: [Asbud ] = wholesaler, [Tismdi] = refrigerator. Phoneme /z/ is an alveolar, fricative ,voiced consonant. It is the opposite of /s/ as in [ Izil ] = it is good. Phoneme /z/ is an alveolar, ficative, voiced consonant as in [izi] = insect. Phoneme /s/ is a post alveolar, fricative, devoiced consonant. It needs the insertion of a shwa when it comes before a voiced or devoiced consonant: [Satb]. Phoneme /z/ is a post alveolar, fricative, voiced consonant -the opposite of /s/ -. When it comes before a devoiced consonant, it has a tendency to become devoiced . Phoneme /x/ is a uvular, fricative, devoiced consonant. It has no allophone:[Xatr]=to enlarge, [ixf] =head. Phoneme /r/ is a uvular, fricative, voiced consonant -the opposite of (x) -. /R / sound shares with /q/ the place of articulation but not the manner of articulation: [urban] =teeth, [Arljas] = lion. Phoneme / h / is a pharyngeal, fricative, devoiced consonant. The consonant /h / is mostly followed by a full vowel: / rhuf / =deported. Phoneme /c/ is a pharyngeal, fricative, voiced consonant, the opposite of /h/: [açlak] =boy. Phoneme /h/ is a laryngeal, fricative, voiced consonant: [ihtr] = he speak. Phoneme /l/ is an alveolar, lateral, voiced consonant such as in [ilm] =skin. When /l/ is followed by another consonant, it may turn into a syllabic one as in [Atfl] =snow.

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Phoneme /r/ is alveolar, non lateral vibrating voiced consonant (all vibrating consonants are voiced). This consonant has considerable important allophones. It appears mostly before a vowel as in /rir/. /R/ may also appear between two vowels or between a vowel and a consonant as in [Ira] = see. Between two nasals, the phoneme /r/ tends to lose it‟s consonantal quality and becomes a half vowel as in; [Frfr] = fly, [fafa] = my father .When it comes before a consonant /r/ may become syllabic as in [rxu] =be easy. Phoneme /w/ is a velar labial semi consonant like in other natural languages. /W/ is of double aspects: consonantal and vocalic aspects, that is why it is regarded as semi – consonant or semi – vowel: [?awtul]= rabbit (Sadiqi,1997:34-41). Phoneme /j/ is like /w/, a palatal voiced semi – consonant as in: [tijni]. It seems that most consonant phonemes have many allophones. In Tamazight, consonants can form a natural class (two or more consonants share a distinctive character such as the place of articulation, manner of articulation and the presence / absence of voice quality ). For example, the following consonants [t, d, s, z, l, r] form one natural class due to the fact that they have the same place of articulation, which is the alveolar region. And also [f, s, x, h, z] form another natural class since they have the same manner of articulation. In addition to the consonant phonemes, there are also other phonemes called secondary phonemes. All Tamazight consonants have many secondary articulations which modify their sound quality and lead to create sometimes other additional distinctive functions (Sadiqi, 1997:43). 1.3.1.2 Vowel Sounds A vowel is defined as a sound introduced with a continuous air stream through the pharynx and mouth, it means no obstruction. Vowels are usually described in terms of quality and duration. The basic building blocks of most vowel systems are the three

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qualities in all the world‟s languages, high, low back, front rounded, and unrounded (Giergerich,1998:66). The vowel sound system of Tamazight is made up of three main vowel sounds; which are /i /, /a/ and /u/. They can be open / closed and front / back, according to the phonetic environment in which they appear and function (Dell and Elmedlaoui, 2002:105). There are parameters that can be used to describe Tamazight vowels, the first one is the tongue position (front or back), the second is the distance between the articulation organ and the place of articulation, and the third is the form of the lips, that is rounded or unrounded forms. The following diagram illustrates the position of the tongue of each vowel. Front

Central

Back

Close i

u

Close-mid a Open-mid

Open Diagram 1: Tamazight Vowel Sounds Distribution, adapted from Sadiqi (1997:48) 1.3.1.2.1 Vowels Description Vowel /i/ is a closed, back and unrounded vowel produced when the tongue moves towards the oral cavity, like in the following word /isk/. It can be realized as [i ] , [e [ and [j]. Vowel /u/ is a front, closed and rounded vowel. In the production process, the back of the tongue is retracted towards the oral cavity and it tends to be closed, the lips position

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is rounded. This vowel can appear in front, after two consonants as in: [ul]= heart, [su]= drink, [hun] = this. But in front of a vowel, between two vowels or between one consonant and one vowel, [u] becomes [uw] a semi-vowel as in [Su ≠ at] => [suwat => drink water. Vowel [a] is a back, mid – open vowel, which can appear between two consonants in some phonetic situations. It can be realized as [ae]; as in [fas] => [faes] => give him, [aslm] => [aeslm] => poison. In addition to the three vowels mentioned above, there is a fourth one which corresponds a shwa [ә]. This vowel has a retracted form used to facilitate the pronunciation of certain difficult consonants. In one syllable, there must be a shwa between the first and the second consonant to avoid any possible difficulty in pronunciation (Chaker, 1995:12). 1.3.1.2.2 Vowel Distribution in Words The quality of vowels varies according to the nature of consonants that come around them. So the behaviour of vowels has three main characteristics: a- These vowels are influenced by their adjacent consonants i.e., the influence of the consonantal environment. For example, after the velar, uvular, laryngeal and pharyngeal consonants, these vowels tend to become more front due to the articulation quality of these consonants. In addition, the words that have nasal consonants and end with a vowel, these vowels tend to have a nasalization quality like /m/ /n/ as in [an#zar] [am#rar] =>old man. The vowels that come after the nasal consonants [m] and [n] are nasalized under the influence of the nasal quality of the consonants. b-They prefer the insertion of semi – consonants; the occurrence of two vowels is not possible in Tamazight. The second vowel is most of the time replaced by a semi –

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consonant which facilitates the vocalic shiftness and maintain the flux of the word as in [Inas] => tell him, [inajas] = he told him, [Aut] => [awr] = vain. c-They are subjected towards stress; vowels are like consonants subjected towards stress which prolongs their duration. When the articulation organs keep the same position for a long time while pronouncing a vowel, the duration of a given vowel may vary according to the word‟s position, or to the consonantal environment. For example, the duration of vowel is longer with an open syllable rather than a close syllable Benkirane et al. (1982, cited in Sadiqi, 1997:51-52) as in [du]=> [due]. 1.3.2 Tamazight Suprasegmental Features 1.3.2.1 Syllable Structure According to Boukous,(2001:200) and Sadiqi,(1997:65) “ the syllable organization is determined on the basis of local relations in sonority”. See the following word “qim” means

“sit”

which

can

be

q = is the onset I = is the centre M = is the coda. So the syllable structure can be displayed as follows:

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Syllable

Onset

Rhyme

Centre

Coda

c

v

c

q

i

m

Figure 2:Tamazight Syllable Structure So the word [qim] is a closed syllable with an onset and coda, while [kti] is an open syllable with no coda. In Tamazight, it is usually reported that the vowels number in one word determines the number of syllables in it (Sadiqi, 1997:69). 1. « Ul » (heart) => 1 vowel = 1syllable. 2. « Afus » (hand) => 2vowels = 2 syllables. 3. « Amugaj => 3 vowels = 3 syllables. Regarding the syllabic consonant, Tamazight resembles so much other languages. The following consonants [l – m – n - and r ] can become syllabic onset of CV or VC structures followed by another consonant as in: r, dl, sg, dm (Sadiqi, 1997:65-68). The syllable is an essential division of a word and sequence into syllabic segments. In Tamazight, the distribution of consonants and vowels allow to isolate limited number of sequences which represent the syllable structure in whole.

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The syllable structure in Tamazight permits only one consonant initially (onset) and two consonant clusters finally (coda). Possible structure can be represented as following (C) (V) (C) (C). For example, the word [Tunf] has one consonant in the beginning and two consonants clusters at the end to produce a CVCC structure. 1.3.2.1.1 Tamazight Possible Syllable Structures A selection of possible consonants clusters is shown in the following table. In Tamazight we can isolate eight syllable sequences (Sadiqi, 1997:70). Number

Syllables Structure

Examples

01

V

A => Letter

02

VC

Ul => Heart

03

CV

Di => Here

04

CCV

Kti => Remind

05

VCC

Ilm => Skin

06

CCVC

Krut => Rent

07

CVCC

Tunf => Find

08

CVC

Zun => Like

Table 3: Tamazight Syllable Structure The syllables - V- CV- and - CCV -are open syllables while the other syllablesVC- VCC- CCVC- VCCC- and- CVC- are close syllables. Here, we notice that two consonant clusters initially can constitute a sequence but with an interruption of a shwa. Moreover, the presence of a shwa does not change the syllabic structure (Imarazene, 2007:52). In addition, there is another case called syllabic linkage or resyllabification. That is when the final segment of a word is a consonant with an adjacent vowel following it immediately. For example, “tun argaz” (wife and husband). The syllabic structure of the word given above is [tu. nar. gaz].

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t

u

n

a

r

A

I

A

N

R

Syllable -01-

Syllable -02-

g

A

a

N

z

Z

Syllable -03-

Figure 3:Tamazight Linkage Syllable We notice that the [n] of the first morpheme [tun] constitutes the onset of the coming syllable. In Tamazight, two or three syllables can be regrouped in order to form a feet and this can be done due to the regroupement of vocalic and consonantal syllables. Moreover, the syllabic structure may affect other suprasegmental features. 1.3.2.2 Stress In fact, all consonant sounds of Tamazight are stressed. Consonantal stress has two levels: phonological and morphological. At the level of phonology, stress may change the meaning of two stressed words by doubling them as the following words show: [illi] => my daughter, [Ssu]=> Drink (Sadiqi, 1997:43-46). At the level of morphology, a stress is used with transitive verbs, present verbs and present continuous ones. According to Chaker (1975, cited in Sadiqi, 1997:43) “Stress plays an essential role since it changes the quality of consonant sounds”. And it distinguishes between simple and long consonants (Bouamara, et al. 2005:19-20). Example of stress in verbs that have two consonants: ze=>zzer or zerr, three consonants: zwir=> zwwir, and in nouns, stress is in the second consonant: fru (verb) =>ferru = refree.

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1.3.2.3 Intonation Since Tamazight is a spoken language, the intonation plays an important role phonologically and syntactically. There are two kinds of intonation in this language; marked and non marked intonation. Non marked is a falling natural intonation. It characterizes declarative sentences and falls on the last vowel of the sentence. Example, t-s- nwa Fatima imkli = the last vowel. While the marked intonation is rising prominent, it works with many vowels in the sentence. The importance of intonation at syntactic level can be shown in six constructions: 1. Yes or no questions: it is rising intonation; Da

hmad

s

suq?

(yes

/no

question)

2. Wh questions: where the subject looks for a specific information, these constructions are characterized by a rising intonation: ma i-fr – n? 3. Coordination = the melody falls at the end of each predicative segment: i- ukid. 4. Subordination: these constructions are characterized by the same prosodic melody which covers the main and the subordinate sentences. gula ur-t- i- tizar Chaker (1984, cited in Sadiqi, 1997:56-60) said “the difference between structures –coordination/ coordination is mainly due to the difference of prosody”. 5. Thematization depends mainly on intonation criteria marked by a pause (,) tigmi,pause -i –bna-t hmad. 6. Focalization receives some more intonative charge which makes it prominent, agmar, a i-sra hmad. Generally, the moving elements with certain constructions are related to other parts in the sentence by the prosody (Sadiqi, 1997:56-60).

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Conclusion The most important insights about Tamazight at the phonological levels discussed in this chapter can be summarized as follows: -

Tamazight is the mother tongue of the sample population who have been exposed to

it from birth and acquired it through mother-child interaction, that is why we used the term of acquisition. -

Amazighphones learners enjoy a natural situation exposure toward Tamazight

because they did not learn it at school, and the degree of exposure outside classroom is limitless. - Phonological aspects of Tamazight are simple, it is characterized as a consonantal language due to the considerable number of consonants and most importantly one consonant has different allophones. - Regarding vowels, little speech can be said, because it has only three vowel sounds. - Similar facts with syllable structure, Tamazight consonants clusters normally take no more than one consonant initially (onset) and two consonants clusters finally (coda) producing the following structure CVCC. In addition, it allow both open and closed syllable structure. - Stress and Intonation contour in Tamazight convey both personal and socal attitudes. - Since we are going to make a contrastive analyses between Tamazight and English, that is why, we discussed the sound system of Tamazight and it is obvious that the second chapter discusses the sound system of English.

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Introduction The present chapter discusses descriptive data in a broad way related to English and its sound system as a background to the pronunciation features for the sake of comparison with Tamazight. Tt is divided into four main complementary parts to achieve a full description of the English sound system and its role in learning English pronunciation effectively. We start by introducing English as a global language. Then, we discuss the process of learning English as a foreign language with a reference to the learning models. The description concerns also phonology and how affect grammar, vocabulary, etc; the phonological description embraces consonants, vowels, and, suprasegmental features such as syllable structure, stress and intonation. The outcome is meant to allow the comparison between English and Tamazight. This chapter is an important because it is related to the description of English sound system with the aim to shed light on contrastive units and look towards effective ways for teaching / learning it by taking into considerations the influence resulted from the mother tongue either positively or negatively, and it gives an opportunity to understand more what we discussed in the first chapter. 2.1. English Language Status English has always been on the move until the present-day. This fact is due to two factors: the first one is a historical one which is the expansion of British coloniel empire; the second one is the emergence of the United States as the leading nation all over the world (Crystal, 2003:29). Linguistically speaking, this position is led by powerful English speaking nations. At the same time, that era was marked by the end of communism. As a result, U.S.A started to impose its life model. This action is known as globalization. According to Friendman (2000, cited in Maurais and Michael, 2004:13)

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“globalization is the era of interconnectedness and democratization”, due to the following actions; a- Generalization of the teaching / learning of English as a main medium of instruction. b- Training generations to have a much better command of English in order to function in a good way. 2.2. Foreign Language Learning / Teaching 2.2.1 Role of Age We said before that babies can discriminate more than one hundred phonemes of natural human languages with a high preference for those of the mother tongue. The relationship between learning a foreign language and the role of age, researchers are of two folds about whether adult‟s ability to achieve good English pronunciation is the same as with child‟s ability, since they seem to be pre – equipped with their native language accent. They maintained that no adult ever achieves good English pronunciation in the foreign language. Many researchers assumed that achieving good English pronunciation in the foreign language may be biologically determined at birth ( Krashen, 1982:54). Also other studies Fledge ( 1992, Best et al. 1997, cited in Raymond, 1994:51) proved that individuals who begin learning their foreign language in childhood are more likely to produce and perceive certain foreign language vowels better than individuals who begin learning foreign language pronunciation features in the late of adolescence or early adulthood. On the other hand, Suter (1976, cited in Raymond, 1994:52) maintained that individual motivation such as affective factors and phonetic production are assumed to enhance the level of good English pronunciation.

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2.2.2 Learning English as a Foreign Language Before developing this point, it is worth referring to the nature of each language within any given context. The native language is the first language that a child acquires through exposure, it is also known as the primary language, the mother tongue the L1 language. The second language is the language learnt or acquired at classroom setting. Foreign language learning generally refers to a non-native language learnt in the environment where the natural exposure situation is limited or absent. It takes place only in a classroom context (e.g., French speakers learn English in France, Tamazight speakers learn English in Algeria). The important point is that learning a second language takes place with a considerable access to speakers of the language being learned, while learning a foreign language usually does not (Gass and Selinker, 2008:21). 2.2.3 Teachers’ Role in Learning English as a Foreign Language The classroom context is the setting of foreign language (English in Algeria). Learners have to attend English classroom context which has to be created by teachers. Language learning / teaching requires the development of various linguistic subsystems in the learners. It is the task of the teacher that these linguistic subsystems must be learnt, in order to be used later. The learner can not fulfill this task alone (Young – Schotten, 1995:141). Learning action is not sufficient and must be accompanied by teaching action. Here, it is the teacher‟s task to provide and equip learners with the respective conditions such as: phonology. For example, the teacher has to be aware of how the phonemic system of the child‟s linguistic community is installed by taking into consideration the phonemic system of the learner‟s first language, in order to be able to provide learners of English with a respective working phonology.

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Foreign language learners start with the language perception developed by their mother tongue, and then, they categorize the phonemes of the target language. In this case, perception determines production; we can not expect adequate production without adequate perception, thanks to the similarities between L1 system and the new target intended system. However, we may find problems in the systems that may result in an inadequate production. This means that there are dissimilarities between the two systems. To give an example, Japanese learners of English trying to distinguish between /r / and /l/ face problems since there is no /l/ sound in their language, the difference is not perceived. The native language amateur finds it hard to perceive and then produce some sounds (Bada, 2001:3). Yet, the human brain is capable of learning whatever the L1 system is like, but must goes through effective ways that can help him especially to perceive well and produce. 2.2.4 Speech Perception Models (SPM) These models are developed under the principles of the Contrastive Phonology. Several cross-linguistic studies (Ingram, Flege, Best, etc) suggest that speech perception models should be based on similarities and dissimilarities between native and foreign language. The acquisition of the foreign language phonology can be achieved by maintaining some methods that can enhance the teaching of foreign language pronunciation features, hence, can help learners achieve good English pronunciation (Matsubara, 2008:1). So research in this area will shed much light on our understanding of the process of speech perception in general. As a result, it is worthy to discuss the most prominent speech perception models.

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2.2.4.1 Speech Learning Model (S L M) This model was introduced and discussed by Fledge (1992a, cited in Matsubara, 2008:2) postulated that phonetic categories are needed to perceive foreign language sounds rapidly in conventional speech that can be established for new, because similar sounds will be equated with existing sounds even if the sound may differ acoustically and audibly, leading to equivalent classification. It means that, if a certain portion of phonetic space has not been used previously by the native language sound system, the adult learners, in this case, will be able to develop additional phonetic categories for the foreign language sound. This model thus leads to the prediction, although adult learners may not perceive new language sounds authentically at first (Fledge 1992 a: 187) “ they will ultimately be more successful in perceiving them if they differ substantially from native language sounds than if they differ just a little”. He suggested to base the distinction on “differences in the perceived phonetic distance between sounds in the foreign language and those in the native language”, (Fledge, 1992 b:573). As a method, it defines a sound as a foreign sound whatever it is represented by an International Phonetic Alphabet symbols. This model can help learners to improve their learning of the foreign language pronunciation features by comparing them with International Phonetic Alphabet symbols, and then, precluding the difficulty in making perceptual distinctions between the two different systems. 2.2.4.2 Perceptual Assimilation Model (P A M) This model posed that adult foreign language learners perceptually assimilate foreign language phones to those of their native language categories Best and Strange ( 1992, cited in Matsubara, 2008:3). These similarities should be based on temporal and special properties of the speech articulators. According to Best and Strange (1992, cited in Matsubara, 2008:3) there are four (04) patterns of assimilation.

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1. Two foreign language phones are perceived as two native language phones. 2. Two foreign language phones are assimilated equally well or poorly in native language phones. 3. Two foreign language phones are assimilated into one native language unequally. 4. Two foreign language phones are non- assimilated to native language because of a big difference. It is important to keep in mind that all of these patterns are based on the listener‟s perception of similarities, regardless the actual acoustic properties. Best and Strange (1932, cited in Matsubara, 2008:4) made some predictions about the discrimination of foreign language sounds by adult learners. For example, the two (2) phones in pattern (2) would be the most difficult to discriminate. . Pattern -1- would lead to a good discrimination. . Pattern -3-and-4- would result in intermediate discrimination. Best and Strange (1992:307) argued that “ increased foreign language experience may foster recognition of the discrepancies between foreign language and native language phone”. This could result in the emergence of a new category of phonemes within the listener‟s perceptual system. 2.2.4.3 Optimality Theory (O T) It was designed by Prince and Smolensky (1993, cited in Matsubara, 2008:4). It is an out- put based theory. This model claimed that the constraints are highly conflicting and are not in accordance with each other concerning certain phonological structures. The constraints in this area are different from that of grammar structures. OT, came to suggest that domination of hierarchy; the way in which these constraints are ranked. That is to say, the higher constraints have a priority over those which are lower. As a result, this order can determine which input is suitable with a certain perceptual system.

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In sum, foreign language phonology went beyond to analyze the way adult learners acquire a foreign language pronunciation features, by using speech perception models like SLM, PAM and OT. Contrastive Phonology provides a wide range of explanation for the difficulties adult learners may face. Phonological cues are of highly- importance in the process of learning a foreign language; that is why the coming section will explore the hidden lacunae that play a crucial role in the role of phonology in the foreign language learning. 2.3. Importance of Phonological Awareness in Foreign Language Learning Learning a foreign language successfully can not be achieved unless we learn all the different linguistic skills such as language‟s grammatical structures, lexicon structures as well as phonological features. The latter is considered to have a natural link with other aspects of language skills like; listening, speaking, etc. That is why it is considered to be a key component in the process of learning a foreign language. 2.3.1 Relationship between Phonological Features of the Native Language and the Target Language. Eventhough, past researches suggested that the probability of achieving good pronunciation in the foreign language is lessened for learners who are exposed to the foreign language after childhood, and children learn / acquire phonological features in the foreign language with greater success than adults (Arteaga, 2000:340). But, on the other hand, recent studies have demonstrated that learners after childhood have the ability to achieve good pronunciation with some available conditions, other researchers (Ehri and Leahy, etc) posited a correlation between the phonological awareness of the native language with the phonological awareness of the target language. Here, it seems that the experience with a first language determines the weighting of sound cues of the target language. That is to say, the sound cues used in the native language are weighted

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more heavily in the perceptual processing of the target language, and the sound cues that are not used in the phonological system of the first language are systematically under attended Schmitt et al. (2001, cited in White, 2008:18). In short, where there are similarities between the native language and the target language, the learners will acquire target language with ease and where there are differences, the learners will have more impediments, in spite of some progress in the learning of foreign sounds patterns. Major (1999:160) admitted that we can achieve good pronunciation of certain sounds but not others “ learning native-like pronunciation is a complex and puzzling question not only to theoreticians but also to practitioners who ponder feasibility regard what to teach”. Another related problem is the rate of learning each sound. Otherwise, why some sounds are learned more easily than others? In addition, the learners who are beginners tend to perform better with similar sounds found in the mother tongue and with less better performance with sounds that are different or not existing at all in their mother tongue. That is why, many theories came to existence in order to look into this issue such as: Contrastive Analysis, Error Analysis, etc. About the suspected influences may result from the first language, This area is considered as the key component in learning to interpret the foreign language structures. As concerns to the phonological awareness, there is a body of evidence that support the notion of mastering and manipulating small linguistic units apart from their meanings as an important component of both native and foreign language Ehri (2005, cited in White, 2006:4). For example, proper development of phonological awareness plays an important role in facilitating the learning of sound units, then, language as it is linked to the development of other linguistic skills.

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2.3.2 Significance of Phonemic Awareness The phonological system is a vey complex issue because it requires learning of a segmental inventory, and suprasegmental features. Each language employs a subset of phones found within human languages, which vary from language to another one. As a result, the learning of a foreign language pronunciation features necessitates the learning of a new sounds for perception and production. If learners are not made aware of these new phones in the foreign language, errors will occur (Archibald,1998:103). According to Hancin-Bhatt (1994, cited in White, 2008:19) “learners tend to produce the closest substitute available segmental inventories from their native language for a new sound in the target language”. This is the case when Spanish learners of English tend to use the alveolar /s/ for the palato –alveolar /s/ as an example. It may happen that learners tend to neglect the importance of phonemic system. A learner who can not divide words into phonemes in his native language will have difficulty dividing foreign language words into phonemes, and articulate them correctly (Hu, 2003:165). On the other hand, many studies Xiao (2005, cited in White, 2006:20) stated that children who have well developed phonemic awareness in their native language are better able to develop their knowledge in the target language and articulate them more easily. So, well developed phonemic awareness in the foreign language is linked to the development of phonemic system of the native language. Given all these clarification, we can consider that phonemic awareness of native language is important in learning foreign language pronunciation. Learners tend to utilize their native language mechanisms to analyze and manipulate sound units in the foreign language. Any attempt to neglect the significance of phonemic awareness in both native language and foreign language with a tendency to perform and organize them directly in

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the phonological awareness at the level of suprasegmental features may lead to poor pronunciation at the end Hu (2003, cited in White, 2006:21-22) because accurate pronunciation is linked to both segmental and suprasegmental levels. Phonemic awareness deals with segmental inventories as minimal units of contrastive sound. That is to say, the phonemic level is one at which the start of the word – pat – is the same as the end of the word – cap – and end of the word – cap – is the same as the start of the second syllable in – capital –. Phonemic Awareness may be further defined as the “conscious ability to segment spoken words into their constituents phonemes and manipulate them” Sulzby and Teale (2000, cited in White, 2008:23). The decomposition of the speech stream into segments can be presupposed in some cases, the focus on phonemic awareness according to linguistic analyses is useful for three reasons: a. Segmental and supasegmental features are complementary in terms of usefulness, no one can supersede the importance of one kind on the other kinds. Segmental inventories are useful from the view that every listener must first – in the beginning stages - be prepared for the perception / production of the sequence of individual speech sounds he / she will hear while learning the target language (Arteaga, 2000: 343). b. The analytical knowledge of phonemes is associated with successful decoding of written language to segment words in their constituent phonemes. It is to some extent necessary to learn to read and have influence on letter-word knowledge as an important part of any discussion related to the learning of a language (Sulzby and Teale, 2000:746). For this reason, phonemic awareness may be a precursor to conventional literacy. c. Linguistic studies Xiao ( 2005, cited in White, 2006:18-20) suggest that letter sound correspondences can achieve phonemic decoding /encoding skills faster by relying on grapheme phoneme representation strategies. In this case, it is extremely important to

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indicate that phonemic awareness is directly related to the issue of understanding the pronunciation cues of the written language. In order to achieve fluency, learners must acquire / understand the relationship between the sound unit and its orthography. It seems clear that graphic representations are very important elements in the process of learning phonological features of the foreign language. 2.4. English Sound System 2.4.1 Significance of Pronunciation Teaching / Learning In the area of pronunciation instruction, a lot of attention is paid towards how best to impart information to learners. Pronunciation is an essential component of communicative competence by enabling learners to acquire basic linguistic tools and mastering the codes of speaking, to understand and communicate easily in English. This competence can not be ignored in the classroom at any case; it has consequences on those who have poor pronunciation (Andersen, 2000:1). (Andersen, 2000:2) have demonstrated that foreign language accent can have communicative and social consequences especially, and have shown significance of approximation to native norms in the pronunciation features. That is to say, adult learners can make significant improvement like children. What to teach in pronunciation in these cases, individual sounds - segmental inventories - or suprasegmental features? Here, traditional views focused on individual sounds rather that suprasegmental sounds. For example, many traditional textbooks of English focused on individual sounds while suprasegmental sounds are considered as a luxury in terms of teaching. According to Jensen (1998, cited in Andersen, 2000:2) “individual speech played the biggest role in terms of perceived accent). In addition, According to Dickerson ( 2001, cited in Andersen, 2000:5) “ pronunciation instruction for years consisted of a heavy emphasis on segmental – the vowel and consonant sounds

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of English – and a lighter emphasis on supasegmental - stress and intonation. It was until recently that the important of rhythm for intelligibility began to be widely reflected in content books”. But, other views start to emerge in this area paying attention towards suprasegmental features through a gradual evolution and claimed that suprasegmental features have been gradually receiving much more emphasis. For example, textbook in Algerian secondary schools take into consideration these suprasegmentals features in each unit such as: stress, intonation, etc. In this respect, the following example will explain this better: the waiters from India and Pakistan would annoy the English costumers by saying -gravy- with falling intonation instead of saying it with a rising one ( politeness). The falling intonation pattern in their language was appropriate for making a polite offer, but for English native speakers, the falling intonation pattern was appropriate for rudeness and impolite ulterances. (Gumperz, 1982:173). This fact have prompted us to deal with suprasegmentals features of Tamazight in addition to segemental features. 2.4.2 English Segmental Features When we speak, we produce a stream of sounds. This continuous stream can be divided into small pieces called - segmental inventories-. For example, the word – bad – consists of three (03) segments – (/b/ /ae/ and /d/). So a phonemic system is a set of units of a speech sound that can be defined as minimal units which can not be broken into sub- smaller successive units (Heinz, 1998:31) which bear information and not meaning in themselves. In addition, one phoneme my have different realizations like in the word –tea- (aspirated /t/) and eat (unaspirated /t/), these different realizations are called –allophones-, which are similar sound that do not contrast each other. We can make use of the full set of phonemes in a language game as the act of playing the game of Chess by manipulating all the pieces which could be of any shape. The latter have no

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bearing on the rules of the game; only the rules that govern their conduct are important. That is to say, the Chess player has to learn to recognize the Chess pieces by their outward characteristics but also have access to the rules that govern their conduct on the chessboard (Sajavaala and Dufva, 200:241), it is the same process when we come to speak language, especially, a new one. 2.4.2.1 Consonant Sounds of English In English, there are twenty- four consonant sounds. The following table will list them with examples. Sound Symbols

Examples

Sound Symbols

Examples

/p/

Pack

/0/

Thing

/t/

Ten

/s/

Sail

/k/

Cake

/ſ/

Shoe

/b/

Beat

/v/

Vail

/d/

Day

/ð/

Though

/g/

Gay

/z/

Zoo

/tſ /

Church

/ Ʒ/

Measure

/dƷ /

Judge

/ l/

Lay

/m/

Man

/r/

Ring

/n/

Need

/w/

White

/η/

Sing

/ j/

Yallow

/f/

Few

/ h/

Head

Table 4: English Consonant Sounds

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2.4.2.1.1 Chart of English Consonant Phonemes

lateral

Laryngeal

k.g

s z

h

t m

glottal

O ð

uvular

f (v)

velar

palatal

t d

Affricate Nasal

Post alveolar

b (p)

fricative

Alveolar

dental

Labia-dental

bilabial

Stop

labial

Manner of Articulatio n

d (ŋ)

n l

Approxima nt

w

r

j

Table 5: Chart of English Consonant Phonemes ( Roach, 1991:70) There are 13 possible places of articulation in the languages of the world, but not all of them are utilized in English. English use the following places bilabial, labiodentals, dental, alveolar, post alveolar, palatalvealar, palatal, velar, and glottal. 2.4.2.2 Vowel Sounds of English Vowels in English usually occupy the centre of a syllable. They are predominant in English and carry most of the pronunciation features, these sounds form the main characteristics of English sound system and distinguish it from other languages. Vowel phonemes can be described with three criteria: closeness-openness, frontness-backness and the shape of the lips, “ the phonetic space of vowels can be determined by the position of the tongue during the process of producing a particular vowel” (Roach, 2000: 14-15) These criteria are shown in the following table:

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Front

Central

Back

Hight

Central

Back

Middle

Central

Back

Low

Central

Back

Table 6: Basic Tongue Positions for English Vowels ( Roach, 2000:15) 2.4.2.2.1 Description of English Vowels Vowel phonemes come as a result of the intensity of articulation. American linguists distinguish between lax and tens vowels, lax vowels are articulated with weak breath force while tense vowels are articulated with more energy. All English vowels are typically voiced, all lax vowels are short and all tense vowels are long. Moreover, all tense vowels are lax vowels. The difference is in the length, but it is known that the difference in the length is accompanied normally by a difference in the sound quality ( Edward, 2003:45). In addition, the grapheme- phoneme relationship in case you consider letters, you will probably learn five to six vowels, but if you consider sounds, you will find many more vowels ( Ladefoged, 2001:25). Given all these clarifications, it is a due time to describe the production process of English vowel phonemes. In English there are four categories of vowel sounds and each is accompanied with the vowel chart of each category in this description. 2.4.2.2.2 Production of English Vowels 2.4.2.2.2.1 Short Vowels There are six short vowels in English are ( i ,e ,ae ,

^

, D, and u ). The speech

organs do not change their position during articulation process, they are called: pureplain vowels or monophongs, i.e., only one single sound. i

The tongue is raised while the lips are slightly spread.

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e

The tongue is raised while the lips are spread.

ae

The front of the tongue is raised fully while the lips are slightly spread.

^

The centre of the tongue is raised between mid-open towards fully open

position while the lips are neutral. It is produced with great muscular tension, foreign learners tend to substitute it with /o/ /ae / since it is an unrounded vowel. D

The back of the tongue is lowered to fully open position while the lips are

rounded. Ʊ

The centre and the back of the tongue is raised up to mid- close position while

the lips are rounded. Shwa is another English short vowel / ә /. It is a mid- central, lax, unstressed, unrounded vowel, the lips are neutral, and the air passes through the oral cavity. This sound occurs in unstressed syllables, and underlines the predominance of vowels over consonants. It is called a neutral or reduced vowel and learners may face difficulties when pronounce unstressed syllables. The following diagram illustrates the position of the tongue of each vowel. Front Close

Central

Back

i Ʊ

Close-mid e Open-mid

^ ae

D

Open Diagram 4: English Short Vowel Sounds Distribution ( Roach, 1991:16)

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2.4.2.2.2.2 Long Vowels There are five long vowels (i :,3 :, Ɔ: ,a:,and u :), they have the same features with short vowels in regard to the quality. They are called pure – plain vowels or monophongs –they have a single sound. But in order to distinguish between them and short vowels in the length, they are marked with a dot at the end. i:

The front of the tongue is raised up to the palate, while the lips are slightly

spread, it is a close front vowel. The lips are neutral, it is a mid – central vowel.

3: a:

The Lips are neutral, and the tongue is lowered to a fully open position, it is

an open central vowel. Ɔ: The back of the tongue is raised between mid – close and mid – open position, while lips are rounded. u:

The back of the tongue touches the palate, and lips are slightly rounded.

Front Close

Central

i:

Back

u:

Close-mid

Ɔ

:

ɜ:

Open-mid

a: Open Diagram 5: English Long Vowel Sounds Distribution ( Roach, 1991:18)

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2.4.2.2.2.3 Diphthongs English vowel system consists of another group of vowels called diphthongs, they are sound sequences consisting of two sounds, (ei, ai, i, iә, eә,uә,әu, and au). When we produce them we start with a monophong, and then, the quality of sound changes but never reaches another monophong. This happens through a gliding movement of the tongue. They are also called-gliding vowels which means double sounds and they are of 02 groups: a. Centering diphthongs move towards shwa (iә,eә and uә). b. Centering diphthongs move towards a closer vowel (ei, ai and

i) and opening

diphthongs move towards a more open vowel (әu and au). All English diphthongs are usually falling diphthongs, when the first sound is longer and louder the second sound is shorter and lower. A diphthong is analyzed as one vowel phoneme; for example, the word –face- has 03 phonemes instead of 04 phonemes. The following diagram illustrates the position of the tongue regarding each vowel.

Front

Central

Back

Close

uә iә

Close-mid әu

ei

Ɔi

eә Open-mid ai

au

Open Diagram 6: English Diphthong Vowel Sounds Distribution (Roach, 1991:20)

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2.4.2.2.2.4 Triphthongs There are five triphthongs in English vowel system (eia, aia, aia, әua, and aua) consisting of three sounds, they are considered as the most difficult to pronounce, especially for foreign learners because we make a glid, from one sound to another and then to a third one rapidly without interruption like in the

the word – royal –.

Triphthongs are analyzed as closing vowels (diphthongs) followed by a shwa, which means closing diphthongs move towards shwa /a/. Finally, it seems that English individual sound system has a complex-vowel system. That is why it causes difficulties for foreign learners at the level of segmental features. 2.4.3 Suprasegmental Features We will discuss the syllable structure, stress, intonation. Many studies such as (Anderson, 2002:1) showed that suprasegmental features are also important as well as segmental features, because these features can still have serious consequences for foreign learners of English. So it is not enough to concentrate on individual sounds at the expense of suprasgmental features. As a result, both of them must have equal considerations in order to help effectively teachers to improve their lessons related to pronunciation as well as learners. 2.4.3.1 Syllable Structure A syllable is an arrangement of sequence of sounds in a given language, because it is well acknowledged that not any combination of sounds can appear in a language, but it is a language specific distinctive order. For example, if a word begins with the following consonant cluster – Zn -, it violates the phonotactics of English ( no word starts with this consonant cluster – zn -) unlike the consonant cluster –sl - (many words starts with- Sl - like in “slim” etc) Trnka, et al. (1936, cited in Butskhrikidze, 1971:1).

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A syllable in English consists of a centre of little or no obstruction to air flow, and it has a possibility to be divided into three types: a.

An onset syllable, like, in bar.

b.

A coda syllable, like, in are.

c.

An onset and coda syllable, like, in run. English is characterized as a stressed- timed language Windfuhr ( 1979, cited in

Hall, 2007:12), which means that stressed syllables determine the time space to say a sentence. English syllable structure is characterized by the following: consonant clusters allow up to three consonant clusters initially (onset) and four consonant clusters finally (coda), and also vowels can initiate syllables (Hall, 2007:13). The possible consonants clusters can be represented as following (C) (C) (C) (V) (C) (C) (C) (C) - For example, in a word like /skraemblz /, we have three consonants clusters together at the beginning and four consonants clusters at the end to produce finally a CCC V CCCC syllable structure. 2.4.3.1.1 Possible English Syllable Clusters A selection of possible consonant clusters is shown in the following table:

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Syllable Structure

Examples

V VC

I

/ ai /

Am

/ am /

VCC

Ant

/ a :nt /

VCCC

Asks

/ aesks /

VCCCC

Amples / aemplz /

CV

Key

/ ki : /

CVC

Seek

/ Si : k /

CVCC

Cattle

/ kaetl /

CCV

Tree

/ tri : /

CCVC

Speak

/ spi : k /

CCVCC

Stamp

/ staemp /

CCVCCC

Trends

/ trendz /

CCVCCCC

Trampled

CCCV

Spree

/ traemplt / spri : /

CCCVC

Scram

/ Skraem/

CCCVCC

Sript

/ skript /

CCCVCCC

Strands

CCCVCCCC

Scrambles

CVCCC

Lapsed

CVCCCC

/ straendz / / skaemblz / /laepst/

Thousandth /0auzzandth/

Table 7: English Possible Syllable Structures ( Hall, 2007:13)

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2.4.3.2 Stress in English Stress in English is linked with the nature of syllable; the syllable production process is dependent on the speaker by giving more muscular energy for stressed syllable than unstressed syllable. Stress in English falls into two types, primary stress and secondary stress. In addition to unstressed syllable which does not carry any stress. Foreign learners of English may face difficulties come to perceive stress, and place it within a word (simple word versus complex word, word class, number of syllables, and syllable quality, etc). For example, the stress placement in the following word leads to two different meanings: ‟present and pre‟sent, the first word “present” means to give something to somebody, while the latter “pre‟sent” means existing or happening now (Oxford Advanced Learner‟s Dictionary, 2008 :1145). In addition, the task is more difficult with complex words, some suffixes affect stress place like in refugee /rifju :dzi:/, but prefixes have no effect on stress placement, they are approached as words without prefixes. In compound words also, words may receive both primary and secondary stress. Another important fact concerns the syllable structure; English is characterized as stress –timed syllable Windfuhr ( 1979, cited in Hall, 2007:12 ) unlike other languages like French, Polish, which are syllable –timed languages. So the word‟s quality can affect the stress placement ( Roach, 2005:11). Also, the place of stress in some words may cause changes in the neighbouring words. Although, English speakers do not agree about the stress placement such as in connected speech aspects. 2.4.3.3 Intonation English has a number of intonation patterns which add conventionalized meanings to the utterance: question, statement, surprise, etc. An important feature of English intonation is the use of intonational accent-additional stress to make the focus and show

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emphasis or show contrast. The interval between them changes from one speaker to another and from one situation to another even for the same speaker. English intonation can be viewed from two different angles, the first angle is – form - and the second one is – function -. English speakers use falling or rising speech patterns to perform their words. According to Roach (2008:13) “the only efficient way to learn to use the intonation of language is the way a child acquires the intonation of his first language”, while training is required for adult learners. English is not a tone language, so a difference in a tone within English context does not imply a difference in meaning, unlike most world languages which are tone languages, like Mardarin, Chinese, where the word: “ma”, means, “mother”, “hemp”, “scold”. So the change in tone means the change in meaning, like some African languages. Thanks to intonation measures procedures (loudness, speed, level, etc), we can separate natural speech from mechanical speech because natural speech is accompanied by emotions and shed light on stressed syllable. English intonation is different from other languages (Italian, Hindi, Swedish, Pakistani, Tamazight). As a result, foreign learners need to learn it in order to avoid a risk that may produce an offence. Finally, it is worth noting that suprasegmenal pronunciation features such as: stress, syllable, intonation, etc are also important in the teaching of English pronunciation, and they go hand in hand with segmental inventories, since the ultimate aim behind the process of teaching / learning pronunciation skill is to achieve a kind of phonological awareness and perform well in the target language.

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Conclusion The most outstanding observations about English phonological system are as follows: -

English teaching / learning in Algeria enjoys only an artificial situation

exposure created through teacher-learner interaction, that is why, we used the term of learning. -Teaching pronunciation features of a language is an important part, since pronunciation skill is related to other language skills. So mastering what is being said is of high importance, as reported by Kenworthy (1987:13) “Intelligibility is being understood by a listener at a given time in a given situation”. So pronunciation competence is an important linguistic skill. - Phonological aspects of English are characterized as follows; English is a vocalic language because it has a considerable number of vowels, and most importantly, the vowel system of English is a complex one. That is why we find four categories within this system; short vowels, long vowels, diphthongs and triphthongs, and each category has special features. - English syllable structure is characterized as a complex one because consonants clusters allow up to three consonants clusters initially (onset) and four consonants clusters finally (coda) producing at the end the following syllable structure CCCVCCCC. In addition, English syllable structure can be initiated by a vowel, means that it allow both open and closed syllable . -Stress and Intonation of English mark English word and sentence style, and also identify well the speaker‟s personality and social attitudes of English speaking community.

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Introduction The present chapter is devoted to Contrastive Analysis by examining some of the characteristics of phonological differences and similarities between English and Tamazight, comparing their segmental and suprasegmental features as well as the process of acquisition / learning of each language. In the light of the ability of any native speaker of any given language to recognize foreign language accent as we have seen it previously. It is a clear indication that well established sound patterns of a native language have some influence on the speech production / perception in the target language. In short, it is quite reasonable to say that the natures of the foreign phonological features are determined to a large extent by a well established phonological system of learners‟ native language. Thus, the pronunciation errors made by foreign language learners are considered not to be just random attempts to produce unfamiliar sound patterns but rather as having a strong justification that can be explained as reflections of the sound inventory rules of combining sounds of their native language with the intended sounds. As a result, researchers, professionals need to cultivate themselves with a firm understanding of the differences / similarities between their native language and the target language. For example, for teachers of English with Tamazight learners should be informed about how Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis functions at the phonological levels regarding the two languages in question. In this chapter we will discuss related theories that approach this field, the role of the native language in foreign language teaching / learning, the learning difficulties, and corresponding/contrastive facts by comparing the two given languages, finally focusing on the phonological characteristics: segmental and suprasegmental aspects.

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3.1 Foreign Language Learning Theories The field of learning a foreign language is always related to theories which attempt to define the sources of difficulties sorted out regarding the learners‟ native language. In this section, we will cover two main important theories: Contrastive Analysis Theory, though Contrastive Analysis of Phonology, and Error Analysis Theory to isolate what and what not need to be learned in foreign language classroom, to facilitate learning and teaching. 3.1.1 Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis (C A H) The theoretical foundations of C A H were initially laid down by Lado (1957) in his book “Linguistics across Cultures”. He supported the conviction that if learner/ teachers of a foreign language were made aware of the way in which their mother tongue and foreign tongue differed, this would facilitate foreign language learning. He went further claiming that elements of the foreign language that are similar to the learner‟s mother tongue will prove simple to learn, while those that are different prove to be difficult. In short, the learning of a foreign language “ is filtered through the learners‟ mother tongue. The native language facilitates learning in cases the target structures are similar and difficult in the cases the target structures are dissimilar or non – existing”. According to Swan and Smith, (2001) “interference is basically the mistakes that occur where students assume a more complete correspondence between native and target language”. For example, Arabic speakers may pronounce – climbed as / kraymbad / without omitting the silent letter -b- or a Farsi speaker may pronounce words with stress always on the final syllable of a word, this is generally how most Farsi words are stressed. Lado (1957) was the first to suggest a systematic set of technical procedures for the contrastive study of languages, to predict foreign language learning difficulties.

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Moreover, he believed that C A H would be able to predict the degree of difficulty that any foreign language learners would experience by knowing their native language and the target language. However, empirical studies could not sustain this claim by making it clear that CAH could only predict certain problematic areas for learners and some of the errors they are bound to make in their versions in the foreign language (James, 1989:145). Other researchers rejected the theory‟s ability to accurately predict any and all mistakes that learners would experience. According to Whitman and Jackson (1972) “the inadequacy of this theory is to predict the transfer errors that learners will make in any actual learning contexts”. But Bowen (1967:2) stated that the significance of Contrastive Analysis can not be easily denied “such interference does exist and can explain difficulties” especially in the phonological domain. In addition, James (1987:12) characterizes C A H as a hybrid linguistic discipline since it is neither particularistic nor generalistic being interested in both: in the immanent genius of a language and in the ways in which one language can be compared to other languages. C A H does not strive to classify languages but is interested in the differences and similarities between them only. C A H functions according to the following principles: all comparisons work on the basis of the following assumption that entities –languages- to be compared have certain things in common, and they may differ in certain aspects. C A H, thus, always involves a common linguistic platform of reference. As a result, C A H is not a unified field of study. The focus may be on general or on language specific features. “ The study may be theoretical without any immediate application or it may be applied i.e., carried out for a specific purpose” (Fisiak, 1981: 2-3). Furthermore, Gabrovesk (2005:75-76) points out that C A H work can be done at the levels of grammar, phonology, graphology, lexicology, and textology. Why any C A H work must

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necessarily be limited in scope. In the light of the Gabrovsek‟s view about C A H and on the level it functions, our work will be framed under the Contrastive Analysis of Phonology. 3.1.1.1 Contrastive Analysis of Phonology ( C A P ) CA P is the contrastive study of sounds of two or more languages. It can be traced to the work of Ekman ( 2004, cited in Matsubara, 2006:1) who discussed and evolved from studies cited that native language influence is the main explanation for foreign language phonological difficulties. Before him, works in the area of foreign language phonology was not the focus of many studies. According to Major (1998, cited in Matsurbara, 2008:2) “ of the nearly 200 articles published in studies in foreign language learning from 1988 to 1998 only about a dozen focused on phonetics and phonology”. Since then, the area has largely expanded over that last few years. The principles that govern this field according to Lado (1957:11) is that “the adults speakers of one language can not easily hear language sounds other than those of the native language”. The example Lado gave was the case of vowels English contrast / I /and / l / that does not exist in Japanese, leading Japanese learners of English not to hear the phonetic difference between the two English vowels. It aims to address the following question: are exotic sounds more difficult than sounds which are already known? Many studies ( Eckman, 2004, Flege, 1992b, etc) proved that whenever there is a difference in the native and foreign language, a problem will occur. For example, the / r /and / w / English sounds are difficult for Danish learners. So these kinds of sounds deserve more attention than others in the English foreign language classroom. According to Fledge (1995:567) in the beginning learners tend to perceive all foreign sounds as realizations of their native phonetic categories and through time, they will begin to notice more obvious differences between their native and foreign sounds,

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which mean that experience helps learners to realize also more subtle differences because in the beginning, they tend to ignore them until they are somehow made aware of the importance of these less obvious differences in learning foreign language pronunciation. 3.1.2 Error Analysis Theory (E.A.T ) Since C A H could only predict and point out the potential learning problems and difficulties, it was not able to determine accurately mistakes that a learner may make when he comes to learn a foreign language. This is the background of the Error Analysis Theory, it started to emerge when linguists thought about the nature of errors and their importance in revealing the language system being learned. Errors in their respect are of highly importance and significance more than the task of seeing them as something to be eradicated Corder (1973:258) “errors are as indications that a learner attempts to figure out his knowledge of the target language”. Corder made sense that a mistake is akin to slips of the tongue, and a learner who makes mistakes is able to recognize them as mistakes and then correct them if necessary, while errors are likely to occur repeatedly and in the same time the learner is not able to recognize them as errors and lapses are small mistakes caused by forgetting something. Error Analysis Theory came as a reaction to the C A H, and this theory is considered as resulted from the influence of early first language acquisition research and foreign language learning research. The aim is two folds; to describe the development of errors in relation to their nature and from this description to infer a process of how to learn a foreign language. Many studies tried to classify errors into two groups: the first group is linked with errors originated from the influence of the native language; this type is called interference which was addressed by C A H, and are considered as difficulties. The

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second group of errors is called: intralingual errors arise from properties of the target language itself as simplification; as a common error to all learners of the foreign language regardless their native language influence, and developmental errors as; overgeneralization which can be found in the language of children. Finally, this theory is focusing too much on errors, their nature and significance rather than on achievement. 3.2. Role of the Native Language The issue of native language influence on learning a foreign language is widely discussed. It can be traced to the works of Lado (1957:33) “individuals tend to transfer forms and meanings and the distribution of forms and meanings of their native language and culture to the foreign language and culture –both productively when attempting to speak the language and act in the culture and respectively when attempting to grasp and understand the language and the culture as practiced by natives”. Native language influence is a subfield within foreign language learning that has come to be known as language transfer which underlies two different learning processes: the positive transfer and the negative transfer. The term transfer can be defined as “ the influence resulting from similarities and dissimilarities between the target language and any other language that has been previously acquired and perhaps imperfectly, which is accompanied by a number of manifestations such as: errors, facilitation and avoidness”. According to Bloomfield (1993:33) “language is speech rather than writing since children learn to speak before they learn to write and there is no society with only written language but no spoken system”. Fries (1957) stated that “learning foreign language, therefore, constitutes a very different task from learning the first language. The basic problems arise not only of any essential difficulty in the features of the new languages themselves but primarily out of the special set created by the first language habits”. Behaviourists

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concluded that learning a foreign language was seen as the development of a new set of habits. The role of the native language features especially in pronunciation plays a significance role because knowing a foreign language well means / implies knowing similar information to that of a native speaker‟s language. Other scholars such as Speck (2002:77-80) suggested the term of cross linguistic influence which permits discussion over the incorporation of elements from one language into another. Learners may avoid using linguistic structures which they find difficult because of differences and over – use by preference of certain phonological forms. The results are the underproduction of some difficult structures or improper expressions and realizations. 3.2.1 Foreign Language Learning Difficulties It is said that difficulties in the learning a foreign language pronunciation features arise from two major sources: the first source is the actual process of production in the target language, the second source is the interrelationship between the grapheme phonemic system of the target language, which may result in errors in pronunciation Sajavaara and Dufva (2001:242). In this case, pronunciation errors become a real problem because they have an impact on the comprehensibility of the message and can irritate the listener by misusing of intonation. Foreign language learner is in a much more problematic situation because the native speaker for a short period of time can make use of all of the redundancy available in his / her language. In this situation, the learner must necessarily learn to understand what the native speaker says and tries to master the listening comprehension skill, especially at the phonemic level. According to Lehtonen et al. (1977, cited in Sajavaara and Dufva, 2001:249), the ability to extract the phonological structure of a chain of speech from what is heard is integral element in the process of understanding. This is proved in many studies in regard to the difficulties in

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learning, when learners scored poorly in listening comprehension. According to Lehtonen and Sajavaara (1985:91-92), the phenomena that are important to learn are for instance “ the way in which the foreign language links phonemes together, physically carries out sequences of sounds in stressed and unstressed positions in connected speech, shapes words and builds up word combinations and gives them their rhythm in sentences and longer stretches of discover”. As a result, the importance of phonological contrasts cannot be denied in overcoming expected difficulties while learning a foreign language. 3.3. Techniques of Comparison We discuss the ways of comparison between two languages, what is going to be taken into consideration. Foreign language learner / teacher does not approach the task of learning a foreign language from scratch, the learning of new codes related on selection from already familiar functions used with the mother tongue. Since this task is available for both teachers and learners, we can formulate the questions of whether different languages resemble each other to any extent, or whether they are all totally different. It is obvious that languages in varying degrees have some common features and different features in the same time (Corder, 1973: 226). Determining the formal similarities and differences between languages is something that has been central to linguistic studies seeking to establish genetic connections between languages, on the basis of their similarities. So the notion of language families or grouping languages is developed from these perspectives such as Indo – European languages. Contrastive Linguistics is therefore, an important part of human language study, when the task is between a mother tongue and a foreign language. According to Lado (1957:2) “we assume that student who comes in contact with a foreign language will

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find some features of it quite easy and others extremely difficult. Those elements that are similar to his native language will be simple for him, and those elements that are different will be difficult”. On the basis of Lado‟s position, we can rely on two important concepts in dealing with our subject, and conduct a contrastive analysis between the phonological systems of Tamazight and English. These concepts are similarities and differences. 3.3.1 Similarities They are also known as the common features between two languages or more. It is claimed that this part in a language is easier for the learner of a foreign language to learn than some other parts in that language, since there is a certain sense in which the learner already knows some parts of the target language. Then, the learner will immediately discover correspondences by simple exposure to the new data. For example, if we compare the number system of French with English we will find a greater degree of morphological similarity: written French language plural marks are carried out with s, or, x in a way very similar to English. This example illustrates that correspondences between languages are very patchy and irregular (Corder, 1973:233) and consequently similarities between languages are at a more general and abstract levels that we can expect to find. Finally, in regard to our work, we are going to classify similarities between Tamazight and English according to the process of learning / acquisition and phonological characteristics. 3.3.2 Differences They are known as non – existing features in the target or in the native languages. It is claimed that this part is difficult to learn than some other parts as they are not known. According to Lado (1957:229) “whenever there are differences between two

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systems, it implies that there are difficulties in learning”. But another opinion suggests that any particular feature of the target language which differs from the mother tongue is necessarily inherently difficult to learn Nickel (1971, cited in Corder, 1973:230). It does not necessarily mean that it is difficult to learn. For example something totally new or different may prove easy to master than something which is slightly different like a very similar sound existing in the two languages. But the difference in the phonetic distribution may be a greater learning problem than in the case of a total new sound. In order to solve this problem we need to over- expose learners to the target language naturally or artificially. The notion of differences also is different when we come to learn a language and use it productively i. e., passive and active knowledge (Corder, 1973:230). Finally, in our work, we need to classify different structures between Tamazight and English according to the process of learning / acquisition, the phonological characteristics, to help teachers/ learners overpass their difficulties in teaching / learning English pronunciation. 3.4. Contrastive Analysis between Tamazight and English 3.4.1 Contrastive Analysis of Learning / Acquisition Process The table below aims to shed light on contrastive facts that may exist between Tamazight and English regarding the process of learning / acquisition by Algerian secondary school learners.

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Contrastive Analysis of Learning /Acquisition of Tamazight vs English Acquisition

Learning

- The starting point in this research is - English is the target language in our Tamazight, but the ultimate aim is to work which aims to shed light on how to reach something in English.

facilitate the process of learning.

- Tamazight is the mother tongue of our - English is the second foreign language learners, and it is called by different being

taught

in

Algerian

classroom

names: like native language, the first context after French language as the first language.

foreign language.

- Our learners have been exposed to it - Different from Tamazight, our learners from birth thus acquired it from their are exposed to English only in classroom parents through interaction. So the context. So the appropriate term regarding appropriate term for this language is the kind of exposure is learning. acquisition.

- The learning process may depend on

- The acquisition process is not a perfect commonalities with their first language. process for a full mastery of the -

Foreign

language

learners

are

language. So it needs to be fostered by characterized by the lack of practice in the another process to help children to environment of communication, only in overcome difficulties that may appear at the classroom context. different

levels

of acquisition like - Unlike Tamazight, English is learnt in

learning. -

The

an artificial situation through teachersdirectionality

of

Tamazight learners interaction .

acquisition is towards natural situation - Foreign language learning can be exposure, and the degree of exposure is achieved by some perception models –, in limitless.

order to deal successfully with the issue of

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- It does not enjoy an artificial exposure, similarities and dissimilarities between children do not learn it in school.

native language and foreign languages.

- First language acquisition undergoes stages to achieve a full language acquisition,

starting

from

single

phonemes and C V C V structure into C C C V C C C C structure (meaningful structure). Table 8: Contrasting Learning/Acquisition between English and Tamazight It seems to us that both Tamazight and English languages undergo different stages of learning / acquisition. As a result, it is the task of researchers and teachers to look into ways of creating a viable situation of exposure towards this language. The following table will illustrate these facts clearly:

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Languages Tamazight

English

Learning process

Ø

X

Acquisition process

X

Ø

Natural situation exposure

X

Ø

Artificial situation exposure

Ø

X

The dependence on stages

X

Ø

The dependence on models

Ø

X

Same functions between child and adult

Ø

Ø

Different functions between child and adult

X

X

Mother- child interaction

X

Ø

Teacher- learner interaction

Ø

X

Commonalities favour both of them

X

X

Differences disfavour both of them

Ø

X

Table 9: Learning /Acquisition Process of Tamazight and English 3.4.2 Contrastive Analysis in Phonology This section seeks to analyze contrastive facts that exist at segmental and suprasegmenal levels between Tamazight and English to observe to what extent learners of foreign language deviate and if the potential deviancy is indeed attributable to native language influence in regard to pronunciation issues. 3.4.2.1 Segmental Level 3.4.2.1.1 Consonant Sounds Correspondences /Contrasts In the table below, Tamazight and English consonants sounds are presented with their corresponding counterparts. The (x) sign indicates the existence of the consonant

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sound in the phonemic (consonantal) system of the related language, while the (/) indicates the opposite. Consonant Sounds Contrasts / Correspondences of Tamazight vs English Number

Consonants

Tamazight

Example

English

Example

01

/p/

(x)

(/)

X

Paid

02

/t/

X

Ttu

X

Take

03

/k/

X

Yefka

X

Gave

04

/b/

X

Abidoun

X

Buy

05

/d/

X

Yedder

X

Day

06

/g/

X

Agwa

X

Gone

07

/tſ /

X

Yecca

X

Chain

08

/d/

X

Ajgu

X

June

09

/m/

X

Tamurt

X

May

10

/n/

X

Sin

X

Nine

11

/η/

(/)

(/)

X

Sing

12

/f/

X

Yefka

X

Far

13

/o/

X

Tamazight

X

Thing

14

/s/

X

Asif

X

Same

15

/v/

(/)

(X)

X

Vain

16

/ð /

X

Adar

X

They

17

/z/

X

Azekka

X

Zoo

18

/ z /

X

Azekka

X

Measure

19

/L/

X

Tala

X

Light

20

/r/

X

Arrac

X

Hide

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21

/w/

X

Awtul

X

Web

22

/J/

X

Yusef

X

Year

23

/h/

X

Ahwawi

X

Hour

24

/ ha /

X

Lehrir

(/)

(/)

25

/ ka /

X

Akal

(/)

(/)

26

/ la /

X

Llufan

(/)

(/)

27

/ a/

X

Agrum

(/)

(/)

28

/ ra /

X

Rwig

(/)

(/)

29

/?/

X

Asefsaf

(/)

(/)

30

/?/

X

A Iban

(/)

(/)

31

/ kw /

X

Tarkwnt

(/)

(/)

32

/ gw /

X

Agwem

(/)

(/)

33

/ xa /

X

Xedem

(/)

(/)

34

/ ta /

X

Aftir

(/)

(/)

35

/ jw /

X

Tajjalt

(/)

(/)

36

/ ſ /

X

Accamar

(X)

Shoe

37

/ tſ/

X

Utcci

(/)

(/)

38

/ gh/

X

Qqar

(/)

(/)

Table 10: Contrasting English Consonant Sounds with Tamazight 3.4.2.1.1.2 Common Consonant Sounds From the table above, it seems that Tamazight is a consonantal language having 38 consonant sounds, while English has 24 consonant sounds. The consonant sounds that exist in both sound systems are 21, which are ( t - k – b – d – g – t - s – dz - m – n – f – θ – s – v – ŏ – z – l – r – w – j – h ).

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3.4.2.1.1.3 Non – English Consonants Sounds There are many consonant sounds in the table above which belong to Tamazight and not exist in English, these sounds are ( ha – ka – la – ya – ra - sar -

a - kw

– gw – xa - ta – ja – ts - gh ) which conclude that Tamazight is a consonantal language. 3.4.2.1.1.4 Non – Tamazight Consonant Sounds The consonant sounds that exist in English and not exist in Tamazight are very few. There are only 03 sounds which are ( /p / / η / and / v / ). 3.4.3.1.2 Vowel Sounds Correspondences / Contrasts Below are displayed Tamazight and English vowel sounds. The (x) sign indicates the existence of the vowel sound in the phonemic (vocalic) system of the related language, while the (/) indicates the opposite. Vowel Sounds Contrasts / Correspondences of Tamazight vs English Number

Vowels

Tamazight

Example

English

Example

01

I

X

Tilelli

X

Bit

02

E

X

Ifer

X

Men

03

Æ

X

Aman

X

Man

04

Ʌ

Ø

Ø

X

Some

05

A

Ø

Ø

X

Gone

06

U

X

Udem

X

Pull

07

i:

Ø

Ø

X

Beat

08

3:

Ø

Ø

X

Bird

09

Ɔ:

Ø

Ø

X

Card

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10

a:

Ø

Ø

X

Board

11

u:

Ø

Ø

X

Food

12

Ai

Ø

Ø

X

Fierce

13

Ea

Ø

Ø

X

Bear

14

Ui

Ø

Ø

X

Moore

15

Ei

Ø

Ø

X

Paid

16

Ai

Ø

Ø

X

Tide

17

Au

Ø

Ø

X

Load

18

Au

Ø

Ø

X

Loud

19

I

Ø

Ø

X

Void

21

eia

Ø

Ø

X

Player

21

aia

Ø

Ø

X

Fire

22

Ia

Ø

Ø

X

Loyal

23

әua

Ø

Ø

X

Lower

24

aua

Ø

Ø

X

Power

Table 11: Contrasting English Vowel Sounds with Tamazight When one compares and contrasts sounds of two languages at a superficial level, one usually pays more attention to consonants than vowels, perhaps due to the acoustic prominence of consonants. However, a close examination of vowel systems of English and Tamazight reveals that in reality more attention is needed for vowel contrasts than for consonants. In fact, the above table supports to a great extent this claim since it shows great differences between the sound systems of the two languages at the level of vocalic systems.

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3.4.3.1.2.1 Common Vowel Sounds The table above shows a great difference with consonant sounds. It seems that English is a vocalic language when we compare it with Tamazight. English has 24 vowel sounds: short vowels, long vowels, diphthongs and Triphthongs. So English is described as having a complex vocalic system while Tamazight has only three vowels: /a/, /i/, /u/ and the shwa.The common vowel sounds are /i/, /ae/, /u/, and /e/. 3.4.3.1.2.2 Non – English Vowel Sounds All vowel sounds of Tamazight are also vowel sounds of English. 3.4.3.1.2.3 Non –Tamazight Vowel Sounds In the above table, there are twenty English vowel sounds which not existing in Tamazight. All the diphthongs (08), triphthongs (05) and some short and long vowels. That is why English is a vocalic language. 3.4.3.1.3 Contrastive Analyses of Consonants Chart A comparison between Tamazight consonant system and that of English reveals noticeable differences in consonantal distribution. The overlay of the Tamazight consonants on the English ones are displayed as follows:

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Place of Articulation Laryngeal

glottal

uvular

velar

palatal

Post alveolar

Alveolar

dental

Labia-dental

bilabial

labial

Manner of Articulation

Source Language: Tamazight stop

tţ dd

B

fricative

k.g

sş z z

f

šžž

x.r

q

?

h

Affricate nasal

M

n

lateral

l

Approximant W

j Target Language: English

stop

b (p)

fricative

t d f (v)

O ð

k.g

s z

h

Affricate Nasal

t m

lateral Approximant

d

n

(ŋ)

l w

r

j

Table 12: Contrasting English Consonants Sounds Distribution vs Tamazight It should be noted that the three consonants written in bold and between brackets are absent in the Tamazight consonantal system. To start with the plosives /p/ and /b/, /b/ is respectively voiceless and voiced in Tamazight and English but /p/ is absent in Tamazight. However, /p/ in English is often unaspirated in syllable –final position; medially after /s/ as in “spring”; and before unstressed vowels.

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The stops /t/and /d/ are respectively voiceless and voiced plosives in both Tamazight and English, but as far as their place of articulation is concerned, they have the same one: alveolar. Moreover; /t/ in English is unaspirated in syllable –final position; medially after /s/. The velars /k/ and /g/ are voiceless and voiced plosives respectively in Tamazight and English. Moreover, they are strongly palatalized before front vowels in syllabic – final position in Tamazight while in English they are slightly palatalized before front vowels. Moving onto the nasals /m/ and /n/, they are categorized as plain voiced nasals in both languages. /m/ is bilabial in English while is a labial in Tamazight. But /n/ has an alveolar articulation in both languages. An interesting observation is that /ŋ/ is absent in Tamazight, on the other hand /ŋ/ exist in English and has a velar articulation which occurs finally as in “ring”; inter- vocally as in “singing”; and pre- consonantly as in “single”; but never initially. It should be noted that the problem that comes from the lack of phoneme /ŋ/ in Tamazight is that Tamazight learners of English tend to substitute it with the phonemes /n / and /g / instead of /ŋ /, for example: the word “sing” may be pronounced “sing” instead of “sin”, which may cause misunderstanding. With the fricative sounds /f/ and /v/, /f/ sound appear in both languages, while /v/ is absent in Tamazight. The fricatives / tſ / / dƷ / are voiceless and voiced in both languages, and are post alveolar respectively. Moreover, a closer observation reveals that the /s/ /z/ /t/ /d/ /ž/ /č/ /g/ / ĥ/ are absent in English while /p/ and /v/ not existing in Tamazight. It should be noted that Tamazight speakers may have difficulties to articulate the latter sounds; therefore, they chose to substitute the nearest phonemes to them.

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The palatal /j/ and /w/ are called semi –vowels in both languages. They are realized in the same way. In considering the phoneme /r/, there are many different allophones for this phoneme in Tamazight such as /r/ /r/ etc. Also, in English there are three major allophones for /r/- alveolar stop between two vowels, b- retroflexive top and voiced continuative. In fact, the differentiation of allophones for phoneme /r/ in both languages is responsible for foreign –accent Tamazight speakers learning English have which may cause misunderstanding. Finally /l/ which appears in both languages with the same articulation. /L/ is considered as a clear /l/ in Tamazight while in English it has four allophones two of them occur frequently and other two allophones called dental which may cause great difficulty for Tamazight learners of English to perform this sound appropriately in different positions. 3.4.3.1.4 Contrastive Analysis of Vowels Chart As with the differences in the consonant system, there are also noticeable differences in vowel systems between Tamazight and English. The comparison between them reveals some significant differences in the following areas: the number of vowels, tense / lax distinctions and the length of vowel. Another characteristic that typically differentiates English vowel system from that of Tamazight vowel system is related to whether there is a distinction between tense and lax vowels. In the two systems, English vowels have both qualities while Tamazight has only lax vowels. Tamazight does not have any variation in vowel length so the meaning of the word will not be affected. Consider two English words “live” and “leave” where the length of the vowel changes and the meaning changes with it also. The fact that Tamazight vowel inventory consists of three vowels suggests that Tamazight learners of English may face difficulties producing English vowels that not

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existing in their language. For instance in Tamazight /i/ is similar to the close- front tense /i/ in English, but /i:/ which is a half –close lax vowel in English is absent in Tamazight. Thus, the result will be the use of /i/ instead of /i:/ which would create misunderstanding and in some cases embarrassment, for Tamazight learners of English, they may pronounce the words ship –and sheep in the same way and also in many other words. In addition, in English /æ/ is open –low –front which does not correspond exactly to Tamazight vowels. Therefore, Tamazight learners of English tend to use /a/ instead. 3.4.3.2 Suprasegmental Level 3.4.3.2.1 Contrastive Analysis of the Syllable Structure The following table illustrates the syllabic structure of Tamazight and English. The (x) sign indicates the existence of the syllable structure in the syllabic frame of the related language while (Ø) sign indicates non –existence of the structure.

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Syllable Structures Correspondences / Contrasts of Tamazight vs English Number

Syllable

Tamazight

Example

English

Example

Structure 01

V

X

A

X

I

02

VC

X

Ul

X

Am

03

VCC

X

Ilm

X

Ant

04

VCCC

Ø

Ø

X

Asks

05

VCCCC

Ø

Ø

X

Amples

06

CV

X

Di

X

Key

07

CVC

X

Zun

X

Seek

08

CVCC

X

Tunf

X

Cattle

09

CCV

X

Kti

X

Tree

10

CCVC

X

krut

X

Speak

11

CCVCC

Ø

Ø

X

Stamp

12

CCVCC

Ø

Ø

X

Trend

13

CCVCCCC

Ø

Ø

X

Trampled

14

CCCV

Ø

Ø

X

Spree

15

CCCVC

Ø

Ø

X

Scram

16

CCCVCC

Ø

Ø

X

Script

17

CCCVCCC

Ø

Ø

X

Stands

18

CCCVCCCC

Ø

Ø

X

Scrambles

19

CVCCC

Ø

Ø

X

Lapsed

20

CVCCCC

Ø

Ø

X

Thousandth

Table 13: Contrasting English Syllable Structures vs Tamazight

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3.4.3.2.1.1 Common Syllable Structures A close look at the syllable structures displayed in the table above reveals some common features between Tamazight and English. For example, both language syllable structures can be initiated with vowels: (V), (VC), (VCC), etc. Another interesting observation is that syllable –initial /final- consonant clusters are possible in Tamazight and English with one consonant in the syllable initial (onset) position and also two consonant clusters in the syllable final (coda) position. Here are the (08) common syllable structures V- VC- VCC- CV- CVC- CVCC –CCV-CCVC. 3.4.3.2.1.2 Non-Tamazight Syllable Structures In addition to the common features stated above, the table reveals also some different syllable structures. For example, syllable initial consonants clusters in Tamazight normally take no more than one consonant in their structure but in English they are not limited to two consonants but can consist of three consonants. In addition, syllable final consonant clusters in Tamazight normally take no more than two consonant clusters in their structure but in English they are not limited to two but can have four consonants. So the syllable structure in Tamazight can display the following pattern –CCVCC- while in English, it can be as follows: - CCCVCCCC-. The syllable structure of English includes at least twenty-different structures, with only eight patterns in Tamazight. The following structures do not exist in Tamazight: VCCC/VCCCC/CCVCC/CCVCC/CCVCCCC/CCCV/CCCVC/CCCVCC/CCCVCCC/ CCCVCCCC/CVCCC/CVCCCC. It should be noted that according to the above description in the number of syllable patterns may cause problems for Tamazight speakers learning of English. These speakers often have difficulty producing English words with three and four consonants clusters in the initial and final positions because Tamazight does not allow a word to

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begin with more than one consonant cluster and end with more than two consonants clusters, while English does. Thus, it is not at all surprising that Tamazight speakers of English have difficulties pronouncing English words with consonant clusters more than two consonants. 3.4.3.2.1.3 Non English Syllable Structures As illustrated in the above, all English syllable structures do not exist in Tamazight syllable structure. English permits up to 20 different syllable structures while Tamazight 08 syllables structures. 3.4.3.2.2 Contrasting English Intonation Patterns with Tamazight The following table displays contrasting intonation patterns of English with that of Tamazight to identify patterns in which they are similar and different. Statement

English

Tamazight

A normal matter -fact/report High low Affirmative/negative and

Mid high low

question Yes/no/question

Mid high extra high

Low high

Tag questions for asking

Mid high mid, mid

Low high low

Mid high low

Low high

Mid high mid high

Low high

Incomplete sentences as clauses beginning with a connecting word Direct address e.g., “good after noon”

Table 14: Contrasting English Intonation Patterns with Tamazight

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The above table displays contrasting English intonation patterns with Tamazight, Tamazight learners of English may have difficulty producing English words and sentences in the way that correspond to the characteristic rhythm of English. The reason behind this difficulty seems to be the difference in the intonation patterns that mark words and sentences of English and Tamazight, this fact would contribute to the difficulty for Tamazight learners in both producing and receiving the characteristic intonation patterns of English. Although both Tamazight and English utilize the basic intonation patterns in some contexts, the difficulty is in the degree of the pitch. As a result, Tamazight learners would often fail to display the wider pitch range utilized in creating English intonation patterns, relying heavily on their use of the narrower pitch range of Tamzight intonation patterns. Furthermore, according to Avery and Ehrlich (1992, cited in Ohata, 2000:15-16) it should be noted that since pitch changes can convey not only the meaning of sentences but also the speakers‟ attitude toward a topic of conversation, as a result, Tamazight speakers learnering English might be interpreted as a sign of boredom or lack of interest. Conclusion The most outstanding observations about the contrastive/corresponding facts between Tamazight and English discussed above are that these two languages are different in many aspects. The most important difference lies in the fact that there are noticeable differences in regard to their sound system, such as the difference in the segmental features. Some consonant sounds as /p/ and / η /, the difference in the vowel sounds also is clear because Tamzight has only three vowels while English has up to twenty four vowels. The outstanding difference in this respect is that English is a vocalic language while Tamazight is a consonantal language. Other outstanding

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difference is at suprasegmental features, the syllable structure of English is complex while that of Tamazight is a simple one, this difference lies in the fact that Tamazight permits up to one consonant initially and up to two consonants clusters finally while English permits up to three consonants clusters initially and four consonants clusters finally. Also, stress and intonation features are used differently in Tamazight and English for personal and social attitudes. Finally, the differences mentioned above between Tamazight and English are regarded as insights to help English teachers who are working within Algerian Tamazight speaking environment. So we designed questionnaires to shed more light on the difficulties that may encounter learners in this area of language teaching and learning, to suggest recommendations of how to structure their lessons related to pronunciation based on the remarkable differences that characterized them.

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Introduction We are conducting a research to know whether Tamazight as a native language can positively or negatively influence the learning of English pronunciation. On the basis of the literature background developed in the previous three chapters about the phonological characteristics of both languages, and most importantly, the third chapter in which we made a brief comparison between them which has revealed potential similarities and differences in issues related to pronunciation features. It is reasonable to assume that our learners‟ native language sound system might lead consequently to unintelligibility and misunderstanding. Identification of potential problems to teach English pronunciation should lead to preparing suggestions that would help teachers to become aware of them in order to find out particular phonological characteristics of English they should concentrate on. 4.1 Findings This section presents the findings of this research organised of two subsections; A and B. Section A presents the findings of the questionnaire of learners‟ in which they were asked to express their attitudes towards learning English pronunciation and whether they encounter possible difficulties. Section B shows findings from a questionnaire administered to teachers to appreciate difficulties encountered when teaching English for Amazigh learners and how their native language might affect their performance in the target language. 4.1.1 Section A Findings from Learners’ Questionnaire In this section, focus is on the findings of the learners‟ questionnaire. The questionnaire to the learners has 12 questions some of them about general information while others are about the problems resulted from the mother tongue while learning

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English pronunciation. 60 questionnaires have been distributed and all of them were returned. Q 1. What is your native language? Languages

Total of

Tamazight

Arabic

French

English

Respondents

60

0

0

0

60

Table 15 : Number of Learners’ Native Language Speakers The table above illustrates the number of learner‟s native language speakers, 60 respondents answered that Tamazight is their native language while there is no one who speak Arabic, French, English as his / her native language. Q 2. Which languages do you learn at school? Language

Responses

Total

Tamazight

10

10%

Arabic

60

100%

French

60

100%

English

60

100%

Table 16: Languages Learnt at School The above table is about different languages learnt at school in Algeria. All the respondents learnt Arabic, French , and English at school. Q 3. Do you imitate Tamazight accent when speaking English?

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Answers Yes

Percentage

No

*

55

90% *

5

10%

Table 17: Speaking English with Tamazight Accent Most of the respondents agreed that the accent of the mother Tongue –Tamazight – interferes when they come to perform in the target language –English-, and only 5 over 60 stated that they do not notice such an interference when speaking English. Q4. In which language skill do you face difficulties, grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary? If yes is this related to Tamazight? Respondents

Responses

Language skill

36

Yes

Pronunciation

Reasons given - Practicing pronunciation rules of a foreign language is the most difficult task. –Pronunciation skill consists of complex set of rules. -I tend to pronounce English sounds like the sounds of my native language.

10

Yes

Grammar

-I find it the most difficult language skill to learn.

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14

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Vocabulary

-I can`t distinguish between the different meanings of the same words. - We tend to recall Tamazight„s words sometimes.

Table 18: Difficulties in Learning English skills in Relation to Tamazight The above table illustrates difficulties in learning English skills such as grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation regarding the influence of Tamazight. 36 respondents answered that Tamazight has affected their performance in pronunciation skill, 10 stated that they face difficulties in grammar while 14 in vocabulary. Each respondent gave reasons for his/her choice, the reasons are due to the influence of the mother tongue – Tamazight -. Q05. Do you agree with the following statement? Good pronunciation =good English (about the importance of pronunciation skill in learning English) If yes, does Tamazight affect this statement?

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Responses Number of Respondents Yes

36

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Reasons -Pronunciation is the key to master any given language, thanks to it you can understand what others say and to be understood. -Pronunciation skill guides you to learn English in a correct way.

No

24

-There are other language skills such as vocabulary, grammar, etc which allow you to express yourself.

Table 19: Opinions about Good Pronunciation in Relation to Tamazight There are 36 respondents agreed about the statement and showed clearly the importance of pronunciation skill in learning a language by giving many reasons that justify their choice, while 24 respondents refer to the importance of other language skills such as vocabulary, grammar, and supported it by giving reasons also. Q 6. Do you think that English pronunciation symbols are useful in regard to the influence of Tamazight? Explain

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Respond

Learning symbols

ents

Yes

55

No

*

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Usefulness Yes

No

60

00

Explanation

-They help to practise English sounds perfectly. -They help to memorize pronunciation rules. -They have adventages to pronounce English words correctly.

Table 20: English Pronunciation Symbols The table above is about English pronunciation symbols in terms of usefulness. 60 respondents stated that pronunciation symbols are very useful and important to learn a foreign language and pronounce it correctly; this opinion is stated clearly by the different reasons and explanations given in the table. Q7. Can you imitate English accent? Yes / no how easy, hard? Does Tamazight affect you in this area? Respondents

Yes

32

*

28

No

Easy

Hard

*

32

*

28

*

Table 21: English Accent in Relation to Tamazight

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The table above illustrates the relationship between English accent and Tamazight. 32 learners answered that there is no difficulty in practising English sounds and nothing to be said about the influence of Tamazight, while 28 respondents expressed clearly that there is a strong relation between Tamazight and English accent. The reason behind this is that they face difficulties to imitate English sounds well due to the interference of Tamzight accent. Q 8. When you learn English pronunciation, what do you find easy to learn? a. consonant sounds. B.vowel sounds. c. justify your choice in regard to the influence of Tamazight? Responses Consonant Sounds

Respondents 40

Justification -I feel that they are easy to perceive and produce. Because consonant sounds have a precise pronunciation forms. -They are easier to learn if we compare them with vowel sounds. -They do not need great effort from speech organs. -Most of them are similar to the consonants sounds found in Tamazight.

Vowel Sounds

20

-I find short and long vowels easy to pronounce.

Table 22: Pronunciation Learning in regard to Tamazight According to the data in the above table, we see that most of the learners (40) face difficulties when they come to learn English vowels especially diphthongs and

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triphthongs, and they justified this difficulty with the absence of these sounds in their native language, also they described them as very complex sounds. While 20 respondents answered that they do not face problems when learning English pronunciation features, and the reason given is due to the similar structures existing between Tamazight and English. Q9. When you learn English pronunciation, what do you find difficult to pronounce? a. Consonants sounds. b.vowels sounds . c. justify your answer in regard to the influence of your native language Tamazight? Responses Consonant

Respondents 10

Justification -I have some difficulties with some sounds. - Some consonants sounds are silent in some

Sounds

positions in the words. Vowel Sounds

50

-Their pronunciation form is totally different from their written form so they need some more practice. -Most of the vowel sounds are very difficult for me to learn and pronounce. -English has a complex vowel system, especially diphthongs and triphthongs which are totally different from Tamazight.

Table 23: Pronunciation Difficulties regarding Tamazight Influence According to the data in the above table, we can see that most of the learners (50) face difficulties when they come to learn English vowels especially diphthongs and triphthongs, and they justified this difficulty due to the absence of these sounds in their

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native language, also they described them as very complex sounds. While 10 respondents answered that they do face problems when learning English consonants sounds such as /p/ /η/, and the reason given is due to the different structures and not existing between Tamazight and English. Q10. When you learn English vowel sounds, what do you find difficult to pronounce short vowels, long vowels, diphthongs, triphthongs? Then, how would you comment about the influence of Tamazight on vowels? Responses

Short Vowels

Degree of difficulty

Justification

Easy

In between

Difficult

56

04

00 (0%)

-They are very easy to pronounce -They do not require much effort to learn. -They are similar with vowel sounds of my native language. -They are simple because they contain only one short segment of sound.

Long Vowels

35

25

0

-They are somehow easy to pronounce since they are similar with short vowels of Tamazight. -I find difficulty to distinguish between them and short vowels.

Diphthongs

0

18

42

-They are strange sounds . -They are complex sounds different from short and long

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vowels and they consist of two united vowel sounds. Triphthongs

0

10

50

-They are very difficult for us to pronounce and perceive. -They are complex sounds which consist of three vowel sounds.

Table 24: Degree of Difficulty between Vowels in Relation to Tamazight Table 27 shows another more detailed characteristic that typically differentiates the English vowels from Tamazight vowels. Most of the respondents show through their answers whether there exist the distinction between lax and tense vowels in either of the two systems. Here, we know according to Ladefoged (1982, cited in Ohata, 2000:4) “ the differentiation between tense and lax vowels is made according to how much muscle tension or movement in the mouth is involved in producing vowels”. Q 11. Does Tamazight sounds help you to learn /pronounce better English sounds? Responses

Response

26 (60%)

Yes

Reasons -English sounds resemble so much Tamazight sounds . -I started to learn English sounds by using my native language sounds and I continue to use them till today . -There are similarities between them in pronunciation.

34 (40%)

No

- English needs a very active tongue movement especially when we come to pronouncing diphthong, triphthongs. - English is different from Tamazight. -Some sounds help me and others hinder me.

Table 25: Influence of Tamazight Sounds on Learning English Sounds

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Table 24 presents more general question about the possible difficulties that may encounter Tamazight speakers learning English pronunciation. 34 respondents agreed that Tamazight do influence them, while 26 of them did not agree about the statement. Q12. Do you use Tamazight accent when you speak English? Why? Responses

Respondents

yes

36 (60%)

Reasons - I can‟t get rid from Tamazight accent. - We do not have a habit of speaking English. - Tamazight is our native language while English is not. - When I speak English I tend to use Tamazight accent

Table 26: Relationship between Tamazight and English Accent The above table shows 36 respondents acknowledged the interference of Tamazight accent when they practise English sounds and they gave reasons for this interference, while 24 respondents stated that there is no kind of interference that has been observed. 4.1.2 Findings from the Teachers’ Questionnaire The following tables represent findings from teacher‟squestionnaires. Q 1. Do you think that Tamazight affect the performance in English pronunciation?

Response

Respondents

Percentage

Yes

03

60%

No

02

40%

Total

05

100%

Table 27: Influence of Tamazight on English pronunciation Teaching

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03 teachers believe that Tamazight affects English sound , while 02 of them do not. Q 2. To what extent Tamazight influence English and how? Response To

Respondents 03

a

Reasons given -It is the mother tongue of both teachers and learners

great

-Some teachers use Tamazight when they fail to

extent

explain concepts in English. -In some situations, Tamazight is much more helpful in case the subject of discussion is a carrier of culture. 02

To a less

- It is difficult to translate certain English forms into Tamazight because it lacks appropriate forms.

extent

- Teachers fail to recognize the influence of Tamazight.

Table 28: Extent of Tamazight Influence on English The above table illustrates the extent of influence that Tamazight has on English. 03 respondents agreed that it has a great influence on English, while 02 respondents refused this claim and stated that Tamazight lacks appropriate terms and forms. Q3. Do consonants sounds of Tamazight influence English ones? Response

Respondents

Percentage

Yes

01

20%

No

04

80%

Table 29: Influence of Tamazight Consonant Sounds on English Ones 01 respondent believes that consonants sounds of Tamazight have influence on English, while other 04 respondents do not believe about this influence. Q 4. Related to question number three, what kind of influence do Tamazight consonants sounds have? why?

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Response

Respondents 04 (80%)

Positive

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Reasons given -It is easy to teach how to pronounce English consonants sounds, learners perform better in this area

Influence

of English pronunciation. -The consonant system of English is similar to that of Tamazight.

Negative

01 (20%)

- Even though there are difficulties in dealing with consonants sounds of English, for example, the

Influence

consonants clusters of English is complex in many situation and it is hard to perform better. This is resulted from the consonants clusters of Tamazight which is characterized as simple consonants clusters.

Table 30: Kind of Influence of Tamazight Consonants on English Ones The above table is about the kind of influence that Tamazight has on English consonants sounds. 04 respondents agreed about the positive influence justifying this by the fact that Tamazight is a consonantal language, while 01 answered that the influence is a negative , and the reason is that consonants clusters of Tamazight is a simple one. Q 5. Do you encounter difficulties when teaching English vowels?, is this due to Tamazight? Responses

Respondents

Percentage

Yes

04

80%

No

01

20%

Table 31: Relationship between Tamazight and English Vowels

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There are four teachers who answered positively agreeing that Tamazight vowel system influences the teaching of English vowels, while one respondent does not. Q 6. What kind of influence do Tamazight vowels have on English ones? why? Responses Negative

Respondents 04 (80%)

Explanations - It is very difficult to teach vowel sounds of English. -The vowel system of English is complex because it

Influence

consists of 24 sound. - English is a vocalic language. So it is difficult to reshape the tongue of Tamazight speakers to the forms of English vowels. - Learners fail to pronounce English words which contain of diphthongs and triphthongs. Positive Influence

01(20%)

- In fact, not all the vowel sounds are difficult, some of them are easy to pronounce, such as short vowels, long vowels, because they are similar with that of Tamazight.

Table 32: Kind of Tamazight Influence on English Vowels Learning The above table is about the kind of influence that Tamazight has on English vowels sounds. 04 respondents agreed about the negative influence justifying this by the fact that Tamazight is a consonantal language on the one hand and English is a vocalic one characterised by a very complex vowel system, while 01 answered that the influence is a positive one, and this influence is limited to some short and long vowels. Q 7. What about the influence of Tamazight on English short and long vowels? Why?

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Responses

Respondents

Easy

05 (100%)

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Reasons given - English short vowels are very easy to perceive and produce. - They are totally similar with those of Tamazight. - They are very easy to pronounce either individually or within English simple words.

Table 33: Relationship between English Short/Long Vowels and Tamazight Respondents agreed that there is no difficulty occurring when learning English short and long vowels, and they justified this by the fact that these sounds are very easy to perform. Q 8. What about the kind of influence that Tamazight has on English diphthongs? Responses

Respondents

Negative

05(100%)

Reasons given -This area in English pronunciation system is difficult to perceive and produce. The difference is noticeable

Influence

especially when you come to pronounce diphthongs ending with shwa.

Table 34: Influence of Tamazight on English Diphthongs The above table is about the kind of influence that Tamazight has on English diphthongs. All the respondents agreed about the negative influence justifying this by the fact that English diphthongs are very difficult and complex sounds, because they consist of two sound segments. Q 9. Do you notice any kind of influence of Tamazight on English triphthongs? Why?

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Responses

Respondents

Reasons given

Negative

05 (100%)

-This area of English pronunciation system is the most difficult area to perceive and produce and the

Influence

difference is very noticeable. All the teachers and learners claim about them.

Positive

00(0%)

-No positive influence at all.

Influence

Table 35: Influence of Tamazight on English Triphthongs The above table is about the kind of influence that Tamazight has on English triphthongs. All the respondents agreed about the negative influence justifying this by the fact that English triphthongs are very difficult and complex sounds, because they consist of three sound segments. Q10. Does the simple syllable structure of Tamazight cause difficulties in teaching English syllable structure? Why?

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Responses Yes

Sétif2

Respondents 02(40%)

Reasons Given -Both syllable structure of Tamazight and English can be initiated with vowels such as the following: V-VC-VCC, etc. -Both syllable structures are possible in Tamazight and English. They permit up to one consonant in the syllable initial position and two consonants clusters In the syllable final position. -Both syllable structures in Tamazight and English have the same components –onset –centre –coda .

No

03(60%)

-The most important difficulty in teaching English syllable structure is the one consists of more than two consonants clusters in the initial position (onset) and in the final position (coda) because English can have up to 03 consonant clusters initially and 04 consonants clusters finally while Tamazight can have up to 01 consonant initially and up to 02 consonants clusters finally.

Table 36: Relationship between Tamazight and English Syllable Structure The above table illustrates the relationship between Tamazight and English syllable structure. 02 respondents claimed that there is a relationship between them, while 03 respondents claimed that a difficulty may occur because English syllable

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structure has up to three consonants clusters initially and four consonants clusters finally. Q11. In your opinion, to what extent Tamazight helps you teaching English syllable? Why? Responses Positive

Respondents 02(40%)

Reasons Given -The simple syllable structure of Tamazight has two consonants clusters initially and two consonants

Influence

clusters. Finally, I think that they are easy to perform. -Syllables starting with vowels are easy to produce because learners have a habit of this kind of syllable in Tamazight. -They do not demand a lot of effort. Negative Influence

03(60%)

-English syllable structure is regarded as the most complex because it contains many consonants clusters: initially and finally. So that it is difficult to manipulate easily these complex structures:-CCCV-VCCCVCCCC-CCCVCCCCC-CCCVCCC.

Table 37: Kind of Influence of Tamazight on English Syllable Teaching The above table illustrates the extent of influence that Tamazight has on teaching English syllable structure. 02 respondents agreed that it has a positive influence and they justified this by the reason that it is easy to perform syllables starting with vowels, while other 03 respondents refused this claim and stated that Tamazight lacks consonants clusters up to three and four consonants clusters. Q12. Do you encounter difficulties in teaching English stress? If yes, is this related to Tamazight?

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Responses

Respondents

Percentage

Yes

05

100%

No

00

00%

Total

05

100%

Table 38: Difficulties in Teaching English Stress All the respondents agreed about the difficulties in teaching English stress, and Tamazight affect their performance. Q13. To what extent Tamazight stress affects English stress? And why? Responses To a great

Respondents 03 (20%)

Reasons Given -The performance in English stress is unconsciously attributable to the features of stress in Tamazight.

extent

-It is very hard to avoid the accent of your language when performing in the target language such as English. To a less extent

02(40%)

-When you encounter slight difference between Stress of Tamazight and English you can teach it easily. -Stress placement in some situation is similar (has same effects on both languages for example it changes the meaning of a given word).

Table 39: Kind of Influence of Tamazight on English Stress Teaching The above table illustrates the extent of influence that Tamazight has on teaching English stress. 03 respondents agreed that it has a great influence, and the reason is

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unconsciously attributable to the features of stress in Tamazight while 02 respondents refused this claim and agreed that stress placement in some situation is similar. Q14. Do you encounter difficulties in teaching English intonation? If yes, is this related toTamazight. Responses

Respondents

Percentage

Yes

05

100%

No

00

0%

Total

05

100%

Table 40: Difficulties in Teaching English Intonation All the respondents agreed about the difficulties in teaching English intonation, and Tamazight affects their performance. Q 15. To what extent Tamazight affects the teaching of English intonation and how ? Responses Respondents To a great

04(80%)

Reasons Given -Tamazight intonation differs from that of English, so in my opinion; intonation differs from one community

extent

to another and used to express social attitudes of a particular society. To a less extent

01(20%)

-In case of similar functions between Tamazight and English intonation, Tamazight intonation leads to a positive performance in the target language.

Table 41: Kind of Influence of Tamazight on English Intonation The above table illustrates the extent of influence that Tamazight has on teaching English intonation. 04 respondents agreed that it has a great influence, and the reason is unconsciously attributable to the features of intonation in Tamazight which are

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different from that of English, while 01 respondent refused this claim and stated that similar functions between Tamazight and English leads to a positive performance. Q16. In your opinion, does Tamazight sound system affect the teaching of English sound system? If yes how? Responses Respondents Yes

05 (60%)

Reasons Given -Similar sound structures between Tamazight and English will lead to positive performance while different structures will lead obviously to difficulties. -The most important features that have influence are the vowels and syllable structures because they are apparent distinctive features of each language.

Table 42: Influence of Tamazight Sound System on English Sound System Table 41 presents more general question about the possible difficulties that may encounter Tamazight speakers when teaching English pronunciation. 05 respondents agreed that Tamazight do influence them when they teach English sound system in case of different structures. The aim of this section has been to present the findings of the responses from the questionnaires. Most of the responses reveal that Amazigh learners /teachers of English have to some extent difficulties when they come to pronounce some features of English pronunciation such as diphthongs, triphthongs and some consonants sounds, in addition to some consonants clusters and syllable structures. The next section analyzes the results from the questionnaires.

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4.3 Analyses of Findings 4.3.1 Analysis of Findings from the Learners’ Questionnaire The questions in section A aim at finding out information about the general linguistic background of the learners and the task of learning English as a foreign language. Results from these questions reveal to a great extent that their linguistic background is full of contradictions and paradoxes in the sense that they speak Tamazight outside classroom all the time and dealing with other languages inside the classroom different from Tamazight. Most of the learners (80%) agreed about the importance of English as a more challenging language in industry, education and diplomacy. So there is a great need for them to perfect themselves in English, this is supported by Mutasa (2003, cited in Chivhaanga, 2008:82). The responses for questions about difficulties in learning English in relation to Tamazight reveal that 60% of the learners are facing some remarkable difficulties in some areas of English pronunciation because of the interference of Tamazight. The major reason for such a situation is that learners at secondary school level are exposed to a great extent to their mother tongue more than to the target language. In addition, the respondents pointed out that they tend to borrow from Tamazight some terms and forms in order to practise them within English classroom context. They agreed also that they do this unconsciously. In question about the time given to English, the majority of the learners (80%) indicated that it is better to enlarge the allotted time for English per a week in order to be competent and have good English accent. They clearly pointed out that English is a global language used in different countries as a language of communication so being competent in English will enhance ones chances of being more marketable in education and commerce.

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In questions about the influence of Tamazight on English learning, it continued to be manifested by the responses, which revealed that 60% of the respondents face difficulties in pronunciation issues and they are attributed to Tamazight.While others pointed out that difficulties resulted from Tamazight on vocabulary and grammar. But the most outstanding influence is related to pronunciation: the reasons for this are that they rely on their native language when speaking/ performing in the target language. The results of question about the consonants sounds show that 80% of the learners declare that the consonants sounds of English are easy to perform with little influence of their native language because consonants sounds are similar to those of Tamazight. However, 20% of the learners reveal that they have encountered some slight difficulties related to the sound “η ”and tend to substitute it with “n” or “g” sound. On the question regarding the relationship between Tamazight vowel system and English, the majority of the respondents unanimously agreed that much more attention is needed for this area because it is the most difficult task for them especially when they come to pronouncing diphthongs and triphthongs. The reason for this problem is clearly stated by the absence of these sounds in Tamazight which contains only 03 vowel sounds which are simple sounds for them as they are similar to the vowel sounds of English. However, they agreed on the fact that Tamazight vowels influence negatively them while learning English vowel sounds. The responses for questions about stress issue in relation to Tamazight reveal that 90% of the learners felt that they face difficulties when they learn English stress. The frequent reason provided for the placement of English stress is attributed to Tamazight. Most of them acknowledged their native language accent interference especially in stress and intonation contour. For this reason, therefore, it is important to identify the difficulties in pronunciation especially in suprasegmental features of the target language

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and those of Tamazight which may positively influence their learning of the foreign language and overcome thus their foreign accent difficulties. Regarding the syllable structure, most of them confirm that the limited consonants clusters have a negative influence when they come to performing the English syllable structure especially the one consisting of more than two consonants clusters initially and finally. 4.3.2 Analyses of Findings from the Teachers’ Questionnaire The aim of this questionnaire is to find out about the difficulties and problems also encountered by English teachers with Tamazight speakers learning English and know also about the extent of the influence of Tamazight on English regarding pronunciation. Teachers‟ questionnaire focuses on the real influence of Tamazight sound system on the teaching of English pronunciation. Answer number 1 confirms that 60% of the teachers agree about the influence of Tamazight on the teaching English sound system. On the other hand, 40% of them do not agree and state that they have not observed any kind of influence of Tamazight on English phonological features. The first interesting observation we can make with the percentage of the first question is that most of the teachers questioned seem to agree with the influence of Tamazight, this which might be considered as a basis for our recommendations to overcome the possible difficulties to be encountered with Tamazight speakers learning English. Question 2 observes the positive/ negative influence Tamazight may have on English pronunciation learning. 50% of the respondents felt that the influence is positive, while other teachers stated that there is no influence of Tamazight as Tamazight and English are different languages.

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Question 3 discusses the influence of consonants sounds of Tamazight on English. (80%) of the respondents unanimously agreed that consonants sounds of Tamazight do not influence English consonants sounds learning while only 20% felt that there is something to say about this issue, by complaiming that Tamazight really contributes to the quality of performance of English learners. Question number 4 reveals that 80% of the respondents refer to a positive influence of consonants sounds of Tamazight on English, as Tamazight consonants sounds are easy compared to that of English and there is no difficulty occurring when teaching them. But 20% consider the influence as somehow negative justifying this by the fact that not all consonants sounds are easy to pronounce as some of them are difficult, such as the consonant sound / η / and stated that most of the teachers and learners complaim about it. Question 5 looked for information about difficulties that may be encountered in vowel sounds. 80% unanimously agreed that this is the most difficult area in teaching pronunciation and insist on the negative influence from the mother tongue, especially on the teaching of English diphthongs and tripthongs. 100% agreed that there are difficulties since they tend to simplify the task of pronouncing English diphthongs and triphthongs. This process involves the loss of the second part of a diphthong to create a monophthong. According to the respondents, this process can plausibly be accounted for by the fact that there is no diphthong sound in the phonemic system of Tamazight. The question about triphthongs shows that 100% of the respondents dealing with English triphthongs stated that it is the most complex task. Teachers agreed about the process of simplification of English triphthongs into simple realisation with short or long vowels which are sounds that are already existing in their native language.

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The question about the influence of suprasegmental features of Tamazight on English, 80% agreed that they encounter a lot of problems especially when teaching the sound features that not existing in Tamazight such as the syllable structures of more than 03 consonants clusters initially and finally. In addition, they complaim to encounter more difficulties regarding stress and intonation. Finally, teachers‟ questionnaire reveals valuable facts about the influence of Tamazight phonological features on English. In fact, these findings help us to suggest suitable recommendations in order to avoid future problems. 4.4. Discussion In fact, the analyses of findings support the notion that phonological characteristics of Tamazight have influence on the performance of the learners of English. That is to say, there is a negative influence in the area of pronouncing the sounds which are different or not found at all in the native language sound system and consequently leads to cause problems for Amazigh learners of English and interfere with their intelligibility when they perform in the target language. On the other hand, there is a positive influence in the area with similar sounds between Tamazight and English. The result of the study has confirmed the prediction of contrastive analyses hypothesis that absent phonemes and other sound features in the native language – Tamzight- do cause difficulties for the performance and intelligibility of Tamazight speakers learning of English. To illustrate this point better, absent sound features for example in consonants sounds not existing in Tamazight tend to be substituted with other sounds that seem to be close to them. Similar comments can be said about vowel sounds, for example the word /singing/. Amazigh learners/ teacher of English encounter many difficulties with vowel sounds distributed over four categories; short, long, diphthongs, and triphthongs. The

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reason is that they are complex vowel sounds which are habitually pronounced in the native language which has a simple vowel system. In addition, they encounter less difficulty with short and long vowels. Another important insight in this research indicates that both teachers and learners have a negative attitude towards Tamazight while English is regarded as a language of high status. Regarding syllable structures, more existing in both languages V-VC-VCC-CVCVC-CVCC-CCVCC- would cause no difficulties at all for Amazigh learners / teachers of English as predicted by the Contrastive Analyses carried out. The same conclusion concerns

the

following

English

syllable

structures

CCVCCC/CCCVCCC/CCVCCCC/CCCVCCCCC/CCCCV/VCCCCC which do not exist in Tamazight, causing a great number of difficulties because they are very complex and difficult to perform. Regarding the stress issue both teachers and learners agreed that it affects their performance in the target language, especially stress placement within one or more than one word. In fact, these findings corroborate to a great extent the moderate version of contrastive analysis hypothesis that claiming that wherever patterns are distinct in two system, confusion may occur. It should be mentioned that the findings of this research have similar result to a study done by ( Kadinge, 2009) in which they found that Zimbabwean native Shona speakers /learners of English performed better with similar sounds, and have difficulties with different or not existing ones. They tend to reduce English diphthongs and triphthongs to five vowel sounds corresponding to (i.e.a.o.u) and these findings about phonological processes are unconsciously employed by L1 Shona speakers when

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speaking English, It is an interesting thing to observe that Zimbabwean learners of English chose the diphthongs and triphthongs of English and tend to reduce them to monophongs being the nearest vowel sounds to their native language –Shona –. This exactly corresponds to the conclusions of this current study, when Tamazight learners of English often substitute the phoneme /p/ and /v/ with /f/ which is the nearest phoneme in Tamazight consonantal system. In contrast, (Bohn and Fledge, 1992) discovered that even German speakers of English did not produce the similar English sounds /i / and / e/ however, some of them produced the dissimilar sound /ae/. Thus, they concluded that it is usually similarities and not differences which are harder to produce because the gross differences are often more noticeable, while minor differences are likely to be noticed and result in misunderstanding. 4.5. Recommendations for Future Research The findings of this study have implications for theoretical development and practical applications. In considering the theoretical development, more research needs to be done with a large sample of Tamazight speakers learning of English to build on the understanding of the extent to which phonological characteristics of Tamazight interfere while they learn English phonological features and how they cause problems with their intelligibility when they come to perform English sounds. In addition, this research pointed out that foreign language teachers should be aware of some pronunciation difficulties resulting from Tamazight. In terms of practical application, the findings of this study can act as an intelligible model to assist both teachers and learners in English learning /teaching situation. First it can assist learners who may not realize the extent to which the phonetic differences may exist between their native language and the target language. Secondly, it can help

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teachers to know how to overpass the possible problems that may be encountered in the field of teaching English. To obtain an awareness of the more likely problems to be incurred by the learners when they lack familiarity with the phonetic differences of the learners‟ own language and the target pronunciation, teachers need to be trained to obtain a through knowledge of Fl sound system and be encouraged to devote some time to focus on phonological features identified before to cause problems for Amazigh speakers learning of English. Finally, the results of this study may provide insights to foreign language teachers for the development and choice of instructional methodology which may improve the teaching of pronunciation of English to Amazigh speakers. It is highly recommended that future studies need to be conducted in this area due to their limited number in this field. However, future research could be improved by involving larger sampling groups. This study involves all the phonological features of both languages i.e., segmental and suprasegmental features. It‟s scope can be detailed to deal with elements within phonological features and conduct a contrastive study to compare them with the target sound system and other language items such as grammar, vocabulary, etc. Further researches can also be conducted on segmental, and suprasegmental features. All these detailed studies suggested for future research might minimize the influence of native language in the performance of the target one so that good techniques can be available for foreign language teachers. In addition, there is little literature explaining the sound system of Tamazight, therefore, research in this area is strongly recommended in order to establish a baseline for more detailed future researches in this area.

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Conclusion The aim of this chapter was to explore the phonological characteristics of Tamazight speakers who learn English. This study was conducted to cover the areas related to the topic. The analyses of findings reveal that absent sound features in Tamazight do cause difficulties for Amazigh learners of English. In addition to the differences mentioned before, the findings support these claims. As a result, it may be concluded that pronunciation differences between Tamazight and English do affect the performance of the learners in the target language.

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GENERAL CONCLUSION The present study has investigated the contrastive facts between Tamazight and English in terms of similarities and dissimilarities in issues related to pronunciation at both levels segmental features such as vowels, consonants and suprasegmental features such as syllable structure, stress and intonation. We hope that this study have found out the hidden lacunae that make our learners lagging behind when they come to perceive and produce some properties of English sounds. As we mentioned before, the role of the learners‟ first language have enormous effects on the process of learning a foreign language. As a result, it is difficult for English teachers to control it. However, we believe that a much better understanding of them will help us to determine the quality of the learners‟ phonological performance in the target language and enable teachers to structure lessons that will improve pronunciation. That is why; we believe that this study comes as a response to all these claims about the phonological issues of Tamazight and English in teaching / learning in an Algerian secondary school by looking into the influence of Tamazight on learning English pronunciation to identify the patterns in their English performance as a result of the influence of Tamazight. As far as this study is concerned, there have been an abundance of research which investigated the difficulties that may encounter learners of a foreign language in regard to the influence of the mother tongue. These studies investigated pronunciation difficulties and made contrastive analyses between the structures of the mother tongue and the structures of the target language to sort out similarities and differences for the sake of suggesting solutions for difficulties and eliminating future problems that may result from native language influence when learning foreign language.

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Results of our study are of great value since they have showed so many noticeable differences in the sound structures of Tamazight and English especially in the vowel system and syllable structure. The results suggested that Tamazight is a consonantal language while English is a vocalic one. In addition, to the differences mentioned in the syllable structure, it strongly suggested that the ability of English to allow up to three consonants clusters in the initial position and up to four consonants clusters in the final position while Tamazight allows only one consonant in the initial position and up to two consonants clusters in the final position. These realities are clear evidence for the difficulties that both learners and teachers whose their native language is Tamazight face problems when they learn / teach English within Algerian context. The aim behind stating the results of the study is to provide many insights for English teachers that may improve the teaching of English pronunciation for Tamazight speakers learning English.

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Bibliography Andersen, P. H. (2000).Why Pronunciation should be a Priority. Ph d-stipendiat, institute for English. Germansk og Romansk.kobenhavns University. Arteaga, D. (2000). Articulatory Phonetics, in the First-Year Spanish Classroon, the Modern Language Journal, 84. Archibald, J. (1998). Second Language Phonology.Philadelphia, PA: Benjamins Publishing Company. Bada, E. (2001). Native Language Influence on the Production of English Sounds by Japenese Learners. The Reading Matrix.Vol.2, No 2. Best, C.Faber, A.L. (1997). Perception of non-native Vowel Contrasts to the American EnglishVowel System.Journa of Acoustic Sounds. Boukous, A. (2001). Language Policy, identity and education in Marocco. Language and Linguistics8. Bloomfield, L. (1933). Language.New York :Holt, Rimehart and Winston. Bouamara, K. Et al.(2005). Ilunga n tira n tamazight. Edition TALANTIKIT. Bedjaia. Algeria .19-21. Bowen, J.D. (1967). Contrastive Analysis and the Language Classroom, teaching English to speakers of other languages. Series iii. Bozinovski, B. (2009). The Language of the Stock Exchange. A Contrastive Analysis of the Lexis. Slovene Linguistics Studies.7. Butskhrikidze, M. (1971). The Consonant Phonotactics of Georgian.Geboren Tetbilisi Gerogie. Chaker,S. 1997. La Kabile: un processus de developpement linguistique autonome. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. MIT Press, Cambridge.

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Corder, P.S. (1973). Introducing Applied Linguistics. Penguin Books. London. 199-256. Crystal, D. (1997.2003). English as a Globalized Language. Second Edition. Cambridge University press .United Kingdom .1-27. Dawn, M. (2005). From Monolingualism to multilingualism: recent changes in Moroccan language policy. University of Surrey. U.K. Dell, Fand Elmedlaoui, M. (1985). Syllable Consonants and Syllabification in Imdlawn Tashlhiyt Berber. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics 7:105-130. Edwards, H. (2003). The Sounds of American English. El Aissati, A. (2001). Ethnic Identity, Language Shift and the Amazingh. Voice in Morocco and Algeria. An Interdisciplinary and Multicultural Journal. 8(3), Netherlands .57-69. Fisiak, J. (1981). Some Introductory Notes. Concerning Contrastive Linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon. Fledge, J. E. (1992a). Speech Learning in a Second Language; phonological development

models,

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Press,Timmonium. Fledge, J. E. (1992b). Speech Learning in a Second Language. Timonium,MD. York Press. Fledge, J.E. (1995). The Perception of English and Spanish Vowels by Native English and Spanish Listeners.A multidimensional scaling analysis. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97. Fries, C.C. (1957). The Structure of English,Longman. Gass, S. and Selinker, L. (2008). Second Language Acquisition. An Introductory Course. Second Edition. New Jersey: Erlbaum Associates.

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Giergerich, J, H. (1998). English Phonology. University of Edinburgh. Grandguillaume, H. (1983). Arabization et Polituque Lingustique au Maghreb. Paris: Maisonneuve and Larose. Gumperz, J, J. (1982). Discourse Strategies. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. Hall, M. (2007). Phonological Characteristics of Farsi Speakers of English and L 1 Australian English Speakers Perceptions of Proficiency. University of Technology. Perth. 12-13. Hu, C. (2003). Phonological Memory, phonological awareness, and foreign language word learning. Journal of Language Learning.52. Imarazene, M. (2007). Manual de Syntaxe Berbere. Etude realisee pour le compte du Haut Commissariat a l „Amazighite Ingram, D. (1989a). FLA: Method Description and Explanation. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. Jacques, Maurais, J. and Michael, A. M. (2003). languages in a Globalized World. Cambridge University Press. United kingdom . 13-37. Jakobson,

R.

(1941).Child

Language,

aphasia,

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Lautgesetza.Uppsala. James, C. (1989). Contrastive Analysis. 8 Impression.London and New York, Longman. Kenworthy, J. (1987). Teaching English Pronunciation.London and New York. Longman. Krashen, S. (1982). Principle and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. New York: Pergamon. Ladefoged, P. (2001). Vowels and Consonants:an introduction to the sound of language, 25.

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Lado,R. (1957). Linguistics across Cultures. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michingan Press. Lehtonen, J and Koponen, M. (1977). Signalling of Monophophonological Boundaries by Finnish Speakers of English:Cross –Language Studies7, University of Jyvaskyla. Lehtonen, J.and Sajavaara,K. (1985). The Silent Finn. In D. Perspectives on Silence, Norwood, NJ:Ablex. 193-201. Lamarque,V.P. (1997). Concise Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Language in Language and Mind. University of Hull.Pergamom U.K .64-68. Mammeri, M. (1990). Tajerrumt n Tamazight. Grammaire. Bérbere (kabyle) . Alger. 15.17.18. Matsubara, J. (2008). An Emerging Area in Second Language Phonology: The Perception of English Vowels by Adults Seconds Language Learners. Journal of Lingustics. Columbia. MarthaYoung, S. l. (1995). The Negative Effects of Positive on L2 Phonology. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing. Maurais, J. and Michael, A. M. (2004). English as a Global Language. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. Morgan, J. L. (1996). A Rhythmic Bias in Preverbal Speech Segementation. Journal of Memory and Language.Vol, 35. Moustaoui, A. (2006). Morocco: language and legislation. CIEMEN. (Escaré International Centre for Ethnic Minorities and Nations). Barcelona. Mouhleb, N. (2005). Language and Conflict: kabylia and the Algerian state. University of OSLO. 2-25.

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Nickel, G. (1971). Problems of Learners Difficulties in Foreign Language Acquistion: IRAL, Vol, 9, no3. Ohata, K. (2000).Phonological Differences between Japanese and English: Several Potential Problematic Areas of Pronunciation for Japanese ESL/EFL Learners. Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Oxford Advanced Learners‟ Dictionnary ( 2006-2010). Seventh Edition. Raymond, E. (1994). Predicting Near –Native Pronunciation in Spanish as a Foreign language. UTA Working Papers in Lingustics 1-(1998) Susan Charring and Paolillo, eds .51.52. Roach, P. (1991). English phonetics and Phonology. A Practical Course. Second, E. Cambridge University Press. Roach, P. (2005). English phonetics and Phonology. A Practical Course. Third, E. Cambridge University Press. Sadiqi, F. (1997). Grammaire du Berbere. Paris and Monteral: Edions L‟Harmattan. ISBN 2-7348-5919 29-69. Sajavaara, K. and Dufva, H. (2001). Finnish-English Phonetics and Phonology. University of Murcia. Singer, J. (2006). Uncovering Factors that influence English Pronunciation of Native Somali speakers. University of Hamline. St paul, Minnesota. U.S.A. Speck,B.P.(2002).Markedness

and

Naturalness

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Phonology.Universitat of Valencia. Suter, R.W. (1976). Predictors of Pronunciation Accuracy in Second Language Acquisition: language learning. Journal of linguistics, vol 26.

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Val Barros, A. (2003). Pronunciation Difficulties in the Consonants System Experienced by Arabic Speakers when Learning English after the Age of Puberty. Morgantown, West Verginia. Velleman, S. and Vihman, M. (2008). Phonological Developement in infancy and early childhood; implications for theories of language learning. Cambridge Blackwell. Vihman, M. M. (1996).Phonological Development; the origins of language in the child. Cambridge Blackwell. Whitman,R., and Jackobson, K. (1972). The Unpredictability of Contrastive Analysis. language learning. Journal of Linguistics, 22. White, K . (2008). Listen, Sing and Learn. The Effects of Musical Activities on Phonemic Awareness in the Foreign Language Classroom. B, A. University of Louisianna at Monroe. toe USA . 7-24.

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APPENDIX 01

Learners’ Pre- questionnaire Dear learners This questionnaire aims at finding out the learning difficulties encountered with English in relation to the influence of the native language Tamazight.

I would appreciate if you could answer this questionnaire.

May I thank you in advance for your cooperation.

AIT AISSA Mouloud Department of Foreign Languages Faculty of Letters and Social Sciences University of Setif –Ferhat Abbas-

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PART ONE: General Information

1: In what level are you? ................................................................................................... 2: How old are you?........................................................................................................... 3: What is your native language?........................................................................................ 4: Have you learnt your native language in school? .......................................................... 5: What is the language of instruction in school?............................................................... PART TWO: Learning Difficulties and the Possible Sources 7: Do you like learning English? Yes:....................................................No......................................................................... 8: Do you imitate Tamazight accent when you speak English language? Yes:.................................................. No.......................................................................... Why:............................................................................................................................... 9: When you learn English, what do you find difficult? Vocabulary: ........... Pronunciation: ............ Grammar:............................................... Explain........................................................................................................................... 10: How important are the following language items to you? Grammar:. ............. Pronunciation:................... Vocabulary: ..................................... Explain:........................................................................................................................... 11: Can you imitate English accent easily? Yes:................................................... No:....................................................................... Explain............................................................................................................................ 12: Do you use Tamazight accent when speaking English? Yes:............................................................... No:............................................................. Why:.................................................................................................................................

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13: Do you rely (recall) on your native language when you learn English? Yes: ...................................................No: ....................................................................... 14: Do you agree with the following statement ? Good pronunciation=good English. Yes:.....................................................No:..................................................................... Explain........................................................................................................................... 15: Have you learnt English pronunciation symbols? Yes:.......................................................No: ................................................................... 16:Related to question number 15. If yes, are they useful? Yes:.....................................................No:...................................................................... Why:............................................................................................................................... 17: Is there a relationship between Tamazight and English? Yes:.....................................................No:...................................................................... How:............................................................................................................................... 18: Is Tamazight influencing you when learning English? Yes: ...................................................No: ...................................................................... How:.............................................................................................................................. 19: Is there any comment you would like to add?

............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................

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APPENDIX 02

Teachers’ Pre- questionnaire Dear colleagues This pre-questionnaire is part of a research on the role of Tamazight‟s phonological features on English at the secondary school level. It aims to collect the teachers‟ views about this issue.

I would appreciate if you could fill in this questionnaire.

May I thank you in advance for your cooperation.

AIT AISSA MOULOUD Department of Foreign Languages Faculty of Letters and Social Sciences University of Setif –Ferhat Abbas-

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PART ONE: General Information

1: When have you graduated?.............................................................................................. 2: How long have you been teaching at the secondary school?........................................... 3: Are you specialized in English? Yes: ........................................No:.................................................................................... PART TWO: Teaching Difficulties and the Possible Sources 4: When you teach English, what do you find difficult: Grammar?.................Pronunciation?........................Vocabulary?........................... 5: What is the most important language skill according to you? then justify why? Pronunciation:...................Grammar:.......................Vocabulary:.................................... Explain: ............................................................................................................................ 6: What are the possible sources of difficulties? .......................................................................................................................................... .

7: What is your native language? Does it affect English teaching? Yes:..............................................No:.............................................................................. 8: What is the native language of your learners? .......................................................................................................................................... 9: What is the role of the native language in teaching English? .......................................................................................................................................... 10: Do you encounter problems when teaching pronunciation? if yes, state reasons? Yes:..........................................No:.................................................................................

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Reasons:

............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. 11: In which area of pronunciation do you face problems? Segmental level:....................................Suprasegmental level:...................................... Explain............................................................................................................................ 12: Does Tamazight influence you when teaching English? Yes:............................................No:............................................................................... How................................................................................................................................ 13: Do you explain sometimes in Tamazight when teaching English? Yes: ...........................................No:............................................................................... 14: Is it easy to achieve good English pronunciation? then why? Yes:...............................................No: ........................................................................... Why................................................................................................................................ 15: Do you use Tamazight accent When you speak English? Why?

............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................

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APPENDIX 03

Learners’ Questionnaire Dear Learners On the basis of the literature background developed about contrastive analysis between Tamazight and English in issues related to pronunciation, this questionnaire is part in our research study and aims at finding out the influence of Tamazight on the pronunciation features of English.

I would appreciate if you could fill in this questionnaire.

May I thank you in advance for you cooperation.

AIT AISSA MOULOUD Department of Foreign Languages Faculty of Letters and Social Sciences University of Setif –Ferhat Abbas-

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1: What is your native language? .......................................................................................... 2: Which languages do you learn at school? ......................................................................... 3: Do you imitate Tamazight accent when speaking English ? Yes: ..............................................No:................................................................................ 4: In which language skill do you face difficulties when learn English? Grammar?................. Vocabulary? ..........................Pronunciation? ................................ If yes is this related to Tamazight? .................................................................................... 5: Do you agree with the following statement? Good pronunciation =good English.................................................................................... If yes does Tamazight affect this statement? ............................................................................................................................................ 6: Have you learned English pronunciation symbols? Yes: ..............................................No :......................................................................... ..... Related to question number six; are they useful in terms of the influence of Tamazight Yes: ..................................................No: ............................................................................ Explain ............................................................................................................................... 7: Can you imitate English accent? Yes:....................................................No:........................................................................... How.................................................................................................................................... - Does Tamazight affect you in this area? Yes:..........................................................No:................................................................... 8: When you learn English pronunciation, what do you find easy to learn? a. Consonant sounds: .................................................................................................

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b.vowel sounds:.......................................................................................................... c. justify your choice?

............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. 9: When you learn English pronunciation, what do you find difficult to learn? a. Consonant sounds: ......................................................................................................... b.vowel sounds: ................................................................................................................. c. justify your choice in regard to the influence of Tamazight? ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. 10: When you learn English vowel sounds, what do you find difficult to pronounce short vowels, long vowels, diphthongs and triphthongs? Then, how would you comment about the influence of Tamazight on vowel sounds? .............................................................................................................................................. Comments: ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................ 11: Do you use Tamazight accent When you speak English? Why? Yes:............................................................No:.................................................................

Explain:................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................

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12: Do you think that there is a relation between French accent and English i,e does French accent affect you when you perform in English and how ? Yes.:....................................................No:............................................................................

How..................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................. 13: Do you use Tamazight accent When you speak English? Why?

............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................

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APPENDIX 04

Teachers’ Questionnaire Dear colleagues This questionnaire is part in our research study aims at finding out the teachers‟ view about the kind of influence that may result from Tamazight when teaching English.

I would appreciate if you could fill in this questionnaire.

May I thank you in advance for you cooperation.

AIT AISSA MOULOUD Department of Foreign Languages Faculty of Letters and Social Sciences University of Setif –Ferhat Abbas-

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1: Do you think that Tamazight affect the performance in English pronunciation? Yes: ...............................................No: .............................................................................. 2: To what extent do you think that Tamazight has influence on English? To a great extent: ............................................................................................................... To a less extent: .................................................................................................................

How..................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................. 3: Do you think that Tamazight influence English consonant sounds? Yes: ................................................No: ............................................................................. How.................................................................................................................................... 4: If yes, what kind of influence do they have? and how? Positive influence :............................................................................................................. Explain: .............................................................................................................................. Negative influence:............................................................................................................. Explain: .............................................................................................................................. 5: Do you encounter difficulties when teaching English vowel sounds? if yes? Is this related to Tamazight? Yes: .................................................No: ............................................................................ 6: What kind of influence do they have? then how? Positive:.............................................................................................................................

Explain................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. Negative : ...........................................................................................................................

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Explain:................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................. 7: What about English short vowels in relation to Tamazight? Easy:............................................Difficult:........................................................................ How? .................................................................................................................................. 8: What about English long vowels in relation to Tamazight? Easy:..............................................Difficult:..................................................................... How

?

............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. 9: What about English diphthongs in relation to Tamazight?

............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. 10: What about English triphthongs in relation to Tamazight?

............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................

11: Does the simple syllable structure of Tamazight cause difficulties in teaching English syllable structure? Yes: ....................................................No: ...........................................................................

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How?.................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................. 12: In your opinion, to what extent Tamazight syllable structure helps you teach better English syllable structure? And why? To a great extent: ................................................................................................................. Because: ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. To a less extent:.................................................................................................................... Because: ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. 13: Do you encounter difficulties in teaching English stress in relation to Tamazight? Yes: ............................................No: ............................................................................... 14: To what extent Tamazight stress affects English stress? To a great extent:.............................................................................................................. Because: ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. To a less extent:............................................................................................................... Because: ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. 15: To what extent Tamazight intonation affects the teaching of English intonation?

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To a great extent: .............................................................................................................

Because................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ To a great extent:.................................................................................................................

Because................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................. 16: Does Tamazight intonation cause difficulties in teaching English intonation? if yes is this related to Tamazight? Yes: ....................................................... No:....................................................................... How ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. 17: In your opinion, does the sound system of Tamazight affect positively or negatively the teaching of the sound system of English? Yes: ............................................................No: ................................................................... How...................................................................................................................................... 18: Do you have any comment you want to add?

.............................................................................................................................................

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APPENDIX 05 Grapheme System of Tamazight Tamazight name is used as a blanket term for all varieties spoken over the area of North Africa. This term has been arisen in certain intellectual circles (Galand, 1998:209). Many people use it o refer to their variety such as; (Tashelhit, Kabyle, Tashawit, etc.) as a particular feature with an intercomprehension among themselves. The following table lists Tamazight letters. The table below consists of two different spelling forms – small letters, capital letters and the pronunciation form of each letter (Mammeri, 1990: 15). Letters

Pronunciation Form

Capital

Small

Letters

Letters

Examples Tamazight

English

A

a

A ra

Awal/Tala

Word/Source

U

u

U ru

Ul

Heart

I

i

(u ru) i ri

Izi

Insect

E

e

Ilem

Ečč/Els

Eat/Wear

B

b

ba

Bibi/Baba

C

c

ca

Acamar

Chin

D

d

da

Tudert

Life

F

f

fa

Tafat

Light

G

g

ga

Agerbi

Work

H

h

ha

Amahil

Knife

J

j

ja

Agenwi

Slave

K

k

ka

Akli

Heart

L

l

la

Ul

Water

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Carry/Father

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M

m

ma

Aman

Stadium

N

n

na

Annar

Garden

T

t

ra

Tappurt

Door

Y

y

ya

Tayri

Love

Q

q

qa

Aqwir

Garden

R

r

ra

Tarmurt

Country

S

s

sa

Tasa

Heart

T

t

ta

Tamurt

Garden

X

sc

sca

Ascscam

To cut

Wy

w

wa

Awal

Country

Z

z

za

Azal

Back

ε

εd

il

Aεrur

Storm

D

d

dar

Adu

Go-down

S

s

sa r

Subb

Fill

T

t

tar

Ccar

Flower

Č

c

car

Ajeggig

Singing

Ğ

g

ye g

Ahiha

Midday

H

h

him

Ččar

Music

Z

z

zr

A Wam

Beg

tt

tt

tta

Tuttra

Freedom

Table 43: Grapheme System of Tamazight

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APPENDIX 06 Letter Correspondences between Tamazight and English Below are displayed Tamazight and English letters and their corresponding counterparts in a tabular form. The (x) sign in the table indicates the existence of the letter in the grapheme system of the related language while the (Ø) indicates the noneexisting of it in the related language system. Letter correspondence between Tamazight and English Number

Letter

01

A

02

Tamazight

Example

English

X

Aman

X

Answer

U

X

Udem

X

Full

03

I

X

Ifer

X

Girl

04

E

X

Tilelli

X

Bed

05

B

X

Lamba

X

Bomb

06

C

X

Amcic

X

Class

07

D

X

Adrar

X

Day

08

F

X

Ifer

X

Friday

09

G

X

Targagayt

X

Sing

10

H

X

Ahjam

X

High

11

J

X

Ajgu

X

Enjoy

12

K

X

Akli

X

Knigh

13

L

X

Akal

X

Line

14

M

X

Amcum

X

Many

15

N

X

Iniyem

X

Now

16

T

X

Iniyem

Ø

Ø

17

Q

X

Aqcic

X

Queue

145

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18

R

X

Iri

X

Place

19

S

X

Isem

X

Sign

20

T

X

Tahbult

X

Tight

21

X

X

Axxam

X

Anxiety

22

W

X

Awal

X

Why

23

Y

X

Ayazid

X

Zoo

24

Z

X

Izem

Ø

Ø

25

Z

X

Adaw

Ø

Ø

26

Z

X

Adu

Ø

Ø

27

D

X

Asurdi

Ø

Ø

28

S

X

Atan

Ø

Ø

29

T

X

Ucci

Ø

Ø

30

C

X

Ajegg ig

Ø

Ø

31

G

X

Ahuli

Ø

Ø

32

H

X

Azekka

Ø

Ø

33

Z

X

Tuttra

Ø

Ø

34

tt

Ø

Ø

X

Papel

35

P

Ø

Ø

X

Vain

36

V

Ø

Ø

X

Over

37

O

X

A umi

Ø

Ø

Table 44: Letter Correspondences / Contrasts between Tamazight and English

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Résumé L‟influence des langues maternelles dans le processus d‟apprentissage de la langue étrangère a une grande influence qui peut être positive ou négative.

Cette étude

concerne le système phonétique de la langue maternelle qui est le Tamazight et celui de la langue étrangère qui est l‟Anglais. Cette recherche traite des obstacles et des difficultés que les Amazighphones peuvent rencontrer pendant leur apprentissage de la phonétique de la langue Anglaise aussi que et le fonctionnement de ses règles phonétiques. C‟est en composant les deux systèmes phonétiques qui on peu reconnaitre les ressemblances et les différences existantes entre les deux langues. Il va sans dire que ce travail montre beaucoup plus les différences entre les deux langues

pour

l‟enseignant. Pour concrétiser ces objectifs, des questionnaires ont été administres aux élèves dans le but de connaitre leurs opinions concernant les difficultés de l‟apprentissage de l‟Anglais et l‟influence de la langue maternelle.

le deuxième

questionnaire ont destinée aux enseignants pour mettre le doigt sur les difficultés rencontrés au cours de l‟enseignement de la langue Anglais, en tenant compte de l‟influence de la langue maternelle .Les résultats de cette étude ont bien montré que les élèves et les enseignants rencontrent des difficultés concernant

quelques unîtes

phonétiques qui différent particulièrement de celles que n‟existent pas dans leur langue maternelle. Cependant, les unités phonétiques similaires ne posent aucun problème. En définitive, cette recherche nous a permis de dégager quelques propositions pour les enseignants de la langue Anglaise pour les aider a dépasser les obstacles que la langue maternelle peut poser lors de l‟apprentissage de l‟Anglais.

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‫‪Sétif2‬‬

‫‪Université‬‬

‫ا ملهخص‬ ‫إٌ تأثري انهغت األصهُت يف يسبس تعهُى انهغت األجُبُت ببنغ األمهُت حُث َكىٌ اجيببُب أو سهبُب‪.‬‬

‫ويٍ اجم سصذ‬

‫الظسوف انيت مبىجبهب َكىٌ انتأثري سهُبب أو اجيببُب ‪ .‬مت إعذاد ْزِ انذساست يف جمبل انُظبو انصىيت نهغت األصهُت‬ ‫انيت ٍْ األيبصَغُت و انهغت األجُبُت و انيت ٍْ االجنهُضَت ‪ْ .‬زِ انذساست تسهط انعىء عهً انصعىببث و املشبكم‬ ‫انيت ميكٍ أٌ تعتشض يستخذيٍ انهغت األيبصَغُت أثُبء تعهى و تعهُى انُظبو انصىيت نهغت االجنهُضَت و تىظُف‬ ‫قىاعذْب انصىتُت ‪.‬ورنك عرب يقبسَت بني انُظبيني انصىتني قصذ انىقىف عهً أوجّ انتشببّ و االختالف يف‬ ‫يىظع تعهُى وتعهى انهغت االجنهُضَت قٍ املذسست اجلضائشَت – انطىس انثبَىٌ – ‪ْ.‬زِ انذساست سكضث أكثش عهً‬ ‫أوجّ االختالف انيت َفتشض أٌ تكىٌ يصذس انصعىببث يف انتعهى‪ .‬ويٍ اجم انىقىف عهً ْزِ األْذاف مت‬ ‫االعتًبد عهً وسُهت االستبُبٌ‪ .‬االستبُبٌ األول خصص نهتاليُز هبذف انتعشف عهً يىاقفهى املتعهقت بصعىببث‬ ‫تعهى انهغت االجنهُضَت و يذي عالقتّ بتأثري نغتهى األصهُت ‪ ،‬االستبُبٌ انثبين فىجّ نألسبتزة هبذف انتعشف عهً‬ ‫انصعىببث انيت تىاجههى يف تعهُى انهغت االجنهُضَت و يذي يسبمهت انهغت األصهُت يف خهق ْزِ انصعىببث ‪.‬أظهشث‬ ‫حتهُم َتبئج انذساست أٌ انتاليُز و األسبتزة َىاجهىٌ صعىببث قٍ تعهى و تعهُى بعط انىحذاث انصىتُت انيت‬ ‫ختتهف أو تُعذو دتبيب قٍ انُظبو انصىيت نهغتهى األصهُت بًُُب انىحذاث انصىتُت املتشبهبت فال تىجذ أٌ صعىببث‬ ‫تزكش واٌ وجذث ظعُفت انتأثري‪.‬و قذ خشجُب يف ْزِ انذساست جبًهت يٍ االقتشاحبث وانتىصُبث تطًئٍ أسبتزة‬ ‫انهغت االجنهُضَت فًُب خنص جتبوص انصعىببث انُبمجت عٍ انهغت األصهُت ورانك يٍ اجم انتخفُف أو انقعبء عهُهب‬ ‫واالقتشاة يٍ تىظُف انهغت األجُبُت تىظُفب صحُحب‪.‬‬

‫‪148‬‬

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The Role of Phonological Awareness of Tamazight in Promoting the

Université Sétif2 PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ALGERIA MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH University of Setif Faculty of Lette...

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