the lithics of aganoa village (as-22-43), american samoa: a - OAKTrust

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THE LITHICS OF AGANOA VILLAGE (AS-22-43), AMERICAN SAMOA: A TEST OF CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND SOURCING TUTUILAN TOOL-STONE

A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER THOMAS CREWS

Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS

May 2008

Anthropology

THE LITHICS OF AGANOA VILLAGE (AS-22-43), AMERICAN SAMOA: A TEST OF CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND SOURCING TUTUILAN TOOL-STONE

A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER THOMAS CREWS

Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS

Approved by: Chair of Committee, Committee Members, Head of Department,

Suzanne L. Eckert Ted Goebel Frederic Pearl Donny L. Hamilton

May 2008

Major Subject: Anthropology

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ABSTRACT

The Lithics of Aganoa Village (AS-22-43), American Samoa: A Test of Chemical Characterization and Sourcing Tutuilan Tool-Stone. (May 2008) Christopher Thomas Crews, B.A., Colorado College Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Suzanne L. Eckert

The purpose of this thesis is to present the morphological and chemical analyses of the lithic assemblage recovered from Aganoa Village (AS-22-43), Tutuila Island, American Samoa. Implications were found that include the fact that Aganoa Village did not act as a lithic workshop, new types of tools that can be included in the Samoan tool kit, a possible change in subsistence strategies through time at the site, and the fact that five distinct, separate quarries were utilized at different stages through the full temporal span of residential activities at the village. The assemblage was analyzed macroscopically using typologies for tools that are set and accepted by archaeologists of the area (Green and Davidson [1969] for adzes, Clark and Herdrich [1993] for flake tools). It was found that a possible new flake tool type is represented at Aganoa Village that combines the attributes of Class Ia and Class V. Analysis of the debitage refutes earlier conclusions that the site represents a lithic workshop. The presence of rejuvenation flakes with polish, a large amount of tertiary

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debitage as opposed to primary debitage, and the recycling/conservation of finished adzes indicates that this site was indeed not a lithic workshop area. In the earliest cultural period (c 2500-2000 years ago) there is a distinct lack of flake tool scrapers while the other two cultural periods presented 40 examples of such tools. These scrapers are used primarily for processing agricultural products. The fact that these tools are missing from the earliest settlement period suggests that these early inhabitants might have relied more on gathering marine resources from the nearby reef system rather then agricultural subsistence strategies. Finally, INAA results show that the lithic artifacts collected come from five different sources. Two of these sources were identified as the Lau’agae Quarry on the eastern side of Tutuila Island and the Tataga-Matau Quarry Complex located on the western portion of the island. Three other basalt types were distinguished but not sourced or located.

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DEDICATION

To Chief Chester and the Manaea Family, current residents of Aganoa Village

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to thank my committee chair and mentor, Dr. Suzanne L. Eckert, for putting up with my random and constant questions and for guiding me through this experience. I also thank Dr. Frederic Pearl, without whom this thesis would not have been possible, and Dr. Ted Goebel, for educating me on how to tackle the lithic assemblage. Thanks also to Philip Johnson for taking me under his wing in this endeavor; David Foxe for his endless help in the ChemChar Lab; Danny Welch for the drawings of the tools, listening and bouncing of ideas; Lowell Kane for just being his ambassador self; Megan Hawkins for listening to my rants; Andrew Roberts, whose support has been instrumental; Dr. William James and Mike Raulerson from the Chemical Characterization Laboratory, for their enthusiasm in this study. Finally, I would like to thank my parents for their endless support and love. And, Rebecca Sager, for photos of the lithics and whose support, enthusiasm, and presence have bolstered me through this.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………….

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DEDICATION…………………………………………………………………….

v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………….

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………….

vii

LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………………..

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LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………...

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………….

1

II

ARCHAEOLOGY IN SAMOA…….…………………………………

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Pre-1960: Ethnography and Ethnoarchaeology…….……………. 1960-1990: Settlement Patterns and the Beginning of Scientific Excavation…………………...……………………………............ 1990-Present: The State of Archaeology in Samoa Today….……

8 11 19

THE EXCAVATION AT AGANOA VILLAGE (AS-22-43)………..

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Location…………………………………………………………... Excavation………………………………………………………...

25 27

THE LITHIC ASSEMBLAGE………………………………………..

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Adze Analysis……………………………………………………. Scraper and Flake Tool Analysis………………………………… Debitage Analysis………………………………………………... Results…………………………………………………………….

33 40 46 47

CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION METHODS………………….

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Results…………………………………………………………….

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III

IV

V

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CHAPTER

Page Discussion………………………………………………………...

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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS...……………………………….

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Conclusions……………………………………………………….

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REFERENCES CITED……………………………………...…………………….

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APPENDIX A..........................................................................................................

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APPENDIX B..........................................................................................................

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APPENDIX C..........................................................................................................

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APPENDIX D..........................................................................................................

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APPENDIX E...........................................................................................................

144

VITA........................................................................................................................

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VI

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LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE

Page

2.1

The Polynesian Triangle........................................................................

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2.2

The Samoan Archipelago......................................................................

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2.3

Map of American Samoa showing locations of major towns and archaeological sites................................................................................

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3.1

Aganoa Village with excavation units in place...................................

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3.2

Planview of Block O.............................................................................

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3.3

Profile of trench excavated in Block O.................................................

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3.4

Profile of west well of Block L.............................................................

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4.1

Artifact #667-1......................................................................................

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4.2

Type Ib scrapers recovered from Aganoa Village.................................

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4.3

Artifact #939-1......................................................................................

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4.4

Artifact #1029-1....................................................................................

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4.5

Artifact #1118-1....................................................................................

37

4.6

Artifact #978-1......................................................................................

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4.7

Type Ia scrapers from Aganoa Village..................................................

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4.8

Artifact #150-1 from Aganoa Village...................................................

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4.9

Artifact #532-1......................................................................................

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4.10

Artifact #23-2........................................................................................

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5.1

Tutuila Island.........................................................................................

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5.2

Johnson’s biplot of CDA functions 1 and 2..........................................

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FIGURE

Page

5.3

Johnson’s biplot of PCA scores 1 and 2................................................

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5.4

Scatterplot of factor scores 1 and 2.......................................................

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5.5

Scatterplot of PCA factors 1 and 2........................................................

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5.6

Scatterplot of factor scores 1 and 2 with cluster membership identified................................................................................................

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5.7

Scatterplot of factor scores 1 and 2.......................................................

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5.8

Scatterplot of Johnson et al.’s (2007) Quarry data................................

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5.9

Scatterplot of PCA factors 1 and 2 of combined Aganoa and Quarry data........................................................................................................

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Scatterplot of the factor scores for Group 2, Tataga-Matau, and Lau’agae................................................................................................

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5.11

Scatterplot of the cluster membership for Group 2...............................

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5.12

Scatterplot of the CDA discriminant scores grouped by cultural period.....................................................................................................

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Scatterplot of the CDA discriminant scares 1 and 3 after grouping by K-Means cluster membership................................................................

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Scatterplot of discriminant scores 1 and 2 of combined Quarry and Aganoa data...........................................................................................

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Scaled view of the scatterplot of discriminant scores 1 and 2 of combined Quarry and Aganoa data showing detail of grouping with Tataga-Matau, Lau’agae and Aganoa Group 1.....................................

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Scatterplot of discriminant scores 1 and 2 of combined Quarry and Aganoa data...........................................................................................

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Scaled view of the scatterplot of discriminant scores 1 and 2 of combined Quarry and Aganoa data showing detail of Tataga-Matau, Lau’agae and Group 1 defined as Lau’agae cluster..............................

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5.10

5.13

5.14

5.15

5.16

5.17

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FIGURE

Page

5.18

Scatterplot of factor scores 1 and 2 with artifact type represented........

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6.1

Scatterplot of factor scores 1 and 2 for Aganoa data detailing cultural periods I, II, and III................................................................................

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LIST OF TABLES

Table

Page

2.1

The Samoan Cultural Chronology.............................................................

20

3.1

Radiocarbon Dates Returned from Aganoa Village Including Cultural Period Association.....................................................................................

30

4.1

The Criteria for the Classification of Adzes..............................................

33

4.2

Complete Adzes from Aganoa Village......................................................

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4.3

Adze Fragments.........................................................................................

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5.1

First Seven Eigenvalues of Aganoa Assemblage Including the Uranium Values........................................................................................................

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First Seven Eigenvalues of Aganoa Assemblage Excluding Uranium.....................................................................................................

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First Seven Eigenvalues of PCA of Combined Quarry and Aganoa Data............................................................................................................

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First Seven Eigenvalues for the PCA of Group 1, Tataga-Matau, and Lau’agae.....................................................................................................

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Aganoa Data Numbered Out to Identify Quarry Based on Cultural Period..........................................................................................................

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5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

Tutuila Island, American Samoa, is a high volcanic island typical of Polynesia. Its igneous creation has resulted in the island having an abundance of exposed basalts, many of which are of a high-grade, fine-grained quality, the perfect type of basalt for the creation of adzes so prevalent in the prehistoric Samoan toolkit. The use of adzes ranged from felling trees to shaping logs to fashioning canoes. All of these activities wrapped around intricate ways of life in Samoa, from the clearing of plantation lands to erecting a Fale O’o (a ceremonial house structure of the Samoan matai) to the creation and decoration of the Polynesian canoe, the main mode of transportation of the ancestral Samoans. Known prehistoric quarries are found across the island but are not so plentiful that every village had immediate access to one. Many villagers in pre-colonial Samoa, such as those that lived at Aganoa Village, had to traverse the rugged terrain or travel by boat to gain access to a quarry. We do not yet unknown the amount of involvement the chiefs of villages with quarries had in the export and trade of lithic materials, although contact period accounts suggest that chiefs controlled some aspects of adze production (Hiroa 1930). Many studies have been undertaken to analyze the source materials of various basalt tools throughout Oceania (Weisler and Woodhead 1995; Weisler and Kirch 1996;

____________ This thesis follows the style of American Antiquity.

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Weisler 1997, 1998; Di Piazza and Pearthree 2001). These studies have tried to garner answers about inter-island travel and trade of lithic material and, possibly, interactions between distinct island groups. Tutuila appears to have been prominent in such interisland exchange in late prehistory. Artifacts found on other island archipelagos have been linked to the quarry of Tataga-Matau (Leach and Witter 1990). Few studies, however, have tried to make sense of lithic exchange and trade organization on a single island such as Tutuila (although see Lundblad et al. (in press) for current work in Hawaii as a notable exception). This thesis is designed to identify what lithic raw material sources a small, Samoan village used in prehistoric times and to put forth a viable and testable model for intra-island control and exchange of lithic materials on the island of Tutuila before European contact. The model is based on an expanding sphere of exchange centering on Aganoa Village and growing through three cultural periods. This model is applicable to mid-level chiefdoms, especially those that rely on ocean travel as the primary form of transportation. Basalt samples were tested for their geochemical composition using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and the results are compared to those of a similar study of quarries on the eastern portion of Tutuila Island (Johnson et al. 2007). The materials tested were excavated from the small village of Aganoa located on the eastern side of Tutuila. I propose and test a model for intra-island exchange and, as a result, control of lithic materials on the Samoan island of Tutuila. Tutuila Island is ideal for such a test. There are numerous sources of quality tool-stone on this relatively small island (Best et

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al. 1992). A villager in prehistoric times would not have had to travel far to find a source of fine-grained basalt that was ideal for the creation of adzes. This stone is difficult to work with, therefore, prehistoric Samoans used chipping and then grinding methods to shape their adzes. The stone preferred for creating unifacial scrapers, often referred to as coconut graters, however, appears to not be as specific as that used in the manufacture of adzes. The excavation of Aganoa Village revealed the presence of distinct cultural phases. To analyze the lithic material temporally, the artifact assemblage was separated into three cultural periods based on relative dating methods. Cultural Period I is the only phase with associated radiocarbon dates. Cultural Period II is located above Cultural Period I and separated stratigraphically by 50-80 cm of sterile sand. This period is represented by deposits lying between 20 cm and 80 cm below the surface. Cultural Period III contains surface finds and those collected in the top 20 cm of the soil. This Cultural Period was separated to avoid contamination from bioturbation that would have occurred in the upper 20 cm of the plantation area and since a floor area was noted in Block O at about 20 cm below the surface. The lithic assemblage from Aganoa Village (AG-22-43) was analyzed macroscopically, and a sample of it was analyzed using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Initial analysis included the use of current typologies for adzes and flake tools (Green and Davidson 1969; Clark and Herdrich 1993). All artifacts were measured for size, shape, and color. Each type of artifact, adze, flake tool, and debitage was measured for individual attributes associated with each group. An earlier survey b

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by Moore & Kennedy (2003) led them to conclude that Aganoa Village was a workshop for the creation of adzes. My research suggests this was not the case. INAA was run on 90 samples of the lithic assemblage. The results were compared to those of an established database (Johnson et al. 2007). The results show that the villagers at Aganoa used five basalt quarries through the three cultural periods. Statistical analysis shows that the sources utilized by the villagers changed through time. The implications of the results give further insight into the interactions of ancestral Samoans and their use of basalt tools. Using this research as a foundation, archaeologists will be able to study more aspects of craft specialization on the island of Tutuila.

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CHAPTER II ARCHAEOLOGY IN SAMOA

The Samoan Archipelago lies south of the equator on a nearly straight line between New Zealand and the Hawaiian Islands at approximately 14˚ S Latitude and 170˚ W Longitude (Figure 2.1). It lies in the eastern portion of what is considered Polynesia. It was created by hotspot shield volcanoes (Natland 1980; MacDougall 1985). The archipelago is currently divided into two countries. Samoa, or Western Samoa, has been an independent state since 1948 (Davidson 1967). Samoa is made up of the two largest islands in the archipelago, Upolu and Savaii. The other islands of the chain, including Tutuila and the Manu’a Group (Figure 2.2), are a territory of the United States of America. Archaeological interest in Samoa is relatively young in comparison not only with areas such as Europe and South America but also Pacific Oceania. More emphasis in the Pacific has been placed on researching the rapid Lapita expansion (Kennedy 1981; Kirch 1987, 1996; Smith 1995), the Moai of Rapa Nui (Beasley 1923; Pollock 1985; Van Tilburg & Lee 1987), and the islands of Hawaii (Cordy and Kaschko 1980; Tuggle and Tomonari-Tuggle 1980; Ladefoged and Graves 2000). Prior to 1960, anthropological work in Samoa centered on ethnography and ethnoarchaeology. During this time Margaret Mead (1928) made national headlines with her book Coming of Age in Samoa.

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Samoa

Figure 2.1. The Polynesia Triangle (modified from www.flickr.com).

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Figure 2.2. The Samoan Archipelago (Modified from http://www.samoanet.com).

Lesser known to the lay public, Peter Buck, also known as Te Rangi Hiroa, wrote about the material culture of the Samoans including stone tools in 1930 (Hiroa 1930). Samoa was also included in works spanning Polynesia, such as that by Williamson (1927). From 1960 to 1990 archaeological interest in Samoa rose thanks in large part to the comprehensive works coordinated by Green and Davidson (1969, 1974) on the islands of Western Samoa. Discoveries such as decorated Lapita ceramic sherds in the Mulifanua ferry berth brought Samoa into the Lapita discussion (Jennings 1974). Excavations at the Tataga-Matau Quarry (Leach and Witter 1985, 1990) revealed a complex lithic industry on the island of Tutuila. Since 1990 archaeological excavations recovered artifacts from sites such as To’aga (Kirch et al. 1989a, 1989b), ‘Aoa (Clark

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and Michlovic 1996), Alega (Clark 1992), and Aganoa (Moore and Kennedy 2003; Eckert 2006, 2007; Crews 2007; Kane 2007), increased the archaeological knowledge of the Samoan Archipelago and the archaeologists are working together to further the understanding of the prehistory of the area.

Pre-1960: Ethnography and Ethnoarchaeology

After initial European contact in the 18th century, the Samoan Islands remained fairly undisturbed by European influence. In the 1830’s the first Western Christian missions were established and Christianity started to alter the Samoan way of life.. At this point in time the recording of Samoan myths and legends was carried out by missionaries and travelers. The establishment of the Polynesian Society and subsequent publication of their journal, The Journal of the Polynesian Society, in 1892, brought these stories of ancestral Samoa and other topics to people all over the world. Authors such as Fraser (1902a, 1902b), Macdonald (1904), Churchill (1905, 1906, 1908a, 1908b, 1908c), and Ray (1912a, 1912b) published linguistic articles exploring the Samoan language. Tregear (1902, 1904), Schultz (1909, 1911) and Nelson (1925) shared Samoan legends through the journal. Other anthropological papers included James’ “Pathology of Samoa” (1913), Sullivan’s “Racial Diversity of the Polynesian People” (1923), Linton’s examination of the use of human figures in art (1924), and Thompson’s article covering the earthmounds found on the islands (1927).

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In 1924 Williamson published a three volume set entitled Social and Political Systems of Central Polynesia. This compilation puts forth an in-depth look at the political systems found throughout Central Polynesia. Williamson presents the first view of the intimate workings of the Samoan chiefdom and compares it with other political systems in Polynesia. This work proved to be highly important in many ways. It served as a source for those about to study anthropology in Samoa and also drew in the interest of those studying chiefdoms throughout the world. In 1958 Sahlins published a monograph that had enormous influence on the study of chiefdoms worldwide. Social Stratification in Polynesia gave a detailed description of the chiefdoms found in Polynesia. It covered the polity, both past and present, of eight major island groups. Sahlins split these eight island groups into three categories based on social complexity and the “degree of stratification within each society” (Sahlins 1958:10). Samoa was grouped with neighboring Tonga, highly stratified Hawaii, and the Society Islands in the top group of the hierarchical chain. Sahlins detailed the intricacies of the Samoan chiefdom, from matais and ali’i to the economic implications of each position with relation to those with or without lower titles. Many authors have followed Williamson’s and Sahlins’ work with similar but more detailed studies (Davidson 1967; Huntsman 1995). It is in these readings that the complexity of the Samoan chiefdom became evident. They reveal the many levels of title including the heads of each family group and how they are incorporated on the village level, with the high chief being the most influential. Further, they detail how the

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high chiefs are then involved in inter-village gatherings with the highest ranking chief among them claiming the most powerful position. (Keesing et al. 1956; Kallen 1982). Sahlin’s (1958) work is still used today as a reference study into the functioning systems of chiefdoms throughout the world. While these works are extremely important to the study of Polynesian chiefdoms, it is Hiroa’s work Samoan Material Culture (1930) that created a reference for archaeologists to turn to when confronting a question regarding any aspect of Samoan material culture. Hiroa (who sometimes published under Buck 1930) provided anthropologists with the first synthesis of lithic tool types (Buck et al. 1930) in Polynesia. A similar typology appears in his book (Hiroa 1930). There Buck offers two typologies of Samoan stone tools. One is a typology of adzes; the other considers scrapers and other efficient tools such as blades (Hiroa 1930). Samoan Material Culture shortly became a very important book that encompassed details including construction of houses and boats, the use of stone tools, fishing techniques, and customs involving a wealth of different possessions of early Samoans. Buck’s publication shows archaeologists step by step methods of how boats were made and how an adze was hafted depending on type and intended use to name a few specifics. Meanwhile, Margaret Mead was fast becoming a famous cultural anthropologist and making Samoa popular with her now questioned book Coming of Age in Samoa: A Psychological Study of Primitive Youth for Western Civilization (1928). Despite the continued discussion around Mead’s work archaeological curiosity and research

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appeared to wane after Peter Buck’s work in the area. More emphasis was placed upon the cultural perspective of contemporary Samoans. These early ethnographic works provided a solid base for future archaeological studies. They provided detailed information on the chiefdom in practice after European contact, crafts such as bark cloth, and tools such as adzes used in Samoa. This information can be used as a starting point for archaeologists. This information, however, must be accepted with caution. What is recorded in these writings is a picture of the present with oral stories of the past. There is a good probability that the form of the chiefdom changed after the intrusion of Christian missionaries and the conversion of the Samoans, not to mention the probable changes through more than 2000 years of prehistory.

1960-1990: Settlement Patterns and the Beginning of Scientific Excavation

In the early 1960’s, Kikuchi (1963) completed his Master of Arts thesis for the University of Hawaii at Manoa survey presenting the results on surface ruins in American Samoa. This research identified dozens of locations that have potential as archaeological sites. Kikuchi did not limit himself to prehistoric sites but included historic sites such as gun posts from World War II. Shortly after this, the islands of independent Western Samoa received much of the archaeological interest in the archipelago. Most of the early studies of archaeology in Samoa were centralized in the larger islands of Upolu and Savai’i that make up the

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bulk of Western Samoa (Green and Davison 1969, 1974; Jennings 1976). In the late 1960’s, archaeologists began systematic surveys and excavations on the two largest Samoan Islands, Upolu and Savai’i. The largest publications to date focusing solely on the archaeology of Samoa are the two volumes entitled Archaeology of Western Samoa, Volumes I and II edited by Green and Davison (1969, 1974). These publications covered multiple excavations and surveys executed on the islands of Western Samoa. Under Green’s direction, the excavations sampled a wide variety of sites in an effort to better understand the settlement patterns of the ancestral Samoans. Green and Davidson (1969, 1974) brought to light the largest amount of continuous and coordinated research on Samoan prehistory. Using the settlement pattern approach, the detailed work included 40 reports from surveys and excavations on the two largest islands. Green and Davidson (1969) present the second typology of adzes found in Samoa. This typology is based on the initial Samoan adze typology by Buck (Hiroa 1930). Both of these classification systems are based on morphology, since the Samoan names for different types of adzes and the functions for which they were intended has been lost. Previous attempts had been made to classify adzes from Polynesia as a whole or a combination of island groups (Duff 1956, 1959; Emory 1968), but only Buck (Hiroa 1930) had devised one for just the Samoan Archipelago. After explaining the morphological components of each type of adze, Green and Davidson (1969, 1974) attempted to place a chronological perspective on the new typology. The difficulty came with the fact that most of the assemblages they viewed were surface collections.

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In sum, all the types except VIII and IX appear to be present at early levels, either in forms identical to, or closely relater to adzes in the surface collection. Of the types which were apparently common in later times, Type III and Type VI are identical in early and late contexts, while Types I and II tend to be represented at earlier levels by smaller, related but not always identical forms, which could probably be identified as varieties of these types. In a few cases differences between early and late examples of these types, however, are probably partly due to the weathered state of early specimens, which blurs distinctions between front and sides, and between flaked and ground surfaces. The rarer types in surface collections, IV, V, VII and X are all known from early levels and only Type VIII is uncertainly placed. Their presence in the surface collection from a given locality, therefore, may suggest a somewhat earlier site than would a preponderance of Types I, II and IX, for instance. At present, however, we do not feel our knowledge of the sequence is sufficient to make any closer identifications of the age of sites solely on the basis of adzes found on their surface (Green and Davidson 1969).

As part of the massive survey collections in “Archaeology of Western Samoa”, the now famous site of Mulifanua was first mentioned (Dickinson 1974; Green 1974; Jennings 1974). In 1973 a canal was dredged through the underwater coral formations near the land site of Mulifanua. Within the dredge-waste was found highly decorated pottery sherds. It was determined that these sherds were examples of the dentated Lapita

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pottery bringing Samoa into the discussion of the origins and spread of the initial population of the remote Pacific Ocean. It was previously believed that the makers of Lapita pottery who had settled parts of Melanesia and Micronesia stopped their expansion at Tonga and Fiji (Kirch 1996). The temper in sherds from Mulifanua were tested for their source and it was found that they are indeed not local as opposed to most of the undecorated pottery usually found in Samoa (Dickinson 1974). This new evidence brought more prestige to Samoan archaeology, involving it with the largest debate at the time, the expansion of Lapita. Green and Davidson (1974) created a Samoan timeline based on 45 radiocarbon dates. Their results showed that settlement of Samoa as evidenced by Eastern Lapita Pottery occurred “around or before 800 B.C.” (Green and Davidson 1974:224). Evidence, including locally made pottery, suggested continued use of ceramics through the third century A.D. Inland expansion and settlement was thought to have occurred between 100 B.C. and 500 A.D. Green and Davidson concluded that mounds for houses and other functions were built “at some point after the tenth or eleventh centuries A.D.” (1974:224). From the eleventh and twelfth centuries A.D. all zones were occupied until the 1830’s. Green and Davidson claimed that Samoa’s main feature through time was its continuity of artifacts. Changes in pottery and adze form occurred early. Pottery was discontinued after 1000 years of occupation. Adze forms changed little in form after the initial changes. Settlement patterns were a primary concern in the extensive surveys and excavations. Davidson (1974) concluded that the first settlers lived near the coast and

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cultivated the lands nearest them. It is uncertain whether the first settlers of Samoa practiced agriculture or had a subsistence strategy based on gathering from present flora and marine resources. What is clear is that agriculture was practiced shortly after colonization. As populations increased, the land would have been exhausted and lands further inland would have been utilized. Earthwork fortifications have been present in Samoa for about 1500 years as a response to warfare. After European colonization, coastal settlements became more desirable as an easy way to contact Europeans (Davidson 1974). The changing aspect of travel with the improvement of commercial flights brought Samoa closer to the rest of the world. Access was not so restricted to those that could afford and handle the long travel. This increase in tourist travel brought up important concerns of the conservation of prehistoric Samoan sites. One example of this is the excavation of Olovalu Crater on Tutuila Island, American Samoa. The governor just prior to 1970, John Haydon, recognized this need to preserve the archaeological and natural resources of the island. The excavation was carried out in response to the continued and accelerated development of American Samoa. The findings indicated that Olovalu crater held much in the way of archaeological implications (Ladd and Morris 1970). Unfortunately, no more work has been done in the crater to date. And so goes much of Samoan archaeology. Most of the current literature is in the form of site and survey reports. Publishing in Samoa is slow in coming at times but the interest continues to grow and the number and frequency of publications in journals are increasing.

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Archaeology witnessed the analysis and reporting of two important sites in American Samoa (Figure 2.3) in the 1980’s. The excavation of To’aga, Ofu Island, by Kirch and Hunt brought the study of ceramics and the implications of the presence of decorated ware to the forefront of archaeological study in Samoa (Kirch and Hunt 1989a, 1989b). Meanwhile, the survey and excavation of the Tataga-Matau quarry located near the Tafuna plain brought to light the intensity at which the prehistoric inhabitants of Tutuila utilized the natural raw lithic materials abundant on the island (Leach n.d., 1990).

Figure 2.3. Map of American Samoa showing location of major towns and archaeological sites. Three sites discussed in text. Manu’a Group not to scale, lies to the east of Tutuila.

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To’aga produced relatively few lithic samples. In fact, a majority of the debitage was intentionally not collected during the excavation (P. Kirch, personal communication 2005). However, it is an important site for the study of ceramics on the archipelago. The sherds recovered showed decoration that was not as intricate as that of Lapita, however there are far more decorations than the few impressed dentations along rims that are found elsewhere on the islands. These sherds were labeled “Lapitoid” by Kirch and Hunt (1989a). To’aga proved useful in the discussion of the temporal sequence of Samoa. Radiocarbon dates showed that this site was utilized for the duration of the Samoan sequence. In fact, the earliest deposits dated to 3700-3300 years before the present (BP). This is considerably earlier than the dates put forth by Green and Davidson (1974). Polynesian Plainware is noted between 2500-1900 BP. Deposits not containing ceramics dated after 1900 BP. The data for the earliest ceramics are insufficient for a confident claim of this being a Lapita occupation, though the dates coincide with dates from other Lapita sites including Mulifanua in Western Samoa and in Tonga and Fiji (Kirch et al. 1989a, 1989b). Tataga-Matau is a massive quarry site on the western part of Tutuila. It is clear that the site was used systematically by accomplished adze makers (Leach and Witter 1985, 1990). The quarry is located just upland from the coastal site of Leone, where one can find hundreds of circular and oval depressions in solid, basalt bedrock. It was once used as a polishing area where performs of adzes where brought for finishing touches. This site is buffeted by waves that supply a constant source of water necessary for the

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grinding activities that took place there. Some have thought that it also acted as a market for the completed adzes where customers could row up to the formation in their boats and procure what was necessary (F. Pearl, personal communication 2006). The Tataga-Matau Quarry was surveyed in the mid 1980’s. It covers a large area of a ridge. Buck mentioned it in his 1930 publication Samoan Material Culture. Leach and Witter (1985) included in their final report a step by step description of the creation of an adze based on experimental archaeology and the types of debitage found at the site. This material is very important to researchers studying adzes and debitage as a result of adze manufacture. Further investigations in 1988 provided a temporal element and showed that the site expanded beyond their 1985 survey to include three major quarry areas (Leach and Witter 1990). It was concluded that the quarries were in use from the 11th century A.D. to the end of the prehistoric period around 1830. Evidence of human actions indicated a period of intense, “organized industrial activity” (Leach and Witter 1990:81) between the 14th and 16th centuries A.D. This quarry represents the largest, organized effort to prepare adzes and preforms on Tutuila. It is possible that another quarry might rival Tataga-Matau in scale, but none has been reported at this time. Also during the 1980’s, the American Samoan Power Authority (ASPA) set up an archaeological unit to complete survey works before the installation of pipelines and roads. The American Samoa Historical Preservation Office (ASHPO) also added archaeological management, sponsoring various excavations of the islands of American Samoa.

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The archaeological investigations performed before 1990 are a baseline upon which much of the most recent archaeological research in the region is based. The ideas and hypotheses presented during this time have formulated much of the archaeological research done in the past 10 years. These results gave archaeologists a further knowledge of a Samoan timeline. Important sites have been explored and reported. The knowledge that Samoa should be included in the discussions of Lapita pottery came to the forefront during this period. Meanwhile, evidence on the importance of Tutuila as a source of tool-stone came to light and have been the focus of many studies since.

1990-Present: The State of Archaeology in Samoa Today

The 1990’s to the present has witnessed a much more concentrated approach to the timeline of Samoan prehistory (Table 2.1) and the use of chemical properties to locate the sources of stone tools found at archaeological sites. Samoa has been included in many Pan-Pacific and Pan-Polynesian publications as the origin of the Polynesian people (Kirch 2000, Kirch and Green 2001). Other archaeologists have concentrated efforts along the lines being followed elsewhere in Polynesia concerning Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and X-Ray Flourescence (XRF) analzses. These methods have been used effectively by Weisler and his associates (Weisler 1997, 1998, Weisler and Kirch 1996, Weisler and Woodhead 1995). These studies were used to provide a clearer picture of inter-island communication and trade of stone tools.

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Table 2.1. The Samoan Cultural Chronology

Period Ceramic Periods Early Eastern Lapita

Date Range

Settlement Pattern

Material Traits

3100-2700 BP

Initial settlements along coast

Early Eastern Lapita decorated pottery, Adze types I, possibly III, IV, V

Late Eastern Lapita

2700-2300 BP

Coastal settlements

Late Eastern Lapita decorated pottery, Adze types I, possibly III, IV, V, IX, X

Polynesian Plainware

2300-1700 BP

Coastal and inland settlements

Undecorated pottery, Adze types II and IV (as well as earlier forms)

1700-1000 BP

Coastal and inland settlements

Absence of pottery, Adze types VII and VIII

Recent

1000-250 BP

Inland settlements; Absence of pottery, monumental Adze types VII and architecture including VIII fortifications and star mounds

Historic

250 BPpresent

Coastal and inland settlements

Aceramic Periods Dark Ages1

Absence of pottery and stone adzes, metal nails, glass beads, other artifacts of European origins

In 1992, the valley near Alega, Tutuila, was surveyed as a quarry/workshop site (Clark 1992). Surveys revealed the presence of at least 14 sites in the valley. Artifacts were collected from four of the sites. The area was occupied sometime before the 14th

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century A.D. Investigations provided no basis for thinking that the area was settled early in the Samoan sequence. Excavations in the area showed a shallow depositional state of artifacts. The oldest culturally active layer was Layer II dating just prior to the 14th century. Artifact comparisons by level led Clark (1992) to the conclusion that the earliest residents did not make tools as intensively as later residents. Unfortunately, conclusions for a temporal element of the site proved difficult to come by due to the presence of abundant surface finds and little deposition taking place in the area. Excavations, however, produced a large quantity of lithic artifacts. There is little of the parent material readily noticed above the surface, as is the case with many quarries on the island including the unexcavated Lau’agae Quarry on the eastern end of Tutuila. Clark hypothesized that the manufacturers were using large cobbles of basalt that can be easily found as the source of blanks for adzes. What is currently found there is the remains of worked basalt cobbles before the cobbles were exhausted. Clark (1992) did run some geochemical tests on two flakes from the Alega region. He did this in an effort to add to a growing dataset of possible Tutuilan quarries. While the intention was understandable, a sample size of two flakes did not provide enough data for statistical analysis. Jeffrey Clark, in association with American Samoa Historic Preservation Office (ASHPO), excavated ‘Aoa, Tutuila in 1995. It was chosen for having ceramics in hopes to further the understanding of the early components of the Samoan timeline, the ceramic periods that lasted at least 1000 years (Kirch et al 1989a, 1989b). The site

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proved fruitful producing hundreds of ceramic sherds, some with decorated rims. The lithics found were typical of what one would find at a village site in Samoa consisting of a few complete adzes, multiple adze fragments, and many more scrapers (Clark & Michlovic 1996). The occupation of highland sites was investigated by a team led by Pearl (2004). He surveyed and mapped multiple sites in more mountainous regions of Tutuila. The findings indicate that the elevated portions of Tutuila were settled in a small window of time around 650 BP (Pearl 2004). Johnson (Johnson et al. 2007) sampled various quarries on the eastern portion of Tutuila. Using NAA, they identified the chemical differences of separate quarries, thus allowing future work analyzing the NAA data from village sites (Johnson et al. 2007). It is this data set that will be compared to the NAA results form Aganoa, allowing us to see from where these ancestral villagers procured their stone tools. The wealth of archaeological investigations that have come to light in recent years is beginning to synthesize what has already been done. Clarifying questions that were unanswerable in the 1960’s and 1970’s is a clear path available to archaeologists. The previous work done before this thesis supports the need for such a project. While the Samoan sequence is being perfected, research into intra-island trade of lithic materials will help to understand the interaction of various villages on Tutuila and the Samoan Archipelago as a whole. As archaeological interest in Samoa continues to grow more research will make the timeline of Samoa much clearer as can be seen with current research. There is not

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much standing the way of future archaeologists on the archipelago. Many questions remain unanswered and with a lack of previous research there are few early ideas that need to be reversed or revised which should allow Samoan archaeology to grow smoothly into the future.

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CHAPTER III THE EXCAVATION AT AGANOA VILLAGE (AS-22-43)

The site located at the small village of Aganoa was excavated in the summer of 2006 by a team from Texas A&M University, College Station and Texas A&M University, Galveston. Principal Investigators, Pearl and Eckert, chose this area to excavate after a survey and test excavations revealed a high amount of ceramic and lithic artifacts (Moore and Kennedy 2003). The presence of pottery indicated that this could be one of the earlier sites of Samoa. The primary tool-stone used in Samoa is fine-grained basalt. The bulk of the tools found in Samoan assemblages are adzes of various sizes and shapes, and scrapers, often known as coconut graters (Green and Davidson 1969, 1974). There is very little discussion of blade technology on the islands as compared to that on mainland America, but evidence is emerging that this technology was utilized by ancestral Samoans (Hawkins 2008). When Moore and Kennedy (2003) excavated Aganoa Village in 1999, they argued that this site could be a workshop area for the manufacturing of adzes. Their finds included a high frequency of cortical debitage, which is often a sign of tool manufacture. However, the artifacts recovered during the 2006 excavation show a low amount of cortical debitage. One would expect a high frequency of primary (cortical) debitage at a workshop site and little to no cortical debitage at a residential site since the adzes would have been imported after manufacture. The site of Alega is a good example

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of this. Clark (1992) recovered 89 pieces of primary debitage and 159 pieces of secondary debitage. Aganoa Village, on the other hand, appears to have been primarily a residential village in which the lithics used were at times reworked after a break and expedient tools were sometimes made from nearby cobbles.

Location

The modern village of Aganoa is a small hamlet, and a part of the village of Amouli, located on the southeastern side of the island of Tutuila, American Samoa. Aganoa currently has two houses, one belonging to the head family, the Manaea’s, one large bathroom facility, and a fale o’o, an open-air structure intended for guest use. The main road of the island runs parallel with the shore separating the house area from a wide, straight beach (Figure 3.1). The southerly-facing valley is shaped by two spurs that jut off from Olomoana Mountain at the rear of the valley to the north. Before the creation of the road, these spurs jutted into the ocean, heavily impeding overland travel to the area. Behind the modern houses is a plantation area consisting of breadfruit (ulu) trees, banana trees, coconut palms, taro plants, and an old pigpen (pa pua’a). This plantation area is where the bulk of the excavation units in 2006 were placed (Figure 3.1). Geoarchaeology has shown that the current beach is flatter and further down valley than it was in prehistoric times (Sauck et al. 2007). Sterile sands were found at or

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around 60 cm below the surface in a majority of the units. Two excavation blocks (C and L) revealed early occupation areas roughly 150 cm below the surface along an old

Talus

Block O Block L

Block C

Excavation Unit N

Pacific Ocean

Fig. 3.1. Aganoa Village with excavation units in place. Map made by F. Pearl.

beach berm that is still evident today as a slight rise then fall in elevation parallel with the shoreline. This berm is located around 20 m inland from the current beach.

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Excavation

Most of the units were excavated in 1 m squares. One 2 x 2 m block (Block C) was opened along with a 3 x 3 m block (Block L) and a large aerial exposure (Block O) exposing 16 m2. Most 1 m2 units were excavated to a depth 150 cm below the surface. Block A was excavated to 2 m below the surface. A depth over 3 m was reached in Block L. Block O (Figure 3.2) was excavated with the purpose of exposing a 3 x 3 m area of an old floor that was around 20 cm below the surface (Figure 3.3). It was expanded to a total of 16 units to expose three postholes and a floor made of ili’ili, a foundation of coral and rock cobbles and pebbles. Very few lithics, tools or debitage, were recovered from this area. This makes sense as household floors were usually kept very clean. Blocks C and L exposed layers of occupation from the surface to 40 cm to 60 cm below the surface. At around 160 cm below the surface another cultural layer in each block was discovered. These were marked by large amounts of lithics and ceramics (Figure 3.4). The area between the cultural layers was sterile, coarse, poorly sorted sand. Block C uncovered this cultural layer during excavation, while it was first noted in Block L as an anomaly during survey with ground-penetrating radar and a magnetometer along the old burm. This remote survey revealed an area that was more densely packed than that above it. The results, however, were inconclusive as to whether it was indeed a cultural layer like that previously found in Block C, or just a dense patch of sand and

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rock. Subsequent excavation revealed it to be the oldest cultural layer discovered on the island.

N 1m

Basalt Coral Ili’ili Fire-Cracked Rock

Figure 3.2. Planview of Block O. The profile is shown in Figure 3.3.

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Fig. 3.3. Profile of trench excavated in Block O.

Figure 3.4. Profile of west wall of Block L.

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Fourteen radiocarbon (14C) samples were sent to be dated at Beta. The 14C results show that the cultural layer in Block C was the oldest at the site (Table 2.1). The oldest calibrated date of 2570 ± 40 BP was located in level 12 of unit 1006N/997E, the southeast quadrant of Block C. Other dates identify an old age for the lower cultural layer of Block L (Table 3.1). The earliest date reported was 1260 ± 40 BP from a sample in level 4 of unit 1029N/1058E of Block L. All 14 samples were taken from either Block C or L.

Table 3.1: Radiocarbon Dates Returned from Aganoa Village Including Cultural Period Association. Sample FS942 FS981 FS986A FS1019A FS1019B O392 O398 O691 O831 1074 0986B 218273 218274 381

Unit 1029/1058 1028/1058 1029/1059 1028/1059 1028/1059 1006/997 1006/997 1029/1058 1028/1059 1029/1060 1029/1059 1006/996 1007/996 1006/997

Depth (cm) 160 167 160 157 157 150 155 50 120 172 158 135 75 136

Measured BP 2340 ± 40 2300 ± 40 2170 ± 40 2280 ± 40 2330 ± 40 2570 ± 40 2590 ± 40 1260 ± 40 2220 ± 40 2230 ± 40 2130 ± 40 2530 ± 40 2070 ± 40 2540 ± 40

Calibrated BP 2320-240 2280-2360 2140-2220 2260-2340 2250-2330 2460-2540 2500-2580 1220-1300 2140-2220 2170-2250 2110-2190 2490-2570 2030-2110 2530-2610

Block L L L L L C C L L L L C C C

Cultural Period I I I I I I I II I I I I I I

For the purpose of this analysis three cultural periods were assumed. These were put into place based on relative stratigraphy. We currently do not know if Cultural Periods II and III constitute distinct cultural layers. Cultural Period I is represented by the lower portions of blocks C and L and is the location from which the radiocarbon

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samples were procured. The two different blocks could represent two distinct occupational periods, but, for the purposes of this research they were combinded into one cultural group. Cultural Period II is defined by deposits at a depth of 20 cm to 80 cm below the surface and can be found in all the excavation units. It is separated geologically from Cultural Period I by 80-100 cm of sterile sand. Cultural Period III includes artifacts from the surface and from above 20 cm below the surface. This cultural period was marked in order to avoid disturbances from actions such as bioturbation and plant root growth. It was also noticed that the presence of pottery waned in these levels indicating later occupation. One surface collection extending from a 1 m dog leash around a datum revealed a large number of debitage and two tools. This area was not excavated below the exposure of the soils underneath the ili’ili covered ground. This was an interesting manufacturing area that was not reproduced anywhere else on site. It is possible that Kennedy and Moore (2003) had noticed areas such as this, and thus concluded that Aganoa might have been a manufacturing site. Lithic collections such as this do not exist at any level below the surface. If Aganoa was indeed used as a workshop site, it occurred recently and does not appear to have been practiced earlier.

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CHAPTER IV THE LITHIC ASSEMBLAGE

The excavation at Aganoa Village recovered 20 adzes or bifacially flaked tools, 40 flake tools, 1445 pieces of debitage and smooth rocks, and some other miscellaneous stones of an undetermined function. The lithic materials recovered were basalt and obsidian. The tools found were all made of basalt. The obsidian accounted for only 1% of the assemblage (n=150) with few pieces larger than 1 cm2. The obsidian artifacts recovered are being analyzed by Welch of Texas A&M University, who reports that much of the obsidian is too small to analyze macroscopically beyond the identification of flake scars and percussion points (D. Welch, personnal communication 2007). The excavation recovered four complete adzes and 13 adze fragments or reworked adzes. Three cores and a rounded, triangular-shaped stone similar to an adze with evident usewear were recovered. Also, a sphere of vesicular basalt was found. The use for this artifact is unknown, but similar finds at Alega (Clark and Michlovic 1996) were thought to be weights for nets for either fishing or pigeon netting. The assemblage also proved wealthy in flake tools (n=40). Most of these tools are unifacial. The majority of the identified flake tools were scrapers with one classified chisel and one bifacially flaked scraper. These tools will now be referred to as scrapers as it is not a requirement for scrapers to be unifacial.

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The adzes recovered from Aganoa were classified according to Green and Davidson’s (1969) typology (Table 4.1). Clark and Herdrich (1993) set up the typology for flake tools that was used. In this system there are ten classes with some split into subclasses. Most classes matched up well with the Aganoa assemblage with some exceptions. Neither of these typologies deals with a temporal element. The continuity of Samoan artifacts currently infringes upon the creation of a temporal tool classification. Most changes in the Samoan tool kit occurred early, after which only subtle changes in the lithic artifacts can be accounted.

Table 4.1: The Criteria for the Classification of Adzes (Green & Davidson 1969).

Adze Analysis

Each adze or adze fragment was measured for its weight, max length, distal width, proximal width, presence of absence of cortex, Munsell color, and estimated percent of total area with polish (Appendix A). These measurements inform on morphology for a classification. The function of a specific tool or adze form is still

34

debated (Green and Davidson 1969). On fragments where either the distal or proximal end was missing, or both, a maximum width was taken. For those with recognizable ends, one of those ends was always the maximum width. Cultural Period one was represented by three complete adzes and one incomplete adze of differing sizes. Only one adze was recovered in Cultural Period II. Most of the collection (n=15) was found on the surface in Cultural Period III. The complete adzes (Table 4.2) found on site were all polished to an extent. The one found on the surface (artifact #667-1) is a type I adze (Figure 4.1). Its distal end is ground to a two-level bit. The front, or top, of the adze is 50% polished with a notch taken off for the hafting area. The back of the adze is flaked except for the bit. There is a chunk taken off one distal shoulder, this probably led to the discard of this tool. This is an example of the classic Samoan adze. The basalt has a bluish hue that is typical of the color of the fine-grained basalt on Tutuila. A surface survey of the head of the valley provided no evidence for this type of basalt in the valley. The basalt found here is coarser-grained and blacker in color. Artifact #141-1, a scraper made from a small cobble with a dark black color and cortex on both faces, might have been made from this material (Figure 4.2). Two complete adzes were found in Cultural Period I of Block L: Artifacts #10291 (Figure 4.3) and #939-1 (Figure 4.4). Also found in this cultural layer of Block L were two adze fragments. Artifact #1118-1 (Figure 4.5) has had its bit roughly reworked. The other, artifact #978-1 (Figure 4.6), is the distal end of the adze. Artifact #1029-1 is

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classified as a type III adze. It is relatively thin, indicating use for finer wood working. It is almost completely polished on both sides. The color of the basalt is a white-gray

Figure 4.1: Artifact #667-1. Type 1 adze.

Figure 4.2. Type Ib scrapers recovered from Aganoa Village. Artifact #141-1, upper right corner, is a heavier black material than usually encountered in tools at Aganoa Village.

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as opposed to the bluish-gray normal encountered. This could be due to the bleaching effects of being buried in sand for nearly 2000 years, but this is an unproven hypothesis. Artifact #332-1 is a type IV adze with polishing along the distal end to the midpoint on both faces. It is thicker than artifact #1029-1. This could imply use in heavy chopping like artifact #667-1.

Figure 4.3. Artifact #939-1. Adze of unknown type.

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Figure 4.4. Artifact #1029-1. A type III adze.

Figure 4.5: Artifact # 1118-1. A reworked adze from Cultural Period I, Block L.

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Figure 4.6. Artifact #978-1. An adze fragment, the distal end.

Table 4.2. Complete Adzes from Aganoa Village. Artifact # Class 939-1 ? 1029-1 III 332-1 IV 667-1 I

Length 107.75 90.52 81.46 113.34

Width Distal 39.26 33.19 38.94 50.43

Width Maximum Proximal Width Weight Color 16.19 39.26 115.62 5y 5/1 22.23 33.19 59.5 5y 5/1 22.33 38.94 68.84 5y 5/1 27.2 50.43 190.14 5y 4/1

Polish % <25 >75 >50 <50

Artifact #939-1 is the most intriguing complete adze that was recovered. This adze is longer than the other three recovered from Cultural Period I sediments. It has the smallest percentage of polish than any of the other three adzes. The most interesting thing about it is its morphological attributes. The other adzes found have continuous cross-section shapes, either trapezoidal (artifact #667-1) or rectangular

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(artifacts #1029-1 and #332-1), while this adze has two different cross section shapes. From the distal end to the midpoint the adze has an oval cross-section, while from the proximal end to the midpoint the adze is triangular in cross-section. There is no type for Samoan adzes that covers this kind of dual shape. While #939-1 is longer than #1029-1 and #332-1, the width of the early adzes is relatively similar. There is no indication as yet why these tools were left behind without obvious flaws. The adze fragments noted above provide little morphologically comparative information. It is interesting to note, however, that of the 13 noted, 4 have had their distal ends reworked to a usable edge (Table 4.3).

Table 4.3. Adze Fragments. Artifact Number and Classification. Type numbers in parentheses indicate possible categories but lack data to be sure.

Artifact # 1118-1 978-1 749-2 15-1 23-5 1154-2 332-2 870-1 13-1 197-4 53-1 197-3 163-4

Type/ Condition Reworked I/ Distal end missing Fragment V/ Proximal end missing Reworked I/ Distal end missing Reworked VIII/ Distal end missing Fragment VII/ Distal end missing Reworked Adze/Distal end missing Adze Fragment/ Distal end missing Medial Adze Fragment (VI, VIII) Medial Adze Fragment (VI, VIII) Medial Adze Fragment (V) Medial Adze Fragment (II) Medial Adze Fragment (IV, V) Medial Adze Fragment

The adze fragments were probably broken during use and reworked to continue or finish a job. Artifact #1118-1 is a good example of this. Its front is finely polished

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producing the smoothest surface of all of the polished adzes that were recovered. Where a polished bit should be, there are jagged flake scars producing a roughly serrated edge. This artifact was probably broken during its original use, and then its broken end was roughly reworked. This quick type of reworking shows that adzes were probably not easy to come by. The polished bit would supply a flat or convex end with the bit angling away on the bottom. This reworking has produced a point with the apex occurring at the midpoint of the thickness of the adze. This angle would be harder to use in the cutting, edging, or carving of wood as it changes the cutting angle of the adze. Although the function of each adze type is uncertain it is clear that this is the most important tool type in Samoa. Adzes have been produced in Samoa for at least 2000 years. Unlike other parts of the world where projectile points were consistently fashioned for many thousands of years, Samoa does not have evidence of such projectile tools. The most care and consideration was placed in making adzes as evidenced by the amount of polish, meanwhile the flake tools usually do not incorporate a grinding method during production.

Scraper and Flake Tool Analysis

The flake tools, or scrapers, were analyzed for length, distal width, proximal width, weight, Munsell color, presence or absence of cortex, and the number of dorsal scars. The maximum width for each tool was at either the proximal or distal end. The

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presence of cortex was noted in terms of the face on which it was located. Dorsal scars were counted and recorded (Appendix B). Flake tools were the most frequent tool type recovered at Aganoa Village. These tools may have been used to extract the meat of coconuts (Hiroa 1930) although other uses could also have been possible. A total of 40 flake tools were identified, representing nearly two-thirds of the total tool assemblage. Such a discrepancy between flake tools and adzes is found to be typical of village sites on Tutuila but not other islands of the Samoan archipelago (Clark and Herdrich 1993). This could be due to the fact that other islands in the archipelago are not characterized by easy access to such fine-grained volcanic rocks as on Tutuila so that humans instead had to rely on modified shells as scrapers.

Figure 4.7. Type Ia scrapers from Aganoa Village.

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The flake tools were dominated by type I forms, the classic coconut graters of Clark and Herdrich (1993) (Figure 4.7). Type I flake tools are conventionally split into two sub-categories based on the angle of the sides from distal to proximal ends. Type Ia has sides that travel at an angle getting nearer from distal to proximal ends, while type Ib has parallel sides from one end to the other. Both categories a (n=8) and b (n=10) had at least double the numbers of any other category. Class Ia forms would be an even more frequently occuring category except for a discrepancy in form of four artifacts. Four tools appear to fit in nicely within class Ia, but they also had attributes of class V flake tools (blades). Type V forms are typified by one curved lateral margin worked into a cutting, scraping or slicing edge while the other side is either a blunt cortical edge or flaked to be flat. The four tools in question have distal ends that are flat and steeply worked like those of class Ia tools, but each artifact has one lateral margin that looked like those of class V tools (Figure 4.8). Instead of continually questioning where these specimens belong, they were placed into a different category, class Ia/V, to keep them separated from typical class Ia artifacts. The difference in form might be an indication of a difference in function or a difference in the shape of the blank used to produce them. Only further research will be able to answer this question. Further investigation might make a case for these being a new type of tool to be added to the current typology, but the occurrence of four of these tools at one site does not yet require the creation of a new type.

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Figure 4.8. Artifact #150-1 from Aganoa Village. An example of a combination scraper Ia/V. Notice that one edge is worked (rt) while the other is unworked and flat (lt).

This type of tool combination might be a clue into the fact that Aganoa was not a workshop. If tools were being steadily made at the site, why would combination tools need to be created? The wealth of raw material that should be found at a workshop site should supply enough stone to make individual tools for individual jobs. This combination class does not fit in these stipulations. It could be an indication of the conservation or recycling of the material in order to best utilize the resources. Artifact #1160-1 was classified as a chisel, a class unto itself. This large flake tool is unifacial. The distal end is steeply worked like a scraper. One side has had a

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large flake removed following the full length of the tool. This tool could have been used for carving boats or other wood crafts. It is the size of the artifact that keeps it apart from the other flake tools. This tool is over 16 mm longer than the next-longest flake tool. Based on its size this tool may be considered an adze, but its unifacial nature and steep cutting edge place this tool amongst the flake tools found. There were six lithic artifacts that stood apart during analysis. These tools represent tool types of either unknown function or classification, but clearly were used in prehistoric times. Artifact #532-1 is a rounded ball of vesicular basalt (Figure 4.9). This is almost spherical in shape and bears no evidence of polish or wear that would indicate hafting. This odd artifact could have been used in a variety of ways. The most intriguing is the possibility of it being a weight for fishing, probably for a net. Another artifact of unusual interest, #23-2, is a cobble-sized stone that is in the shape of an adze (Figures 4.10 a and b); however it is made of lighter colored basalt and has rounded edges. There is evident usewear in the forms of nearly parallel striations along one lateral margin visible macroscopically on the wide end. What this object was used for is unknown. It possibly was a polishing stone or hammerstone.

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Figure 4.9. Artifact #532-1. A possible fishing weight.

Figure 4.10. Artifact #23-2. Rounded adze-like lithic artifact. Right, detail of possible usewear. Picture a on right, b on left.

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It is interesting to note that no scrapers were recovered from sediments of Cultural Period I. Ten scrapers, however, were found in sediments of Cultural Period II. This could indicate a heavier reliance on agricultural goods and less on marine subsistence strategies. Twenty-nine more scrapers and other flake tools were found scattered on the surface throughout the excavation site.

Debitage Analysis

Aspects of the debitage were recorded by measuring weight, maximum length (perpendicular to the platform), maximum width (parallel with the platform), maximum thickness, and the number of dorsal scars (Appendix C). For those attributes not metrically measurable, the Munsell color chart, overall condition of the flake, type of break, termination, and platform preparation were recorded. Besides the measurements, debitage class was recorded in terms of primary cortical (n=5), secondary cortical (n=27), and tertiary flake (n=512). To analyze the debitage, I first separated them into three classes; Flake (mostly complete) (n=401); Rejuvenation flake (flake with a polished surface that has been removed from a tool) (n=47); and angular shatter (debitage piece that shows no regular attributes of a flake) (n=129). There were some pieces that did not fit easily into these categories. Those were set aside as possible core, cortical spall, thinning flake, and utilized flake.

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Those placed in angular shatter did show cortex covering most or all of the dorsal face. These are currently not believed to be flakes from the manufacturing or reworking of tools. These flakes represent a small collection of the fire-cracked rock (FCR) present at Aganoa. FCR was not collected during the excavation, due to its incredible volume on the site.

Results

If, indeed, the manufacture of adzes was taking place at Aganoa, then it was not with raw cobbles or boulders. The Samoans working stone at Aganoa might have been working on large blanks or rough performs to create adzes. The preform of an adze is long and rectangular and usually lacks the cortex of the parent material (Leach and Witter 1985). To get it to the appropriate size to polish or use, one would have had to strike the preform along the sides, producing flakes that were wider than they are long. The flake would have traveled across the lateral margin of the preform and taken off the whole edge of the opposite side. There is a high occurrence of flakes from Aganoa being wider then they are long. Add to the argument against Aganoa Village being a workshop, the existence of a number of rejuvenation flakes (n=17). These flakes were labeled rejuvenation flakes due to the presence of polishing on either the dorsal face or the platform, or both. This is not to say that other flakes were not made in rejuvenation efforts. It is simply not possible at this time to determine if a flake without the presence of polish or a previously

48

worked edge were created during the process of manufacture of rejuvenation. These flakes are evidence that adzes were being modified to continue their intended use or to create new tools. This would not be a practice that one would expect to see at a lithic workshop. The debitage found at the site is small in quantity compared to sites that are near workshop areas or quarries (Clark 1992). Numbering only 1,445 pieces, the debitage includes a high number of tertiary flakes, with few flakes having any signs of the parent cortex. Most of the flakes are small and thin, indicating precise work. Flakes that occur during the early stages of adze production are usually large and thick, created as the manufacturer removes large chunks to more rapidly prepare a blank into a preform. As stated earlier, a high number of the flakes are wider than they are long. This is an indication of working performs or reworking already fashioned tools. Debitage with polish represents a small percentage, only 2% of the assemblage (n=27). Not all of the debitage is a result of adze modification. The manufacture of scrapers produces small debitage when shaping the steep cutting edge. A more thorough analysis of the debitage might provide insights into lithic working at a residential site on Tutuila. Cultural Period III represents more than half of the entire debitage assemblage from Aganoa Village (n=862, 60%). Debitage from Cultural Period II is the lightest count of the three periods, indicating a possible lack of creating or re-working stone tools during this time. Cultural Period I represents just under a quarter of the total debitage (n=321, 22%). Polished debitage recovered from this level only numbers five.

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CHAPTER V CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION METHODS

To further understand lithic production as Aganoa Village, INAA results of a sample of the Aganoa Village lithic assemblage were compared to the baseline already set down by Johnson (2007). By doing so it was hoped that the source quarries for lithics recovered during the excavation could be identified. In addition, this project sampled four quarries: Tataga-Matau to the west, Lau’agae to the east, Asiapa and Alega closer to the west (Figure 5.1). INAA is ideal for this type of test because it allows a very detailed view of the chemical characteristics of the samples tested. Due to the fact that the Tutuilan source flows are very chemically similar, this detailed view is necessary.

Figure 5.1. Tutuila Island. Locations of Aganoa and the four quarries sampled by Johnson et al. (2007).

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When I began the research for the source material of the lithic assemblage of Aganoa, I based it on a model consisting of concentric circles of specialization from Aganoa. It was originally expected that the first cultural period represented at Aganoa (c. 2500 BP) would have tools from a nearby source, possibly Lau’agae or Asiapa. The sphere of influence would then get larger through cultural periods II and III eventually including the use of materials from Tataga-Matau during the last 1,000 years. This was based on the idea that as time went on the lithic materials from farther and farther away became more available. The data has shown otherwise. The sampling strategy implemented included the choosing of 90 samples. Parameters were set based on cultural period and color of the lithics. Thirty samples were chosen from each of the three cultural periods to obtain an even overview of possible change through time. The other parameter was based on the fact that most of the assemblage could be described as blue-black or gray-black in color. These colors might be an indication of production source. The sampling strategy attempted to get an equal number of each color; 45 blue-black and 45 gray-black. Due to the fact that the frequency of colors appear to change temporally from predominantly gray to predominantly blue from Cultural Periods I to III, the balance of the color samples were spread throughout the sample and not specific to cultural period. Samples chosen needed to be at least 1cm thick for a substantial portion of the artifact. This was necessary to remove the cortex during preparation so that the sample would be entirely from the interior of the artifact. This process avoided contamination from soils that

51

might still be attached to the exposed area of the artifacts. A final sampling strategy included the biased choosing of samples that had once been a part of a tool. Debitage that had been removed from a completed adze as evidenced by the presence of polishing on at least one side of a flake were particularly sought out. The samples chosen include these reworked flakes, regular debitage, and, in a few cases, portions of adze fragments that were removed with a rock saw. The samples were photographed from at least four angles for documentation before they were processed for INAA. Each sample was prepared individually. A fresh pair of gloves was used in handling each sample to avoid cross-contamination. Each sample was place in a sterile zip-bag and wrapped tightly. This was then placed in another sterile Nasco Whirl Pack© bag and again wrapped in order to supply more coverage and avoid contamination from the first bag puncturing. The sample was then placed between two polished, stainless steel plates (4”x 4”x 1/4”) that were then placed in a pneumatic press. The amount of pressure applied differed by sample. Thicker samples required more pressure to ensure sufficiently small pieces, while thinner samples received less so that breakage would result in a powder too small to collect. The amount of pressure needed per sample was based on the sound of the rock as it splintered. It quickly became a practiced technique as the entire process unfolded. After shattering the sample the outer bag was removed and the inner bag was opened so that a sample could be collected with sterile, surgical tweezers. The pieces chosen had no exterior portions of the original artifact so that an accurate reading could be obtained that did not include the matrix in which the artifact was embedded. Each

52

sample was placed in a small plastic tube that remained closed until the final weighing for the INAA counting. The steel plates and tweezers were washed thoroughly with deionized water before working with each new sample. Once all 90 samples had been prepared, each sample was individually weighed out to 50 mg. These were placed in smaller plastic containers approved for use in the INAA radiation process. Each seventh sample was taken twice to supply redundancy for assurance that the INAA process went without fault. Standards were measured along with the samples from Aganoa. SRM-688 basalt grains were used as the standard to assure correct measurement. All of this work was accomplished under the direction of Dr. Willliam James, director of the Elemental Analysis Laboratory (EAL), Texas A&M University. The samples, after preparation, were sent to the Nuclear Science Center of Texas A&M University to be run through their reactor. Germanium detectors were used to measure short-lived elements. The samples were then returned to the EAL for the counting of longer-lasting elements. The results of the INAA process were placed in an SPSS 15 (for Windows) spreadsheet. To make my data comparable to Johnson et al.’s (2007), the natural log of each result was calculated. This was a necessary step to normalize the data and make them more accessible to statistical tests. At this point Johnson et al. (2007) ran a Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) to determine whether each quarry was identifiable as a statistical group (Figure 5.2). This type of application relies on the previous knowledge of group membership to test the accuracy of each sample and how

53

well they match each group. The same data were then run through a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to show the grouping with the first two factor scores (Figure 5.3). Unlike CDA, a PCA does not rely on the previous knowledge of group membership. The plotting of factor scores from a PCA will show possible grouping of the material. When the groups are unknown from the beginning, a PCA will provide a biplot that should show separation between groups. A K-Means Cluster Analysis was applied to the data from Aganoa Village to assure proper cluster membership. With the removal of one sample the clustering worked out nicely. The Aganoa data were then combined with the Quarry data and a PCA and CDA were executed. From the CDA results, conclusions could be reached for the origin of stone artifacts at Aganoa Village.

Figure 5.2. Johnson’s biplot of CDA functions 1 and 2 (Johnson et al. 2007).

Figure 5.3. Johnson’s biplot of PCA scores 1 and 2 (Johnson et al. 2007).

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Results

As stated previously, a CDA requires previous knowledge of group membership. The Aganoa data at this point had no group distinction. Therefore a CDA test could not be done initially. Instead, a PCA was the first test run on just the data from Aganoa. All of the elements were well-represented in the sample except for Uranium. Only 58 of the 103 samples had a measured value for Uranium. A PCA run on the log values including Uranium show that the first two Eigenvalues explain 71.914% of the data while a third Eigenvalue adds another 5.75% (Table 5.1). These Eigenvalues show how much of the data each component of the PCA explains. Often values greater than 70% are accepted (Baxter 1994). By observing the Eigenvalues, one can be sure to use factor scores from a PCA that describe an appropriate amount of the data (Baxter 1994), which are usually found in the first few values.

Table 5.1. First Seven Eigenvalues of Aganoa Assemblage Including the Uranium Values.

Component 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Total 17.085 3.051 1.610 1.523 1.070 .644 .532

% of Variance 61.018 10.896 5.750 5.440 3.821 2.301 1.902

Cumulative % 61.018 71.914 77.664 83.104 86.926 89.226 91.128

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The Uranium variable was removed and the results improved. The first two Eigenvalues now explained 78.957% of the data with the third Eigenvalue adding an additional 4.616% (Table 5.2). Based on this evidence we chose to remove Uranium from consideration in all further statistical analyses.

Table 5.2. First Seven Eigenvalues of Aganoa Assemblage Excluding Uranium.

Component 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Total 18.629 2.689 1.246 1.037 .575 .492 .451

% of Variance 68.998 9.959 4.616 3.842 2.130 1.823 1.670

Cumulative % 68.998 78.957 83.572 87.414 89.544 91.367 93.037

One more problem with missing values persisted. Some of the samples were missing values for various elements. The more rigorous path would lead to the exclusion of these samples. A less rigorous method would be to replace the missing values with the means of the cases. Using the data with missing values replaced by means uses all 103 samples. A PCA without the missing values being replaced uses 80 samples. A scatterplot was made of the first two factor scores from PCA for both methods (Figures 5.4 and 5.5). The clustering of the samples is more clearly seen in Figure 5.5 for the values without replacement. The other scatterplot also shows good grouping but analysis is less specific. In interest of retaining the most rigorous methods

56

possible, it was chosen to use the data that excludes cases with missing values. Due to the true mixing of cultural periods within each group this choice should not make much difference in our results and conclusions.

Figure 5.4. Scatterplot of factor scores 1 and 2. Missing values replaced by mean values.

Group 3

Group 1

Group 2 Group 4

Figure 5.5. Scatterplot of PCA factors 1 and 2. Missing values excluded.

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The data separate into three, possibly four, groups with outliers existing to the top of the graph (Figure 5.5). The K-Means Cluster analysis was performed using the assumption of four groups to support the findings. A scatter plot of the PCA factor scores 1 and 2 is presented in Figure 5.6. The outlier was given its own group (2). Another group (1) was scattered in among the other data and not easily picked out.

Figure 5.6. Scatterplot of factor scores 1 and 2 with cluster membership identified.

A cluster analysis assuming three groups provides no clearer data again separating the outlier (sample number 51) to its individual group. If this sample is removed then the results improve and match the PCA scatterplot. The identification of these four groups shows that the Aganoa assemblage represents three or four different quarry sources (Figure 5.7).

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Figure 5.7. Scatterplot of factor scores 1&2. Cluster membership is identified. Sample 51 removed as an outlier.

The next step in the statistical analysis was to reproduce the PCA scatterplot of Johnson et al.’s (2007) quarry data. Similar steps were taken to those above. A PCA analysis was run on the natural log of the quarry data and the first two Eigenvalue factor scores were placed against each other (Figure 2.24). When Figures 5.2 and 5.8 are compared they are nearly identical. Therefore, having reproduced the original results the quarry data and the Aganoa data were combined.

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Figure 5.8. Scatterplot of Johnson et al.’s (2007) Quarry data. Factors 1 and 2.

The combined data were again put through a PCA. The outlier from the Aganoa data was included in the steps from this point out. It was only removed to gain a clearer view of the cluster information. The total PCA showed that the first two factors explain 71.864% of the data (Table 5.3). The addition of the third component explains 77.614% of the data. A scatterplot was then made of the first two factor scores for the combined data (Figure 5.9). Aganoa groups 3 and 4 do not match with the quarry data. Group 1 appears to fall in line with the Asiapa Quarry. Group 2 lies in the midst of the grouping of Tataga-Matau and Lau’agae. This group is the only definite representative sample that is present in the quarry database. Group 1 is close enough to be considered part of

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the Asiapa quarry. This leaves the data in groups 3 and 4. These data probably represent at least one, possibly two, quarries that were not originally sampled by Johnson et al (2007).

Table 5.3. First Seven Eigenvalues of PCA of Combined Quarry and Aganoa Data.

Component 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Total 16.927 2.476 1.553 1.114 .866 .746 .652

% of Variance 62.692 9.172 5.750 4.126 3.208 2.764 2.413

Cumulative % 62.692 71.864 77.614 81.740 84.948 87.712 90.125

Figure 5.9. Scatterplot of PCA factors 1 and 2 of combined Aganoa and Quarry data.

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An attempt was made to get a closer look at group 2 of the Aganoa data and the two quarries Tataga-Matau and Lau’agae. The need to see the difference between these two quarries is important as they lie on opposite sides of the island. They therefore hold heavy implications for the procurement strategies of the villagers of Aganoa. Group 2 of the Aganoa data, the Tataga-Matau data, and the Lau’agae data were separated into a new spreadsheet. The statistical process followed thus far was repeated for this shortened data set. The PCA showed that the first few Eigenvalues do not explain as much in this tight cluster (Table 5.4). The scatterplot of the first two factor scores show no distinction of the Aganoa data between Tataga-Matau or Lau’agae (Figure 5.10). The Aganoa data in this group were then separated out and a PCA and K-Means Cluster Analysis was run on this small sample to see if the data would group on their own in such a way that I could distinguish two or more groups that might follow the Quarry data and separate to represent Tataga-Matau and Lau’agae. Figure 5.11 shows the scatterplot of factor scores 1 and 2 with the cluster membership identified. As can be seen, the data do not separate out in a decipherable way to distinguish between TatagaMatau or Lau’agae.

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Figure 5.10. Scatterplot of the factor scores for Group 2, Tataga-Matau, and Lau’agae.

Table 5.4. First Seven Eigenvalues for the PCA of Group 1, Tataga-Matau, and Lau’agae.

Component 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Total 8.658 4.433 2.582 1.861 1.576 1.142 .875

% of Variance 32.067 16.420 9.562 6.891 5.838 4.228 3.240

Cumulative % 32.067 48.487 58.050 64.941 70.780 75.008 78.247

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Figure 5.11. Scatterplot of the cluster membership for Group 2.

At this point it became necessary to run CDA tests on the data to see if more defined groups could be ascertained. Using only the Aganoa data without Uranium or outlier, two CDA’s were run using Cultural Period and Cluster membership as grouping variables. Since CDA requires the previous knowledge of group membership, I applied the K-Means cluster results. The scatterplots of the discriminant scores showed different results. The one based on Cultural Period showed no definition (Figure 5.12).

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Figure 5.12. Scatterplot of the CDA discriminant scores grouped by cultural period.

The CDA using cluster membership as the grouping variable produced excellent results (Figure 5.13). The first two Eigenvalues in this analysis explains 98.2% of the data. The four clusters are clearly visible in the scatterplot. This evidence gives further credence of a four-source model for the basalts from the village of Aganoa.

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Figure 5.13. Scatterplot of the CDA discriminant scores 1 and 2 after grouping by K-Means cluster membership.

The PCA results for the combined Aganoa and Quarry data have already shown two groups from the Aganoa data do not match any of the four quarries analyzed by Johnson (2007). One group is a possible match with Asiapa. Finally another group separated out from the Aganoa data to be placed in the midst of Tataga-Matau and Lau’agae. The CDA analysis proved effective for just the Aganoa data so the Quarry data was added. Figure 5.14 shows the scatterplot for the first two discriminant factors. Group 3 from Aganoa is still closest to the Asiapa quarry, but this biplot shows a clear separation between the Aganoa group and Asiapa. This evidence implies that these artifacts came from a quarry near Asiapa with similar chemical composition. Group 1 from Aganoa again falls around the tightly grouped Tataga-Matau and Lau’agae

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Quarries. With the original scale in place it appears that the Aganoa Group 1 fits better with Lau’agae than Tataga-Matau. The relationships can be seen more clearly with adjustments to the X and Y axes made in SPSS Chart Editor to exclude the other data (Figure 5.15).

Figure 5.14. Scatterplot of discriminant scores 1 and 2 of combined Quarry and Aganoa data.

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Figure 5.15. Scaled view of the scatterplot of discriminant scores 1 and 2 of combined Quarry and Aganoa data showing detail of grouping with Tataga-Matau, Lau’agae and Aganoa Group 1.

A new CDA was run including Group 1 as members of Lau’agae quarry (Figures 5.16 and 5.17). The first two scores represent 95.4% of the data. The results show that most of the group joined with Lau’agae with a probability of greater than 95%. In fact, 15 of the samples ranked below 100% but above 96.8%, and only three samples had values less than 95%: Samples 47 (59.5%), sample 76 (67.9%), and sample 101 (63.7%).

Discriminant Scores from Function 2 for Analysis 1

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A A A A B AA B B B A B A A B B B B B B B A A B B B A B B A A A B A B B B A B A A B B S B BB S SS S A S B B A S B A A A S A AA S SA A S S S A S S B S E S S SB E S S A E ES S S S S S E E S S E EE E E S E E E E E E E S EE A E E E E E E E E E E E

4.00000

0.00000

GE

- 8.00000

- 20.00000

I II III Quarry Data

A A A

Source A

E

A A A

G GG G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G GG G GG G

- 4.00000 AA A A A A A A AA A A A

Cultural Period

A Aganoa B Lau'agae G Asiapa

A A AA A A AA A A A AAA A A A AAA AA A

S Tataga-Matau E Alega

A

A

- 10.00000

0.00000

10.00000

20.00000

30.00000

Discrim inant Scores from Function 1 for Analysis 1

Discriminant Scores from Function 2 for Analysis 1

Figure 5.16. Scatterplot of discriminant scores 1 and 2 of combined Quarry and Aganoa data. Aganoa Group 1 defined as members of Lau’agae group.

6.00000 AA A B

Cultural Period

A A

I II

A

A B B B A B AB B B B BB BB B A BBB A A A ABB BABA BBBA AB A 101SB B B B SSB A S S BS A B A A AB S A S AA S S A S S S 76 A S S B S S S SS S 47 B S S S S A SS S S S

III Quarry Data

A

4.00000

2.00000 E

S

E

0.00000

EE E E

Source

A Aganoa B Lau'agae G Asiapa S Tataga-Matau

A

E Alega

S

S S

- 4.00000

- 2.00000

0.00000

2.00000

4.00000

Discrim inant Scores from Function 1 for Analysis 1

Figure 5.17. Scaled view of the scatterplot of discriminant scores 1&2 of combined Quarry and Aganoa data showing detail of Tataga-Matau, Lau’agae and Group 1 defined as Lau’agae cluster. Labeled are the three samples with less than 95% confidence.

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With the new evidence of the three samples that do not combine with Lau’agae confidently, these samples were placed with Tataga-Matau and CDA was run again. Sample 47 resulted with a 99.9% confidence level, and sample 76 showed a 96% confidence level of belonging with Tataga-Matau. Sample 101 presented a poor confidence level of 81.5%. Though better than the connection with Lau’agae, this confidence level does not allow assured inclusion of sample 101 with Tataga-Matau.

Discussion

The INAA data suggest the residents of Aganoa Village utilized lithic material from four, possibly five, quarries (Table 5.5). There is a change in pattern through time. Samples match with Lau’agae and Tataga-Matau with a high degree of confidence. These samples are from all three time periods. Three other quarries are represented at Aganoa Village that are not included in the quarry baseline originally created by Johnson et al. (2007). Provenance for these data can only be determined with further research in the location and INAA characterization of more quarries. The implications for these findings are discussed in the next chapter.

Table 5.5. Aganoa Data Numbered Out to Identify Quarry Based on Cultural Period. Quarries 1-3 are unidentified quarries

Cultural Period I II III Total

Tataga-Matau

Lau’agae

Quarry 1

Quarry 2

Quarry 3

0 1 1 2

7 24 13 44

13 1 0 14

11 2 12 25

0 1 5 6

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Analysis of the samples based on the type of artifact showed nothing conclusive (Figure 5.18). Lau’agae sourced artifacts represented all the types of artifacts used. Quarry 1 is only represented by flakes. The other two noted quarries are mostly flakes with some rejuvenation flakes, an adze, and a core.

REGR factor score 2 for analysis 1

Q

4.00000

cda test mem bership

Q

1 Q Q

2.00000

Q

Q

Q Q QQ

type

Q

Q Q Q Q Q Q QQ QQ Q

bb Q Q b Q S QQ CQ S S QQ XQ S X S C Q XQ S Q

C Q S

X Q

S

Q QQ Q QQ QQ Q Q

S

Q

0.00000

4

QQ Q Q

Q

X adze C core Q Flake S rejuv ination S rejuv ination f lake b Scraper

SQ S Q S

Q S

- 2.00000 - 2.00000

- 1.00000

0.00000

REGR fa ctor score

1.00000

2.00000

1 for analysis 1

Figure 5.18. Scatterplot of factor scores 1 and 2 with artifact type represented.

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CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

There are four major findings that this research offers Samoan archaeology. Aganoa Village (AS-22-43) appears not to be a workshop, but rather a residential site spanning a large amount of time over which adzes were imported and scrapers were probably manufactured on site and used for various domestic activities. Unusual forms and potentially new types of tools to be included in the archaeological Samoan tool kit have been identified at Aganoa Village. The lithic assemblage has also shown differences in the tool kit based on time, which has possible implications for subsistence strategies of the earliest settlers of Samoa. Finally, the INAA results show the importation of lithic materials from other villages that implies certain interactions between Aganoa Village and other areas of Tutuila. Resulting from the morphological data collected from the analysis of the Aganoa Village lithic assemblage many questions appear. Moore and Kennedy (2003) concluded that Aganoa Village was the site of a lithic workshop. This conclusion was based primarily on surface survey and the collection of a high amount of debitage. The large-scale excavation performed during the summer of 2006 provided no evidence to confirm this claim. On the contrary, my analysis of the lithic assemblage from the latest excavation showed that beneath the surface the amount of debitage is small when compared to the amounts taken from workshop sites on Tutuila such as Alega.

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Another argument against the idea that Aganoa Village was a lithic workshop is the lack of polishing stones. Unlike Tataga-Matau, where a large boulder with impressions was found near a stream and closer to the ocean is found the Leone polishing area, Aganoa Village produced no evidence of any polishing activities going on in the vicinity. The presence of rejuvenation flakes in the assemblage gives further credence to my conclusion about this site not being a workshop. A rejuvenation flake is representative of reworking a completed adze that has most likely been broken. These flakes were removed from this very tough basalt to make the tool viable again. This kind of conservation and recycling of material would not be taking place at a workshop where tools, even if they are in a perform state, should be abundant. Instead, the presence of such rejuvenation/recycling efforts indicates that the lithic material preferred for tools was not easy to come by, thus forcing the residents of Aganoa Village to reshape and reuse tools already in their possession. The excavation at Aganoa Village recovered some unusual tool forms. The presence of scraper combination tools that have the attributes of two separate established types indicates that the Samoan lithic tool kit is more diverse than previously thought. The combination of a classic coconut grater (Type Ia) and a blade-like tool (Type V) has appeared on four occasions in the assemblage. An odd type of adze was also recovered. Artifact #939-1 has a morphology that does not ascribe to any known adze type. While the presence of one such adze is interesting, it does not imply the immediate inclusion of a new type of adze to the established typology. Further, since the artifact was recovered

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from the earliest cultural period, it could be a type foreign to Samoa prior to and discontinued since people began settling on Tutuila. The analysis of the lithic assemblage showed a complete lack of scrapers or flake tools in the earliest cultural period. This period dates to the time of the initial occupation of Tutuila. It can be concluded, based on the lithic evidence, that the earliest inhabitants of Aganoa Village relied less on agricultural subsistence strategies than the later villagers had since they had no stone tools with which to process the goods. Instead, they might have relied on marine food resources that were abundant in the nearby reef. However, this conclusion must be checked with further evidence. It has previously been assumed that the settlers of Samoa brought with them the art of agriculture. The evidence from Aganoa Village suggests otherwise. The results of the statistical analyses of the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis performed on samples from the lithic assemblage from Aganoa confirms that the baseline quarry data established by Johnson et al. (2007) is applicable to residential sites on Tutuila. The data show that the villagers of Aganoa’s past utilized tools made from stone that originated at the Lau’agae Quarry and the Tataga-Matau Quarry. Three other sources of tool-stone were identified that did not coincide with the four quarries that have currently been analyzed in the database, while two of the quarries, Alega and Asiapa, were not utilized by Aganoa villagers. It can be seen that, at least in later times, the residents of Aganoa Village were able to gain lithic materials from Tataga-Matau on the other side of the island of Tutuila. However, it has also shown that the nearer quarry, Lau’agae, was the preferred source.

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It is not clear whether villagers had to travel to Tataga-Matau to get the material or if traders from the region of Tataga-Matau would travel around the island exchanging their goods, either in the form of cobble, blank, preform, or completed adze. This scenario is possible considering the expertise with which the Samoans managed ocean travel. The canoes they used were capable not only of traveling the coastline of the island but also traveling over the open ocean between islands and island groups. The use of Principal Components Analysis, K-Means Cluster Analysis, and Canonical Discriminant Analysis can be used in the steps provided to test the results of INAA analysis of lithic assemblages in Samoa and possibly the rest of Polynesia. While the results will vary for sites further away from Tutuila, the results for a site on the island will prove useful to studies on lithic trade. The implications for chiefly control of lithic resources can neither be confirmed nor denied by the results of these data. It can be confirmed, however, that the residents of Aganoa had a connection with the village of Lau’agae for the duration of the occupation of Aganoa. It can also be plausible that relations with another village were once good and deteriorated through time. The true mix of samples from different cultural periods at the site does not show a widening of quarry use through time as originally expected. But, the conclusion that five quarries were used throughout the occupation of the area can be made. Trends can be seen in the preference of quarries did change between the three cultural periods. Figure 6.1 shows the Aganoa data plotting the factor scores of the PCA.

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Group 3

Group 1

Group 2 Group 4

Figure 6.1. Scatterplot of factor factor scores 1 & 2 for Aganoa data detailing cultural periods I, II, and III. Group 1 represents Lau’agae Quarry. Groups 2-4 are from unknown quarries.

Cultural Period I utilized three quarries one being the nearby Lau’agae. Cultural Period II shows use of all four quarries represented in the assemblage. The exceptions are the clear drop in the use of the quarry in Group 2 and the initial use of the Group 4 quarry. The third Cultural Period discussed continued the use of Lau’agae, possibly Tataga-Matau. Two of the samples that appear to have originated at the Tataga-Matau Quarry come from this Cultural Period. The other sample is from Cultural Period II. The main difference for Cultural Period III is the discontinued use of the Group 2 quarry. This once popular source for tool-stone could have been exhausted by this time, or relations with the matai of that village might have become strained and trade was no longer an option.

76

Conclusions

Based on the above evidence, I can confidently conclude that Aganoa Village (AS-22-43) was not a lithic workshop. It might have witnessed lithic working in the later periods of prehistory; however, excavations shown little evidence to support the workshop claim. Also, the changes in the tool kit between the Cultural Periods I and III show a possible change in subsistence strategies conducted at the site. Cultural Period I showed signs of relying more heavily on marine food sources based on the lack of scrapers and flake tools that are used in processing agricultural goods This conclusion, however, needs further evidence to be stated with absolute confidence. There is a good possibility that the early villagers used shell material instead of basalt to make tools that would process agricultural goods. An analysis of the shell artifacts recovered from Aganoa will shed more light on this subject. The results from INAA show that the residents of Aganoa Village utilized at least five quarries. This list includes two samples from the large quarry of Tataga-Matau. Unfortunately, the dates for these samples are not available so comparison with the findings of Leach and Witter (1985, 1990) are not possible. The quarry most used by Aganoa villagers was Lau’agae, a short distance away to the east. Three other quarries were noted but not identified as the data did not match with the baseline. This problem can be easily overcome with the sampling and testing of more quarries on Tutuila, many of which have been surveyed but not excavated.

77

Changes through time in the utilization of different quarries show trends in quarry use. There is a clear switch from one quarry in Cultural Period I that was not used in Cultural Period III. As well, there is another quarry that was used by Cultural Period III but not by Cultural Period I. The third unidentified quarry was utilized in all three cultural periods. Cultural Period II meanwhile utilized the Lau’agae Quarry primarily. These data show signs of interaction between the residents of Aganoa Village and the villages that are the sources of the tool-stone. These interactions changed as time carried on. Whether this was motivated by kinship ties, economic preferences, or chiefly disputes or alliances cannot be ascertained at this time, but, it does show that Aganoa Village was active in the area and on the island of Tutuila, American Samoa.

78

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APPENDIX A ADZES AND BIFACIAL TOOLS Artifact # 939-1 1029-1 332-1 667-1 1118-1 978-1 749-2 15-1 23-5 1154-2 332-2 870-1 13-1 197-4 53-1 197-3 163-4 23-2 127-3 127-6 155-1 1159-1 127-13

Class ? III IV I Reworked I/ Distal end missing Fragment V/ Proximal end missing Reworked I/ Distal end missing Reworked VIII/ Distal end missing Fragment VII/ Distal end missing Reworked adze/Distal end missing Adze Fragment/ Distal end missing Medial Adze Fragment (VI, VIII) Medial adze Fragment (VI, VIII) Medial Adze Fragment (V) Medial Adze Fragment (II) Medial Adze Fragment (IV, V) Medial Adze Fragment Rounded adze/ pounder Chopper Core/ Multidirectional Core/Adze Preform Fragment Multidirectional Core/Adze Preform Fragment adze fragment, both ends missing

Length (mm) 107.75 90.52 81.46 113.34 73.54 60.69 56.41 69.06 37.35 42.15 60.26 38.43 57.08 35.97 58.48 33.48 30.54 61.27 667.67 556.83 51.52 65.44 36.18

90

Artifact # 939-1 1029-1 332-1 667-1 1118-1 978-1 749-2 15-1 23-5 1154-2 332-2 870-1 13-1 197-4 53-1 197-3 163-4 23-2 127-3 127-6 155-1 1159-1 127-13

Width Distal 39.26 33.19 38.94 50.43 29.84 47.94 29.55 27.99

Width Proximal 16.19 22.23 22.33 27.2 19.49 23.42 18.82 24.04 33.96

31.95

12.9

Maximum Width 39.26 33.19 38.94 50.43 29.84 49.3 29.55 27.99 32.72 40.15 37.7 34.87 35.65 63.06 39.79 58.08 48.96 39.5 55.74 47.22 55.08 55.18 25.96

Weight 115.62 59.5 68.84 190.14 49 113.34 54.14 52.78 42.88 52.8 106.08 39.28 74.98 100.94 88.8 335.34 37.54 82.76 101.86 79 97.72 207.8 17.24

Color 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 4/1 7.5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 10yr 4/2 7.5yr 5/0 10y 5/1 5y 5/1 7.5y 5/1 7.5y 6/1 7.5y 6/1 N 5/0 10yr 5/2 5.2yr 6/0 2.5y 6/3 2.5yr 4/0 2.5yr 4/0 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 2.5yr 5/0

91

Artifact # 939-1 1029-1 332-1 667-1 1118-1 978-1 749-2 15-1 23-5 1154-2 332-2 870-1 13-1 197-4 53-1 197-3 163-4 23-2 127-3 127-6 155-1 1159-1 127-13

Cortex 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 y 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 y y y 0 0 0 0

Polish % <25 >75 >50 <50 >75 <50 >50 0 >75 >50 <25 100 <25 >75 <25 >50 0 0 0 0 0 0 <25

92

APPENDIX B FLAKE TOOLS Artifact # 163-1 513-1 150-2 150-1 141-1 1160-1 160-2 681-1 781-1 432-2 456-2 332-12 32-1 167-1 132-1 161-4 129-1 166-1 161-5 680-1 677-1 18-2 127-7 1158-1 785-5 477-1 18-1 140-7 170-1 1156-1 1112-1 1154-1 191-3 437-22 456-1 191-2 1152-1 163-2

Class Ia IA/V Ib fragment Ia/V Ib Chisel V Ib Ia/V Ib fragment IV IX Ia Ia Ia Ib IV Utilied flake Ia V IV Ib X fragment Ib Ia IIIb IIIa V Ia fragment X Ia VI Ib IA/V V VII VII VII

Length 62.47 64.51 63.97 56.36 87.7 55.27 29.33 46.36 49.14 39.4 46.9 61.27 47.67 38.33 48.81 29.52 41.44 68.11 54.41 64.28 56.07 47.44 41.26 60.47 38.23 57.15 39.57 50.96 56.22 31.13 71.29 59.01 64.44 60.27

Width Distal 36.62 37.12 32.83 42.77 32.22 52.92 84.8 16.86 42.06 29.93 21.64 2.61 41.68 41.38 39.21 31.34 42.05 33.72 38.4 32.67 33.66 34.68 28.55 30.48 34.13 37.33 29.75 48.32 38.79 36.87 36.54 8.07 28.04 34.55 5.18 19.81 6.46 4.67

Width Proximal 15.32 23.62 26.38 29.54 29.11 57.18 16.26 13.43 27.24 22.56 17.72 24.51 31.13 27.44 27.21 28.39 25.88 23.95 25.03 21.77 18.4 31.55 17.25 20.98 22.11 23.05 31.15 21.12 24.25 14.31 19.43 19.64

Weight 49.38 51.84 11.02 63.76 56.4 124.38 126.64 4.46 19.7 12.98 49.46 7.72 35.06 58.6 33.12 20.18 53.74 67.66 29.52 71.52 61.62 59.88 21.74 25.1 27.38 21.14 25.66 30.72 29.64 57.76 24.28 22.72 31.8 11.78 49.16 19.12 22.88 10.78

93

164-1 785-3 1127-1 1194-1 256-3 Artifact # 163-1 513-1 150-2 150-1 141-1 1160-1 160-2 681-1 781-1 432-2 456-2 332-12 32-1 167-1 132-1 161-4 129-1 166-1 161-5 680-1 677-1 18-2 127-7 1158-1 785-5 477-1 18-1 140-7 170-1 1156-1 1112-1 1154-1 191-3 437-22 456-1 191-2 1152-1 163-2 164-1 785-3

Ib/possible core Ia fragment Ia fragment Unknown Unknown Color 5y 5/1 7.5y 4/1 7.5y 5/1 5y 4/1 2.5y 3/1 2.5y 5/1 2.5y 4/1 7.5y 5/1 5y 5/1 7.5y 5/1 7.5y 5/1 2.5gy 5/1 5y 4/1 5y 4/1 10y 5/1 2.5y 4/1 10y 4/1 5y 5/1 5y 4/1 5y 4/1 5y 4/1 7.5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 N 3/0 5y 4/1 7.5y 5/1 5y 4/1 2.5gy 4/1 7.5gy 4/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 6/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 10y 5/1 7.5y 4/1 7.5yr 4/0 2.5y 4/0

44.25 39.74 39.46 45.69 38.8

34.51

7.89 65.17

Cortex N N N N Y-ventral and dorsal Y- dorsal face Y- dorsal face N N N y-ventral face Y- dorsal face N y-side N Y Y N N N Y- dorsal face N N (polished) N Y- dorsal face N N N N N N N N N N Y- dorsal face N N N N

24.52 49.26 22.87 Dorsal scars 1 1 4+ 2 0 4+ 3 4+ 3 2 4+ 0 4+ 3 3 3 4+ 4 1 0 4+ 4+ 0 2 2 1 4+ 4+ 3 4+ 1 4+ 4+ 1 3 2 3 3 4+ 3

44.96 40.04 42.6 21.9 34.96

94

1127-1 1194-1 256-3

2.5yr 6/0 10yr 6/0 2.5yr 5/0

N N Y- dorsal face

3 4+ 2

95

APPENDIX C DEBITAGE Artifact # 113-1 1056-7 1056-1 1056-14 1056-9 1056-12 1056-6 1056-8 1056-10 1056-3 1056-2 1056-4 1056-5 1056-11 1056-13 1056-15 1056-16 1056-17 1056-18 1056-19 1056-20 1056-21 1056-22 1056-23 1056-24 1056-25 1056-26 1056-27 1056-28 1056-29 1056-30 1056-31 1056-32 1056-33 1056-34 1056-35 1056-36 1056-37 1056-38 1056-39 1056-40

Class flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake rejuvination flake rejuvination flake flake flake flake flake angular shatter flake micro micro micro micro micro micro micro micro micro micro micro micro micro micro micro micro micro micro micro micro micro micro micro

Color 2.5yr 4/0 5y 5/1 5yr 5/2 5y 6/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1

Condition Complete fragment fragment fragment complete fragment fragment fragment complete fragment complete Complete Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete Complete

Impact hertzian bending bending hertzian bending hertzian unknown hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian unknown hertzian

Terminatio n feathered feathered feathered unknown feathered feathered unknown feathered feathered feathered feathered hinged stepped feathered feathered feathered feathered stepped

96

1056-41 1056-42 1056-43 1056-44 1056-45 422-1 191-1 191-4 191-5 191-6 191-7 191-8 191-9 191-12 260-1 209-1 209-2 209-3 209-4 209-5 209-6 209-7 209-8 209-9 209-10 209-11 209-12 209-13 209-14 237-1 237-2 237-3 237-4 237-5 237-6 237-7 237-8 237-9 237-10 237-11 237-12 237-13 237-14 959-2 959-3 959-4 959-5 959-6

micro micro micro micro micro flake flake rejuvination flake core flake flake rejuvination flake utilized flake flake flake flake flake angular shatter flake flake angular shatter flake angular shatter flake flake micro micro micro micro angular shatter flake flake angular shatter flake flake angular shatter flake flake flake flake flake angular shatter flake flake flake flake flake flake

2.5yr 7.5yr 2.5y 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5y 2.5y 2.5yr 2.5yr 7.5yr 5y 5y 5y 2.5y 2.5y

4/0 4/0 4/2 4/0 4/0 5/0 5/0 4/0 4/0 4/0 5/1 5/1 5/1 6/1 6/1

fragment complete Complete fragment Complete fragment Complete fragment fragment fragment fragment fragment fragment Complete fragment

hertzian hertzian bending unknown hertzian bending hertzian hertzian bending hertzian hertzian hertzian unknown hertzian hertzian

feathered stepped feathered unknown stepped feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered unknown feathered feathered feathered feathered

5y 5/1

Complete

hertzian

stepped

5y 5/1 5y 6/2

Complete Complete

hertzian bending

feathered feathered

Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete fragment fragment Complete fragment fragment Complete fragment Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete

hertzian hertzian bending

stepped feathered feathered

hertzian hertzian unknown hertzian hertzian bending hertzian unknown hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian unknown hertzian hertzian

stepped feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered stepped overshot feathered unknown hinged feathered

2.5y 5y 5y 7.5y 2.5y 7.5y 2.5yr 5y 7.5y 10y 5y 5y 5y 5y 10yr 10yr n 5y 5y

5/2 6/1 4/1 5/2 5/1 5/1 3/4 5/1 5/1 5/1 4/1 5/1 5/2 5/1 4/1 4/2 3/0 4/1 4/1

97

959-8 959-10 216-1 216-2 21-1 21-2 21-3 21-4 21-5 21-6 21-7 21-8 21-9 21-10 21-11 21-12 21-13 21-14 21-15 21-16 21-17 21-18 21-19 21-20 21-21 21-22 21-23 21-24 21-25 21-26 21-27 21-28 21-29 21-30 21-31 21-32 21-33 21-34 21-35 21-36 1037-2 1037-3 1037-4 1037-5 1037-6 1037-7 487-1 487-2

flake micro flake flake angular shatter flake flake rejuvination flake rejuvination flake flake rejuvination flake rejuvination flake flake flake angular shatter rejuvination flake rejuvination flake flake flake rejuvination flake flake angular shatter rejuvination flake flake rejuvination flake angular shatter flake flake angular shatter flake flake flake flake angular shatter rejuvination flake flake flake micro micro micro flake flake flake micro micro micro flake flake

5y 4/1 5yr 2.5gy 7.5yr 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 7.5yr 5y 10yr 10yr 10yr 7.5yr 2.5yr 7.5yr 10yr 2.5yr 7.5yr 2.5y

4/2 4/1 5/2 4/1 5/1 5/1 5/1 4/1 5/1 4/1 5/1 4/1 5/2 5/1 6/1 5/1 4/1 5/1 5/1 7/1 5/1 5/1 5/1 8/0 5/1 6/1 5/1 5/1 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/1 5/0 5/0 5/0

Complete

hertzian

feathered

fragment fragment Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete Complete complete complete complete complete complete complete complete complete complete fragment Complete Complete Complete fragment fragment fragment fragment complete complete complete complete complete fragment complete

unknown feathered unknown stepped feathered feathered feathered feathered stepped feathered feathered feathered feathered stepped feathered feathered feathered hinged feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered unknown stepped unknown feathered stepped feathered feathered feathered feathered hinged

feathered feathered

7.5yr 5/0 5y 5/1 7.5yr 5/0

complete complete complete

hertzian hertzian unknown hertzian bending hertzian hertzian bending hertzian hertzian bending hertzian hertzian hertzian bending bending hertzian bending hertzian unknown hertzian hertzian hertzian unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown bending bending hertzian unknown bending hertzian bending bending bending bending hertzian hertzian hertzian

10y 5/1 5y 5/1

fragment fragment

unknown bending

feathered stepped feathered feathered feathered

98

487-3 487-4 487-6 487-7 487-8 487-9 487-10 17-1 144-1 280-1 1027-10 1027-13 1027-18 1027-20 1027-22 1027-25 1027-7 1027-28 1027-17 1027-16 1027-45 1027-32 1027-34 1027-35 1027-21 1027-36 1027-39 1027-8 1027-12 1027-29 1027-44 1027-9 1027-26 1027-4 1027-42 1027-43 1027-24 1027-41 1027-38 1027-14 1027-9 1027-19 1027-40 1027-31 1027-37 1027-11 1027-27 1027-30

angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake rejuvination flake flake flake angular shatter flake angular shatter angular shatter rejuvination flake flake flake flake flake flake angular shatter rejuvination flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake rejuvination flake flake

2.5y 10y 5y 10yr 7.5yr 10yr

4/0 5/1 5/1 5/1 8/0 5/1

fragment Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete

unknown

unknown

2.5yr 7.5yr 2.5y 10yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 10yr 10yr 10yr 10yr 2.5yr 7.5yr 10yr 7.5yr 10yr 10yr 10yr 10yr 10yr 10yr 10yr 10yr 10yr 10yr 7.5yr 10yr 7.5yr 10yr 10yr 7.5yr 10yr 10yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 10yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr

5/0 5/0 6/0 5/1 5/0 5/0 6/1 6/1 5/1 5/1 5/0 6/0 5/1 6/0 5/1 6/1 5/1 6/1 5/1 6/1 6/1 5/1 5/1 6/1 5/0 5/1 6/0 6/1 6/1 5/0 6/1 6/1 6/0 6/0 6/0 6/0 6/1 6/0 6/0 5/0 6/0

Complete Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete Complete fragment fragment Complete fragment fragment Complete fragment Complete Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete Complete Complete fragment fragment Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete fragment Complete fragment

bending bending hertzian unknown hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian unknown unknown hertzian unknown unknown unknown hertzian hertzian bending hertzian bending unknown hertzian hertzian hertzian bending hertzian hertzian bending unknown hertzian hertzian hertzian bending hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian

stepped stepped feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered stepped feathered feathered feathered feathered stepped feathered feathered feathered stepped unknown feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered

99

1027-18 1027-33 1027-15 1027-23 776-1 886-1 930-1 1211-1 1211-2 670-2 670-3 720-1 720-2 720-3 720-4 938-1 938-2 938-3 938-4 938-5 938-6 938-7 938-8 938-9 938-10 938-11 938-12 938-13 938-14 938-15 1177-1 1177-2 1049-1 1049-2 1168-1 977-1 977-2 977-3 977-4 977-5 706-1 706-2 706-3 706-4 770-1 912-1 1054-1 1054-2

flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake angular shatter flake flake flake flake flake angular shatter flake micro micro micro micro flake flake flake micro flake flake rejuvination flake flake flake flake flake micro micro micro flake flake angular shatter flake

7.5yr 6/0 10yr 6/1 10yr 5/1 7.5yr 5/0 2.5y 4/0 2.5y 6/0 2.5y 6/0 7.5yr 5/0 7.5yr 5/0 7.5yr 5/0 7.5yr 5/0 7.5yr 6/0 7.5yr 5/0 7.5yr 5/0 7.5yr 5/0 white 2.5yr 6/0 10yr 6/1 10yr 6/1 10yr 5/1 10yr 6/1 7.5yr 6/0 7.5yr 5/0 7.5yr 5/0 7.5yr 6/0 7.5yr 5/0

Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete complete complete fragment complete complete

hertzian bending bending hertzian bending hertzian hertzian hertzian bending hertzian hertzian bending hertzian hertzian bending hertzian hertzian hertzian unknown hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian unknown hertzian

feathered feathered feathered feathered stepped feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered unknown feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered

7.5yr 5/0 7.5yr 5/0 2.5yr 5/0

Complete complete complete

bending bending bending

feathered feathered feathered

10yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr

6/1 5/0 5/0 6/0 5/0 5/0 5/0

complete complete complete complete complete complete complete

hertzian hertzian hertzian bending hertzian bending hertzian

feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered

2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr

4/0 5/0 5/0 6/0

complete complete fragment complete

hertzian hertzian unknown hertzian

feathered feathered feathered feathered

100

1054-3 1054-4 964-1 964-2 946-3 964-4 807-1 807-2 807-3 807-4 807-5 1044-1 1044-2 1044-3 1044-4 1044-5 1044-6 1188-1 1188-2 1188-3 1188-4 1085-1 1122-1 1122-2 1122-3 1061-1 1061-2 1061-3 1061-4 1061-5 1061-6 1061-7 1061-8 1061-9 1061-10 1061-11 1061-12 1061-13 1173-1 1173-2 1137-1 794-1 794-2 794-3 1010-1 1010-2 1079-1 1165-1

flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake angular shatter micro angular shatter flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake micro flake flake flake rejuvination flake flake flake flake flake flake flake

2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 7.5yr 2.5yr 7.5yr 10yr 7.5yr 10yr

5/0 5/0 4/0 5/0 6/0 5/0 6/0 5/1 5/0 6/1

fragment Complete fragment Complete fragment Complete fragment fragment Complete Complete

hertzian hertzian unknown hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian unknown

feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered unknown feathered feathered

10yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 10yr 10yr 10yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 10yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr

5/1 6/0 4/0 5/1 5/1 6/1 5/0 4/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/1 4/0 6/0 6/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/0

fragment Complete fragment Complete Complete Complete fragment fragment fragment fragment Complete Complete Complete Complete fragment fragment Complete fragment fragment Complete Complete fragment fragment fragment fragment Complete

unknown hertzian bending hertzian hertzian hertzian unknown unknown unknown unknown bending hertzian bending hertzian unknown unknown hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian bending unknown bending

feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered unknown feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered unknown feathered feathered unknown feathered unknown unknown stepped

2.5yr 2.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 10yr 7.5yr

5/0 4/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 4/0 4/0 5/1 5/0

fragment fragment Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete

unknown hertzian bending hertzian hertzian hertzian bending bending bending bending

feathered unknown feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered

101

1165-2 796-2 1069-1 1069-2 1069-3 1069-4 1069-5 1140-1 1140-2 1140-3 1140-5 1140-4 1140-6 785-1 785-2 785-4 664-1 656-1 656-2 656-3 656-4 656-5 656-6 735-1 735-2 735-3 735-4 753-1 753-2 753-3 753-4 753-5 872-1 848-1 707-1 707-2 707-3 707-4 707-5 698-1 744-1 729-1 761-1 783-1 783-2 1240-1 1240-2 1240-3

flake flake flake flake flake micro micro flake flake flake flake flake micro flake flake rejuvination flake flake flake flake flake rejuvination flake flake flake flake flake flake angular shatter angular shatter flake angular shatter flake flake flake angular shatter flake flake flake flake angular shatter micro flake flake flake flake flake flake rejuvination flake rejuvination flake

7.5yr 10yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr

5/0 6/1 5/0 4/0 4/0

fragment Complete Complete fragment Complete

hertzian bending hertzian unknown bending

feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered

7.5yr 7.5yr 5yr 5yr 5yr

5/0 5/0 4/1 4/1 4/1

fragment fragment fragment fragment Complete

unknown unknown hertzian unknown bending

feathered unknown unknown feathered feathered

7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 10yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 5y 7.5yr 2.5yr 10yr 5yr 10yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 5yr 5y 5y 5yr 10yr

4/0 3/2 4/0 6/1 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/1 6/0 6/0 6/1 5/4 5/1 6/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 3/2 4/1 5/2 4/1 4/1 6/1

Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete fragment fragment Complete Complete fragment complete complete complete complete Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete complete complete complete

hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian bending hertzian hertzian unknown bending hertzian unknown unknown hertzian unknown unknown hertzian bending unknown hertzian bending hertzian unknown unknown

feathered feathered feathered feathered stepped feathered unknown feathered feathered unknown feathered feathered feathered unknown unknown feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered unknown

7.5yr 5y 5y 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr

6/0 4/1 4/1 4/0 4/0 3/0 4/0 4/0

fragment complete complete complete fragment fragment fragment complete

unknown hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian bending bending

feathered feathered stepped feathered unknown feathered unknown stepped

102

1240-4 1185-1 800-1 800-2 800-3 975-1 821-1 843-1 843-2 890-1 869-1 1113-1 1132-2 115-1 95-1 23-1 23-3 23-4 23-6 23-7 806-1 692-1 760-1 760-3 720-4 781-3 781-4 781-5 78-1 78-2 78-3 53-2 53-3 40-2 40-3 40-4 40-5 40-6 32-2 32-3 32-4 32-5 18-3 18-4 18-5 18-6 18-7 18-8

flake flake flake angular shatter flake flake angular shatter angular shatter flake rejuvination flake angular shatter flake flake angular shatter rejuvination flake angular shatter angular shatter flake flake flake flake flake flake flake micro flake angular shatter flake angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter flake flake flake flake rejuvination flake rejuvination flake angular shatter angular shatter flake angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter

2.5yr 5y 10yr 10yr 10yr 7.5yr 10yr 10yr 10yr 7.5yr

4/0 5/2 4/1 4/1 4/1 5/0 4/1 5/1 4/1 5/0

fragment complete fragment complete fragment Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete

hertzian hertzian hertzian unknown unknown hertzian unknown unknown hertzian hertzian

unknown feathered unknown feathered feathered feathered unknown unknown feathered feathered

7.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 10yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 5yr 7.5yr 10yr 7.5yr

4/0 4/0 6/4 5/0 5/2 5/0 4/0 5/0 5/0 3/1 4/0 5/1 5/0

fragment fragment

hertzian hertzian

unknown feathered

fragment

bending

unknown

Complete fragment fragment Complete fragment fragment Complete

hertzian bending hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian

feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered

7.5yr 4/0 7.5yr 5/0 2.5yr 5/0

fragment

hertzian

unknown

Complete

bending

feathered

5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr

5/1 4/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 4/0

Complete Complete Complete fragment fragment Complete

bending hertzian hertzian unknown hertzian bending

feathered feathered feathered feathered unknown feathered

2.5yr 4/0

fragment

bending

feathered

103

18-9 18-10 18-11 322-3 322-4 322-5 322-6 322-7 322-8 322-9 322-11 322-12 322-13 314-1 314-2 314-3 248-2 274-1 140-3 140-4 140-5 140-6 140-8 140-9 132-3 132-2 132-4 132-5 132-6 132-7 132-8 132-9 132-10 132-11 132-12 132-13 132-14 132-15 132-16 132-17 112-1 112-2 112-3 112-5 112-6 160-1 f 283-1 283-2

angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake micro flake flake flake flake flake flake flake angular shatter flake flake flake flake rejuvination flake rejuvination flake rejuvination flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake flake

2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 7.5yr 2.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr

3/0 3/0 3/0 6/0 4/6 6/0 4/0 4/0

Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete

hertzian hertzian bending bending hertzian bending hertzian hertzian

feathered feathered unknown feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered

7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 2.5yr

4/0 4/0 4/0 3/0 4/0 4/0 4/0

Complete Complete Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete

bending hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian bending bending

feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered

2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 10yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 10yr 10yr 7.5yr 10yr 5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 5y 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 5y 5y 5y

4/0 4/0 5/0 4/0 5/1 4/0 4/0 5/1 5/1 4/0 5/1 4/1 4/0 5/0 4/0 4/0 4/0 4/1 4/0 4/0 4/0 5/0 4/0 5/0 4/0 5/1 3/1 3/1

fragment fragment fragment Complete fragment fragment fragment fragment fragment fragment Complete Complete Complete fragment Complete fragment Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete Complete fragment fragment Complete Complete fragment Complete

bending hertzian hertzian hertzian bending unknown hertzian hertzian hertzian bending bending hertzian hertzian hertzian bending hertzian bending hertzian bending hertzian hertzian hertzian unknown hertzian bending hertzian bending hertzian

feathered unknown unknown stepped unknown feathered feathered unknown unknown unknown feathered stepped feathered unknown feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered stepped feathered feathered feathered

104

283-3 283-4 366-1 366-2 366-3 366-4 366-5 110-1 110-2 110-3 110-4 110-5 82-1 82-2 82-3 82-4 82-5 75-1 75-2 75-3 75-4 75-5 75-6 68-1 66-1 66-2 66-3 66-4 66-5 61-1 45-1 37-1 37-2 37-3 37-4 28-1 28-2 28-3 28-4 28-5 28-6 28-7 28-8 28-9 28-10 28-11 517-1 517-2

flake flake flake flake rejuvination flake flake flake flake flake rejuvination flake flake flake flake flake flake flake angular shatter flake flake flake flake angular shatter angular shatter flake flake flake flake flake flake flake core flake flake angular shatter angular shatter flake rejuvination flake rejuvination flake rejuvination flake flake flake flake flake flake flake angular shatter flake flake

5y 5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y

4/1 3/1 4/0 3/0 5/0 3/0 4/0 4/0 4/0 4/0 4/0 3/0 4/1 4/0 4/0 3/0

Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete

hertzian hertzian hertzian bending hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian bending

feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered stepped feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered

2.5y 4/0 2.5y 4/0 2.5y 3/0 white

Complete Complete Complete fragment

hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian

stepped feathered feathered unknown

2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 5y 2.5yr 10yr

3/0 4/0 4/0 3/0 3/0 4/0 4/0 6/1 5/0 5/1

Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete fragment Complete

hertzian hertzian bending hertzian hertzian unknown bending hertzian unknown hertzian

feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered unknown feathered

2.5y 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr

4/0 4/0 4/0 4/0 4/0 4/0 5/0 3/0 4/0 4/0

Complete Complete Complete Complete fragment fragment Complete fragment fragment Complete

hertzian hertzian hertzian bending hertzian hertzian hertzian unknown unknown hertzian

feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered unknown feathered feathered feathered feathered

2.5y 4/0 2.5yr 5/0

fragment Complete

hertzian hertzian

unknown feathered

105

513-2 513-3 513-4 525-1 525-2 525-3 525-4 629-1 629-2 629-3 629-4 647-1 647-2 647-3 647-4 647-5 419-1 419-2 419-3 419-4 419-5 419-6 419-7 477-1 477-2 477-3 477-4 477-5 477-6 477-7 477-8 477-9 459-1 459-2 459-3 459-4 459-5 441-1 441-2 441-3 437-5 437-31 437-15 437-22 437-11 437-3 437-9 437-28

flake angular shatter flake rejuvination flake flake flake flake rejuvination flake angular shatter micro micro angular shatter flake angular shatter angular shatter micro angular shatter angular shatter flake flake flake angular shatter flake flake angular shatter flake angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter flake flake flake angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter flake flake flake flake angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter flake flake angular shatter angular shatter

2.5yr 4/0

Complete

hertzian

feathered

5/0 5/0 4/2 4/1 5/1 3/1

fragment fragment fragment fragment Complete Complete

hertzian bending hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian

unknown unknown unknown feathered feathered feathered

2.5y 5/0

fragment

bending

unknown

2.5yr 4/0 2.5yr 5/0 2.5yr 4/0

fragment Complete Complete

bending hertzian hertzian

unknown feathered feathered

5yr 6/1 2.5y 4/0

fragment fragment

unknown hertzian

feathered feathered

5y 4/1

fragment

unknown

feathered

5y 4/1 5y 5/1 2.5y 4/0

Complete Complete Complete

hertzian hertzian hertzian

feathered feathered feathered

2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y

4/0 5/0 4/0 5/0

Complete Complete Complete fragment

hertzian hertzian hertzian bending

feathered feathered feathered unknown

5y 5/1 2.5yr 5/0

Complete fragment

hertzian unknown

feathered feathered

2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 5y 5y 5y

106

437-14 437-23 437-18 437-26 437-1 437-21 437-19 437-9 437-12 437-13 437-30 437-8 437-29 437-6 437-7 437-17 437-27 437-24 437-10 437-16 437-2 437-20 194-2 194-3 194-1 194-5 194-4 222-1 222-2 222-3 255-2 255-3 255-4 287-1 737-1 737-2 737-3 737-4 731-1 731-2 731-3 731-4 749-1 713-2 713-5 713-3 713-4 563-1

flake angular shatter angular shatter flake angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter flake angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter flake flake rejuvination flake flake flake angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter angular shatter micro flake flake flake flake flake rejuvination flake flake flake rejuvination flake flake angular shatter flake rejuvination flake flake flake flake flake angular shatter

5y 5/1

fragment

hertzian

feathered

5y 4/1

fragment

unknown

feathered

2.5y 5/0

Complete

hertzian

feathered

2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5yr 5yr

3/0 5/0 5/0 4/0 3/1

fragment Complete fragment Complete fragment

bending hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian

unknown feathered unknown feathered unknown

2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 5y 2.5y

5/0 5/0 5/0 5/1 4/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 3/1 4/0

Complete fragment fragment fragment fragment Complete Complete fragment fragment fragment

hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian bending hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian

feathered unknown unknown unknown feathered feathered feathered feathered unknown unknown

2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y

5/0 5/0 4/0 3/0 4/0 4/0

fragment Complete Complete fragment fragment fragment

unknown hertzian bending unknown hertzian hertzian

unknown feathered feathered feathered feathered unknown

107

563-2 563-3 571-1 571-2 571-3 571-4 603-1 581-1 581-2 405-1 432-1 468-1 472-1 472-2 349-1 332-8 332-5 332-11 332-3 332-4 332-6 332-7 332-9 332-10 332-12 332-14 332-15 266-1 266-2 266-3 266-4 266-5 266-6 266-7 266-8 266-9 266-10 266-11 266-12 266-13 266-14 266-15 266-16 266-17 266-18 266-19 266-20 266-21

rejuvination flake angular shatter angular shatter micro micro micro angular shatter rejuvination flake flake flake angular shatter flake flake flake rejuvination flake flake flake flake flake flake flake angular shatter angular shatter flake flake flake flake flake angular shatter flake flake flake flake flake flake flake angular shatter flake angular shatter flake flake flake flake angular shatter flake flake flake flake

2.5y 5/0

Complete

bending

feathered

2.5y 5/0 2.5y 5/0 2.5yr 5/0

Complete fragment Complete

hertzian hertzian hertzian

feathered feathered feathered

2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5y 2.5y 5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y

5/0 5/0 4/0 5/0 5/1 5/0 6/0 4/2 4/0 5/2

Complete fragment fragment Complete fragment fragment Complete Complete Complete Complete

hertzian hertzian hertzian bending hertzian unknown bending hertzian hertzian hertzian

feathered feathered unknown feathered unknown feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered

2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 5y

5/0 5/0 5/2 5/0 4/1

Complete fragment Complete Complete fragment

hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian

feathered unknown feathered feathered unknown

5y 5y 5y 5y 5y 5y 5y

4/1 4/1 4/1 4/1 4/1 4/1 4/1

Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete fragment fragment

hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian unknown bending

feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered unknown feathered

5y 4/1

Complete

hertzian

feathered

5y 5y 7.5yr 5y

4/1 4/1 4/2 4/1

fragment fragment fragment Complete

hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian

unknown feathered unknown feathered

5y 5y 5y 5y

4/1 4/1 4/1 4/1

Complete fragment Complete fragment

bending hertzian hertzian unknown

feathered feathered feathered feathered

108

266-22 266-23 266-24 266-25 266-26 266-27 266-28 266-29 163-5 163-6 163-7 163-8 163-9 168-10 163-11 163-13 163-14 163-15 163-16 163-17 163-18 163-19 161-1 161-2 161-3 280-1 1027-6 1027-5 1027-3 1027-2 1027-1 1191-1 1085-2 82-1 1140-6 1140-7 977-1 75-1 1207-1 1173-1 720-1 964-1 1061-1 1061-2 1061-3 343-1 322-1 322-2

angular shatter flake flake angular shatter flake flake flake flake flake rejuvination flake flake flake angular shatter flake flake flake angular shatter flake rejuvination flake flake angular shatter angular shatter flake angular shatter angular shatter Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake rejuvination flake Flake Flake Flake Flake rejuvination flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake

10yr 6/1 5y 4/1

fragment fragment

unknown hertzian

feathered unknown

5y 10yr 5y 10yr 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y 2.5y

4/1 5/1 4/1 5/1 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/0

Complete fragment Complete Complete fragment Complete fragment fragment

hertzian unknown bending hertzian hertzian hertzian unknown unknown

hinged feathered feathered feathered unknown feathered feathered feathered

2.5y 4/0 2.5y 5/0 5y 4/1

Complete fragment fragment

bending hertzian unknown

feathered unknown unknown

2.5y 5/0 2.5y 4/0 2.5y 5/0

fragment Complete fragment

hertzian hertzian hertzian

feathered feathered unknown

2.5y 3/0

fragment

bending

feathered

Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete fragment complete fragment Complete fragment Complete Complete Complete Complete fragment fragment fragment Complete Complete Complete fragment Complete

hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian bending bending hertzian bending hertzian bending hertzian bending hertzian hertzian hertzian bending hertzian bending hertzian bending hertzian bending hertzian

feathered hinged feathered feathered feathered hinged feathered feathered hinged feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered

2.5y 10yr 10yr 10yr 10yr 10yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 5y 5y 7.5yr 7.5yr 7.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 5y 5y 7.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr 2.5yr

6/0 7/1 6/1 7/1 7/1 6/1 5/0 5/0 4/0 4/1 5/1 5/0 4/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 6/0 4/1 5/1 4/0 4/0 4/0 4/0

109

322-6 1044-7 964-2 720-2 82-2 508-1 127-14 127-8 255-1 761-1 248-1 163-3 796-1 456-4 456-3 456-8 456-7 1151-1 456-6 1153-2 456-13 456-5 140-1 279-1 140-2 112-4 243-1 560-1 737-1 437-25 656-1 781-2 1132-1 629-1 470-1 332-13 615-1 670-1 713-5 575-1 794-2 1155-1 676-1 1153-1 794-1 666-1 456-12 456-11

Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake rejuvination Flake Flake Flake shatter core Flake Flake core Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake rejuvination Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake rejuvination shatter Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake flake flake rejuvination rejuvination Flake rejuvination rejuvination Flake Flake rejuvination rejuvination Flake Flake

flake

flake

flake

flake flake flake flake

flake flake

2.5yr 4/0 2.5yr 5/0 5y 5/1 2.5y 5/0 2.5y 4/0 2.5yr 4/0 2.5yr 4/0 2.5yr 4/0 7.5yr 5/0 2.5yr 5/0 7.5yr 5/0 5y 5/1 5y 2.5/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 4/1 5y 4/1 5y 4/1 5y 5/1 2.5yr 4/0 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 7.5yr 5/0 7.5yr 5/0 2.5yr 4/0 7.5yr 4/0 2.5yr 4/0 2.5yr 5/0 2.5y 5/0 5y 6/1 2.5y 4/0 2.5y 5/0 2.5y 5/0 5y 5/1 2.5y 4/0 2.5y 5/0 2.5y 6/0 2.5y 5/0 2.5y 4/0 7.5yr 5/0 2.5y 5/0 5y 4/1 2.5y 4/0 2.5y 4/0 2.5y 5/0 2.5y 4/2 5y 5/1 5y 4/1

Complete fragment Complete fragment Complete fragment Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete fragment fragment Complete Complete fragment Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete

bending unknown hertzian bending bending hertzian bending bending hertzian bending hertzian wedged unknown hertzian hertzian unknown hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian bending hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian bending unknown hertzian hertzian hertzian bending hertzian hertzian hertzian bending bending hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian bending bending wedged bending

feathered feathered hinged feathered feathered unknown hinged feathered hinged feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered overshot feathered feathered feathered feathered hinged unknown feathered feathered feathered feathered unknown stepped feathered feathered stepped feathered feathered feathered hinged feathered feathered feathered hinged feathered feathered feathered overshot feathered hinged

110

456-16 456-14 456-9 456-10 456-15 713-1

Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake

Artifact # 113-1 1056-7 1056-1 1056-14 1056-9 1056-12 1056-6 1056-8 1056-10 1056-3 1056-2 1056-4 1056-5 1056-11 1056-13 1056-15 1056-16 1056-17 1056-18 1056-19 1056-20 1056-21 1056-22 1056-23 1056-24 1056-25 1056-26 1056-27 1056-28 1056-29 1056-30 1056-31 1056-32 1056-33 1056-34 1056-35 1056-36

Platform prep complex flat flat complex complex complex unknown complex complex complex flat flat flat flat flat flat unknown flat

5y 5y 5y 5y 5y 7.5yr

Length 27.84 48.43 20.66 16.51 16.8 17.31 16.96 11.34 20.76 17.39 11.9 24.43 17.09 20.24 15.75 15.2 9.69 11.56 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

5/1 4/1 4/1 4/1 4/1 5/0

Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete fragment

Width 39.39 91.29 55.21 18.93 25.35 16.87 19.73 17.03 14.64 20.94 14.19 15.69 13.19 19.11 13.65 11.01 10.99 17.22 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

bending hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian hertzian

length V Width -11.55 -42.86 -34.55 -2.42 -8.55 0.44 -2.77 -5.69 6.12 -3.55 -2.29 8.74 3.9 1.13 2.1 4.19 -1.3 -5.66 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered feathered

Thickness 7.28 6.9 8.83 4.61 5.71 3.71 7.8 2.99 2.94 4.65 3.27 2.33 2.47 3.81 3.16 2.07 4.35 3.55 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

111

1056-37 1056-38 1056-39 1056-40 1056-41 1056-42 1056-43 1056-44 1056-45 422-1 191-1 191-4 191-5 191-6 191-7 191-8 191-9 191-12 260-1 209-1 209-2 209-3 209-4 209-5 209-6 209-7 209-8 209-9 209-10 209-11 209-12 209-13 209-14 237-1 237-2 237-3 237-4 237-5 237-6 237-7 237-8 237-9 237-10 237-11 237-12 237-13 237-14 959-2

flat complex flat unknown complex complex flat unknown complex flat complex complex unknown flat flat complex complex flat

flat flat complex complex complex flat complex flat complex complex unknown complex complex complex

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 7.91 15.97 16.68 0.1 7.33 29.18 8.88 35.18 49.33 10.12 27.61 15.35 12.63 18.39 21.86 0.1 15.43 0.1 34.64 11.42 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 23.67 28.03 16.93 0.1 13.05 26.19 14.27 16.62 22.63 22.31 21 0.1 11.43 17.28 27.22

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 10.36 19.48 21.1 0.1 10.55 18.65 12.09 40.72 32.29 15.55 31.31 14.1 16.8 18.67 17.99 0.1 15.59 0.1 21.25 26.19 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 12.52 65.11 14.15 0.1 9.11 23.69 14.31 10.65 18.2 15.34 23.05 0.1 13.17 38.04 38.41

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2.45 -3.51 -4.42 0 -3.22 10.53 -3.21 -5.54 17.04 -5.43 -3.7 1.25 -4.17 -0.28 3.87 0 -0.16 0 13.39 -14.77 0 0 0 0 11.15 -37.08 2.78 0 3.94 2.5 -0.04 5.97 4.43 6.97 -2.05 0 -1.74 -20.76 -11.19

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 2.95 3.44 0.46 0.1 4.82 3.68 2.32 6.33 11.84 2.42 6.67 2.81 4.35 5.2 4.2 0.1 3.73 0.1 6.16 3.32 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 5.24 10.04 4.97 0.1 3.19 5.74 2.91 2.01 6.96 2.68 6.94 0.1 3.01 3.78 12.26

112

959-3 959-4 959-5 959-6 959-8 959-10 216-1 216-2 21-1 21-2 21-3 21-4 21-5 21-6 21-7 21-8 21-9 21-10 21-11 21-12 21-13 21-14 21-15 21-16 21-17 21-18 21-19 21-20 21-21 21-22 21-23 21-24 21-25 21-26 21-27 21-28 21-29 21-30 21-31 21-32 21-33 21-34 21-35 21-36 1037-2 1037-3 1037-4 1037-5

flat unknown flat complex flat complex flat flat flat complex flat flat complex flat flat flat complex complex flat flat flat complex flat complex unknown complex complex complex flat unknown unknown unknown unknown flat complex flat unknown flat flat flat

flat flat flat

20.19 13.6 23.84 59.66 15.45 0.1 31.11 21.27 52.42 31.6 18.75 16.14 17.35 21.11 19.79 17.71 16.72 17.78 19.26 16.49 25.01 25.13 15.31 12.52 23.6 29.43 16.62 12.05 13.53 31.22 37.38 10.88 26.23 19.45 26.62 12.45 17.29 17.75 18.21 18.91 17.55 0.1 0.1 0.1 18.3 11.16 12.73 0.1

23.58 42.03 32.74 52.79 21.83 0.1 30.06 16.45 32.86 29.64 22.99 23.52 29.01 7.87 21.51 31.68 19.65 14.92 19.83 22.86 35.44 30.64 17.51 16.32 27.01 22.55 20.76 23.78 13.42 25.89 32.43 16.18 23.02 29.28 13.62 16.08 13.3 9.42 12.17 17.53 30.36 0.1 0.1 0.1 21.66 22.18 18.63 0.1

-3.39 -28.43 -8.9 6.87 -6.38 0 1.05 4.82 19.56 1.96 -4.24 -7.38 -11.66 13.24 -1.72 -13.97 -2.93 2.86 -0.57 -6.37 -10.43 -5.51 -2.2 -3.8 -3.41 6.88 -4.14 -11.73 0.11 5.33 4.95 -5.3 3.21 -9.83 13 -3.63 3.99 8.33 6.04 1.38 -12.81 0 0 0 -3.36 -11.02 -5.9 0

3.61 12.35 8.47 9.61 4.26 0.1 8.09 3.85 13.77 4.79 5.12 3.7 9.27 5.29 5.49 6.81 4.75 3.44 4.26 3.2 12.42 4.68 2.85 3.67 5.73 3.55 5.91 8.04 2.52 5.92 10.32 2.76 5.2 3.73 5.36 2.53 1.29 2.71 6.21 5 4.06 0.1 0.1 0.1 2.78 5.37 4.11 0.1

113

1037-6 1037-7 487-1 487-2 487-3 487-4 487-6 487-7 487-8 487-9 487-10 17-1 144-1 280-1 1027-10 1027-13 1027-18 1027-20 1027-22 1027-25 1027-7 1027-28 1027-17 1027-16 1027-45 1027-32 1027-34 1027-35 1027-21 1027-36 1027-39 1027-8 1027-12 1027-29 1027-44 1027-9 1027-26 1027-4 1027-42 1027-43 1027-24 1027-41 1027-38 1027-14 1027-9 1027-19 1027-40 1027-31

unknown complex unknown

flat complex complex unknown flat complex flat complex complex complex flat unknown unknown complex unknown unknown unknown flat complex flat complex complex unknown flat complex complex complex flat flat complex unknown complex complex complex flat complex complex

0.1 0.1 33.17 31.43 0.1 32.28 24.74 23.54 26.57 23.01 0.1 31.75 24.57 29.51 22.8 12.87 24.32 14.05 32.11 19.19 12.23 19.23 16.27 19.48 22.55 11.2 15.56 12.93 16.51 10.84 16.56 21.42 23.73 16.22 15.51 15.68 16.96 36.1 15.77 18.81 15.49 15.56 14.71 23.52 19.25 11.89 8.1 17.39

0.1 0.1 19.17 25.43 0.1 42.42 26.49 112.33 17.19 15.38 0.1 42.81 22.61 34.11 16.43 10.9 15.35 11.37 24.33 17.61 13.47 24.84 13.79 17.76 20.61 21.96 9.84 11.86 17.45 17.44 12.12 25.55 16.55 12.5 7.91 16.13 16.36 37.04 23.13 13.38 9.51 7.69 22.19 25.18 13.47 16.58 12.49 19.39

0 0 14 6 0 -10.14 -1.75 -88.79 9.38 7.63 0 -11.06 1.96 -4.6 6.37 1.97 8.97 2.68 7.78 1.58 -1.24 -5.61 2.48 1.72 1.94 -10.76 5.72 1.07 -0.94 -6.6 4.44 -4.13 7.18 3.72 7.6 -0.45 0.6 -0.94 -7.36 5.43 5.98 7.87 -7.48 -1.66 5.78 -4.69 -4.39 -2

0.1 0.1 4.34 5.01 0.1 7.11 5.95 4.95 2.37 2.34 0.1 7.79 4.75 8.05 4.01 2.41 2.7 1.53 4.4 4.57 1.87 2.02 4.54 3.35 5.34 4.93 2.41 1.64 2.16 2.93 2.39 3.91 4.58 2.8 2.37 2.77 3.39 6.04 3.8 4.13 2.14 2.72 3.26 3.54 4.1 3.03 1.85 3.15

114

1027-37 1027-11 1027-27 1027-30 1027-18 1027-33 1027-15 1027-23 776-1 886-1 930-1 1211-1 1211-2 670-2 670-3 720-1 720-2 720-3 720-4 938-1 938-2 938-3 938-4 938-5 938-6 938-7 938-8 938-9 938-10 938-11 938-12 938-13 938-14 938-15 1177-1 1177-2 1049-1 1049-2 1168-1 977-1 977-2 977-3 977-4 977-5 706-1 706-2 706-3 706-4

complex complex complex complex flat flat complex complex flat complex complex complex flat complex complex complex flat complex complex complex flat complex unknown flat complex complex complex complex unknown flat

complex complex complex flat flat flat flat complex complex complex

23.64 20.9 21.09 13.21 13.78 15.42 13.96 18.02 11.85 14.74 16.5 32.79 13.6 64.7 15.29 13.96 19.65 12.53 11 45.43 25.34 9.72 14.15 24.8 30.32 32.04 20.82 21.65 20.91 24.5 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 22.22 20 17.49 0.1 29.16 14.17 10.79 10.82 8.4 28.48 23.9 0.1 0.1 0.1

10.41 14.78 9.99 18.48 18.03 16.13 17.99 22.36 11.52 17.06 12.19 25.42 12.97 53.82 16.55 20.43 24.54 9.84 13.82 31.15 26.48 12.7 20.23 27.19 11.65 45.54 18.02 18.7 28.16 49.67 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 18.37 17.1 18.7 0.1 26.92 7.36 12.38 18.96 23.64 20.14 29.64 0.1 0.1 0.1

13.23 6.12 11.1 -5.27 -4.25 -0.71 -4.03 -4.34 0.33 -2.32 4.31 7.37 0.63 10.88 -1.26 -6.47 -4.89 2.69 -2.82 14.28 -1.14 -2.98 -6.08 -2.39 18.67 -13.5 2.8 2.95 -7.25 -25.17 0 0 0 0 3.85 2.9 -1.21 0 2.24 6.81 -1.59 -8.14 -15.24 8.34 -5.74 0 0 0

3.5 3.69 2.52 3.16 5.47 2.24 2.36 2.81 2.53 3.36 1.42 3.62 3.26 12.15 3.77 4.54 5.46 2.47 3.11 12.49 4.95 3.02 4.91 4.38 4.48 6.6 5.95 4.38 5.34 5.12 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 4.36 3.46 2.74 0.1 3.73 3.02 1.68 3.35 4.3 4.24 4 0.1 0.1 0.1

115

770-1 912-1 1054-1 1054-2 1054-3 1054-4 964-1 964-2 946-3 964-4 807-1 807-2 807-3 807-4 807-5 1044-1 1044-2 1044-3 1044-4 1044-5 1044-6 1188-1 1188-2 1188-3 1188-4 1085-1 1122-1 1122-2 1122-3 1061-1 1061-2 1061-3 1061-4 1061-5 1061-6 1061-7 1061-8 1061-9 1061-10 1061-11 1061-12 1061-13 1173-1 1173-2 1137-1 794-1 794-2 794-3

flat flat unknown complex complex flat unknown flat unknown flat complex flat complex unknown unknown complex flat flat flat complex unknown unknown unknown unknown flat complex complex flat unknown unknown flat flat flat complex unknown complex complex complex unknown complex unknown complex flat complex complex complex

9.9 14.7 6.7 10.5 13.04 18.69 22.34 25.58 16.33 21.21 16.36 8.81 31.62 43.67 0.1 7.41 9.25 11.53 19.86 17.89 21.11 12.63 9.95 11.64 13.37 37.32 16.72 15.74 24.72 8.66 10.49 11.32 13.5 13.64 13.78 15.38 22.37 26.17 24.6 30.83 14.08 0.1 21.09 30.65 14.22 19.39 20.97 16.67

14.21 8.31 12.72 11.11 15.26 15.33 22.91 17.29 23.65 25.14 29 13.96 20.77 29.27 0.1 11.47 14.58 10.29 26.3 16.08 19.37 14.81 9.35 11.72 18.8 19.88 8.83 19.32 10.97 9.86 10.15 14.56 14.8 16.52 15.74 21.51 21.43 24.2 26.45 22.23 29.07 0.1 25.67 20.11 15.75 17.98 15.3 24.18

-4.31 6.39 -6.02 -0.61 -2.22 3.36 -0.57 8.29 -7.32 -3.93 -12.64 -5.15 10.85 14.4 0 -4.06 -5.33 1.24 -6.44 1.81 1.74 -2.18 0.6 -0.08 -5.43 17.44 7.89 -3.58 13.75 -1.2 0.34 -3.24 -1.3 -2.88 -1.96 -6.13 0.94 1.97 -1.85 8.6 -14.99 0 -4.58 10.54 -1.53 1.41 5.67 -7.51

2.36 1.23 2.39 0.88 1.78 4.38 3.79 6.44 3.66 6.68 4.5 2.51 7.74 9.72 0.1 1.92 3.14 1.61 4.42 2.91 2.06 3.54 2.95 1.91 2.34 4.97 1.56 2.15 3.44 1.86 2.26 2.23 4.88 2.03 3.17 4.83 6.52 7.68 3.25 5.62 6.71 0.1 3.47 4.42 4.75 6.23 3.8 6.11

116

1010-1 1010-2 1079-1 1165-1 1165-2 796-2 1069-1 1069-2 1069-3 1069-4 1069-5 1140-1 1140-2 1140-3 1140-5 1140-4 1140-6 785-1 785-2 785-4 664-1 656-1 656-2 656-3 656-4 656-5 656-6 735-1 735-2 735-3 735-4 753-1 753-2 753-3 753-4 753-5 872-1 848-1 707-1 707-2 707-3 707-4 707-5 698-1 744-1 729-1 761-1 783-1

flat complex complex flat flat complex complex unknown complex

unknown unknown complex unknown complex complex complex complex flat complex complex complex complex flat flat unknown complex complex unknown unknown complex unknown unknown flat complex unknown complex complex complex complex unknown unknown complex flat flat

17.59 16.3 28.14 19.26 34.42 15.63 56.38 21.52 29.26 0.1 0.1 11.19 28.56 21.57 13.33 24.53 0.1 8.57 14.8 27.56 22.29 43.14 11.94 14.39 12.32 15.5 22.65 20.72 14.47 35.01 39.51 22.53 17.61 23.21 16.04 30.07 13.79 19.62 13.15 13.95 24.93 34.33 17.17 0.1 27.24 16.06 39.95 16.52

13.84 14.09 19.45 24 24.28 32.3 62.08 19.23 19.36 0.1 0.1 9.83 33.15 27.61 24.9 12.77 0.1 17.04 20.98 45.95 24.08 50.39 14.14 16.93 13.66 24.78 19.99 39.52 35.55 15.59 33.54 26.98 23.87 15.23 18.97 54.6 23.54 25.6 23.49 17.62 24.63 17.73 31.56 0.1 23.27 20.54 20.95 38.92

3.75 2.21 8.69 -4.74 10.14 -16.67 -5.7 2.29 9.9 0 0 1.36 -4.59 -6.04 -11.57 11.76 0 -8.47 -6.18 -18.39 -1.79 -7.25 -2.2 -2.54 -1.34 -9.28 2.66 -18.8 -21.08 19.42 5.97 -4.45 -6.26 7.98 -2.93 -24.53 -9.75 -5.98 -10.34 -3.67 0.3 16.6 -14.39 0 3.97 -4.48 19 -22.4

5.67 4.12 2.18 4.38 5.62 5.74 7.11 4.33 5.06 0.1 0.1 2.6 4.39 4.98 2.57 4.94 0.1 1.91 8.8 6.69 5.71 8.32 3.91 1.85 2.79 4.54 4.1 5.37 10.67 5.54 7.06 6.62 5.38 8.02 6.15 11.67 2.28 3.47 5.53 3.34 5.23 4.36 7.34 0.1 4.73 3.14 6.83 4.71

117

783-2 1240-1 1240-2 1240-3 1240-4 1185-1 800-1 800-2 800-3 975-1 821-1 843-1 843-2 890-1 869-1 1113-1 1132-2 115-1 95-1 23-1 23-3 23-4 23-6 23-7 806-1 692-1 760-1 760-3 720-4 781-3 781-4 781-5 78-1 78-2 78-3 53-2 53-3 40-2 40-3 40-4 40-5 40-6 32-2 32-3 32-4 32-5 18-3 18-4

flat complex complex complex complex complex complex unknown unknown flat unknown unknown flat complex

31.11 16.87 18.42 9.88 21.58 14 39.76 18.66 16.78 7.01 16.13 30.18 25.08 36.63

30.76 18.12 25.99 26.12 20.09 23.37 53.56 18.22 30.12 22.12 11.94 37.02 22.39 16.09

complex flat

36.61 30.11

18.91 24.59

complex

31.48

26.77

complex flat flat flat complex complex complex complex

35.22 36.03 43.96 13.33 42.98 23.89 12.97 0.1 24.33

32.23 25.27 47.08 20.82 51.28 17.76 17.84 0.1 18.77

complex

33.6

23

complex flat complex unknown flat flat

42.68 37.86 45.34 23.44 19.23 9.76

41.11 42.99 37.12 20.2 21.3 20.08

flat

24.11

25.3

0.35 -1.25 -7.57 -16.24 1.49 -9.37 -13.8 0.44 -13.34 -15.11 4.19 -6.84 2.69 20.54 0 17.7 5.52 0 4.71 0 0 2.99 10.76 -3.12 -7.49 -8.3 6.13 -4.87 0 5.56 0 10.6 0 0 0 0 0 1.57 -5.13 8.22 3.24 -2.07 -10.32 0 0 -1.19 0 0

5.66 5.1 4.33 3.94 2.93 2.68 6.57 5.09 3.9 9.89 3.08 25.58 9.03 6.53 6.18 6.75 6.3

18.52 7.94 9.96 4.5 7.21 3.7 3.96 0.1 5.7 4.02

18.12 6.47 8.47 4.43 5.09 5.68

5.89

118

18-5 18-6 18-7 18-8 18-9 18-10 18-11 322-3 322-4 322-5 322-6 322-7 322-8 322-9 322-11 322-12 322-13 314-1 314-2 314-3 248-2 274-1 140-3 140-4 140-5 140-6 140-8 140-9 132-3 132-2 132-4 132-5 132-6 132-7 132-8 132-9 132-10 132-11 132-12 132-13 132-14 132-15 132-16 132-17 112-1 112-2 112-3 112-5

flat complex complex complex flat flat complex complex flat complex complex complex flat complex complex

13.7 30.3 13.65 14.42 14.52 10.35 17.92 14.48 0.1 10.27 17.02 23.92 32.68 12.51 9.01 14.95

13.31 13.11 18.81 29.57 12.48 24.96 16.2 11.2 0.1 12.46 24.02 32.28 33.41 17.19 19.48 19.4

complex complex complex complex complex unknown complex flat complex complex complex flat complex flat complex complex flat flat flat complex complex complex unknown complex

26.32 21.03 19.59 24.83 9.96 15.63 27.25 14.6 16.27 17.01 17.21 16.6 22.5 13.87 9.48 18.38 18.18 20.28 15.8 19.17 15.11 11.61 14.24 21.43

19.46 23.37 15.97 20.91 14.94 10.01 15.69 12.34 13.18 24.62 15.72 15.69 19.09 16.11 15.75 21.95 17.15 25.88 22.9 30.21 22.66 25.06 21.24 27.69

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.39 17.19 -5.16 -15.15 2.04 -14.61 1.72 3.28 0 -2.19 -7 -8.36 -0.73 -4.68 -10.47 -4.45 0 6.86 -2.34 3.62 3.92 -4.98 5.62 11.56 2.26 3.09 -7.61 1.49 0.91 3.41 -2.24 -6.27 -3.57 1.03 -5.6 -7.1 -11.04 -7.55 -13.45 -7 -6.26

3.71 6.18 4.04 8.5 3.48 7.06 5.07 5.95 0.1 1.6 6.2 5.73 4.68 3.25 6.79 6.93 5.37 3.35 3.88 5.99 3.5 2.89 4.92 3.15 1.91 8.98 3.6 4.62 5.06 4.06 5.39 5.48 4.56 4.83 4.83 4.43 10.82 7.74 3.37 6.58

119

112-6 160-1 f 283-1 283-2 283-3 283-4 366-1 366-2 366-3 366-4 366-5 110-1 110-2 110-3 110-4 110-5 82-1 82-2 82-3 82-4 82-5 75-1 75-2 75-3 75-4 75-5 75-6 68-1 66-1 66-2 66-3 66-4 66-5 61-1 45-1 37-1 37-2 37-3 37-4 28-1 28-2 28-3 28-4 28-5 28-6 28-7 28-8 28-9

complex complex flat complex flat complex complex complex complex complex complex complex complex complex flat unknown flat complex complex flat

25.72 36.74 19.43 17.64 11.88 8.55 14.04 22.05 19.83 24.14 18.16 10.37 15.3 14.83 13.91 16.61 9.28 10.18 19.41 12.66

25.53 34.62 16.62 17.57 13 13.57 13.77 22.36 18.65 16.11 34.94 10.41 14.71 11.29 18.27 22.64 9.06 14.21 17.98 17.75

flat complex flat complex

18.89 16.79 26.9 20

15.86 19.36 35.86 19.94

flat complex complex complex flat unknown complex complex unknown complex

8.84 9.5 15.95 15.27 16 33.7 11.49 33.86 29.03 34.78

10.22 12.44 14.59 12.57 22.06 14.4 15.3 37.23 20.57 25.45

complex flat flat flat complex complex complex unknown unknown

10.71 15.04 21.62 17.32 16.25 17.04 17.88 22.22 19.91

15.2 20.49 18.88 15.41 12.87 27.17 19.92 20.4 13.89

0.19 2.12 2.81 0.07 -1.12 -5.02 0.27 -0.31 1.18 8.03 -16.78 -0.04 0.59 3.54 -4.36 -6.03 0.22 -4.03 1.43 -5.09 0 3.03 -2.57 -8.96 0.06 0 0 -1.38 -2.94 1.36 2.7 -6.06 19.3 -3.81 -3.37 8.46 9.33 0 0 -4.49 -5.45 2.74 1.91 3.38 -10.13 -2.04 1.82 6.02

8.01 8.83 2.54 4.69 2.95 2.32 5.23 4.54 1.58 5.6 6.29 1.59 3.85 2.56 4.73 5.62 2.56 3.09 6.46 6.42 3.35 4.78 5.27 5.8

1.93 2.46 3.66 2.15 8.87 7.94 3.24 17.1 9.18 5.24

3.27 4.63 3.56 5.74 2.6 4.06 2.75 6.21 3.93

120

28-10 28-11 517-1 517-2 513-2 513-3 513-4 525-1 525-2 525-3 525-4 629-1 629-2 629-3 629-4 647-1 647-2 647-3 647-4 647-5 419-1 419-2 419-3 419-4 419-5 419-6 419-7 477-1 477-2 477-3 477-4 477-5 477-6 477-7 477-8 477-9 459-1 459-2 459-3 459-4 459-5 441-1 441-2 441-3 437-5 437-31 437-15 437-22

flat

23.01

23.44

complex flat complex

11.81 44.87 32.48

16.55 50.86 59.45

complex flat complex unknown complex complex

13.16 11.88 17.62 16.88 23.85 17.4

14.86 14.92 17.94 17.95 22.19 21.26

0.1 0.1

0.1 0.1

16.28

11.61

0.1

0.1

flat complex flat

20.13 26.04 18.64

16.25 19.62 16.43

unknown complex

16.43 42.31

20.12 42.82

unknown

30.55

27.76

flat complex flat

11.81 15.58 11.27

16.71 13.66 13.12

complex flat complex flat

23.21 31.39 29.25 21.42

17.42 31.88 28.48 21.7

flat

-0.43 0 -4.74 -5.99 -26.97 0 -1.7 -3.04 -0.32 -1.07 1.66 -3.86 0 0 0 0 4.67 0 0 0 0 0 3.88 6.42 2.21 0 -3.69 -0.51 0 2.79 0 0 0 0 -4.9 1.92 -1.85 0 0 0 0 5.79 -0.49 0.77 -0.28 0 0 0

6.38 1.72 8.07 6.01 3.55 1.68 3.38 3.11 3.89 3.49 0.1 0.1 4.4

0.1

5.78 2.89 5.02 3.78 8.11 1.43

3.55 3.35 2.69

3.45 5.46 8.54 4.3

121

437-11 437-3 437-9 437-28 437-14 437-23 437-18 437-26 437-1 437-21 437-19 437-9 437-12 437-13 437-30 437-8 437-29 437-6 437-7 437-17 437-27 437-24 437-10 437-16 437-2 437-20 194-2 194-3 194-1 194-5 194-4 222-1 222-2 222-3 255-2 255-3 255-4 287-1 737-1 737-2 737-3 737-4 731-1 731-2 731-3 731-4 749-1 713-2

complex unknown

44.51 22.1

35.09 21.74

complex

29.24

24.84

unknown

18.15

15.13

flat

27.3

30.45

flat flat flat complex flat

23.98 12.2 18.82 29.27 22.68

16.23 21.48 24.97 36.34 43

flat complex flat complex unknown flat complex flat flat complex

0.1 46.88 27.48 29.13 25.28 9.63 10.08 20.27 21.33 19.62 9.11

0.1 32.1 34.18 33.48 35.37 9.87 13.04 24.05 13.36 24.91 21.3

unknown flat complex

10.48 15.57 17.93

8.31 22.71 27.4

9.42 0.36 0 0 4.4 0 0 3.02 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -3.15 0 0 0 0 0 0 7.75 -9.28 -6.15 -7.07 -20.32 0 0 0 0 0 0 14.78 -6.7 -4.35 -10.09 -0.24 -2.96 -3.78 7.97 -5.29 -12.19 0 2.17 -7.14 -9.47

8.09 7.56

4.95

4.17

5.14

4.22 5.8 5.22 6.53 5.84

0.1 5.85 6.7 4.45 5.66 2.43 3.46 4.8 2.89 4.04 7.96 2.34 4.12 4.58

122

713-5 713-3 713-4 563-1 563-2 563-3 571-1 571-2 571-3 571-4 603-1 581-1 581-2 405-1 432-1 468-1 472-1 472-2 349-1 332-8 332-5 332-11 332-3 332-4 332-6 332-7 332-9 332-10 332-12 332-14 332-15 266-1 266-2 266-3 266-4 266-5 266-6 266-7 266-8 266-9 266-10 266-11 266-12 266-13 266-14 266-15 266-16 266-17

unknown flat complex

10.29 37.5 29.59

13.33 40.6 35.27

flat

21.4

34.33

complex complex complex

24.09 20.18 55.47

31.33 18.42 45.16

flat complex flat complex complex unknown complex complex flat complex

25.15 14.88 12.75 14.82 10.59 12.14 21.34 13.9 13.49 11.14

27.94 15.59 13.67 21.95 14.91 12.04 24.02 11.1 12.58 16.3

complex unknown complex complex complex

13.99 27.94 40.85 29.77 7.72

24.08 37.29 39.07 31.4 11.85

complex complex complex complex complex unknown flat

12.44 7.48 12.37 7.77 11.11 14.05 10.93

8.53 10.32 11.71 13.03 9.35 9.25 9.18

complex

13.35

13.21

complex complex complex complex

12.44 15.6 18 15.54

13.6 13.84 14.73 18.38

-3.04 -3.1 -5.68 0 -12.93 0 0 0 0 0 0 -7.24 1.76 10.31 0 -2.79 -0.71 -0.92 -7.13 -4.32 0.1 -2.68 2.8 0.91 -5.16 0 0 -10.09 -9.35 1.78 -1.63 -4.13 0 3.91 -2.84 0.66 -5.26 1.76 4.8 1.75 0 0.14 0 -1.16 1.76 3.27 -2.84 0

2.17 10.2 10.15 7.18

7.06 9.18 5.93 2.62 3.6 2.27 4.02 3.67 2.32 8.26 4.15 2.96 4.55

3.7 11.98 7.23 4.47 3.04 3.77 3.16 1.93 2.42 2.3 1.82 2.41 3.1 1.71 3.66 3.37 3.22

123

266-18 266-19 266-20 266-21 266-22 266-23 266-24 266-25 266-26 266-27 266-28 266-29 163-5 163-6 163-7 163-8 163-9 168-10 163-11 163-13 163-14 163-15 163-16 163-17 163-18 163-19 161-1 161-2 161-3 280-1 1027-6 1027-5 1027-3 1027-2 1027-1 1191-1 1085-2 82-1 1140-6 1140-7 977-1 75-1 1207-1 1173-1 720-1 964-1 1061-1 1061-2

flat complex complex unknown

24.28 11.56 12.4 10.25

14.18 17.68 17.07 17.05

unknown complex

27.16 14.79

25.41 30.92

flat unknown flat complex complex complex unknown unknown

34.64 26.16 35.27 44.37 37.76 22.96 10.67 13.61

26.54 31.54 33.81 42.38 28.64 15.34 10.53 15.57

complex complex unknown

35.89 11.78 13.01

20.79 10.98 10.88

complex flat complex

13.74 18.31 21.47

23.93 28.06 21.55

complex

30.49

21

10.1 -6.12 -4.67 -6.8 0 1.75 -16.13 0 8.1 -5.38 1.46 1.99 9.12 7.62 0.14 -1.96 0 15.1 0.8 2.13 0 -10.19 -9.75 -0.08 0 0 9.49

complex complex complex complex complex smooth complex complex complex polished flat complex complex complex flat flat complex flat complex

29.51 26.22 39.53 36.59 54.21 73.14 28.66 32.91 79.32 40.37 44.81 28.54 22.11 18.71 28.44 35.69 19.98 34.43 60.78

34.11 29.16 38.8 72.39 55.73 94.27 51.01 48.45 46.02 29.64 34.59 33.73 26.07 31.89 38.7 19.82 28.64 14.72 41.02

-4.6 -2.94 0.73 -35.8 -1.52 -21.13 -22.35 -15.54 33.3 10.73 10.22 -5.19 -3.96 -13.18 -10.26 15.87 -8.66 19.71 19.76

7.4 2.44 2.96 1.47 4.97 3.9 5.72 3.67 5 5.61 3.04 5.05 1.33 2.8 7.17 3.4 2.18 3.82 5.24 7.89

10.3

8.05 7.5 11.25 8.79 15.63 23.81 8.27 8.45 10.23 9.39 12.48 9.47 10.05 7 9.14 9.16 9.84 7.02 9.68

124

1061-3 343-1 322-1 322-2 322-6 1044-7 964-2 720-2 82-2 508-1 127-14 127-8 255-1 761-1 248-1 163-3 796-1 456-4 456-3 456-8 456-7 1151-1 456-6 1153-2 456-13 456-5 140-1 279-1 140-2 112-4 243-1 560-1 737-1 437-25 656-1 781-2 1132-1 629-1 470-1 332-13 615-1 670-1 713-5 575-1 794-2 1155-1 676-1 1153-1

flat flat complex flat flat unknown flat flat complex complex flat complex complex complex complex wedging cortical flat flat cortical flat complex complex flat flat flat polished flat cortical complex complex flat polished complex flat flat complex flat complex complex flat polished flat flat complex complex complex complex

35.33 29.27 26.84 23.39 28.68 25.43 59.8 35 18.57 32.11 31.21 29.36 39.8 19.75 26.36 48.45 67.04 59.7 46.43 58.92 80.22 45.67 33.06 72.39 58.91 47.29 68.66 45.64 33.57 23.11 36.27 29.03 31.18 52.04 35.21 25.01 42.24 10.8 36.21 44.03 58.76 11.75 31.6 31.93 36.08 53.38 35.43 55.27

34.22 33.26 26.26 29.37 51.72 20.11 48.55 34.48 32.04 33.21 42.44 26.45 64.66 48.98 51.5 27.23 45.05 82.96 66.57 54.2 52.28 45.01 102.86 62.11 42.62 56.2 43.86 61.69 58.18 38.62 40.95 31.29 19.14 30.91 23.81 27.11 28.41 23.43 48.73 24.84 46.91 26.6 20.34 28.2 30.85 41.23 48.64 28.46

1.11 -3.99 0.58 -5.98 -23.04 5.32 11.25 0.52 -13.47 -1.1 -11.23 2.91 -24.86 -29.23 -25.14 21.22 21.99 -23.26 -20.14 4.72 27.94 0.66 -69.8 10.28 16.29 -8.91 24.8 -16.05 -24.61 -15.51 -4.68 -2.26 12.04 21.13 11.4 -2.1 13.83 -12.63 -12.52 19.19 11.85 -14.85 11.26 3.73 5.23 12.15 -13.21 26.81

7.31 9.71 9.79 10.6 14.54 10.02 7.05 6.42 9.1 9.91 10.19 10.58 13.91 21.95 9.55 13.09 20.36 17.27 9.51 17.29 20.56 16.37 23.12 11 17.04 12.81 15.37 17.45 14.21 9.44 11.86 9.09 6.99 21.78 11.33 7.92 7.8 39.61 10.44 8.81 12.86 13.01 9.39 8.42 9.53 8.74 11.92 16.62

125

794-1 666-1 456-12 456-11 456-16 456-14 456-9 456-10 456-15 713-1

Artifact # 113-1 1056-7 1056-1 1056-14 1056-9 1056-12 1056-6 1056-8 1056-10 1056-3 1056-2 1056-4 1056-5 1056-11 1056-13 1056-15 1056-16 1056-17 1056-18 1056-19 1056-20 1056-21 1056-22 1056-23 1056-24 1056-25 1056-26 1056-27 1056-28 1056-29 1056-30 1056-31 1056-32

complex polished flat complex flat flat flat complex complex flat

Dorsal scars 1 3 0 2 3 4 2 2 1 3 2 4 1 10 3 2 4 1

38.13 42.26 36.65 41 30.86 55.82 29.6 12.21 34.2 33.01

Weight 9.22 22.36 9.74 1.48 1.62 1.06 2.96 0.48 0.86 1.96 0.46 1.26 0.56 1.28 0.62 0.34 0.36 0.56

22.4 40.03 44.19 34.39 47.47 48.27 30.8 37.69 39.79 32.87

stage 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

15.73 2.23 -7.54 6.61 -16.61 7.55 -1.2 -25.48 -5.59 0.14

7.52 14.55 22.17 22.8 11.08 11.27 12.14 34.5 11.49 9.8

126

1056-33 1056-34 1056-35 1056-36 1056-37 1056-38 1056-39 1056-40 1056-41 1056-42 1056-43 1056-44 1056-45 422-1 191-1 191-4 191-5 191-6 191-7 191-8 191-9 191-12 260-1 209-1 209-2 209-3 209-4 209-5 209-6 209-7 209-8 209-9 209-10 209-11 209-12 209-13 209-14 237-1 237-2 237-3 237-4 237-5 237-6 237-7 237-8 237-9 237-10 237-11

2 10 1 2 3 3 5 2 2 4 3 0 3 4 0 3 2

2 1 1 2 10 10 3 3 2 2

0.18 0.96 6.52 1.62 1.56 2.66 0.34 7.74 21.26 0.46 4.44 0.8 0.76 2.14 2.14 0.8 1.16 2.36 4.8 1.14

1.84 27.82 1.26 0.26 0.38 3.62 0.74 0.36 3.08 0.94 3.32

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

127

237-12 237-13 237-14 959-2 959-3 959-4 959-5 959-6 959-8 959-10 216-1 216-2 21-1 21-2 21-3 21-4 21-5 21-6 21-7 21-8 21-9 21-10 21-11 21-12 21-13 21-14 21-15 21-16 21-17 21-18 21-19 21-20 21-21 21-22 21-23 21-24 21-25 21-26 21-27 21-28 21-29 21-30 21-31 21-32 21-33 21-34 21-35 21-36

3 0 2 10 2 0 10 4 1

0.86 0.5 3.48 16.54 2.04 10.74 6.88 29.36 1.56

6 4 7 4 7 2 3 3 2 11 2 4 1 0 3 3 3 3 4 0 2 4 3 0 3 2 1 3 3 2 2 0 3 3 1 2 2 3

8.1 1.7 22.4 5.38 1.94 1.42 4.88 1.24 1.3 4.46 2.04 0.9 1.68 1.4 11.62 3.8 0.82 0.72 3.66 1.98 3.12 2.44 0.54 5.4 16.24 0.6 2.34 2.6 1.46 0.56 0.32 0.56 1.1 1.76 2.66 0.56 0.14 0.24

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

128

1037-2 1037-3 1037-4 1037-5 1037-6 1037-7 487-1 487-2 487-3 487-4 487-6 487-7 487-8 487-9 487-10 17-1 144-1 280-1 1027-10 1027-13 1027-18 1027-20 1027-22 1027-25 1027-7 1027-28 1027-17 1027-16 1027-45 1027-32 1027-34 1027-35 1027-21 1027-36 1027-39 1027-8 1027-12 1027-29 1027-44 1027-9 1027-26 1027-4 1027-42 1027-43 1027-24 1027-41 1027-38 1027-14

1 4 3

1 1 1 10

2 2 4 1 4 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 1 3 3 3 2 3 1 4 3 3 3 2 1 2

1.1 1.18 1.08 0.24 0.14 0.2 3.04 4.12 3.34 8.02 3.64 1.26 1.06 0.98 0.32 10.56 2.96 6.82 1.76 0.26 1.14 0.28 3.4 1.42 0.28 0.78 0.78 1.12 1.84 1.12 0.32 0.28 0.68 0.46 0.36 2.62 1.34 0.52 0.24 0.66 0.98 6.88 1.58 0.82 0.32 0.32 1.02 2.08

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

129

1027-9 1027-19 1027-40 1027-31 1027-37 1027-11 1027-27 1027-30 1027-18 1027-33 1027-15 1027-23 776-1 886-1 930-1 1211-1 1211-2 670-2 670-3 720-1 720-2 720-3 720-4 938-1 938-2 938-3 938-4 938-5 938-6 938-7 938-8 938-9 938-10 938-11 938-12 938-13 938-14 938-15 1177-1 1177-2 1049-1 1049-2 1168-1 977-1 977-2 977-3 977-4 977-5

2 3 1 2 2 3 2 2 1 3 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 0 1 2 4 2 2 3 4 3 3 2 2 0 3

1.04 0.52 0.2 1.28 0.82 0.8 0.48 0.92 0.78 0.5 0.6 0.96 0.44 0.72 0.3 4.4 0.42 46.88 0.78 1.1 1.94 0.24 0.54 19.54 4.04 0.3 1.02 2.76 1.64 8.58 2.44 2.18 2.9 7.04

5 5 1

1.78 1.42

2 2 0 1 1 3

2.38 0.22 0.2 0.6 0.78 1.82

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

130

706-1 706-2 706-3 706-4 770-1 912-1 1054-1 1054-2 1054-3 1054-4 964-1 964-2 946-3 964-4 807-1 807-2 807-3 807-4 807-5 1044-1 1044-2 1044-3 1044-4 1044-5 1044-6 1188-1 1188-2 1188-3 1188-4 1085-1 1122-1 1122-2 1122-3 1061-1 1061-2 1061-3 1061-4 1061-5 1061-6 1061-7 1061-8 1061-9 1061-10 1061-11 1061-12 1061-13 1173-1 1173-2

2

2.82

3 2 0 1 3 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 3 2

0.4 0.2 0.2 0.14 0.46 1.24 2.28 3 1.42 3.14 2.08 0.28 3.14 9.48

1 4 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 4 2 4 1 2 1

0.14 0.3 0.18 1.32 0.76 0.84 0.58 0.32 0.3 0.66 2.84 0.3 0.6 1.04 0.12 0.2 0.34 0.72 0.5 0.8 1.2 2.74 4.66 2.64 3.78 2.4

2 2

2.42 3.54

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1

131

1137-1 794-1 794-2 794-3 1010-1 1010-2 1079-1 1165-1 1165-2 796-2 1069-1 1069-2 1069-3 1069-4 1069-5 1140-1 1140-2 1140-3 1140-5 1140-4 1140-6 785-1 785-2 785-4 664-1 656-1 656-2 656-3 656-4 656-5 656-6 735-1 735-2 735-3 735-4 753-1 753-2 753-3 753-4 753-5 872-1 848-1 707-1 707-2 707-3 707-4 707-5 698-1

1 3 2 3 4 3 2 4 2 1 4 2 4

0.9 2 1.1 2.5 1.18 0.92 1.64 2.36 4.8 2.32 28.64 1.92 1.94

2 2 2 2 2

0.32 5.12 2.84 0.98 1.42

2 3 4 3 3 3 2 0 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 3 2 3 3 1 1 2 1 2 2 1

0.36 2.24 9.76 2.6 16.66 0.34 0.58 0.6 1.66 2.64 3.86 5.6 3.12 9.64 3.44 1.32 2.96 1.86 11.9 0.78 1.58 1.24 0.72 3.08 1.84 3.72

1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1

132

744-1 729-1 761-1 783-1 783-2 1240-1 1240-2 1240-3 1240-4 1185-1 800-1 800-2 800-3 975-1 821-1 843-1 843-2 890-1 869-1 1113-1 1132-2 115-1 95-1 23-1 23-3 23-4 23-6 23-7 806-1 692-1 760-1 760-3 720-4 781-3 781-4 781-5 78-1 78-2 78-3 53-2 53-3 40-2 40-3 40-4 40-5 40-6 32-2 32-3

2 3 2 6 2 2 3 4 1 2 4 2 2 5 0 2 3 4

2.64 1.26 7.58 3.02 6.08 1.96 2.22 1.08 1.38 1.02 15.36 0.84 1.68 2.36 0.52 41.78 4.72 3.56

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

3 2

4.74 5.02

1 1

4

6.26

1

1 3 4 3 6 3 3

20.42 4.56 16.5 1.42 16.32 1.7 0.66

3

3.1

3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2

4.16

1

1 1 4 2 2 1

21.56 11.66 15.36 2.34 2.04 1.12

2 1 1 1 1 1

133

32-4 32-5 18-3 18-4 18-5 18-6 18-7 18-8 18-9 18-10 18-11 322-3 322-4 322-5 322-6 322-7 322-8 322-9 322-11 322-12 322-13 314-1 314-2 314-3 248-2 274-1 140-3 140-4 140-5 140-6 140-8 140-9 132-3 132-2 132-4 132-5 132-6 132-7 132-8 132-9 132-10 132-11 132-12 132-13 132-14 132-15 132-16 132-17

3

3.64

1

2 3 2 2 3 2 4 2

0.58 2.78 1.06 2.96 0.56 1.5 1.1 0.78

1 1 3 3 1 3 2

0.24 2.28 4.32 5.8 0.6 0.96 1.24

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

3 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 1 3 2 3 2 5 2 2 3

3.26 2.44 1.52 2.92 0.54 0.42 1.98 0.66 0.62 2.75 1.12 1.24 2.62 0.78 0.92 1.92 1.82 2.5 2.22 2.48

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

134

112-1 112-2 112-3 112-5 112-6 160-1 f 283-1 283-2 283-3 283-4 366-1 366-2 366-3 366-4 366-5 110-1 110-2 110-3 110-4 110-5 82-1 82-2 82-3 82-4 82-5 75-1 75-2 75-3 75-4 75-5 75-6 68-1 66-1 66-2 66-3 66-4 66-5 61-1 45-1 37-1 37-2 37-3 37-4 28-1 28-2 28-3 28-4 28-5

2 3 3 2 3 1 1 3 3 1 2 1 0 1 1 3 2 3 4 4 2 2 2 3

2.72 1.82 1 3.38 6.12 9.1 0.82 1.38 0.4 0.28 0.7 2.28 0.66 2.1 4.48 0.18 0.88 0.34 0.9 1.82 0.22 0.44 1.86 1.16

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

3 2 3 1

1.12 1.36 4.94 2.66

1 1 1 1

2 3 2 3 1 4 1 4 1 1

0.16 0.24 0.72 0.4 1.92 5.74 0.36 21.4 4.26 5.4

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

1 1 1 1 2

0.58 1.68 1.84 1.44 0.66

1 1 1 1 1

135

28-6 28-7 28-8 28-9 28-10 28-11 517-1 517-2 513-2 513-3 513-4 525-1 525-2 525-3 525-4 629-1 629-2 629-3 629-4 647-1 647-2 647-3 647-4 647-5 419-1 419-2 419-3 419-4 419-5 419-6 419-7 477-1 477-2 477-3 477-4 477-5 477-6 477-7 477-8 477-9 459-1 459-2 459-3 459-4 459-5 441-1 441-2 441-3

1 2 1 1 2

2.26 1.38 3.42 1.36 3.92

1 1 1 1 1

1 2 2

0.3 16 10.82

1 1 2

2 1 0 1 3 2

0.7 0.3 1.1 0.88 2.72 1.32

1 1 3 2 1 1

2

0.72

1

2 1 3

1.54 1.76 1.6

1 2 1

2 2

1.18 21.1

1 1

3

11.6

1

2 2 2

0.78 0.52 0.3

1 1 1

3 2 3

0.84 5.56 7.56

1 1 1

136

437-5 437-31 437-15 437-22 437-11 437-3 437-9 437-28 437-14 437-23 437-18 437-26 437-1 437-21 437-19 437-9 437-12 437-13 437-30 437-8 437-29 437-6 437-7 437-17 437-27 437-24 437-10 437-16 437-2 437-20 194-2 194-3 194-1 194-5 194-4 222-1 222-2 222-3 255-2 255-3 255-4 287-1 737-1 737-2 737-3 737-4 731-1 731-2

3

2.28

1

1 3

14.12 3.2

2 1

3

3.2

1

1

1.26

1

2

4.5

1

1 2 4 2 2

1.84 1.56 2.98 6.54 5.34

1 1 1 1 1

7 3 2 3 1 3 3 1 1 2

8.46 5.88 4.32 5.48 0.22 0.38 2.3 0.58 1.92 1.82

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

137

731-3 731-4 749-1 713-2 713-5 713-3 713-4 563-1 563-2 563-3 571-1 571-2 571-3 571-4 603-1 581-1 581-2 405-1 432-1 468-1 472-1 472-2 349-1 332-8 332-5 332-11 332-3 332-4 332-6 332-7 332-9 332-10 332-12 332-14 332-15 266-1 266-2 266-3 266-4 266-5 266-6 266-7 266-8 266-9 266-10 266-11 266-12 266-13

2 1 3 2 3 2

0.22 1.52 2.8 0.34 12.24 11.02

1 1 1 1 2 1

1

4.42

1

2 1 5

5.44 2.2 18.02

1 1 1

0 2 3 2 2 1 3 2 3 3

1.9 0.56 0.56 1.14 0.66 0.42 2.66 0.62 0.46 0.8

3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 3 5 3 2

1.58 7.72 8.96 4 0.32

1 2 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 1 2

0.38 0.18 0.24 0.2 0.26 0.3 0.2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

3

0.42

1

1

0.42

1

138

266-14 266-15 266-16 266-17 266-18 266-19 266-20 266-21 266-22 266-23 266-24 266-25 266-26 266-27 266-28 266-29 163-5 163-6 163-7 163-8 163-9 168-10 163-11 163-13 163-14 163-15 163-16 163-17 163-18 163-19 161-1 161-2 161-3 280-1 1027-6 1027-5 1027-3 1027-2 1027-1 1191-1 1085-2 82-1 1140-6 1140-7 977-1 75-1 1207-1 1173-1

2 2 2

0.74 0.8 0.8

1 1 1

4 3 2 1

1.62 0.58 0.56 0.28

1 1 1 1

0 2

3.26 1.98

3 1

4 2 3 5 4 3 1 3

5.24 3.32 8.18 11.22 5.46 1.94 0.22 0.6

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

4 1 1

4.96 0.38 0.46

1 1 1

2 1 3

1.36 2.9 3.04

1 1 1

3

6.54

1

6.82 4.48 11.14 27.08 47.3 107 14.9 12.04 23.16 11.96 11.08 7.14 6.8 4.28 10.28

1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

4+ 3 2 4+ 4+ 2 4+ 2 3 4+ 3 4 6 4 3

139

720-1 964-1 1061-1 1061-2 1061-3 343-1 322-1 322-2 322-6 1044-7 964-2 720-2 82-2 508-1 127-14 127-8 255-1 761-1 248-1 163-3 796-1 456-4 456-3 456-8 456-7 1151-1 456-6 1153-2 456-13 456-5 140-1 279-1 140-2 112-4 243-1 560-1 737-1 437-25 656-1 781-2 1132-1 629-1 470-1 332-13 615-1 670-1 713-5 575-1

4 5 3 4 2 5 5 6 8 3 3 6 6 2 2 3 7 6 4 5 10 5 2 0 6 4 6 4 3 4 5 3 3 4 2 6 4 0 3 3 5 0 5 6 5 3 4 5

7.82 6.06 4.32 18.42 9.62 9.36 7.44 5.64 24.08 4.46 23.56 7.62 4.8 11.4 11.4 9.04 33.54 17.14 11.1 27.2 68.18 66.48 30.36 45.66 93.44 34.58 75.38 59.8 46.88 37.76 39.44 56.42 31.62 9.76 17.52 8.8 5.18 34.66 11.08 4.4 9.46 12.58 10.08 11.78 29.34 5.54 6.44 7.1

1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

140

794-2 1155-1 676-1 1153-1 794-1 666-1 456-12 456-11 456-16 456-14 456-9 456-10 456-15 713-1

3 5 3 7 4 2 6 4 3 2 1 6 2 3

12.2 17.5 18.16 20.06 8.68 19.98 19.44 28.46 15.86 29.38 11.38 16.8 13.9 13.24

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 1 1 1

141

APPENDIX D SAMPLES FOR INAA 1027-6 1027-5 1027-3 1027-2 1027-1 1191-1 280-1 1085-2 1127-1 1194-1 82-1 1140-6 1140-7 977-1 75-1 1207-1 1173-1 720-1 964-1 1061-1 1061-2 1061-3 343-1 322-1 322-2 322-6 1044-7 964-2 720-2 82-2 508-1 127-14 127-8 432-2 23-5 127-6 255-1 959-2 959-4 191-12

Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake flake tool I fragment unknown Flake rejuvination flake Flake Flake Flake Flake rejuvination flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake rejuvination flake Ib fragment Fragment VII/ Distal end missing Core/ Multidirectional Flake Flake Flake Flake

10yr 7/1 10yr 6/1 10yr 7/1 10yr 7/1 10yr 6/1 2.5yr 5/0 2.5y 6/0 2.5yr 5/0 2.5yr 6/0 10yr 6/0 2.5yr 4/0 5y 4/1 5y 5/1 7.5yr 5/0 7.5yr 4/0 7.5yr 5/0 2.5yr 5/0 2.5yr 5/0 2.5yr 6/0 5y 4/1 5y 5/1 7.5yr 4/0 2.5yr 4/0 2.5yr 4/0 2.5yr 4/0 2.5yr 4/0 2.5yr 5/0 5y 5/1 2.5y 5/0 2.5y 4/0 2.5yr 4/0 2.5yr 4/0 2.5yr 4/0 7.5y 5/1 7.5yr 5/0 2.5yr 4/0 7.5yr 5/0 10yr 4/1 7.5yr 4/0 2.5yr 4/0

142

127-13 256-3 761-1 560-1 243-1 737-1 656-1 781-2 1132-1 629-1 470-1 332-13 140-1 140-2 248-1 112-4 279-1 437-25 615-1 670-1 713-5 575-1 163-3 796-1 794-2 794-1 676-1 1154-2 1153-1 666-1 1155-1 870-1 1151-1 456-7 456-8 456-3 456-4 456-5 456-6 456-9 456-10 456-11 456-12 456-13 456-14

adze fragment, both ends missing unknown Flake Flake Flake rejuvination flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake flake rejuvination flake Flake Flake Flake Flake angular shatter Flake rejuvination flake rejuvination flake Flake angular shatter core rejuvination flake rejuvination flake Flake Reworked adze/Distal end missing Flake rejuvination flake rejuvination flake Medial Adze Fragment (VI, VIII) Flake Flake core Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake Flake

2.5yr 5/0 2.5yr 5/0 2.5yr 5/0 2.5yr 5/0 2.5yr 4/0 2.5y 5/0 2.5y 4/0 2.5y 5/0 2.5y 5/0 5y 5/1 2.5y 4/0 2.5y 5/0 7.5yr 5/0 2.5yr 4/0 7.5yr 5/0 7.5yr 4/0 7.5yr 5/0 5y 6/1 2.5y 6/0 2.5y 5/0 2.5y 4/0 7.5yr 5/0 5y 5/1 5y 2.5/1 2.5y 5/0 2.5y 5/0 2.5y 4/0 10y 5/1 2.5y 4/0 2.5y 4/2 5y 4/1 7.5y 5/1 5y 4/1 5y 4/1 5y 4/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 4/1 5y 4/1 5y 4/1 5y 5/1 5y 5/1 5y 4/1

143

456-15 456-16 1153-2 1154-1 713-1

Flake Flake Flake Adze VI Flake

5y 4/1 5y 5/1 2.5yr 4/0 5y 5/1 7.5yr 5/0

144

APPENDIX E INAA RESULTS

CC-001 CC-002 CC-003 CC-004 CC-005 CC-006 CC-007 CC-008 CC-009 CC-010 CC-011 CC-012 CC-013 CC-014 CC-015 CC-016 CC-017 CC-018 CC-019 CC-020 CC-021 CC-022 CC-023 CC-024 CC-034 CC-035 CC-036 CC-037 CC-038 CC-039 CC-040 CC-041 CC-042 CC-043 CC-044 CC-045 CC-046 CC-047

AL

DY

1779 94162.13 93115.98 94919.97 95538.54 98656.01 91636.77 95454.2 114620.3 96412.42 97242.91 78583.97 63036.61 94022.34 81964.88 98507.47 97738.84 79498.02 121705.6 98109.7 91542.81 99554.69 96284.2 93774.63 95783.32 92594.86 76413.58 67813.46 76705.2 66264.77 76386.45 92903.5 71205.36 82743.56 63051.77 112767.5 89554.21 92941.41 86494.45

94.5 11.88617 12.03616 11.74248 12.45176 12.3947 10.50804 12.7408 12.9733 14.31102 7.040088 6.551565 5.881802 8.988659 9.365274 14.36754 13.57554 7.594679 8.614722 9.252341 7.186807 8.816077 7.938887 12.5977 14.11755 14.25856 7.818037 7.55381 6.854299 6.958017 6.766154 7.991056 7.804113 6.534473 7.276427 12.46645 8.654467 9.692614 9.5231

MG MN TI V LA LU 1014.6 1810.8 320.1 1434.3 1596.2 208.4 6763.689 1293.922 14041.02 113.0961 60.47237 0.373076 6082.5 1322.075 15119.63 90.58098 63.01117 0.403495 6576.578 1294.228 14733.43 93.5246 61.14128 0.400344 8074.198 1301.485 13861.32 110.7254 61.73261 0.389221 6233.021 1297.488 15610.1 109.685 60.73954 0.407294 7167.455 1312.629 18492.52 176.4976 47.32018 0.3634 6474.155 1339.638 15699.76 97.43372 61.10036 0.393827 7113.469 1354.255 15288.68 116.0998 61.44144 0.399899 7331.857 1381.321 14258.56 105.3197 61.87381 0.415621 8131.714 1313.236 21225.39 230.4295 39.23761 0.356803 11665.4 1408.776 27867.75 274.9398 46.86883 0.313545 16951.43 1300.378 25933.12 332.4793 29.35711 0.237626 7734.89 1419.965 24659.57 264.3199 36.40572 0.418875 7350.812 1295.074 21245.91 235.5987 40.59811 0.381698 8493.246 1415.217 16687.72 104.3293 61.81679 0.425315 7976.209 1407.571 15271.92 108.5925 63.17026 0.467098 14579.17 1401.547 29360.22 376.8701 35.1899 0.227683 8340.275 1269.351 25060.77 255.0057 38.71217 0.305994 9702.934 1338.83 24803.41 281.0841 37.91571 0.362731 12373.33 1238.041 26442.88 288.7391 43.85388 0.275603 7577.918 1294.366 22714.19 273.453 36.87481 0.379642 11460.85 1239.301 27188.97 302.4282 33.925 0.317725 5932.472 1248.971 13591.53 98.34507 64.27497 0.452535 6173.641 1340.269 13384.86 113.4602 63.2266 0.461546 6112.422 1218.898 15925.32 118.6917 62.31432 0.426864 13842.06 1293.372 29464.36 359.3578 35.82259 0.262746 14479.51 1348.517 29274.1 357.4935 33.51366 0.235387 14505.65 1328.361 28225.44 359.0668 34.42369 0.25556 13609.73 1304.668 26240.2 346.5551 33.47224 0.245756 11285 1296.726 26918.29 317.5717 41.47763 0.286375 11922.18 1401.276 27989.67 308.0613 46.10394 0.287708 11947.54 1438.844 29246.02 257.457 45.69296 0.312251 8431.059 1236.706 32267.65 343.0286 24.02336 0.269177 13031.44 1244.337 27817.3 318.9069 29.14031 0.260655 5903.727 1440.864 16698.17 101.6735 54.16065 0.466494 8407.911 1306.945 23219.57 273.8648 37.66067 0.366402 7732.513 1267.74 23262.17 258.3247 37.68911 0.312203 8068.749 1322.415 24233.62 265.5896 37.00072 0.347196

145

CC-048 CC-049 CC-050 CC-051 CC-052 CC-053 CC-054 CC-055 CC-056 CC-057 CC-067 CC-068 CC-069 CC-070 CC-071 CC-072 CC-073 CC-074 CC-075 CC-076 CC-077 CC-078 CC-079 CC-080 CC-081 CC-082 CC-083 CC-084 CC-085 CC-086 CC-087 CC-097 CC-098 CC-099 CC-101 CC-102 CC-103 CC-104 CC-105 CC-106 CC-107 CC-108 CC-109 CC-110 CC-111

79105.27 85084.4 82690.91 85269.3 93456.66 89337.27 110161 100204.3 90642.09 88859.24 91910.49 80524.42 78825.18 91077.98 85588.66 110036.7 97529.69 97622.52 93380.98 93151.62 100901.2 95913.66 88092.6 100520.3 85189.63 97441.27 77956.06 93595.2 102314.2 91919.47 94753.59 88359.03 92843.49 94125.02 92846.95 124003.2 118427.3 91641.28 90745.59 91142.23 87824.91 82835.15 95262 74855.14 91290.43

7.408511 7.249632 8.633767 6.784151 8.702219 7.599265 11.87607 8.754313 7.986177 9.669776 8.888026 6.775962 8.454265 9.513177 7.537884 7.778465 8.685019 7.981496 6.591236 8.653564 9.918519 9.859269 11.2535 10.18501 9.895326 7.945554 8.533635 11.83344 8.421823 11.74798 9.813949 8.216656 10.82706 12.06084 7.768951 11.60587 8.38795 10.60485 9.044582 10.29555 6.462412 7.857158 11.56012 5.78773 9.202871

9437.704 9303.167 7389.197 11929.88 7680.918 7326.431 5968.954 7400.593 7197.628 7140.805 7834.951 13543.41 13873.5 7210.406 13231.88 7645.026 8006.889 9484.336 6685.366 9128.224 7050.078 7779.998 8357.809 7546.915 9567.301 7466.481 12307.36 6165.722 7825.455 7032.416 7801.739 7655.807 7461.729 7418.926 7653.466 7463.433 8605.489 8388.533 7465.756 7769.234 8905.971 9886.761 8619.182 8832.474 7259.124

1252.099 1248.15 1324.604 1512.247 1362.016 1325.877 1345.549 1406.101 1440.146 1444.528 1361.642 1493.441 1387.693 1456.432 1510.08 1403.081 1399.945 1333.716 1303.475 1442.506 1216.224 1543.357 1390.656 1227.223 1239.576 1222.6 1391.422 1300.837 1163.678 1216.417 1226.969 1220.277 1278.428 1329.573 1183.664 1378.724 1154.05 1302.959 1371.831 1287.908 1189.051 1211.411 1347.286 1112.688 1281.935

29189.46 30716.76 24094.71 29344.17 23275.21 25479.65 16766.57 20987.14 22638.83 23861.13 24309.57 31005.51 28336.25 21174.06 30451.55 22228.74 22611.47 27341.7 26453.37 26094.62 26007.84 24144.07 27791.59 22609.34 34244.77 22929.1 27213.27 16276.98 22315.28 21155.88 21617.96 23547.21 23702.4 16249.71 23390.08 24009.74 30428 24731.53 21775.11 26828.8 32322.78 28902.91 25834.57 25491.5 24522.35

318.6772 317.8996 286.1649 360.0425 275.8853 283.1394 106.8527 220.2496 244.4257 244.4384 298.4302 370.9946 358.1 227.8633 354.7615 249.4312 224.9366 271.3336 267.5994 296.2315 299.39 247.6857 297.2031 272.2973 366.5775 245.7009 319.5419 156.4144 261.0498 273.2928 276.93 296.2834 290.1488 152.9892 288.4783 262.5792 305.0038 267.6312 229.5148 282.135 317.9731 325.834 281.2929 299.44 278.8073

26.34431 26.2771 37.7725 36.12703 37.76158 38.55213 60.95519 44.10688 39.76798 41.38143 37.68882 34.35573 40.21262 42.13548 32.81433 41.14442 42.04849 34.55766 37.26246 36.47561 37.42535 41.07963

0.280487 0.270996 0.357453 0.305666 0.355641 0.374004 0.5601 0.360685 0.334564 0.363162 0.345045 0.207126 0.301007 0.357747 0.280642 0.36171 0.354873 0.335666 0.336133 0.366766 0.432182 0.376296

27.26365 0.343583 34.5506 48.61503 38.13013 37.98981 36.58045 36.72737 36.86104 48.81567 35.93747 38.86211 26.89063 37.40235 40.31121 36.59745 27.50513 27.34758 39.57632 29.51158 40.41551

0.248164 0.381592 0.324752 0.358914 0.366419 0.357545 0.367875 0.375127 0.323062 0.339509 0.255959 0.359529 0.354769 0.353631 0.291635 0.281683 0.390664 0.310259 0.418784

146

CC-112 CC-113 CC-114 CC-115 CC-116 CC-117 CC-118 CC-119 CC-120 CC-121 CC-122 CC-123 CC-124 CC-125 CC-126 CC-127 CC-128 CC-129 CC-130 CC-131

94400.51 84038.52 90485.96 89356.55 83880.95 86452.79 73035.3 76735.11 45095.88 79646.34 80476.41 81709.51 79783.45 81222.48 78864.48 97415.81 92435.65 97894.48 91540.34 108468.5

8.232175 8.118413 10.19544 7.394539 6.356823 7.555341 9.65464 7.917063 10.30341 6.046455 6.662237 7.394404 4.695127 8.125669 10.65498 11.19633 8.632887 10.50047 9.866747 10.12335

12063.07 12006.03 13058.84 12415.44 13112.78 12740.73 11709.41 11877.86 10952.26 11124.01 9736.91 11504.04 10740.57 12209.91 7732.9 13480.9 7381.793 6588.605 7925.242 8616.281

1446.416 1437.688 1475.483 1499.891 1590.292 1521.835 1532.606 1384.101 1472.94 1493.015 1460.066 1459.969 1434.951 1459.592 1320.986 1789.16 1304.281 1261.521 1334.33 1320.368

28579.34 26746.02 30849.64 27700.01 27351 26725.89 28148.97 24205.66 25570.56 24611.42 25417.5 25028.69 26809.65 25860.36 32616.24 30854.23 21117.08 23276.24 21810.04 23023.53

342.8582 312.0602 321.7564 320.2482 333.1238 338.7764 322.4172 315.5414 298.0049 304.1424 293.7037 325.3342 322.7691 315.4517 387.1809 294.8885 283.1762 249.9585 275.1864 286.1479

36.05717 36.19421 35.9801 34.50289 33.16529 29.81971 30.18128 32.25357

0.305079 0.305712 0.31081 0.312957 0.290348 0.245916 0.252955 0.302027

29.90173 27.55349 29.30056 30.79406 35.07309 26.75885 36.78516 37.10061 38.28006 39.97583

0.283042 0.265898 0.289145 0.280769 0.318413 0.352194 0.446344 0.390752 0.324927 0.421289

AL

DY

MG

MN

TI

V

LA

LU

QC

SRM688 CC-031 CC-032 CC-033 CC-064 CC-065 CC-066 CC-094 CC-095 CC-096 CC-139 CC-140 CC-141 CC-144

101016.1 2.825837 12452.42 1215.91 8020.686 255.6643 5.563513 100989.9 3.507537 12301.81 1262.292 7838.44 269.3056 5.248613 115521.2 3.704997 13289.32 1248.813 7067.434 286.0812 5.572771 5.215789 0.312952 103703.9 2.385362 11921.95 1315.442 7108.434 261.2841 4.82207 100607 2.15747 12353.5 1330.427 7006.735 271.4283 5.144058 116158.9 3.39251 11742.84 1340.007 8463.45 266.2035 5.138048 97617.52 2.760939 10804.43 1217.626 6679.609 275.9203 5.519193 102081.1 4.510577 11821.35 1201.68 7352.922 269.534 4.951833 101563 5.588843 13303.71 1269.453 7724.994 270.8558 5.411406 99660.91 3.231594 10570.29 1267.651 7532.27 271.2144 4.832131 103798.3 2.612605 11054.76 1281.986 5906.693 256.1684 4.848625 5.460646 0.329407

Average Std

103883.4 3.334388 11965.13 1268.299 7336.515 268.5145 5.2099 0.293596 6158.064 1.002072 907.7686 46.45397 699.1855 8.726595 0.282419 0.018392

Lit

92500

3.3

52000

1250

7010

250

5.3

0.283881 0.294549 0.306033 0.284802 0.277501 0.289495 0.277632 0.271289 0.314191 0.304062 0.270953

0.326

147

%Dev

12.30642 1.042069 76.99014 1.463905 4.657849 7.405815 1.700006 9.939868

NA CC-001 CC-002 CC-003 CC-004 CC-005 CC-006 CC-007 CC-008 CC-009 CC-010 CC-011 CC-012 CC-013 CC-014 CC-015 CC-016 CC-017 CC-018 CC-019 CC-020 CC-021 CC-022 CC-023 CC-024 CC-034 CC-035 CC-036 CC-037 CC-038 CC-039 CC-040 CC-041 CC-042 CC-043 CC-044 CC-045 CC-046 CC-047 CC-048 CC-049 CC-050 CC-051

1368.6 29199.47 30238.45 29766.16 30058.11 29712.71 28533.12 30356.88 30125.08 31319.73 24761.87 14610.71 12402.5 25286.8 27008.12 31161.84 31443.7 13514.78 25937.71 25636.3 20174.15 24648.34 19116.72 30391.34 30981.37 31404.15 14678.09 13518.49 13513.61 15112.3 19866.02 14161.07 13961.99 19342.87 11996.81 29927.86 24584.04 24886.31 25415.21 18651.09 18701.05 26882.17 18024.96

SM 103.2 18.4009 18.90152 18.5079 18.55928 19.10146 13.31949 19.28789 19.43662 19.28848 10.96179 11.63332 9.421667 12.07934 12.121 19.50945 19.73256 11.14645 11.56911 11.99216 10.66343 11.90554 9.502242 19.48109 19.08468 18.9956 11.07581 10.57968 10.77851 10.53454 10.39429 11.0147 10.88638 8.840748 10.16639 17.34373 12.74304 12.09905 12.47699 9.306715 9.247489 12.82996 10.27315

U 106.1 0 0 0 0.651576 0 0 0 0 0 0.257598 0.368578 0 0 0 0 0.967628 0.5942 0 0 0 0.644844 0 0.861736 0 0 0 0 0 0.249785 1.034941 0.555858 0 0 0.437581 1.006079 0.736251 0.694786 0.597778 0.286541 0 1.167153 0.79551

YB 396.3 3.385078 3.251188 3.428973 3.33476 3.342706 3.055132 3.61252 3.588037 3.745633 2.271217 2.623456 1.717105 3.363846 2.847466 3.343776 3.626501 2.119899 2.508283 3.144974 2.184925 2.837493 2.360486 3.315315 3.368485 3.6598 2.145999 2.269496 1.975132 1.857172 2.048427 2.119423 2.493233 2.005635 1.733832 3.604544 2.6394 2.354308 2.689116 2.200069 2.079943 3.336539 2.2708

BA 496.3 435.3067 508.5854 417.2514 457.9996 403.3722 328.0308 396.1556 443.8006 458.7659 293.2602 268.8235 0 257.7065 298.0589 408.4197 450.5158 167.1844 175.7128 311.6295 245.0226 300.2084 166.0094 518.4599 474.9502 477.9108 225.3274 207.1758 167.9496 0 291.9545 289.8374 256.487 133.5588 201.0955 433.3476 230.445 317.7334 285.4207 0 174.4149 270.6116 257.3328

CE 145.4 142.1801 145.7202 134.9091 146.5024 136.2843 107.2594 134.0175 143.7087 150.9633 100.2381 108.9211 74.31885 88.82182 92.00388 149.3101 149.5062 81.03845 85.86127 87.68416 97.80603 82.7153 73.64789 149.8602 145.246 150.616 84.09753 80.33744 82.97491 80.3767 94.68869 103.7773 101.3509 57.87368 73.56636 122.6989 82.94222 85.77923 83.31442 65.95599 63.26765 89.10969 72.05223

CO 1332.5 23.06413 24.94925 21.73787 23.35933 25.07266 25.27433 21.99641 23.48967 25.06867 36.95605 64.10017 81.8833 42.67126 32.68765 25.28517 24.54627 64.59801 40.27943 41.14967 58.85076 41.3642 56.10158 25.432 23.72883 22.76936 70.74014 67.75855 68.76038 64.14996 58.92369 59.99283 62.65161 53.29784 69.44057 18.69197 40.91256 40.22913 40.14597 52.86447 51.94731 42.53224 68.39408

CR 320.1 2.937195 4.998746 2.116313 3.627162 3.263485 3.489964 3.285466 4.307479 4.54178 16.51979 337.4838 591.9253 3.428763 3.674627 3.89807 3.940828 551.8755 5.192998 3.130262 232.0717 3.084811 277.5479 3.90185 5.557553 2.952667 563.582 557.1868 582.1734 551.602 248.049 307.8555 321.7581 37.09923 578.8215 3.697185 0 5.130952 0 189.3886 189.4568 4.399657 314.0311

148

CC-052 CC-053 CC-054 CC-055 CC-056 CC-057 CC-067 CC-068 CC-069 CC-070 CC-071 CC-072 CC-073 CC-074 CC-075 CC-076 CC-077 CC-078 CC-079 CC-080 CC-081 CC-082 CC-083 CC-084 CC-085 CC-086 CC-087 CC-097 CC-098 CC-099 CC-101 CC-102 CC-103 CC-104 CC-105 CC-106 CC-107 CC-108 CC-109 CC-110 CC-111 CC-112 CC-113 CC-114 CC-115 CC-116 CC-117 CC-118

25850.81 25947.26 33908.7 28557.44 25958.35 27376.48 24587.49 13276.15 13951.56 25867.06 13439.78 24910.65 25516.21 23113.55 25529.57 25156 24740.36 26559.63

12.70565 13.07036 19.57949 13.04473 13.2359 13.96136 12.78789 11.65551 11.89745 13.0529 11.09848 12.70905 12.66618 11.87871 11.56979 11.66713 12.22709 12.86712

19866.43 9.449458 16621.46 29069.55 25525.04 25435.88 24897.25 25232.62 24757.81 28576.02 23772.58 24067.58 18949.43 24783.19 25597.65 23860.77 19122.6 18908.75 27953.35 21219.63 28479.19 19691.03 21766.83 19494.87 20416.27 18518.16 18080.94 20016.28

9.406565 13.54762 11.69738 11.9462 11.73004 11.77477 11.44045 13.31961 11.2112 11.9718 9.10491 11.67583 12.00501 11.48597 9.116322 9.325656 13.75589 10.99344 14.33329 11.01945 11.49883 10.5983 10.94598 9.875548 8.814538 8.957649

0.791521 1.141562 1.542786 0.984203 0.647508 1.031725 0.750047 0.63654 0.622743 1.087403 0.797541 1.019583 1.045335 0.666647 0.488485 0 0.273637 0.674727

3.130159 3.171517 4.302019 3.122092 2.756108 2.932555 3.085312 1.863387 2.024521 2.980425 1.977932 2.546968 2.878062 2.719282 2.648876 3.010315 3.033844 2.972369

246.6011 250.8473 457.578 303.8681 309.5251 262.7857 249.5616 153.7432 2647.415 903.8784 210.7575 302.0867 311.225 318.1669 274.3127 230.0975 193.5398 247.9091

88.38203 90.30029 140.0495 103.1396 101.1622 95.80492 90.1824 83.32155 125.2426 102.8321 76.15583 95.47955 92.61046 83.80585 82.58709 89.66283 86.27882 94.42519

43.6146 44.21777 22.44711 31.77919 35.10423 33.66 44.69165 68.74072 69.97584 33.66638 67.06172 34.79114 34.30706 42.98438 41.56105 44.95229 38.7963 36.24028

4.663336 0 0 3.492517 4.242979 3.934795 0 618.0334 578.1534 4.212313 584.4413 16.93548 13.94941 0 5.377706 4.273281 3.524925 3.220221

0 2.681789 218.2499 58.10045 55.29804 37.64637 0 1.048989 0.798484 0 0 0 0 0.421626 0 0 0 0 0.351934 0 0 0 0.561453 0.454822 0.706022 0.836006 0.689753 0.729994 0.720247 0.863675 0.732566 0.684065

2.419063 3.20569 2.521223 3.006755 3.055195 3.131243 2.816783 2.880496 2.705678 3.060273 2.080213 2.788999 2.620086 2.866578 2.468118 2.464545 3.10358 2.690176 3.394839 2.459594 2.560077 2.172296 2.298051 2.149359 1.695288 1.939938

192.845 306.2478 257.8371 240.2609 206.7436 179.8662 186.5465 332.037 313.0788 225.6983 193.8003 317.6387 277.7003 270.5642 108.0229 172.8931 288.3249 230.0923 275.0773 237.4109 229.2255 228.6248 258.9879 183.6648 206.3611 200.1333

71.55801 102.0217 81.26514 80.68259 82.17977 81.71545 80.34895 105.2639 82.40715 91.60513 68.02191 86.11554 91.88774 86.08032 64.38038 68.58477 85.53221 66.61551 87.815 78.35762 68.23551 74.39643 75.95863 71.7625 66.56675 70.51669

62.17016 22.76605 39.0282 39.26578 39.62033 39.87281 40.35036 21.73472 41.28437 37.48481 51.00409 42.64004 33.32137 42.17661 50.71742 53.83091 43.05325 52.70687 42.99526 65.99161 62.28722 66.5227 67.20943 63.54815 61.78659 67.42869

294.1416 0 5.093505 4.452055 3.399563 2.667875 0 0 4.398417 3.535326 160.3744 3.163476 4.145367 3.59232 177.4149 185.5357 2.00607 183.0046 2.767298 313.1729 287.5325 316.5542 319.3154 311.8502 288.8904 312.2769

149

CC-119 CC-120 CC-121 CC-122 CC-123 CC-124 CC-125 CC-126 CC-127 CC-128 CC-129 CC-130 CC-131

19655.03 9.476642 0.731772 1.926409 18013.31 18058.35 18275.69 18824.54 19521.93 21805.96 13749.69 25076.64 26413.18 26996.03

8.289683 8.329009 9.143585 8.919904 10.27342 10.17697 11.5249 11.90691 12.28338 13.19945

0.582988 0.629652 0.75949 0.635185 0.834475 0.430642 0.836351 0.741084 0.75066 0.742931

1.882301 1.728902 1.841527 2.01922 2.411594 2.695833 2.675245 2.892086 2.481446 3.196721

223.284 76.30135 67.31987 312.2429 212.5727 210.9953 194.3558 209.1637 183.7765 153.4111 799.0013 256.1072 255.2752 289.5706

70.31712 70.28707 70.29709 70.21119 74.31853 63.3011 95.15926 88.71375 86.14866 92.59164

68.04885 66.71048 66.56835 63.64265 64.58588 58.23244 91.21017 41.15694 42.37094 45.11144

351.3544 315.1388 308.7051 300.5214 300.6114 42.56691 365.8615 2.463645 5.196433 2.117615

QC NA

SM

U

YB

BA

CE

CO

CR

SRM688 CC-031 CC-032 CC-033 CC-064 CC-065 CC-066 CC-094 CC-095 CC-096 CC-139 CC-140 CC-141 CC-144

15221.49 15304.34 15347.02 14900.38 14893.74 14994.48 14531.9 15603.69 14030.28 14350.72 13962 14809.2 15273.32

Average Std

14863.27 2.353912 0.21119 1.948989 131.682 11.83622 48.03125 325.8068 514.3248 0.129456 #DIV/0! 0.124874 73.57208 1.106504 2.197178 16.29774

Lit %Dev

15800 2.4 0.32 2.03 198 5.928647 1.920321 34.00309 3.990709 33.49393

2.515814 2.445746 2.469787 2.315368 2.353149 2.317434 2.383538 2.502313 2.243179 2.349139 2.092438 2.161283 2.451672

2.056687 1.994107 1.925309 1.825452 1.841152 1.881672 2.118147 2.090357 1.954435 0.21119 2.019862 1.870703 1.689664 2.069305

0 10.86345 44.2812 302.7499 179.9969 12.20181 50.15377 339.6068 141.996 11.02464 47.34789 313.6185 11.15532 45.1595 304.5427 11.11955 49.27241 331.7593 11.73082 49.08754 339.7331 14.1965 50.8988 351.1476 214.6122 11.94541 50.34296 342.4735 113.3794 11.26704 46.17973 318.1515 140.1076 13.30928 47.63377 310.4705 10.08974 45.76067 311.1589 12.47958 50.4105 339.311 12.48772 47.87753 330.7646

12.5 48.3 321 5.31024 0.556415 1.497434

150

EU CC-001 CC-002 CC-003 CC-004 CC-005 CC-006 CC-007 CC-008 CC-009 CC-010 CC-011 CC-012 CC-013 CC-014 CC-015 CC-016 CC-017 CC-018 CC-019 CC-020 CC-021 CC-022 CC-023 CC-024 CC-034 CC-035 CC-036 CC-037 CC-038 CC-039 CC-040 CC-041 CC-042 CC-043 CC-044 CC-045 CC-046 CC-047 CC-048 CC-049 CC-050

1408 6.106745 6.15508 5.924347 6.082158 6.05869 4.397612 6.023228 6.199016 6.52963 4.146263 3.88087 3.143632 4.23427 4.057695 6.536861 6.391077 3.475309 3.892894 3.930819 3.591849 3.866898 3.214922 6.336843 6.113536 6.243497 3.599632 3.407868 3.467274 3.446897 3.499813 3.653443 3.561614 3.027534 3.272888 5.420624 3.883284 3.853575 3.834321 3.235187 3.168899 4.313705

FE 1099.2 78972.98 77331.2 74183.71 80336.09 78771.51 83332.42 76764.12 80194.61 86526.61 99070.58 112405.3 113098.1 100903 94362.54 85811.55 84839.7 102475.9 93564.09 95456.98 99893.07 96708.24 99019.17 78793.29 78438.83 75757.22 106125.3 104052.5 107036.9 101341.9 101268 104075 105183.8 101774.9 103226.8 76236.61 94125.77 95112.59 94098.98 99633.1 97443.95 100890.8

HF 482.2 12.12345 12.54347 11.67751 12.42507 11.86499 10.77216 11.72112 12.02427 12.73148 9.928337 10.02673 8.227596 10.5738 9.642264 12.53373 12.42394 8.888924 9.23752 10.23537 8.68965 9.53541 7.991401 12.29766 12.243 12.18482 8.673491 8.587045 8.511235 8.419318 8.345556 8.997103 9.009502 7.393225 8.469276 11.53824 9.710682 9.319537 9.135014 7.557569 7.655436 10.55626

ND 91.1 72.48608 74.99696 66.82858 72.75741 66.42175 47.74375 67.33497 84.54595 82.0271 44.41463 57.48985 33.40969 42.13353 42.14461 82.57288 78.26178 40.60267 40.46404 41.69292 43.75721 39.45712 36.95853 83.38428 78.66418 70.39261 40.52607 38.27196 37.56555 34.67425 39.171 39.47051 39.37401 31.28209 36.7695 58.7895 32.36827 41.41198 39.51242 30.07203 34.5265 42.01835

RB 1076.6 65.82056 57.95436 58.75569 67.50923 55.04694 65.07982 62.87658 55.18703 65.20742 56.07719 36.13286 35.16711 46.76439 40.53504 61.74409 53.32829 26.42873 44.70512 33.60893 36.14707 38.81764 25.72401 64.02991 64.95407 71.70761 24.30204 17.9331 19.91205 23.96814 35.74048 37.29438 52.41588 25.13351 24.35167 61.38792 32.01001 27.85808 41.85068 27.73411 0 43.16238

SC 889.3 9.492764 9.444941 9.0959 9.635815 9.853324 12.07257 9.298337 9.727503 10.32125 15.05284 25.97336 25.898 16.34725 14.68653 10.28261 10.19714 27.16192 14.40456 15.96909 24.05021 15.51 23.45331 9.747572 9.551234 10.22235 27.4176 26.67619 27.46929 26.76676 24.14993 24.519 24.28818 20.55879 26.75551 10.80116 15.27967 14.22068 15.40788 22.40127 22.08738 16.18422

SR 514 1015.218 958.4336 951.6121 1047.155 1105.891 797.3042 1129.764 1167.586 1132.969 939.6152 773.9288 456.6961 753.1971 816.6801 1142.132 1325.282 487.3072 834.5894 734.0016 624.8997 580.2396 440.2286 1055.886 972.359 1012.98 669.0164 726.7509 731.8218 528.9254 615.7259 566.0472 624.8371 455.2693 554.9539 880.9872 745.1248 757.8088 755.9893 523.6534 479.3185 766.0744

TA 1221.4 3.706467 3.705899 3.497606 3.802569 3.438039 3.271289 3.568086 3.528186 4.102418 3.207591 3.862222 2.415318 3.100462 3.126842 3.871042 3.93627 2.613703 2.918268 2.882284 3.539814 2.877917 2.819224 3.924471 3.810302 3.787745 2.514836 2.564422 2.541664 2.41527 3.445897 3.64349 3.580438 2.224532 2.8355 3.873356 2.731556 3.177064 2.789902 2.626101 2.560101 2.920188

151

CC-051 CC-052 CC-053 CC-054 CC-055 CC-056 CC-057 CC-067 CC-068 CC-069 CC-070 CC-071 CC-072 CC-073 CC-074 CC-075 CC-076 CC-077 CC-078 CC-079 CC-080 CC-081 CC-082 CC-083 CC-084 CC-085 CC-086 CC-087 CC-097 CC-098 CC-099 CC-101 CC-102 CC-103 CC-104 CC-105 CC-106 CC-107 CC-108 CC-109 CC-110 CC-111 CC-112 CC-113 CC-114 CC-115 CC-116 CC-117

3.376312 4.161497 4.266449 6.018501 4.290878 4.804274 4.526302 4.25914 3.622807 3.591143 4.089208 3.336131 4.014773 3.981175 4.006831 3.912703 4.1783 4.300477 4.373005

112244.1 102793.8 101013.1 80378.02 91747.23 103193.5 100434.7 103609.7 106595.6 107639.4 97300.55 102393.3 92684.5 92851.98 99683.43 95718.49 103351.3 100814.8 98117.84

7.750965 10.1436 10.61192 13.48845 10.04948 9.732765 10.10765 10.71384 9.20599 9.239691 9.473026 9.021733 9.848649 9.734607 9.855816 8.608522 10.42268 10.19077 9.802886

34.59369 44.16307 40.30979 61.9372 46.29956 43.98663 41.4313 55.2282 50.37674 76.34689 55.04979 45.74925 57.60007 51.67693 44.41125 40.08456 42.60594 42.77837 41.46508

34.15629 47.89625 48.29444 52.18863 56.31554 36.27599 41.80294 32.65567 0 24.01174 34.64985 0 48.86872 54.65681 42.70695 38.03664 49.00788 50.56953 46.10716

3.240507 103964.1 7.676003 25.99423 35.18385 3.083394 4.227826 3.697461 3.824326 3.820177 3.858637 3.840209 4.374002 3.901484 4.261282 3.403026 3.991588 4.12766 3.999908 3.130892 3.318369 4.085838 3.284422 4.114266 3.237886 2.959737 3.080278 3.185747 3.060717 2.889231

104932.9 78036.28 89581.55 90586.34 91995.05 92362.19 93623.23 77199.55 93302.39 99055.2 98711.48 97281.39 97469.83 97437.52 95695.09 101196.3 99452.07 100021.9 100063.3 111663.4 106373.1 112174.2 113982.5 107524.1 103405.5

7.145996 10.2284 8.997335 9.421786 9.578621 9.46042 9.13614 10.03171 9.571911 9.86577 8.091371 9.8705 9.015975 9.956028 7.842984 8.36455 9.715687 7.995685 10.19811 7.677964 7.145879 7.731126 7.742921 7.104558 7.512763

33.459 45.22126 36.59039 39.67459 38.09274 39.86209 39.65729 46.94009 38.74401 40.63643 28.03483 40.91989 37.5797 37.39196 28.54499 30.578 41.19012 29.16309 49.69173 39.35881 29.4047 38.16689 38.98586 42.33852 26.00622

30.48653 50.42922 38.39762 34.20473 35.04654 32.53059 33.6713 52.144 34.92735 43.96967 17.50914 42.25085 35.67839 48.49565 24.75963 25.8689 34.70388 36.96467 39.47275 26.26896 26.46249 20.36786 21.20053 0 0

24.24579 16.04984 16.27935 11.82854 13.64657 16.78721 15.51618 16.81488 27.37682 27.44551 14.77359 26.3771 14.42386 14.1588 16.03826 14.64945 16.66435 16.38135 15.09918

452.6293 753.9764 713.6267 895.7693 782.147 969.6968 858.0385 862.2316 673.7413 667.0919 839.7842 633.1976 800.8886 855.2737 952.1643 956.0839 936.3126 788.5655 861.2481

2.942508 2.889308 2.938481 4.061904 3.155337 3.250441 3.101834 2.951753 2.664624 2.661076 2.946146 2.485138 2.974953 2.884548 2.660934 2.95019 3.030466 2.93433 3.138816

21.2332 630.9747 2.276943 23.10442 11.12173 13.47208 14.75006 15.06861 15.13682 15.02689 10.82297 15.14649 14.75581 20.67694 15.42665 14.47142 15.35285 20.95965 22.00256 15.96726 21.98535 15.96471 24.83753 23.04383 24.26233 24.87629 23.14844 23.04315

678.0168 849.8165 731.6011 673.5971 786.8781 769.9994 661.2236 771.4977 744.1194 787.069 597.9833 704.6623 797.4485 788.1232 509.2113 552.5688 795.9017 812.3544 737.6083 560.2624 437.9259 606.0587 546.9075 679.7455 490.3443

2.811004 3.26335 2.833441 2.796027 2.773134 2.78633 2.760625 3.291605 2.731334 2.861516 2.473996 2.939765 3.087228 3.012879 2.231396 2.425951 2.751676 2.317047 2.826224 2.821194 2.532209 2.983292 2.821699 2.73728 2.741507

152

CC-118 CC-119 CC-120 CC-121 CC-122 CC-123 CC-124 CC-125 CC-126 CC-127 CC-128 CC-129 CC-130 CC-131

2.866014 110836.5 7.743398 28.82848 23.97902 24.80436 502.0467 3.01152 3.291852 112597 7.852184 32.19415 25.01928 24.66434 755.7585 2.971189 2.913129 2.926621 2.995198 2.93705 3.241603 3.259534 3.989516 3.996854 4.024963 4.204051

111545.9 112673.7 108840.5 107016.7 108270.9 109795.6 131796.1 96369.25 97581.51 102125.6

7.389462 8.10867 7.656211 7.381125 7.658918 8.345888 9.136546 10.75167 9.379679 10.67619

28.64658 32.08515 39.59673 29.01725 38.83492 29.58889 33.66081 37.43698 39.43037 37.42933

23.16731 25.13581 21.97371 25.88559 33.78796 32.5464 52.96101 40.00865 31.40975 45.3536

24.28678 24.61962 24.3637 24.21356 23.94855 22.32169 28.82621 15.72476 14.8334 16.56661

488.2046 619.2629 455.1479 439.6356 548.3354 591.5155 762.8 739.2758 870.1573 729.8466

3.132256 2.947937 2.975565 2.919545 2.937514 2.456928 3.618155 3.093953 3.27077 3.094014

QC EU

FE

HF

ND

RB

SC

SR

TA

SRM688 CC-031 CC-032 CC-033 CC-064 CC-065 CC-066 CC-094 CC-095 CC-096 CC-139 CC-140 CC-141 CC-144

0.990208 1.068905 0.963874 0.975725 0.912615 0.967936 0.9537 1.002354 0.987649 1.032992 0.937169 1.00241 0.976142

Average Std

0.982437 71778.63 1.601447 3.783062 0.04011 3281.931 0.168463 2.727544

#DIV/0! #DIV/0!

36.65127 66.52604 0.270062 1.523494 78.33553 0.100882

Lit %Dev

1 71600 1.55 8.9 1.756326 0.249485 3.319181 57.49369 #DIV/0!

36.6 169 0.31 0.140069 60.63548 12.88333

66491.26 74980.28 69968.62 67801.44 73719.86 74367.07 76317.5 75106.13 68548 70323.94 68947.3 74818.07 71732.74

1.386479 1.796489 1.665603 1.515626 1.550993 1.807311 1.885618 1.555636 1.335219 1.558561 1.434388 1.72953 1.597362

4.394807 0 5.62829 4.711688 4.810025 0 0 6.11082 5.348275 0 4.889271 5.980929 7.305697

34.39777 38.3391 36.59113 35.30507 37.93362 37.72511 39.06719 37.9904 35.40476 35.26876 35.00913 37.58656 35.84785

0 0 107.0616 131.5584 0 0 144.9655 129.199 0 0 0 212.9293 139.1247

0.30275 0.233467 0.228147 0.326483 0.359632 0.447833 0.26757 0.228143 0.278425 0.283788 0 0.284153 0.27041

153

TB CC-001 CC-002 CC-003 CC-004 CC-005 CC-006 CC-007 CC-008 CC-009 CC-010 CC-011 CC-012 CC-013 CC-014 CC-015 CC-016 CC-017 CC-018 CC-019 CC-020 CC-021 CC-022 CC-023 CC-024 CC-034 CC-035 CC-036 CC-037 CC-038 CC-039 CC-040 CC-041 CC-042 CC-043 CC-044 CC-045 CC-046 CC-047 CC-048 CC-049 CC-050

879.4 2.379849 2.345895 2.261148 2.347318 2.287019 1.810871 2.225167 2.488014 2.859372 1.672043 1.658536 1.23085 1.919766 1.862155 2.877286 2.667486 1.291724 1.585989 1.624584 1.335066 1.680637 1.350807 2.350996 2.233444 2.38383 1.231737 1.249818 1.010037 1.149072 1.180642 1.343545 1.292991 1.292059 1.338396 2.564658 1.808295 1.857851 1.725658 1.463293 1.370951 1.814348

TH 312 5.597648 6.055476 5.361262 6.189026 5.127935 5.227679 5.216552 5.326668 5.853548 4.745563 5.506647 3.242436 3.845467 4.490058 5.41068 5.619198 3.686568 3.936707 3.730869 5.058875 3.575898 3.702801 5.987803 5.889345 6.021388 3.606648 3.636852 3.557217 3.534621 5.002973 5.478446 5.120637 2.510459 3.162388 5.485554 3.822099 4.091522 3.656713 2.844485 2.891901 3.977823

ZN 1115.6 201.4544 204.5921 199.1632 216.7221 205.3941 170.9586 198.1586 212.133 217.018 186.5466 175.5837 161.7913 182.0674 193.5259 224.5673 220.0476 153.1107 162.5914 166.4738 162.5293 160.378 164.4255 206.7906 189.7218 220.2111 155.5691 155.6258 152.8991 147.4638 155.0211 162.9812 157.5371 140.2869 153.7817 185.094 159.9636 162.8633 143.5947 155.7157 155.5075 180.5708

ZR 756.7 518.1556 558.6352 412.3012 451.8168 444.1575 402.6433 428.6299 458.643 457.7479 280.4164 385.8981 309.7553 344.0086 360.2938 446.5267 464.2542 251.9633 286.7445 420.9447 241.1271 266.3501 239.7509 433.3284 421.2996 323.4703 214.1538 267.4373 200.9551 209.6579 223.8258 281.2287 254.386 0 272.141 368.7362 348.1689 311.7797 412.2213 299.2099 266.433 290.2871

154

CC-051 CC-052 CC-053 CC-054 CC-055 CC-056 CC-057 CC-067 CC-068 CC-069 CC-070 CC-071 CC-072 CC-073 CC-074 CC-075 CC-076 CC-077 CC-078 CC-079 CC-080 CC-081 CC-082 CC-083 CC-084 CC-085 CC-086 CC-087 CC-097 CC-098 CC-099 CC-101 CC-102 CC-103 CC-104 CC-105 CC-106 CC-107 CC-108 CC-109 CC-110 CC-111 CC-112 CC-113 CC-114 CC-115 CC-116 CC-117

1.356598 1.972244 2.095153 2.504614 1.99962 2.038639 1.963175 1.981482 1.342659 1.585487 1.800858 1.546209 1.980776 1.746575 1.822697 1.610657 1.675522 1.787155 1.864342

3.588419 3.748515 4.000379 6.062084 4.832191 4.143821 4.451124 3.838526 3.709165 3.802303 4.174416 3.734035 4.759302 4.498897 3.469968 3.626825 3.795118 3.753714 3.941328

181.1071 197.6555 166.1842 218.4526 159.6502 194.5506 192.0547 175.0821 174.5431 167.6565 187.4016 147.0689 216.885 209.7224 190.2271 175.6121 174.131 177.1937 184.2276

198.6959 330.3928 352.1309 509.1816 341.1017 259.446 358.0305 338.8741 257.1024 1696.645 564.486 177.1871 323.6638 302.3101 274.116 249.7465 328.2648 331.4354 362.7451

1.293163 2.444344 144.5602 227.6377 1.141047 1.823239 1.56633 1.631278 1.66132 1.616764 1.676618 1.717304 1.577306 1.698103 1.433894 1.811483 1.70602 1.812702 1.313771 1.364971 1.818132 1.507187 1.893901 1.346992 1.231223 1.291951 1.432387 1.233892 1.119596

3.460074 5.274239 3.849678 3.619297 3.487596 3.503755 3.306147 5.014947 3.486455 3.983866 2.854455 3.671861 4.320512 3.737328 2.665028 2.936228 3.509944 2.870063 3.865406 3.810625 3.487721 3.861022 3.771139 3.613199 3.372885

152.6013 166.3156 174.217 149.806 155.564 158.305 164.6263 144.3212 183.5461 178.2044 151.1009 175.6187 166.4715 171.2112 147.8823 153.1585 173.5588 158.3771 170.4166 159.9578 151.8132 153.1364 164.5195 153.5807 149.8619

225.6586 316.9968 287.0617 228.4224 383.3518 372.2907 328.7204 340.1628 381.9608 326.397 211.0857 270.0064 314.5657 327.2586 221.7353 233.4655 293.9519 250.321 332.3805 174.4421 208.9385 155.8788 195.9605 188.5811 197.8624

155

CC-118 CC-119 CC-120 CC-121 CC-122 CC-123 CC-124 CC-125 CC-126 CC-127 CC-128 CC-129 CC-130 CC-131

1.117665 3.480145 149.1115 221.8273 1.192011 3.903753 158.4262 214.8884 1.0862 1.07899 1.246488 1.22253 1.394871 1.449106 1.917536 1.759234 1.764039 1.799072

3.515148 3.728909 3.29695 3.451305 3.658575 2.708696 4.270481 4.070329 3.698671 3.788075

145.8461 148.9819 155.1562 141.2 135.867 144.7442 230.2052 165.4614 161.4139 186.8933

219.2608 207.4595 185.398 176.0519 269.4578 334.811 285.757 391.7025 333.9911 316.7025

QC TB

TH

ZN

ZR

SRM688 CC-031 CC-032 CC-033 CC-064 CC-065 CC-066 CC-094 CC-095 CC-096 CC-139 CC-140 CC-141 CC-144

0.337591 0.474366 0.361493 0.648954 0 0.518861 0.640805 0.911489 0.454971 0.492706 0.411506 0.875592 0.855352

Average Std

0.537207 0.211405 80.87346 #DIV/0! 0.252846 0.158794 6.805422 #DIV/0!

Lit %Dev

0.52 0.32 3.308944 33.93604

0 0.390982 0.244986 0.243729 0 0.453058 0 0.296146 0.328995 0.297724 0 0.239067 0.253576

81.43079 78.56486 78.70376 71.77024 81.46671 95.63243 82.94825 78.37016 90.76617 81.31581 69.63732 82.49413 78.25437

81 59 0.15622 #DIV/0!

156

VITA

Name:

Christopher Thomas Crews

Address:

Texas A&M University 234 Anthropology Building College Station, TX 77843

Email Address:

[email protected]

Education:

B.A., Drama and Dance, Colorado College 1999

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the lithics of aganoa village (as-22-43), american samoa: a - OAKTrust

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