THE DATE PALM JOURNAL

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9

1987

THE DATE PALM JOURNAL EDITORIL BOARD:

DR. HASSAN KHALID HASSAN AL-OGAIDI, CHAIRMAN DR. ABDALLAH S. EL-GHAMDI SHEIKH IBRAHIM DIAIG EL-SABAH DR. HASHIM EL-BARKUKI DR. MUSTAFA LASRAM DR. HAIDAR S. EL-HAIDARI DR. YOUSIF All MR. ABBAS AL-SALIH DR. FARAON AHMED EL-MULLA SECRETARIAT !TIDAL MUSA KHALIL BEVERLY DOUGLAH PUBLISHED HALF-YEARLY BY THE FAO REGIONAL PROJECT FOR PALM & DATES RESEARCH CENTRE IN THE NEAR EAST & NORTH AFRICA

P.O.Box 10085 Karradah AI-Sharkiyah, Baghdad, IRAQ, Telex 212699 IK Telephone: 7762278; 7765934

JULY 1987 · ISSN 0252 · 3353 Vol. 5 (1): 9·119

.:!;

------------------------------~·: PRINTED IN LEBANON BY: AL-WATAN PRINTINCi PRESS CO. BEIRUT. MSA YTBEH. i\L ISTIKLAL STR .. RIFAE'E Bldg. Tlx: 22624 BARGOT LE

Date Palm J 5 (I) Published 1987

The Regional Project for Palm & Dates Research Center in the Near East & North Africa is Trust Fund Project of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations composed of the following seventeen member countries: Algeria, Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Mauritania, Morocco, Pakistan, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahairiya, Somalia, Sudan, Sultanate of Oman. Tunisia. United AH1b Emirates and Yemen Arab Republic. The Project is governed in technical matters by a Technical Coordinating Board composed or one representative of each member country.

The Regional Project does not accept responsibility for the statements, contents or opinions expressed by the contributors to the Date Palm Journal.

Iraqi National Library No. 440-1981

©

FAO Regional Project for Palm & Dates Research Ccnt1c in the Near East&. North Africa.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

ii

CONTENTS

ARTICLES

PAGE

AL-JIBOURI, A. A.M., M. KGAZAL & I.S. AL SAADAWI. Effect of gamma irradiation on pollen germination and pollen tube growth of four male cultivars of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). ................. GHOSH, S.S., S.K. DE & T.A. DAVIS. Morphology of four species of Phoenix. . .. .... ...... .. .. ... .. .. .... .. .. .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .. .. .. .. .. .... ZAID, A. Morphogenetic variation in palm embryos cultured in vitro ZAID, A. Abnormal branching in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) AL-KHOURY, I. A Ncmotological Survey of Phoenix dactylifera L. in Al-1-Iassa Oasis, Saudi Arabia ... .... .. .. ... .. . .. .... .. .. .... .. .. .... ... .. . ...... Z.A. AL OBAIDI, Gh. M. AZIZ, Th.S. AL-HAKKAH & M.A. AL-HILLI. Optimization of propagation medium for Baker's yeast using date extract and molasses 2. Determination of the optimum concentration of micro-clements and vitamines. .. . ... . .. .. .. .... . ... . .. . ... . EL-NAKHAL, H.M., A.S. MESALLAM & M.l. EL-SHAARAWY. Technological and storage studies on «Tammuddin». . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. EL-NAKHAL, M.l. EL-SHAARAWY & A.S. MESALLAM.

«Tamarheep» a new product from dates (Tamar) with high protein .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... ............ ... . .... ..... .... .... .. .. .. ... .... . content. YOUSIF, A.K., M. ABDLEMASSEH, M.E. Yousif & B.T. SAEED. Use of date paste in the processing of nutritious candy bars. .... .. .. .. ...

9 19 36 48 59

64 79

92 107

SHORT COMMUNICATION '"

AL-HASSAN, K.K. & G.Y. ABBAS. Out-Break of terminal bud rot of date palm caused by Thielaviopsis paradoxa . ............................ . 117

iii

Date Palm J 5 (1) Published 1987 NOTES FOR AUTHORS The Date Palm Journal is published twice a year by the FAO Regional Project for Palm & Dates Research Centre (NENADATES), Baghdad, Iraq. Contributions to the Journal may be (a) papers of original research in any branch of date palms, (b) review articles, (c) short communications, and (d) news and views. The research papers submitted for publication in the Journal should not have been previously published or scheduled for publication in any other journal.

Manuscripts Papers may either be in Arabic or in English with summaries in both. The manuscript should be typewritten (double spaced, with ample margins) on one side of the paper only. Two copies of the manuscript should be submitted, the original typed copy along with a carbon copy. Authors should organize their papers according to the following scheme as closely as possible; (a) title of paper, (b) author's name (and affiliation written at the bottom ofthe first page), (c) abstract, (d) introduction, (e) matenals and methods, (f) results, (g) discussion, (h) conclusion, (i) acknowledgement (s), (j) literature cited (arranged alphabetically), using the following illustrated format:

Andlaw, R.J. (1977): Diet and dental caries Nutrition 31:45.

a review. J. Human

Francis, D.E.M. (1974): Diet for sick children. 3rd Ed. Oxford: Blackwell,

405 pp Lcpcsmc. P. (1947): Les insectes des palmiers. Paris: Lechcvalicr. 247-48. Tahara. A.; T. Nakata & Y. Ohtsuka (1971): New type of compound with strong sweetness. Nature 233:619. However, in case of short papers and communications. results and

discussion could be combined in one section.

Tables should be reduced to the simplest form and should not be used where text or illustration give the same information. They should be typed on

seperate sheets at the end of the text and must in no case be of a size or form

that will not conveniently fit onto the Journal page size

vi

Units of

measurement should always be clearly stated in the column headings; any dates relevant to the tabulated information should be stated in the table title or in the appropriate column heading. Illustrations

Line drawings and graphs must be in jet black ink, preferably on bristol board or tracing paper. Photographs should be on glossy paper, negatives being supplied where possible. Figures including both line drawings and photographs, should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are cited in the text. The approximate position of tables and figures should be indicated in the manuscript. Units

Units should follow the metric system. Yield or rate is expressed in metric tons/hectare or Kg/hectare. Any reference to currency should be expressed in U.S. dollars or the equivalent to a local currency stated in a footnote. Offprints

Unbound, free copies of offprints are allowed as follows: one author, 20 copies: two or more author~, 30 copies. Additional copies may be obtained on payment at cost and if more than the gratis number is required, this should be specified when the paper is submitted. Correspondence

Contributions and correspondence should be addressed to the chairman. Editorial Board, Dates Palm Journal, c/o Regional Project for Palm & Date Reseacch Centre in the Near East & North Africa, FAO, P.O. Box 10085. Karradah Al-Sharkiyah, Baghdad, Iraq.

vii

Date Palm J 5 (I): 9-18 Published 1987

EFFECT OF GAMMA IRRADIATION ON POLLEN GERMINATION AND POLLEN TUBE GROWTH OF FOUR MALE CULTIVARS OF DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) A.A.M. AL-JIBOURI, M. KGAZAL AND I.S. AL SAADAWI

or Botany, Faculty of Agriculture and Biology Nuclear Research Centre, P.O.Box 765, Baghdad, Iraq

Department

ABSTRACT The effect of gamma irradiation on pollen germination and pollen tube growth of four male cultivars of date palm was investigated in vitro. pollen samples from cultivars Red Ghannami, Smaismi, Wardi and Adie were irradiated separately with several doses of gamma rays ranged from 0 to 950 kracls. Pollen of each treatment was germinated at 27 - 28° C for 24 hours on a modified Brewbaker and Kwack medium containing 20% sucrose. Cultivars Smaismi and Adie were found to have the highest pollen tube growth, LD 50 and LD 100 values among the four cultivars. In all cultivars, germination and pollen tube length decreased with the increasing of dose rates revealing significant negative correlations. Moreover, positive and corresponding linear relation was found between pollen germination and pollen tube growth suggesting a common cause of loose viability.

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INTRODUCTION Date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. is considered to be one of the most important plants in Iraq. The species is dioecious, and woody tree. Recently, much attention has been given to evaluate the pollen viability of male cultivars of date palm using different techniques [3, 7, 11]. Other studies were concentrated with the effect of different factors on the viability of pollen grains [2, 5, 6, 13]. However, the effect of gamma irradiation on pollen germination and pollen tube growth was not reported; such study is required prior to any pollination experiment carrying out with irradiated pollen [14]. Radiation was found to have a pronounced effect on pollen viability and pollen tube growth of several plant species [4, 8, 12, 15]. The present study is conducted to determine the effect of different doses of gamma-rays on pollen germination and pollen tube growth of date palm in vitro.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Collection of pollen grains: Pollen grains of local male cultivars of date palm, Red Ghannami, Smaismi, Wardi and Adie were collected from trees grown in Zaaferanyia experimental station, Baghdad, Iraq. Mature spadices from each eultivar were collected, opened and allowed to dry for two days under laboratory conditions. The pollen of each cultivar was stored in stoppered glass containers under refrigeration (4° C).

10

Effect of Gamma Irradiation

Irradiation of pollen grains: A quantity of pollen grains from each cultivar was irradiated with gamma rays CO 60 source for 0,50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 550, 600, 650, 700, 750, 800, 850, 900, and 950 krads at a close rate of 30.927 r sec. Germination of pollen grains: The procedure used for in vitro polcn was basically that of Tisserate et.al., [13]. Pollen grains were germinated in liquid medium consisting of 500 mg/ll-1 3 B0 3 , 300 mg/1 Ca(N0 3 )z.4l·lz0, 200 mg/l MgS0 4 • H 2 0, 100 mg/1 KN0 3 , 100 mg/l ethylenediamine tertra acetic acid and 200 gil sucrose. Ten milligrams of pollen grains from each male cultivar were added to 250 ml Erlenm yer flask containing 5 ml of the germination medium. The flasks were capped with sterilized cotton plugs and incubated at 27 - 28°C for 24 hrs. under dark conditions. Two drops of germination liquid medium from each treatment were separately smeared on slide and examined under light microscope to obtain the germination percentage. Four random replicates were used for each treatment and only 100 pollen grains were examined in each replicate.

The emergence of .pollen tube growth was considered as an indicator of pollen germination. The pollen tube length in each treatment was measured with the. light microscope. Ten germinated pollen grains from each of the four replicates were randomly selected and their tubes were measured under microscope using an ocular micrometer.

RESULTS Cultivar Smaismi was found to have a higher pollen germination among the four test eultivars (Table 1), followed by cultivar Adie. There were no significant differences in pollen germination between Red Ghannami and Wardi. Pollen tube length was significantly higher in eultivars Smaismi and Adie than in the other eultivars. A preliminary test was conducted to find out the minimum dose required to cause any effect on pollen germination or pollen tube growth. The results revealed that closes ranged between 50 to 350 krads had no effect on pollen germination or pollen tube growth. Therefore all data presented herein were started from 400 krads. The effect of radiation on pollen germination is presented graphically in figure (1), and with negative linear regression in figure (2). With the increase in closes, a significant decrease in germination was obtained, indicating downward linear relationship between germination percentage and dose applied. The same relationship was found between

II

A.A.M. Al-Jibouri, M. Kgazaf and I.S. AI Saadawi

doses and pollen tube length of all cultivars (Figures 3,4). In all cultivars tested, significant negative correlation was found between doses and percent of pollen germination, doses and pollen tube lenght, and pollen germination with pollen tube length as shown in table (2). The highest LD 50 and LD 100 were found in cultivar Smaismi, followed by Adie (Table 3). There were no significant differences in LD 50 values between cultivars Red Ghannami and Wardi, however LD 100 was found to be higher in Red Ghannami than in Wardi. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The present investigation revealed significant differences in pollen germination and pollen tube length among the test cultivars, this suggest the presence of genetical differences, since all tests were carried out under the same conditions. Many investigators found that the failure of pollen grains germination was related to the structure of the pollen exine (1, 9, 10); however no attempts were made to test whether the differences in germination were related to the structural differences of pollen exines. The quantitative effect of radiation is shown by inverse relation between pollen germination and pollen tube length with doses rate. This is, however, not the only effect for radiation; the existance of the same relation between pollen germination and pollen tube length with high positive correlation suggests a common cuase of loss of viability. The most pronounced effects of radiation, pollen germination and pollen tube inhibition, is the rupturing of pollen grains. The observations revealed that with the increase in doses the quantity of ruptured pollens increases, and this phenomenon becomes very stricking at higher closes. Pfahler (9) mentioned that the primary effect of gamma radiation was associated with altering the structure and/or the synthesis of cell membrane. The present data may provide useful information for future work dealing with inducing variations in date palm via irradiated pollen. LITERATURE CITED l.

2. 3. 4.

Agarwal, P .K. (1983): Effect of storgc in organic solvents on the germination of

grapevine pollen J. Hort. Sci. 58: 389-92. Aldrich, W.W. & C.L. Craford, (1941): Second report upon cold storage of date pollen. Date grower's Inst. Rep. 18:5. Al-Taher, O.A. & M.l. Asif, (1982): Stain testing of pollen viability. Date Palm Journal 2:233-37. Brewbaker, J.L., Espiritu, & S.K. Majumder, (1965): Comparative effects of

12

Effect of Gamma Irradiation

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

15.

X-ray and U.V. irradiation on pollen germination and growth. Racl. Bot. 5:493-500. Bryon, Gerard (1932): The effect of heat on the germination of date pollen. Date Grow. Inst. Rep. 9:15-16. Crawford, C.L. (1938): Cold storage of rlatc pollen. Date Grow. lost. Rep. 15:20. Furr, J.R. & V.M. Enriguez (1966): Germination of date pollen in culture media. Date Grow. lost. Rep. 43:24-27. Gilissen, L.J .W. (1978): Post X-irridiation effects on Petunia pollen germination in vitro and in vivo. Env. and Exp. Bot. 18:81-86. Pfahler, P.L. (1971): in vitro germination and pollen tube growth of maize (zea mays L.) pollen V. Gamma irradiation effects. Rarl. Bot. 11:233-37. Pfahler, P.L. (1973): in vitro germination and pollen tube growth of maize (zea mays L.) pollen VII. effects of ultraviolet irradiation, Rad. Bot. 13:13-18. Soliman, A.S., B.A. AI-Ani, A.A. A!-Salih, & I.S. AlSaadawi, (1976): Viability studies of date palm pollen Pheoaix dactylifera L. Bull. Col!. Sci. 179: 61-70. Sperana, A. & C.L. Calzoni, (1982): Effects of gamma irradiation on in vitro germination and ultrastructure of pollen. Env. and Exp. Bot. 22:339-347. Tisserat, B., J.M. Ulrich & B.J. Finkle (1933): Survival of Phoenix pollen grains under cryogenic conditions. Crop. Sci. 23: 254-56. Visser, T. & E.H. Ost, (1981): Pollen anrl pollination experiments III. The viability of apple and pear pollen as effected by irradiation and storage, Euphytica 30: 65-70. Zelles & H.W. Seibold, (1976): Radiation-induced pollen tube growth stimulation of pinus silvestris. Env. and Exp. Bot. 16:15-22.

13

E1fect of Gamma Irradiation

Table I Comparison of in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube of four male cultivars of date palm. Cultivars

Pollen Tube Length (Micron)

Germination Percentage

Smaismi • Adie Red Ghannami Wardi

86.5 73.5 57.0 52.5

a

314.3 312.7 272.7 260.5

b c c

a a b

b

(*) Values within column followed by same letters were not significantly different level according to Duncan's multiple range test.

Table 2 Correlation coefficients of pollen germination with pollen tube length of four male date palm cultivars. Cultivars

Correlation Coefficient (r)

+ 0.909

Smaisrni A die Red Ghannami Wardi (R) Significant at

+ 0.964 + 0.996 + 0.980

P~O.OS

according to t-tcst.

Table 3 Semi and complete lethal gamma ray doses for pollen germination of four date palm male cultivars. Cultivars

LDso (Krad)

LD10o (Krad)

Smaismi A die Red Ghannami Wardi

700 600 450 450

950 900 850 800

14

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A.A.M. Al-Jibouri, M. Kgazal and I.S. AI Saadawi

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17

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00

-

Date Palm J 5 (!): 19-35 Published 1987

MORPHOLOGY OF JUVENILE PALMS OF FOUR SPECIES OF PHOENIX S.S. GHOSH, S.K. DE AND T.A. DAVIS'" Indian Statistical Institute, Calcuta 700 035

ABSTRACT

The genus Phoenix comprises at least 17 species eventhough the specific differences between them are not particularly striking. In this paper we report observations on the morphological characters of young seedlings of Phoenix sylvestris, P. dactylifera, P. pus ilia and P. rupicola commencing from germination up to the age of 12 months by raising them at the Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta. Differences in the size and life of cotyledonary sheaths (apocole), prophylls, euphylls, number of plications per leaf and the onset of splitting of euphylls between' species were recorded. The primary roots and their first-order rootlets differed between species in number, total length, thickness, rate of Production and in longevity. The rate of expansion of the bole portion of stem also differed between species.

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Present Address: JBS Haldane Research Centre, Nagercoil 4, Tamilnadu, India.

19

S.S. Ghosh, S.K. De and T.A. Davis

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. t!.Y'JI o.ifo INTRODUCTION The Genus Phoenix is dioecious which is grouped under sub-family Phocnicoidcac of pahn8C or Arecaccae (Staflau, 1972)'"'. This genus comprises seventeen species (Tomlinson, 1979), but it is very difficult to differcntiat~ exactly each them. The chromosomes of the species have been reported to be remarkably alike in size and shape, and constant in number, 2n = 36 (Corner, !966), n ~ 18 (Tomlinson, 1979). However, specific differences in adult plants are found in the size and appearance of trunk and leaf, relative size of pcrianth lobes, size, shape, colour and taste of their fruits and also in the size, shape and position of the embryo in the seeds. In this paper we present data on the differences between four species of

Phoemx: P. P. P. P.

sylvestris Roxb. dacty!ifera L. rupicola Anders. pusilla Gaertn.

by studying the germination of seeds and also recording morphological

ft

According to Mahabale (1982) Name Pc:1lrnac is a conserved name. An order or a family has to be named after the type genus as per Sec. 2, Article I~, Note 3 of the International code of Botanical Nomenclature (Staflau !972). Areca is the oldest palm name Known in botanical literature. The family Palmae, therefore is to be called Arecacea, after the type genus Areca from India.

20

Mmphoiogy of Juvenile Frdms

characters of the respective seedlings up to the age of twelve months from the time of sowing the seeds. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ripe fruits of P. sylvestris were obtained from wild palms growing in the campus of the Indian Statistical Institute~ Calcutta. Fruits of P. dactylifera were procured from local market. The seeds of the two other species were obtained from the Indian Botanic Garden Calcutta. The seeds were sowm in seperatc nursery beds of sandy loam soil in north Calcutta. The days of sowing for the four species of 1'. Sy!vestris, P. dactylijera, P. pusil!a and P. rupicola were 29.6.1967, 8.2. 1968, 14.5. J971 and 26.7.1972 respectively. The seeds were examined at weekly intGrvnls to record the commencement of germination. All the species started to genninak within 30 days of sowing of seeds. Subsquent observations were made at monthly intervals untd the seedlings agecll2 months. In young seedlings, the length of apocolc and that of each main root and their maximum thickness were recorclccl periodically. r
Seed and gennin.ation process: The hard cndocarp in many palm fruits is absent in elate seeds, and the seed (endosperm) is often mistakenly referred to as the stone. The membranous pellicle that surrounds the seed is the thin inner layer of the fruit-wall. The embryo remains cmbcclclecl within the endosperm marked by a depression at the middle region, opposite to the furrow. The area of depression is the site for the embryo and has a weak-spot, the germination pore. The embryo is short and cylindrical, 3-5 mm in length. The stem-end of the embryo poitns inwards, while the root-end points outwards. By the elongation of the cotyledonary sheath, the primary axis of the embryo is carried deep into the soil (Plate l, Fig. A). The length of the cotyledonary sheath as well as its longevity arc different for the four species. The seedling remains connected to the seed by the elongated sheath till the entite portion of the reserve food is exhausted. The surface of

21

S.S. Ghosh, S.K. De and T.A. Davis

the cotyledon secretes enzymes which hydrolyse the proteins, oils and reserve cellulose of the endosperm cells and thus the cotyledon enlarges by digesting and absorbing the whole of its endosperm (corner 1966). The cotyledonary sheath in P. sylvestris grows to the length of 8.000 em. on an average and it was found inactive during the time of secod month's observation, whereas in P. dacty!ifera and P. pusilla, the cotyledonary sheath remained active even at the time of the third month of observation. The apocole in P. rupico!a was found inactive during the third month of observation. The length of cotyledonary sheath varies between 4.0 em and 4.2 em in P. dactylifera, 2.00 em. and 2.54 em. in P. pusilla and 3.08 and 4.87 em. in P. rupico!a. Soon both the apical regions of the axis become active and the primary roots and the prophyll pierce the cotyledonry sheath. The prophyll is the first foliar organ, a fleshy structure which has a sheath without lamina (Padmanabhan and· Veeraswamy, 1974). Next to prophyll, the first euphyll which is simple, lanceolate, plicate and having no haut is formed. The length, rate of growth, and longevity of prophyll and euphyll are different for all the four species. Numerical data on the prophyll of the 4 species are given in Table 1. Upto the age of 3 months, all the 4 species produced 2 euphylls. By this time, the first euphyll of P. sylvestris attained its maximum growth. From the size and rate of growth of the euphylls, it can be seen that up to the age of ten months, P. dacty/ifera was most vigorous in growth. However, P. rupicola, exceeded P. dactylifera from 12 months at the time when it produced the tenth euphyll. The first euphyll in P. sylvestris remained green at the 12 month observation. In P. rueicola, the first and the scond euphylls withered at the age of eight and nine months respectively. The first euphyll of P. dactylifera and P. pusi!la withered at the age of eleven months. P. rupicola produced leaves more vigorously during the later months as a sort of compensation for the early death of leaves. Data on the rate of growth, emerging time etc. of the euphylls are shown in the Plate-4. From table 4 it is clear that upto the 4th euphyll there was no difference in the number of plications between species. But from the 5th euphyll, a difference appeared gradually, P. sylvestris got more leaflets. The root system: During the first 12 months the seedlings of four Phoenix species produced 6-8 tough adventitious primary roots from the base of the young stem apart from the first primary root that continued to elongate from the tip of the radicle. The roots without secondary thickening remained

22

Morphology of Juvenile Palms

cylindrical with more or less uniform thickness. Some of the earlier-formed primary roots started rotting at the tip 3-9 months after their appearance. This induced the production of branch roots (which had the same thickness as the primary root), from healthy regions at the tip and thus enabled the roots to grow deeper. The roots maintained their girth more or less uniformly throughout their length. However, the girth of the subsequently-formed roots had greater dimension. The differences in the thickness of the four species of palms are shown in Table 5. The younger primary roots were usually 2-4 times thicker than that of the first primary root. Each primary root produced numerous rootlets, and with time, some of them produced second-order or even third-order rootlets. Such details were not recorded.

Besides rootlets, the seedlings produced special respiratory roots (pneumathodes). They were very short and white protuberances developing from all sides of the proximal part of primary roots. The loose texture of their cortical cells swelled up to allow ready diffusion of air through them. Production of respiratory roots was more pronounced during the rainy season or when the nursery got flooded. The germination of Phoenix is hypogcal and of 'remotive' type since the primary axis of the embryo is carried from the seed through the cotyledonary sheaths (Richard, 1811). During germination the embryonal axis is carried deep into the soil through the cotyledonary sheath. As soon as the root and shoot apices become active the elongation poroccss of the sheath stops. This sheath is termed variously by different investigators, such as apocole (Cook, 1939), gaine cotyledonaire or ligule (Gatin, 1906) cotyledonary limb (Moore, 1961) and cotyledonary stalk (Corner, 1966). The Phoenix seedling gets deeply planted in the soil away from the seed in the above manner because of the apoeole. It is common to several palm genera (Tomlinson, 1960a). This phenomenon is due to the adaptation by palms to a normally dry habitat (Rees, 1960). This morphology of the seedlings is an important factor in its establishment as it relates to the ability to penetrate the soil (Harper et al 1970). According to Brown (1976), the cotyledon of the stalk may provide an adaptive mechanism to place the embryonic plant quickly below the dry surface into the layers where the moisture is adequate for further development. In this paper we preferred to use the term of cotyledonary sheath.

23

S.S. Ghosh, S.K. De and T.A. Davis

In one of the eorler studies (Davis and Ghosh 1970) the seeds of P. sylvestris were sown in the nursery beds rnepared with ordinary soil, river sand, pebbles and cemented platform, covered with sandy loom soil of 1" thickness. Here the cotyiedonory sheaths were observed to be as long as of 8.01, 7.15, 4.68 and 3.92 em. long oncl as thick as of maximum thickness at the tubular region of 2.37, 2.15, 2.52 and 2.89 mm. respectively. So though the length ond thickness of the cotyledonary sheaths depend on their obility to penetrate the soil, in the present study the vmiation in the length and thickness of the cotyicdonmy sheaths for the four species of Pheonix might be due to the specific difference as the seedlings were raised under identical nursery conditions. In euphylls, plicotions are visible in parallel lines to the axis of petiole or of the rachis. Eight to ten wider and longer euphylls are successively produced and splitting is observed from the 6th or 7th euphyil. In the species studied, the first euphyll was observed to possess 3 plications or 3 leaflets. The later-formed euphylls possessed 5-11 piications and this inter-specific difference is significant. The growth rate of euphylls in each cases is different. This was in conformity with the observation made on P. dactylifera (Padmanabhan and Veerasamy, 1973). The process of gradual transition of the euphylls towards the adult shape in the 4 species was not identical. During the study, it was observed that even after splitting, the odd terminal leaflets resembled the shape of the first euphyll in conformity with Tomlinson (1960 b). Splitting always started from the base of the rachis. The complex plication process has been studied by Arber (1922), Eames (1953), Periasmny (1962), Padmonabhan (1969), Padrnanabhan and Vccrasamy (1974), Dengler and Dengler (1984) in several palms including Phoenix dactylifera. Belin-Depoux and De Queiroz (1971) had also their different views about the plication during their studies on Euterpe edulis. According to Larnbourne (1935) and Purvis (1956) the length of the primary roots depends upon the existing water level of the soil. From our observations we confirm the above findings as many of the primary roots started rotting at their tip when it touched the water level during rainy season. Such roots were observed to produce branch-roots when the water level went down. The primary roots of many species of palms could go much deeper in well-drained soil. Vine (1945), (Davis and Ghosh, 1970, 1976; Davis, Ghosh and Ghose, 1975, 1968). Pneumathodes in several forms are quite frequent in adult palms of many species e.g., Cocos, Elaeis, On.co;perma, Phoenix, Cryosophila etc. (Corner, 1966). This phenomenon

24

Morphology of Juvenile Palms

in Phoenix sylvestris and Cocos nucifera was also reported by Davis (1968). This was reported to be present in young seedlings of Areca catechu) Elaeis guineensis Phoenix sylvestris and Veitchia merrillii (Davis and Glosh, 1970; Glosh and Ghose, 1971, Davis, Ghosh and Ghose, 1975, 1978). Yampolsky (1924), Lambourne (1935), Purvis (1956) and others investigated the root system of Elaeis guineensis. Yarnpolsky observed more penumathodes on the serial parts of the plants than on the underground portions. Such pneumathoclcs were observed in the seedlings of all the four species grown under water-logged conditions during the present study. As in other palms, the formation of new roots at the bolar region and above it, is partially responsible for the expansion of the stem. The expansion within the terminal bud causes the palm to develop a broad woody foundation before the leafy crown which is visible above the soil and aerial stem is developed (Tomlinson, 1960b). The rates of expansion in the four species of Phoenix, differed considerably during the period of observation, under identical conditions. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We thank the Director) Botanical Survey of India, Calcuta for providing us with ripe fruits of P/wenic pusilla and Phoenix rupicola for this investigation. LITTERATURE CITED 1.

2.

3. 4. 5.

6. 7.

Arber, A. (1922): On the development and morphology of the leaves of palms. Proc. Roy. Soc., London. B. 93: 249-261. BelinhDupoux & H. Queiroz (1971): Contribution a l'Ctucle ontogenetique des palmicrs: quelques aspects de la germination de Euterpe edulis. Mart. Rev. Gen. Bot., 78: 339-371. Brown, K.E. (1976) Ecological studies of the Cabbage palm, Saba/ palmetto. Ill. Seed germination ancl seedling establishment. Principes, 20 (3): 98-115. Cook, O.F. (1939): Bornoa an endemic plant of Haiti. Natn. I·lort. Mag. 18 : 254-280 Corner 1 E.J .H. (1966): The natural History of Palms. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London 105, 192-93, 323. Davis, T.A.(l968): A study of respiratory organs of Cocos rwcifera Linn. Ceylon Coconut Quart. 3: 116-136. Davis,T.A. & S.S. Glosh(l970): Developmental morphology of young Pheonix sylvestris Roxb. Proc. 57th Ind. Science .Congress, Part III: 262.

25

S.S. Ghosh, S. K. De and T.A. Davis

8. 9.

Davis, T.A & S.S. Ghosh (1976): Growth of stem and leaves in Areca nut palm. Journal of Plantation Crops, 4 (1): 10-13. Davis, T.A. & S. S. Ghosh & M. Ghose (1975): Morphology and anatomy of juvenile Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceac). Form, structure and Function in Plants. Sarita Prakasan, India: 300~12.

10. Davis, T.A., S.S. Ghosh & M. Ghose (1978): Morphology of juvenile Areca palm. Journal of Indian Botanical Soc. 57: 219-27. 11. Dengler, N.G. & R.E. Dengler (1984): Formation of plications in the pinnate leaves of chrysalidocarpus Lutescens and the palmate leaves of Rhapis excelsa. Principes, 28 (1): 31-48. 12. Eames, A.J. (1953): Neglected morphoplogy of the palm leaf. Phytomorphology, 3: 172-189. 13. Gatin, C.L. (1906): Recherches anatomiques et chimiqus sur la germination des

palmiers. Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. IX, 3: 191-315. 14. Ghosh, S.S. & M. Ghose, (1971): Negatively geotropic roots in Areca seedlings. Arecanut & Spices, vol. 11:

4~7.

15. Harper, J.L., P.IC Lovell & K.C. Moore (1970): The shapes and sizes of seeds. Annual Rev. Ecol. Svst. I: 327-356. 16. Lam bourne, J. (1935): Note on the root habit of oil palms. Malay Agric. J. 23: 582 17. Mahabale, T.S. (1982): Palms of India. Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Science, Research Institute, Law College Road, Pune, India. 18. Moore, Jr., H.E. (1961): Botany and classification of palms. Am. Hart. Mag.

40:17. 19. Padmanabhan, D. (1969): Leaf Development in Phoen;x sylvestris L. 'In Recent Advances in the Anatomy of Tropical Seed Plants', eel. K.A. Chowdhury, 165~77

(Hindusthan Pub!. Corpn., Delhi). 20. Pachnanabhan & S. Veerasamy, (1973): Late splitting in Juvenile leaf of Phoenix dactyiifera L. Curr. So. (India), 42: 470-2. 21. Padmanabhan & S. Veerasamy (1974): Late splitting in Juvenile leaf of Phoenix dactylifera L. Aust. J. Bot., 22: 689-700. 22. Periasamy, K. (1962): Morphological and ontogenetic studies in palms. 1. Development of the plicate condition in the palm leaf. Phytomorphology 12:

54-64. 23. Purvis, C. (1956): The root system of the oil P'llm. Its. distribution, morphology and antomy. J.W. Afr. lost. Oil Palm Res. 1: 61. 24. Rees, A.R. (1960): Early development of the oil palm seedling. Principes 4: 148-150. 25. Richard, L.C. (181l) Analyse botanique. Des embryons Endorhizes ou monocotyledoncs, et particuliCrernent de celui des GraminCes. Ann. Museum

Hist. nat. 17: 451-52. 26. Staflau, F.A. et al (1972): International code of Botanical Nomenclature,

26

Morphology of Juvenile Palms

27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

(Editor), Utrecht. A Oesthocks uitgevermaatchappif N.V. Utrecht, Netherlands. Tomlinson, P.B. (1960a): Essays on the morphology of palms I. Germination and the seedling. Principes 4: 56-61. Tomlinson, P.B. (1960b): Essays on the morphology of palms. II. The early growth of the palm. Principes 4: 140-43. Tomlinson, P.B. (1979): Systematics and ecology of the palmae. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 1979. 10: 85-107. Vine, H. (1945): Report of the Chemistry Section. Agriculture Dept., Nigeria. Yampolsky, C (1924): The pneumathodes on the roots of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Am J. Bot. 11: 502-12.

27

oe

N

9.26 4 so 5.50

9.68 7.06 4.60 6.30

3rd:

6.20 4.90 6.75

dead

month

in

6.10 4.20 5.70

4th: month

4.50 dead

6.10

5th: month

months

dead 4.40

6th: month

Prophy!l

9.47 6.36 4.57 6 06

P. -~~ylveslris P. daCt)·'lifera P. Pusilla P. rupicofa

38.75 20.14 20.27 25.11

l

41.39 24.76 17.34 29.64

2

34.87 15.56 22.03

2~.62

3

22.60 32.80 10.70 31.31

4

23.64 29.21 11.50 32.30

5

18.19 29.83 12.34 33.06

6

Eophylls

Table 2. Average length of juvenile leaves (em) of 4 species of Phoenix during the period of study

12.03 31.94 10.23 24.95

7

5.25 27.46 9.25 24.92

8

21.75

17.71

9

9.60

10

In P. dacryiifera, the prophyll emerges 2 months after sowing and withers at the 6th month. P. sylvesrris has the longest prophyii with shortest life and P. pusilla has the shortest prophy!I with longest life.

Species:

N.B.

P. Sylvesrris P. dacty!ifera P. pusif!a P. rupicofa

2nd: month

Ist: month

Age

Table 1. Longevity and length of Prophyil (em) of 4 species of Phoenix

s;;·

~

~

tJ

;,.

~

"-

~

~

~

tJ

~

~

~~

:;: '"'

~

Sr.

N '-0

2.37 2.00 2 76 2.94 4.64 4.37 2.84 4.00

2

5.70 5.07 3.00 5.28

3 9.40 5.75 3.80 6.60

4

7.20 7.88 4.82 7 18

5 9.25 9.20 5.80 11.28

6 11.30 9.70 7.90 13.00

7 12.95 13.46 8.30 13.90

8

Age in months

12.90 15.80 10.30 14.50

9

19.0 11.84 15.70

• .) ,.) l

1_.., _..,,

10

16.32 21.20 15.20 17.90

!1

17.90 27.00 16.35 19.40

12

P. mpicola

P. sy!vestris P. daei.vlifera P. pusil!a

Species

3 3 3 3

1st.

3

3 3

·'

2nd. 5 5 5 5

3rd.

5

5

5 5

6 6

5th. 5 5

4th.

Table 4. :Number of plications of euphylls in four species of Phoenix.

8 6

7

6

7

9 9

7th. 7

6th.

Eophylls

8

8

iI lO

8th.

P. dacrylifera had [he smallest girth of stem at germinatton, but increase at a greater rate than the others. At the 12th mon[h, this registered a 13.5 fold increase.

P. dactylifera P. pusil!a P. rupicola

P. Sy!vesrris

Species

Table 3. Data on thickness (mm) of collar region in four species of Phoenix

;;

~

,..

~

.,

"§_

:;o

;,.

~

""'?.. ~ Q

2: ~ -2

w

=

P. P. P. P.

sylvestris dactylifera rupicola pusilla

Species

1.86 1.98 1.26 1.16

I

2.32 2.56 1.45 1.50

2

2.13

3.12 2.85 2.28

3 3.32 3.22 3.25 3.05

4 4.06 3.44 3.62 3.83

5 4.32 3.58 4.08 4.20

6

7 4.60 3.69 4.25 4.60

Serial number of primat"y roots

Table 5. Thickness of primary roots at base (mm) of our species fo Phoenix during 12 months.

3.92 4.38 5.00

8

4.03 4.45

9

4.40

10

"'



l?

'""'

;..

"'-

§

~

~

"' "

""'

2

s;l

"'

Mmphology of Juvenile Palrns

Plate I Fig.

(A) early stages of germination of P. dactylifera. (a) cross section of seed to indicate embryo and its position. (cl) & (c) enlarge embryo after soaking in water, (d) development of apocole and cotyledon, (c) development of radicle below apocole, (f) enlargement of cotyledon.

Figs.

B-0 P. dactylifera seedlings.

(B) 9 and 10 months old, (C) 1.1 months old. (D) 12 months old.

Plate 2

Fig.

A P. sylvestris seedlings (l to 4 months old) B P. dactylifem seedlings (1 week, and 1-4 months old) C P. rupicola seedlings (1 to 3 weeks, and 1-3 months old) D 1'. pusilla seedlings (1 to 3 weeks, and 1-3 months old)

Plate 3 Fig.

A P. sylvestris seedlings (9 to 12 months old) B 1'. pusilla seedlings (10 to 12 months old) C P. rupicola seedlings (9 and 10 months old) D 1'. rupicola seedlings (11 and 12 months old)

Plate 4 Growth rate euphyHs (in em.) of the seedlings of P. sylvestris, P. dactylifera, P. rupicola during 1-12 months after germination.

31

S.S. Ghosh, S.K. De and T.Jl. Davis

Plate - 1 EMBrf'YO

/em.

e

c

A

I

l··.··

32

Mmphology of Juvenile Palms

Plate . 2

\

c 33

S.S. Ghosh, S. K. De and T.A. Davis

Plate - 3

B

A

34

M01phology of Juvenile Palms

Plate - 4 60

~

L£NCTII OF EOPHVLLS FOR f2 MONT/IS

S - P SYLVESTRIS 0 - P. DACTYLIFERA A - P. PUSILLA

55

6 -·

P RIJPICOLA

0

50.

0

··12

A 12

1:?.

0 12

~7 45-

0

--!'!a ~5

~

'-

(

35-

"~ ;:: ~

A

_,' _,.,

:H: -s -,

20-

~

5

:~:

~~: ,2~

_,



_,

• r?to

~r,

"



_, _,

A

"

A

A-1

' _,

_,.'

"

., :,~

_,

_, -1

-9&.

"

~•

-{2

_, _,

' ., ., _,

_,"

-!J

_,

.,

.,

"

"

' _,



" .,

ORDER OF EOPHYLLS

A

"'

_,

0

35

"

'

·•

_,

"

•"

"

-"

-IV

··I:?.

A~~

:~

' _,

12

A

' .,"

-1

0

-!0

_,

:J-'1

"

,,

-/2

~- -S

5'

"

-:'11

B.IO

_,

_,

:p_,

"

"

"

_,

:!a

A

"1olf

.,

~-lr

10 --

•f;!

~'

:!is

' 15

·12 .fl

A.n -,;

_, 1\.f _,-~ ,. 0 _, " _,'

_," _,

•_, "

• _,

·ff

-12

~ ~30~ 25

o,

..

'

6. ··{:?.

:c:iC

'

" '

Date Palm J 5 (l): 36-47 Published 1987

MORPHOGENETIC VARIATION IN PALM EMBRYOS CULTURED IN VITRO A. ZAID Central Station of Saharan Agronomy

P.O.Box 533, Marrakech, Morocco.

ABSTRACT

A survey tissue culture study to determine the morphogenetic potential of excised embryos revealed intra-specific variation for several members of the Arecaceae. Embryos excised from mature seeds of 21 palm species were cultured on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium containing 3 g L- 1 activated charcoal, with and without 100 mg L·- 1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 3 mg L- 1 N6 (6 2 -isopentenyl) adenine. On nutrient media devoid of phytohormones excised embryos usually germinated. Although cultured embryos were often treated identically, four species showed distinct variation in such growth responses as shoot and root lengths. Embryos cultured on nutrient medium containing phytohormones exhibited notable variatrion in terms of callus fresh weight increases and explant diameter following the first culture passage. Corypha elata, Opsiandra maya Cook, and Phoenix dactylifera L. cultivar 'Sayer' were the only species that exhibited morphogenetic variation in media with and without phytohormones. An examination of th'is morphogenetic variation among palm species is described.

36

Mmphogenetic Variation in Palm

~'J t.S ~I .)I . J.J'll ..J'j.;;;;.l/1

.

.j-1 ~I [_J\> :ls.;u)l ~I

J~l....,al.l ~..G.;;) c!1J:,J ~I :i.ULJI , .j-1 ~I

c)->· :i.L.oL.J.I ~IJI

.:r \....;;.., 21 .:r GIJI

wl:..,o\ ~ ~ .1~1 ~

:V,IJj
..:....l,a.; . ;;.b:.I..L'll lfU')\:.>.1 ~
lfJI.J.-IJ (MS) !l~J ~)y JI..\.;JI .k.v._,JI

;J/

r

3j 2,4-D ;J;

;;_,;_,.__,.., .;:_,t;L,.;I l-.;,1j

~)l;:.:;..l

r

100 CJj.Jo jt

l?\ .y :c,Jbwl:..,o\

J :;.,JJ;-11 ~IJI ~

~)

ygJ;\ U:>-

,J,;.:JI wl:..,o\

t:' ,.b...:.;...,~ ;J; ~ 3 J-"

4,;1~ .1L..JI 0

J ..:.....<-Jj

J ;;.,3 J)I ~IJI ;Ji.,.:. J .2ip

J .~ ..::..>L,;I

-
4-_,;

cr _,...JJ

J.=- . . _.

~~I

J

.:r Ll;_rL. U')\:.>.1 ..::..>#l ....... .;:_,L.;y.;-1>1 J9 :C..,.Ji.J.-Ij 4,;1..\.;JI .1L..jiJI l..l.4J I ~ (}J j-11 .,;L,;J I •_rl:-1 }JJ .._rll..5:J.l l? )o.J I 0 j} I ;, l..,j ~ PhoenixJ Opsiandra mayaJ Corypha elata L. wl:..,oiJI .;:_,__w\J . JJ'II

J

.1L.J'II .. c)IJ}I ~

~I J.. ~')\:.>.1

oil JL:;.>-1 ~y tS~

(.r.L.. J>IJ)I ..

l.5 . lfJ~ ..9\

~I)

.,:_,\j.T".}I

J-"

dactylifera L.

"..JU-1 4;1l...;JI

. w L:..,o 'I I '-r:c JIJ_~ I _#).I

J .;:_,\;')\:.>.~I

INTRODUCTION Palm propagation is mainly achieved through seed germination. Due to the

37

A. Zaid

high degree of heterozygousity, which is often compounded by intra and inter-specific hybridization, each seedling may be considered as a new clone or a seedling mixture (Hartman & Kester, 1968). The term clone is used todefine <
A tissue culture survey was performed using 21 palm species to determine the morphogenetic potential of excised palm embryos in vitro. During the course of this study it became obvious that variation in growth responses from explants occured within species. The purpose of this study was to recognize and describe the intraspecific variation. Potentially, by understanding the genetical variation of palm explants, the nutritional requirements necessary to sustain growth can be elucidated. Morphogenetic variation among members of the same species has been an ubiquitious phenomenon associated with the tissue culture of plants (Carlson, 1973; Green, 1977). MATERIALS AND METHODS

The seeds were soaked in tap water for 48 hours and were repeatedly rinsed prior to the surface sterilization procedure. Seeds were treated for 15 min. with sodium hypochloride solution at 2.63% (containing one drop of

38

Morphogenetic Variation in Palm

Tween-20 emulsifier per lOO mi. solution). Seeds were then rinsed three tifues with autoclaved distilled water to remove residual disinfectant. The ethanol flamed anvil hand-cutter was used to open seeds longitudinally. The exposed embryos were aseptically removed and planted with the aid of a scalpel fitted with II 11 surgical blade. Careful attention was given to avoid embryo damage. Basal nutrient medium employed for initial embryo germination tests consisted of Murashige and Skoog inorganic salts ( 1962) and the following (in mg L;· 1): thiamine-HCL, 0.4; i-inositol, JOO; sucrosc,30,000; phytoagar, 8,000; and neutralized activated charcoal, 3,000. In order to induce callus production, embryos were cultured on basal nutrient medium supplemented with HJO mg L ~ 1 2,4-dichlorophcnoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and 3 mg v·' N'' (L\ 2 -isopentyl) adenine (2il'). the pH of all media was acljustecl to 5.7 :t 0.! prior to the addition of agar with 0.1 N HCl or NaOH. Media was autoclaved for 15 min. at 15 Ib!ir? pressure at 12l°C, and solidified slanted cooled at a

45". Twenty excised embryos for each palm species were planted per treatment. All cultures were incubated in a temperature controlled environmental chamber at 29°C ± 1. Germination tests were conducted under n 16 hour daily exposure to 100 ft-canclle Gro-Lux light. Callus induction tests were performed in the clark. Explants were reeulturecl every 8 weeks at which time data was taken. RESULTS

General Remarks. Within one week after excision, embryos of most palm species began to enlragc. The growth results obtained at the end of 8 weeks in culture are presented in Table 1. Completely uniform and positive morphogenetic responses such as JOO
39

A. Zaid

developed after two to six weeks in culture (Fig. 1). The cotyledon haustorium was much reduced in size and was probably non-functional during this stage of development. Within the same species a wide range of morphogenetic responses was

exhibited (Table 1). In contrast to the typical situation, some embryos developed a large haustorium, e.g. Opsiandra maya Cook (Fig. 2). Embryo germination rates were eratic among tested species. Some embryos did not germinate at all or if they did, growth was arrested at the cotyledon elongation stage (Fig.2). Primary and secondary roots and leaves developed from some embryos within species, while these structures were absent in

other embryos (Fig. 2). In some cases, embryos elongated and produced a primary root but lack the emergence of first foliar leaf. These types of morphological variations among cultured embryos were commonly observed in C01ypha elata L., Heterospathe elata Scheff, Opsiandra maya, and Phoenix dactylifera L. cultivars 'Sayer' and 'Deglet Nour' (Table 1). Variation in root, shoot, and leaf length and number was also common among embryos of the same species (Fig. 2 and 3). To enhance adventitious root formation, seedlings were recultured into nutrient media ·containing 0.1 mg L- L a-naphthaleneacetic acid without

charcoal. Embryos that failed to germinate after the first culture passage were recultured to fresh media. However, their subsequent germination was rare. Also embryos, which exhibited some cotyledonary elongation, failed to produce complete seedlings in later cultures. We observed variation in the seedling development among embryos of the same species. Callas formation. Table 1 shows wide callus-related morphogenetic variation within several palm species. Eight species exhibited pronounced

intra-specific variation (Table 1). Nutrient media containing 100 mg L . . , 2,4-D and 3 mg L- 1 2ippromoted the initiation of callus from embryos within 4 to 8 weeks in culture. Several species exhibited cotyledonary elongations only in this media, e.g. Aiphanes caryotaefolia Wed. and Arenga mindorensis Merr. Among embryos of several species there was a wide range in callus fresh weight. For instance, in Brahea armata Mar. cultures, the

variation of callus weight ranged from 0.236 to 0.715 gm. with an average of 0.660 gm. Further, the diameters of calli varied between 0.51 and 1.49 em. with an average of 1.39 em. Continued reculture to fresh media failed to enhance callus formation from embryo explants that did not respond after the first culture passage. Variation in terms of callus fresh weight was common in second and third generation cultures (Fig. 4).

40

Morphogenetic Variation in Palm

DISCUSSION Phenotypic plasticity in plants is controlled by genetic and environmental factors and may vary within the same genotype according to the developmental stage examined (Falconer, 1960; Langridge, 1963). Embryo maturity is a determining explant factor for obtaining survival and subsequent morphogenetic responses in vitro (Raghavan, 1976). Nutrient media composition and culture conditions are important external considerations to obtain embryo growth and development (Raghavan, 1976). In this study, morphogenetic responses including callus, shoot and root production from excised embryos varied within some palm species. Similar results have been observed in embryo cultures in other species such as Zea mays L. (Novak eta!., 1979), Oryza sativa (Yie & Liaw, 1975; Maeda, 1970), Bryophyllum diagremotianum (Nishi et al., 1968), and Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Rabcchault et al., 1968, 1973). Culture variability noted has included growth rates, organogenetic potential, and callus color and texture. In our study, potential reasons for this morphogenetic variation could be mixing of pollen and/or seeds from different trees. No explanation is offered as to why other palm species did not show such wide variation in vitro. Several palm tissue culture studies have performed testing the nutritional factors on embryo growth and development (De Guzman et a!., 1979; Fisher & Tsai, 1978; Reynolds & Mmashigc, 1979).

The palm intra~specific variation observed in vitro resembles the phe·· nomena that commonly occur in nature (Carpenter & Ream, 1976). Such in vitro variation should be recognized. In tissue culture nutritional studies, it is necessary to obtain valid growth results in response to tested treatments. Growth variation within the same species in palms would make the true hormonal and nutritional effects very difficult to analyse using embryo cultures. Hence, consideration should be allotted as to the source of the explants used in future metabolic studies in palms. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to express my deep appreciation to Dr. Brent Tisserat for his guidance, advices and invaluable assistance while I was at the Fruit and Vegetable Chemistry Laboratory, Pasadena, California, U.S.A.

41

A. Zaid

LITICRATURE CITED 1.

?... 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. B. 9. lO. 11. 12. !3.

14.

(\nlson, P.S. (1973): Somatic cell genetics as a tool for plant breeding. In: [ncluced mutations i11 vegetatively propagated plants. eel. Elsevcr Scientific Company. Vienna. pp: l-l7R. Cmpcnter, J.B. and C.L. Ream. (1976): Date palm breeding, a review. Date Growers' Inst. Rcpt. 53: 25-33. De Guznum, E.V., A.G. del Rosario, and E.M. Ubaldc. (1979): Proliferative growths and organogenesis in coconut embryo and tissue cultures. Philippine J. Coconut Studies 7: l~W. Falconer, D.S. (lS'60): Introduction to quantitative genetics. Ronald Press Company. New York. pp: 1-365. Fisher, J .B. & J.H. Tsai (1 97R): In vitro growth of embryos and callus of coconut plam. in vitro. 14: 307-ll. Green, C. E. (l977): Prospects for crop improvement 111 the field of ce_ll culture. Horl Scienc~. 12: 13!-34. Hartman, I-LT. & D.E. Kester. (1968): Plant Propagation principles and practices. 2nd Ed Prentice Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. pp: 1-662. Khudairi, A.K. ( 1958): Studies on the germination of elate-palm seeds. The effect of sodium cbloriclc. Physio Plant 11: 16--22. Langridge, J. (_1963): The genetic basis of climatic response in environmental control of plant growth. Academic Press, New York. pp: 1-381. Maeda, E. (1970): Growth of rice callus derived from embryo under the subculture condition. Pwc. Corp. Sci. Soc. Japan 40: 141-49. Munier, P (1973): Lc palmicr-datticr; Techniques agricoles et ptoduction. G.P. Maisonneuve & Larose. Paris. pp: l-176. Murasluge, T. & F. Skoog. (_1962): A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15:473-97. Nishi, T., Y. Yamada, & E. Takahashi., (_[968): Organ redifferentiation and plant restoration in rice ca!!us. Nautrc. 219: 508-509. Novak, F.J.,Z. Opatrny, B. Rovenska, & M. Nesticky. (1979): Studies on the morphogenetic response of Maize tissue cultures of different origin. Bioi. Plant

2l: 418-26. 15.

Popcnoe, P.B. (1913): Date growing in the old and new world. West. Ind. Grmlcns. Altadena, CA. 6: 59-7 t. t6. RabCchault, I-I., J. AhCe, & G. GuCnin. (1968): Recherches sur la culture in vitro des embryons du palmier a huile (Elaeis gu.inee~·is Jacq.) IV.-·- Effets de Ia teneur en eau des llO!X et de Ia durCc clc leur stockagc. 01Cagincux 23: 233-37. 17. Rab6chault. H., G. GuCnin, & ]. AhCe. (1973): Recherches sur Ia cutlurc in Fitro des embryons clu palmier a huile (Elaeis guifW-'ensis Jacq.). IX. Activation de Ia scnsibilite au lait de coco par une rChydratation des graines. OICagineux.

28: 333-36. 1.8. Raghavan, V.

(1976):

Experimental

42

Embryogenests in vascular plants.

Morphogenetic Variatwn in Palrrt

Academic Press, Inc. New York. pp. 1-603. 19. Reynolds, J._F'., & T. Murashigc. (1979): Asexual embryogenesis in callus cultures of palms. In vitro. 15: 383-87. 20. Slwfaat, M. (l978): Problems in date-palm propagation. Indian Horticulture. 23: 15··18, 31.

21. Yie, S.T., & S.I. Liaw. (1975): Studies on the growth and development of excised embryos of different varieties of rice. Bot. Bull. Academia Sinica. 16: 149-58.

Figure 1.

Sequence of germination from Phoenix dactylifera cultivar 'Sayer' excised embryos cultured on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium containing 0.3% activated charcoal. From left to right; early cotyledon elongation stage (1-week old); continued cotyledon elongation and primary root emergence (2-wccks old); emergence of first foliar leaf (3-weeks old); and established seedling in vitro (6·-weeks old). Note that the cotyledon haustorium is much reduced in size in all stages of seedling development.

43

~

:::! ~

Figure 2.

·.;,

Examples of the types of germination responses obtained from excised embryos of Opsiandra maya after 8 weeks in culture. Note that some embryos (far left) are underdeveloped compared to others (far right).

.,..,.

Morphogenetic Variation in Palm

Figure 3.

Examples of the various types of morphogenetic responses obtained from Heterospathe elata excised embryos after 8 weeks in culture. Note that the extent of germination varies markedly among the seedlings.

45

A. Zaid

Figure

. medium cont
46

...,_, 50,G 65.G

Opsirmdra maya Cook."'

c.

6.

a.

O.G48±0.005

50,G

29.C

65.G 30.G 79.G .W.G

36.C

4D.CE

25.C 0.111±0.034

0.081±0.Ci09

0.324±0.030

70,CE

42.C

55.CE ~J,CE

1.710±0.04{) 0.590±0578 1.730±0.151 O.ii6±0.0C4 0.432:::0.024 0 20-1±0.031

6l.C 4lC 64,C 27,C 25.C 35.C

50,G 65,G 53.G

1.825±0.318

1.95..:.0.3~

0.63± l8

3.51-4.01 \.81-2.22

3.93.:.0.43

2. i3±0.54 0.905-0.119

0.61±0.09

0.80±0.11

0.63-0.86

069-0.083

0.53-0.6-!

9.13-10.89 3.67-4.12

per species

l0.7-+±L32 4.03±0.35

2.4~-2.77

4.ll'0.62

0.5870.Q6

1.35±0.15

2.70±0.22

5.13-7.21

OA7·0.59

6.87± 1.70

0.5~±0.0.5

0.041-0.053

1.12-1.31 0.95-1.!5

0.87-0.95

1.21-1...!0

8.15±2.43 4.21±1.!1 6.66:::0.91

1.71±0.78

0.50-6.55 5.43-9.27 4.17-6.37 1.29· 1. 91

1.90±0.33

3.23::'::0.62 3 53-3.85

8.43-9.53

4.85±0.71

7.75± 1.43 1.91±0.52 0.40±0.08 H8±L52

1.35::':0.14

8.10±1.80 5.31 ±0.75 1.76±0.50

2.34±0.89

3.75±0.27

9.50::0.93

3.31-5.53

4.55-4.34

0.61-3.09

8.03-8.95 4.83-5.79

2.31±1.22

0.302-0.335

1.59-!.83 0.51-1.76 0.20-2.1

1.13·1.32

1.21-1.53 0.53-0.69

4.88±0.57

8.75± LOD 5.6D±L17 l.l2±0-12 5.13±0.78

4.07-4.23

Ave.

1.75±0.25 1.37±0.07 2.37±0.i2 0.92±0.15 1.28±0.10 !.!0::':0.06

1.26..:.0.76

l.iS±O.l3 0.64i:0.07

l.ll-1.32

0.41-1.53

0.51-L-19 0.33-0.45 0.53-0.73

4.15±0.35

Range

culture {em)

Root length/

1.633-1.729 0..+31-0.649 1.431-1.903 0.103-0.119 0.413-0.435 0.!95-0.211

].796-1.913

0.563-1.731 0.120-0.147

1.24±0.13

0.421-0.459

0.42±0.04 0.70±0.21 1.48±0. 13

1.37±0 14

culture (rm)

:'11ean

Shoot length!

vitro.~.

culture (em)

Range

--:-2,4

embyos in

Callus dia./

0.236-0.716 0.049-0.057 0.161-0.329 0.350-1.431

Range

pa~m

~:~~:11,~:~~,if:i:.~c~fJ1~t~:~~~~:;}~~:i~i'i:~~,~~:;~~~';:'~;~'JS/~ ';;';~::;,~:"~";ro~~~;"Is',~~~f~;"""mbplovd

Thrinas radialrl Lodd. Trachyca.rpus for/lwei \Ver1dL Washiugw11ia jilifera Wend!. robUJJa Wend!.

pusilla· J. GaeLn.c rec!inala Syivestrix {L.) Roxb. Preswea so. Rhopalost}·!is sapida Wend!. & Druce Saba/ minor (Jacq) Pers

L. ·saver'

L "Deglet Nour'

Phoenix da.ctylifera

69,C

0.132±0.027

1.34l±O.i04

65.C 34.C

JO,G

0.456±0.027

10,G

55.C

69.C

Mart.''

e/ma Scheff.

11mW!G

Bwia capilale Beet. Corypha elma L." E.'}·Ihea eduis S. Wats." Hererosomhe'·

Brahea

Livis!o1w decipiens Bm". merrillii Saribus

Mean

0.066±0.121 0.054±0.0!M 0.322±0.080 1.285±0.136

40.G

-2,4-D

Callus weight! <:ulture (gm)

70.G 14,G 30.G 50.0

+2,4--D

responses%

Morphogeneiicb

75.C 43,C 47,C

romanzoffiwwm Becc.

Arecas/rum

Name

Table 1. Growth and Development of excised

3.73--.1..21

0.51-0.73

1.54-19

0.51-0.59

1.19-1.43

6.31-9.59 3.57-ns 5.83-6.85

0.31-4.7..\

l.71-i.97

2}:7-3.45

2.70-5.23

6.70-7.83 1.53-2.09 O.Il-l.73 3.67-5.13

2.I0-2 ..W

Range

-2,4

2t

" o-o """ ~:

~

"'§"

~

~

~

"



~

~

~

Date Palm .J 5 (l): 48-58 Published 1987

ABNORMAL lmANCHING IN DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) A. ZAID Plant Physiology

Dcp
Station Centrale d'Agronomic Sah:1ricnne B_P, 533,

Marrakech,

i\ll()rtlCCO.

ABSTRACT

Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) showing branching phenomenon, this may be attributed to dichotomy, axillary bud development, polyembryony and or attack by disease. Date palm trees that shows such phenomenon arc fertile and may continue to brnnch again. Further studies on analysis of the vascular system of branched date palm arc needed. For such study may lead to a better understanding of tissue culture for the purpose of in vitro date palm propagation.

..U,I j ':"' lo>} I .!.f533 ·""·.?

,<,;1~1

;;,.1,}1 <,jl')l :<.b..ll ''"'L;;JI

~ ~

~jJ.I :\.
\L...,Jj':JI

Jl

>~. l".; ILJ ~I

cP

.~l.r'':l~ lf;.:l.ol ~ 3 \j 3 ~':II

,_,\..c . :c,; U oJ'

0

J.iJ

~\...0

,J.J.:;

_,..jl ;J.;...;

J .b.~

•-,Jl.d:-1 t>'_;JI .;_,1.; ,
L.a.,:. 0~ o..!"' IJiJ I , .1. L? ~ L? ..U I _,..J I J.0.' 48

Abnormal [)ranching in Dale Palrn

;;__., IJJJ I ,.i.J,

J'-' .;z_;L<-_,J I ~ 'J I '-"~ jJ.iJ


'-"' IJJJ OJJ _rb ~ 1.;_,

J jS\ U _,.... Jl L.;,_y;; 4J .~1 ,..J..., ~)>

INTRODUCTION To a popular mind, perhaps the. most characteristic feature of the palm family is a tall, straight undivided stem surrounded by its single head. Branching in plams has not been fully investigated and the available literature is often scanty and unsatisfactory. Perhaps the small number of angiosperms showing branching are more an indication of limited study, especially of tropical groups, than of the rarely of this phenomenon. This note is to record the occurence of branching in elate palm (Phoenix

dactylifera L.) which has never been reported as far as we are aware. This is interesting to add another species to those in which branched palms have been observed. It is apparently the first time and the only instance recorded of branched date palms in all date growing areas. The question then arises, what is or are the cause (s)?This is not without an economic interest ancl it might be possible to double or quadruple the yield. Also, and from the propagation point of view, if the phenomenon is understood it may be posible to apply and control it in tissue culture.

I - Advanced hypotheses and causes of date palm branching: There is a considerable controversy regarding the. principle and mode of branching in palms. Several cuases and hypotheses were aclvancecl (Table l). Unfortunately accounts which have confused different types of branching have been published. II - I Dichotomous Branching: Fisher (1974) has cited the following examples of true dichotomous branching in angiosperms: Nypa fruticans (Palmac), Chamaedorea cataradarwn (Pal mac), Hyphaenae thebaica (Palmae), Asclepias syriaca (Asclepiadaccae), Allaqoptera (Palmae) and MamMammitania Sp. (Bokc). In these plants the main shoot--tip divides, each into cuqal branches. Fasciation and dichotomy were considered ( 16) as essentially the same phenomenon except in dichotomy two equal shoots occur while in fasciation there is production of multiple equal shoots. The apical meristem may split down the center physically to produce two or more new shoot apices.

49

A. Zaid

For date palm, after a survey of three years in Moroccan date plantations we found a specimen in Afechtal grove (Marrakech) with some several hundreds other palms which shows nothing abnormal save its dichotomous branching (Figure Ia). The history of the branching of this tree could not be accurately ascertained, but judging from its mode of branching the terminal bud must have been split down into two dichotomic meristems. Later branching could be ascribed, with probability, to the direct stimulation of the first branching. From the initial stem (Figure 1b) branches a and b were born. Branch b further branched dichotomously and produced branches c and d. Branch d later branched dichotomously producing branches e and f. Branches a and c continued to grow without branching. In this specimen, there is no evidence of insect attack or other disease likely to have caused this fasciation. The stem has clearly flatened near the junction from where the brunches start. This prove that the branching is due to fasciation and not to development of simple axillary buds. II-2 -Axillary bud development: Branching in palms was speculated to be due to axillary-bud out-growth, after destruction of the apical meristem (2, 30, 35). Where injury has occured to the terminal bud, the axillary buds, usually dormant, are incited into growth by the abondance of nourishment which the former would have monopolized (Figures 2 a & 2 b). When the terminal bud is not destroyed, the theory says that the branching is caused by the development of an axillary bud well below the main terminal bud, which it usually catches up in growth some year laters and being, then equal in sizes or nearly so and parallel to it (3). The two stems being equal in height and diameter, and flourishing and fructifying like two isolated trees; hence it would appear that they are of equal age. IJ-3 - Polyembryony and Polycarpy: Branching in palms is also loosely applied to cases of polyembryony and polycarpy (11). Multiple shoots due to a close adhesion among themselves, appears to start from a single point.

The occurance of polyembryony is reported to take place in palms (7 ,10,16,21,22,31 ,36). In other plants, these extra embryos may be derived from fertilized synergids or separation of the zygote into resultant multiple embryos (23). Polycarpy in palms, also leads to false branching (16,4,6), have seen a coconut fruit with two fertile carpels. Each of the two chambers has its own endosperm and embryo. Forbes (22) and Davis (8) observed a coconut seedling with three developed carpels. In date palm, no case of such

50

Abnormal Branching in Date Falm

phenomenon has been yet reported) except in Dr. Tisscrat's laboratory

(U.S.D.A, Pasadena, CA. USA) where we had the opportunity to see twin-embryos of date palm developing in vitro and gaving arise to two plantlets. The experimental induction of twin embryos was rr:::portcd in palms (1,12,14). II-4 · Other hypotheses: /l-4.1 - Diseases and insects attacks: As mentioned earlier, the cause of branching are generally unknown (20,41). However, injury due to lightning (16), beetle attack (2), torching with kerosene to counteract beetle attack (33), severe hail storm (19,29) bud rot (24) and-disease (16,38) has caused branching in palms. According to Davis (11) lightning appears to be a common cause for the production of branches in coconuts. The shock produced by ligthning strikes is mild enough to split the growing point generally along two or more planes. Each split portion develops into an individual branch. A similar ation occurs with damage caused by insect injury especially by the rhinoceros beetle (16). In the case of date palm, Djerbi (18) reported two minor diseases (Black Scorch and Belaat diseases) which are responsible for the destruction of the terminal bud. Some attacked palms recover by developing one or several lateral buds.

Il-4.2 · Floral Bud Reversion to the Vegetative State: There is another phenomenon in palms which is falsely called branching. It consists in the metamorphosis of an inflorescence shoot. The individual flowers in the · spadices terminate into small vegetative shoots (HI). The reversion process of • the individual flowers or flower branches of a palm to produce a vegetative structure has also been termed phyllody (9), virescence or foliation (Shankla, 1969), and ehloranthy or proliferation (11,6). Natural vegetative proliferations from inflorescences or from floral sites have been reported in many palms e.g. Cocos (1,8, 13,37,40,42), Phoenix (30), Elaeis (26), Areca catechu (14), and Borassus (17). Hilgeman (24) postulated that the differentiation of axillary buds into offshoots or inflorescences is controlled by auxins and photosynthetically active leaves in response to a definite photo-period.

Several investigators have attempted to induce the reversion process via chemical treatments. Davis (8), working with coconut palm, foliarily applied auxins: IAA, thiourea, 2,4,5-TP, and ethylene chlorlydum to adult trees. Twenty years later, lttersum (28) experimented with GA 3 on flowering in coconut and oil palms. Repeated injections of 3 to 20 ml of GA 3 solution (at concentrations of 0-lO,OOOmg-L) into the inflorescence-axis of very young

51

/i. Laid

spadices, dit not alter tl1c normal flower development. Extensive applications of phytohormoncs on date palms morphogenesis (34) also indicated negative results. 1!~4

.3 --- 5Jeeds gerrnination: Branches could merely result from seeds

failling into and germinating in the axils of the petioles. This point has been fully discussed and shown to be quite untenable by several authors (28,34). III -·· Fertility in branched palms: There is a belief among some that branched palms do not bear. Partly it is due to the confusion which exists as to the meaning of branched palms. The date palms cited above are all productive without any exception. Burkill (3) recorded cases of fertile coconut palms. Quisumhring (33) siad «It is assumed by many authors that branches arc generally sterile, but the majority of cases are of fertile branches.» CONCLUSION.

a) b) c) d)

c)

F'rom a consideration of the foregoing it may be gathered: Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) may be considered now as a member of palm family showing branching phenomenon. Branching in date palm is a result of either dichotomy, axillary bud development, polyembryony and attack by a disease. Branched date palms are fertile and can produce as many as a single headed palms. The need of an analysis of the vascular system of branched date palm by cinematographic techniques. The anatomical study is necessary to show the continuity of growth from the single to the diviclccl state of the shoot. To study in vitro the regenerating capacity of divided portions of the apical meristcm and axillary buds of these specimens in hope to establish a rapid mass propagation technique for date palm.

LITERATURE CITED l.

2. 3. 4.

Balaga. I-I.Y. (1975): Induction of branching in coconut. Kalikasan, Philipp. J. Bioi 4: 135-40. Biskwas, K. (1934): Observations on some plant abnormalities in Bengal. Current Science: 189~93. Burkil!, L.I--I. (1923): The fertility of brnnchccl coconut palms. The Gardens' Bulletin (1): 1-J. Chanclrasc:kharan, S.N. & D.D. Sunclararaje (1950): Double ovmy in Cocos nucifera L. Current Science 3-94.

52

/1hnonna! Htancliitlg it1 {)(l[c Palm

5. 6. 7.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

17. 18.

19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

Cbcrian Jacob, K. (t936): Stem fasciation m the Areca p<1lrn (Areca catachu L.) J. Bombay Nat. 1--Iist. Soc. Chcrian Jacob, K. (l940): A Bi-cellular coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol. 4l: 906. Costerus, J.C., & J.J. Smith (1923): Studies in tropical teratology. Ann . .J. Buitcnz. 32: 24-26. Davis, T.A. (1948a): Abnormal Palms of travancorc I [I. Abulbillifcrous coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.). J. Bombay. Nat. Hist. Soc. 47: 527-29. Davis, T.A. (1948b): Abnormal pnhnsoftravancore. tV Polyc.: dactylifera L) Regional Project for Palm and Dales Research Center in the Ncar East & North Africa, llagbclacl, Iraq, pp ll4). Field, F. (1908): A branching elate palm (J'hoem>: .1yivestris). J. Bombny Nnl. !list. Soc. l8: 699·700. Fisher, J.B. (1974): Axillary and dichotomous branching in tbc palm clwmaedorea. Amer. J. Bot. 61(10): 1046-56. Fisher, J.B. & JJ-1. Tsai (1979): A branched coconut seedling in tissue culture, Principes 2J: l28·Jl. Forbes. H.D. (1979): Notes on the Cocos nucifera L. .f. Bot. 8: 193-94. Guevara, V.F. 1960: The occurcncc of twin embryos in Cocos nucij(~ra L. The Philippine Agriculturist. 45: 520-22. Hamilton; A.A. (1920): Abilormal lmtnching in a palm. The Australian Naturalist: 156-57. Hart, W.e. (1888): Note on some branching palms . .1. Bombay Nat. !fist. Soc. 3: 250·55. Henry, P., D. Scheidecker (1953): Nouvelle contribution i\ l"Ctude de E!aeis vivipares. 016ag.8:(J8l-88. Hilgeman, R.H. (1954); The differentiation, development and anatomy ot" the axillary bud, inflorescence. and off-shoot in tbe date palm Report ot· the Annual

53

A. Zaid

Date Growers' Inst. 31: 6-10. 28. Ittersum, A.V. (1966): Afdcling tropiehe plantenleclt. Praktijkvers-lag. p. 66/6 Wageningcn: pp. 26. 29. Milne, D. (1918): The date palm and its cultivation in the Punjab. The Punjab Gov. Public: pp. 155. 30. Morris, D. (1893): On the phenomena concerned in the production of forked and branched palms. Royal Garden Public. 3:281-98. 31. Petch, T.B. & C.H. Gadd (1923): The replacement of the terminal bud in the

coconut palm. Annals of Bot. 37: 445-50. 32. Pulney, M.d. (1870): On branched palms in southern India. Trans. Linn. Soc. 26: 661-62. 33. Quisumbring, E. - (19326): Branching in coconut. The Phillip. Agric. 15: 3-11. 34. Rcuvcni, 0., Y. Adato, and H.L. Kipnis. (1972): A study of new and rapid method for the vegetattvc propagation of elate palms. Report of the Annual Date Growers' Inst. 49: 17-24.

35. Ridley, H.N (1907): Branching in palms. Annals of Bot. 21: 415-30. 36. Sakharan, R. J. (1956): Polyembryony in Phoenix dactylifer L. Science and Culture 22 (12): 686-87. 37. Shortt, J. (1885): A monograph on coconut palm (Coco nucifera L.) Govt. Press. Madrass: pp 57. 38. Sinclair, W.F. (1889): A branching Areca-nut palm. J. Bombay. Nat. Hist. Soc:

317. 39. Srinivasan, K.R. (1945): Instance of faxiation in Palmyra (Borassus flabellifer L.). J. Bombay. Nat. Hist. Soc 46: 201-202. 40. Sundasrip, H.,H. Kaat, & A. Davis (1978): Clonal propagation of the coconut via the bulbils. Phil. J. Coc. 3: 5-14. 4.1. Tomlinson, P.B. (1971): The shoot apex and its dichotomous branching in the

Nypa palm. Ann. Bot. 35: 865-79. 42. Venkataraman, K. (1928): Madras Agriculture year-book: pp. 29.

54

"' "' Curly palm

Wild date palm or Doum palm of Egypt

+ Pheonix sylvestris, Roxb.

Nypa frulicans. Oreodoxa regia, Kunth. Phoenix robelenii.

lara paim Nypa palm Royal palm

+ + +

+ Leopoldinia pulchra, Mart.

Hyphaena thebaica K.

+ Howea belmoreana.

+

Madagaxan palm Coconut palm

Palmyra palm_

Areca nut palm Beetle nm palm

+ Area Catechu L

Arenga pinnata Merr. + Borassus flabelliformis L (or flabellifer L.) + Chamaedorea martiana + Chrysalidocarpus Lutexens. + Cocos nuclfera L.

Common name

Species -Injury to the terminal bud - Axillary bud development - Nor specified; but there is no insect or disease attack. - Axillary bud development - Fire, insect or disease attacks - Not specified. -Dichotomy - Axillary bud development - Replacement of the terminal bud by one or several axillary buds. - Inversion of flower buds to vegetative ones. - Insect attack or mechanical injury {lighrining) - Polycarpy - Axillary bud development - Injury to the terminal bud & growth of axillary ones. - Dichotomy _Axillary bud development - Dichotomy - unknown - Injury or destruction of rhe terminal bud; development of axilary buds. - Injury or destruction of the terminal bud (insects, hail storm); development of axillary buds. - Excess of nourishment

Advanced hypotheses

Table l A list of Branching Palms and Advanced Hypotheses

- Biskwas, 1934.

- Hart, 1888; Field 1908, Davis, 1950a, J950b.

- Davis, 1973. - Morris, 1893. - Tomlinson, 1971. - Morris, 1893. - Davis, 1973.

- Burkill, 1923. - Pulney, 1870 & Davis, 1950 a. - Morris, 1893 & Srinivasan, 1945. - Davis, 1950 a. - Ridley, 1907. -Ridley, 1907; Petch & Gadd, 1923. - Quisumbring, 1926; Davis, 1950 b - Davis, 1973 - Cherian Jacob, 1940; Chandrasekharan & Sundararaj, 1950. - Hamilton, 1920. - Hart, 1888; Morris 1893.

-Morris, 1893; Davis, 1950b & 1973. - Ridley, 1907 - Cherian Jacob, 1936.

References ),.

"§"

..,"

"

tJ



~

~

"

;;

""

'"-

~

s""

Fig. la: A young dichotomously branched date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) at Afechtal grove (Marrakech, Morocco).

I

\ (.

~/

I

\ .1

/

'\

\ "'/ I

/

··,

I

"

I

Fig. lb: Diagram showing mode of branching of Fig. 1a.

56

( j

;\bnormal Branching in Date Palm

Fig.

2a: Development of axillary

buds of a young date palm tree after destructiOn of its terminal bucl.

Fig. 2b: Another case of development. of axiallary buds. of an adult date

palm tree.

57

A. Zaid

Fig. 3:

A cloublc headed elate palm. Note that the left branch, derived from an axillary bud, is being equal in size and parralel to the main terminal bud.

58

Date Palm J 5 (I): 59-63 Published 1987

A NEMOTOLOGICAL SURVEY OF PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L. IN AL-HASSA OASIS, SAUDI ARABIA I. ALKHOURY King Faisal University, College of Agriculture Sciences and Food, Dept. of Plant Protection, Al-Hassa, Scmdi Arabia

ABSTRACT Nematodes found in soil collected in the rhizosphere of date palm in .Al-Hassa oasis were as follows: Aphelenchus avenae Bastian, Criconeme/la sphaerocephala (Taylor, 1936), Luc and Raski, 1981, Ecphyadophora tenuissima, De Man, 1921, Helicotylenchus egyptiensis Tarjan, 1964, Hemicriconemoides gaddi (Loss, 1949), Chitwood and Birchfield, 1957, Hoplolaimus indicus Sher, 1963, Longidorus spp., Meloidogyne spp., Paratylenchus spp., Pmtylenchus spp., Thylenchus spp., Tylenchorhynchus sp., and Xiphinema spp .

.:-l,:JI :;,uJ ~ ,:;,.Lo'YIJ ~1;)1 <,JS

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GIJ

J J-,>..01 _;~':1 ~L.a.ll

b~\r.,JI c,f

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:L....I_;..lil -;:_,~(

_ :,_;'liS ..:.-;IS .L;.- ':II 59

1. 11f-K/wury

Apheienc/ws averwe Bastian, Criconemeila sphaerocephala (Taylm, 1936), Luc and Raski, 1981, Ecphyadophora tenaissima, De Man, l921, l-le/icotylenc!ws egyptiensis Tarjan, J964, Hernicriconemoides gaddi (Loss, 1949), Chitwood and Birchfield, 1957, lloplol!Iimus indicus Shcr, 1963, Longidorus spp., Meioidogyne spp., Paratyienclws spp., Pratyienchus spp., 1hylenchus spp., Tylenchorhynchus sp., and Xiphinema spp. INTRODUCTION .. Dates, Phoenix dactyli/era L., is a high energy fruit and are regarded as a popular food commodity in this part of the world. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with over 400 varieties of dates and with a yearly production of 400,000 tons is considered a major world date producing country (Dowson and Alen, 1978). In the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia about three million producing datc·-palms arc grown. Such figure shows the importance of date palm to the growers in the Eastern Province. In Saudi Arabia, dates constitute a very important traditional crop as il constitutes the basic clement in the diet of the most people in many localities in the Kingdom, while in other localities it is used as a supplementary food. Dates of inferior qualities arc also considered important as feed for livestock.

Unfortunately, 1nany pests attack different parts of date palm. Excellent general reviews on insects and mites that attack date palm in the Eastern Province me made by Hammac! eta!., (1981), A.A. Kadous etal., (1982.). H.eview of fungi attacking date palm in the Eastern Provim;e is made by Elarosi et at., (1983). But no complete review on nematodes attacking date palm was found regarding the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Eissa (1979) recorded Mcloidogyne sp., Pratylenchus sp., and Tylenchorhynchus sp., whereas Abu-Thuraya (1982) recorded only Meloidogyne sp., on elate palm in the Eastern Province. Recently AI··Khoury et al. (1984) reported that Aphelenchus a venae, Meloidogyne sp., Paratylenchus sp., Pratylenchus sp., Thylenchorhynchus sp., and Longidorus sp. were associated with date palm in Al-Qatif oasis. Moreover, Longidorus sp., Xiphinema sp. ,Partrichodonts· sp., Trichodorus sp., Criconema sp., Hemicriconemoides sp., lloploluimus sp., ffelicotylen·· chus sp., and Hemicyciiophora sp., were rccorclecl on P. dactylifera L. by Eissa, (1979), Abu- Thuraya, (l982) and Loof, (l982) from the other

60

A Ncmotologiwt Survey of Fhoe11ix /)octy!ifera L.

provinces in Saudi Arabia. This study was initiated to learn more about the nematodes association with Phoenix dactylifera L. in 1\l··f--Iassa oasis, E~astern Province as a first step in a long research prograrn, aiming to understand and solve problems caused by nematodes and their interaction with othct organisms such as fungi. MATERIALS AND METHODS Regular visits to different farms in Al-Hassa oasis took place during 1983 to collect soil and plant samples. At least three soil samples from each tree were collcctccl from several places and to a depth of 60 em. Then sub-samples were kept in a plastic bag. Extraction procedures were performed in the laboratory on aliquots of 500 cm-1 soil. Nematodes were extracted from sub-samples by the sugar floatation method (Southey, 1970). This method can be described as follows: 500 em" soil was washed through a coarse sieve (7Hl um) to catch roots, debris, and stones, and the sediment was collected in a pail. The sediment was stirred in the pail and allowed to settle for 30 seconds. The contents of the pail were poured through a 45 um sieve, the residue was washed into a 50 rnl centrifuge tube ancl filled to the mark with water. After ccntt ifuging for 5 min. at 1750 rpm., the water was poured off, leaving only the sediment in the tubes. The tubes were then filled with a concentrated sucrose solution (prepared by dissolving 4.54 g of white sugar in !litre of water). The sediment was stirred well into the sugar solution and centrifuged for l minute at 1750 rpm. The sugar solution was then poured off into a 45 um sieve and rinsed immediately with cold water to rinse the sugar from the nematodes.

Suspensions of nematodes were first examined under a stereoscopic microscope. Individual specimens were usually selected from a suspension by using a handling needle, transferred into a drop of F.A. 4:1 placed on a microscopic slide, then covered with a coverslip and scaled with clea1: nail polish. Nematodes were identified to genera, according to Anderson and Mulvey. (1979), Mai and Lyon, (1975) and Wilmot eta/. (1972). Then they were sent to the Commonwealth Institute of Parasitology (CIP) for species identification. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Nematodes rccc)rclcd from Phoenix dactylifera L. in AlwHassa oasis, are presented in table (1). Nematodes other than Meloidogyne sp. Pratylenchus

61

I. Al-Khoury

sp., and Tylenchorhynchus sp. are considered to be the first listing recorded nematodes from Al-Hassa oasis, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. The nature of the association of these nematodes have not been evaluated, but certain species belonging to the genera Me/oidogyne, He/icotylenchus and Xiphinema are undoubtedly of the utmost economic significance to date palm at least in some areas.

Finally, it is worth noting that Ecyphyadophora tenuissima De Man, Aphelenchus a venae Bastian and Criconemel/a sphaerocephala (Taylor) Luc and Raski are the first time to be recorded in the Kingdom.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT Grateful acknowledgement is made to the Scientific Council of King Faisal University for funding this research. The help of Dr. M.A. Nageib and Mr. S. Shaheen is highly appreciated.

LITERATURE CITED 1. 2.

3. 4.

Abu~Thuraya,

N.H. (1982): General survey of Agricultural Pests in Saudi Arabia. Ministry of Agriculture and Water, Agriculture Research Dep. 268 pp. Alkhoury, I., M.R.A. Shahata & S. Shaheen. (1984): Plant Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Citrus aurantifolia, C. medica, C. paradissi, Carica papaya, Ficus carica and Phoenix dactylifera L. in Al-Qatif oasis, Saudi Arabia, Proc.

Saudi Bioi. Soc. 7:3-8. Anderson, R.V. & R.H. Mulvey. (1979): Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Canada. Part I. Canadian Government Publishing Centre 152 pp. Dawson, V.H.W., & A.Aten. (1978): Dates handling, processing and packing. F.A.O. Agricultural Development. Paper No. 72. FAO, Rome.

5.

6. 7.

8.

9.

Elissa, M.F.M. (1979): Nematodes: their nature and their importance as pest attacking Saudi Arabian Crops., Crops Section RA WRC. Elarosi, H., A.E.A. Mussa, & N. Jaheen. (1983): Date fruit rots in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Proc. First Smp. on Date Palm: 368-380. Hmnmad, S.M., A.A. Kadous, & M.M. Ramadan. (1981): Studies on insects and mites attacking date palm in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Proc.

Saudi Bioi. Soc., 5: 251-263. Kadous, A.A., S.M. Hammad, & M.M. Ramadan (1983): Assessment of damage inflected upon date palms by Pseudophilus testaceus Gahan and Oryctes elegans Prell. in Al-Hassa oasis. Proc. of the First Symp. on the Date Palm. Saudi Arabia. 352-361. Loof, P.A.A. (1984): Two new species of Longidoridae (Dorylaimida) from Saudi Arabia. Nematologica. 28: 307-317.

62

A Nenwtological Survey of Phoenix DactyliF·ra L.

10. Mai, W.F., and H.I-I. Lyon. (1975): Pictorial Key to genera to Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. 4th ed. U.K. Cornell University Press. 11. Southey, J.F. (1970): Laboratory methods for work with plant and soil nematodes, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food 148 pp. 12. Willmot, S.; P.S. Gooch; M.R. Siclcliqui, & M. Franklin, (1972): C.l.H. Description of Plant-Parasitic nematodes. Commonwealth Institute of Helminthology. Table 1 Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Date Palm in AI-Hassa Oasis.

Tylenchida Tylenchicla Tylcnchicla Tylcnchida Tylenchicla Tylenchida Tylcnchicla Tylenchida Tylenchida Tylenchida Dory lam ida Dorylamida

Aphelenchus avanae Criconemeila sphaerocephala Ecphyadophora tenuissima Hernicriconemoides gaddi Helicotylenchus egyptiensis Hoplolaimus indicus Me!oidogyne spp. Paratylenclws spp. Tylcnchus spp. Tylenchorhynchus spp. Longidorus spp. Xiphinema .spp.

63

Date Palm J 5 ( l): 64-78 Published 1087

OPTIMIZATION OF PROPAGATION MEDIUM FOR BAKEH'S YEAST USING DATE EXTHACT AND MOLASSES 2. DETEHMINATION OF THE OPTIMUM CONCENTHA TION OF MICRO-ELEMENTS AND VIT'AMINES Z.S. AL-OllAIDI, Gh. M. AZIZ, Th.S. AL-HAKKAK AND M.A. AL-HILLI P
Centre. P.O.Box 24l6. B
All§TRACT

'J'hc effect of trace metals (Copper, Iron, Zinc, and Manganese) and Vitamincs (biotin, inositol, Ca·-pcntothenatc and thiamin) on the propagation and the activity of a local strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using date

extract or molasses as the sole carbon source are studied. The results demonstrated that the activity of the baker's yeast propagated on date extract media were 53.5 mm. 60.0 mm, 6l.5 mm and 56 mm when the optimum conccnlration of copper, iron, zinc ;;wd manganese were added respectively. The results show that this strain can tolerate a different levels of trace metals. Both dry weight ancl the activity of the yeast cells were higher than that obtained when molasses was used. The activity of the yeast cells grown on date extract media were 57.5 mm when the optimum concentration of biotin was added. Where as the activity was 55 mm in the media containing the optimum concentration of inositol, Ca-pcntothenatc and thiamine. Although similar pattern was observed in molasses media, lower value of activity and higher residual sugar were found.

64

Optimization of Propagation Medium

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Z.S. !11-0baidi, Gh. M. !lziz, Th.S. A/-Hakkak and M.!l. AI-Hilli

INTRODUCTION Generally, the yeasts required some macroelements, e.g. carbon, oxygen,

nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur and magnesium to build up the cell constituents. Microelements such as iron, zinc, manganese and molybdenum in minute quantities as components as activators of enzymes are also essential

for the growth of the yeasts (3). Kauppinen concluded that the supplementation of copper and iron increased the activity of both the cytochrome and the citric acid cycle, Densky eta! reported that the fermentation rate of the wort rises when zinc was added prior to the inoculation, Frey eta! observed that the zinc uptake is influenced by the temperature of the medium and the concentration of copper ions (10). Certain vitaminis are required for the growth of the yeast as a growth factors. The most common vitamins are biotin, inositol, pantothenic acid and thiamin (3). Biotin participates in the synthesis of protein and the nucleic acid (1) and in the formation of polysaccharides and fatty acids (10). Dixon and Rose (4) observed that the plasma membrane of the yeast was damaged due to the deficiency of biotin. Pantothenic acid influences the metabolic activity of yeast under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions (12). Jaenicke and Lyner (5) reported that pantothenic acid participates in the transfer of the acyl group in carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism. To obtain the optimum yields of baker's yeast inositol must be added to the production medium, Inositol deficiency produces a weakened glucose metabolism under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions (10). This study was carried out to determine the optimum concentration of the trace metals and vitamines in order to increase the efficiency of the medium used in bakers yeast production.

MATERIALS AND METHODS 1 - Yeast Strain: Saccharromyces cerevisiae, local strain, (Dept. of Palm and Date, Agric. and Water Research center) was used for all of the experimental work. A stock culture of the organism was maintained on malt agar slopes which were stored in screw-cap 1oz. bottles at 4'c. Subculturing

66

Optimization of Propagation Medium

was carried out at intervals of one month. The inoculum was prepared by transferring yeast cells from slant fo 200 ml sterilized basal medium. The flasks were subjected to the orbital previously adjusted at 30°c and 150 rpm and incubated for 20 h. 2 - Preparation of media: Date extract was prepared using destoned Zahdi fruits. One liter of hot tap water at 70-80°c was added to 500g of date, homogenized, filtered through a cloth and diluted to 2% total sugars. a steeping time was not necessary homogenization was repeated 3 times for 20-30 seconds. Beet Molasses obtained from Mosul Sugar Refinery were clarified according to Olbrich (6). Diluted molasses (15-20 Brix) were acidified with sulphuric acid to pH 4.5 followed by heating then 1-2% superphospate on basis of wieght of molasses was added. The supernatant was decanted off and used as a carbon source for the propagation of the yeast. To investigate the effect of copper, iron, zinc, manganese and vitamines on

the growth and activity of baker's yeats the following basal medium was used. Basal Medium Sugar" (NH.)zso. NH.H 2 P0 4 KCl MgS0 4 7HzO CaCl2 .2H2 0 CuSo 4 FeCl 3 .6H 2 0 ZnS0 •. 7H 2 0 MnS0 •. 2H 2 0 Biotin Inositol Ca-pantothenate Vit. Bl HCl to pH

2. 000 g/100 ml. 0.400 g/100 ml. 0.125 g/100 ml. 0.060 g/100 ml. 0.030 g/100ml. 0.020 g/100 ml. 0.0125 mg/100 ml. 0.0500 m,g/100 ml. 0.0500 mg/100 ml. 0.0400 mg/100 ml. 0.0020 mg/100 ml. 0.0500 mg/100 ml. 0.0200 mg/100 ml. 0.0040 mg/100 ml. 4.5

fr 'as date extract or molasses.

67

Z.S. ;1/-0haidi, Gh. M. Aziz, Th.S. A/-Ha!clcak and M.A. A/-Hdli

Triplicate flasks containing media of different treatments were autoclaved at 1 bar for 15 min, cooled and inoculated aseptically with 5x 108 cell/ml of already prepared inoculum. At the end of the incubation period (20 hr), culture was harvested using centrifugation at 2000 rpm for 15 min to determine the dry weight, and to provide a clear supernatant which was used for the determination· of the residual sugar.

3 . Determination of sugar: Samples were hydrolysed for sugar (7). The hydrolised sugar was assayed by the reduction of 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (11). 4 · Measurement of yeast activity: The activity of the baker's yeast was measured accmding to the method described in the (AACC) (2). The principle of this method depends on the measurement of the rising power of the dough. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Effect of copper sulphate: Data in figure I show that the baker's yeast can tolerate a wide range of copper in date extract medium. However, the dry weight and the activity of yeast increased to 0.44g/100 ml and 53.5 mm respectively. No effect on the dry weight was observed when molasses medium was used, whereas the activity of the yeast produced was lower than that obtained from date extract medium. This could be due to the toxic effect of high level of copper ions. Baker's yeast require a minute amount of copper

(10). It can be seen that the residual sugar in molasses medium was higher than that in date extract medium.

Effect of ferric chloride: Examination of the data in figure 2 shows that the highest activity of the yeast cells was obtained in date extract medium containing O.l mg/100 ml. of ferric chloride. Ringpfcil (9) reported that the yield of baker's yeast was decreased when high level of iron ions and low level of copper, zinc and manganese were added. Lower level of ferric chloride (0.05 mg/100 mi.) was required when molasses was used as a sole carbon source. No effect on the dry weight was observed in both elate extract and molasses media. Effect of zinc sulphate: Data in figure 3. shows the effect of zinc sulphate on the propagation and the activity of the baker's yeast. It can be seen that the yeast grown on date extract can tolerate a wide range of zinc ions. When

68

Optimization of Propagation J\1/ediwn

molasses was used in this series of experiments, both the dry weight and the activity of the yeast cells were lower than that obtained in elate extract media.

It can also be seen, that higher level of residual sugar in molasses media was observed compared to that in date extract media.

Effect of manganese sulphate: Data in figure 4. shows that increasing the concentration of manganese sulphate up to ().()7 mg/1 00 ml in date extract medium slightly increased the dry weight and the activity of the yeast up to 0.4lg/100 ml culture and 56 mm respectively. [t seems that manganese ions had no pronounced effect on the gt"Owth of the yeast propagated in molasses. Again high level of sugar remain unfermented in the molasses medium. Effect of biotin: Results in figure 5 indicate that biotin is essential for the growth and the activity of baker's yeast. [t can be seen that the addition of biotin to the level of 0.04mg/100 ml to the elate extract media increased the dry weight and the activity of the yeast up to 0.4g/100 ml and 57.5 mm rcpscctively. Although similar behaviour was found in molasses media, both the dry weight and the activity were lower than that observed in date extract media. The maximum dry weight and activity of the yeast in molasses media were 0.37g/l00 ml. culhtre and 42.5 mm. respectively. Effect of inositol: Figure 6 present the effect of inositol on the dry weight and the activity of baker's yeast in both date extract and molasses media. It was found that the optimum concentration of inositol was 0.08 mg/100 ml medium of elate extract. The highest dry weight and activity in this series of experiments were 0.45 g/100 ml. and 55 mm respectively. It was also found that the dry weight and the activity of the baker's yeast grown in molasses media were 0.34g/100 ml. and 42 mm respectively. Effect of Ca-Pantothenate: Results in figure 7 show the effect of Ca-pentothcnate on the propagation and the activity of baker's yeast. It can be seen that low level of Ca-pentothenate (0.01 mg/100 ml medium) was sufficient to obtain the maximum dry weight and activity of the yeast cell in both date extract and molasses media. The dry weight of the baker's yeast propagated in elate extract and molasses media were 0.42gll00 ml. and 0.38 g/100 ml. respectively. The maximum activity of the yeast cells (55 mm) was obtained when date extract was used as the sole carbon source. Effect of thiamin: Figure 8 show the effect of thiamin on the dry weight and the activity of the baker's yeast. It can be seen tht a gradual increase in the biomass the activity of the yeast cell were obtained followed by

69

Z.S. AI-Obaidi, Cih. M. Aziz, 11l.S. Ai-Hakkak and M.A. AI-Hii/i

decreasing the residual sugar in both date extract and molasses media. It was found that the optimum level of the thiamin in date extract media was 0.006 mg/100 mi. Higher level of thiamin (0.008 mg/100 mi.) was required when molasses was used. The residual sugar in date extract and molasses media were 0.35 g/100 ml and 0.69 g/100 ml respectively. Reed and peppier (8) demonstrated the ability of baker's yeast to utilize the sugar and to stare the thiamine, it was found that 1g of baker's yeast contains 50 mg. of thiamin.

LITERATURE CITED 1.

2.

Ahmad. F.; A.H. Rose & N.K, Gary (1961): Effect of Biotin deficiency on the synthesis of nucleic acid and protein by Saccharomyces cerevisae. 1, Gen Microbial - 24: 69-80. American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC). (1969): Approved Methods. American Association of Cereal Chemists. Inds. Paul. Minnesota, 55104.

3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

U.S.A. Carpenter, P.L. (1972): Microbiology. W.B. Saunders Company. PhiladelphaToronto. P. 303-10. Dixon, B. & A.H. Rose (1964): Observation on the fine structure of Saccharomyces cerevisae as affected by Biotin deficiency. J. Gen. Microbial. 35:411-19. Jaenicke, L. & F. Lyner (1960): In the enzymes. P.O. Boyer. H. Larcly and K. Myrback. eels. Academic Press. New York. Yo. 3: P. 103. Olbrich, H. (1963): Manufacture of yeast from Molassees. In Principle of Sugar Technology Homig, P. (Ed). Elsevier, Amesterdam. Vol. 111. P. 592-925. Pearson, D. (1976): The Chemical Analysis of Foods. 7th ed. Chruchill Livingston, Edinburgh, London and New York. P. 115. Reed. G. & H.J. Peppler. (1973): Yeast Technology. The Avipublishing, Co. West Port. Connecticut.

9.

Ringpfeil, M.; D. Poehland & J. Schneider et al. (1974) East German Patent 105, 001. 10. Rose, A.H. & J.S. Harrison (1971): The Yeasts, Physiology and Biochemistry of Yeast. Academic. Press. London and New York. Vol. 2: P. 3-14. 11. Whitaker, J.R. & K.A. Bernhard. (1972): Experiment for an Introduction to Enzymology. The Wibber Press California, U.S.A. 12. William, R.J.; W.A. Mosher & E. Rohrman (1936): The importance of pantothenic acid in fermentation, respiration and glycogen storage. Biochem. J.

30: 2036-39.

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Date Palm J 5 (I): 79-91 Published 1987

TECHNOLOGICAL AND STORAGE STUDIES ON <> JI.M. EL-NAKHAL; A.S. MESALLAM AND M.I. EL-SHAARAWY Dept. Food Science and Technology, King Faisal Univcrs1Ly.

ABSTRACT

Ten different products of Tamaruddin (TD) are prepared from dates in form of dehydrated sheets, to substitute the popular apricot based Qamaruddin (QD). Gross composition of the TD products is close to that of dates. Flavour panels on dehydrated or rehydrated products revealed that TO could be at least as acceptable as QD. Most desirable products were those with added citric acid, banana, or juices of orange, apple or pineapple. No significant difference was noted between flavours of TD from <
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INTRODUCTION

Production of dates 111 Saudi Arabia has reached half a million tons (Al·Beshr 1986). This increase in production. coupled with decrease in consumption leaves the kingdom facing a great surplus (El-Shaarawy 1986). Search for new forms of date consumption is therefore important. Sumainah and El-Nakhal (1984) have prepared a product from date called «Tamaruddin» to imitate «Qmnaruddin». The latter product is popular in

Arab countries, produced by sundrying apricot homogenate to thin sheets. It is widely consumed in «Ramadan», the Moslem's fasting month, after steeping in water, cooked with starch as gruel, or more often as a breaking-the-fast drink. Saudi Arabia imports approximately a thousand tons of Qamar-Uddin, costing some five million S.Rls. annually (foreign Trade Statistics, 1984). ' Acceptability of plain «Tamar Uddin>> was not very high. The present investigation is therefore, carried out to develop similar products with enhanced acceptability through addition of flavouring materials. Storage studies also performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS

Dates (Tamr stage) of both Rczaiz (Rz) and khalaas (Kh) cultivars; fruit juices, cocoa, coffee, and Qamaruddin (QD) are bought from <
1. Preparation ofTamaruddin (TD): Dcpitted dates are homogenized with 150 g liquifying fluid (Table 1) in an Osterizer blender for 2 min. The homogenate is strained through cheese cloth or standard sieves to aluminum 80

Technological and storage Studies

trays (23 x 33 em) embedded with polyethylene sheets, each oiled with 3 drops olive oil. The trays are held in oven at 70°C for 8 hours. 2. Chemical analysis: - moisture is determined in a vacuum oven at 70'C (Jacobs 1973). - Protein is determined by kjeldahl method (Jacobs 1973). - Total soluble solides ('TSS) are measured in the strained homogenate in Abbe' refractometer. No correction for acidity is carried out. - Total and reducing sugars are determined by Lane and Eynone method (Pearson 1976). - Titratable acidity is determined as citric acid by potentiometric titration to pH 8.3 (Somainah and EI-Nakhal, 1984). - Ash is determined at 550'C (pearson 1976)

3. Physical Properties: Thickness of products is computed as average of five layers. Texture is measured as average of 3 penetrations, in mm, by a Penetrometer (Precision Sci. Co. Chicago, 111.) using a driving force of 150 g and needle No. 73524 on five layers of the product. Colour is determined as optical density computed from transmissions (at 600 & 450nm) of the centrifuged and filtered supernatant of a 10% water homogenate of the product as given by Ray-Junk and Pancost (1973): Log% T600 - Log% T450 O.D. = ---=--c-~----­ Cell diameter 4. Organoleptic Assessment: A panel of 10 faculty members of KFU participated in the judgement of the products, after being familiarized with them, both in the dehydrated and reconstituted forms. Two tests are run: 1. A flavour evaluation on a percentile basis; 40 for each of colour and flavour and 20 for texture. 2. An over-all acceptability test using a hedonic scale (Stone and Siedel 1985) of five descriptions.

5. Statistical analysis: Data of flavour evaluation is analyzed for the least significant difference (LSD) at 5% propability (Snedecor and Cochran 1974). 6. Storage: Products are stored at room temperature for 3 months. Tamaruddin is packed in polyethylene bags, whereas QD in original cellophane paper as bought. Production data of QD indicated on the package showed it was 4 months old. However, this was taken as zero time, restored for other three months for the sake of comparison.

81

J-l.M. EI-Nakhal; A.5'. Mesalfam and M.I. El-SJuwrawy

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

1. P,-eparation of Tamrauddin products: Evidently, Tamr-urddin homogenate has to be prepared with the least amount of water possible. However, when water/date ratio is lower than 3:2, mixing becomes difficult, homogenization time is prolonged, and a viscous homogenate results leading to poor extraction and straining. Using boiling water for homogenization resulted in a too thick homogenate (table 2) probably due to gelling. Usc of water/date ratio of 1.5 at room temperature is therefore effected throughout further experiments. This result in a homogenate of 30% TSS. Use of cheese cloth for straining results in a good filtrate with no observed bitterness (table 3). However, squeezing is required causing the cloth to rupture. As expected, rate of straining through sieves is enhanced with pore diameter, yet the filtrate shows a bitter taste that would not be removed by heating (table 3). Use of sieves of 425 (!-'m) pore diameter shows reasonable filtration rate without bitterness nor tearing problems. 2. Chemical Analysis of Procucts: Results of Khalaas and Rezaiz date analyses (table 4) arc in good agreement with published data (Abded-Hafiz et al, 1980; Sawaya eta! 1983 a & b; and Mustafa et al, 1983). Generally, TD products enjoy almost twice the very low moisture content of Rz dates, but almost the same of Kh cultivar (Table 4). Moisture contents of QD and TD are only little lower than those given earlier (Somainah & El-Nakhal 1984), with that of TD being little higher in both our and their results. Moisture content, hence dry matter, shows some difference with type of fruit used, ranging from 15.4% in the orange product to 18.5% in grape TD. This might have its impact on product texture, as measured later (Table 9). Difference in moisture content between the two commercial QD samples is even wider than among TD products. Likewise, dry matter, protein, total sugars, ash and acidity of TO products show smaller variations than encountered with the two QD samples. Ash is much lower in TD than in QD, most often due to sun drying of the latter in the field, and probably clue to better homogenization, and straining of the former. Among TO products, the strawberry ancl kh TD have highest ash content. Protein and reducing sugar of TD proclcuts arc lower than the corresponding contents of Rz dates. contents of major compenents of TD from Khalaas are almost the same for kh. dates. Except for when citric acid is added, acidity of TD products arc much lower than that of QD. This is of great significance to the product taste.

82

Technological and storage Studies

3. Physical properties of TD products: penetrometric measurements of all, except banana TO, are found higher than those of QO, indicating more tender texture. Colour of all TO products, except that of vanilla, being little darker, is comparable to that of 00 samples. 4. Organoleptic properties of TD products: 4.1 Dehydrated products: The two commercial QO samples show wide variation in acceptability, mainly due to variation in flavour (table 5). This might largely be attributed to difference in acidity (table 4). Among TO products, orange and banana TO enjoy the highest scores, comparable to those of the better QO sample. Products with added citric acid are shown to also enjoy high scores, with that from Rz dates being higher scored than that from kh (though statistically insignificant). Except for the grape TO, other fruity products are as or better valued than the lower scored QO sample. Even the vanilla TO was as acceptable as this sample. On the other hand, chocolate and coffee TO are strongly rejected. Evidently, flavour, followed by colour show the strongest effect on the scoring result. These results are confirmed by those of the hedonic test (Tale 6). Fruity products, except grape TO, are judged mostly as very or mildly desirable, whereas chocolate or coffee TO are largely undesirable. Effect of citric acid is evidently greater than effect of adding fruit juices. Preference of cirtric acid TO are at least equal to that of QO. The apricot TO with citric acid is clearly more desirable than the control QO. 4.2 Reconstituted products: Tamarauddin products are reconstituted by homogenization with water to 15% TSS. This is the more usual form for consuming Qamaruddin. Flavour panel of the reconstituted products gave results (Table 7) in the same trend as the dried sheets. Thus products with added cirtic acid, banana, juices of orang or apple enjoy highest scores, whereas those with chocolate, coffee or grape juice show the lowest. The first group products compared favourably well with conventional QO. the apparent preference of Rz over kh TO is statistically insignificant. Almost similar results are obtained by the hedonic scale method (Table 8). Thus QO and orange RO are judged as desirable by all panelists. Vanilla, apple or citric acid TO are so judged by 90% of the panel, whereas products with strawberry or pineapple are desirable for 80%. To be noted is the lower number of panelists (70%) who find banana TO desirable, compared to 99% in case of the same dehydrated product (Table 6).

83

1-J.M. EI-Nakhal; A.S. Mesallam and M.I. EI-Shaarawy

Closer examination shows that QD and citric acid TD are considered highly desirable by most (90-70%) of panelists, whereas fruity products by only 40-2()<}';). This further confirms significance of critic acid in these products.

5. Ejfect of storage on texture and colour of TD: Textural, and particularly colour stability in QD greatly affect preferability of this product and its selling capacity. Changes in texture of such products are taken as indication to changes in moisture content, and feasibility of reconstitution. Loss of moisture, rather than absorption, is expected in view of hot weather and low humidity prevailing in S. Arabia. The dehydrating effect of air conditioning would be another factor. Storage of TO products for three months are shown (Table 9) to result in no or minor change in texture, ranging between 3.3
CONCLUSION Tamrauddin can present a new form of date consumption, an important outlet for surplus dates, and a good, cheap substitute for Qamaruddin in countries with no or insufficient apricot production.

84

Technological and storage Studies

Fruits or fruit juices enhance acceptability of the product. Yet addition of citric acid helps to obtain more desirable flavour. The product enjoys same or better keeping qualities as QD. Further investigations are needed to standardize preparation and quality attributes of the products, particularly what concerns the dehydration process and long storage stability. LITERATURE CITED I.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

10.

11. 12. 13.

Abde1-hafiz, M.J.; A.F. Shalabi; I.A. Al-Akhal. (1980).: chemical composition of 15 varieties of elates grown in Saudi Arabia. Proc. of 4th Conf. on the BioL Aspects of Saudi Arabia pp 181-_l94 Saudi Biological Society; University of Riyadh. Al-Beshr, M.A. (1986): Thirteen million date palms in the kingdom. Riyadh Commerce No. 286, JUMADA Al-Thaniah 1406, pp 44-43. E\-Shaarawy, M.I. (1986): Dates and their consumption in Saudi Arabia. Al-Khafji, March 1986, 30-32. Foreign Trade Statistics. (1984): Central Department of Statistics, Mmistry of Finance and National Economy, kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Table 8-38. Jacobs, M.R. (1973); The Chemical Analysis of Foods and Food Products. 3rd cd. Robert E. Krieger Pub!. Co. Huntington, N.Y. pp 21-34. Mustafa, A.!., A.M. Hamacl & M.S. Al-Kahtani. (1983): Date Varieties for jam production. Proceedings of the First Symposium on the Date Palm in Saudi Arabia. March 23-25th 1982. King Faisal University, pp 496 .. 502. Pearson, D. (.L976): Chemical Analysis of Food. 7th eel. Churchill Livingstone, N.Y. pp 112-127. Ray-Junk, W & H.M. PancosL Handbook Of Sugar For Processors, Chemists and Technologists, A VI Pub Co. Westport, Connecticut p 266. Sawaya, W.N.; J.K. Khalil; H.A. Khatcbadurian; W.N. Safi, & A.S. Mashadi. (1983a): Sugars, Tannins and some Vitamins Content of Twenty-five date cultivars grown in Saudi Arabia at the khalal (mature color) and Tmnar (ripe) stages. Proceedings of The First Symposium on The Date Palm in Saudi Arabia. March 23-25th 1982. King Faisal UNIVERSITY, pp 468-479. Sawaya, W.N.; W. M. Safi; J.K. Khalil & A.S. Mashacli. (1983b): Physical measurments, proximate analysis and nutrient clements content of twenty-five date cultivars grown in Saudi Arabia, at Kbalal (mature color) and tamar (ripe) stages. Ibid pp 454-67. " 1 Snedccor, G.W. & W.G. Cochran (1974): Stattsttcal Methods. Iowa State Uni~ versity Press. Ames, Iowa, U.S.A. 6th eel. Stone, H. & J.L. Sicdcl (1985): Sensory Evaluation Practices. Academic Press, N.Y. pp. 76-86. Sumainah, G.M. & H. El-Nakhal (l984): «Tamar Uddin>) a new product of dates. J. of Food Sci and Techno!. 31: 88~91.

85

H.M. EI-Nakhal; A.S. Mesal/am and M.I. EI-Shaarmvy

Talbc 1: Liquifying fluids for Tamruddin (TD) products. Product Product designation

Liquifying fluid (ISO g/100 date pulp)

No. ].

Vanilla TD

2.

Orange TO Strawberry TD Bannna TD Apple TD Pineapple TO Grape TD Acid Apricot TD Acid Rezaiz TD Acid Khalaas TD Chocolate TD Coffee TD

3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8.

9. 10. ll. 12.

Water + 1 g vitamin C + I g Vanilline. Orange juice Strawberry juice Water + peeled banana Apple juice Pineapple juice Grape juice Apricot juice + 5 g citric acid water + 7 g citric acid Water + 7 g citric acid Water + 2.5 g cocoa Water + 2.5 g instant coffee

Table 2. Preparation conditions of date homogenate Water/date ratio

l:l l: 1 3:2 3:2 2:1 2:1

Water temperature

Room

Homogenate consistency

Too thick Too thick Mildly thick

Boiling Room

Boiling Room

Too thick

Boiling

Too thick

Mildly thick

86

Technological and storage .S'tudies

Table 3: Effect of straining method on bitterness

Straining method

pm·e diameter

Cheese doth

600

Sieve Sieve Sieve

Bitterness

Sta~ning ntte

Absent

Difficult, requires squeezing Fast, cfficlcnt Medium rate Slow sieving

Present Absent Absent

425 212

Table 4. Gross composition (%) of dates (tmnr), and Qamaruddin (QD).

-----

···--------·------··------------------·---------------~----

Product Product No.

Moisturc

Dry Matter

protein

Reducing Total sugars sugars

'1!-..7 15.5

91.3 84.5 84.5

2.77 2.90 2.18 2.04 2.111 2.111 2.02 2.15 l.08 2.20 \. 99 2.12 2.12 2.10 I. I l.09 2.40

77.5 72.9 (J6.1

Titratable acidil.Y

Ash

·------~--------------------

l. 2.

4. 5. 6 7. 8.

9.

10. ll. 12.

Rczaiz Tamr Khalaas Tamr V
15.5 15.·1 16.0 16.2 17.1 17.1 18.5 16.0 17.11 15.6 16.6 17.0 .6 16.5 13.5

8L1.5 ~4.11

83.8 K2 9 82.0 81.5 84 0 83.0 84.4 83.4 83.0 .6

83.5 86.5

M.S 62.2 62.5 65 I 65.6 67.2 69.5 67.2 72.5 67.6 66.8 1.50 64.1 67.2.

82.4 74.5 72.2 75.1 72.5

72.1 75.11 74.5 75.2 73.5 73.2

74.5 74.0 73.5 2.2

68.0 73.5

·---~·~----------------

87

.15

uo

.20 .Tf .67

1.60 l.SS 2.10 I. lJ2 1.89 l.R I 1.811

l. ~9

.65 .75 .79 .75 4.10 5.05 5.15

175 [_(,2

l.92 I 92 [.85 ll.l II. I 2 ,j() 5.20 2.80 3.50 .. '·-------·-·-·----

IJ.M. Ef-Nakhal; A.S. MesaLfam and M.I. El-Shaarawy

Table 5: Organoleptic testing of Tamruddiu products Product No. l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Colour 40

Sample

Vanilla Tamr Uddin

35 36 30 36 32 34 28 35 36 35 20 20 3.5 36 34

Orange TD Strawberry TD Banana TD Apple TD Pineapple TD Grape TD Acid-Apricot Acid Rczaiz Acid Khalaas Chocolate TD Coffee TD L.S.D. QD Sample 1 QD Sample 2

Texture Flavour Total 20 40 100

18 18 16 19 16 16 15 18 18 18 10 10 2.3 18 17

83 92

30 38 32 35 34 35 28 38 36 33 20 15 1.99 39 32

78 90 81 85 71 91 90 86

so 45 7.5 93 83

Table 6: Hedonic scale panel distruction for tamruddin acceptability.

Product Product No.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 10. 11. 12.

Very Mildly desirable desirable Neutral % % %

Vanilla TD

so

Orange TD

30 40 30 30 30 20 20 30 30 10

30 50 Strawberry TD 20 Banana TD 60 Apple TD 40 Pineapple TD 30 Grape TD 20 Acid Apricot TD 80 Acid Rezaiz TD 60 Acid Khalaas TD 50 Chocolate TD 0 Coffee TD 0 QD Sample 1 70 QD Sample 2 50

()

20 30

88

10 20 20 10 30 10

so 0 10 20

10 20 10 20

Mildly undcsirable%

Very undesira~

ble%

10

()

()

0 10 0 0 20 10 0 0 0 50 60 0 0

10 0 0

10 0 0 0 0 30 20 0 0

Technological and storage Studies

Table 7: Organoleptic Testing of reconstituted Tamr-Uddin products.

Sample

Sample

No.

I.

Vanilla TD

2. 3.

Orange TD

Strawberry TD

4.

Banana TD

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Apple Pineapple TD Grape TD Acid Apricot TD Acid Rezniz TD Acid Khalaas TD

Chocolate TD Coffee TD !.S.D. QD Sample QD Sample 2

89

Colour

Consistancy

Flavour Total

40

20

40

100

35 37 28 36 34 35 25 38 35 33 15 15 3.8 37 32

18 18 17 19 19 19 15 19 19 19 12 12 2.7

25 30 30 35 32 30 25 38 39 37

78 85 57 90 85 74 65 95 93 89 37 35 8.5 94 85

18

17

10

8 3.5 39 36

!i.M. !:."1-Nakhaf; A.S. Mesallam and M.l. El-Shaaraw.v

Table 8: Hedonic scale panel distribution for clcccptability of reconstituted Tamr-Uddin. ·-------·----·

Product Product No. -------·-·~--

I.

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7. R. 9.

10. ll. 12.

----~---------

Very dcsir-

able %

Mildly desirable

Mildly

Very Un-

Neutral - Undcsimblc

o;;>

%

%

%

50 60 60 40 60 50 10 10 20 20

10

0 0 0 10 0 0 0

0 0

..--.-

Vanilla TD Orange TD

Strawberry TD Banana TO Apple TD Pineapple TD Grape TD Acid-Apricot TD Acid Rczaiz TD Acicl-Kha!aas TD Chocolate TD Coffee TD

QD Sample l QD Sample 2

40 40 20 30 30 30 30 RO

70 70 0 0 90 80

()

0 10 20

90

0 20 20 10 20 lO 10 lO

10 20 20 0 0

()

0 0 60 50 0 0

()

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 30 0 0

Technological and storage Studies

Table 9: Change in texture and colour of Tamr-Uddin after 3 months storage

Calculated O.D.

Texture NO. Sample

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Vanilla TD Orange TD Strawberry TD Banana TD Apple TD Pineapple TD Grape TD Acid-Apricot TD Acid- Rezaiz TD Acid Kha\aas TD QD sample 1 QD sample 2

0 Time

3 Months

2.0 3.0 2.0 1.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 l.5 1.1

2.0 2.8 1.9 1.5 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.0 l.9 l.4 1.4 l.O

Change %

6.7 5.0 3.3 3.3 6.7 4.8 5.0 6.7 6.7 9.0

91

Change %

0 Time

3 Months

0.750 0.455

0.610 0.465

7.0 22

0.430 0.480 0.490

0.430 0.490 0.405

2.1 17.3

0.475 0.492 0.475 0.475 0.542

0.490 0.501 0.499 0.499 0.575

3.2 l.8 5.1 5.1 6.1

DatePalmJ 5 (1): 92-106 Published 1987

<
ABSRACT

The nutritive value of dates is limited to its content of sugars and minerals. Dates, however, ~re very poor in proteins. Therefore, the possibility of ameliorating the nutritive value of dates was studied. The strained date paste was mixed with skim milk powder and then dehydrated either without or after the addition of different fruit juices or flavours such as banana, orange, pineapple, apples, grapes, strawberry, or chocolate. Rolls of the new products were given the name «Tamar-heep». Most of «Tamarhcep» products were acceptable and desirable.

_r-:;)1

:r ~~ ~ ((~ .J.ii

~_,~1 i.Spdl '-ff.lr~ I ('""" l_r.l

J...S J

J-4 .!.LUI wL-,-

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tf' .f" .J';"-'

.J..<-1 , J L-;.;J I i r

,.:,t,J"~IJ

:i.,lO>'i l,._,J~ ~ :;_,,~1 ""_r'I

4...,')\;L I _,.;)I ~..J . i.i>WI_, o\;.~1 1.Y' olp.

._j ~

:i.;l.l.;JI :i.._JJI ~

~ :i.;i.l.;JI :i.._JJI ~, '-,;Kol ~.J, ..W ~jj . ol;3 .;JI

92

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,-
..:;.,l,;L.,bl 0J ..L>.

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.kJ..;..,•

11~ _,.in ~..L:l;-1 <::'l:.JI . tSJ"-l <\S'I_} u~J )l...= :i,;l,bl ..W Jl tSJ"-l ..)f"';q ~I .. .WI Lw... ;L.;_,all y>-"' ... q ~. ._ciW (/' . ;J.L<. .. (j~ .. ' ... 0"'

J-:.o

tJ

W::;!

~ ~Jj' ~

Js II~ .}11 u~ lJ"' ~..IP L\:;1 ~~

..JjJ

,.w')l~l Jl ;JJI_yill _~I_ c_l..i::.ll _ <.Y'L;L;'JI _ JIZ,.;:JI _ j}l ~

..:lt

J. L

~ ui_;,VU ..;:....3..\..;-

. GL..,..;;.., IJJ.~ ...

Jl

U _,_;..]I i )r- :i....::-J~ ~ cr._r;..;.l I ~}..

... LJ_.I.II<....-->II ..:;.,. !,..::;.. ,.. \:, - ..;:.j 'l' . . .cr <0

~I

..J..9J ' • ..:;., .

INTRODUCTION Saudi Arabia is one of the largest (if not the largest of all) date producing countries. The estimate of date production in this last season (1985-86) is over 500,000 metric tons (Al-Beshr, 1986). Because dates are sun dried, their quality usaully suffer a considerable damage such as insect infestation. Therefore, a considerable portion of Saudi Arabian date is wasted or used as feed for animals. The development of new popular date products would increase the commercial and economic value of Saudi dates and eventually more care wot\ld be directed to the production of date with better quality. Sumainah and El-Nakhal (1984) developed a new product (Tamar Eddin) from date. Tamar Eddin is dried sheets of elate homogenate with citrie acid to imitate kamar Eddin which is a similar product made from apricot homogenate. Saudi Arabia imports one million kilogram of Kamar Eddin annually according to Foreign Trade Statistics (1984). El-Nakhal eta!, (1986) developed different products of Tamar Eddin with different fruit flavours. They also studied the storage stability of such products. Even though Tamar Edclin products contained the additional nutrients (vitamins and minerals) from the added fruit juice, they were still poor in protein. This work aims at producing dried sheets from date homogenate plus skim milk powder as a source of protein. The new product was named Tamarheep. The word Tamarheep is a combination of two words; Tamar (meaning dates) and Haleep (the Arabic word for milk). The added skim milk powder docs not only increase the protein content of the product but also its lactose, several vitamins and minerals.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Date (Tamar) of Rezaiz cultivar, natural fruit juices, bBnana, cocoa, skim

93

H. El-Nakhal; M.l. El-Shaarawy and A.S. Mesa/lam

milk powder, etc .. were all brought from local market in Hofouf, Saudi Arabia.

I. Preparation of Tamarheep: Date homogenate was prepared either by water or fruit juice as indicated in table (1). The homogenate was strained, loaded in trays 23 X 33 em and dehydrated according to El-Nakhal et al. (1986). Different amounts of skim milk powder (table 2) were added directly and mixed thoroughly with the homogenate in the trays prior to dehydration. 2. Chemical analysis: a) Moisture: Moisture was determined by using vacuum oven at 70°C according to Jacobs (1973). b) Protein: It was determined by multiplying total nitrogen by the factor 6.38. The total nitrogen was determined by Kjeldahl according to Jacobs. (1973). c) Total and reducing sugar: They were determined by the method of Lane-Eynone according to pearson (1976). d) Ash: Ash was determined according to Pearson (1976). 3. Physical and Organoleptic properties a) Texture: Texture was determined by Pentromoter (Precision Scientific Co., Chicago, Illinois) by using standard needle 73524. As a driving force, 150 grams weight was used. The penetration distance of the needle in the procuct during 3 seconds was determined. The average penetration per second was then calculated. The three seconds as a test time was selected based on a pre-experiment. b) 01ganoleptic proerties: Organoleptic properties were determined by a panel of ten faculty members at King Faisal University, Hofuf, Saudi Arabia. The panel was familiarized with new product Tamarheep as well as with Tamar Ed din and the classical Kamar Ed din. Then, they were asked to evaluate Tamar Eddin and Kamar Eddin (for comparison) and the different Tamarheep products on a hedonic scale (according to Stone and Siedel, 1985) designed in five descriptive terms namely: Very desirable, Mildly Desirable, Neutral (Neither desirable nor undesirable) Mildly undesirable, Very undesirable. Furthermore, the panel members were asked to grade three main characteristics (color, 40 points; texture, 20 points; and flavour,

40 points). Statistical Analysis: the data were analyzed for least significant difference at 5% probability according to Snedecor and Cochran 1974. RESUTLS AND DISCUSSIONS

I. The relationships between added skim milk powder and product quality. Several experiments were carried out to select the amount and method of

94

((Tamarheep>J A New Product from Dates (Tamar)

adding skim milk powder. Table 2 shows the percentage of crude protein in the final product that corresponds to the different amount of added skim milk powder. The added amounts of skim milk powder were 20,35 and 50 grams per 300 gram homogenate. These amounts yielded Tamarheep products with a percentage of crude protein 9.9, 14.8 and 19.5% respectively. When skim milk powder was dissolved in the homogenate by means of Osterizer blender for one minute at a high speed, a great amount of air was

trapped in the thick homogenate. The removal of trapped air from homogenate was not possible by heating the homogenate to lOO"C in a water both for 30 minutes. The entrapped air formed a dry layer of foam on the surface of Tamarheep sheet after dehydration. Skim milk powder mixing was successfully accomplished by direct addition to the homogenate loaded on the trays. Then thorough mixing by back of spoon to crush any powder clumping of skim milk. This method was followed throughout this work. 2. Chemical analysis: Tamarheep products were made from Rezaiz dates. The percentage of major components of both date and tamarheep products alongwith those of Kamar Ecldin are indicated in Table 3. Rezaiz date contained 8.7% moisture, 2.77% protein 82.4% sugars (mostly in the reducing form) and 1.3% ash except moisture content, these findings agree with those of Abde!-Hafiz et al. (1980). They found Rezaiz date to contain 14.61-21.07% moisture, 57.07-74.07% total sugar (mostly in the reducing form), 2.69-6.34% protein, and 2.01-3.66% ash. The data obtained by Sawaya eta!, (1983a & b) and by Mustafa eta!, (1983) were similar to those of Abdel-hafiz eta! (1980).

Tamarheep products contained moisture between 8.2 and 10.1%. Kamar Eddin and Tamar .Eddin had higher moisture contents (16.5 and 15.5% respectively). Somainah and EI-Nakhal (1984) reported that Kamar Eddin contained between 15.50 and l7.50% moisture whereas Tamar Eddin was found to contain from 16.5 to 19.4% moisture. EI-Nakhal et a!., (1986) reported that Tamar Eddin products contained 15.4-18.5%. Consequently Tamarheep products contain higher percentage of dry matter (89.0-91. 8% ). The addition of skim milk powder during the preparation of Tamarheep may be the reason for the higher dry matter in Tamarheep products. Dates arc poor source of protein, in general. Rczaiz, date was found to contain 2.77°/o protein. Several investigators reported lower percentages of

crude protein in Rezaiz date. Sawaya eta!., (1983) found it 2.44% while

95

11. El-NakhaL; lv!.l. El-Shaarawy and A.S. Mes(/lla111

Mustafa et al., (1983) found it 0.617%,. Abdei-Hafiz et al., (1980) found that crude protein in Razaiz varied between 2.69 to 6.34(%. Crude protein, as reported by EI-Nakhal et al (1986), was found to be 1.98 to 2.20% in Tamar

Eddin products. Crude protein in Tamarheep products was found to vary from 18.1 to 18.8% and in Kamar Eddin from 1.99% to 2.18%. the percentages of crude protein in Tamarheep products equal 8-9 folds the crude protein in Kamar Eddin or Tamar Eddin. percentage of total sugars in Tamarheep products ranged from 72.4% in Plain Tamarheep to 75% in grape Tarnarheep. These figures are similar to the figures of total sugars in Tamar Eddin products (71.1 to 75.2%) as reported by El-Nakhal et al., (1986). Reducing sugars in Tamarheep products varied from 58.2 to 64% which represent 80.6 to 85.3% of the total sugars. Karnar Eddin in comparison, contained 64.1 to 67.2% which represent 91.4 to 94.2% of the total sugars (EI-Nakhal eta!., 1986). Tamar Eddin products contained 72.1-75.2% total sugars, mostly (90%) in the reduced form according to EI-Nakhal, et a! (1986). The higher percentage of non-reducing sugar in Tamarheep products must be due to lactose content of the added skim milk powder. Ash varied from 2.77 to 3.02% in the different Tamarheep products. Kamar Eddin, in comparison, contained 2.40-3.50%. EI-Nakhal et al., (1986) reported that Tamar Eddin products contained from 1.55 to 2.1% ash. The difference in ash percentage between Tamar Eddin and Tamarheep may be due to the ash content of the added skim milk powder. Therefore, the addition of skim milk powder does not only increase the protein content of the final product but also it supplements the final product with several element that are known to be present in skim milk powder such as calcium, potassium, sodium, magnisium, phosphorus, sulfur and several other

elements. 3. Organoleptic properties

a) dehydrated Products: Table 4 shows the average points given by the panel for different Tamarheep products as compared to Kamar Eddin and Tamar Eddin samples. Fruit flavored Tamarheep products obtained high scores in color, texture and flavour. Chocolate flavored Tamarheep, in contrast, obtained low scores for color (20), texture (10), and flavor (15). The color of fruit flavored Tamarheep products ranged from 30 in Grape Tamarheep up to 39 in Banana Tamarheep. The texture of fruit flavored

96

«Tamarheep}) A New Product from Dates (Tamar)

Tamarheep products obtained from 13 points in Grape Tarnarheep to 19 in Banana Tamarheep. Similarly, the texture was least favorable in Grape Tamarheep (30) and it was best for Banana Tamarheep (37). Both Kamar Eddin and Tamar Eddin obtained good points for color (36 and 35), texture (18 for both), and flavor (39 and 30). These data follow, more or less, the same pattern fm Tamar Eddin products as was reported by El-Nakhal et al., (1986). Table 5 shows the distribution of organoliptic panel on the five descriptive terms for each sample. For many of Tamarheep products (Plain, Apple, Banana, Orange, Pineapple and Strawberry), most of the panel were lined either in the very desirable or mildly desirable terms. In two samples only (Grape and Chocolate), less than half the panel found them very or mildly desirable. Kamar Eddin and Tamar Eddin, by comparison were found desirable (both very and mildly) by 90 and80% respectively. The percentage of the panel who found Tamarheep products neutral were 10% for Plain, 20% for Orange, 30% for Apple, Grape and Strawberry and 40% for both Pineapple and Chocolate, Consequently, it is possible toconclude that Tamarheep products would be acceptable in the dehydrated form. The acceptance of Tamarheep products, however, does not match that of Kamar Eddin or Tamar Eddin. Chocolate and Grape Tamarheep products, particularly, do not seem to be favorable by the majority of the panel. b) Reconstituted products: Tamarheep, kamar Eddin and Tamar Eddin were reconstituted to 15% soluble solids and were tested again organoleptically on the same basis as previously mentioned. Table 6 shows the average points given by the panel for reconstituted Tamarheep products, Kamar Eddin and Plain Tamar Eddin, The results contrast clearly with results obtained from dehydrated Tamarheep products in Table 4. After reconstitution many of Tamarheep products lost some of their attractiveness. The color of reconstituted Tamarheep products obtained from 22 to 35 points. Their texture obtained between 10 and 14 points. The flavor of Tamarheep products (17-30 points) also great deal of their attractiveness. Plain Tamarheep was best of all Tamarheep products after reconstitution, where it obtained overall 80 points. Tamar Eddin obtained a comparable total of 78 points. Kamar Eddin, by contrast, obtained a total of 94 points. Table 7 shows the distribution of organoleptic panel on the five descriptive terms for Kamar Eddin and Plain Tamar Eddin. These data show a clear contrast with data on dehydrated products (Table 5). The percentage of the panel that marked very desirable or mildly desirable for each sample after reconstitution is clearly less than those who did the same on the dehydrated

97

!-!. EI-Nakhal; M./. EI-Siwarawy and A.S. Mesa/hun

Tamarheep products (Table 5), At the same time, the descriptive terms neutral, mildly undesirable and very undesirable were selected more frequently by the panel members. Plain Tamarhecp was the best of all Tamarhcep products. It was selected by 30% of the panel as very desirable, by 20% as mildly desirable and by 40% as neutral (neither desirable nor undesirable). Banana and strawberry Tamarhccp followed the plain Tamarheep in its desirability (desirable by 40% of the panel). Then came apple and orange Tamarheep products which were disirable by 30% of the panel, then followed. Then came the grape and chocolate Tamarhcep products which were desirable by 20% only of the panel. Chocolate and pineapple were the least desirable products, after reconstitution. In comparison Kamar Eddin was very de:;;irablc by 9(fYo and mildly desirable by lO(Yr> of the panel. Plain Tamar Eddin was very desirable by 40% and mildly desirable by 50% of the panel.

4. Storage Stability of Tammheep Products: The Texture of Tamarhcep products at 0 time and after storage at room temperature for three months arc indicated in table 8. The data indicate no noticeable changes in texture during the storage period. The texture of Tamarheep products ranged from 2.1 to 3.3 mm/ sec at 0 time and after three months of sotl·agc at room temperature. In comparison the texture of kamar Eddin is 1.5 mm/scc and of Tamar Edin is 2.0 mm/sec. No orgcmoleptic changes in taste, texture or color were noticed. Also, no microbial growth or deterioration was noticed for three months of storage at room temperature for Tamarhcep products. CONCLUSION There is a great need to develop many new products from dates in Saudi Arabia, since date production is increasing annually. Last season's produc¥ tion is estimated by 500,000 metric tons (AI Beshr, 1986). Recently, considerable proportion of Saudi date is donated to World Food Program. Yet, another proportion of Saudi date is either wasted or used as animal feed. Tamarheep products represent new products from Tamar with a good Potential as dehydrated products. These products may become more popular when consumers become more and more familiarized with their flavor and nutritive value Tamarheep products contain 18(X> protein in addition to all the vitamins and minerals derived from their ingredients (skim mill powder, dates, fruit juice). Furthermore, Tamarheep were made by different fruit

98

«Tamarheep» A New Product from Dates (Tamar)

flavors so as to meet the different tastes of wide spectrum of the population. Even though reconstituted Tamarheep did not match reconstituted kamar Eddin, Tmnarheep could well be comsumed in the dry form as a fruit roll or incorporated in other foods,e.g. cakes. Therefore, such products should be tested on a large scale (such as schools, universities, army, factories, .... etc) for organoleptic properties and acceptance. LITERATURE CITED Abdel-Hafiz, M.j.; A. F. Shalobi; and I. A. AlAkhal. (1980). Chemical composition of 15 varieties of dates grown in Saudi Arabia. Proc. of 4th Conf. on the Biol. Aspects of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Biological Society, College of Sci. University of Riyadh, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, PP 181-194. 2. Al-Beshr, M.A. (1986). Thirteen million date palm in the kingdom. Riyadh Commerce Vol. 286, Jumada AlThaniah 1406, PP 44-43. 3. Foreigh Trade Statistics. (1984). Central Department of Statistics, Ministry of Finance and National Economy, Kingdom of saudi Arabia. Table 8-38. 4. Jacobs, M. B. (1973). The chemical analysis of foods and food products. 3rd ed. Robert E. Krieger Publ. Co. Huntington, N.Y. PP 21-34. 5. Mustafa, A. I., A.M. Hamad and M.S. Al-kahtani. (1983). Date varieties for jam production. Proceedings of the first Symposium on Date Palm in Saudi Arabia. March 23-25th 1982. King Faisal University, Ali-Iassa, Saudi Arabia PP 496-502. 6. Pearson, D. (1976). Chemical analysis of food. 7th ed. Churchill Iivingstone, N.Y.PP 112-127. 7. Sawaya, W. N.; J. K. Khalil; H.A. Khatchadurian; W.M. Safi, and A. S. Mashadi.(1983a): Sugars, Tannins and some Vitamins Content of Twenty-five date cultivms grwon in Saudi Arabia at the Khalal mature (color) and Tamar (ripe) Stages. Proceedings of the first symposium on date palm in Saudi Arabia. March 23~25th 1982. King Faisal University, AI-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. PP 468-479. 8. Sawaya, W.N.; W. M. Safi; J.K. Khalil and A. S. Mashacli. (1983b): Physical measurements, proximate analysis and nutrient elements content of twenty-five date cultivars, grown in Saudi Arabia, at Khalal (mature color) and tamar (ripe). Proceedings of the first symposium on the date palm in Saudi Arabia. March 23-25, 1982. King Faisal University. Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia PP 454-467. 9. Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1974): Statistical Methods. Iowa State University Press. Ames, Iowa, U.S.A. 6th ed. to. Stone, H. and J. L. Siedel.(l9.85): Sensory evaluation practices. Academic press, N. Y. PP. 76-86. 11. Sumainah, G .. M. and H. El-Nakhal.(l984):"Tamar Eddin"- a new product of date. J. of Food Sci and Techno!. 31: 88-91. 1.

99

H. El-Nakhal; M.l. Ei-Shaarawy and A.S. Mesallam

Table l. The ingredients of different date fruit homogenates which were used in the preparation of different Tamarheep products. ·-·~-~---~--------

------~

No.

Tamarheep products

Liquifying fluid for each 120 grams date

1.

Tamarheep-Plain

2. 3.

Tamarheep-Apple Tamarhecp-Banana

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Tamarhcep-Grapc Tamarheep-Orange Tamarheep-Pineapple Tamarhcep-Strawberry Tamarheep-Chocolate

180 grams of water + 0.1 gram vanillin. 180 grams of Apple Juice 120 grams of peeled Banana + 180 grams water 180 grams of Grape juice 180 grams of Orange juice 180 grams of Pineapple juice 180 grams of Strawberry juice 180 grams of water + 2.5 grams of cocoa.

The

Table 2. between the amount of added skim milk powder and the percentage of crude protein in the final Tmnarheep products.

relation~hip

Amount of skim milk powder added (gm)

protein % 9.9 14.8 19.5

20

35 50

100

«Tamarheep>~-

A New Product from Dates (Tamar)

Table 3: Percentage of major components of Tamarbecp products as compared to Kamar Eddin and

Tamar Eddin. No.

Sample

Mois- Dry !'rotturc matter cin content

Redu- Total Ash cing sugar sugar

Date (Tamar)

8.7

91.3

2.77"'

77.5

82.4

1.30

Tamarhccp-Plain Tamarheep-Apple Tamarheep-Banana Tamarhecp-Grapc Tamarheep-Orange Tamarhcep-Pincapplc Tamarheep-Strawbeny Tamarheep-Chocolate LSD

8.9 9.5 7.1 10.0 9.5 10.1 9.8 8.2 0.9

9l.l 90.5 92.9 90.0 90.5 89.9 90.2 91.8 0.9

18.4 18.3 18.8 18. l 18.3 18.1 18.2 18.5 0.72

60.4 61.5 58.2 64.0 62.8 60.6 59.5 63.6 3.1

72.4 74.5 72.2 75.0 74.8 74.6 72.5 73.9 3.5

2.77 2.90 2.95 2.99 2.92 2.94 2.90 3.02 0.55

16.5 15.5

83.5 54.5

1.99 2 . .18

64.1 66.1

68.01 72.2

2.40 1.60

·~---~·---·~~~~~

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

~-~·---~-··

1. 2.

Kamen Ed din '"famcu Eddin Plain

~---··-----~--~---~-·

i:c Protein % = Total Nitrogen percent X 6.25

101

H. EI-Nakha/; M./. EI-Shaarawy and A.S. Mesal/am

Table 4: Average points given by the organoleptic panel for dehydrated Tamarheep products as compared to Kamar Eddin and Tamar Eddin. No.

1.

2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

1. 2.

color

Texture Flavor

Total

40

20

40

100

Tamarhecp-Plain Tamarheep-Apple Tamarheep-Banana Tamarhecp-Grape Tamarbeep-Orange Tamarheep-Pineapple Tamarheep-Strawberry Tamarheep-Chocolate. LSD

36 37 39 30 36 37 31 20 2.7

18 17 19

35 34 37 30 35 33 34 15

89 88 95 73 89 87 79 45 7.3

Kamar Eddin Tamar Eddin Plain

36 35

18 18

Sample

102

13 18 17

14 10 1.3

3.2

39 30

93 83

« Tamarheep»

A New Product from Dates (Tamar)

Table 5: The distribution of organoleptic panel on the five descriptive terms for each sample of dehydrated Tamarhcep products. --·-·~·-~--

No.

l.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. l.

2.

Sample

Very desirable

mildly neutral Mildly desirundesir able able

Very nndesirable

Tamarheep-Plain Tamarheep-Apple Tamarheep-Banana Tamarhecp-Grapc Tamarheep-Orange Tamarheep-Pineapple Tamarheep-Strawberry Tamarheep-Chocolate

40 30 50 20 40 30 40 20

50 30 50 20 40 30 20

Kamar Eddin Tamar Edclin Plain

70 30

20 50

10

103

10 30 0 30 20 40 30 40

0 10 0 20 0 0 20

0 0 0 10 0 0 0 10

10

0 10

0 0

10

10

H. El-Nakhal; M.I. El-Shaarawy and A.S. Mesalfam

Table 6: Average points given by the organoleptic panel for reconstituted Tamarheep products as compared to reconstituted Kamar Eddin and Tamar Eddin. No.

Sample

color

Texture Flavor

40 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

1.

2.

20

Tamarheep· Plain Tamarhcep-Apple Tamar beep-Banana Tamarheep-Grape Tamarheep-Orangc Tamarheep-Pineapple Tamarheep-Strawberry Tamarheep-Chocolate L.S.D.

30 29 30 25

15 14 16 12

28

14

27

13

Kmar Eddin Tamar Eddin Plain

37 35

23

l3

22

10 1.5

2.3

104

18

18

Total

40 35 20 25 12 20 20 22 23 4.1

39 25

100 80

63 71 54 62 60 58

55 8.0

94 78

«Tamarheep» A New Product from Dates (Tamar)

Table 7: The distribution of organoleptic panel on the five descriptive terms for each sample of reconstituted Tamarheep products. as compared to reconstituted Karnar Eddin and Tamar Eddin. No.

Sample

Very desirable

Mildly desirble

Neutral Mildly Very unundesir desirable able

l.

Tamarheep-Plain Tamarheep-Apple Tamarheep-Banana Tamarheep-Grape Tamarheep-Orange Tamarheep-Pineapple Tamarheep-Strawberry Tamarheep-Chocolate

30 10 20 0 10

20 20 20 20 20

40 40 30 20

10

0

20 10

20 10

40 50 40

Kamar Eddin Tamar Eddin plain

90 40

10 50

2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7.

8. 1.

2.

105

30

0 10

10 20 20 40 20 30

0 10 !0

20

20 20 20 0 20

0 0

0 0

10

H. El-Nakhal; M.I. E'l-Siwarawy and A.,\'. i\1/esaifam

Table 8: Textruc as measured by penetration in nun/sec at 0 time and after three months or stroage at room temperature for tamarheep products as compared to KamarEddin and Tamar Eddin Texture nun/sec No.

0 Time

Sample

3 Months

·---------------------------2.1 2.1 Tamarhecp-Plain 1. Tamarhccp-Applc 2.2 2.2 2. Tamarhcep-Banana 2.1 2.1 3. 2.2 2.2 4. Tamarhcep-Gra pe 5. Tamarheep-Orangc 2.3 2.3 6. Tamarheep-Pineapple 3.3 3.3 Tamar h ep p-S traw berry 3.3 3.3 7. 2.2 2.2 8. Tamarhecp-Chocolate

1.

2.

L.S.D.

0.1

0.1

Kamcu Eel din Tamar Ecldin-Piain

1.5

1.4

2.0

2.0

·-·····-·--··-----~----··-~~·-···-----

106

Date Palm J S (1): 107-116 Published 1987

USE OF DATE PASTE IN THE PROCESSING OF NUTRITIOUS CANDY BARS A.K. YOUSIF K.F.U. Date Palm Research Centre, A!-Hassa 31982 Saudi Arabia

M. ABDELMASSEH Biscuit and Chocolate Manufacturing Co. Baghdad, Iraq

M.E. YOUSIF AND B.T. SAEED Agricultural and Water Resources Research Centre, Baghdad, Iraq

ABSTRACT

The present study was undertaken in an attempt to use date paste as a replacer for caramel or sugar paste in preparing candy bars. Processing conditions, nutritive values and organoleptic properties of the date bars as well as their storability were taken into consideration. Results of this study indicate that the date bars, either plain or chocolate coated, have good acceptability, possess a high nutritive value and can be stored for more than five months under refrigeration (S"C) without affecting ttreir qualities.

:i&-1;..,.:.

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107

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A. K. Yousif

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.)_,...;!I C::0 L.,o i ~ i~ · <;;,...,J ..u'

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INTRODUCTION

Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) constitute a major fruit crop in Middle East Countries where 75 to 80% of the world production is derived (5). Most of the dates produced are used directly for human consumption with little or no further processing. Recently, the date producing countries gave some attention to the improvement and development of date processing. Although new date packing and processing plants are being established and new products such as date syrup, vinegar, alcohol and liquid sugar are successfully marketed, less than10% of the produce is processed. (4). Date fruits are considered an excellent source of readily available energy (80-85% carbohydrate), supplying between 200 to 300 K cal./100 g, depending on the moisture content (13). Dates also contain a moderate amounts of thiamine, riboflavin and folic acid. They are a good source of the nutritionally important minerals such as iron, potassium, copper, sulphur and manganese (13). On the otller hand, dates arc rel<:ltivcly low jn portcin (2-3%) and fat (about 2-3%). (13) Therefore, the addition of a protein source such as powdered milk, chocolate and nuts and a fat source such as coconut will enhance the protein and fat content of the dates and give a highly nutritious food which could be used as a confectionery, an emergency food or for school feeding program.

108

Use of Date paste in the Processing of Nutritious Candy Bars

Several studies (10,12,13,14, 15, 16) have been carried out to incorporate dates in different food products. Recently promising results were obtained by adding date paste or date syrup as a flavouring or as a sucrose substitute in cakes, cookies <~nd biscuits (1). Many scientific reports dealing witb the role of carbohydrate sweetners in nutrition were presented at the International Nutritional Symposium held in Helsinki in 1978. Most of the reports recommended the necessity of replacing suctose, particularly in bakery, confectionery and beverages, by invert sugars. Those researchers claimed that sucrose is the principal cause of tooth decay among children and this problem could be alleviated by substitution of sucrose by invert sugar (8). The substantial quantities of dates available in Iraq and their popularity among the whole population justify their processing and the developing of new elate products such as date confectionery which is the aim of this paper. MATERIALS AND METHODS Destoned dates of the tamar stage of the semi-dry Zahdi eultivar were supplied by the Iraqi Dates Entreprise of Baghdad. Almonds, whole dry milk, corn starch, coconut and milk chocolate were supplied by the Biscuit and chocolate Producing co., (Bisculata, Baghdad). Sesame butter was purchased from the local market. The plain as well as the chocolate coated date bms were prepared using the candy bar line of Bisculata co. The candy bar line includes a mixer, rolling machine, slicer, enrober, cooling tunnel and packaging machine. The destoned dates were soaked for two minutes in tap water, then macerated using a meat grinder. The paste was mixed thoroughly with one or more of the following ingredients: starch, cocount, sesame butter, milk and roasted almonds (Table 1). The homogenized paste was formulated in a rolling machine to a sheet of 1 em. thickness, divided by a slicer to bars of 8 em. long. The bars were moved mechanically eitheP to the cooling tunnel and packing machine to prepare the plain bars: DI, 03, D5 or to the enrober, cooling tunnel and packing machine to prepare the chocolate coated bars: D2, D4 and D6. The prepared date bars were stored for 5 months at 3 different temperatures i.e. so C, 28°C and 40° C. The date bars were analysed for moisture, ash, protein (Nx6.25) and total and reducing sugars according to the methods outlined in A.O.A.C. (3). The calorific values of the date bars were calculated using the Atwater Factor (7).

109

A.K. Yousif

Potassium and sodium were determined using a flame phtometer, whilst, calcium, magnesium, manganese, copper and iron were determined using an

atomic absorption spectrophotometer as described in A.O.A.C. (3). The date bars were evaluated organoleptically at the time of preparation, after 2 and 5 months of storage by using the scoring difference test as recommended by Larmond (9). The date bar samples were presented to a panel of 8 semi-trained judges at the Iraqi Agri. & Water Resources Res. ·Centre. The equivalent grades for the mean scores were: excellent: 1-1.99, very good: 2-2.99, good: 3-3.39, acceptable 4-4.99, inferior: 5 and above. The data of the organoleptic evaluation was analysed statistically using a two-way analysis of variance (6). RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The results of the chemical composition of the prepared date bars are shown in Table 2. It is clear from these results that they bave too low a moisture content (14.90-16.60) to enable microorganisms to multiply. Coating with chocolate increased the protein, fat, sucrose, Ca, Na and the calorific value for the bars 02, 04 and 06. On the other hand, coating with chocolate reduced slightly the ash, Fe, Zn and Cu contents of bars; 02, 04 and 06, due to the low concentration of these nutrients in chocolate. The chemical composition data showed close similarity with the caloric distribution of emergency foods (protein: 7-8%; fat: 17-28% and carbohydrate: 65-75%), (2). Particularly with the two plain bars 01 and 03 and the chocolate coated bar 06. These date bars could therefore be considered as emergency foods. Taking the recommended dietary allowances into consideration (11), results in Table 2 show that consumption of lOOg of 02 bars (chocolate coated) by children of 7-10 years old would provide 41,2~,21,17, and 13% of the recommended dietary allowances for Fe, Mg, Ca, protein, calories and Zn, respectively. Thus either tbe plain or the chocolate coated date bars posses a high nutritive value and could be given to the children through the school feeding program and imporve their nutritional status.

The results of the organoleptic evaluation of the fresh date bars are presented in Table 3. The mean scores of the freshly prepared (zero time) date bars, either plain or chocolate coated, ranged between 2.40 (very good)

110

Use of Dare paste in !he Processing of NwritioHs Candy Bars

and 3.60 (good). Date bars coated with chocolate and containing almonds (02) were ranked the first. However, no significant differences were found between the six differently prepared date bars since the calculated F value (1.18) was less than the tabulated one (2.53). Mean sensory scores for both plain and chocolate coated date bars stored upto 5 months at 5"C, 28"C and 40"C are given in Table 4. The plain and the chocolate coated date bars stored for 2 months at either refrigerator (S"C) or room temperature (28"C) gained ~cores of excellent to good (1.75-3.38) (refrigerated) and very good (2.13-2.90) (28"C). However, some of the date bars stored at 28"C for 2 months were scored better than those stored at 5"C (Dl, DS and 06) although the differences were not significant. This might be due partly to the favorite brown color of these bars compared to the lighter colour of the refrigerated bars. On the other hand storing of plain and chocolate

coated date bars for 2 months at 40" significantly affected the good qualities of these bars. Oil separation and darkening of the colour of the chocolate coated bars occurcd at both two and five months.

After 5 months, all the refrigerated date bars were scored very good (2.13-2.88). The bars kept at 28'C were scored significantly worse whereas those stored at 40'C were unacceptable. CONCLUSIONS

Both plain and chocolate coated date bars could be stored at 5'C for 5 months or at 28"C for 2-3 months without affecting their good qualities. Storage at higher temperature (40"C) cannot be recommended. LITERATURE CITED 1.

Al-Noori, FF., Yousif, A.K., Abdclmascch, M., Yousif, M.E. & Khalil, E.M. (1984): Use of dates in the formulations of some bakery products. Date Palm J. 3 (2): 45-62.

2.

Al-Warraqui, J.A., Al-Nahri, !.F., Dabsil, S.A. & Al-Khishin, W.H. (1981): Chemical and biological studies of some concentrated foods as emergency foods for all purposes. Third Food Sci. & Tech. Arab Conference, Baghdad, March 7-12. A.O.A.C. (1975). Association Official Analytical Chemists 12th cd. Washing~

3.

ton, D.C. 4.

5.

Barrcveld, W.H. (1971): Industrial use of second quality dates. World Crops July/August: 209-10. FAO (1984). Trade Yearbook, 1983, Vol. 37, Rome.

111

A.K. Yousif

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12. 13. 14.

15.

16.

Gomez, K.A. & Gomez, A.A. (1984). Statistical procedures for agricultural research. 2nd. ed, John;Wiley & Sons, New York. Joint FAO/WfiO Ad Hoc Expert Committee (1973). Energy and protein requirement. Rep. Ser. FAO, 7:57. Koivistoinen, P. & Hyvonen, L. (1980): Carbohydrate sweetners in food and nutrition, London. Academic Press. Larmond, E. (1970): Methods for sensory evaluation of foods. Canada Dept. of Agri. Publication No. 1984. Mikki, M.S., Al-Taei, W.F., & Al-Kahtani, M.S. (1978). Suitability of different Iraqi date cultivars for jam making. Iraqi Date Res. Centre. Tech. Bulletin No. 6. Robinson, C.H. (1972). Profit Robinson's normal and therapeutic nutrition. 13th ed. New York. Macmillan Co. Swaya, W.N., Khalil, K.J., Safi, W.C. & Khatehadurian, 1-l.A. (1983): Date bars frotified with soy protein isolate and dry skim milk. J. Food Sci. 48: 1503~6. Yousif, A.K., Benjamin, N.D., Kado, A., Alddin, S.M. & Ali S.M. (1982a): Chemical composition of four Iraqi date cultivars. Date Palm 1(2): 285-294. Yousif, A.K., Alddin, S.M. and Alrr. ·,, H.A. (1982b): Proteiu rich food mixtures for feeding infants and preschool children. Iraqi J. of Agri. Water Resources, I (2): 89-97. Yousif, A.K., Ai-Shibibi, M., & Abrlilsahib, M. (1982e): Production of a nutritious and refreshing drink from date juice and milk. Iraqi J. of Agri. and Water Resources, 1(1): 23-50. Yousif, A.K., Hmnad, A.M. & Mirandclla, W.A. (1985): Pickling of dates at the early Khalal stage. J. Food Tech. 20 (6): 697-702.

112

Use of Date paste in the Processing of Nutritious Candy Bars

Table 1. Recipes for plain and chocolate coated date bars.

INGREDIENTS % Date Bars

Date Paste

Starch

Milk

Almonds

Coconut Sesame butter

Milk Chocolate

Dl

75

2

5

9

9

-

-

D2

75

2

5

9

9

-

20

D3

79

2

5

-

9

5

-

D4

79

2

5

-

9

5

20

D5

84

2

5

-

9

-

-

D6

84

2

5

-

9

-

20

1< The chocolate coating was adjusted to constitute 20% (lOg) of the date bar weight (50 g).

113

A.K. Yousif

Table 2. The Chemical composition of date bat'S (fresh wt. basis)

Nutrients

Moisture

II

01

I

02

I

03

I

04

I

~5

, 1 06

%

14.90

15.40

15.60

15.80

16.20

16.50

Protein

%

5.73

5.98

4.94

5.61

4.78

5.34

Fat

%

11.98

15.17

10.41

15.93

7.28

10.83

Fiber"

%

2 18

1.82

2.13

!.78

2.57

2.14

Ash

%

1.86

1.80

2.06

1.98

2.00

1.86

NFE''

(Yo

63.35

59.83

64.86

58.90

67.17

62.33

Total sugars

%

47.10

47.40

44.40

48.60

45.50

44.90

Sucrose

%

2.50

6.50

3.80

4.20

3.50

5.10

Reducing Sugar

%

44.10

40.60

40.10

44.20

41.80

39.50

K mg/100

g 680.00

746.00

620.00

580.00

584.00

546.00

Ca mg./100

g

131.00

166.00

141.00

154.00

118.00

155.00

Na mg/100

g

36.00

40.00

38.00

46.00

35.00

4'1.00

Mg mg/100

g

72.00

73.00

81.00

78.00

82.00

61.00

Fe mg/100

g

4.89

4.07

5.27

5.09

4.44

4.00

Mn mg/100

g

0.78

0.78

0.74

0.70

0.74

0.70

Zn mg/100

g

!.64

1.32

1.48

1.56

1.28

1.24

Cu mg/100

g

0.88

0.64

0.84

0.64

0.52

0.55

g 384.00

400.00

373.00

401.00

353.00

368.00

.

-

Food Energy K.cal./100 a: calculated values

b: Nitrogen free extract (carbohydrate).

114

Use of Date paste in the Processing of Nutritious Candy Bars

Table 3. Sensory evaluation, mean scores and analysis of variance for freshly prepared date bars. Date Bars Panelists I 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 Total Mean

D2

D3

D4

2.40

3 4 4 4 I 3 3 5 27 3.40

3 4 2 3 4 3 3 4 26 3.25

D1

3 2 3 4 5 I 3 3 24 3.00

2 I 4 I 2 2 4 3

19

!

D6

DS 5 4 4 4 2

2 4 2 3 3 4 4 2 24 3.00

4 3 3 29 3.60

Total

18 19 19 19

17 17 20 20 149

3.11

Analysis of Variance

Source of Variance Samples Panelists

Error Total

df

5 7 35 47

sum of square

Mean of square

7.35 1.64 43.49 52.48

1.47 1.24

115

F calcul::~ted

F Tabulated

1.18

2.53

A.K. Yousif

Table 4. Sensory evaluation and mean scores for stored date bars

Storage

--

Condition

2months 5'C 28'C 40'C

3.00 2.50 3.25''

1.75 2.62 3.12''

2.38 2.75 3.38"

2.00 2.13 3.38bb

3.38 2.90 4.24"

2.75 2.63 4.24"

5 months 5'C 28'C 40'C

2.50 3.88'' 5.00'

2.38 3.63' 4.13'

2.63 3.75'' 4.88'"

2.88 4.75' 4.63'

2.50 5.25' 5.50'

2.13 3.63' 5.00'

Results are the means of 8 p
= There = There

is a sigmficant difference at (P< 0.05) is a significant difference at (P
116

Date Palm J 5 (1) 117-119 Published 1987

SHORT COMMUNICATION OUT-BREAK OF TERMINAL BUD ROT OF DATE PALM CAUSED BY THIELAVIOPSIS PARADOXA K.K. AL-HASSAN AND GHANIA Y. ABBAS Plant Protection Research Center, Abu-Ghraib

During February 1984 an out-break of terminal bud rot disease affecting date-palms was observed at date-palm orchard about 10 km. from Baghdad. The disease has appeared suddenly in this orchard and about 500 datc··palms, most of them from Zahdi variety, were killed (Fig. 1). The infecting tissues were blackish brown then shrivel presenting dried dull appearance (Fig. 2). The causal organism was isolated from infected terminal bud on potato dextrose agar and identified as Thielaviopsis paradoxa (Desyn) Hohn. (1). Pathogenicity of the fungns was tested by artificial inoculation conducted by injecting conidial suspension in the terminal bud of one-month-old date-palm seedlings placed in a humid chamber at mild temperature ranging from 20-25°C. Symptoms were produced on the stem within 25-30 days after inoculation and the pathogen was subsequently reisolated from the artificially infected seedlings. This disease is associated with a decline and death of date-palms in the Shalt eiArab region where it believed that infection is associated with sudden changes in the water salinity (2). In Baghdad and other provinces this disease is considered a minor disease of sporadic occurence and never observed as an outbreak before.

117

K.K. Al-Hassan and Ghania Y. Abbas

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118

Out-Break of Terminal Bud Rot

References: 1.

2.

Ellis, M.B. (1971): Demataceous hyphomycetes. Kew, U.K. Commonwealth Mycological Institute. 429 p. Laville, E. (1966): Le palmier-dattier en Iraq. (agronomic et commerce). Fruits d'outre-mer, 21:211-220.

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AOAC (1975): Official Methods of analysis of chemist. Washington D.C., USA. Cardello, A.V., Hunt, D. & Mann, B. (1974): Relative sweetness of fructose and sucrose in model solutions, lemon beverages and white cake. J. Fd. Sci., 44: 748. Hyvoncn, L. Kurkcla, R., Koivstoincn, P. & Ratilaincn, A. (1978): Swcetining of coffee and tea with fructose-saccharin mixtures. J .Fd. Sci.; 43:1577. Hyvoncn, L., Kurkela, R.; Koivstoincn, P. & Ratilainen,A. (1978): Fructose-Saccharin and xylitol-saccharin sunergism. J.Fd. Sci.; 43: 25. Hyvonen, L., Kurkela, R., Koivstoinen, P.&Ratialainen, A. (1978): Swectining of soft drinks with mixtures of sugars and saccharin. J. Fd. Sci.; 43: 1580. Joint FAO/WI-10 Ad Hoc Expert Committee (1973): Energy and protein requirements, Tech. Rcpt. Ser. FAO. 7:57. Larmond, E. (1970): Methods for sensory evaluation of foods. Canada Dept. of Agr. Pub. No. 1984. Stone, I-1. & Oliver S. (1969): Measurement of the relative sweetness of selected swectners and sweetner mixtures. J. Fd. Sci.; 34:215. Yousif, K.A.; Benjamin, D.N., Kado S., Muhi Alddin, S. and Ali, M.S. (1982): Chemical composition of Iraqi date cultivars. Date Palm J. 1(2): 2-85. Ziemba. J.V., (1969): What to know about non-nutritive sweetner blends. Fd. Engr. May. 1982.

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THE USE OF LIQUID SUGAR- SACCHARIN IN PRODUCTION OF LOW CALORIE SOFT DRINKS Y. ALI Department of Chemistry, College of Agriculture Abu Ghraib, Bagl1dad, Iraq

H.K.H. AL-OGAJDI Regional Project !'or Palm & Dates Research Centre P.O.Box 10085, Bnghdad, Iraq

and

S.M. RASHID Department of Palms and Dates, Agriculture and Water Resources Research Centre, Fudhaliya, Baghdad, Inlq

ABSTRACT

A blend of liquid sugar, fructose and saccharin .containing (40,60, 0.016%) respectively, as low calorie sweetner for soft drinks was accomplished. The panel test scoring for the physical characteristics of this blend with 7% concentration was acceptable and superior when compared to other soft drinks containing either sucrose (A) liquid sugar (B) or mixtures of liquid sugar and fructose (C) 85.4, 84.5, 62.5% respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the possibility of producing beverages with low calories using a blend of liquid sugar, fructose and saccharin will have the same taste and sweetness of soft drinks using sucrose or liquid sugar.

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Fisher, P & A Bender (1979): The value of food 3rd ed. London. Gacula, M.C. & J. Singh (1984): Statis'tical methods in food and consumer research, Academic Press, INC. New York. Goering, H.K. & P.J. Van Soest (1970): Forage f1be anlaysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures) USDA, Beltsville, Maryland. Lees, R. & E Jackson (1975): Sugar confectionery and chocolate manufacture, first ed. 191-205, New York. Mikki, M.S., V. Buhacv & F.S. Zeki (1980): Production of caramel colour from date juice, Technical Bulletin No. 2/80 Palm and Date Research Centre, Baghdad. Oser, B.L. Hawk's physiological chemistry (1965): 4th cd. McGraw Hill Book Co. • Pearson (1975): The chemical aualysis of food 7th ed., London. Paul, A.A. & D.A.T. Sougthgate (1978): The composition of food. 14th ed., 206-209, London. Youssif, A.K., N.D. Benjamin, A. Kado, S. Mehi Aldi & S.M. Ali (1982): Chemical Composition of four Iraqi dates cultivars. Date Palm J. 1(2): 285~294.

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DATE CARAMEL PRODUCT H.H. MUTLAK, H.K.H. AL-OGAIDI and E. A. RAZAQ Date & Palm Dept., Agriculture & Water Resources Research Centre Scientific Research Council - Iraq.

ABSTRACT. The present study was undertaken in attempt to usc date in a caramel product. Of the various tested ingredients, the recommended combination was 50% date, 10% skimmilk, 10% fat, 9% table sugar, 6% starch and 15%

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18. Romas, R.C.; M. Nostivaga & R.L. Vazgucz (1979): Composition and nutrition value of some Spanish varieties of green olives. Grasas Y Aceidas Vol. 30 Fasc Z. 19. Shabana, H.R.; K.S. Jawad; N.D. Benjamin & B.A. Al-Ani (1974): Physicochemical changes during different stages of ripening and determination of the depressed period of development in the date fruit 1-Physical changes in Zahdi and Sayer cultivars. Palms and Dates Res. Cen. Techn. Bull. No. 1174.

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Al-Ogaidi, H. Khalid. (1982): Use of date in pickling industry I. Possibility of pickling Zahdi date at kimri stage JAWRR Vol. 1 (1). A.O.A.C. (1970): Official methods of analysis, 11th Ed., Washington D.C., 20044. ·Benjamin, N.D.; H.R. Desrosier; K.S. Jawad; B.A. Al-Ani; H.K. Al-Agadi & H. Zubair (1976): Physico~chemical changes during different stages of ripening and determination of the depressed period of development. in the date fruit. 2 ~ Chemical changes in Zahdi and Sayer cultivars. Palms and Date Research Centre, Techn. Bull. No. 1/76. Binsted, R.; J.D. Devey & J.C. Dakin (1971): Pickle and Sauce making. 3rd Ed., Food Trade Press. Boggess, T.S.; E.K. Heaton & A.L. Shewfelt (1974): Food Science and Technology Abstracts 11J, 1953. Dawson, V.H.W & A. Atem (1962): Date Handling, processing and packing, FAO Rome. Desrosier, N.W. & J.N. Desrosier (1977): The technology of food preservation. Agri. Publishing Co. Inc. Gress, W.V. (1958): Commercial fruit and vegetable products. 4th Ed., Mc'Graw Hill Book Co. Ibrahim, H.M. & S.A. Salim (1974): Studies of Egyptian black olives II. Pickling of Egyptian black olives, Food Technology and Dairy Labs., National Res. Cen., Dokki, Cairo Egypt pp. 41-44, Larmond, E. (1970): Methods of sensory evaluation of foods Canada. Dept. of Agri. Publi. No. 1984. Mclyneux, F. (1971): Manufacture of Jams, sauces and pickles, process biochemistry. McWilliams, M.&H. Paine (1977): Modern food preservation. Plyron press. Nostivega, M.; R.L. Vazguez & R.C. Romas (1979): Composition and nutrition value of some Spanish varieties of green olives. Grassary Aceites, Vol. 30 (2), Institute delo Grassay sus, Derivodes sevilla. Pederson, C.S. & M.N. Albury (1954): The influence of salt and temperature on the microflera of sauerkraut fermentation. Food Technology 8, 1~5.

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USE OF DATES IN PICKLE MAKING 3. EFFECT OF SWEETENING BY LIQUID SUGAR ON PICKLING DATE PALM FRUITS IN THE KIMRI STAGE H.K.H. AL OGAIDI," I.M. KHALIL' and B.T. SAID Department of Date & Palm, Agriculture & Water Resources Research Centre, Fudaliya, Baghdad, Iraq

ABSTRACT

This investigation inlcudes the effect of sweetening of date palm fruit at the kimri stage by using liquid sugar (12%) and compare this study by using brine '

Present address: Regional project for palm and dates, P.O.Box 10085, Baghdad, Iraq.

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Quality of date jam as affected by stage of maturity. Date Palm J. 3(1): 317-27. 5.

Larmond, E. (1982): Laboratory methods for sensory evaluation of food.

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Canada Dept. of Agric. Pub!. 1637. Mustafa, A.!.; A.M. Hamad and M.S. Al-Kahtani (1982). Date varieties for jam

7.

production. Proceeding of the 1st Symposium on Date Palm. 23-25 March, 1982. Mustafa, A. I., A.K. Yousif & A.N. Wahdan (1986): Production of jam from

8.

date at the Khalal and Rutab stages. 2nd Date Symposium 3-6 March, 1986. Mikki, M.S., W.F. Alfai & T.S. Jaafer (1978): Studies on date Jam. I. Suitability of different Iraqi commercial date cultivars for jam making. Iraqi Date Res.

Centre. Tech. Bulletin No. 6. 9. Woodroof, J.G. & Luh, B.S. (1975): Commercial fruit processing. AVI Pub!. Co. Inc. 10. Zim, A; A.M.Nour & A.R. Ahmed. (1981): Physio-chemical composition of common Sudanese date cultivars and their suitability for jam-making. Date Palm J l (1): 99-106.

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PROCESSING OF DATE-PRESERVE, DATE-JELLEY AND DATE-KUTTER ALI K, YOUSIF King Faisal University, Date Palm Research Centre, Al·Asha Saudi Arabia

A.F. AL-SHAAWAN AND M.Z. MININAH NADEC Date Factory, AI·Ahsa, S:mdi Arabia.

S.M. EL·TAISAN Regional Agric. Research Centl'c, AI·Ahsa

~

Sandi Arabia.

ABSTRACT Four Saudi Date cultivars, namely, Khalas, Rezaiz, Sukkmy and Sugee were

tested for their suitability in preserve making. Date paste was utilized in extracting the date juice that was used in preparing date-jelly and date-kutter. The proper processing conditions for the date by-products were standardized such as pH, Brix values as well as sensory evaluation were also conducted for the finished products. The results indicated that all date cultivars used in this study can be successfully used to make date-preserve, date paste and date juice. The juice can be utilized to make jelly and date-kutter processing. The processed date by-products, possessed high quality attributes and are well accepted by the panel members. The successful processing of these date products may open new outlets for utilization of second quality date.

74

Date Palm J 5 (I): 73-86 Published 1987

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Abdel Salam, A.L. and El-Saeady, A.A. (1982): Ecological studies on Ephestia calidella (Guen.) and E. cautella walk. as date insect pests at Baharia Oases. 1st Sym. Date palm, Saudi Arabia, 314--320 .

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THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF DATE PALM VARIETIES TO THE STORED PRODUCT INSECTS IN ORCHARD E.M.T. AL-HAFIDH General Body for Applied Agricultural Research Abu Ghraib, Baghdad, Iraq

ABSTRACT.

The susceptibility of ten varieties of date palms were studied to determine the insect infestations in Baghdad. The results showed that 6 species of insects infested the fruits during the pre-harvest period. Jibjab and Tiberzal varieties were more susceptible than the other varieties to the infestation. The high infestation level was during October. The population density of Carpophilus hemipterus was the highest on the different varieties in orchard.

66

14. Forbes, W.T.M. (1923): The wind venatton of the coleoptera Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 15: 325-45, 7 pis. (The December 1922) numbers of the journal was actually published February 20, 1923). 15. Forbes, W.T.M. (1926): The wing-folding patterns of coleoptera J.M.Y. Ent. Soc. 34: 42-68. 16. Gahrm, A.B. (1893): Descriptions of some new general and species of longicorn coleoptera. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 9, p. 256-856. 17. Gahan, A.B. (1906): Coleoptera, 1 (Coleoptera, 1 (cerambycidae). The founa of British India, mcluding Ceylon and Burma. XVtii. 329 pp. 107 figs. 18. Gral1Jm, S.A. (1922): A study of the wing venation of the coleoptera. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 15: 191-200. 19. Jeanne!, R. & R. Paulian (1944): Morphologic abdominale des coleopteres et systematique de l'ordte Rev. France. Ent. 11 (2): 65-l!O. 20. Lindroth, G.H. & E. Palmen (1956): Taxonomist's glossary of genitalia in insects (coleoptera, p. 69-75). 2l. Lindroth, C.I-1. (1957): The principle terms used for the male nncl female genitalia in coleoptera. Opuscula Ent., 22: 242-56. 22. Linsley, E.G. (l%1): The cermbycidae of North America. Part I. Univ. Calif., Pub!. Ent., Berkeley 18: 1-97. 23. Michener, C. D. (1944): A comparative study of the eight and ninth abdominal segments of insects. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 37 (3): 336-55. 24. Rao, Y.R. & A. Dutt. (1922): The pests of the date palm in Iraq, Dept. Agr. Baghdad Mem. No. 6, 30 pp. 25. Reiche, P. (1877): Bull Amm. Soc. Ent. Fr. (5) 7, p. 153. 26. Snodgrass, R.E. (1935): Principles of insect mnrphology. McGraw Hill Book Company, Inc. New York and London. 664 pp. 27. Tanner, V.M. (192"/): A preliminary study of the genitalia of female coleoptera. Trans. Am cr. Ent. Soc., 53: 5-50.

65

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Ali, H.A. (1975): Obsemrtions on the biology and life history of Oryctes elegans in the field and laboratory conditions. J.Cent. Arab Gulf, Univ. Basrah 4:55-60. 7. Arnett, R.H. JR. (1958): A list of beetle families. Coleopts. Bull., 12:65-72. 8. Borror, D.J. & D.M. Delong (1954): An introduction to the study of insects. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. New York, 1030 pp. 9. Crowson, R.A. (1953): The classification of the families of British coleoptera. Superfamily 17: chrysomeloidea. Etn. MO. Mag., 89: 181-198. 10. Duffy, E.A.J. (1952): Handbooks for the identification of British insects. Coleoptera: cerambycidae. R. Ent. Soc. London Vol. 5(12): 18 pp. 11. Duffy, E.A.J. (1968): A monography of the immature stages of oriental timber beetles (cerambyeidea). trustees of the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) London, 434 pp., 18 figs. 6.

12. Ehara, S. (1954): Comparative anatomy of male genitalia in some cerambycid

beetles. Jar. Fac. Sci. !-lakkaide Univ. Ser. 6. 12: 61·115. 13. Entwistle, P.F. (1963): The identity, variation and distribution of some members of the genus Tragocophala castelnau (coleoptera: lmniidae in West Africa, with descriptions of five new subspecies Trans. R. Ent. Soc. Lond. Vol. 115 pt. 3, p.

63-93, 48 figs.

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    .,s_,w::lI J _.J I

    Sc = Subcosta

    55

    ~IJ.J_.JI

    W

    J I,u-I ~ ·: 'j

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    \c5

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    :WWI >l)f lr, jl:.C ~ o..V.y ;c.,.;~ ~I

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    54

    js:._t

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    (10) ~

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    :;,.lli-1

    J.o:-J ~I

    _p".UI ~I j_,.)1- i (II)~

    53

    ....:;..t&-U

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    )~..)> J.,...O

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    U

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    52

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    50

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    49

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    48

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    -i

    47

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    a_;

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    ct.i..ll

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    4:..>

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    44

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    43

    -

    '
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    42

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    ~ ~IY. ~J J.)o .kA.\.. ~IY. j1.JI ..:..$......... ~:, ~ .j>-'11

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    <.!"'1 )I

    J <.Y'i_,..jl

    J..;:. :i...;.o~ ~I •1..)-':-iJ i~ oJI.r:-i ~Li ~ hammerschmidti

    "-'.,J Hypognathous ~I .~i ~ <.Y'i)U ~ j \L.'JI lr" ~ (1 ~) ~Ll:-1 )>.:11 J c)"' I) I .1;;,..~ . J..~.p lr" ~ oJ....s. ~ J>- ~ w _,.. U;s- ~~ J5 J>- .......<.\3..1 lr" )\).i

    ?i

    ---~

    40

    MORPHOLOGY OF THE PALM STEM BORER JEBUSAEA HAMMERSCHMIDTI REICHE (CERAMBYCIDAE: COLEOPTERA)~*) H.A. AL-ALI College of Science, University of B
    S.l. ISMAIL Ministry of Education, Baghdad, lntq

    ABSTRACT The genus and species of palm stem borer Jebusaea hammerschmidti Reiche was first described by Reiche from Palestine in 1877. The same species was described later in 1883 from Basra. Iraq by Gahan as Pseudo phi/us testaceus Gahan. Thus. it has been turned then into a synonym to J. hammerschmidti of Reiche. The present study deals in detail with the external morphology of the palm stem borer. The head, thorax and abdomen and their appendages including both male and female genitalia are studied

    and illustrated.

    J.)JIJ >1)1

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    et

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    ~I ~UI ..:.,.;l5 ~ JyS %70 ~,YO cS~

    39

    J ~JJ

    t:!_r; J.,.b Jl J..:-11

    Date Palm J 5 (1): 38-65 Published 1987

    ~I

    (....i

    JL..

    if."J\,;1..1 ~I
    J\.,ij..

    .ll-" J-!f)

    Jebusaea hammerschmidti Reiche; (Cerambycidae: Coleoptera)*

    J---!1 J"'l:s-

    0;->

    Jl.rJI/ ,1-'-'-! ;,....."'" _1_,.w1 ;;.,JS ~1.--1 ~l..r.l 0;~

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    i;ljJ

    JL.. JL..i.J.. A I ; u-JI w_y ,y ;;_;:;1J tWI J; ,y o_r J}J Reiche

    Jebusaea hammerschmidti ~I . 1877

    ris. ~ ,y ~ c_;LC

    ,y 1883 rU.Pseudophilus testacus Gahan J.

    Jl synonym L;,~_,... ;__,I _pi ..u.>

    \..U. c?.)..J-1

    .J

    if! I L

    (J\_,\5

    tWI ~ ..li;

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    gb , U ' )_ ai; GIJ> ~I ~ . hammerschmidti

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    38

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    37

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    36

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    15. Preston, R.D. (1964): Pollinating by airplane. Ann. Rcpt. Date Growers' Ins!. 41:24. 16. Ream, C.L. & J.R. Fun (1970): Fruit set of dates as affeetecl by pollen viability and dust or water on stigmas. Ann. Rept. Date Growers' Inst. 47:11. 17. Shabana, H.R.; E.A. Mawlood; T.K. Ibrahim; M. Shafaat & H.M. Aziz (1985): Pollen viability and favourable storage conditions for seven commercial male cultivars of date palms. J.Agric. Water Reso. Res. 4 (3): 169-79. 18. Shafaat, M.; H.R. Shabana & F.M. Aziz (1978): Investigation on the storage, viability and germination of different male cultivars. Sci. Res. Found., Palm and Dates Res. Cen. Tech. Bull. 1/78, Baghdad, Iraq.

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    32

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    EFFECT OF STORAGE PERIODS OF POLLINATION MIXTURE ON FRUIT SET AND FRUIT QUALITY OF DATE. PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIJ:<13RA L) KHASTA WY CUL TIV AR H.!l. HAMOOD AND J.S. SHALASH Dcpm·tmcnt Palm and Dates, Agriculture & Water Resources Research Centre Scicntilk Research Council, P.O.llox 2416, Bnghdad, lraq

    ABSTRACT The study was carried out during the 1985 season at the Horticulture Laboratory of Palm and Date Department and the Palm and Date H. cscarch Station at Zafarania, Baghdad. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of weekly storage periods and the filler on pollen viability. fruit set and other fruit properties of Khastawi cultivar. The results indicated that from the first week of storage there was a significant effect of the storage period and the filler on pollen viability, average weight of the bunch, average weight and volume of fruit, percentage of fruit set and parthcnocarpy fruits. However no significant effect was observed on total soluble solids or moisture content. In order to obtain good fruit set and yield it is rccommcnclccl that the mixture of pollen and filler must be prepared immediately before pollination.

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    Demason, A. Darleen, (1980): The occurrence and stmcture of apparently bisexual flower in the date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceac). Bot. Gaz. 141: (P282-292).

    7.

    Johensen, D.A., (1950): Plant Microtcchniquc. McGraw Hill. New York.

    8.

    Lioyd, F.E. (1910): Development and nutrition of the embryo, seed and carpel in the date palm Pheonix dactylifera L. Annu. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gcln, 21: 105-164.

    9.

    (Cited in Al-Bakev, 1972). Masheshwari, P. (1950): Embryology of Anjiesporms. McGraw-Hill Book

    Company, New York, Toronto, London. 10. ()mar, M.S. and M.B. Arif, (1985): An Investigation of the ·Fate of Phoenix dactyhfera L Carpels cultured in vitro. (Unpublished result). 11. Osman, A.M.A., W. Reuther and L.C. Frickson. (1974): Xenia and Mctaxenia studies in the date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. Date Growers lnst. Rep. 51:6-16.

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    length and width was 0.12 mm and 0.09 mm. Cellularization of the nuclear endosperm start after 30 days of pollination, 45 days after pollination all the endosperm become thick cellwallecl, and the embryo become oval-shaped, after 45 days the embryo takes the regular oval shaped, the average length and width was 0.26 mm and 0.17 mm, respectively.

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    A STUDY ON EMBRYONIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE DATE PALM FLOWER AND FRUIT (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) CUL TIVAR SUKKARI A.N.R. AL BAJILANI Horlicultnrc Department, College of Agriculture (Abu Ghraib) llnghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq.

    A.A. AL ATTAR Plant Protection Department, College of Agriculture (Abu Ghraib), Baghdad University, Hnghdad, Iraq

    ABSTRACT

    This experiment was conducted at the College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Abu·Ghraib, Baghdad, during the season of 1983 on Sukkari cultivars pollinated with Rassasi male cultivars. The studies of developmental anatomy and morphology of embryo and endosperm was for 45 days following pollination, by using the paraffin embedding method and sectioning by rotary Microtome, the result shows the embryo-sac of elate palm flowers is of polygonum type and the ovules were anatropous-semi anatropous, the fertilization occurs 2 days after pollination, the pollen tube canal was observed, extending from the stigma to the ovules, 8 days after pollination the sub-epidermal cells of the stigma redifferentiated to sclericles cells which may inhibit the growth of pollen tube, fertilization occure in all three carples ovary, but after 8 days only one carpel develop to mature fruit while the other two abort, 15 days after pollination the embryo take spherical ·- oval shaped at the chalaza[ region, the average length and width was 0.028 mm and 0.020 mm, 20 days J"fter pollination the embryo become oval - kidney shaped at the chalazat - of embryo sac, the average

    3

    6

    Date Palm J 5 (I): 5-22 Published 19K7

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    THE DATE PALM JOURNAL

    9 1987 THE DATE PALM JOURNAL EDITORIL BOARD: DR. HASSAN KHALID HASSAN AL-OGAIDI, CHAIRMAN DR. ABDALLAH S. EL-GHAMDI SHEIKH IBRAHIM DIAIG EL-SABAH D...

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