The Classroom Teacher as Intervention 'First Responder': Tools for

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RTI Toolkit: A Practical Guide for Schools

The Classroom Teacher as Intervention ‘First Responder’: Tools for Academic Intervention and Assessment Jim Wright, Presenter

14 March 2012 Technical Assistance Meeting for Committee on Special Education Chairpersons Crowne Plaza Resort Lake Placid, NY

Jim Wright 364 Long Road Tully, NY 13159 Email: [email protected] Workshop handouts available at: http://www.interventioncentral.org/ccse

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Effective Instruction: Key Components

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Intervention & Related RTI Terms: Definitions

Educators who serve as interventionists should be able to define and distinguish among the terms core instruction, intervention, instructional adjustment, and modification. (In particular, interventionists should avoid using modifications as part of an RTI plan for a general education student, as they can be predicted to undermine the student’s academic performance.) Here are definitions for these key terms.

 Core Instruction. Those instructional strategies that are used routinely with all students in a general-

education setting are considered ‘core instruction’. High-quality instruction is essential and forms the foundation of RTI academic support. NOTE: While it is important to verify that a struggling student receives good core instructional practices, those routine practices do not ‘count’ as individual student interventions.

 Intervention. An academic intervention is a strategy used to teach a new skill, build fluency in a skill, or encourage a child to apply an existing skill to new situations or settings. An intervention can be thought of as “a set of actions that, when taken, have demonstrated ability to change a fixed educational trajectory” (Methe & Riley-Tillman, 2008; p. 37). As an example of an academic intervention, the teacher may select question generation (Davey & McBride,1986.; Rosenshine, Meister & Chapman, 1996), a strategy in which the student is taught to locate or generate main idea sentences for each paragraph in a passage and record those ‘gist’ sentences for later review.

 Instructional Adjustment (Accommodation). An instructional adjustment (also known as an

'accommodation') is intended to help the student to fully access and participate in the general-education curriculum without changing the instructional content and without reducing the student’s rate of learning (Skinner, Pappas & Davis, 2005). An instructional adjustment is intended to remove barriers to learning while still expecting that students will master the same instructional content as their typical peers. An instructional adjustment for students who are slow readers, for example, may include having them supplement their silent reading of a novel by listening to the book on tape. An instructional adjustment for unmotivated students may include breaking larger assignments into smaller ‘chunks’ and providing students with performance feedback and praise for each completed ‘chunk’ of assigned work (Skinner, Pappas & Davis, 2005).

 Modification. A modification changes the expectations of what a student is expected to know or do—typically by lowering the academic standards against which the student is to be evaluated. Examples of modifications are giving a student five math computation problems for practice instead of the 20 problems assigned to the rest of the class or letting the student consult course notes during a test when peers are not permitted to do so. Instructional modifications are essential elements on the Individualized Education Plans (IEPs) or Section 504 Plans of many students with special needs. Modifications are generally not included on a generaleducation student’s RTI intervention plan, however, because the assumption is that the student can be successful in the curriculum with appropriate interventions and instructional adjustments alone. In fact, modifying the work of struggling general education students is likely to have a negative effect that works against the goals of RTI. Reducing academic expectations will result in these students falling further behind rather than closing the performance gap with peers

References Davey, B., & McBride, S. (1986). Effects of question-generation training on reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 256-262.

Methe, S. A., & Riley-Tillman, T. C. (2008). An informed approach to selecting and designing early mathematics interventions. School Psychology Forum: Research into Practice, 2, 29-41. Rosenshine, B., Meister, C., & Chapman, S. (1996). Teaching students to generate questions: A review of the intervention studies. Review of Educational Research, 66, 181-221. Skinner, C. H., Pappas, D. N., & Davis, K. A. (2005). Enhancing academic engagement: Providing opportunities for responding and influencing students to choose to respond. Psychology in the Schools, 42, 389-403.

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Motivation Challenge 1: The student is unmotivated because he or she cannot do the assigned work. Profile of a Student with This Motivation Problem: The student lacks essential skills required to do the task. Areas of deficit might include basic academic skills, cognitive strategies, and academicenabler skills. Here are definitions of these skill areas: 

Basic academic skills. Basic skills have straightforward criteria for correct performance (e.g., the student defines vocabulary words or decodes text or computes ‘math facts’) and comprise the building-blocks of more complex academic tasks (Rupley, Blair, & Nichols, 2009). The instructional goal in basic skills is for students to become ‘automatic’ in the skill(s) being taught.



Cognitive strategies. Students employ specific cognitive strategies as “guiding procedures” to complete more complex academic tasks such as reading comprehension or writing (Rosenshine, 1995). Cognitive strategies are “intentional and deliberate procedures” that are under the conscious control of the student (Rupley, Blair, & Nichols, 2009; p. 127). The instructional goals are to train students to use specific cognitive instruction strategies, to reliably identify the conditions under which they should employ these strategies, and to actually use them correctly and consistently. Question generation is an example of a cognitive strategy to promote reading comprehension (Rosenshine, Meister, & Chapman, 1996); the student is trained to locate or write main-idea sentences for each paragraph in a passage, then write those main ideas onto separate note cards with corresponding questions.



Academic-enabling skills. Skills that are ‘academic enablers’ (DiPerna, 2006) are not tied to specific academic knowledge but rather aid student learning across a wide range of settings and tasks. Examples of academic-enabling skills include organizing work materials, time management, and making and sticking to a work plan. The instructional goal is to train students to acquire these academic-support skills and to generalize their use to become efficient, selfmanaging learners.

What the Research Says: When a student lacks the capability to complete an academic task because of limited or missing basic skills, cognitive strategies, or academic-enabling skills, that student is still in the acquisition stage of learning (Haring et al., 1978). That student cannot be expected to be motivated or to be successful as a learner unless he or she is first explicitly taught these weak or absent essential skills (Daly, Witt, Martens & Dool, 1997). How to Verify the Presence of This Motivation Problem: The teacher collects information (e.g., through observations of the student engaging in academic tasks; interviews with the student; examination of work products, quizzes, or tests) demonstrating that the student lacks basic skills, cognitive strategies, or academic-enabling skills essential to the academic task.

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How to Fix This Motivation Problem: Students who are not motivated because they lack essential skills need to be taught those skills. Direct-Instruction Format. Students learning new material, concepts, or skills benefit from a ‘direct instruction’ approach. (Burns, VanDerHeyden & Boice, 2008; Rosenshine, 1995; Rupley, Blair, & Nichols, 2009). When following a direct-instruction format, the teacher:  ensures that the lesson content is appropriately matched to students’ abilities.  opens the lesson with a brief review of concepts or material that were previously presented.  states the goals of the current day’s lesson.  breaks new material into small, manageable increments, or steps.  throughout the lesson, provides adequate explanations and detailed instructions for all concepts and materials being taught. NOTE: Verbal explanations can include ‘talk-alouds’ (e.g., the teacher describes and explains each step of a cognitive strategy) and ‘think-alouds’ (e.g., the teacher applies a cognitive strategy to a particular problem or task and verbalizes the steps in applying the strategy).  regularly checks for student understanding by posing frequent questions and eliciting group responses.  verifies that students are experiencing sufficient success in the lesson content to shape their learning in the desired direction and to maintain student motivation and engagement.  provides timely and regular performance feedback and corrections throughout the lesson as needed to guide student learning.  allows students the chance to engage in practice activities distributed throughout the lesson (e.g., through teacher demonstration; then group practice with teacher supervision and feedback; then independent, individual student practice).  ensures that students have adequate support (e.g., clear and explicit instructions; teacher monitoring) to be successful during independent seatwork practice activities. References: Burns, M. K., VanDerHeyden, A. M., & Boice, C. H. (2008). Best practices in intensive academic interventions. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp.11511162). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. Daly, E. J., Witt, J. C., Martens, B. K., & Dool, E. J. (1997). A model for conducting a functional analysis of academic performance problems. School Psychology Review, 26, 554-574.

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DiPerna, J. C. (2006). Academic enablers and student achievement: Implications for assessment and intervention services in the schools. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 7-17. Haring, N.G., Lovitt, T.C., Eaton, M.D., & Hansen, C.L. (1978). The fourth R: Research in the classroom. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill Publishing. Rosenshine, B. (1995). Advances in research on instruction. The Journal of Educational Research, 88, 262-288. Rosenshine, B., Meister, C., & Chapman, S. (1996). Teaching students to generate questions: A review of the intervention studies. Review of Educational Research, 66, 181-221. Rupley, W. H., Blair, T. R., & Nichols, W. D. (2009). Effective reading instruction for struggling readers: The role of direct/explicit teaching. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25:125–138.

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Building Blocks of Effective Instruction

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Building Blocks of Effective Instruction Good classroom instruction is no accident. Two powerful tools for analyzing the quality of student instruction are the Instructional Hierarchy and the Learn Unit. Instructional Hierarchy. As students are taught new academic skills, they go through a series of predictable learning stages. At the start, a student is usually halting and uncertain as he or she tries to use the target skill. With teacher feedback and lots of practice, the student becomes more fluent, accurate, and confident in using the skill. It can be very useful to think of these phases of learning as ahierarchy (See chart on page 2). The learning hierarchy (Haring, Lovitt, Eaton, & Hansen, 1978) has four stages:acquisition, fluency, generalization, and adaptation: 1. Acquisition. The student has begun to learn how to complete the target skill correctly but is not yet accurate or fluent in the skill. The goal in this phase is to improve accuracy. 2. Fluency. The student is able to complete the target skill accurately but works slowly. The goal of this phase is to increase the student’s speed of responding (fluency). 3. Generalization. The student is accurate and fluent in using the target skill but does not typically use it in different situations or settings. Or the student may confuse the target skill with ‘similar’ skills. The goal of this phase is to get the student to use the skill in the widest possible range of settings and situations, or to accurately discriminate between the target skill and ‘similar’ skills. 4. Adaptation. The student is accurate and fluent in using the skill. He or she also uses the skill in many situations or settings. However, the student is not yet able to modify or adapt the skill to fit novel task-demands or situations. The ‘Learn Unit’. At the core of good instruction lies the ‘’Learn Unit’, a 3-step process in which the student is invited to engage in an academic task, delivers a response, and then receives immediate feedback about how he or she did on the task (Heward, 1996). Here is an explanation of the stages of the ‘Learn Unit’: 1. Academic Opportunity to Respond. The student is presented with a meaningful opportunity to respond to an academic task. A question posed by the teacher, a math word problem, and a spellingtem i on an educational computer ‘Word Gobbler’ game could all be considered academic opportunities to respond. 2. Active Student Response. The student answers the item, solves the problem presented, or completes the academic task. Answering the teacher’s question, computing the answer to a math word problem (and showing all work), and typing in the correct spelling of an item when playing an educational computer game are all examples of active student responding. 3. Performance Feedback. The student receives timely feedback about whether his or her response is correct— often with praise and encouragement. A teacher exclaiming ‘Right! Good job!’ when a student gives an response in class, a student using an answer key to check her answer to a math word problem, and acomputer message that says ‘Congratulations! You get 2 points for correctly spelling this word!” are all examples of corrective feedback. The more frequently a student cycles through complete ‘Learn Unit’ trials, the faster that student is likely to make learning progress. If any one of these steps is missing, the quality of instruction will probably be compromised. References Haring, N.G., Lovitt, T.C., Eaton, M.D., & Hansen, C.L. (1978).The fourth R: Research in the classroom. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co. Heward, W.L. (1996). Three low-tech strategies for increasing the frequency of active student response during group instruction. In R.Gardner, D.M.Sainato, J.O.Cooper, T.E.Heron, W.L.Heward, J.W.Eshleman,& T.A.Grossi (Eds.), Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction (pp.283-320). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

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Building Blocks of Effective Instruction

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Instructional Hierarchy: Matching Interventions to Student Learning Stage (Haring, et al., 1978) Learning Stage Acquisition:

Student ‘Look-Fors’… •

Exit Goal: The student can perform the skill accurately with • little adult support.

Fluency:

Exit Goals: The student (a) has learned skill well enough to retain (b) has learned skill well enough to combine with other skills, (c) is as fluent as peers.

• •

Generalization:



Adaptation:

• •

Exit Goals: The student (a) uses the skill across settings, • situations; (b) does not • confuse target skill with similar skills

Exit Goal: The Adaptation phase is continuous and has no exit criteria.

Jim Wright, Presenter



Is just beginning to learn skill Not yet able to perform learning task reliably or with high level of accuracy

What strategies are effective… • • •

• • Gives accurate responses to • learning task • Performs learning task slowly, haltingly • • • Is accurate and fluent in responding May fail to apply skill to new • situations, settings May confuse target skill with • similar skills (e.g., confusing ‘+’ and ‘x’ number operation • signs) • Is fluent and accurate in skill • Applies skill in novel situations, settings without prompting Does not yet modify skill as • needed to fit new situations (e.g., child says ‘Thank you’ • in all situations, does not use modified, equivalent phrases such as “I appreciate your help.”)

Teacher actively demonstrates target skill Teacher uses ‘think-aloud’ strategy-- especially for thinking skills that are otherwise covert Student has models of correct performance to consult as needed (e.g., correctly completed math problems on board) Student gets feedback about correct performance Student receives praise, encouragement for effort Teacher structures learning activities to give student opportunity for active (observable) responding Student has frequent opportunities to drill (direct repetition of target skill) andpractice (blending target skill with other skills to solve problems) Student gets feedback on fluency and accuracy of performance Student receives praise, encouragement for increased fluency Teacher structures academic tasks to require that the student use the target skill regularly in assignments. Student receives encouragement, praise, reinforcers for using skill in new settings, situations If student confuses target skill with similar skill(s), the student is given practice items that force him/her to correctly discriminate between similar skills Teacher works with parents to identify tasks that the student can do outside of school to practice target skill Student gets periodic opportunities to review, practice target skill to ensure maintenance Teacher helps student to articulate the ‘big ideas’ or core element(s) of target skill that the student can modify to face novel tasks, situations (e.g., fractions, ratios, and percentages link to the ‘big idea’ of the part in relation to the whole; ‘Thank you’ is part of a larger class of polite speech) Train for adaptation: Student gets opportunities to practice the target skill with modest modifications in new situations, settings with encouragement, corrective feedback, praise, other reinforcers. Encourage student to set own goals for adapting skill to new and challenging situations.

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Reading: Selected Interventions

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Letter Cube Blending DESCRIPTION: The Letter Cube Blending intervention targets alphabetic (phonics) skills. The student is given three cubes with assorted consonants and vowels appearing on their sides. The student rolls the cubes and records the resulting letter combinations on a recording sheet. The student then judges whether each resulting ‘word’ composed from the letters randomly appearing on the blocks is a real word or a nonsense word. The intervention can be used with one student or a group. (Florida Center for Reading Research, 2009; Taylor, Ding, Felt, & Zhang, 2011). MATERIALS:  Three Styrofoam cubes with selected consonants and vowels displayed on the cube faces. (See directions for preparing these cubes below.)  Letter Cube Blending Recording Sheet PREPARATION: Here are guidelines for preparing Letter Cubes (adapted from Florida Center for Reading Research, 2009): 1. Start with three (3) Styrofoam blocks (about 3 inches in diameter). These blocks can be purchased at most craft stores. 2. With three markers of different colors (green, blue, red), write the lower-case letters listed below on the sides of the three blocks--with one bold letter displayed per side. - Block 1: t,c,d,b,f,m: green marker - Block 2: a,e,i,o.u,i (The letter I appears twice on the block.): blue marker - Block 3: b,d,m,n,r,s: red marker Draw a line under any letter that can be confused with letters that have the identical shape but a different orientation (e.g., b and d). INTERVENTION STEPS: At the start of the intervention, each student is given a Letter Cube Blending Recording Sheet. During the Letter Cube Blending activity: 1. Each student takes a turn rolling the Letter Cubes. The student tosses the cubes on the floor, a table, or other flat, unobstructed surface. The cubes are then lined up in 1-2-3 (green: blue: red) order. 2. The student is prompted to sound out the letters on the cubes. The student is prompted to sound out each letter, to blend the letters, and to read aloud the resulting ‘word’. 3. The student identifies and records the word as ‘real’ or ‘nonsense’. The student then identifies the word as ‘real’ or ‘nonsense’ and then writes the word on in the appropriate column on the Letter Cube Blending Recording Sheet. 4. The activity continues to 10 words. The activity continues until students in the group have generated at least 10 words on their recording sheets.

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References Florida Center for Reading Research. (2009). Letter cube blending. Retrieved from http://www.fcrr.org/SCAsearch/PDFs/K-1P_036.pdf Taylor, R. P., Ding, Y., Felt, D., & Zhang, D. (2011). Effects of Tier 1 intervention on letter–sound correspondence in a Response-to-Intervention model in first graders. School Psychology Forum, 5(2), 54-73.

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Letter Cube Blending Activity (Florida Center for Reading Research, 2009) Directions: Have the student toss the Letter Cubes. Line up the Cubes in GREEN-BLUE-RED (G-B-R) order. Have the student sound out each of the letters on the Cubes in G-B-R order. Have the student read the ‘word’ spelled out on the Cubes. Then have the student decide whether the ‘word’ is real or nonsense and write the word under the appropriate column below. Continue until at least 10 ‘words’ have been generated by this group activity.

Student Name ______________________________________________________________________________________

Real Word

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Nonsense Word

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Paired Reading Description: The student reads aloud in tandem with an accomplished reader. At a student signal, the helping reader stops reading, while the student continues on. When the student commits a reading error, the helping reader resumes reading in tandem. Materials:  Reading book Preparation:  The teacher, parent, adult tutor, or peer tutor working with the student should be trained in advance to use the paired-reading approach. Intervention Script: 1. Sit with the student in a quiet location without too many distractions. Position the book selected for the reading session so that both you and the student can easily follow the text. 2. Say to the student, “Now we are going to read aloud together for a little while. Whenever you want to read alone, just tap the back of my hand like this [demonstrate] and I will stop reading. If you come to a word you don’t know, I will tell you the word and begin reading with you again.” 3. Begin reading aloud with the student. If the student misreads a word, point to the word and pronounce it. Then have the student repeat the word. When the student reads the word correctly, resume reading through the passage. 4. When the child delivers the appropriate signal (a hand tap), stop reading aloud and instead follow along silently as the student continues with oral reading. Be sure occasionally to praise the student in specific terms for good reading (e.g., “That was a hard word. You did a nice job sounding it out!”). 5. If, while reading alone, the child either commits a reading error or hesitates for longer than 5 seconds, point to the error-word and pronounce it. Then tell the student to say the word. When the student pronounces the error-word correctly, begin reading aloud again in unison with the student.

6. Continue reading aloud with the student until he or she again signals to read alone. Tips: Consider Using Paired Reading for Peer Tutoring or as a Parent Strategy. Paired reading is a highly structured but simple strategy that can easily be taught to others— including to school-age children and youth. If you have a pool of responsible older students available you may want to create a cross-age peer tutoring program that uses

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paired reading as its central intervention. Or train parents to use this simple reading strategy when they read with their children at home. References: Topping, K. (1987). Paired reading: A powerful technique for parent use. Reading Teacher, 40, 608-614.

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Reading Comprehension ‘Fix-Up’ Skills: A Toolkit Good readers continuously monitor their understanding of informational text. When necessary, they also take steps to improve their understanding of text through use of reading comprehension ‘fix-up’ skills. Presented here are a series of fix-up skill strategies that can help struggling students to better understand difficult reading assignments.  [Core Instruction] Providing Main Idea Practice through ‘Partner Retell’ (Carnine & Carnine, 2004). Students in a group or class are assigned a text selection to read silently. Students are then paired off, with one student assigned the role of ‘reteller’ and the other appointed as ‘listener’. The reteller recounts the main idea to the listener, who can comment or ask questions. The teacher then states the main idea to the class. Next, the reteller locates two key details from the reading that support the main idea and shares these with the listener. At the end of the activity, the teacher does a spot check by randomly calling on one or more students in the listener role and asking them to recap what information was shared by the reteller.  [Accommodation] Developing a Bank of Multiple Passages to Present Challenging Concepts (Hedin & Conderman, 2010; Kamil et al., 2008; Texas Reading Initiative, 2002). The teacher notes which course concepts, cognitive strategies, or other information will likely present the greatest challenge to students. For these ‘challenge’ topics, the teacher selects alternative readings that present the same general information and review the same key vocabulary as the course text but that are more accessible to struggling readers (e.g., with selections written at an easier reading level or that use graphics to visually illustrate concepts). These alternative selections are organized into a bank. Students are encouraged to engage in wide reading by choosing selections from the bank as a means to better understand difficult material.  [Student Strategy] Promoting Understanding & Building Endurance through Reading-Reflection Pauses (Hedin & Conderman, 2010). The student decides on a reading interval (e.g., every four sentences; every 3 minutes; at the end of each paragraph). At the end of each interval, the student pauses briefly to recall the main points of the reading. If the student has questions or is uncertain about the content, the student rereads part or all of the section just read. This strategy is useful both for students who need to monitor their understanding as well as those who benefit from brief breaks when engaging in intensive reading as a means to build up endurance as attentive readers.  [Student Strategy] Identifying or Constructing Main Idea Sentences (Davey & McBride, 1986; Rosenshine, Meister & Chapman, 1996). For each paragraph in an assigned reading, the student either (a) highlights the main idea sentence or (b) highlights key details and uses them to write a ‘gist’ sentence. The student then writes the main idea of that paragraph on an index card. On the other side of the card, the student writes a question whose answer is that paragraph’s main idea sentence. This stack of ‘main idea’ cards becomes a useful tool to review assigned readings.  [Student Strategy] Restructuring Paragraphs with Main Idea First to Strengthen ‘Rereads’ (Hedin & Conderman, 2010). The student highlights or creates a main idea sentence for each paragraph in the assigned reading. When rereading each paragraph of the selection, the student (1) reads the main idea sentence or student-generated ‘gist’ sentence first (irrespective of where that sentence actually falls in the paragraph); (2) reads the remainder of the paragraph, and (3) reflects on how the main idea relates to the paragraph content.

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 [Student Strategy] Summarizing Readings (Boardman et al., 2008). The student is taught to summarize readings into main ideas and essential details--stripped of superfluous content. The act of summarizing longer readings can promote understanding and retention of content while the summarized text itself can be a useful study tool.  [Student Strategy] Linking Pronouns to Referents (Hedin & Conderman, 2010). Some readers lose the connection between pronouns and the nouns that they refer to (known as ‘referents’)—especially when reading challenging text. The student is encouraged to circle pronouns in the reading, to explicitly identify each pronoun’s referent, and (optionally) to write next to the pronoun the name of its referent. For example, the student may add the referent to a pronoun in this sentence from a biology text: “The Cambrian Period is the first geological age that has large numbers of multi-celled organisms associated with it Cambrian Period.”  [Student Strategy] Apply Vocabulary ‘Fix-Up’ Skills for Unknown Words (Klingner & Vaughn, 1999). When confronting an unknown word in a reading selection, the student applies the following vocabulary ‘fix-up’ skills: 1. Read the sentence again. 2. Read the sentences before and after the problem sentence for clues to the word’s meaning. 3. See if there are prefixes or suffixes in the word that can give clues to meaning. 4. Break the word up by syllables and look for ‘smaller words’ within.  [Student Strategy] Compiling a Vocabulary Journal from Course Readings (Hedin & Conderman, 2010). The student highlights new or unfamiliar vocabulary from course readings. The student writes each term into a vocabulary journal, using a standard ‘sentence-stem’ format: e.g., “Mitosis means…” or “A chloroplast is…”. If the student is unable to generate a definition for a vocabulary term based on the course reading, he or she writes the term into the vocabulary journal without definition and then applies other strategies to define the term: e.g., look up the term in a dictionary; use Google to locate two examples of the term being used correctly in context; ask the instructor, etc.).  [Student Strategy] Encouraging Student Use of Text Enhancements (Hedin & Conderman, 2010). Text enhancements can be used to tag important vocabulary terms, key ideas, or other reading content. If working with photocopied material, the student can use a highlighter to note key ideas or vocabulary. Another enhancement strategy is the ‘lasso and rope’ technique—using a pen or pencil to circle a vocabulary term and then drawing a line that connects that term to its underlined definition. If working from a textbook, the student can cut sticky notes into strips. These strips can be inserted in the book as pointers to text of interest. They can also be used as temporary labels—e.g., for writing a vocabulary term and its definition.  [Student Strategy] Reading Actively Through Text Annotation (Harris, 1990; Sarkisian et al., 2003). Students are likely to increase their retention of information when they interact actively with their reading by jotting comments in the margin of the text. Using photocopies, the student is taught to engage in an ongoing 'conversation' with the writer by recording a running series of brief comments in the margins of the text. The student may write annotations to record opinions about points raised by the writer, questions triggered by the reading, or unknown vocabulary words.

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References Boardman, A. G., Roberts, G., Vaughn, S., Wexler, J., Murray, C. S., & Kosanovich, M. (2008). Effective instruction for adolescent struggling readers: A practice brief. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction. Carnine, L., & Carnine, D. (2004). The interaction of reading skills and science content knowledge when teaching struggling secondary students. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 20, 203-218. Davey, B., & McBride, S. (1986). Effects of question-generation training on reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 256-262. Harris, J. (1990). Text annotation and underlining as metacognitive strategies to improve comprehension and retention of expository text. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Reading Conference (Miami). Hedin, L. R., & Conderman, G. (2010). Teaching students to comprehend informational text through rereading. The Reading Teacher, 63(7), 556–565. Kamil, M. L., Borman, G. D., Dole, J., Kral, C. C., Salinger, T., & Torgesen, J. (2008). Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices: A practice guide (NCEE #2008-4027). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc. Klingner, J. K., & Vaughn, S. (1999). Promoting reading comprehension, content learning, and English acquisition through collaborative strategic reading (CSR). The Reading Teacher, 52(7), 738-747. Rosenshine, B., Meister, C., & Chapman, S. (1996). Teaching students to generate questions: A review of the intervention studies. Review of Educational Research, 66, 181-221. Sarkisian V., Toscano, M., Tomkins-Tinch, K., & Casey, K. (2003). Reading strategies and critical thinking. Retrieved October 15, 2006, from http://www.academic.marist.edu/alcuin/ssk/stratthink.html Texas Reading Initiative. (2002). Promoting vocabulary development: Components of effective vocabulary instruction. Austin, TX: Author. Retrieved November 15, 2010, from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/reading/practices/redbk5.pdf

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Phrase-Cued Text Lessons DESCRIPTION: Phrase-cued texts are a means to train students to recognize the natural pauses that occur between phrases in their reading. Because phrases are units that often encapsulate key ideas, the student’s ability to identify them can enhance comprehension of the text (Rasinski, 1990, 1994). MATERIALS:  Two copies of a student passage: One annotated with phrase-cue marks and the other left without annotation. PREPARATION: Here are guidelines for preparing phrase-cued passages: 1. Select a passage. Select a short (100-250 word) passage that is within the student’s instructional or independent reading level. 2. Mark sentence boundaries. Mark the sentence boundaries of the passage with double slashes (//). 3. Mark within-sentence phrase-breaks. Read through the passage to locate ‘phrase breaks’ —naturally occurring pause points that are found within sentences. Mark each of these phrase breaks with a single slash mark (/). INTERVENTION STEPS: Phrase-cued text lessons should be carried out in 10 minute sessions 3-4 times per week. Here are steps to carrying out this intervention: 1. [When first using this strategy] Introduce phrase-cued texts to the student. Say to the student: “Passages are made up of key ideas, and these key ideas are often contained in units of words called ‘phrases’. Several phrases can make up a sentence. When we read, it helps to read phrase by phrase to get the full meaning of the text.” Show the student a prepared passage with phrase-cue marks inserted. Point out how double-slash marks signal visually to the reader the longer pauses at sentence boundaries and single slash marks signal the shorter phrase pauses within sentences. 2. Follow the phrase-cued text reading sequence: The tutor prepares a new phrase-cued passage for each session and follows this sequence: a. The tutor reads the phrase-cued passage aloud once as a model, while the student follows along silently. b. The student reads the phrase-cued passage aloud 2-3 times. The tutor provides ongoing feedback about the student reading, noting the student’s observance of phrase breaks. Tutor and student can also briefly discuss the content of the passage during intervals between re-readings. c.

The session concludes with the student reading aloud a copy of the passage without phrase-cue marks. The tutor provides feedback about the student’s success in recognizing the natural phrase breaks in the student’s final read-aloud.

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Additional Ideas for Using Phrase-Cued Texts. Educators might consider these additional ideas for using this strategy (Rasinski, 1994): 1. Use phrase-cued texts in a group-lesson format. The teacher can modify the intervention sequence (described above) to accommodate a group or class. The teacher models reading of the phrase-cued passage; the teacher and students next read through the passage chorally; then students (in pairs or individually) practice reading the phrase-cued text aloud while the instructor circulates around the room to observe. Finally, students individually read aloud the original passage without phrase-cue marks. 2. Encourage parents to use the phrase-cued text strategy. Parents can extend the impact of this strategy by using it at home. The teacher meets with the parent (e.g., at a parent-teacher conference) to demonstrate the phrase-cued text instructional sequence (described above). The teacher then gives the parent a collection of prepared passages (with one copy of each passage marked for phrase cues and the other left unmarked). The parent is instructed to use one passage per session with their child at home. References Rasinski, T.V. (1990). The effects of cued phrase boundaries on reading performance: A review. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED313689). Rasinski, T. V. (1994). Developing syntactic sensitivity in reading through phrase-cued texts. Intervention in School and Clinic, 29, 165-168.

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Math: Selected Interventions

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Building Number Sense Through a Counting Board Game DESCRIPTION: The student plays a number-based board game to build skills related to 'number sense', including number identification, counting, estimation skills, and ability to visualize and access specific number values using an internal number-line (Siegler, 2009). MATERIALS: 

Great Number Line Race! Form (attached)



Spinner divided into two equal regions marked "1" and "2" respectively. (NOTE: If a spinner is not available, the interventionist can purchase a small blank wooden block from a crafts store and mark three of the sides of the block with the number "1" and three sides with the number "2".)

INTERVENTION STEPS: A counting-board game session lasts 12 to 15 minutes, with each game within the session lasting 2-4 minutes. Here are the steps: 1. Introduce the Rules of the Game. If the student is unfamiliar with the counting board game, interventionist trains the student to play it. The student is told that he or she will attempt to beat another player (either another student or the interventionist). The student is then given a penny or other small object to serve as a game piece. The student is told that players takes turns spinning the spinner (or, alternatively, tossing the block) to learn how many spaces they can move on the Great Number Line Race! board. Each player then advances the game piece, moving it forward through the numbered boxes of the game-board to match the number "1" or "2" selected in the spin or block toss. When advancing the game piece, the player must call out the number of each numbered box as he or she passes over it. For example, if the player has a game piece on box 7 and spins a "2", that player advances the game piece two spaces, while calling out "8" and "9" (the names of the numbered boxes that the game piece moves across during that turn). The player who reaches the "10" box first is the winner. 2. Record Game Outcomes. At the conclusion of each game, the interventionist records the winner using the form found on the Great Number Line Race! form. The session continues with additional games being played for a total of 12-15 minutes. 3. Continue the Intervention Up to an Hour of Cumulative Play. The counting-board game continues until the student has accrued a total of at least one hour of play across multiple days. (The amount of cumulative play can be calculated by adding up the daily time spent in the game as recorded on the Great Number Line Race! form.) Reference Siegler, R. S. (2009). Improving the numerical understanding of children from low-income families. Child Development Perspectives, 3(2), 118-124.

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The Great Number-Line Race! S t a r bat 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Date: _____________________ Start Time: _____ : _____

End Time: _____ : _____

Directions: Mark the winner for each game with an 'X' in the table below. Players

Game 1

Game 2

Game 3

Game 4

Game 5

Game 6

1: _________

2: _________ Source: Siegler, R. S. (2009). Improving the numerical understanding of children from low-income families. Child Development Perspectives, 3(2), 1

Game 7

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Reducing the Student's Memorization Load: Math 'Shortcuts'

Students who struggle with math computation may benefit from being taught math 'shortcuts' that lighten the cognitive load (Gersten, Jordan & Flojo, 2005). Here are suggested shortcuts for the basic math operations:

Addition (Miller, Strawser & Mercer, 1996)

Subtraction (Miller, Strawser & Mercer, 1996)

 The order of the numbers in an addition problem does not affect the answer.

 When zero is subtracted from the original number, the answer is the original number.

 When zero is added to the original number, the answer is the original number.

 When 1 is subtracted from the original number, the answer is the next smaller number.

 When 1 is added to the original number, the answer is the next larger number.  ADDITION: Strategic Count-Up Strategy (Fuchs et al., 2009): 1. The student is given a copy of the number-line.

 When the original number has the same number subtracted from it, the answer is zero.  SUBTRACTION: Strategic Count-Up Strategy (Fuchs et al., 2009):

2. When presented with a two-addend addition problem, the student is taught to start with the larger of the two addends and to 'count up' by the amount of the smaller addend to arrive at the answer to the problem.

1. The student is given a copy of the number-line. 2. The student is taught to refer to the first number appearing in the subtraction problem (the minuend) as 'the number you start with' and to refer to the number appearing after the minus (subtrahend) as 'the minus number'. 3. The student is directed to start at the minus number on the number-line and to count up to the starting number while keeping a running tally of numbers counted up on his or her fingers. 4. The final tally of digits separating the minus number and starting number is the answer to the subtraction problem.

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Multiplication (Miller, Strawser & Mercer, 1996)

Division (Miller, Strawser & Mercer, 1996)

 When a number is multiplied by zero, the answer is zero.

 When zero is divided by any number, the answer is zero.

 When a number is multiplied by 1, the answer is the original number.  When a number is multiplied by 2, the answer is equal to the number being added to itself.  The order of the numbers in a multiplication problem does not affect the answer. MULTIPLICATION: Strategic Count-By Strategy (Cullinan, Lloyd & Epstein, 1981)

 When a number is divided by 1, the answer is the original number.  When a number is divided by itself, the answer is 1.

1. The student looks at the two terms of the multiplication problem. The student picks one of the terms as a number that he or she can count by (the 'count by' number). 2. The student takes the remaining term from the multiplication problem (the 'count times' number) and makes a corresponding number of tally marks to match it. 3. The student starts counting using the 'count by' number. While counting, the student touches each of the tally marks matching the 'count times' number. 4. The student stops counting when he or she has reached the final tally-mark. The student writes down the last number said as the answer to the multiplication problem.

References Cullinan, D., Lloyd, J., & Epstein, M.H. (1981). Strategy training: A structured approach to arithmetic instruction. Exceptional Education Quarterly, 2, 41-49. Fuchs, L. S., Powell, S. R., Seethaler, P. M., Cirino, P. T., Fletcher, J. M., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (2009). The effects of strategic counting instruction, with and without deliberate practice, on number combination skill among students with mathematics difficulties. Learning and Individual Differences 20(2), 89-100. Gersten, R., Jordan, N. C., & Flojo, J. R. (2005). Early identification and interventions for students with mathematics difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 293-304. Miller, S.P., Strawser, S., & Mercer, C.D. (1996). Promoting strategic math performance among students with learning disabilities. LD Forum, 21(2), 34-40.

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Strategic Number Counting Instruction DESCRIPTION: The student is taught explicit number counting strategies for basic addition and subtraction. Those skills are then practiced with a tutor (adapted from Fuchs et al., 2009). MATERIALS: 

Number-line (attached)



Number combination (math fact) flash cards for basic addition and subtraction



Strategic Number Counting Instruction Score Sheet (attached)

PREPARATION: The tutor trains the student to use these two counting strategies for addition and subtraction: ADDITION: The student is given a copy of the appropriate number-line (1-10 or 1-20—see attached). When presented with a two-addend addition problem, the student is taught to start with the larger of the two addends and to 'count up' by the amount of the smaller addend to arrive at the answer to the problem. SUBTRACTION: The student is given a copy of the appropriate number-line (1-10 or 1-20—see attached).. The student is taught to refer to the first number appearing in the subtraction problem (the minuend) as 'the number you start with' and to refer to the number appearing after the minus (subtrahend) as 'the minus number'. The student is directed to start at the minus number on the number-line and to count up to the starting number while keeping a running tally of numbers counted up on his or her fingers. The final tally of digits separating the minus number and starting number is the answer to the subtraction problem. INTERVENTION STEPS: For each tutoring session, the tutor follows these steps: 1. Create Flashcards. The tutor creates addition and/or subtraction flashcards of problems that the student is to practice. Each flashcard displays the numerals and operation sign that make up the problem but leaves the answer blank. 2. Review Count-Up Strategies. At the opening of the session, the tutor asks the student to name the two methods for answering a math fact. The correct student response is 'Know it or count up.' The tutor next has the student describe how to count up an addition problem and how to count up a subtraction problem. Then the tutor gives the student two sample addition problems and two subtraction problems and directs the student to solve each, using the appropriate count-up strategy. 3. Complete Flashcard Warm-Up. The tutor reviews addition/subtraction flashcards with the student for three minutes. Before beginning, the tutor reminds the student that, when shown a flashcard, the student should try to 'pull the answer from your head'—but that if the student does not know the answer, he or she should use the appropriate count-up strategy. The tutor then reviews the flashcards with the student. Whenever the student makes an error, the tutor directs the student to use the correct count-up strategy to solve. NOTE: If the student cycles through all cards in the stack before the three-minute period has elapsed, the tutor shuffles the cards and begins again. At the end of the three minutes, the tutor counts up the number of cards reviewed and records the number of

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cards that the student (a) identified from memory, (b) solved using the count-up strategy, and (c) was not able to correctly answer. These totals are recorded on the Strategic Number Counting Instruction Score Sheet 4. Repeat Flashcard Review. The tutor shuffles the math-fact flashcards, encourages the student to try to beat his or her previous score, and again reviews the flashcards with the student for three minutes. As before, whenever the student makes an error, the tutor directs the student to use the appropriate count-up strategy. Also, if the student completes all cards in the stack with time remaining, the tutor shuffles the stack and continues presenting cards until the time is elapsed. At the end of the three minutes, the tutor again counts up the number of cards reviewed and records the number of cards that the student (a) identified from memory, (b) solved using the count-up strategy, and (c) was not able to correctly answer. These totals are again recorded on the Strategic Number Counting Instruction Score Sheet. 5. Provide Performance Feedback. The tutor gives the student feedback about whether (and by how much) the student's performance on the second flashcard trial exceeded the first. The tutor also provides praise if the student beat the previous score or encouragement if the student failed to beat the previous score. Reference Fuchs, L. S., Powell, S. R., Seethaler, P. M., Cirino, P. T., Fletcher, J. M., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (2009). The effects of strategic counting instruction, with and without deliberate practice, on number combination skill among students with mathematics difficulties. Learning and Individual Differences 20(2), 89-100.

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Strategic Number Counting Instruction: Number-Lines

0 1

2 3 4

5 6 7 8

9 10

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

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Strategic Number Counting Instruction Score Sheet Student: ______________________________ Interventionist(s): _________________________________ Directions: During the strategic number counting instruction intervention, use this sheet to tally student responses: Number of Flash-Cards Known From Memory; Number of Flash-Cards Answered Correctly With Count-Up Strategy (with or without assistance); Number of Flash-Cards Unknown or Answered Incorrectly (even with assistance). Date:________

[Optional] Type/Range of Addition/Subtraction Math-Fact Flash-Cards Reviewed This Session:

Trial 1: Math Flash-Card Warm-Up: 3 Minutes Number of Flash-Cards Known From Memory

Number of Flash-Cards Answered Correctly With Count-Up Strategy

Number of Flash-Cards Unknown or Answered Incorrectly

Trial 2: Math Flash-Card Review: 3 Minutes Number of Flash-Cards Known From Memory

Number of Flash-Cards Known From Memory

Number of Flash-Cards Known From Memory

 

Date:________

[Optional] Type/Range of Addition/Subtraction Math-Fact Flash-Cards Reviewed This Session:

Trial 1: Math Flash-Card Warm-Up: 3 Minutes Number of Flash-Cards Known From Memory

Number of Flash-Cards Answered Correctly With Count-Up Strategy

Number of Flash-Cards Unknown or Answered Incorrectly

Trial 2: Math Flash-Card Review: 3 Minutes Number of Flash-Cards Known From Memory

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Increase Student Math Success with Customized Math Self-Correction Checklists DESCRIPTION: The teacher analyzes a particular student's pattern of errors commonly made when solving a math algorithm (on either computation or word problems) and develops a brief error self-correction checklist unique to that student. The student then uses this checklist to self-monitor—and when necessary correct—his or her performance on math worksheets before turning them in. MATERIALS: 

Customized student math error self-correction checklist (described below)



Worksheets or assignments containing math problems matched to the error self-correction checklist

INTERVENTION STEPS: The intervention with customized math error self-correction checklists includes these steps (adapted from Dunlap & Dunlap, 1989; Uberti et al., 2004): 1. Develop the Checklist. The teacher draws on multiple sources of data available in the classroom to create a list of errors that the student commonly makes on a specific type of math computation or word problem. Good sources of information for analyzing a student's unique pattern of math-related errors include review of completed worksheets and other work products, interviewing the student, asking the student to solve a math problem using a 'think aloud' approach to walk through the steps of an algorithm, and observing the student completing math problems in a cooperative learning activity with other children. Based on this error analysis, the teacher creates a short (4-to-5 item) student self-correction checklist that includes the most common errors made by that student. Items on the checklist are written in the first person and when possible are stated as 'replacement' or goal behaviors. This checklist might include steps in an algorithm that challenge the student (e.g., "I underlined all numbers at the top of the subtraction problem that were smaller than their matching numbers at the bottom of the problem") as well as goals tied to any other errors that impede math performance (e.g., "I wrote all numbers carefully so that I could read them easily and not mistake them for other numbers"). NOTE: To reduce copying costs, the teacher can laminate the self-correction checklist and provide the student with an erasable marker to allow for multiple re-use of the form. 2. Introduce the Checklist. The teacher shows the student the self-correction checklist customized for that student. The teacher states that the student is to use the checklist to check his or her work before turning it in so that the student can identify and correct the most common errors. 3.

Prompt the Student to Use the Checklist to Evaluate Each Problem. The student is directed to briefly review all items on the checklist before starting any worksheet or assignment containing the math problems that it targets. When working on the math worksheet or assignment, the student uses the checklist after every problem to check his or her work—marking each checklist item with a plus sign ( '+') if correctly followed or a minus sign ( '-') if not correctly followed. If any checklist item receives a minus rating, the student is directed to leave the original

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solution to the problem untouched, to solve the problem again, and again to use the checklist to check the work. Upon finishing the assignment, the student turns it in, along with the completed self-correction checklists. 4. Provide Performance Feedback, Praise, and Encouragement. Soon after the student submits any math worksheets associated with the intervention, the teacher should provide him or her with timely feedback about errors, praise for correct responses, and encouragement to continue to apply best effort. 5. [OPTIONAL] Provide Reinforcement for Checklist Use. If the student appears to need additional incentives to increase motivation for the intervention, the teacher can assign the student points for intervention compliance: (1) the student earns one point on any assignment for each correct answer, and (2) the student earns an additional point for each problem on which the student committed none of the errors listed on the self-correction checklist. The student is allowed to collect points and to redeem them for privileges or other rewards in a manner to be determined by the teacher. 6. Fade the Intervention. The error self-correction checklist can be discontinued when the student is found reliably to perform on the targeted math skill(s) at a level that the teacher defines as successful (e.g., 90 percent success or greater). Reference Dunlap, L. K., & Dunlap, G. (1989). A self-monitoring package for teaching subtraction with regrouping to students with learning disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 229, 309-314. Uberti, H. Z., Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2004). Check it off: Individualizing a math algorithm for students with disabilities via self-monitoring checklists. Intervention in School and Clinic, 39(5), 269-275.

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31 Curriculum-Based Measurement: Behavior Report Card Maker

SAMPLE: Math Self-Correction Checklist Student Name:

Date:

Rater: Student

Classroom:

Directions: To the Student: BEFORE YOU START: Look at each of these goals for careful math work before beginning your assignment. AFTER EACH PROBLEM: Stop and rate YES or NO whether you performed each goal correctly. Problem#1

Problem#2

Problem#3

Problem#4

Problem#5

I underlined all numbers at the top of the subtraction problem that were smaller than their matching numbers at the bottom of the problem. Did the student succeed in this behavior goal?

I wrote all numbers carefully so that I could read them easily and not mistake them for other numbers. Did the student succeed in this behavior goal?

I lined up all numbers in the right place-value columns. Did the student succeed in this behavior goal?

I rechecked all of my answers. Did the student succeed in this behavior goal?

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Math Self-Correction Checklist Student Name:

Date:

Rater: Student

Classroom:

Directions: To the Student: BEFORE YOU START: Look at each of these goals for careful math work before beginning your assignment. AFTER EACH PROBLEM: Stop and rate YES or NO whether you performed each goal correctly. Problem#1

Problem#2

Problem#3

Problem#4

Problem#5

 BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB Did the student succeed in this PDWK goal?

 BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB Did the student succeed in this PDWK goal?  BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB Did the student succeed in this PDWK goal?

BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB Did the student succeed in this PDWK goal?

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Peer Tutoring in Math Computation with Constant Time Delay DESCRIPTION: This intervention employs students as reciprocal peer tutors to target acquisition of basic math facts (math computation) using constant time delay (Menesses & Gresham, 2009; Telecsan, Slaton, & Stevens, 1999). Each tutoring ‘session’ is brief and includes its own progress-monitoring component--making this a convenient and time-efficient math intervention for busy classrooms. MATERIALS: Student Packet: A work folder is created for each tutor pair. The folder contains:  10 math fact cards with equations written on the front and correct answer appearing on the back. NOTE: The set of cards is replenished and updated regularly as tutoring pairs master their math facts.  Progress-monitoring form for each student.  Pencils. PREPARATION: To prepare for the tutoring program, the teacher selects students to participate and trains them to serve as tutors. Select Student Participants. Students being considered for the reciprocal peer tutor program should at minimum meet these criteria (Telecsan, Slaton, & Stevens, 1999, Menesses & Gresham, 2009):  Is able and willing to follow directions;  Shows generally appropriate classroom behavior;  Can attend to a lesson or learning activity for at least 20 minutes.  Is able to name all numbers from 0 to 18 (if tutoring in addition or subtraction math facts) and name all numbers from 0 to 81 (if tutoring in multiplication or division math facts).  Can correctly read aloud a sampling of 10 math-facts (equation plus answer) that will be used in the tutoring sessions. (NOTE: The student does not need to have memorized or otherwise mastered these math facts to participate—just be able to read them aloud from cards without errors).  [To document a deficit in math computation] When given a two-minute math computation probe to complete independently, computes fewer than 20 correct digits (Grades 1-3) or fewer than 40 correct digits (Grades 4 and up) (Deno & Mirkin, 1977). NOTE: Teachers may want to use the attached Reciprocal Peer Tutoring in Math Computation: Teacher Nomination Form to compile a list of students who would be suitable for the tutoring program. Train the Student Tutors. Student tutors are trained through explicit instruction (Menesses & Gresham, 2009) with the teacher clearly explaining the tutoring steps, demonstrating them, and then having the students practice the steps with performance feedback and encouragement from the teacher. The teacher also explains, demonstrates, and observes students practice the progress-monitoring component of the program. (NOTE: Teachers can find a handy listing of all the tutoring steps in which students are to be trained on the attached form Peer Tutoring in Math

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Computation with Constant Time Delay: Integrity Checklist. This checklist can also be used to evaluate the performance of students to determine their mastery of the tutoring steps during practice sessions with the teacher.) When students have completed their training, the teacher has each student role-play the tutor with the teacher assuming the role of tutee. The tutor-in-training works through the 3-minute tutoring segment and completes the follow-up progress-monitoring activity. The teacher then provides performance feedback. The student is considered to be ready to tutor when he or she successfully implements all steps of the intervention (100% accuracy) on three successive training trials (Menesses & Gresham, 2009). INTERVENTION STEPS: Students participating in the tutoring program meet in a setting in which their tutoring activities will not distract other students. The setting is supervised by an adult who monitors the students and times the tutoring activities. These are the steps of the tutoring intervention: 1. Complete the Tutoring Activity. In each tutoring pair, one of the students assumes the role of tutor. The supervising adult starts the timer and says ‘Begin’; after 3 minutes, the adult stops the timer and says ‘Stop’. While the timer is running, the tutor follows this sequence:

a.

Presents Cards. The tutor presents each card to the tutee for 3 seconds.

b.

Provides Tutor Feedback. [When the tutee responds correctly] The tutor acknowledges the correct answer and presents the next card. [When the tutee does not respond within 3 seconds or responds incorrectly] The tutor states the correct answer and has the tutee repeat the correct answer. The tutor then presents the next card.

c.

Provides Praise. The tutor praises the tutee immediately following correct answers.

d.

Shuffles Cards. When the tutor and tutee have reviewed all of the math-fact carts, the tutor shuffles them before again presenting cards.

e.

Continues to the Timer. The tutor continues to presents math-fact cards for tutee response until the timer rings.

2. Assess the Progress of the Tutee. The tutor concludes each 3-minute tutoring session by assessing the number of math facts mastered by the tutee. The tutor follows this sequence:

a.

Presents Cards. The tutor presents each card to the tutee for 3 seconds.

b.

Remains Silent. The tutor does not provide performance feedback or praise to the tutee, or otherwise talk during the assessment phase.

c.

Sorts Cards. Based on the tutee’s responses, the tutor sorts the math-fact cards into ‘correct’ and ‘incorrect’ piles.

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Counts Cards and Records Totals. The tutor counts the number of cards in the ‘correct’ and ‘incorrect’ piles and records the totals on the tutee’s progress-monitoring chart.

3. Switch Roles. After the tutor has completed the 3-minute tutoring activity and assessed the tutee’s progress on math facts, the two students reverse roles. The new tutor then implements steps 2 and 3 described above with the new tutee. 4. Conduct Tutoring Integrity Checks and Monitor Student Performance. As the student pairs complete the tutoring activities, the supervising adult monitors the integrity with which the intervention is carried out. At the conclusion of the tutoring session, the adult gives feedback to the student pairs, praising successful implementation and providing corrective feedback to students as needed. NOTE: Teachers can use the attached form Peer Tutoring in Math Computation with Constant Time Delay: Integrity Checklist to conduct integrity checks of the intervention and student progress-monitoring components of the math peer tutoring. The adult supervisor also monitors student progress. After each student pair has completed one tutoring cycle and assessed and recorded their progress, the supervisor reviews the score sheets. If a student has successfully answered all 10 math fact cards three times in succession, the supervisor provides that student’s tutor with a new set of math flashcards. References Deno, S. L., & Mirkin, P. K. (1977). Data-based program modification: A manual. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children. Menesses, K. F., & Gresham, F. M. (2009). Relative efficacy of reciprocal and nonreciprocal peer tutoring for students at-risk for academic failure. School Psychology Quarterly, 24, 266–275. Telecsan, B. L., Slaton, D. B., & Stevens, K. B. (1999). Peer tutoring: Teaching students with learning disabilities to deliver time delay instruction. Journal of Behavioral Education, 9, 133-154.

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Reciprocal Peer Tutoring in Math Computation: Teacher Nomination Form Teacher: ______________________________ Classroom: __________________ Date: ___________________ Directions: Select students in your class that you believe would benefit from participation in a peer tutoring program to boost math computation skills. Write the names of your student nominees in the space provided below. Remember, students who are considered for the peer tutoring program should—at minimum—meet these criteria: 

Show generally appropriate classroom behaviors and follow directions.



Can pay attention to a lesson or learning activity for at least 20 minutes.



Are able to wait appropriately to hear the correct answer from the tutor if the student does not know the answer.



When given a two-minute math computation probe to complete independently, computes fewer than 20 correct digits (Grades 1-3) or fewer than 40 correct digits (Grades 4 and up) (Deno & Mirkin, 1977).

Number Student



Can name all numbers from 0 to 18 (if tutoring in addition or subtraction math facts) and name all numbers from 0 to 81 (if tutoring in multiplication or division math facts).



Can correctly read aloud a sampling of 10 mathfacts (equation plus answer) that will be used in the tutoring sessions. (NOTE: The student does not need to have memorized or otherwise mastered these math facts to participate—just be able to read them aloud from cards without errors).

Name

NOTES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

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Peer Tutoring in Math Computation with Constant Time Delay: Integrity Checklist

Tutoring Session: Intervention Phase Directions: Observe the tutor and tutee for a full intervention session. Use this checklist to record whether each of the key steps of the intervention were correctly followed.

Correctly Carried Out?

Step Tutor

Action

___ Y ___ N

1.

Promptly Initiates Session. At the start of the timer, the tutor immediately presents the first math-fact card.

___ Y ___ N

2.

Presents Cards. The tutor presents each card to the tutee for 3 seconds.  

___ Y ___ N

3.

Provides Tutor Feedback. [When the tutee responds correctly] The tutor acknowledges the correct answer and presents the next card.

NOTES

[When the tutee does not respond within 3 seconds or responds incorrectly] The tutor states the correct answer and has the tutee repeat the correct answer. The tutor then presents the next card. ___ Y ___ N

4.

Provides Praise. The tutor praises the tutee immediately following correct answers.

___ Y ___ N

5.

Shuffles Cards. When the tutor and tutee have reviewed all of the math-fact carts, the tutor shuffles them before again presenting cards.

___ Y ___ N

6.

Continues to the Timer. The tutor continues to presents math-fact cards for tutee response until the timer rings.

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Tutoring Session: Assessment Phase Directions: Observe the tutor and tutee during the progress-monitoring phase of the session. Use this checklist to record whether each of the key steps of the assessment were correctly followed.

Correctly Carried Out?

Step Tutor

Action

___ Y ___ N

1.

Presents Cards. The tutor presents each card to the tutee for 3 seconds.

___ Y ___ N

2.

Remains Silent. The tutor does not provide performance feedback or praise to the tutee, or otherwise talk during the assessment phase.

___ Y ___ N

3.

Sorts Cards. The tutor sorts cards into ‘correct’ and ‘incorrect’ piles based on the tutee’s responses.

___ Y ___ N

4.

Counts Cards and Records Totals. The tutor counts the number of cards in the ‘correct’ and ‘incorrect’ piles and records the totals on the tutee’s progress-monitoring chart.

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Math Tutoring: Score Sheet Tutor ‘Coach’: _________________________ Tutee ‘Player’: ________________________ Directions to the Tutor: Write down the number of math-fact cards that your partner answered correctly and the number answered incorrectly.

Date:

Cards Correct:

Cards Incorrect:

Date:

Cards Correct:

Cards Incorrect:

Date:

Cards Correct:

Cards Incorrect:

Date:

Cards Correct:

Cards Incorrect:

Date:

Cards Correct:

Cards Incorrect:

Date:

Cards Correct:

Cards Incorrect:

Date:

Cards Correct:

Cards Incorrect:

Date:

Cards Correct:

Cards Incorrect:

   

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Combining Cognitive & Metacognitive Strategies to Assist Students With Mathematical Problem Solving Solving an advanced math problem independently requires the coordination of a number of complex skills. The student must have the capacity to reliably implement the specific steps of a particular problem-solving process, or cognitive strategy. At least as important, though, is that the student must also possess the necessary metacognitive skills to analyze the problem, select an appropriate strategy to solve that problem from an array of possible alternatives, and monitor the problem-solving process to ensure that it is carried out correctly. The following strategies combine both cognitive and metacognitive elements (Montague, 1992; Montague & Dietz, 2009). First, the student is taught a 7-step process for attacking a math word problem (cognitive strategy). Second, the instructor trains the student to use a three-part selfcoaching routine for each of the seven problem-solving steps (metacognitive strategy). In the cognitive part of this multi-strategy intervention, the student learns an explicit series of steps to analyze and solve a math problem. Those steps include: 1. Reading the problem. The student reads the problem carefully, noting and attempting to clear up any areas of uncertainly or confusion (e.g., unknown vocabulary terms). 2. Paraphrasing the problem. The student restates the problem in his or her own words. 3. ‘Drawing’ the problem. The student creates a drawing of the problem, creating a visual representation of the word problem. 4. Creating a plan to solve the problem. The student decides on the best way to solve the problem and develops a plan to do so. 5. Predicting/Estimating the answer. The student estimates or predicts what the answer to the problem will be. The student may compute a quick approximation of the answer, using rounding or other shortcuts. 6. Computing the answer. The student follows the plan developed earlier to compute the answer to the problem. 7. Checking the answer. The student methodically checks the calculations for each step of the problem. The student also compares the actual answer to the estimated answer calculated in a previous step to ensure that there is general agreement between the two values. The metacognitive component of the intervention is a three-part routine that follows a sequence of ‘Say’, ‘Ask, ‘Check’. For each of the 7 problem-solving steps reviewed above: • • •

The student first self-instructs by stating, or ‘saying’, the purpose of the step (‘Say’). The student next self-questions by ‘asking’ what he or she intends to do to complete the step (‘Ask’). The student concludes the step by self-monitoring, or ‘checking’, the successful completion of the step (‘Check’).

While the Say-Ask-Check sequence is repeated across all 7 problem-solving steps, the actual content of the student self-coaching comments changes across the steps.

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Table 1 shows how each of the steps in the word problem cognitive strategy is matched to the three-part Say-Ask-Check sequence: Table 1: ‘Say-Ask-Check’ Metacognitive Prompts Tied to a Word-Problem Cognitive Strategy (Montague, 1992) Cognitive Metacognitive ‘Say-Ask-Check’ Prompt Sample Metacognitive ‘SayStrategy Step Targets Ask-Check’ Prompts 1. Read the ‘Say’ (Self-Instruction) Target: The student Say: “I will read the problem. problem. reads and studies the problem carefully before I will reread the problem if I proceeding. don’t understand it.” ‘Ask’ (Self-Question) Target: Does the Ask: “Now that I have read student fully understand the problem? the problem, do I fully ‘Check’ (Self-Monitor) Target: Proceed only understand it?” Check: “I understand the if the problem is understood. problem and will move forward.” 2. Paraphrase ‘Say’ (Self-Instruction) Target: The student Say: “I will highlight key the restates the problem in order to demonstrate words and phrases that problem. understanding. relate to the problem ‘Ask’ (Self-Question) Target: Is the student question.” able to paraphrase the problem? “I will restate the problem in my own words.” ‘Check’ (Self-Monitor) Target: Ensure that any highlighted key words are relevant to the Ask: “Did I highlight the most important words or phrases question. in the problem?” Check: “I found the key words or phrases that will help to solve the problem.” 3. ‘Draw’ the ‘Say’ (Self-Instruction) Target: The student Say: “I will draw a diagram of problem. creates a drawing of the problem to the problem.” consolidate understanding. Ask: “Does my drawing ‘Ask’ (Self-Question) Target: Is there a represent the problem?” match between the drawing and the problem? Check: “The drawing ‘Check’ (Self-Monitor) Target: The drawing contains the essential parts includes in visual form the key elements of the of the problem.” math problem. 4. Create a ‘Say’ (Self-Instruction) Target: The student Say: “I will make a plan to plan to generates a plan to solve the problem. solve the problem.” solve the ‘Ask’ (Self-Question) Target: What plan will Ask: “What is the first step of problem. this plan? What is the next help the student to solve this problem? ‘Check’ (Self-Monitor) Target: The plan is step of the plan?” Check: “My plan has the appropriate to solve the problem. right steps to solve the problem.” 5. Predict/esti ‘Say’ (Self-Instruction) Target: The student Say: “I will estimate what the mate the uses estimation or other strategies to predict or answer will be.”

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Answer.

6. Compute the answer.

7. Check the answer.

estimate the answer. ‘Ask’ (Self-Question) Target: What estimating technique will the student use to predict the answer? ‘Check’ (Self-Monitor) Target: The predicted/estimated answer used all of the essential problem information. ‘Say’ (Self-Instruction) Target: The student follows the plan to compute the solution to the problem. ‘Ask’ (Self-Question) Target: Does the answer agree with the estimate? ‘Check’ (Self-Monitor) Target: The steps in the plan were followed and the operations completed in the correct order. ‘Say’ (Self-Instruction) Target: The student reviews the computation steps to verify the answer. ‘Ask’ (Self-Question) Target: Did the student check all the steps in solving the problem and are all computations correct? ‘Check’ (Self-Monitor) Target: The problem solution appears to have been done correctly.

Ask: “What numbers in the problem should be used in my estimation?” Check: “I did not skip any important information in my estimation.” Say: “I will compute the answer to the problem.” Ask: “Does my answer sound right?” “Is my answer close to my estimate?” Check: “I carried out all of the operations in the correct order to solve this problem.” Say: “I will check the steps of my answer.” Ask: “Did I go through each step in my answer and check my work?” Check: “”

Students will benefit from close teacher support when learning to combine the 7-step cognitive strategy to attack math word problems with the iterative 3-step metacognitive Say-Ask-Check sequence. Teachers can increase the likelihood that the student will successfully acquire these skills by using research-supported instructional practices (Burns, VanDerHeyden, & Boice, 2008), including: • • • • •

Verifying that the student has the necessary foundation skills to solve math word problems Using explicit instruction techniques to teach the cognitive and metacognitive strategies Ensuring that all instructional tasks allow the student to experience an adequate rate of success Providing regular opportunities for the student to be engaged in active accurate academic responding Offering frequent performance feedback to motivate the student and shape his or her learning.

References

Burns, M. K., VanDerHeyden, A. M., & Boice, C. H. (2008). Best practices in intensive academic interventions. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp.1151-1162). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. Montague, M. (1992). The effects of cognitive and metacognitive strategy instruction on the mathematical problem solving of middle school students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25, 230-248. Montague, M., & Dietz, S. (2009). Evaluating the evidence base for cognitive strategy instruction and mathematical problem solving. Exceptional Children, 75, 285-302.

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Writing: Selected Interventions

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Spelling: Cover-Copy-Compare DESCRIPTION: In this intervention to promote acquisition of spelling words, the student is given a spelling sheet with the target words correctly spelled. The student looks at each correctly spelled word, covers the word briefly and copies it from memory, then compares the copied word to the original correct model (Skinner, McLaughlin & Logan, 1997). GROUP SIZE: Whole class, small group, individual student TIME: Variable up to 15 minutes per session MATERIALS: 

Worksheet: Cover-Copy-Compare (attached)



Spelling Log: Mastered Words (attached)

INTERVENTION STEPS: Here are the steps of Cover-Copy-Compare for spelling: 1. [Teacher] Create a Cover-Copy-Compare Spelling Sheet. The teacher selects up to 10 spelling words for the student to work on during the session and writes those words as correct models into the left column ('Spelling Words') of the Worksheet: Cover-Copy-Compare (attached). The teacher then pre-folds the spelling sheet using as a guide the vertical dashed line ('fold line') bisecting the left side of the student worksheet. 2. [Student] Use the Cover-Copy-Compare Procedures. During the Cover-Copy-Compare intervention, the student follows these self-directed steps for each spelling word: 

Look at the correctly spelled target word that appears in the left column of the sheet.



Fold the left side of the page over at the pre-folded vertical crease to hide the correct model ('Cover').



Spell the word from memory, writing it in the first response blank under the 'Student Response' section of the spelling sheet ('Copy').



Uncover the correct model and compare it to the student response ('Compare'). If the student spelling is CORRECT, move to the next word on the list and repeat these procedures. If the student spelling is INCORRECT, draw a line through the incorrect response, study the correct model again, cover the model, copy the word from memory into the second response blank under the 'Student Response' section of the spelling sheet, and again check the correctness of its spelling.



Continue until all words on the spelling list have been spelled and checked against the correct models.

3. [Teacher] Log Spelling Words Mastered by Student. The teacher should select an objective standard for judging that the student using Cover-Copy-Compare has 'mastered' a spelling word (e.g., when the student is able to copy a specific word from memory without error on three successive occasions). The teacher can then apply this standard for mastery to identify and log spelling words in each session, using the Spelling Log: Mastered Words sheet (attached). References Skinner, C. H., McLaughlin, T. F., & Logan, P. (1997). Cover, copy, and compare: A self-managed academic intervention effective across skills, students, and settings. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7, 295-306.

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Worksheet: Cover-Copy-Compare Student: _________________________ Date: ________

.

Spelling Words

Student Response

1.

1a. 1b.

2.

2a. 2b.

3.

3a. 3b.

4.

4a. 4b.

5.

5a. 5b.

6.

6a. 6b.

7.

7a. 7b.

8.

8a. 8b.

9.

9a. 9b. 10a. Fold Line

10.

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Spelling Log: Mastered Words Student: ____________________________________ School Yr: ______ Classroom/Course: _________________ Spelling Cumulative Mastery Log: During the spelling intervention, log each mastered word below with date of mastery. Word 1: ___________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 21: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 2: ___________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 22: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 3: ___________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 23: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 4: ___________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 24: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 5: ___________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 25: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 6: ___________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 26: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 7: ___________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 27: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 8: ___________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 28: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 9: ___________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 29: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 10: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 30: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 11: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 31: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 12: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 32: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 13: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 33: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 14: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 34: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 15: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 35: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 16: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 36: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 17: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 37: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 18: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 38: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 19: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 39: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 20: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Word 40: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

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Sentence Combining: Teaching Rules of Sentence Structure by Doing Students with poor writing skills often write sentences that lack ‘syntactic maturity’ (Robinson & Howell, 2008). That is, these writers’ sentences often follow a simple, stereotyped format. In public schools, grammar skills have traditionally been taught in isolation to give students the advanced writing knowledge required to master a diverse range of sentence structures. However, isolated grammar instruction appears to have little or no positive impact in helping poor writers become better writers (Graham & Perin, 2007). A promising alternative is to use sentence combining (Graham & Perin, 2007; Strong, 1986). In this approach, students are presented with kernel sentences and given explicit instruction in how to weld these kernel sentences into more diverse sentence types either by using connecting words to combine multiple sentences into one or by isolating key information from an otherwise superfluous sentence and embedding that important information into the base sentence. In a simple demonstration of sentence combining, a student may generate these two sentences in her composition on the American Revolution: The American army had few supplies in the winter of 1776. The American army had few trained military leaders. The instructor might meet with the student and have the student recopy the two sentences in this format: The American army had few supplies in the winter of 1776. The American army had few trained military leaders. (and) The student would be encouraged to combine the two shorter sentences into a more comprehensive sentence by using the connecting word (coordinating conjunction) ‘and’ to combine objects: The American army had few supplies and few trained military leaders in the winter of 1776. Formatting Sentence Combining Examples These simple formatting conventions are used in sentence-combining exercises (Saddler, 2005; Strong, 1986): •

In each example, the base clause (sentence) appears first. Any sentence(s) to be combined or embedded with the base clause appear below that base clause. Example:



Base clause: The dog ran after the bus. Sentence to be embedded: The dog is yellow. Student-generated solution: The yellow dog ran after the bus.

‘Connecting words’ to be used as a sentence-combining tool appear in parentheses at the end of a sentence that is to be combined with the base clause. Example:

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Base clause: The car stalled. Sentence to be combined: The car ran out of gas. (because) Student-generated solution: The car stalled because it ran out of gas.

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The element(s) of any sentence to be embedded in the base clause are underlined. Example:

Base clause: The economic forecast resulted in strong stock market gains. Sentence to be embedded: The economic forecast was upbeat. Student-generated solution: The upbeat economic forecast resulted in strong stock market gains.

Using Sentence Combining in Instruction Teachers who use sentence combining in their writing instruction should follow a direct-instruction approach (Saddler, 2005). The instructor fosters a learning atmosphere that encourages students to take risks when participating in sentence-combining activities. When first introducing sentencecombining to the class, the instructor explains that using varied sentence structures helps writers to better convey meaning. The instructor tells students that there are often multiple correct ways to combine sentences. The instructor completes several sentence-combining examples in front of the group, using a think-aloud approach to show his or her thinking process in successfully combining sentences. Students should then complete sentence-combining examples in pairs or groups, with the instructor circulating through the class to check for student understanding. Eventually, students work independently on sentence combining tasks to demonstrate mastery. They may then be asked to look in their own writing for examples in which they could combine sentences to improve A listing of types and examples of sentence-combining appears below in Table 1. When creating lessons on sentence combining, instructors should review the potential types of sentencecombining in Table 1 and decide the order in which those types might be presented to their class. Table 1: Sentence-combining types and examples (Saddler, 2005; Strong, 1986) Type of Sentence Sentence Combining Example Multiple (Compound) Sentence • Skyscrapers in the city were damaged in the hurricane. Subjects or Objects: Bridges in the city were damaged in the hurricane. Skyscrapers and bridges in the city were damaged in the Two or more subjects can be hurricane. combined with a conjunction (e.g., or, and). • When they travel, migratory birds need safe habitat. When they travel, migratory birds need regular supplies of Two or more direct or indirect food. objects can be combined with a When they travel, migratory birds need safe habitat and conjunction (e.g., or, and). regular supplies of food. Adjectives & Adverbs: When a • Dry regions are at risk for chronic water shortages. sentence simply contains an Overpopulated regions are at risk for chronic water adjective or adverb that modifies shortages. the noun or verb of another Dry and overpopulated regions are at risk for chronic sentence, the adjective or adverb water shortages. from the first sentence can be embedded in the related • Health care costs have risen nationwide. sentence. Those health care costs have risen quickly. Health care costs have risen quickly nationwide.

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Connecting Words: One or more sentences are combined with connecting words.



The house was falling apart. No one seemed to care. (but) The house was falling apart, but no one seemed to care.

Coordinating conjunctions (e.g., and, but) link sentences on an equal basis.



The glaciers began to melt. The earth’s average temperature increased. (because) The glaciers began to melt because the earth’s average temperature increased.

Subordinating conjunctions (e.g., after, until, unless, before, while, because) link sentences with one of the sentences subordinate or dependent on the other. Relative Clauses: Sentence • contains an embedded, subordinate clause that modifies a noun. Appositives: Sentence contains • two noun phrases that refer to the same object. When two sentences refer to the same noun, one sentence be reduced to an appositive and embedded in the other sentence. Possessive Nouns: A sentence • that describes possession or ownership can be reduced to a possessive noun and embedded in another sentence.

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The artist was the most popular in the city. The artist painted watercolors of sunsets. (who) The artist who painted watercolors of sunsets was the most popular in the city. The explorer paddled the kayak across the raging river. The explorer was an expert in handling boats. The explorer, an expert in handling boats, paddled the kayak across the raging river. Some historians view the Louisiana Purchase as the most important expansion of United States territory. The Louisiana Purchase was President Jefferson’s achievement. Some historians view President Jefferson’s Louisiana Purchase as the most important expansion of United States territory.

References Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007). Writing next: Effective strategies to improve writing of adolescents in middle and high schools – A report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC Alliance for Excellent Education. Robinson, L. K., & Howell, K. W. (2008). Best practices in curriculum-based evaluation & written expression. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 439-452). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. Saddler, B. (2005). Sentence combining: A sentence-level writing intervention. The Reading Teacher, 58, 468-471. Strong, W. (1986). Creative approaches to sentence combining. Urbana, OL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skill & National Council of Teachers of English.

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Methods of Classroom Data Collection

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 Existing data. The teacher uses information already being collected in the classroom or school that is relevant to the identified student problem. Examples of existing data include: 

Grades



attendance/tardy records,



office disciplinary referrals



homework completion

NOTE: Existing data is often not sufficient alone to monitor a student on intervention but can be a useful supplemental source of data on academic or behavioral performance. Example: Mrs. Berman, a high-school social studies teacher, selected grades from weekly quizzes as one measure to determine if a study-skills intervention would help Rick, a student in her class. Prior to the intervention, the teacher computed the average of Rick’s most recent 4 quiz grades. The baseline average quiz grade for Rick was 61. Mrs. Smith set an average quiz grade of 75 as the intervention goal. The teacher decided that at the intervention check-up in six weeks, she would average the most recent 2 weekly quiz grades to see if the student reached the goal.

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Progress-Monitoring Graph: Student Grades

52

Student: _________________________________ Course: _________________ School Year: __________ ___ Test Grades ____ Quiz Grades ____ Assignments (Describe): ___________________________________________ 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Grade: _______ Grade: _______ Grade: _______ Grade: _______ Grade: _______ Grade: _______ Grade: _______ Grade: _______ Grade: _______ Date: __ __ __ Date: __ __ __ Date: __ __ __ Date: __ __ __ Date: __ __ __ Date: __ __ __ Date: __ __ __ Date: __ __ __ Date: __ __ __

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 Global skill checklist. The teacher selects a global skill (e.g., homework completion; independent seatwork). The teacher then breaks the global skill down into a checklist of component sub-skills--a process known as ‘discrete categorization’ (Kazdin, 1989). An observer (e.g., teacher, another adult, or even the student) can then use the checklist to note whether a student successfully displays each of the sub-skills on a given day. Classroom teachers can use these checklists as convenient tools to assess whether a student has the minimum required range of academic enabling skills for classroom success. Teachers or tutors may also want to review these checklists with students and encourage them to use the checklists independently to take greater responsibility for their own learning. NOTE: The ‘Academic Enablers’ Observational Checklists that appear on the following pages are ready-made examples of global skill checklists. Example: A middle school math instructor, Mr. Haverneck, was concerned that a student, Rodney, appears to have poor ‘organization skills’. Mr. Haverneck created a checklist of observable subskills that, in his opinion, were part of the global term ‘organization skills: 1. arriving to class on time; 2. bringing work materials to class; 3. following teacher directions in a timely manner; 4. knowing how to request teacher assistance when needed; 5. having an uncluttered desk with only essential work materials. Mr. Havernick monitored the student’s compliance with elements of this organization -skills checklist across three days of math class. He discovered that – on average—Rodney successfully carried out only 2 of the 5 possible subskills (baseline). Mr. Havernick implemented several strategies to help Rodney to improve his organization skills and set the goal that by the last week of a 5-week intervention, the student would be found to use all five of the subskills on at least 4 out of 5 days.

 

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‘Academic Enabler’ Observational Checklists: Measuring Students’ Ability to Manage Their Own Learning Student academic success requires more than content knowledge or mastery of a collection of cognitive strategies. Academic accomplishment depends also on a set of ancillary skills and attributes called ‘academic enablers’ (DiPerna, 2006). Examples of academic enablers include:     

Study skills Homework completion Cooperative learning skills Organization Independent seatwork

Because academic enablers are often described as broad skill sets, however, they can be challenging to define in clear, specific, measureable terms. A useful method for defining a global academic enabling skill is to break it down into a checklist of component sub-skills--a process known as ‘discrete categorization’ (Kazdin, 1989). An observer can then use the checklist to note whether a student successfully displays each of the sub-skills. Observational checklists that define academic enabling skills have several uses in Response to Intervention: 

Classroom teachers can use these skills checklists as convenient tools to assess whether a student possesses the minimum ‘starter set’ of academic enabling skills needed for classroom success.



Teachers or tutors can share examples of academic-enabler skills checklists with students, training them in each of the sub-skills and encouraging them to use the checklists independently to take greater responsibility for their own learning.



Teachers or other observers can use the academic enabler checklists periodically to monitor student progress during interventions--assessing formatively whether the student is using more of the subskills.

A collection of the most common global ‘academic enabler’ skills in ready-made checklist format appear below.

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Study Skills. The student:  takes complete, organized class notes in legible form and maintains them in one accessible note book  reviews class notes frequently (e.g., after each class) to ensure understanding

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

Good 3

NA

 When reviewing notes, uses highlighters, margin notes, or other strategies to note questions or areas of confusion for later review with teacher or tutor  follows an efficient strategy to study for tests and quizzes

Poor Fair 12 Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

Good 3

NA

 allocates enough time to study for tests and quizzes

Poor Fair 12 Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

Good 3

NA

Poor Fair  is willing to seek help from the teacher to answer questions or clear up areas of 12 confusion  Other: ___________________________________________________________



– – – – –

Comments: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Organization Skills. The student:  arrives to class on time.

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

 Other: ___________________________________________________________ Poor Fair

Good 3

NA

 maintains organization of locker to allow student to efficiently store and retrieve needed books, assignments, work materials, and personal belongings  maintains organization of backpack or book bag to allow student to efficiently store and retrieve needed books, assignments, work materials, and personal belongings  brings to class the necessary work materials expected for the course (e.g., pen, paper, calculator, etc.)  is efficient in switching work materials when transitioning from one in-class learning activity to another

12



– – –





Comments: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Homework Completion. The student:  writes down homework assignments accurately and completely  makes use of available time in school (e.g., study halls, homeroom) to work on homework  has an organized, non-distracting workspace available at home to do homework  creates a work plan before starting homework (e.g., sequencing the order in which assignments are to be completed; selecting the most challenging assignment to start first when energy and concentration are highest)  when completing homework, uses highlighters, margin notes, or other strategies to note questions or areas of confusion for later review with teacher or tutor  turns in homework on time  Other: ___________________________________________________________

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

– –



– – –



Comments: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Cooperative Learning Skills. The student:  participates in class discussion

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

 gets along with others during group/pair activities

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

 participates fully in group/pair activities

Poor Fair 12 Poor Fair 12

 is willing to take a leadership position during group/pair activities

Good NA 3 – Good NA 3 –

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

 Other: ___________________________________________________________

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

 does his or her ‘fair share’ of work during group/pair activities

– –





Comments: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Independent Seat Work. The student:  has necessary work materials for the assignment

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

 is on-task during the assignment at a level typical for students in the class

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

 refrains from distracting behaviors (e.g., talking with peers without permission, pen tapping, vocalizations such as loud sighs or mumbling, etc.)  recognizes when he or she needs teacher assistance and is willing to that assistance  requests teacher assistance in an appropriate manner

Poor Fair 12 Poor Fair 12

Good NA 3 – Good NA 3 –

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

 requests assistance from the teacher only when really needed

Poor Fair 12 Poor Fair 12

Good 3 Good 3

NA

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

 if finished with the independent assignment before time expires, uses remaining time to check work or engage in other academic activity allowed by teacher  takes care in completing work—as evidenced by the quality of the finished assignment  is reliable in turning in assignments done in class.  Other: ___________________________________________________________ Comments:

– –





NA

– – – –

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Motivation. The student:  has a positive sense of ‘self-efficacy’ about the academic content area (selfefficacy can be defined as the confidence that one can be successful in the academic discipline or subject matter if one puts forth reasonable effort)  displays some apparent intrinsic motivation to engage in course work (e.g., is motivated by topics and subject matter discussed or covered in the course; finds the act of working on course assignments to be reinforcing in its own right)  displays apparent extrinsic motivation to engage in course work (e.g., is motivated by grades, praise, public recognition of achievement, access to privileges such as sports eligibility, or other rewarding outcomes)  Other: ___________________________________________________________

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

– – –



Comments: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Teacher-Defined Academic Enabling Skill: Skill Name: ___________________________________________________________________________ Essential Subskills: The student::  ________________________________________________________________ Poor Fair ________________________________________________________________

Good 3

NA

Good 3

NA

Good 3

NA

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

Poor Fair 12

Good 3

NA

12



________________________________________________________________  ________________________________________________________________ Poor Fair ________________________________________________________________

12



________________________________________________________________  ________________________________________________________________ Poor Fair ________________________________________________________________

12



________________________________________________________________  ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________  ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Comments: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

References

DiPerna, J. C. (2006). Academic enablers and student achievement: Implications for assessment and intervention services in the schools. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 7-17. Kazdin, A. E. (1989). Behavior modification in applied settings (4th ed.). Pacific Gove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

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 Behavioral Frequency Count/Behavioral Rate. In a behavioral frequency count, an observer (e.g., the teacher) watches a student’s behavior and keeps a cumulative tally of the number of times that the behavior is observed during a given period. Behaviors that are best measured using frequency counts have clearly observable beginning and end points—and are of relatively short duration. Examples include: 

student call-outs



requests for teacher help during independent seatwork.



raising one’s hand to make a contribution to large-group discussion.

Teachers can collect data on the frequency of observed student behaviors during a class period in several ways: (1) by keeping a cumulative mental tally of the behaviors; (2) by recording behaviors on paper (e.g., as tally marks) as they occur; or (3) using a golf counter or other simple mechanical device to record observed behaviors. When multiple observations are made of student behaviors, those observations often last for differing periods of time. One method to standardize the results of observations conducted over varying timespans is to convert the results of each observation to a behavioral rate (behaviors divided by the length of the observation). To compute a behavioral rate, the observer (1) sums the total number of behaviors observed and (2) divides the total number of behaviors observed by total minutes in the observation period. The resulting figure represents a standardized ‘behaviors observed per minute’ and can be compared directly to student behavior rates observed at other times. For example, an observer may have noted that a student engaged in 5 call-outs during a 10-minute observation period. The observer then divides the 5 callouts by the 10 minute observation timespan to compute a standardized behavior rate of 0.5 callouts per minute. TIP: One use of the behavioral frequency count that teachers may find helpful is to tally the number of times that they need to approach and redirect an off-task, distracting, or behaviorally acting out student during an observation period (e.g., during math class). Whenever the student’s identified problem behavior(s) escalate to the point at which the instructor can no longer ignore them, the teacher intervenes to redirect the student or provide other appropriate consequences. At the same time, the teacher counts this particular redirect episode toward the cumulative tally of redirects directed at the target student during the class period. While a tally of teacher redirects is not a suitable means to track all student behaviors, this approach does offer advantages. First, it recognizes that teachers typically have an informal but clear internal threshold of tolerance of student behaviors. Whenever the instructor approaches a student to redirect, the teacher does so because the student’s behavior has moved above that ‘tolerance threshold’ and must be directly addressed. Second, teacher redirects are usually easier to measure; than other behavior targets--because the teacher has had to interrupt instruction –even briefly--to redirect the student and is thus more likely to note the incident and add it to a running tally. Use the attached Behavioral Frequency Count/Behavioral Rate Worksheet to conduct behavioral frequency counts of a student across as many as 7 sessions. Example: Ms. Stimson, a fourth-grade teacher, was concerned at the frequency that a student, Alice, frequently requested teacher assistance unnecessarily during independent seatwork. To address this concern, the teacher designed an intervention in which the student would first try several steps on her own to resolve issues or answer her questions before seeking help from the instructor. Prior to starting the intervention, the teacher kept a behavioral frequency count across three days of the number of times that the student approached her desk for help during a daily 20-minute independent seatwork period (baseline). Ms. Stimson discovered that, on average, the student sought requested help times 8 per period (equivalent to 0.4 requests for help per minute). Ms. Stimson set as an intervention goal that, after 4 weeks of using her self-help strategies, the student’s average rate of requesting help would drop to 1 time per independent seatwork period (equivalent to 0.05 requests for help per minute).

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Behavioral Frequency Count/Behavioral Rate Worksheet Student: ____________________________________ School Yr: ______ Classroom/Course: _________________ Behavior Definition: Define in clear, measureable, observable terms the behavior that will be measured using the behavioral frequency count (e.g., student call-outs during instructional activities): ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Date: ____/___/____ Start Time: ____:____ End Time: ____:____ Setting/Activity: ____________________________________________ Behavior Frequency Count: During the observation, place a tally mark (‘|’) in the box below whenever the student displays the target behavior:

1

Total Observed Minutes of Behaviors Observation Time Divided by

Behavior Rate Per Minute Equals

Comments: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Date: ____/___/____ Start Time: ____:____ End Time: ____:____ Setting/Activity: ____________________________________________ Behavior Frequency Count: During the observation, place a tally mark (‘|’) in the box below whenever the student displays the target behavior:

2

Total Observed Minutes of Behaviors Observation Time Divided by

Behavior Rate Per Minute Equals

Comments: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Date: ____/___/____ Start Time: ____:____ End Time: ____:____ Setting/Activity: ____________________________________________ Behavior Frequency Count: During the observation, place a tally mark (‘|’) in the box below whenever the student displays the target behavior:

3

Total Observed Minutes of Behaviors Observation Time Divided by

Behavior Rate Per Minute Equals

Comments: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Date: ____/___/____ Start Time: ____:____ End Time: ____:____ Setting/Activity: ____________________________________________ Behavior Frequency Count: During the observation, place a tally mark (‘|’) in the box below whenever the student displays the target behavior:

4

Total Observed Minutes of Behaviors Observation Time Divided by

Behavior Rate Per Minute Equals

Comments: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Date: ____/___/____ Start Time: ____:____ End Time: ____:____ Setting/Activity: ____________________________________________ Behavior Frequency Count: During the observation, place a tally mark (‘|’) in the box below whenever the student displays the target behavior:

5

Total Observed Minutes of Behaviors Observation Time Divided by

Behavior Rate Per Minute Equals

Comments: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Date: ____/___/____ Start Time: ____:____ End Time: ____:____ Setting/Activity: ____________________________________________ Behavior Frequency Count: During the observation, place a tally mark (‘|’) in the box below whenever the student displays the target behavior:

6

Total Observed Minutes of Behaviors Observation Time Divided by

Behavior Rate Per Minute Equals

Comments: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Date: ____/___/____ Start Time: ____:____ End Time: ____:____ Setting/Activity: ____________________________________________ Behavior Frequency Count: During the observation, place a tally mark (‘|’) in the box below whenever the student displays the target behavior:

7

Total Observed Minutes of Behaviors Observation Time Divided by

Behavior Rate Per Minute Equals

Comments: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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 Rating scales. A scale is developed with one or more items that a rater can use to complete a global rating of a behavior. Often the rating scale is completed at the conclusion of a fixed observation period (e.g., after each class period; at the end of the school day). NOTE: One widely used example of rating scales routinely used in classrooms is the daily behavior report (DBR). The teacher completes a 3- to 4-item rating scale each day evaluating various target student behaviors. A detailed description of DBRs appears on the next page, along with a sample DBR that assesses the student’s interactions with peers, compliance with adult requests, work completion, and attention to task. Teachers can also create their own Daily Behavior Reports online. The Behavior Reporter is a free web-based application that allows educators to select and edit existing behavior rating items from a database or to write their own. This application can be accessed at: http://www.jimwrightonline.com/php/tbrc/tbrc.php Example: All of the teachers on a 7th-grade instructional team decided to use a Daily Behavior Report to monitor classroom interventions for Brian, a student who presented challenges of inattention, incomplete work, and occasional non-compliance. They created a DBR with the following items: 1. Brian focused his attention on teacher instructions, classroom lessons and assigned work. 2. Brian completed and turned in his assigned class work on time. 3. Brian spoke respectfully and complied with adult requests without argument or complaint. Each rating items was rated using this 1-9 scale:

1 2 3 | 4 5 6 | 7 8 9 Never/Seldom    Sometimes   Most/All of the Time  Each teacher agreed to use the DBR to rate Brian’s behavior daily, after each class period.Before starting an intervention, teachers on the instructional team used the DBR to rate Brian’s behavior for one week and compared results. On average, Brian scored no higher than 3 (‘Never/Seldom’ range) on all rating items in all classrooms (baseline). The team set as an intervention goal that, by the end of a 6-week intervention to be used in all classrooms, Brian would be rated in the 7-9 range (‘Most/All of the Time’) in all classrooms.

 

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RTI Daily Behavior Report: Guidelines for Use The RTI Daily Behavior Report (RTI-DBR) is a brief form that educators can use to rate student classroom conduct and work-related behaviors on a daily basis. Daily Behavior Reports in general have several advantages that make them idea for use in monitoring student interventions (Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman, & Sugai, 2007): They are familiar and acceptable to most school staff, are a convenient assessment tool for busy teachers, and can be used both to better understand students’ behavioral needs and to track student progress during a classroom intervention. Directions. When finished working with the student each day, the educator responsible for completing the RTI-DBR completes each rating item on the form. There are sufficient rating columns on one form to rate a student each day for an entire instructional week. The rater can also write daily comments on the back of the form. An additional option is for the educator to send a copy of the completed rating form home each week for the student’s parent to review, sign, and return. Tips to Increase the Reliability of Daily Behavior Reports. Daily Behavior Reports can be good sources of teacher information about student behaviors. When an educator’s ratings on Behavior Reports are based solely on subjective impression, however, it is possible that the rater will apply inconsistent standards each day when rating student behaviors (Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman, & Sugai, 2007). This inconsistency in assessment can reduce the usefulness of Daily Behavior Report information. An approach that educators can follow to keep their ratings on the RTI-DBR consistent and objective over time is to come up with specific, objective criteria for rating each behavioral goal. In particular, the rater will want to: 

Keep in mind student developmental considerations. For example, consider this RTI-DBR item: The student was respectful to the teacher and other adults and complied with their requests in a timely manner. The definition of a student being " respectful to the teacher and other adults” may mean "without throwing a tantrum" for a kindergarten student but mean "without defiant talking-back" for a student in middle school.



Tie RTI-DBR ratings to classroom behavioral norms. For each behavioral goal, the teacher may want to think of what the typical classroom norm is for this behavior and assign to the classroom norm a specific number rating. The teacher may decide, for instance, that the target student will earn a rating of 7 ('Usually/Always') each day that the student's compliance with adult requests closely matches that of an 'average' child in the classroom.

Reference Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T. C., & Sugai, G. (2007). School-based behavioral assessment: Informing intervention and instruction. Guilford Press: New York.

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Student Daily Behavior Report Student Name:_________________________________________________ Grade: __________ Person Completing This Report Card: ______________________________________________ Directions: At the end of the school day or class period, rate the student on the behaviors below. Write your ratings into the appropriate box on the right of the page and record the date of each rating. You may also write daily comments about the student’s behavior on the back of this sheet. MON WED TUES THURS FRI __/__/__ __/__/__ __/__/__ __/__/__ __/__/__

Student Behaviors The student got along with classmates and used socially appropriate behaviors.

1 2 3 | 4 5 6 | 7 8 9

Never/Seldom Sometimes Most/All of the Time The student was respectful to the teacher and other adults and complied with their requests in a timely manner.

1 2 3 | 4 5 6 | 7 8 9

Never/Seldom Sometimes Most/All of the Time The student paid attention to teacher instructions and classroom lessons and focused on his/her work assignments.

1 2 3 | 4 5 6 | 7 8 9

Never/Seldom Sometimes Most/All of the Time The student completed and turned in classwork and homework assignments. 0-19% 20-39% 40-59% 60-79% 80-100%

(Optional Behavior)

______________________________________ ______________________________________

1 2 3 | 4 5 6 | 7 8 9

Never/Seldom Sometimes Most/All of the Time Parent Sign-Off (Optional): I have reviewed this Behavior Report Card and discussed it with my child. Parent Signature: ______________________________________ Date: _____________

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 Academic Skills: Cumulative Mastery Log. During academic interventions in which the student is presented with specific items such as math facts or spelling words, the instructor can track the impact of the intervention by recording and dating mastered items in a cumulative log. First, the instructor defines the set of academic items to be taught or reviewed during the intervention (e.g., basic multiplication facts from 1-12; pre-primer Dolch Word list; vocabulary terms for biology course). Next, the instructor sets criteria for judging when the student has mastered a particular item from the academic item set. (Example: “A math fact is considered mastered when the student successfully answers that math-fact flashcard within 3 seconds on three successive occasions during a session and repeats this performance without error across two successive sessions.”). To collect baseline information, the instructor reviews all items from the academic-item set with the student, noting which items the student already knows. Then, throughout the intervention, the instructor logs and dates any additional items that the student masters. NOTE: The Academic Intervention: Cumulative Mastery Log that appears on the following pages structures the task of setting up and using a mastery log to track the cumulative results of an academic intervention. Example: Mrs. Ostrowski, a 1st-grade teacher, decides to provide additional intervention support for Jonah, a student in her class who does not have fluent letter recognition skills. Before starting an intervention, she inventories and records Jonah’s baseline skills—noting that Jonah can fluently and accurately recognize 18 upper-case letters and 14 lower-case letters from the English alphabet. She sets as an intervention goal that Jonah will master all remaining items –8 upper-case and 12 lower-case letters—within four weeks. Mrs. Ostrowski then begins the daily intervention (incremental rehearsal of letters using flashcards). Whenever Jonah is able fluently and accurately to name a previously unknown letter, the teacher records and dates that item in her cumulative mastery log.

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Academic Intervention: Cumulative Mastery Log Student: ____________________________________ School Yr: ______ Classroom/Course: _________________ Academic Item Set: Define the set of academic items to be measured (e.g., basic multiplication facts from 1-12; pre-primer Dolch Word list; vocabulary terms for biology course): ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Criteria for Mastery: Describe the criteria for judging when the student has mastered a particular item from the academic item set. (Example: “A math fact is considered mastered when the student successfully answers that math-fact flashcard within 3 seconds on three successive occasions during a session and repeats this performance without error across two successive sessions.”): ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Baseline Skills Inventory: Prior to beginning the intervention, inventory the student’s current level of mastery of the skill being measured. (NOTE: Apply the ‘criteria for mastery’ guidelines written above when completing the baseline skills inventory.) Person completing the inventory: __________________________________________ Date: _____/_____/_______

Item 1: _________________________

Item 11: _________________________

Item 21: _________________________

Item 2: _________________________

Item 12: _________________________

Item 22: _________________________

Item 3: _________________________

Item 13: _________________________

Item 23: _________________________

Item 4: _________________________

Item 14: _________________________

Item 24: _________________________

Item 5: _________________________

Item 15: _________________________

Item 25: _________________________

Item 6: _________________________

Item 16: _________________________

Item 26: _________________________

Item 7: _________________________

Item 17: _________________________

Item 27: _________________________

Item 8: _________________________

Item 18: _________________________

Item 28: _________________________

Item 9: _________________________

Item 19: _________________________

Item 29: _________________________

Item 10: _________________________

Item 20: _________________________

Item 30: _________________________

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Academic Intervention: Cumulative Mastery Log Student: ____________________________________ School Yr: ______ Classroom/Course: _________________ Cumulative Mastery Log: During the intervention, log each mastered item below with date of mastery. NOTE: Be sure to use the ‘criteria for mastery’ defined on the first page of this form when judging whether the student has mastered a particular item. Item 1: ___________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 21: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 2: ___________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 22: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 3: ___________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 23: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 4: ___________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 24: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 5: ___________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 25: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 6: ___________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 26: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 7: ___________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 27: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 8: ___________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 28: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 9: ___________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 29: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 10: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 30: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 11: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 31: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 12: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 32: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 13: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 33: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 14: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 34: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 15: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 35: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 16: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 36: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 17: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 37: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 18: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 38: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 19: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 39: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 20: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

Item 40: __________________________ Date: ___/___/___

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 Work Products. Student work products can be collected and evaluated to judge whether the student is incorporating information taught in the course, applying cognitive strategies that they have been taught, or remediating academic delays. Examples of work products are math computation worksheets, journal entries, and written responses to end-of-chapter questions from the course textbook. Whenever teachers collect academic performance data on a student, it is recommended that they also assess the performance of typical peers in the classroom. Peer performance information allows the teacher directly to estimate and to track the skill gap that separates the target student from others in the class who are not having academic difficulties. Teachers should select students to serve as ‘comparison peers’ whose skills represent the class average. Work products can be assessed in several ways, depending on the identified student problem. The teacher can estimate the percentage of work completed on an assignment, for example, as well as the accuracy of the work actually completed. Additionally, the instructor may decide to rate the student’s work for quality, using a rubric or other qualitative evaluation approach. NOTE: The ‘Monitoring Student Progress Through Work Products’ Worksheet that appears on the following pages provides a guide to setting up a plan for using work products to monitor a student intervention. Example: Mrs. Franchione, a social studies teacher, identified her eighth-grade student, Alexandria, as having difficulty with course content. The student was taught to use question generation as a strategy to better identify the main ideas in her course readings. As one measure to track student progress with the intervention, Mrs. Franchione decided to assess Alexandria’s student journal entries. Each week, Mrs. Franchione assigned students 5 key vocabulary terms and directed them to answer a social studies essay question while incorporating all 5 terms. In preparation for monitoring through work products, Mrs. Franchione selected three students in the class who were producing ‘average’ work to serve as peer comparisons for Alexandria’s essays.. Whenever Mrs. Franchione evaluated one of Alexandria’s journal entries, she would randomly select the journal entry of one of these students also and rate that entry using the same evaluation criteria. Mrs. Franchione decided to assess Alexandria’s journal entries according to the following criteria: 

Presence of weekly assigned vocabulary words in the student essay



Unambiguous, correct use of each assigned vocabulary term in context



Overall quality of the student essay on a scale of 1 (significantly below peers) to 4 (significantly above peers).

To establish a baseline before starting the intervention, Mrs. Franchione used the above criteria to evaluate the two most recent journal entries from Alexandria’s journal—and averaged the results. She found that Alexandria typically would include four of the assigned vocabulary terms in each journal entry, but that only two of those four terms were used correctly in context. She also received a global quality rating from the teacher of 1.5. In contrast, the peer journal entries evaluated for comparison purposes were found to include all five of the

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assigned vocabulary terms, with at least four of the terms used correctly in context. They also received an average quality rating of 3.2. Mrs. Franchione set an intervention goal for Alexandria that— by the end of the 5-week intervention period— the student would regularly incorporate all five vocabulary terms into her weekly journal entries, that at least 4 of the five entries would be used correctly in context, and that the student would attain a quality rating score of 3.0 or better on the entries.

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‘Monitoring Student Progress Through Work Products’ Worksheet

Student: _________________________________________________________________________ Grade: ______________ Teacher: _________________________________ Academic Skill/Course: ________________________________________ Type(s) of Work Products. Describe the type(s) of work products to be collected (e.g., math computation worksheets; writing journal entries; written responses to end-of-chapter questions, etc.):

Comparison Peers. Select up to 3 typically performing class peers whose work products are to be compared to that of the student:

_______________________________________________

2. _____________________________________________

1. _____________________________________________

_______________________________________________

3. _____________________________________________

Work Conditions. Check the conditions under which work products are to be completed:  In-class cooperative learning activities  In-class independent seatwork  Other: ________________________________________

 In-class teacher-led/large-group activities  Homework

Quality Rating Rubric.   Use this global rubric to rate the quality of each student work product collected :

1

Significantly below level of peers (rudimentary content, absence of ideas, and/or failure to use key strategies or steps)

2

Somewhat below level of peers (lacking content, inadequate development of ideas, and/or limited application of key strategies or steps)

Date: ____/____/____

3

At level of peers (e.g., average content, development of ideas, application of key strategies or steps)

Target Student

Percentage of work product completed: _______ %

1

4

Above peers in overall quality (e.g., strong content, ideas developed to an advanced degree, creative application of key strategies or steps) 

Name of Comparison Peer: ______________________ Percentage of work product completed: ________ %

[Optional] Estimated accuracy of completed work: _______ %

[Optional] Estimated accuracy of completed work: _______ %

[Optional] Grade assigned to this work product: __________

[Optional] Grade assigned to this work product: __________

Rate the overall quality of this work product:

Rate the overall quality of this work product:

1

2

3

Significantly Somewhat At level of below peers below peers peers

1

4

2

3

Significantly Somewhat At level of below peers below peers peers

Above level of peers

4 Above level of peers

Comments: __________________________________________

Comments: _________________________________________

____________________________________________________

___________________________________________________

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Date: ____/____/____

Target Student

Percentage of work product completed: _______ %

2

[Optional] Estimated accuracy of completed work: _______ %

[Optional] Grade assigned to this work product: __________

[Optional] Grade assigned to this work product: __________

Rate the overall quality of this work product:

Rate the overall quality of this work product:

1

2

3

2

3

Significantly Somewhat At level of below peers below peers peers

Above level of peers

4 Above level of peers

Comments: __________________________________________

Comments: _________________________________________

____________________________________________________

___________________________________________________

Date: ____/____/____

Name of Comparison Peer: ______________________

Target Student

Percentage of work product completed: ________ %

[Optional] Estimated accuracy of completed work: _______ %

[Optional] Estimated accuracy of completed work: _______ %

[Optional] Grade assigned to this work product: __________

[Optional] Grade assigned to this work product: __________

Rate the overall quality of this work product:

Rate the overall quality of this work product:

1

2

3

1

4

Significantly Somewhat At level of below peers below peers peers

2

3

Significantly Somewhat At level of below peers below peers peers

Above level of peers

4 Above level of peers

Comments: __________________________________________

Comments: _________________________________________

____________________________________________________

___________________________________________________

Percentage of work product completed: _______ %

Percentage of work product completed: ________ %

Date: ____/____/____

Target Student

Name of Comparison Peer: ______________________

[Optional] Estimated accuracy of completed work: _______ %

[Optional] Estimated accuracy of completed work: _______ %

[Optional] Grade assigned to this work product: __________

[Optional] Grade assigned to this work product: __________

Rate the overall quality of this work product:

Rate the overall quality of this work product:

1

2

3

1

4

Significantly Somewhat At level of below peers below peers peers

2

3

Significantly Somewhat At level of below peers below peers peers

Above level of peers

4 Above level of peers

Comments: __________________________________________

Comments: _________________________________________

____________________________________________________

___________________________________________________

Percentage of work product completed: _______ %

Percentage of work product completed: ________ %

Date: ____/____/____

5

1

4

Percentage of work product completed: _______ %

4

Percentage of work product completed: ________ %

[Optional] Estimated accuracy of completed work: _______ %

Significantly Somewhat At level of below peers below peers peers

3

Name of Comparison Peer: ______________________

Target Student

Name of Comparison Peer: ______________________

[Optional] Estimated accuracy of completed work: _______ %

[Optional] Estimated accuracy of completed work: _______ %

[Optional] Grade assigned to this work product: __________

[Optional] Grade assigned to this work product: __________

Rate the overall quality of this work product:

Rate the overall quality of this work product:

1

2

3

Significantly Somewhat At level of below peers below peers peers

1

4

2

3

Significantly Somewhat At level of below peers below peers peers

Above level of peers

4 Above level of peers

Comments: __________________________________________

Comments: _________________________________________

____________________________________________________

___________________________________________________

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 Behavior Log. Behavior logs are narrative ‘incident reports’ that the teacher records about problem student behaviors. The teacher makes a log entry each time that a behavior is observed. An advantage of behavior logs is that they can provide information about the context within which a behavior occurs.(Disciplinary office referrals are a specialized example of a behavior log.) Behavior logs are most useful for tracking problem behaviors that are serious but do not occur frequently. NOTE: A sample Behavior Log form appears on the next page. Example: Mrs. Roland, a 6th-grade Science teacher, had difficulty managing the behavior of a student, Bill. While Bill was often passively non-compliant, he would occasionally escalate, become loudly defiant and confrontational, and then be sent to the principal’s office. Because Mrs. Roland did not fully understand what factors might be triggering these student outbursts, she began to keep a behavior log. In that log, she recorded instances when Bill’s behavior would escalate to become confrontational. Among other information, Mrs. Roland’s behavior logs noted the date and time of each behavioral outburst, its duration and severity, what activity the class was engaged in when Bill’s behavioral outburst occurred, and the disciplinary outcome. After three weeks, she had logged 4 behavioral incidents, establishing a baseline of about 1 incident every 3.75 instructional days. Mrs. Roland hypothesized that Bill became confrontational to escape class activities that required him to read aloud within the hearing of his classmates. As an intervention plan, she changed class activities to eliminate public readings, matched Bill to a supportive class ‘buddy’, and also provided Bill with additional intervention in reading comprehension ‘fix up’ skills. Mrs. Roland set as an intervention goal that within 4 weeks Bill’s rate of serious confrontational outbursts would drop to zero.

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Behavior Log & Student Behavioral Scatterplot Directions: Record each incident of problem student behavior in the behavior log below. Student Name: ____________________________________Observer:______________________ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Time: ___;___ a.m./p.m. Date: ___/___/___ Location: _________________________________ Brief narrative of incident (including persons involved, scheduled activity, triggering event(s), outcome(s)); ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ How long did this incident last? ________ mins How severe was the behavior in the incident?

1

2

Not Severe

Somewhat Severe

3 Very Severe

Student Name: ____________________________________Observer:______________________ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Time: ___;___ a.m./p.m. Date: ___/___/___ Location: _________________________________ Brief narrative of incident (including persons involved, scheduled activity, triggering event(s), outcome(s)); ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ How long did this incident last? ________ mins How severe was the behavior in the incident?

1

Not Severe

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Behavioral Scatterplot

Directions: Write the student’s general daily schedule in the column labeled ‘Activity/Class Schedule’. For each day during which target problems behaviors were monitored in the student’s behavioral log, mark an ‘X’ in the appropriate date column at the time when the problem behavior occurred. When all behaviors have been plotted at the correct date and time of their occurrence, look for possible explanatory patterns between the activities scheduled and the behaviors observed --e.g., due to physical setting variables, academic task demands, presence or absence of adult supervision, etc. Time 7:30-7:45 7:45-8:00

Activity / Class Schedule

Date/Day ___________

Date/Day ___________

Date/Day ___________

Date/Day ___________

Date/Day ___________

8:00-8:15 8:15-8:30 8:30-8:45 8:45-9:00 9:00-9:15 9:15-9:30 9:30-9:45 9:45-10:00 10:00-10:15 10:15-10:30 10:30-10:45 10:45-11:00 11:00-11:15 11:15-11:30 11:30-11:45 11:45-12:00 12:00-12:15 12:15-12:30 12:30-12:45 12:45-1:00 1:00-1:15 1:15-1:30 1:30-1:45 1:45-2:00 2:00-2:15 2:15-2:30 2:30-2:45 2:45-3:00 3:00-3:15 3:15-3:30 3:30-3:45 3:45-4:00 4:00-4:15 4:15-4:30

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 Curriculum-Based Measurement. Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) is a family of brief, timed measures that assess basic academic skills. CBMs have been developed to assess a considerable number of academic competencies, including phonemic awareness, oral reading fluency, number sense, math computation, spelling, and written expression. Among advantages of using CBM for classroom assessment are that these measures are quick and efficient to administer; align with the curriculum of most schools; have good ‘technical adequacy’ as academic assessments; and use standard procedures to prepare materials, administer, and score (Hosp, Hosp & Howell, 2007). NOTE: Schools can find a comprehensive web directory of free or low-cost Curriculum-Based Measurement resources on CBM Warehouse at: http://www.interventioncentral.org/index.php/cbm-warehouse Example: Mr. Jackson, a 3rd-grade teacher, decided to use explicit time drills to help his student, Andy, become more fluent in his multiplication math facts. Prior to starting the intervention, Mr. Jackson administered a CBM math computation probe (single-skill probe; multiplication facts from 0 to 12) on three consecutive days. Mr. Jackson used the median, or middle, score from these three assessments as baseline—finding that the student was able to compute an average of 20 correct digits in two minutes. He also set a goal that Andy would increase his computation fluency on multiplication facts by 3 digits per week across the 5-week intervention, resulting in an intervention goal of 35 correct digits. Reference Hosp, M.K., Hosp, J. L., & Howell, K. W. (2007). The ABCs of CBM. New York: Guilford.

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RTI Classroom Progress-Monitoring Worksheet: Guidelines Academic and behavioral interventions under RTI are incomplete without data being collected to document whether those interventions are actually benefiting students. Indeed, an RTI intervention can be viewed as ‘fatally flawed’ (Witt, VanDerHeyden & Gilbertson, 2004) if it lacks any one of these data elements: (1) clear definition of the presenting student problem(s), (2) calculation of the student’s starting point, or baseline performance, in the identified area of concern; (3) setting of a specific goal for student improvement; or (4) selection of a method to monitor the student’s progress formatively during the intervention to judge whether the intervention is successful in helping the student to attain the goal. Clearly defining the student problem and collecting data are essential to implementing any school-based intervention. As general-education teachers are often the ‘first responders’ who provide classroom interventions under RTI, they need to know how to set up a data collection plan that includes baseline, goal, and progress-monitoring. Instructors, however, can find the task of data collection to be daunting—unless they are provided with a step-by-step tutorial in how to do so. How to Use the RTI Classroom Progress-Monitoring Worksheet As teachers adopt the role of RTI classroom ‘first responder’ interventionist, they are likely to need assistance – at least initially—with the multi-step process of setting up and implementing data collection, as well as interpreting the resulting data. A form designed to walk teachers through the data-collection process-- RTI Classroom Progress-Monitoring Worksheet—appears on pages 3-4 of this handout. The Worksheet includes a seven-step ‘wizard’ form to help teachers in structuring their progress-monitoring. Here are the essential steps from the Worksheet that teachers should follow to ensure that their data collection is adequate to the task of measuring the impact of their classroom interventions: A.

Identify the student problem. The teacher defines the student problem in clear, specific terms that allow the instructor to select an appropriate source of classroom assessment to measure and monitor the problem.

B.

Decide on a data collection method. The teacher chooses a method for collecting data that can be managed in the classroom setting and that will provide useful information about the student problem. Examples of data collection methods are curriculumbased measurement (e.g., oral reading fluency; correct writing sequences), behavior-frequency counts, and direct behavior report cards. When selecting a data collection method, the teacher also decides how frequently that data will be collected during intervention progress-monitoring. In some cases, the method of data collection being used will dictate monitoring frequency. For example, if homework completion and accuracy is being tracked, the frequency of data collection will be equal to the frequency of homework assignments. In other cases, the level of severity of the student problem will dictate monitoring frequency. Students on Tier 2 (standard-protocol) interventions should be monitored 1-2 times per month, for example, while students on Tier 3 (intensive problem-solving protocol) interventions should be monitored at least weekly (Burns & Gibbons, 2008).

C. Collect data to calculate baseline. The teacher should collect 3-5 data-points prior to starting the intervention to calculate the student’s baseline, or starting point, in the skill or behavior that is being targeted for intervention. The student’s baseline performance serves as an initial marker against which to compare his or her outcome performance at the end of the intervention. (Also,--because baseline data points are collected prior to the start of the intervention--they collectively can serve as an indication of the trend, or rate of improvement, if the student’s program remains unchanged and no additional interventions are attempted.). In calculating baseline, the teacher has the option of selecting the median, or middle, data-point, or calculating the mean baseline performance. D. Determine the timespan of the intervention. The length of time reserved for the intervention should be sufficient to allow enough data to be collected to clearly demonstrate whether that intervention was successful. For example, it is recommended that a highstakes intervention last at least 8 instructional weeks (e.g., Burns & Gibbons, 2008).

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E.

Set an intervention goal. The teacher calculates a goal for the student that, if attained by the end of the intervention period, will indicate that the intervention was successful.

F.

Decide how student progress is to be summarized. A decision that the teacher must make prior to the end of the intervention period is how he or she will summarize the actual progress-monitoring data. Because of the variability present in most data, the instructor will probably not elect simply to use the final data point as the best estimate of student progress. Better choices are to select several (e.g. 3) of the final data points and either select the median value or calculate a mean value. For charted data with trendline, the teacher may calculate the student’s final performance level as the value of the trendline at the point at which it intercepts the intervention end-date.

G. Evaluate the intervention outcome. At the conclusion of the intervention, the teacher directly compares the actual student progress (summarized in the previous step) with the goal originally set. If actual student progress meets or exceeds the goal, the intervention is judged to be successful. References Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools. Routledge: New York. Witt, J. C., VanDerHeyden, A. M., & Gilbertson, D. (2004). Troubleshooting behavioral interventions. A systematic process for finding and eliminating problems. School Psychology Review, 33, 363-383.

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RTI Classroom Progress-Monitoring Worksheet

SET-UP

Student: ___ Brian Jones__ Teacher: _____ Mrs. Braniff_____ Classroom or Course:

Gr 3_____________ 

A. Identify the Student Problem: Describe in clear, specific terms the student academic or behavioral problem: Need to Become Fluent in Multiplication Facts: 0 to 9___________________________ B. Select a Data Collection Method: Choose a method of data collection to measure whether the classroom intervention actually improves the identified student problem (e.g., curriculum-based measurement, etc.).

Curriculum-Based Measurement: 2-Minute Timed Math Computation Probes________________ How frequently will this data be collected?: 1 times per Week

C. Collect Data to Calculate Baseline: What method from the choices below will be used to estimate the student’s baseline

BASELINE

(starting) performance? (NOTE: Generally, at least 3-5 baseline data points are recommended.)



From a total of 3 observations, select the median value.



 From a total of ______ observations, calculate the mean value.

Baseline

1. Date: _11_/_14_/2011 Obsv: _31___ 2. Date: _11_/_17_/2011 Obsv: _28___

Other: _____________________________ ___________________________________

3. Date: _11_/_21_/2011 Obsv: _34___ 4. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: ______ 5. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: ______

Baseline Performance: Based on the method selected above, it is calculated that the student’s baseline performance is: _______________

31 Correct Digits in 2 minutes _____________________________________________________

PROGRESS-MONITORING

D. Determine Intervention Timespan: The intervention will last 6 instructional weeks and end on _1_/_13_/2012 E. Set a Performance Goal: What goal is the student expected to achieve if the intervention is successful? At the end of the intervention, it is predicted that the student will reach this performance goal: ______40

Correct Digits in 2 minutes ______________________________________________________________ F. Decide How Student Progress is to Be Summarized: Select a G. Evaluate the Intervention Outcome: method for summarizing student progress (‘outcome’) attained when the intervention ends. Student progress at the end of the intervention is to be summarized by:  Selecting the median value from the final ____ data-points (e.g.,3).

 Computing the mean value from the final 2 data-points (e.g.,3).  [For time-series graphs]: Calculating the value on the graph trend line at the point that it intercepts the intervention end date.  Progress-Monitoring

 

1. Date: _12_/_02_/2011 Obsv: _29___ 2. Date: _12_/_09_/2011 Obsv: _34___ 3. Date: _12_/_16_/2011 Obsv: _35___ 4. Date: _12_/_22_/2011 Obsv: _39___

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At the end of the intervention, compare student progress to goal. If actual progress meets or exceeds goal, the intervention is judged successful. The student’s ACTUAL Progress (Step F) is:

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The PERFORMANCE GOAL for improvement (Step E) is: 

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5. Date: _01_/_06_/2012 Obsv: _41___ 6. Date: _01_/_13_/2012 Obsv: _43___ 7. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: ______ 8. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: ______ 9. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: ______

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RTI Classroom Progress-Monitoring Worksheet

SET-UP

Student: ___________________ Teacher: _______________________ Classroom or Course: ___________________ 

A. Identify the Student Problem:

Describe in clear, specific terms the student academic or behavioral problem:

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

B. Select a Data Collection Method: Choose a method of data collection to measure whether the classroom intervention actually improves the identified student problem (e.g., curriculum-based measurement, etc.).

______________________________________________________________________________________________________ How frequently will this data be collected?: __________ times per _____________

C. Collect Data to Calculate Baseline: What method from the choices below will be used to estimate the student’s baseline

BASELINE

(starting) performance? (NOTE: Generally, at least 3-5 baseline data points are recommended.)  From a total of ______ observations, select the median value.  Other: _____________________________

 From a total of ______ observations, calculate the mean value.

Baseline

1. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 2. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________

___________________________________

3. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 4. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 5. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________

Baseline Performance: Based on the method selected above, it is calculated that the student’s baseline performance is: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

PROGRESS-MONITORING

D. Determine Intervention Timespan: The intervention will last _______ instructional weeks and end on ____/____/____. E. Set a Performance Goal: What goal is the student expected to achieve if the intervention is successful? At the end of the intervention, it is predicted that the student will reach this performance goal: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________

F. Decide How Student Progress is to Be Summarized: Select a

method for summarizing student progress (‘outcome’) attained when the intervention ends. Student progress at the end of the intervention is to be summarized by:  Selecting the median value from the final ____ data-points (e.g.,3).

 

At the end of the intervention, compare student progress to goal. If actual progress meets or exceeds goal, the intervention is judged successful.

 Computing the mean value from the final ____ data-points (e.g.,3).

The student’s ACTUAL Progress (Step F) is:

 [For time-series graphs]: Calculating the value on the graph trend line at the point that it intercepts the intervention end date.

The PERFORMANCE GOAL for improvement (Step E) is: 

Progress-Monitoring  

G. Evaluate the Intervention Outcome:

1. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 2. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 3. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 4. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________

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5. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 6. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 7. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 8. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 9. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________

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  Student: ___________________________________________________________ Grade: _____________________________ Teacher:

School Year:

Progress-Monitoring (Cont.)

Progress-Monitoring (Cont.)

10. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 11. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 12. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 13. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 14. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 15. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 16. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 17. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 18. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 19. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 20. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 21. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 22. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 23. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 24. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 25. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 26. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 27. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 28. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 29. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________

30. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 31. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 32. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 33. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 34. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 35. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 36. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 37. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 38. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 39. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 40. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 41. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 42. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 43. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 44. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 45. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 46. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 47. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 48. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________ 49. Date: ____/____/____ Obsv: _____________

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Defining Student Problems: The First Step in Effective Intervention Planning Students who struggle with academic deficits or behavioral problems do not do so in isolation. Their difficulties are played out in the larger context of the school environment and curriculum—and often represent a ‘mismatch’ between the characteristics of the student and the instructional or behavioral demands of the classroom (Foorman & Torgesen, 2001). It may surprise educators to learn that the problem-identification step is the most critical for matching the student to an effective intervention (Bergan, 1995). Problem identification statements should be defined in clear and specific terms sufficient to pass ‘the stranger test’ (Howell, Hosp, & Kurns, 2008). That is, the student problem can be judged as adequately defined if a person with no background knowledge of the case and equipped only with the problemidentification statement can observe the student in the academic setting and know with confidence when the problem behavior is displayed and when it is not. Here is a 3-step process for describing student problems clearly, understanding their likely causes, and matching those problems to appropriate interventions. 1. Describe the problem in specific terms (Batsche et al., 2008; Upah, 2008). Write a clear, brief description of the academic skill or performance deficit or behavioral problem. This section provides guidance in how to construct strong statements identifying student concerns in both academic and behavioral areas. Academic Problem Identification. An academic problem ID statement focuses on a specific skill or performance area and includes information about the conditions under which the academic problem is observed and typical or expected level of performance. It contains these 3 elements:   

Conditions. Describe the environmental conditions or task demands in place when the academic problem is observed. Problem Description. Describe the actual observable academic behavior in which the student is engaged. Include rate, accuracy, or other quantitative information of student performance. Typical or Expected Level of Performance. Provide a typical or expected performance criterion for this skill or behavior. Typical or expected academic performance can be calculated using a variety of sources.

Academic Problems: Sample Definitions Environmental Problem Description. ‘What Conditions or Task does the student actually do?’ Demands. ‘What is the student supposed to do?’ When completing a …Ann is unable to translate that beginning-level algebra word problem into an equation word problem… with variables… During social studies large-group

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…Franklin attends to instruction an average of 45% of the time…

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Typical or Expected Level of Performance. ‘What is the performance that you expect from this student?’ …while most peers in her class have mastered this skill. … while peers in the same room attend to instruction an

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instruction… For science homework…

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… Tye turns in assignments an average of 50% of the time…

On weekly 30-minute in- … Angela produces class writing compositions that average 145 assignments… words…

average of 85% of the time. … while the classroom median rate of homework turned in is 90%. …while a sampling of peer compositions shows that the typical student writes an average of 254 words.

Behavior Problem Identification. A behavioral problem ID statement defines the problem behavior in clear, observable, measurable terms (Batsche et al., 2008; Upah, 2008) and avoids vague problem identification statements such as “The student is disruptive.” A useful self-prompt to come up with a more detailed description of the problem is to ask, “What does look like in the classroom?” A behavior problem ID statement contains these three elements: A well-written behavioral problem definition should include three parts:  Conditions. The condition(s) under which the problem is likely to occur  Problem Description. A specific description of the problem behavior  Contextual Information. Information about the frequency, intensity, duration, or other dimension(s) of the behavior that provide a context for estimating the degree to which the behavior presents a problem in the setting(s) in which it occurs. Behavior Problems: Sample Definitions Conditions. 'Where or when Problem Description. does the problem behavior 'What does the behavior occur and what is going on at look like in the the time?' classroom?' During 20-minute independent …John talks with peers seatwork literacy tasks,… about non-instructional topics… In school settings such as the …Andrea is reported by playground or gymnasium, peers to use physically when unsupervised by threatening language… adults,… When given a verbal teacher …Jay fails to comply with request… that request within 3 minutes…

Contextual Information About Frequency, Intensity, Duration, or Other Dimension(s) of the Behavior. 'What indicates that this behavior is challenging?' …and must be redirected by the teacher an average of 3 times per session. …at least once per week.

… an average of 50% of the time.

2. Select a hypothesis to explain the academic or behavioral problem. The hypothesis states the assumed reason(s) or cause(s) for the student’s academic or behavioral problem(s). Once it has been developed, the hypothesis statement acts like a compass needle, pointing toward interventions that most logically address the student concerns. The checklist below includes common reasons for academic and behavioral concerns. Note that more than one hypothesis may apply to the same student (e.g., a student may have both a skill deficit and a motivation deficit).

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Likely Reason(s) for Student Academic and Behavioral Concerns Behavioral Academic  Lacks necessary behavioral skills  Is placed in work that is too difficult  Has the necessary behavioral skills but is not  Lacks one or more crucial basic skills in the motivated by the instructional task/setting to problem subject area(s) comply/behave appropriately  Needs drill & practice to strengthen and become more fluent in basic academic skills  Seeks att’n from adults  Seeks att’n from peers  Has the necessary academic skills, fails to use them in the appropriate settings/situations  Reacts to teasing/bullying  Tries to escape from instructional demands or  Needs explicit guidance to connect current skills setting to new instructional demands  Attempts to hide academic deficits through  Has the necessary academic skills but is not noncompliance or other misbehavior motivated by the instructional task/setting to actually do the work

3. Select interventions to match the selected hypothesis. After a 'best guess', or hypothesis, has been selected to explain the probable cause of the student's academic or behavioral concern, the teacher will then choose intervention ideas that logically address the root cause of the problem. References Batsche, G. M., Castillo, J. M., Dixon, D. N., & Forde, S. (2008). Best practices in designing, implementing, and evaluating quality interventions. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 177-193). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. Bergan, J. R. (1995). Evolution of a problem-solving model of consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 6(2), 111-123. Foorman, B. R., & Torgesen, J. (2001). Critical elements of classroom and small-group instruction promote reading success in all children. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16, 203-212. Howell, K. W., Hosp, J. L., & Kurns, S. (2008). Best practices in curriculum-based evaluation. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp.349-362). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. Upah, K. R. F. (2008). Best practices in designing, implementing, and evaluating quality interventions. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 209-223). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

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The Classroom Teacher as Intervention 'First Responder': Tools for

1 RTI Toolkit: A Practical Guide for Schools The Classroom Teacher as Intervention ‘First Responder’: Tools for Academic Intervention and Assessment...

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