Syllabus - University of Mumbai - Mumbai University


Syllabus F.Y.B.Sc. IT Professional Communication Skills Unit I The Seven C’s of the Effective Communication 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Completeness Conciseness Consideration Concreteness Clarity Courtesy Correctness

Unit II Communication: Its interpretation 1. Basics 2. Nonverbal Communication 3. Barriers to Communication Unit III Business Communication at Work Place 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Letter Components and Layouts Planning a letter Process of Letter writing Email Communication Memo and Memo Reports Employment Communication Notice Agenda and Minutes of Meeting Brochures

Unit IV Report Writing 1. 2. 3. 4.

Effective Writing Types of Business Reports Structure of Reports Gathering Information

2 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Organization of the Material Writing Abstracts and Summaries Writing Definitions Visual Aids User Instruction Manual

Unit V Required Skills 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Reading Skills Note-making Précis Writing Audio Visual Aids Oral Communication

Unit VI Mechanics of Writing 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Transitions Spelling Rules Hyphenation Transcribing Numbers Abbreviating Technical and Non Technical Terms Proof Reading



Total Marks :100

Duration : 3 Hrs

Note: All questions are compulsory Q.1

Combination of questions from Unit 1 to 6 (no internal choice)

10 M


Questions from Unit 1 only (with internal choice)

15 M


Questions from Unit 2 only (with internal choice)

15 M


Questions from Unit 3 only (with internal choice)

15 M


Questions from Unit 4 only (with internal choice)

15 M


Questions from Unit 5 only (with internal choice)

15 M


Questions from Unit 6 only (with internal choice)

15 M


4 Content Chapter 1 Basics Verbal Non Verbal Communication Seven Cs of Communication Chapter 2 Barriers to Communication Chapter 3 Business Communication at Work Place-I Planning a Letter Letter Components Layouts Process of Letter Writing Chapter 4 Business Communication at Work Place-II Job Application Letter Resume Resignation Letter Termination Letter Goodwill Letters Email Chapter 5 Business Communication at Work Place-III Memorandum Meeting Brochure Chapter 6 Writing Reports Chapter 7 Summaries and Abstracts Technical Definitions

Page Nos.

5 Chapter 8 User Instruction Manual

Chapter 9 Reading Skills Chapter 10 Note Making Precis Writing Chapter 11 Audio Video Aids and Effective Presentation Chapter 12 Oral Communication Chapter 13 Transition Spelling Rules Hyphenation Chapter 14 Transcribing Numbers Abbreviating Technical and Non Technical Terms Chapter 15 Proofreading

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1 Unit I BASICS, VERBAL, NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION AND SEVEN CS OF COMMUNICATION Unit Structure 1.1 Objectives 1.2 Introduction 1.3 Basics of Communication 1.4 Channels of Communication 1.5 Importance of Communication 1.6 Non Verbal Communication 1.7 Seven Cs of Communication 1.8 Summary 1.9 Exercise:



 To understand the basics of communication  To understand the concept of verbal and non verbal communication



This chapter will introduce you to various theoretical concepts of communication in general to help you to relate them to various day to day situations. Communication skills progresses from the birth of child to the adulthood to the oldhood. The learning of communication commences with the observation of the world surrounding you. The nomenclatures of the various situations one may come across in his/her personal or formal life are the events of communication. Imagine, you complete your B. Sc. IT with flying

7 colours and you find a different world outside the classrooms you have attended and you are confused to begin with, how will you face such unusual situations that you have never experienced? The answer is if you are aware of the content of the communication skills you have learnt as a part of your academics, your half way is done. Now let us begin understanding each component of the soft skills you required to understand.



1.3.1 Concept of Communication Every individual needs to be well equipped with the tools to communicate effectively, whether it is on the personal front, or at work. In fact, according to the management gurus, being a good communicator is half the battle won. After all, if one speaks and listens well, then there is little or no scope for misunderstanding. Thus, keeping this fact in mind, the primary reasons for misunderstanding is due to inability to speak well, or listen effectively. The word communication is derived from the Latin word ‘communicate’ which means to make common, to transmit, or to impart the ideas, knowledge, feelings, emotions and gestures. According to the various dictionaries the definition of effective communication skills are as follows: “Effective communication skills includes lip reading, finger-spelling, sign language; for interpersonal skills use, interpersonal relations.” “Effective communication skills are the ability to use language (receptive) and express (expressive) information.” “Effective communication skills are the set of skills that enables a person to convey information so that it is received and understood. Effective communication skills refer to the repertoire of behaviors that serve to convey information for the individual.” While it is an undisputable fact the communication forms one of the essential bases of human existence, yet most individuals overlook the need to refine their communication skills, from time-totime. Effective communication skills is a must whether it is individual or then effective team communication skills.

8 1.3.2 Process of Communication Communication is a two-way process in which there is an exchange and progression of ideas towards a mutually accepted direction or goal. For this process, to materialise, it is essential that the basic elements of communication be identified. These elements are: Ideation/Message, Sender, Encoding, Receiver, Medium and Transmission, Barriers, Decoding and Feedback.

Message Ideation


Medium of Transmission

Barriers to Communication Sender



Diagram 1: Cycle of Communication Process Ideation/Message The process of communication begins with ideation, which refers to the formation of the idea or selection of a message to be communicated. It consists of the 'What" of communication and is concerned with the content of the specific message to be presented. The scope of 'ideation' is generally determined by the sender's knowledge, experiences, and abilities, as well as the purpose of communication and the context of the communicative situation. However, the form of ideation depends on several other factors. Messages generally have two kinds of content, logical and emotional. Logical messages consist of factual information, while emotional messages consist of feelings and emotions. In formal communicative situation, 'ideation' may consist of finding and selecting a subject or general topic, looking for ideas and thoughts, and deciding the type, scope, and sources of information.


9 Sender The person who initiates the communication process is normally referred to as the sender. From his personal data bank he selects ideas, encodes and finally transmits them to the receiver. The entire burden of Encoding of communication then rests upon the sender or encoder. His message choice of images and words, and the combination of the two is what goads the receiver to listen carefully. In this process a number of factors come into play, primary among them being an understanding of the recipient and his needs. If the message can be formulated in accordance with the expectations of the receiver, the level of acceptance is going to be higher. Encoding Encoding is the next step in communication. It is the process of changing the information into some form of logical and coded message. The encoding process is based on the purpose of communication and the relation between the sender and the receiver. In a formal situation, encoding involves: Selecting a language; selecting a medium of communication; and selecting an appropriate communication form. Selecting the right language is essential for effective encoding. Verbal messages need a common language code, which can be easily decoded by the receiver. If the receiver is not able to decode or understand the message, communication will fail. For example, a person who does not understand Tamil cannot decode a message encoded in Tamil As selecting the right medium of communication involves making the right choice out of many available options, it determines the effectiveness of encoding. There are three basic options for sending interpersonal messages that is speaking, writing, and nonverbal signs and symbols. The spoken word involves vocalization while non-verbal message cues are generally visual (auditory and tactile). Non-verbal clues play a significant role in oral communication. These clues include body movements, facial expressions, touching patterns, speech mannerisms. The selection of the appropriate form largely depends on the sender-receiver relationship and the overall goal of the communicative situation. Oral communication may be face-to-face interpersonal communication, group communication, speaker-audience

10 communication, or telephonic communication. The choice depends on the need and purpose of the communication. Receiver The listener receives an encoded message which he attempts to decode. This process is carried on in relation to the work environment and the value perceived in terms of the work situation. If the goal of the Decoding of sender is envisioned as similar to his own, the listener becomes message more receptive. The decoding of the message is done in almost entirely the same terms as were intended by the sender Medium and Transmission Another important element of communication is the medium or channel. It could be oral, written or non-verbal. Prior to the composition of the message, the medium/channel should be decided. Transmission refers to the flow of message over the chosen channel. Transmission confirms the medium selected during the process of encoding and keeps the communication channel free from interference or noise so that the message reaches the receiver without any disturbance. Barriers The barriers refer to the various hurdles the message may come across in process of transmission. Noise may disturb the proper encoding, the psychological barriers of the receiver may hamper the basic purpose of the message or the barriers may hinder the smooth completion of the cycle of the process of communication. The barriers could be cross cultural, linguistics, semantics, socio-psychological, etc. Decoding Decoding is the process of converting a message into thoughts by translating the received stimuli into an interpreted meaning in order to understand the message communicated. It is important to note that it is the message that is transferred, as meaning cannot be transferred from one person to another. The receiver has to assign meaning to a message in order to understand it. The process of decoding involves interpretation and analysis of a message. Decoding in written communication refers to reading and understanding a written message. On the other hand, in oral

11 communication, decoding includes listening and understanding. Effective decoding is very important for successful communication as any misinterpretation of a message leads to communication breakdown and creates confusion and misunderstanding. Feedback Effective communication takes place only when there is feedback. Feedback is the last stage in the communication process. It is the action or reaction of the receiver to the message. It helps the sender know that the message was received and understood. The feedback that goes to the sender makes it clear whether the receiver has accepted the information and filed it in his/her memory or rejected it. He or she may ask for more information or clarification. Response is, thus, the key to communication as the effectiveness of communication depends on how congruent a receiver's response is with the meaning intended by the sender.

1.4. CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION Communication is essential for the internal functioning of any organisation. By integrating the managerial functions and serving to influence the behaviour and attitudes of people through persuasion, it encourages them to perform in order to achieve organisational objectives. The interaction between the different individuals working in a company or organisation takes place through different channels. These channels could be both informal and formal. Informal channels transmit official news through unofficial and informal communicative interactions known as the 'grapevine'. This informal communication network includes tea time gossip, casual gatherings, lunch time meetings and so on. These channels may not be very reliable as they may be company rumours or just gossip. Such channels are more active in organisations that are not transparent. As employees want to know what is going on in their organisation, they seek out unofficial sources of information. The grapevine is not always negative for an organisation and can, in fact, be helpful as it helps in positive group building by acting as a safety valve for pent-up emotions. It may help in building up organisational solidarity and harmony.

12 1.4.1 Downward Communication As the main function of downward communication is providing direction and control, it refers to communication from the higher level in managerial hierarchy to the lower ones. A communication from the general manager of a company to the branch managers is an example of downward communication. Other examples of downward communication include annual confidential reports, performance appraisals, notices, project feedback, announcements of company policies, official instructions, and so on. Forms of downward communication may include notes, notices, memos, telephone conversations, voice mails, emails, or face-to-face conversations. Downward communication is essential for the functioning of any organisation as it involves the transfer of information, instruction, advice, request, feedback, and ideas to subordinate staff. It increases staff awareness and facilitates implementation of new policies, guidelines, decisions, and evaluation and appraisal of the performance of employees. However, too much downward communication can lead to reaction from subordinates and can hamper better employee-employer relationship. 1.4.2 Upward Communication As the main purpose of upward communication is to provide feedback on several areas of organisational functioning, it refers to communication from subordinates to superiors. A business report from the branch manager of a company to the managing director of the company is an example of upward communication. Other examples of upward channel include business proposals, suggestion box, exit interviews, grievance committees, and so forth. Since upward communication involves the transfer of information, request, and feedback from the subordinates to their seniors, it promotes better working relationships within an organisation by giving the subordinate staff opportunities to share their views and ideas with their supervisors. It facilitates employee involvement in the decision making process. Nevertheless, in any organization there has to be a balance between downward and upward communication channels. 1.4.3 Lateral Communication The main objectives of horizontal communication are developing teamwork, and promoting group coordination within an

13 organisation. It takes place between professional peer groups or people working on the same level of hierarchy. Horizontal communication is less formal and structured than both downward communication and upward communication, and may be carried out through informal discussions, management gossip, telephone calls, teleconferencing, videoconferencing, memos, routine meetings, and so on. 1.4.4 Diagonal Communication Diagonal communication is the product of modern changes in information technology and management and is the result of the growing realisation of fraternity and equality in the corporate sector. It is basically a response to market needs that demand speed and efficiency. As the diagonal channel occurs between people who do not have to follow rigid norms of communication protocol, it flows in all directions.



Management has emerged as one of the dynamic field in the modern business scenario. The importance of communication in management in organisation is best summed up in the words of expert Harold Janis, "The world of management is a world of action. Services are designed made and sold. People are hired. Services are rendered. Policies are devised and implemented. Jobs are learned and performed. Yet there is no practical way in which any of these events can take place without communication." 1.5.1 Era of Specialisation Unless the specialists know how to communicate, their vast knowledge of a limited field remains unused. Mr. Jadhav Raje may be expert on taxation and the life insurance but if he cannot communicate his knowledge to others and give them the benefit of his advice, his knowledge is wasted. Similarly in an organisation the engineers, accountants, storekeepers and scientists must be able to communicate with each other and their superiors. 1.5.2 An Age of Tension Not being able to communicate can result in tremendous mental tension (not to mention physical strain), especially when the banks knows that their rivals are more successful only because they are better communicators.

14 1.5.3 Reduces Miscommunication The manner in which a message is perceived by the receiver often leads to miscommunication. To avoid this banks must learn to communicate, keeping in mind the attitudes and mental framework of the customers as well as employees who receives messages. If a manager asks a new clerk to get him information about the "composition of the liquidated party", the young man will be at a total loss to understand, for composition means the amount paid by a bankrupt to his creditors. Such situations arise because most specialised branches of business have their own sub codes or "jargon" and sometimes individual business houses have their own special set of terms which outsiders cannot understand. 1.5.4 Healthy Organisational Environment Many banks and insurance organisation are so large that they may be termed "empires". They contain several branch offices within the country and even overseas and have many sub branches too. Not only should the managements of such organisations be able to communicate effectively with all the units but should also be able to do so speedily. Modern banks and insurance organisations are managed by communication which has in recent times become the chief management tool for achieving coordination and control. Effective communication leads to a healthy organisational environment, better management – employee relations, proper delegation of authority and division of work, helps to deal better with competition and solve trade union created problems. 1.5.5 Aid to Managerial Process This means that unless these organisations are effective, speedy, and use the best means and instruments they will be wasting valuable time ("time is money" in these organisations) and will lag behind their rivals. Also while receiving communications they tries not to receive maximum communication but pertinent information. Effective communication promotes managerial efficiency and performance. 1.5.6 Creates Relations Lack of effective communication in any organisation may lead to many problems like misunderstandings, groupism and negative thinking. An effective and systematic communication system can do much to solve these problems. Good relationship within the organisation and with outsiders is essential for success in

15 business. This objective can only be achieved with the help of effective communication. It ensures success. There is need to save on cost and time in modern business. Only effective communication can achieve this.



1.6.1 Concept of Verbal and Non verbal Communication We communicate by exchanging symbols to describe our ideas and experience. Language is a common symbol system which we use for sharing our experience with others. We can also use other symbols like pictures, colours, signs and sounds to communicate. We do communicate a number of things by our facial expressions, movements, clothing, and so on, whether we speak or not. Communication through words is called verbal communication; communication through other symbols is called non-verbal communication. Verbal Communication The communication mode which we rely on most often to carry meaning from one person to another is the verbal mode. Everyone who has ever thought about it has come to the insight, however, that there are enormous difficulties in sole reliance on this mode of communication. History is replete with examples of misunderstandings among people who were relying on words to carry meaning. Perhaps the most significant learning that has come out of this experience has been that words themselves do not have meaning. People have meaning, and words are simply tools that we use for trying to convey meaning that is idiosyncratic to one person into the idiosyncratic meaning system of the other person. One of the difficulties with words is that we attach to them different experiential and emotional connotations. Words are not always associated with similar experiences or similar feelings on the part of the listener and speaker. Other difficulties encountered in using the verbal mode include the use of jargon, the use of clichés, and the use of specialized vocabularies. It is often said that words have meaning only in context; it can be better said that words only have meaning when they are associated with people in context.

16 It is not uncommon to observe people attempting to find the right words to say what they mean. There is a myth that there is a way to "say it right." If we extrapolate from that phenomenon, it is easy to hypothesize that there are some people who, instead of experiencing feelings and sensations, more often experience language; that is, their experience parameters are defined by their vocabularies and their ability to be articulate. The psychologist, Piaget, describing cognitive development in children, says that we go through three phases: concrete, imagic, and abstract. When the little baby first experiences the world, he is incapable of a highly differentiated emotional or sensational experience. He experiences only distress or delight, and his/her major inputs are concrete; that is; he touches, tastes, sees, hears, and smells things. As it becomes necessary for him to interact with the world and significant others in his environment in order to have his needs met, he develops a fantasy life, an imagic experience. He can imagine mother when mother is not concretely present. That fantasy life can remain throughout his life. As he develops verbal fluency, he begins to abstract, from physical stimuli which bombard him and from the images that are triggered by those stimuli, meanings which he attaches to his experiences. This abstract experience is a translation of sense data into a meaning system. The difficulty with adults, of course, is that very often we do not let into awareness the physical sensations which we experience. We often mistrust our fantasy lives and tend to be afraid to permit ourselves to dream. We experience the world, then, in an abstract way rather than in a concrete and imagic way. The meanings that we permit ourselves to be aware of are verbal and abstract. What we abstract from the physical stimuli which we experience is dependent on our vocabularies and our reasoning abilities. But those three layers of experience concrete, imagic, and abstract are going on continuously. People experience concretely, people experience imagically, and people experience the abstracting process which they do when they are awake and attributing meaning to what they see, hear, feel, taste, and touch. Not all of these meanings can be carried from one person to another through the verbal mode only. Verbal communication may be oral or written. Oral communication is more natural and immediate. It needs training and practice to speak effectively in a formal situation. Oral communication requires the presence, simultaneous attention of both the persons, personal presence and must be able to respond to the body language of the other. Written

17 communication can greatly extend the field and powers of oral communication. Writing overcomes the limits of space and time which confine speech. Non Verbal Communication You cannot say anything! Try to sit for one minute without speaking. Even if you are able to keep from moving you will still communicate rigidity, anxiety, or something. We are always saying something. It is important to observe and try to understand what is being communicated. In many situations people say what they think intellectually rather than what they feel emotionally. There is some truth in the old cliche ``actions speak louder than words.'' Body language, carefully observed and interpreted, can tell a lot about what others are feeling. Nonverbal communication is learned and practiced often on an unconscious level. We attract people by using these nonverbal signals, and sometimes those we attract (or who are attracted to us) are unwholesome. As we grow older and become more aware of ourselves we should be able to recognize and weed out the unwholesome in favor of those for whom we have an affinity. Non-verbal methods of communication can be consciously created and used with both written and oral communication. Graphics of all kinds can enrich the message presented in a document or in a speech. Pictures, maps, charts, graphs and diagrams add quality and clarity to a verbal message. Besides using these symbols consciously, we may convey meaning by facial expressions, gesture, tone of voice, clothing, and other aspects of our personality and body. This is called body language. Non-verbal methods can be consciously used to enhance what we speak; a trained speaker can use gesture, facial expression and posture to enrich the meaning of words. A good deal of body language is unintentional and unconscious. It occurs through visual appearances and sounds related to us and around us. Personal appearance, colours used in clothing and in office decor, stationery, voices and other office sounds make an impression on others; they communicate information about us.

18 Non-verbal communication comprises all the impressions we receive and the interpretations we make from what we perceive through our senses. Non-verbal communication occurs even when there is no verbal communication. And it always accompanies verbal communication, whether oral or written; it is more difficult to control and may sometimes betray the truth which the speaker/writer is hiding behind the words. Hence the saying, "non-verbal communication speaks louder than Words," Thus, there can be unintended and unconscious non-verbal communication as well as conscious use of signs and sounds to communicate. An understanding of non-verbal methods and aspects of communication will help you to improve your oral and written presentation by using the methods and by gaining control over body language. 1.6.2 Use of Non Verbal Communication Non-verbal methods have almost instant effect because of quicker grasp by the recipient. It takes less time to see a colour or picture, and to hear a horn or bell than to hear or read and understand words and sentences. This quality of speed in conveyance and response makes non-verbal methods extremely useful in many situations. 1.

For traffic signs and signals, it is the red or green colour or a pictorial representation that tells the road user of the safety or danger of proceeding. Motorists and pedestrians respond at once on hearing a horn or a whistle.


Visual non-verbal methods are extremely useful as an aid to verbal communication; maps, charts and graphs are absolutely necessary for conveying ideas related, to geography, locations, data, and most of the sciences. They can present a large amount of complex data in a compact form; one page can contain material which would need several pages to convey in words. This makes the information available conveniently, at a glance; comparisons can be made and conclusions drawn by studying a single sheet of paper which shows the data in a graph or a chart.

19 3.

Human beings respond more powerfully to pictures, colours and plain sounds than to language. A cry of agony arouses a much stronger response than a tale of woe; a film showing the actual events or a story is more effective than a narrated or written story. News on the TV is more interesting, effective and realistic than on the radio because of the visuals.


For illiterate people, the best method of conveying important information is by non-verbal symbols. Bottles and containers of poisons are marked with a skull and cross-bones as a warning; illiterate drivers can manage with the non-verbal traffic signals and signs.


Films are used to explain processes to people who may not follow oral explanations easily. Actual or filmed demonstration is useful for teaching processes. Non-verbal communication can overcome the barrier of language.

1.6.3 Attributes of Verbal and Non Verbal Communication 1

Speed Written communication is slower in preparation, in conveyance and in reception; it takes more time to draft, type, dispatch, and to receive and read a letter than it takes to speak, and to hear, listen to, and understand an oral message. Feedback is also slower in written communication. 2

Record Written communication serves as a record and can be used for future reference. It is a documentary proof, and can be used as legal evidence. Oral communication may be taped for later reference, but the authenticity of the voice may be questioned; moreover, tapes can be edited and the message distorted. Written records and documents are more reliable and acceptable. 3

Precision and Accuracy Written communication is more precise and accurate than oral. Choice of precise words is possible in written communication because the writer has the time to look for suitable words and phrases, and to revise and change the draft, if necessary. In oral communication, it is not always possible to be so precise in the choice of words; there is no time to seek and consider words while speaking; however, the recipient can seek clarification on the spot.

20 4

Support Oral communication has the support of vocal tone and gestures and expressions which enrich the meaning of the words. This is not available with written communication, however, examples and illustrations serves the above purpose. 5

Length A written message is usually shorter than an oral communication. The situation of oral communication requires some preliminary and closing remarks, while for written messages there are standard formats for opening and closing that can keep the message short. On the other hand written communication is suitable for long and lengthy communication. 6

Expense Written communication requires stationery, preparation, and transmission, all of which cost money. Oral communication can also cost a great deal since it requires simultaneous presence and attention of the two parties, and getting together costs money. Costs will depend on the availability of the required person(s) at the particular place. Each type requires different channels for transmission. Availability and cost of each of the channels is a factor to be considered. 1.6.4 Various Methods of Non Verbal Communication Non-verbal methods may be visual or auditory. Visual methods are those which are seen and auditory methods are those which are heard. Signs, pictures, colour, designs are visual; a sound, bells, tunes, whistles are auditory. 1

Visuals: Appearance and Other Cues We say a great deal to each other about who we are and how we experience each other and the rest of the world through symbolic means. The symbolic communication mode is essentially passive, and messages emitted in this way are very easily misinterpreted. What are some of the symbols that we use? First, our choice of clothes can tell a great deal about who we are, what our values are, what our status is, how conservative or liberal we are. We associate differences in occupational status with different uniforms. The banker wears a suit; the farmer wears overalls, and so on.

21 The second set of symbols with which we often associate meaning is hair. The type of hairdo, length and color of hair, and the presence or absence of facial hair say a great deal about who we are. However, these signals are often highly ambiguous. A third symbolic form is jewelry. Married people often wear wedding rings, some people do not wear a watch, and some people wear highly expensive jewelry, and so on. These are passive messages that are given out continuously to other people. A flag in the lapel, a red ribbon, an earring in one ear or in the nose say many things to other people. A fourth form of symbolic communication to other people is cosmetics, or makeup. We associate meanings with different ways women apply makeup to their bodies. The prostitute usually has heavier makeup than other women. The man who uses a great many cosmetics is giving out a symbolic message about the meaning that his world has for him. A fifth symbolic mode is the choice of automobiles. The business executive who drives a sports car is giving out a different set of messages to the world than his colleague who drives a luxury sedan or an ordinary family car. A sixth symbolic mode is the choice and location of our houses. Social status is directly related to the type of dwelling one life in and its location. Seventh, the geography of our living spaces is a form of symbolic communication. If you sit behind your desk in your office interviewing somebody who is on the other side of the desk, you are giving out a fundamentally different set of messages than if the two of you sit face to face with no intervening furniture. So we are giving out a continuous stream of signals about our meaning to other people through the symbols that we choose to surround ourselves and invest ourselves with. These symbols are essentially passive. They are, however, a real part of our communication. When we are talking, when we are not talking, and when we are sleeping, we emit passive symbolic signals

22 2

Visuals: Cues A cue is a type of communication used by an adult to let a child know what is expected of him/her in a given situation. Cues are a type of receptive communication. Designing and using a consistent routine is the beginning of teaching cues. Given time in this type of the routine, the child will first begin to anticipate his/her part in the routine. Given more experience with the routine, the child may begin to anticipate the routine from some part of the routine. Touch cues are ways an adult can touch a child to communicate a desired action. For example, an adult may gently pull a child's arm upward with a grasp at the wrist to cue the child to lift arm during a dressing routine. A sensory cue is some sensory input used to help a child anticipate an event: For example, a smell of lotion before it is applied to the child's arm or the sound of water splashing before placing the child in the bathtub. Object cues are some concrete piece of a routine that is used to represent that routine. For example, a diaper may be an object cue for diaper changing. When deciding what cues to use with a child, it is important to remember to select cues that the child can easily discriminate one from the other. Otherwise the cues may be confusing to the child. 3

Visuals: Colour Colour is a very important and powerful means of communication. Colour is so much a part of our daily life; we use it in clothing, design, and decoration; we introduce colour to enliven a dull environment. Colours are associated with different moods and feelings like black with death and sorrow, white with peace and purity, red with danger and so on. Colour has psychological effect; motivation and state of mind of employees is influenced by the colour in the place of work. Pleasant and cooling colours in the work-place have good influence on workers. Black and other dark and gloomy colours are known to reduce productivity of workers; very bright and gaudy colours may

23 be disturbing and over-exciting; well-matched and softly blending colours are pleasant and soothing. Colour is an important means of formal communication. Think of traffic signals; nothing could be more important than to convey correctly and instantly, that it is dangerous to proceed. Matters of life and death are dependent on colour for communication Besides traffic signals, colour is mainly used for classification and identification. In the chemical industry, colour is used to identify drums, pipes, cylinders or containers of a particular material or gas, e.g., red cylinders are used only for cooking gas. The cosmetics industry uses colour for soaps and shampoos to make them attractive as well as to classify and differentiate the various types. In offices, carbon copies of forms, orders, challans and other documents are made out on papers of different colours in order to distinguish copies meant for different departments. Teams, regiments and countries have their combination of colours on their flag. Colour gives an added dimension to maps, chart and graphs, and makes it possible to convey a greater amount of information within the same visual/graphic representation. Pictorial representation: A large variety of pictures from simple drawing to sophisticated coloured pictures and photographs are used on posters and in advertisements. 4

Visuals: Charts and graphs In a country like India, with a large number of illiterate and semi-literate people, a picture with very few words is more suitable for mass communication. Pictures are universally understood, and more easily remembered. They make an immediate impact because they are easier to "take in" than a written message. Writing being linear (moving in a line), requires practiced eye movement, while a picture may be tackled by the recipient in any order that suits the eye. A poster combines pictures and words. The use of words is kept to the minimum. A poster can convey simple instructions or a process by a series of pictures. It can be used for education and persuasion in matters like the importance of saving, the danger of drinking, the value of neat and clean appearance, etc.

24 Charts and graphs are pictorial representations of statistical information and can be made in different ways. Special skills and techniques are needed to prepare them; they cannot be, understood by the uneducated-, even educated persons need some explanation and training before they can follow a chart or a graph. There are great advantages in this method of presenting statistical data. The overall situation can be seen at a glance, and the relationships between the figures are seen more easily than in tables. It needs less space than description. Charts and graphs must be properly titled and labelled to show what information is being represented; the date of the information must be shown. Graphs and charts must always have a scale and a key to explain the symbols used. Maps are representations of territory and are used for conveying the space relationships between places. They are used for geographical information of all kinds, such as transport routes, climatic conditions, distribution of population, crops, animal life and vegetation; sociological factors like religion, literacy, health and nutrition can also be represented by maps. Maps of small areas are used to give information about routes and to locate places. Key and scale are needed in all maps. A sign is a mark used as a representation of something; for example, + for "plus", x for "multiply" skull and cross bones for "danger." A sign is mostly visual, and has a fixed meaning. A signal is a previously agreed movement which serves to warn, direct, or command; for example, the coming on of a green light or the waving of Green flag is a signal to go ahead; the firing of a gun salute signals the arrival of VIP a signal may be visual or auditory. Signs communicate instantly; therefore, they are most useful in communicating simple but important ideas. Traffic signs must instantly convey information to the drivers about what lies ahead on the road. Words cannot be so quick as signs; where instant decision has to be taken on the information conveyed, signs and signals are the only effective method. Previous knowledge and a certain amount of conditioning are required for a person to respond to signs and signals; but once this is done, the response is a reflex action. A driver does not have to think that he must apply brakes when his eyes see a red flag or

25 light; he just applies brakes. Most of us do not need to think that we must keep off places and things which show a skull with two cross bones below it. These are universally known signs for mass communication. 5

Visuals: Signals Signals are commonly used for communication among members of a group. Individuals use visual signs and signals to communicate if they are not within hearing distance of each other. Such signs may be made with hands, lights, coloured cloth, smoke, or anything which can be seen at the required distance. Signals are movements the child uses to communicate needs, desires and feelings to adults. Signals are a form of expressive communication. Signals may start as a behavior that the child is not intentionally using to communicate. But because an adult consistently responds to this behavior, the child begins to understand that producing this behavior causes a particular event to occur. For example, a child may inadvertently clap hands with an adult. If hand clapping is enjoyable for the child and the adult consistently responds by hand clapping with the child, the child may signal for more hand clapping by clapping the adults hand again. Signals are usually first seen within an already occurring activity. As the child becomes more sophisticated, he or she may produce the signal to initiate the activity. 6

Visuals: Symbols Symbols are representations of an event, action, object, person, or place that can be used to communicate about the event, action, object, person, or place. Symbols can be used for both receptive and expressive communication. Objects, parts of objects, pictures, print, actions, gestures, signs, and speech can all be symbols. Symbols may start as cues and signals. If a child recognizes a cue out of context, that cue may be acting as a symbol. If a child uses a signal or an object cue to communicate about an event, action, object, person or place out of context, the child may be using that signal or cue as a symbol. The more a symbol resembles what it represents, the more concrete that symbol is. The less a symbol resembles what it represents, the more abstract that symbol is. An example of a concrete symbol would be a spoon, used during mealtimes, to represent mealtime. A less concrete (or more abstract) symbol

26 would be a small line drawing of a person eating. The spoken phrase "time to eat" would be the most abstract because those sounds don't look, smell, or feel like food or the action of eating. Concrete symbols are more easily associated with what they represent than are abstract symbols. When determining how closely a symbol resembles an event, action, object, person, or place it is important to consider how the child perceives that event, action, object, person, or place. For example, a symbol based on visual similarities may not be as concrete for a person with a visual impairment as it would be for an individual who is fully sighted. A symbol based on an action may be abstract for an individual with physical impairment such that he/she had never performed that action. 7

Auditory Symbols The use of auditory symbols is very limited. Only very simple information can be conveyed by sounds. Sound signals are used mainly for warning; in war time, sirens are used to warn about enemy air-raids; sirens are used in factories to warn of fire or accident, and by police vehicles. Whistles are used by the police and the army to call members to assemble, and to convey different instructions. Trains and ships use whistles as signal for departure and for warning. Bells and buzzers are used to indicate the starting and ending of work periods; bells are also used by special vehicles like the fire engine and the ambulance, to warn other road users to give way. A bell with a pleasant sound is associated with worship since it is used to call the faithful to prayer in many religions. Tunes are often used as an identification mark. Programs on the radio and the TV are introduced with a signature tune; advertisements on these media are recognised by their tunes. Secret organisations use tunes which members may hum or whistle to identify and recognise members. 1.6.5 Body Language Body movements indicate things about another person that may have great importance for creating communication or give you reasons to avoid it. We all have certain specific behavioural tendencies. That’s not to say we’re pigeonholed into being one thing or another. We are not locked into these tendencies-but more times than not, we tend to behave the same way again and again. Why? By default, we return to what we feel is safe and comfortable.

27 Often we ask ourselves, “Why did he say that?”, “Why did he do that?”, or “Who does he think he is?” These questions might be rephrased as, “Why did you say that?”, “Why did you do that?” and “Who do you think you are?” Each of us is different. Fortunately we are predictably different and our differences make us simultaneously attractive and frustrating to others. The secret of persuasion is to understand yourself and others. Then you can adapt effectively to the needs of the person and the situation. Information is power, but it’s only powerful if you know how to obtain and use it. David Golman, author of Emotional Intelligence, defined “EQ” as an ability to understand one’s own feelings and to express empathy for the feelings of others. His studies showed that EQ is four times more likely than IQ to indicate your level of success. According to Golman, the communication skills responsible for EQ are: 1

Empathy & Graciousness Since ancient times, humankind has attempted to read others and explain the reason for their differences. Credible personality models have been traced back as the writings of Hippocrates, Aristotle, and Chanakya for a comparison of the better-known personality profiles. The ability to influence others is dependent on the degree of willingness you and your partner wish to exercise in being co-operative and getting along. The greater your ability to adapt to your partner’s behaviour and to communicate in his language, the more receptive he will be to you and the greater your chance of success will be. The key to influencing others lies in your ability to present your needs in terms of meeting their needs, and in wording your proposal in a way that is most receptive and understandable to them. In short, we want benefits spelled out for us in our own language. We want these benefits in a way that we can understand, so that we can put them to good use. If you want to influence someone, you have to do the work of delivering your message in the receiver’s behavioural language. You must design your presentations to meet his needs so he can immediately see the benefits.

28 2 Readiness and Enthusiasm ` When people are ready to take action, they’ll often sit forward in their seats or stand with their hands on their hips. They are anxious to get going. They will stand or sit in an erect position. They are alert, with wide, bright eyes. Their body motions are alive and animated. Their words can’t keep up with their hands. When you see these signs, get going-because they’re ready. 3

Frustration Most of us are familiar with these signs. How many times a day do you see some of these gestures: hand-wringing, running fingers through hair, clenching hands or jaw, an exasperated sigh, or tension in the small muscles of the face? If you see these signs in others retreat before approaching with any request! 4

Superiority People who feel superior to you often appear relaxed, with their hands clasped behind their heads or backs. The chin and head is often held high. They may lean back in their chairs, or lean their bodies against a wall, table or desk. When someone behaves this way it’s important for you to control your emotions, apply your communication skills and focus on the issues on hand. 5

Boredom Bored people tap their fingers or feet. They’re often preoccupied with personal grooming or other insignificant details, such as sharpening a pencil. They will also point their bodies to the door, and often check their watches. Often asking a question or stating your observation of their behaviours will involve them in the conversation. 6

Nervousness Nervous people cover their mouths when they speak. Their voices are often high and may even break. Their speech is hesitant, and they use “ums” and “ahs” incessantly. They may clear their throats and wring their hands while looking down at their shoes. You may also see their facial muscles twitching as they shift back and forth on their feet. It’s important for you to create a safe environment for them to speak, to maintain rapport and to be patient and encouraging.

29 Body language is an important factor in oral communication. In face-to-face situations, an important message is communicated by a number of factors, like clothing, appearance, voice, posture, facial expressions, gestures and other body movements. Much of body language is involuntary or unconscious but it makes a powerful impact. Body language can make or mar a presentation. The study -of body motion as related to speech is called kinesics. 7

Paralanguage "Non-lexical" vocal communications may be considered a type of nonverbal communication, in its broadest sense, as it can suggest many emotional nuances. This category includes a number of sub-categories: Inflection (rising, falling, flat...) Pacing (rapid, slow, measured, changing...) Intensity (loud, soft, breathy...) Tone (nasal, operatic, growling, wheedling, whining...) Pitch (high, medium, low, changes...) Pauses (meaningful, disorganized, shy, hesitant...)] The voice has characteristics like tone, volume, and pitch. Tone is the quality of the voice. Volume is the loudness or softness, which is modified according to the number, of, persons addressed and the distance between speaker and listener; speaking too loudly for the situation may betray lack of self-command. Pitch is the high or low note of the scale; a high note is usually louder and heard at a longer distance than a low note; a high-pitched voice is often unpleasant, and suggests immaturity or emotional disturbance. The voice becomes high-pitched when a person is struck with fear. Speed of speaking is another aspect of the voice. Rapid speech indicates excitement. But if we have control, we deliberately increase speed of speaking to tell an interesting story, and reduce speed to create suspense, and to explain a difficult idea. Other qualities like rhythm, clear pronunciation, and good accent, all have an effect on the listener. Stress on a particular syllable or word can change the meaning and implication of the sentence. Try saying the sentence, "Were you there last night?" in different ways, putting stress on a different word each time, and note the difference in the meaning implied.

30 Just one word and a look can convey what might take several sentences; for example, an explosively uttered What? could mean, "What are you saying? Do you really mean that? I just can't believe what you're saying!" These non-verbal aspects of the spoken word are known as paralanguage. Vocalism or inflection constitutes a ninth form of nonverbal communication. As an example, take the sentence, "I love my children." That sentence is meaningless unless it is pronounced. The way that sentence is packaged vocally determines the signal that it gives to another person. For example, if the emphasis is on the first word, "I love my children," the implication is somebody else doesn't. If the emphasis is on the second word, "I love my children," a different implication is given; perhaps that some of their behavior gets on my nerves. If the emphasis is placed on the third word, "I love my children," the implication is that someone else's children do not receive the same affection. If the emphasis is placed on the final word, "I love my children," a fourth implication may be drawn, that is, that there are other people whom I do not love. So the way we carry our words vocally often determines the meaning that another person is likely to infer from our message. 8

Silence Silence can be a very effective way of communication. Silence is not a negative absence of speech but a positive withdrawal or suspension of speech. In a face-to-face situation, silence may indicate several things. It may be that the person is not sure what to say, or is so full of feeling as to be unable to speak. Silence can be used deliberately to convey certain feelings like anger or displeasure. Sympathy with someone who has suffered loss is often best expressed by keeping silent. Facial expression and posture may indicate the feeling behind the silence. Silence can be very embarrassing if it is not possible to interpret it. It can be awkward in a group, when no one knows how to break it. On the telephone, it can cause much discomfort, as one cannot see the other and therefore has no clue from facial expressions as to the reason for the other's silence.

31 The terms "dead silence", "stony silence", "embarrassing silence", show that silence has a quality that communicates itself. Short silences are very effective in giving emphasis to words. A pause before or after certain words make the words stand out from the rest. A skillfully placed pause has the power to make the listener more alert. In presentations, silence can be used effectively to emphasis a point; it is often far more effective than wild gestures or table-thumping. 9

Haptic Communication Haptic communication is communicating by touch. This is used in a number of contexts and also has dangers for the unwary as touching for example where another person can in particular circumstances, be interpreted as assault. Touch is often intimate and can be used as an act of domination or friendship, depending on the context and who is touching who, how and when. Yung children and old people use more touching than people in the middle years. Touch provides a direct contact with the other person. This varies greatly with the purpose and setting. Touching is perhaps the most powerful nonverbal communication form. The skin is the body's largest organ, and through the skin we take in a variety of stimuli. We can communicate anger, interest, trust, tenderness, warmth, and a variety of other emotions very potently through touching. People differ, however, in their willingness to touch and be touched. Some people give out nonverbal body signals that say that they do not want to be touched, and there are other people who describe themselves and are described by others as "touchy feely." There are many taboos associated with this form of communication. Persons can learn about their own personalities and self concepts through exploring their reactions to touching and being touched. 10

Facial expression Facial expression is an obvious communicative factor. A cheerful face or a gloomy face influences most people who see it. A happy or appreciative smile, a displeased frown, a look of surprise, and several other expressions of the face can convey, with or without words, the attitude and reaction of the communicants. Expressions accompany the speaker's words and also indicate the listener's reactions. An alert speaker can judge the listener's reaction by the facial expressions which act as a constant feedback. You can learn to use facial expressions for effect.

32 11

Eye contact Eye contact is another form of nonverbal communication. We tend to size each other up in terms of trustworthiness through reactions to each other's eye contact. Try a little experiment with yourself. Remember the last time you were driving down the road and passed a hitch-hiker. The odds are very high that you did not look him in the eye if you passed him up. Con artists and salespeople understand the power of eye contact and use it to good advantage. Counselors understand that eye contact is a very powerful way of communicating understanding and acceptance. Speakers understand that eye contact is important in keeping an audience interested in one's subject. Eye contact is a difficult, disconcerting communicative factor. The comfort level for eye contact is three seconds; if extended beyond that, it can amount to invasion of another's space. People who are aggressive try to fix others with a stare; if you are angry you might express it with extended eye contact. If you give full eye contact for too long together with an angry expression, the other person may describe the experience as "shooting darts at me." A person who is lying usually blinks and avoids eye contact; unblinking eye contact could mean that the person is lying and watching to see your reaction. Persons with lack of self confidence often avoid eye contact. For a person making an oral presentation it is important to create rapport with the audience with eye contact. Presenters make it a point to take in the whole audience with a sweep of the eye, making brief eye contact with as many as possible.The eyes, according to Leonardo da Vinci, are the “mirror to the soul.” Confident eye contact shows trustworthiness and truthfulness. Shifty eyes indicate aloofness and distrust. 12

Gestures Do we expect other cultures to adopt our customs or are we willing to adopt theirs? This might translate to how business or even foreign relations are to be conducted. Do we compromise or force others peoples to deal only on our terms? We may not have time to hear a language, but taking time to learn the "signals" is a powerful communicator.

33 As the global village continues to shrink and cultures collide, it is essential for all of us to become more sensitive, more aware, and more observant to the myriad motions, gestures, and body language that surround us each day. And as many of us cross over cultural borders, it would be fitting for us to respect, learn, and understand more about the effective, yet powerful "silent language" of gestures. The world is a giddy montage of vivid gestures- traffic police, street vendors, expressway drivers, teachers, children on playground, athletes with their exuberant hugging, clenched fists and "high fives." People all over the world use their hands, heads, and bodies to communicate expressively. Without gestures, our world would be static and colorless. The social anthropologists Edward T. Hall claim 60 percent of all our communication is nonverbal. In that case, how can we possibly communicate with one another without gestures? Gestures and body language communicate as effectively as words- maybe even more effectively. We use gestures daily, almost instinctively, from beckoning to a waiter, or punctuating a business presentation with visual signals to airport ground attendants guiding an airline pilot into the jet way or a parent using a whole dictionary of gestures to teach (or preach to) a child. Gestures are woven inextricably in to our social lives, but also that the "vocabulary" of gestures, can be at once informative and entertaining... but also dangerous. Gestures can be menacing (two drivers on a freeway), warm (an open-armed welcome), instructive (a police man giving road directions, or even sensuous. Bear in mind that the following gestures are in general use, but there may always be exceptions. In recent years, Western and contemporary values and ideas have become more popular and has either influenced, altered, and even replaced, some of the more traditional gestures, understanding human behavior is tricky stuff. No two people behave in precisely the same way. Nor do people from the same culture all perform exactly the same gestures and body language uniformly. For almost any gestures there will probably be a minority within a given nationality who might say "Well, some might attach that meaning to it, but to me it means..." and then they will provide a different interpretation.

34 In the world of gestures, the best single piece of advice is to remember the two A's - "Ask" and be "aware." If you see a motion or gesture that is new or confusing, ask a local person what it signifies. Then, be aware of the many body signs and customs around you. Gestures, the movement of arms and hands, are different from other body language in that they tend to have a far greater association with speech and language. Whilst the rest of the body indicates more general emotional state, gestures can have specific linguistic content. Gestures have three phases: preparation, stroke and retraction. The real message is in the stroke, whilst the preparation and retraction elements consist of moving the arms to and from the rest position, to and from the start and end of the stroke. Our gestures oftentimes tell something about us that we are not able or willing to communicate verbally. Here is a partial list of ``open'' and ``closed'' gestures—``open'' are present when a person is ready and willing to communicate, ``closed'' are present when there may be something standing in the way of honest, complete communication. These gestures can be observed in spouse relationships, parent–child relationships, supervisor–worker relationships, worker–client relationships, and any other time that two people are communicating. Maybe you will discover that your body language has been ``telling'' on you! Open hands, hand covering mouth, palms up making fists, unbuttoning jacket, peering over top of glasses, spontaneous eye contact, glancing at exit, smile frown, leaning forward, leaning back, relaxed, rigid , hands away from face, looking at floor, standing straight, moving away, feet apart, legs crossed, shaking foot ,shoulders squared fidgeting, uncrossed legs, locked ankles , Welcoming: handshake, folded arms, touching, cold shoulder, patting, open palm tapping, rubbing palms together, hand wringing, affirmative head nods, head lowered, eye contact, lack of eye contact , calm, use of facial movements, staring or eyes closed body positioned toward other, rocking, seating arrangement with no barriers stalling for time (light pipe, clean glasses, etc.) 13

Posture Posturing is a form of nonverbal communication. How one postures the body when seated or standing constitutes a set of

35 potential signals that may communicate how one is experiencing his environment. A person who folds his arms and legs is often said to be defensive. It is sometimes observed that a person under severe psychological threat will assume the body position of a fetus. The seductive person opens his body to other people and postures himself so that his entire body is exposed to the other person. Posture is the way we hold ourselves. Though difficult to interpret, it contributes much to communication. The way we hold our body, the way we stand or sit indicates something about our feelings and thoughts, attitudes and health. Sitting stiffly, may show tension; comfortably leaning back conveys a relaxed mood, eagerly leaning- forward shows the listener's interest in the speaker. Posture can indicate disregard or disrespect for others who are present; polite and well-bred persons are usually careful of how they stand or sit in the presence of visitors and in formal situations. Graceful posture is a great asset in any business.

1.7. SEVEN CS OF COMMUNICATION Seven C’s are the seven most useful qualities of effective communication. They are called Seven C’s because name of each of these qualities starts with a C, and they are seven in numbers, therefore they are called Seven C’s. Although they are just seven small words starting with a letter C but their importance for effective business communication is same as the importance of seven seas for the world. 1.7.1 Completeness Message Receiver- either listener or reader, desires complete information to their question. e.g. suppose you are working with multinational company who is engaging with engineering goods, like A.C. Now let say one of your major customer wants some technical information regarding “thermostat” (because he wants to convey the same to the end users). In this case you have to provide him complete information in a short span of time. If possible, provide him some extra information which he does not know, in this way you can maintain a good business relation with him, otherwise he may switch to another company.

36 Five W’s: One way to make your message complete is to answer the five W’s: WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, WHY? The five question method is useful when you write requests, announcements, or other informative messages. For instance, to order (request) merchandise, make clear WHAT you want, WHEN u need it, WHERE it is to be sent. 1.7.2 Conciseness Conciseness means “convey the message by using fewest words”. “Conciseness is the prerequisite to effective business communication.” Hence, a concise message saves the time and expenses for both the parties. For achieving the conciseness you have to consider the following. - Avoid wordy expression - Include only relevant material - Avoid unnecessary repetition. - Avoid Wordy Expression E.g. Wordy: - at this time. Instead of “at this time” you can just use only a concise word: - NOW, Always try to use “To the point Approach” in business scenario perspective. Include only relevant information: -

Always try to provide only relevant information to the receiver of the message. Let’s say one of your customers requested


For clients of the company in reply you should provide simply list of clients at the panel of your company.


No need to provide detailed business information about client at all.


Observe the following suggestions to “Include only relevant information.”


Stick to the purpose of message Delete irrelevant words Avoid long introduction, unnecessary explanation etc. Get to the important point concisely.


Avoid un-necessary Repetition: Sometimes repetition is necessary for focusing some special issue. If the same thing is said without two or three reasons, the messages become wordy and boring. That’s why try to avoid Un-necessary repetition.

37 -

Some ways to eliminate unnecessary words: Use shorter name after you have mentioned the long once. E.g. Spectrum communications Private limited use spectrum. Use pronouns or initials E.g. Instead of world trade organization use WTO or You can use IT for Information Technology. (Keeping in views that receiver knows about these terms)

1.7.3 Consideration Consideration means – To consider the receiver’s Interest/Intention. It is very important in effective communication while writing a message you should always keep in mind your target group consideration is very important “C” among all the seven C’s. Three specific ways to indicate consideration: First, focus on “you” instead of “I” or “We”, second, show audience benefit or interest of the receiver and third, emphasize positive, pleasant facts. Using “you” help you, but over use lead a negative reaction. Always write a message in such a way how audience should be benefited from it. We attitude: “I am delighted to announce that we will extend to make shopping more.” You attitude: “You will be able to shop in the evening with the extended hours.” Readers may react positively when benefit are shown to them. Always try to address his/her need and want. Always show/write to reader………… what has been done so far as his/her query is concerned. And always avoid that his/her need and wants. Always avoid that has not been done so far. 1.7.4 Concreteness It means that message should be specific instead of general. Misunderstanding of words creates problems for both parties (sender and receiver). When you talk to your client always use facts and figures instead of generic or irrelevant information. To achieve the Concreteness: use specific facts and figures, choose image building words e.g General He is very intelligent student of class and stood first in the class. E.g. Nehra’s GPA in B.Sc Electrical Engineering 2k3-f session was 3.95/4.0; he stood first in his class. Always write on a very solid ground. It should definitely create good image as well.

38 1.7.5 Clarity Accurately is a purpose of clarity. In effective business communication the message should be very much clear. So that reader can understand it easily. You should always choose precise words. Always choose familiar and easy words. Construct effective sentences and paragraphs. In business communication always use precise words rather longer statements. If you have a choice between long words and shorter one, always use shorter one. You should try your level best to use familiar/easy to understand words so that your reader will quickly understand it. Next familiar words after subsequent home domicile for example e.g. pay remuneration invoice statement for payments 1.7.6 Courtesy Knowing your audience allows you to use statements of courtesy; be aware of your message receiver. True courtesy involves being aware not only of the perspective of others, but also their feelings. Courtesy stems from a sincere you-attitude. It is not merely politeness with mechanical insertions of “please” and “Thank you”. Although Appling socially accepted manners is a form of courtesy. Rather, it is politeness that grows out respect and concern for others. Courteous communication generates a special tone in their writing and speaking. The following are suggestions for generating a courteous tone: Be sincerely tactful, thoughtful and appreciative. Use expressions that show respect for the others Choose nondiscriminatory expressions be sincerely Tactful, Thoughtful and Appreciative Though few people are intentionally abrupt or blunt, these negative traits are common cause of discourtesy. Avoid expression like those in the left hand column below; rephrase them as shown in the right-hand column. Tactless, Blunt More Tactful Stupid letter; I can’t understand I should understand it, as there is no confusing word in this letter, could you please explain it once again?

39 It’s your fault, you did not properly Sometimes my wording is not precise; let me try again read my latest FAX. Thoughtfulness and appreciation Writers who send cordial, courteous messages of deserved congratulations and appreciation (to a person inside & outside) help to build goodwill. The value of goodwill or public esteem for the firm may be worth thousands of dollars. 1.7.7 Correctness At the core of correctness are the proper grammar, punctuation and spelling. However, message must be perfect grammatically and mechanically. The term correctness, as applied to business messages also mean three characteristics o Use the right level of language o Check the accuracy of figures, facts and words and maintain acceptable writing mechanics. Formal writing is often associated with scholarly writing: doctoral dissertations, scholarly, legal documents, top-level government agreements and other material where formality is demanded. Informal writing is more characteristic of business writing. Here you use words that are short, well-known and conversational as in this comparison list: More Formal Participate Endeavor Ascertain Utilize Interrogate

Less Formal Join try find out Use question.

Avoid substandard language. Using correct words, incorrect grammar, faulty pronunciation all suggest as inability to use good English. Some examples follow: Substandard Ain’t Can’t Can Aim to proving Desirous to Stoled

More Acceptable isn’t, aren’t hardly hardly aim to prove desirous of stolen

40 Check Accuracy of Facts, Figures and words it is impossible to convey meaning precisely, through words, from the head of the sender to a receiver. Our goal is to be as precise as possible, which means checking and double-checking and double-checking to ensure that the figures, facts and words you use are correct. “A good check of your data is to have another person read and comment on the validity of the material” - Figures and facts - Verify your statistical data - Double-check your totals - Avoid guessing at laws that have an impact on you, the sender and your - Have someone else read your message if the topic involves data. - Determine whether a “fact” has changed over time.



In the above chapter we learnt that the communication is complex phenomenon which involves various stages commencing from the ideation, message, encoding, transmission, receiver, decoding, feedback and the sender. Non verbal and verbal communication is very significant to understand as verbal communication involves the written and oral whereas the non verbal communication includes the visuals, auditory, body language and etc.



Answer the following questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Write a comprehensive account on written and oral communication. Distinguish between verbal and non-verbal communication? Discuss the significance of face-to-face communication in an organisation. What do you understand by non-verbal communication? Explain its salient features? What are the different types of non-verbal communication? Explain each in brief. Explain the term "Kinesics" and write a note on the four major types of body language.

41 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

Write a note on signs, symbols and signals and their use in organisational communication. Explain what is meant by visual communication. Give examples of each and write a detailed note on it. List the advantages and disadvantages of oral communication. List the advantages and disadvantages of written form of communication. Why does oral communication sometimes result in over communication? How can this problem be overcome? What are the ways to make oral communication effective? Explain. How can you make written communication effective? Explain. What are the various methods of communication? What are the essential conditions to make our Face-to-Face Communication effective? What is the importance of written communication? Explain with examples why the receiver should be more careful while interpreting a non-verbal message. What is the significance of gestures in our communication? Discuss. What precaution will you take while communicating by gesture? How will you understand the need of your boss when he enters office in the morning? Give one example. Explain with examples how media advertisements exploit the human weakness of dress and appearance. What role do different colours play in our day-to-day communication? What importance do the charts, maps and graphs have in our business communication? What is the importance of dress, appearance and distance? What are the principles on which the Visual Communication works? What are the characteristics and requirements of a good poster? Write notes on: a) Face-to-face communication b) Facial expressions c) Gestures d) Body language

42 e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n)

Silence Signs and signals Graphs, maps and charts Colour Proxemics Special uses of face-to-face communication Lapses of written communication How non-verbal communication works Colour, layout and design Posters






Barriers to Communication 2.2.1 Concept of barriers to communication


Nature of Barriers 2.3.1. Verbal Communication Barriers 2.3.2. Nonverbal Communication Barriers 2.3.3. Para-verbal communication Barriers 2.3.4. Barriers of Inconsistency 2.3.5. Listening Barriers 2.3.6. Barriers at Communication Process 2.3.7 Transmitting Barriers 2.3.8 Decoding Barriers 2.3.9 General Barriers to Communication 2.3.10 Semantic Barriers 2. 3.11 Linguistic or Language Barriers 2.3.12 Psychological Barriers 2.3.13 Interpersonal Barriers


Space/Time Distance barriers


Gender barriers


How to overcome the barriers to communication? 2.6.1 To Overcome Listening Barriers 2.6.2 To Overcome Perception Related Barriers 2.6.3 To Overcome Verbal Communication Barriers 2.6.4 Facilitating Communication


How to achieve effective communication?








 To find out the possible barriers to communication  To chalk out the strategies to overcome the barriers



Despite the importance of understanding others, the quality of communication is generally poor in most organizations. Research suggests that misunderstandings are the rule, rather than the exception. When people are under stress, they are more apt to inject communication barriers into their conversation. These barriers can exist on a daily basis as we may work with people who have different opinions, values, beliefs, and needs than our own. Our ability to exchange ideas with others, understand other’s perspectives, solve problems and successfully utilise the steps and processes presented in this chapter will depend significantly on how effectively we are able to communicate with others. 2.2.1 Concept of barriers to communication Most of those communication barriers despite of their origins may be, in fact, explained by difference in perception. Our mind organises and processes all received information accordingly to specific rules determined by our genetic matrix, our life experience and resulting personality. It creates a mental map that represents our perception of reality. In no case are the perceptions of different persons identical. The mental images of the same event, different persons may have, are different as the perception of each of them is unique accordingly to their personality. While communicating we are choosing details that are important for us. This is called selective perception. Using it, we are trying to send our message as relevant as we can. However we shouldn't forget that our perception remains always personal. When receiving message we try to fit given information in our existing mental pattern. If something doesn't fit we tend to distort information rather than modify the pattern.

45 To control communication and correct eventual errors we are providing feedback, which is the most important tool to determine, by sender, whether or not the message has been received as intended. The methods and channels for feedback may be different. We may give feedback by repeating received information or asking additional questions in order to clarify the meaning, or by giving signs of the state of our understanding by nodding, smiling, producing specific sounds, etc.



2.3.1. Verbal Communication Barriers The act of communicating involves verbal, nonverbal, and paraverbal components. The verbal component refers to the content of our message ‚ the choice and arrangement of our words. The nonverbal component refers to the message we send through our body language. The para-verbal component refers to how we say what we say - the tone, pacing and volume of our voices. Our use of language has tremendous power in the type of atmosphere that is created at the problem-solving table. Words that are critical, blaming, judgmental or accusatory tend to create a resistant and defensive mindset that is not conducive to productive problem solving. On the other hand, we can choose words that normalize the issues and problems and reduce resistance. Phrases such as "in some districts, people may . . .", "it is not uncommon for . . ." and "for some folks in similar situations" are examples of this. Sending effective messages requires that we state our point of view as briefly and succinctly as possible. Listening to a rambling, unorganized speaker is tedious and discouraging - why continue to listen when there is no interchange? Lengthy dissertations and circuitous explanations are confusing to the listener and the message loses its concreteness, relevance, and impact. This is your opportunity to help the listener understand YOUR perspective and point of view. Choose your words with the intent of making your message as clear as possible, avoiding jargon and unnecessary, tangential information. 2.3.2. Nonverbal Communication Barriers The power of nonverbal communication cannot be underestimated. In his book, Silent Messages, Professor Albert

46 Mehrabian says the messages we send through our posture, gestures, facial expression, and spatial distance account for 55% of what is perceived and understood by others. In fact, through our body language we are always communicating, whether we want to or not! Facial Expression The face is perhaps the most important conveyor of emotional information. A face can show enthusiasm, energy, and approval, express confusion or boredom, and scowl with displeasure. The eyes are particularly expressive in telegraphing joy, sadness, anger, or confusion. Postures and Gestures Our body postures can create a feeling of warm openness or cold rejection. For example, when someone faces us, sitting quietly with hands loosely folded in the lap, a feeling of anticipation and interest is created. A posture of arms crossed on the chest portrays a feeling of inflexibility. The action of gathering up one is materials and reaching for a purse signals a desire to end the conversation. 2.3.3. Para-verbal communication Barriers Para-verbal communication refers to the messages that we transmit through the tone, pitch, and pacing of our voices. It is how we say something, not what we say. Professor Mehrabian states that the para-verbal message accounts for approximately 38% of what is communicated to someone. A sentence can convey entirely different meanings depending on the emphasis on words and the tone of voice. For example, the statement, "I didn't say you were stupid" has six different meanings, depending on which word is emphasized. 2.3.4. Barriers of Inconsistency In all of our communications we want to strive to send consistent verbal, para-verbal and nonverbal messages. When our messages are inconsistent, the listener may become confused. Inconsistency can also create a lack of trust and undermine the chance to build a good working relationship. When a person sends a message with conflicting verbal, para-verbal and nonverbal information, the nonverbal information tends to be believed. Consider the example of someone, through a clenched jaw, hard eyes, and steely voice, telling you, they are not

47 mad. Which are you likely to believe? What you see or what you hear? 2.3.5. Listening Barriers "Listening in dialogue is listening more to meaning than to words . . .In true listening, we reach behind the words, see through them, to find the person who is being revealed. Listening is a search to find the treasure of the true person as revealed verbally and nonverbally. There is the semantic problem, of course. The words bear a different connotation for you than they do for me. Consequently, I can never tell you what you said, but only what I heard. I will have to rephrase what you have said, and check it out with you to make sure that what left your mind and heart arrived in my mind and heart intact and without distortion." - John Powell, theologian The key to receiving messages effectively is listening. Listening is a combination of hearing what another person says and psychological involvement with the person who is talking. Listening requires more than hearing words. It requires a desire to understand another human being, an attitude of respect and acceptance, and a willingness to open one's mind to try and see things from another is point of view. Listening requires a high level of concentration and energy. It demands that we set aside our own thoughts and agenda, put ourselves in another’s shoes and try to see the world through that person’s eyes. True listening requires that we suspend judgment, evaluation, and approval in an attempt to understand another is frame of reference, emotions, and attitudes. Listening to understand is, indeed, a difficult task! Often, people worry that if they listen attentively and patiently to a person who is saying something they disagree with, they are inadvertently sending a message of agreement. When we listen effectively we gain information that is valuable to understanding the problem as the other person sees it. We gain a greater understanding of the other person’s perception. After all, the truth is subjective and a matter of perception. When we have a deeper understanding of another’s perception, whether we agree with it or not, we hold the key to understanding that person’s motivation, attitude, and behavior. We have a deeper understanding of the problem and the potential paths for reaching agreement. Learning

48 to be an effective listener is a difficult task for many people. However, the specific skills of effective listening behavior can be learned. It is our ultimate goal to integrate these skills into a sensitive and unified way of listening. 2.3.6. Barriers at Communication Process Encoding Barriers: The process of selecting and organizing symbols to represent a message requires skill and knowledge. Obstacles listed below can interfere with an effective message. Lack of Sensitivity to Receiver A breakdown in communication may result when a message is not adapted to its receiver. Recognizing the receiver’s needs, status, knowledge of the subject, and language skills assists the sender in preparing a successful message. If a customer is angry, for example, an effective response may be just to listen to the person vent for awhile. Lack of Basic Communication Skills The receiver is less likely to understand the message if the sender has trouble choosing the precise words needed and arranging those words in a grammatically-correct sentence. Insufficient Knowledge of the Subject If the sender lacks specific information about something, the receiver will likely receive an unclear or mixed message. Have you shopped for an item such as a computer, and experienced how some salespeople can explain complicated terms and ideas in a simple way? Others cannot. Information Overload If you receive a message with too much information, you may tend to put up a barrier because the amount of information is coming so fast that you may have difficulty comfortably interpreting that information. If you are selling an item with twenty-five terrific features, pick two or three important features to emphasize instead of overwhelming your receiver (ho-hum) with an information avalanche. Emotional Interference An emotional individual may not be able to communicate well. If someone is angry, hostile, resentful, joyful, or fearful, that person may be too preoccupied with emotions to receive the

49 intended message. If you don’t like someone, for example, you may have trouble “hearing” them. 2.3.7 Transmitting Barriers Things that get in the way of message transmission are sometimes called “noise.” Communication may be difficult because of noise and some of these problems: Physical Distractions A bad cellular phone line or a noisy restaurant can destroy communication. If an E-mail message or letter is not formatted properly, or if it contains grammatical and spelling errors, the receiver may not be able to concentrate on the message because the physical appearance of the letter or E-mail is sloppy and unprofessional. Conflicting Messages Messages that cause a conflict in perception for the receiver may result in incomplete communication. For example, if a person constantly uses jargon or slang to communicate with someone from another country who has never heard such expressions, mixed messages are sure to result. Another example of conflicting messages might be if a supervisor requests a report immediately without giving the report writer enough time to gather the proper information. Does the report writer emphasize speed in writing the report, or accuracy in gathering the data? Channel Barriers If the sender chooses an inappropriate channel of communication, communication may cease. Detailed instructions presented over the telephone, for example, may be frustrating for both communicators. If you are on a computer technical support help line discussing a problem, it would be helpful for you to be sitting in front of a computer, as opposed to taking notes from the support staff and then returning to your computer station. Long Communication Chain The longer the communication chain the greater the chance for error. If a message is passed through too many receivers, the message often becomes distorted. If a person starts a message at one end of a communication chain of ten people, for example, the message that eventually returns is usually liberally altered.

50 2.3.8 Decoding Barriers The communication cycle may break down at the receiving end for some of these reasons: Lack of Interest If a message reaches a reader who is not interested in the message, the reader may read the message hurriedly or listen to the message carelessly. Miscommunication may result in both cases. Lack of Knowledge If a receiver is unable to understand a message filled with technical information, communication will break down. Unless a computer user knows something about the Windows environment, for example, the user may have difficulty organizing files if given technical instructions. Lack of Communication Skills Those who have weak reading and listening skills makes ineffective receivers. On the other hand, those who have a good professional vocabulary and who concentrate on listening, have less trouble hearing and interpreting good communication. Many people tune out who is talking and mentally rehearse what they are going to say in return. Emotional Distractions If emotions interfere with the creation and transmission of a message, they can also disrupt reception. If you receive a report from your supervisor regarding proposed changes in work procedures and you do not particularly like your supervisor, you may have trouble even reading the report objectively. You may read, not objectively, but to find fault. You may misinterpret words and read negative impressions between the lines. Consequently, you are likely to misunderstand part or all of the report. Physical Distractions If a receiver of a communication works in an area with bright lights, glare on computer screens, loud noises, excessively hot or cold work spaces, or physical ailments, that receiver will probably experience communication breakdowns on a regular basis.

51 2.3.9 General Barriers to Communication Physical Barriers These are obstacles that prevent a message from reaching the intended recipient. Some can be controlled by the management; some cannot be controlled because they are in the environment. Defects in the medium Defects in the instruments used for transmitting message are external and usually not within the control of the parties engaged in communication. The telephone, cell phone signals, the postal system, the courier services, or electronic media may fail. A partial failure of the mechanical equipment is more dangerous than a complete failure, because a partial failure carries an incomplete or distorted message, which might cause miscommunication resulting into unwanted actions. The only way to overcome this barrier is to postpone the communication or use an alternative medium. Noise Noise is any disturbance which occurs in the transmission process. In face-to-face communication without a microphone, the air may be disturbed by noise in the environment such as traffic, factory work, or people talking. Organisations which can afford sound-proof rooms can overcome this barrier to some extent. In a factory, oral communication is very difficult because of the noise of the machines. Defects in the Organisational Communication System Within the organisation, the movement of papers and of information gets held up by the system itself. A great deal of loss of information occurs as a message moves from senior management to lower levels. If a message passes down through many levels of authority, there may be much distortion in the message. The chances of such distortion are lower in a flat organisation with few levels of hierarchy. Loss or distortion of information as it moves downward may be caused by misinterpretation, misunderstanding, and ignorance of messages.

52 Research has shown that many employees at the lowest level receive only 20 per cent of the information that they should get. Too much dependence on written communication is one of the reasons for this. Circulars, bulletins, notices and even letters are not read carefully. Many employees are unable to read and understand long messages. Even better educated employees at higher levels do not always give proper attention to all written communication. Oral communication has to be used to supplement written communication when the message is important. Loss of information also occurs as messages move from subordinates to higher levels of authority. Messages are filtered at every level. There may be deliberate suppression of information out of self-interest and jealousy; a supervisor may suppress or change a good suggestion from a subordinate so as to take the credit personally; a senior officer may prevent information about discontent in the department from reaching the manager because it reflects on his/her human relations skills. The resulting information gap can be harmful if the upper level of management does not find out the true state of affairs until it is too late. The system of routine reports and the system of sending copies of documents for information is meant to ensure that information is conveyed to the concerned persons, but some information may still not reach some persons. Hearing Problems For some people, poor listening results from actual hearing deficiencies. Once recognized, they can usually be treated. An undetected hearing loss may cause employees to get annoyed about the boss ignoring them or cause a supervisor to get angry when her instructions are bungled. Other people may have auditory processing difficulties, such as auditory discrimination, sequencing, or memory, which create the appearance of not listening or paying attention to what is said but are actually the result of physiological involvement, not intentional disregard. 2.3.10

Semantic Barriers The semantic barriers are obstruction caused in the process of understanding a message during the process of encoding or decoding it into words and ideas. The linguistic capacity of the sender and receiver may have some limitations, or the symbols used may be ambiguous. Symbols may have several meanings of

53 the symbol according to his preconceived notion and misunderstand the communication. For this purpose a meaningful distinction should be made between inferences and facts. Inferences are meaning taken out of the context of the communication and alt the times cannot be avoided in communication province inference can give wrong signal, one should be aware of them and analyse them carefully. In case of any doubt, more feedback may be sought. Symbols may be classified as language, picture, or action Interpretation of words Most of the communication is carried through words, whether spoken or written. But words are capable of communication a variety of meaning. It is quite possible that the receiver of a message does not assign the same meaning to a word as the transmitter had intended. This may lead to miscommunication. Murphy and Peck in their book effective Business Communication mention that in an abridged dictionary, the little word ‘run’ has 71 meanings as verb, another 35 as a noun, and 4 more as an adjective. If this word occurs in a message, the receiver is at liberty to interpret in any of the 110 senses, but if communication id to be perfect, he must assign to it the same meaning as existed in the senders mind when he used it. Bypassed Instructions Bypassing is said to have occurred if the sender and the receiver of the message attribute different meanings to the same word or use different words for the same meaning. Denotations and Connotations Word has different meaning and it can be catgorised as connotative and denotative. The literal meaning of the word is called its denotative meaning. It just informs and names object without indicating any positive or negative qualities. Words like table book accounts meeting are denotative. In contrast, connotative meanings arouse qualitative judgments and personal reaction. Honest components cheap sincere etc. are connotative words. 2. 3.11 Linguistic or Language Barriers In written or verbal communication words used are important. A word used in the communication may have several

54 meanings. In face to communication, it is easy to seek clarification of words used, if any doubt is encountered. In case of doubt feedback is required. Many words which we use informally may be taken literally in other context, i.e. non friendly situations, or in written communication. Thus effective communication is idea centered rather than word centered. The communication may be decoded correctly by the receiver only if the context is known to him otherwise, it may be incorrectly interpreted. Without context, language is just like an eyesore that irritates our senses and interferences with our perceptions. Although we know there are so many different ways of communication between living beings, spoken and written language is the most common way and the basic tool used for communication between human beings. As a result of the geographic dispersion of the origin of people, each one of them has developed its own linguistic code, which later on became an obstacle when they started to move beyond their boundaries seeking integration with other people. The differences between the various linguistic codes, in terms of spoken language as well as written representation, configure a barrier for communication and integration of people from different regions. Challenging these barriers, it is noticeable an ever more intense movement towards integration. The huge technological progress reached by the human being, especially in air transport and in telecommunications, has accelerated the globalisation process and it is turning more and more frequent the interaction between representatives of different people and different cultures. The barrier of linguistic differences has an important impact on the efficiency of cultural, scientific, technological and commercial interchange; that is why it has grown so dramatically the demand for learning foreign languages. Otherwise, the great potential of information technology started to be exploited in order to help people to overcome the barrier of linguistic differences and a number of automatic translation tools have come out. However, the Internet revolution over the last decade of the 20th Century has created a new paradigm in the process of global communication, which gained a new dimension in terms of speed and reach. And what can be realised is that the need of efficiency in Internet communication has maximised the problem of linguistic

55 barriers, leading to research efforts from the scientific world seeking new solutions to overcome those barriers. 2.3.12 . Psychological Barriers 2.3.12 .1 Attitudinal Barriers Preoccupation business and personal concerns can make it difficult to keep your mind on the subject at hand. Even when one’s current conversation is important, other unfinished business can divert your attention: the call to an angry customer, the questions that boss ask about employee’s schedule delays, the new supplier heard about and -want to interview, and the problems one have with the baby-sitter or the auto mechanic. Some preoccupation is inescapable, but keeping your focus on the speaker as much as possible will have benefits for you, the other person, and your relationship. 2.3.12 .2 Egocentrism One common reason for poor communication is the belief— usually mistaken—that our own ideas are more important or valuable than those of others. Besides preventing one from learning useful new information, this egocentric attitude is likely to alienate the very people with whom you need to work. Self-centered communicators are rated lower on social attractiveness than communicators who are open to others' ideas. While a certain amount of self-promotion can be helpful in career advancement, advancing one’s own ideas at the expense of others' can cause one to slip down a rung or two as you climb the career ladder. As an old saying puts it, "Nobody ever communicated themselves out of a job." 2.3.12 .3 Fear of Appearing Ignorant Some businesspeople think asking for clarification is a sign of ignorance. Rather than seek clarification, they pretend to understand others—often with unfortunate consequences 2.3.12 .4 Faulty Assumptions Some of the biggest obstacles to communication don't involve physiological or environmental problems. Instead, they come from inaccurate and unproductive assumptions.

56 2.3.12 .4.1 Assuming that Effective Communication Is the Sender's Responsibility Management expert Peter Drucker recognized that communication depends on the receiver as well as the sender when he wrote: "It is the recipient who communicates. The socalled communicator, the person who emits the communication, does not communicate. He utters unless there is someone who hears ... there is only noise." As Drucker suggests, even the most thoughtful, wellexpressed idea is wasted if the intended receiver fails to listen. The clearest instructions won't prevent mistakes if the employee receiving them is thinking about something else, and the best of products will never be made if the client or the manager isn't paying attention to the presentation. Both the speaker and the listener share the burden of reaching an understanding. 2.3.12 .4.2 Assuming That Listening Is Passive Some communicators mistakenly assume that listening is basically a passive activity in which the receiver is a sponge, quietly absorbing the speaker's thoughts. In fact, good listening can be hard work. Sometimes you have to speak while listening to ask questions or paraphrase the sender's ideas, making sure you have understood them. Even when you remain silent, silence should not be mistaken for passivity 2.3.12 .4.3 Assuming That Talking Has More Advantages than Listening At first glance, it seems that speakers control things while listeners are the followers. Our society seems to correlate communication with weakness, passivity, and lack of authority or power. The people who do the talking are the ones who capture everyone's attention, so it is easy to understand how talking can be viewed as the pathway to success. Despite the value of talking, savvy businesspeople understand that communication is equally important, especially in a fast-moving, high-tech age. 2.3.13 Interpersonal Barriers How we perceive communication is affected by the past experience with the individual. Perception is also affected by the organizational relationship two people have. For example,

57 communication from a superior may be perceived differently than that from a subordinate or peer. There are number of interpersonal and intrapersonal barriers that help to explain why the message that is received is often different than what the sender intended: Filtering The sender manipulates information when s/he wants it to be seen more favorably by the receiver. For example, when a manager tells his boss what he feels his boss wants to hear, he is filtering information. Selective Perception The receivers in the communication process selectively see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics. Receivers also project their interests and expectations into communications as they interpret them. We don’t see reality; rather, we interpret what we see and call it reality. Information Overload Research indicates that most of us have difficulty working with more than about seven pieces of information. When the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity, the result is Information Overload. The demands of keeping up with e-mail, phone calls, faxes, meetings, and professional reading create an onslaught of data that is nearly impossible to process and assimilate so we tend to select out, ignore, pass over or forget information. Or we may put off further processing until the overload situation is over. Regardless, the result is lost information and less effective communication. Defensiveness When people feel that they’re being threatened, they tend to react in ways that reduce their ability to achieve mutual understanding. That is, they become defensive - engaging in behaviors such as verbally attacking others, making sarcastic remarks, being overly judgmental, and questioning others’ motives. So when individuals interpret another’s message as threatening, they often respond in ways that hinder effective communication.

58 Emotional barriers One of the chief barriers to open and free communications is the emotional barrier. It is comprised mainly of fear, mistrust and suspicion. The roots of our emotional mistrust of others lie in our childhood and infancy when we were taught to be careful what we said to others. "Mind your P's and Q's"; "Don't speak until you're spoken to"; "Children should be seen and not heard". As a result many people hold back from communicating their thoughts and feelings to others. They feel vulnerable. While some caution may be wise in certain relationships, excessive fear of what others might think of us can stunt our development as effective communicators and our ability to form meaningful relationships. 2.4.

Space/Time Distance barriers It is evident that physical distance requires special communication tools to make communication happen. The same is required within distance in time. There are many tools created in order to deal with physical distance. They are subject of interest of telecommunication companies, postal and other delivery services. Distance in time poses more difficulties as we can communicate only in real time and forward in time. That is evident that we cannot do it back in time. The fact that we can communicate forward in time and that we do not want unnecessary communication encourage us to create different structures, which process, filter and eliminate sent information. The question whether they are effective is a separate question. It seems that mostly not! Postal service, Internet e-mail, telephone service are all targeted by the people who want to communicate with us in their interest, not necessary ours. This type of information is called spam. Ho much time we have to spend trying to separate what is important for us from what is unwanted? How to distinguish what to accept and what to reject without knowing the content? The situation is getting worst continuously. We are still very lucky that our mobiles do not deliver too much spam but it might be a matter of time they'll do. There are a lot of structures typical for business that can create barriers to communication. More intermediates, more secretaries, and our communication channel become very long and

59 narrow. That looks good if it comes to spam, but in reality it may create situation when original information has no chance to go through. History of civilization knows many examples of governors who have been given relevant information only and exclusively just before they have been abolished. Business is a sensitive matter and its stagnation, dissolution or progress depends of communication so special attention to this matter should be paid. The problem with structures delivering and processing information, no matter necessary or not, is that they are usually happy with what they are dealing with, no matter what it is. They make intensive effort to justify their existence and have immense tendency to grow. They often overtake as many communication channels as they can, creating structures, nobody can avoid or ignore. In fact they are usually authors of new formal communication rules and rituals created in their interest. As a result, communication channels are less and less direct and instant communication becomes impossible. Let's name and analyse some problems they create.



There are distinct differences between the speech patterns in a man and those in a woman. A woman speaks between 22,000 and 25,000 words a day whereas a man speaks between 7,000 and 10,000. In childhood, girls speak earlier than boys and at the age of three, have a vocabulary twice that of boys. The reason for this lies in the wiring of a man's and woman's brains. When a man talks, his speech is located in the left side of the brain but in no specific area. When a woman talks, the speech is located in both hemispheres and in two specific locations. This means that a man talks in a linear, logical and compartmentalised way, features of left-brain thinking; whereas a woman talks more freely mixing logic and emotion, features of both sides of the brain. It also explains why women talk for much longer than men each day.




2.6.1 To Overcome Listening Barriers Stop Focus on the other person, their thoughts and feelings. Consciously focus on quieting your own internal commentary, and step away from your own concerns to think about those of the speaker. Give your full attention to the speaker. Look Pay attention to non-verbal messages, without letting yourself be distracted. Notice body language and non-verbal cues to allow for a richer understanding of the speaker’s point. However, avoid getting distracted from the verbal message. Listen Listen for the essence of the speaker’s thoughts: details, major ideas and their meanings. Seek an overall understanding of what the speaker is trying to communicate, rather than reacting to the individual words or terms that they use to express themselves. Be empathetic Imagine how you would feel in their circumstances. Be empathetic to the feelings of the speaker, while maintaining a calm centre within yourself. You need not be drawn into all of their problems or issues, as long as you acknowledge what they are experiencing. Ask questions Use questions to clarify your understanding, as well as to demonstrate interest in what is being said. 2.6.2 To Overcome Perception Related Barriers Analyse your own perceptions Question your perceptions, and think about how they are formed. Check in with others around you regularly, and be aware of assumptions that you are making. Seek additional information and observations. You may just need to ask people if your perceptions are accurate.

61 Observe carefully and attentively Look for detail, but keep the bigger picture in mind. For instance, it is important not to ignore or gloss-over the details of a situation or the subtle aspects of a person. However, it is important to see any one moment as part of a larger context. People have lives outside of work, for example, and any small part of a project ultimately is linked to a system much larger than itself. Interpret consciously Recognize the meanings you attach to what you perceive, and know that not everyone will attach the same meanings to the same things or situations. Ask yourself why you associate those meanings with what you do. Work on improving your perception Increase your awareness of barriers to perception, and which ones you tend towards. Check in with yourself regularly. Seek honest, constructive feedback from others regarding their perceptions of you as a means of increasing your self awareness. Focus on others Develop your ability to focus on other people, and understand them better by trying to gather knowledge about them, listening to them actively, and imagining how you would feel in their situation. 2.6.3 To Overcome Verbal Communication Barriers Focus on what you know Describe your own feelings rather than evaluating others. Express yourself in terms of information, observations, and specific issues, rather than making assumptions about other people or situations. Focus on the issue, not the person Try not to take everything personally, and similarly, express your own needs and opinions in terms of the job at hand. Solve problems rather than attempt to control others. For example, rather than criticizing a co-worker’s personality, express your concerns in terms of how to get the job done more smoothly in the future.

62 Be genuine rather than manipulative Be yourself, honestly and openly. Be honest with yourself, and focus on working well with the people around you, and acting with integrity. Empathize rather than remain detached Although professional relationships entail some boundaries when it comes to interaction with colleagues, it is important to demonstrate sensitivity, and to really care about the people you work with. If you don’t care about them, it will be difficult for them to care about you when it comes to working together. Be flexible towards others Allow for other points of view, and be open to other ways of doing things. Diversity brings creativity and innovation. Value yourself and your own experiences Be firm about your own rights and needs. Undervaluing yourself encourages others to undervalue you, too. Offer your ideas and expect to be treated well. Present yourself as an equal rather than a superior Even when you are in a position of authority, focus on what you and the other person each have to offer and contribute to the job or issue. Use confirming responses Respond to other in ways that acknowledge their experiences. Thank them for their input. Confirm their right to their feelings, even if you disagree. Ask questions, express positive feeling; and provide positive feedback when you can. Be consistent between verbal and non-verbal cues Non-verbal cues tend to be more convincing than verbal messages. For example, if you are expressing a serious concern to someone, do not grin broadly while discussing it or the listener may not know whether to take you seriously or not. 2.6.4 Facilitating Communication In addition to removal of specific barriers to communication, the following general guidelines may also facilitate communication.

63 1. Have a positive attitude about communication. Defensiveness interferes with communication. 2. Work at improving communication skills. It takes knowledge and work. The communication model and discussion of barriers to communication provide the necessary knowledge. This increased awareness of the potential for improving communication is the first step to better communication. 3. Include communication as a skill to be evaluated along with all the other skills in each person's job description. Help other people improve their communication skills by helping them understand their communication problems. 4. Make communication goal oriented. Relational goals come first and pave the way for other goals. When the sender and receiver have a good relationship, they are much more likely to accomplish their communication goals. 5. Approach communication as a creative process rather than simply part of the chore of working with people. Experiment with communication alternatives. What works with one person may not work well with another person. Vary channels, listening techniques, and feedback techniques. 6. Accept the reality of miscommunication. The best communicators fail to have perfect communication. They accept miscommunication and work to minimize its negative impacts.

2.7 HOW TO ACHIEVE EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION? Effectual communication engages the choice of the best communications channel, the technical know-how to use the channel, the presentation of information to the target audience, and the skill to understand responses received from others. Self development, interpersonal skills, mutual understanding, mutual cooperation and trust is also important to set a complete channel of most effective and winning communication skills. There are mainly three types of communication skills, expressive skills, listening skills and skills for managing the overall process of communication. The basic fundamental of all these types of communication is emotional skills. Expressive skills are required to convey message to others through words, facial expressions and body language. Listening

64 skills are skills that are used to obtain messages or information from others. These help to clearly understand what a person feels and thinks about you or understand the other person closely. Skills for managing the overall process of communication help to recognize the required information and develop a strong hold on the existing rules of communication and interaction. . Effective communication skills may seem like a simple thing to master. However, if you don’t realize that effective communication skills involve more than just what you say, you probably confuse people all the time. Try the following steps that can help you sharpen your communication skills. Straight to the point The speaker needs to be as direct as possible, within the limits of good manners. Beating around the bush confuses people and makes them lose interest in what you’re saying. 2.7.1 Manners Matters The manners of the speaker depend on his cultural, social as well as professional background. The effective communication begins with the manners like greetings, politeness, smile and rational in listening. For instance, being polite is a much better way to put a person at ease than being rude. A person, who feels open and at ease, is much more likely to be receptive to what you have to say. 2.7.2 First Person Use the word “I.” When you use the word “I,” you’re letting people know that what you’re saying is only according to your personal understanding, not a blanket fact. This can help keep people from feeling targeted and attacked. There’s a difference between telling someone “You’re ignoring me” and “I feel like you are ignoring me.” 2.7.3 Positive Attitudes Being optimistic helps anybody to look into the matters with expectations and help in making a good beginning. Therefore, emphasize the positive thinking and attitude. Regardless, if you’re conducting a budget meeting or trying to get a peon to do the dishes, you need to keep the tone positive. This can help keep people willing to listen to what you have to say and prevent them from feeling defensive.

65 2.7.4 Understanding The effective communication is said to be achieved only on understanding the sent message. A perfect understanding is possible when receiver receives the message without distortion, prejudices, in the desired medium and in perfect content. So, you have to listen to understand. Actively listening or reading to the message can do wonders for your overall ability to communicate. The same goes for written and non-verbal communication. 2.7.5 Spice up Message A communication without the body language and the figurative speech is lame and ineffective. Make your communications interesting. If you’re communicating verbally, use different inflections and pauses to make the dialogue interesting. Use body language to help emphasize your words. If you’re communicating through writing, always use proper punctuation to help dramatize certain points and create character in the text. 2.7.6 Visual cues Use visual elements to help explain your communication. If you’re speaking or writing, try using pictures, graphs and other visual aids. This helps engage people’s senses and leads to greater depth of understanding. 2.7.7 Clarity Avoid confusing and ambiguous language. Avoid using vocabulary that people won’t know or general terms that will leave people confused. It’s also best to avoid words that sound alike and may confuse listeners, such as where and wear. 2.7.7 Patience Patience is a virtue, especially when it comes to effective communication. If you rush things and become easily frustrated, your communication abilities suffer. If you are always ready to slow the pace as needed or go back over certain points, you will communicate much more efficiently.



Communication is at the heart of many interpersonal problems faced by business organisation. Understanding the communication process and then working at improvement provide

66 managers a recipe for becoming more effective communicators. Knowing the common barriers to communication is the first step to minimizing their impact. Managers can reflect on how they are doing and make use of the ideas presented in this paper. When taking stock of how well you are doing as a communicator, first ask yourself and others how well you are doing as a communicator.



Answer the following questions: 1.

What barriers do you think that a business organisation can experience to communicate internally?


How does language act as a barrier to communication? Explain with examples.


What is meant by "Status Blocks"? How do they hinder communication?


Mention some ways in which failure to utilize channels properly can result in poor communication.


Explain the terms Faulty Transmission and Poor Retention and show how it affects communication?


Why do we say that the adult human mind resists change? What effect does have upon the communication process?


Write an account on the socio-psychological barriers that could occur in business communication.


Why do people close their minds to communication? How can we get rid of such barriers?


Discuss briefly the factors which give rise to communication gap.


Define the concept of Barriers to Communication and discuss the physical barriers.


How will you overcome the barriers of Time and Distance?


What do you understand by cross cultural barriers? Discuss.


How do our attitudes create hurdles in the way of communication?


What are assumptions? Give examples.

67 15

What are barriers in the environment? Enumerate them and disco, ways of overcoming these barriers.


Examine the different types of cross-cultural barriers and methods overcoming them.


What are the gender barriers? Do you think we can overcome such barriers? How?


What are the different ways to overcome the listening barriers? Explain them with suitable examples.


Write short notes on: a. Un-clarified Assumptions as barriers to communication b. Emotionally loaded words c. Organisational structures and Status Barriers d. Distrust of the Communicator e. Status Symbols f. The Psychological Barriers g. Inattention, as a Barrier to Communication h. Causes of Inattention i. Different perceptions j. Allness and the closed mind k. The Halo and horn Effect 1. Gender Barriers m. The Effect of Emotions on Communication n. Wrong choice of medium o. Barriers to Effective Listening p. Slanting; q. Cross-cultural barriers; r. Polarizations. s. Poor Hearing and Poor Presentation as Barriers. t. The Mechanical Barriers and how to overcome them. u. The Language Barrier and the methods to overcome it. v. Barriers in the medium w. Overcoming Environmental barriers x. Overcoming barriers in the mind.

     


3 Unit III BUSINESS COMMUNICATION AT WORK PLACE-I (Planning a Letter, Letter Components, Layouts and Process of Letter Writing) Unit Structure 3.1 Objectives: 3.2 Introduction 3.3 Nature and Functions of Letters 3.4 Principles of Letter Writing 3.5 Format of a Letter 3.6 Letter Components and Layouts 3.7 Process of Letter Writing 3.8 Summary 3.9 Exercise

3.1    


OBJECTIVES: To learn to understand the art of letter writing To learn to plan the effective letter writing To know the various formats of the letter writing To acquire the effective letter writing strategies


Use letters to communicate outside your organization. Whereas the memorandum is the primary vehicle for communication within an organization, letters are often used to communicate to individuals outside it, especially in formal and semiformal contexts. Letters are an essential part of all business and technical communication because they are more formal and reliable than electronic mail and more precise and permanent than telephone or face-to-face conversations.




If you consider all the forms of written communication, letters are the mostly used and commonly practiced in all business as well as the personal correspondence. We can readily agree that letters have become the indispensable part of modern day communication in spite of electronic age. Business correspondence, in fact, is one of the significant means of keeping oneself connected with the world in whole and the person in individual and family or business in group. The progress and durability of any business enterprise or industry in larger sense depends on the effective communication system. When you enter a profession, you will have to write dozens of letters every day as part of your routine work. Many of these will be written to persons you have never met and perhaps you can never hope to meet. You will be writing letters to other firms and companies, customers, suppliers, associate organisations, government officers, credit agencies, employees, etc. Such letters are called business letters. A business letter must therefore appeal to the reader's interest and induce in him the proper mood. The student of the business communication has to mark out the number of factors before penning a letter. Over the years these have crystallized into a set of principles which can enable a person to write successful letters. Before we attempt to find out the principles of the letter writing, let us have a look into the functions of letter writing. 3.3.1 A Piece of Conversation A letter is a piece of conversation by post or hand delivery. If you recall and if you have ever stayed away from your parents while you were in school you wrote letters and if u have stayed with your parents you received letters from your friends and relatives. At least you must have received mails and you must have been excited to read them. Don’t you think that these pieces of conversations have connected you with your heart and profession? And you feel comfortable to write letters or emails. You must not confuse with letters and emails as both are the same, but email is the textronic version of letter with the set of format by the service provider. 3.3.2 Establishes Professional and the Personal Relations The relations are the core of every business and the profession. It is built on the personal as well as the professional communication and here your letters and the emails are the instruments to facilitate these relations. Just imagine, if you receive letter from your boss wishing you on your birthday, how do you feel? Certainly, you will be excited, happy and motivated to perform to the satisfaction of your boss. You being near to your boss or your

70 superior make you psychologically as well as emotionally secured and safe. This in turn not only helps to build the better relations but also performance. Even when an author writes he has a reader in his mind. The very reason is, he wants to build a bond of intimacy between him and his reader so that he can take him into his thought process. Therefore, consistent letter writing will evoke a sensation of an actual meeting or participation in to the thoughts or writer creating a cohesive bond. 3.3.3 Facilitates in Learning Psyche and Behaviour Every letter you write bears the hallmark of your character and personality. Letters reflects politeness, simplicity and a sense of humour. It also marks in understanding the behaviour in total as every entrepreneur needs to appoint eligible as well as honest employees for the growth and prosperity of the enterprise. At the same time an employee must be rewarded on his better performance appraisal. 3.3.4 Letter is Evidence and Reference The aim of letters is to achieve a definite purpose, such as selling a product, making an enquiry, seeking information or advice, mollifying the injured feelings of a customer, creating goodwill, etc. The matter that you exchange remains as the evidence of your information. Hence, it will be an instrument of accountability for every cause and result. It also acts as reference material for future judgement and conclusion. Look at the following letter written by the Maintenance Engineer of a factory campus to a senior officer whom he knew personally and with whom he had good relations Dear Sir, Some of the officers residing in your line have been complaining about insufficient supply of water, specially, the water pressure. In an on-the-spot survey, it has been reported that you have installed a water tap at the ground level. This creates low water-pressure in the adjacent houses. The management does not provide hydrants or additional taps, outside or inside a house. I am directed to inform you that the unauthorized connection may please be disconnected within three days of the receipt of this letter. In case of necessity, this department will be pleased to help you in disconnecting the water connection. If this is not done within the stipulated time, the department will be forced to disconnect the line. Looking at the present water scarcity, we hope, you will help us in supplying water to your neighbours as well who are greatly inconvenienced by in sufficient water supply. Your cooperation is solicited. Yours faithfully




3.4.1 Courtesy and Consideration Courtesy is like lubricant oil which removes friction; it makes relations as well as professions smoother and helps to maintain friends and professional relations. Courtesy softens the sting of an unpleasant piece of information, creates goodwill, and produces a favourable response. It is not advisable to write discourteous letters as it often proves very costly. One may lose both friends and business. It always pays to be courteous in business. Goodwill is the greatest asset for an organization and courtesy in correspondence is one of the most natural and economical means of building it. Practical Hints: Some of the phrases italicized in the following sentences have been found useful in tiding over a difficult situation and making correspondence pleasant: Thanks for your letter of 12 October, 2008. Thank you very much for your letter of 13 December, 2008. We are glad to note that you are now in a position to pay our bill. We appreciate your writing to us so promptly. We regret to inform you that we cannot meet your order immediately. We are sorry that you did not receive the books in time. You will be pleased to know that we have dispatched the books you ordered in your letter of 16 July, 2001. Some of the following phrases irritate the reader because they imply that you consider him your inferior. Avoid using these phrases. You state.... You are wrong in saying.... We find it difficult to believe.... Your claim that.... We must firmly state.... Your complaint that.... We cannot accede to your request.... We are forced to refuse.... We demand.... Sometimes brevity leads to courtesy. But in a bid to be brief you should not become curt Curtness implies that the letter writer is impatient and lacks consideration for the reader. The following letter refusing leave to an employee would be regarded as curt:

72 With reference to your application of 14 August, 2008 I am to inform you that you cannot be granted the leave applied for. It would have been better to explain to the employee reasons for refusing leave and also to suggest some time in future when it would be possible to grant him leave. The person who wrote this letter forgot that a letter is not just a piece of factual information but that it also reflects the attitude of the writer. Consideration for the readers’ interests, needs and, desires is also known as the you-attitude in the business world. Merely using the pronoun 'you' will, however, not do. It must be realized that one of the greatest barriers to successful business communication is self-centeredness on part of the writer. In fact, the impulse to write a letter or for that matter any piece of communication, comes to us when we have something to say. And in doing so we shall be following the old principle of P You communication. When a reader receives a business letter, he assesses how it affects him and his business and what action he needs to take on it. A direct personal approach which the you-attitude ensures will transmit the message quickly and evoke the desired response. Crowd-approach


We are pleased when we receive We are pleased to receive such suggestions from our such suggestions from you. customers. This book will help the readers in This book will help you in writing good English. writing good English. We feel sorry when we find that We are sorry that you are not our customers are not satisfied satisfied with the electric with our merchandise. kettle you bought from us. 3.4.2 Conciseness Transmission of maximum information by using minimum words should be your aim in letter-writing. If you clearly and concisely write what you wish to say, you will be able to arrest the attention of the reader and focus it on the message. Avoid unnecessary details and roundabout expressions and come to the point directly. Remember that people are busy and they receive dozens of letters daily. It will be irritating for them to go through long introductions and preliminaries. Do not forget that a letter is a means of contact between two persons. When you meet a person

73 after greeting him you straight-away come to the point. Adopt the same approach when you write a letter. Avoid Verbosity: The following phrases you may come across as matter expressions and said to be verbose and the same can be converted in to direct and concise: Verbose As advised in our communication At all times As per your instructions At the time of writing Attached herewith Attached please find At your earliest convenience Beg to acknowledge Beg to assure Beg to inform Beg to remain Beg to request Beg to state By reason of the fact that Enclosed please find Enclosed you will find Enclosed herewith please find For the month of July For the purpose of

Direct and Concise As stated in our letter Always As instructed At present; Now Attached Attached is As soon as you can; Soon Acknowledge Assure Inform Remain Request State Because Enclosed Enclosed For July For July For

In a satisfactory manner


In compliance with your request

As requested

In the case of


In early course


In view of the fact that

Because or since

In the event of this occurrence taking place In the event that In the nature of In the majority of instances In point of fact It is desired that we receive

If this happens

Make necessary adjustment


On a few occasions


If Like Usually In fact We want

74 Should prove of interest to you Taken into consideration This is to thank you Wish to thank Wish to acknowledge Wish to suggest

Should interest you Considered Thank you Thank Acknowledge Suggest

3.4.3 Clarity Absolute clarity of ideas adds much to the meaning of the letter. The next stage is the transmission of the idea and the purpose in a manner which makes it easier simple for the receiver to comprehend. As far as possible, simple language and easy sentence constructions, which are not difficult for the receiver to grasp, should be used. 3.4.4 Correctness At the time of writing a letter, the sender should ensure that his knowledge of the receiver is comprehensive. The level of knowledge, educational background and status of the decoder help the encoder in formulating his message. In case there is any discrepancy between the usage and comprehension of terms, miscommunication can arise. If the sender decides to back up his communication with facts and figures, there should be accuracy in stating the same. A situation in which a receiver is forced to check the presented facts and figures should not arise. 3.4.5 Consistency The approach to letter writing should, as far as possible, be consistent. There should not be too many ups and downs that might lead to confusion in the mind of the receiver. If a certain stand has been taken, it should be observed without there being situations in which the sender is left groping for the actual content or meaning. If the sender desires to bring about a change in his understanding of the situation, he should ensure that the shift is gradual and not hard for the receiver to comprehend. 3.4.6 Concreteness Concrete and specific expressions are to be preferred in favour of vague and abstract expressions. In continuation of the point on correctness, the facts and figures presented should be specific. Abstractions or Reinforces abstract statements can cloud the mind of the sender. Instead confidence of stating: "There has been a tremendous escalation in the con sales figure", suppose the sender made the following statement: "There has been an escalation in the sales figures by almost 50% as compared to last year." The receiver is more apt to listen and comprehend the factual details.




If your organization has a specific style for business letters, follow that format. Otherwise, follow the guidelines provided here. Business letters are commonly either full-block formatted, with every line starting at the left margin and usually a business letterhead at the top of the page, or modified-block formatted, with the heading and the closing aligned at the center of the page. 3.5.1 Full Block Business Letter Format

76 1. Return Address: If your stationery has a letterhead, skip this. Otherwise, type your name, address and optionally, phone number. These days, it's common to also include an email address. 2. Date: Type the date of your letter two to six lines below the letterhead. Three are standard. If there is no letterhead, type it where shown. 3. Reference Line: If the recipient specifically requests information, such as a job reference or invoice number, type it on one or two lines, immediately below the Date (2). If you're replying to a letter, refer to it here. For example, • Re: Job # 625-01 • Re: Your letter dated 1/1/200x. 4. Special Mailing Notations: Type in all uppercase characters, if appropriate. Examples include •SPECIAL DELIVERY •CERTIFIED MAIL •AIRMAIL 5 On-Arrival Notations: Type in all uppercase characters, if appropriate. You might want to include a notation on private correspondence, such as a resignation letter. Include the same on the envelope. Examples are •PERSONAL •CONFIDENTIAL 6. Inside Address: Type the name and address of the person and/or company to whom you're sending the letter, three to eight lines below the last component you typed. Four lines are standard. If you type an Attention Line (7), skip the person's name here. Do the same on the envelope. 7. Attention Line: Type the name of the person to whom you're sending the letter. If you type the person's name in the Inside Address (6), skip this. Do the same on the envelope. 8. Salutation: Type the recipient's name here. Type Mr. or Ms. [Last Name] to show respect, but don't guess spelling or gender. Some common salutations are

77 •Ladies: •Gentlemen: •Dear Sir: •Dear Sir or Madam: •Dear [Full Name]: •To Whom it May Concern: 9. Subject Line: Type the gist of your letter in all uppercase characters, either flush left or centered. Be concise on one line. If you type a Reference Line (3), consider if you really need this line. While it's not really necessary for most employment-related letters, examples are below. •SUBJECT: RESIGNATION •LETTER OF REFERENCE •JOB INQUIRY 10. Body: Type two spaces between sentences. Keep it brief and to the point. 11. Complimentary Close: What you type here depends on the tone and degree of formality. For example, •Respectfully yours (very formal) •Sincerely (typical, less formal) •Very truly yours (polite, neutral) •Cordially yours (friendly, informal) 12. Signature Block: Leave four blank lines after the Complimentary Close (11) to sign your name. Sign your name exactly as you type it below your signature. Title is optional depending on relevancy and degree of formality. Examples are •Jay Dhokane, Manager •P. Swami Director, Technical Support •R. T. Jadhav - Sr. Field Engineer 13. Identification Initials: If someone typed the letter for you, he or she would typically include three of your initials in all uppercase characters, then two of his or hers in all lowercase characters. If you typed your own letter, just skip it since your name is already in the Signature Block (12). Common styles are below.

78 •JAD/cm •JAD:cm •clm 14. Enclosure Notation: This line tells the reader to look in the envelope for more. Type the singular for only one enclosure, plural for more. If you don't enclose anything, skip it. Common styles are below. •Enclosure •Enclosures: 3 •Enclosures (3) 15. cc: Stands for courtesy copies (formerly carbon copies). List the names of recipients in alphabetical order. If addresses would be useful to the recipient of the letter, include them. If you don't copy your letter to anyone, skip it. Tips: •Replace the text in brackets [ ] with the component indicated. Don't type the brackets. •Try to keep your letters to one page, but see page 2 of this sample if you need continuation pages. •How many blank lines you add between lines that require more than one, depends on how much space is available on the page. •The same goes for margins. One and one-half inch (108 points) for short letters and one inch (72 points) for longer letters are standard. If there is a letterhead, its position determines the top margin on page 1. •If you don't type one of the more formal components, don't leave space for them. For example, if you don't type the Reference Line (3), Special Mailing Notations (4) and OnArrival Notations (5), type the Inside Address (6) four lines below the Date (2).

79 3.5.2 Modified Block Style Business Letter Components


Return Address: If your stationery has a letterhead, skip this. Otherwise, type your name, address and optionally, phone number, five spaces to the right of center or flush with the right margin. Five spaces to the right of center is common. These days, it's also common to include an email address.

80 2.


Date: Type the date five spaces to the right of center or flush with the right margin, two to six lines below the letterhead. Five spaces to the right of center and three lines below the letterhead are common. If there is no letterhead, type it where shown. Reference Line: If the recipient specifically requests information, such as a job reference or invoice number, type it on one or two lines, immediately below and aligned with the Date (2). If you're replying to a letter, refer to it here. For example, •Re: Job # 625-01 •Re: Your letter dated 1/1/200x.


Special Mailing Notations: Type in characters, if appropriate. Examples include




On-Arrival Notations: Type in all uppercase characters, if appropriate. You might want to include a notation on private correspondence, such as a resignation letter. Include the same on the envelope. Examples are •PERSONAL •CONFIDENTIAL


Inside Address: Type the name and address of the person and/or company to whom you're sending the letter, three to eight lines below the last component you typed. Four lines are standard. If you type an Attention Line (7), skip the person's name here. Do the same on the envelope.


Attention Line: Type the name of the person to whom you're sending the letter. If you type the person's name in the Inside Address (6), skip this. Do the same on the envelope.

81 8.

Salutation: Type the recipient's name here. Type Mr. or Ms. [Last Name] to show respect, but don't guess spelling or gender. Some common salutations are •Ladies: •Gentlemen: •Dear Sir: •Dear Sir or Madam: •Dear [Full Name]: •To Whom it May Concern:


Subject Line: Type the gist of your letter in all uppercase characters. Be concise on one line. If you type a Reference Line (3), consider if you really need this line. While it's not really necessary for most employment-related letters, examples are below. •SUBJECT: RESIGNATION •LETTER OF REFERENCE •JOB INQUIRY


Body: Type two spaces between sentences. Keep it brief and to the point.


Complimentary Close: Type this aligned with the Date (2). What you type here depends on the tone and degree of formality. For example, •Respectfully yours (very formal) •Sincerely (typical, less formal) •Very truly yours (polite, neutral) •Cordially yours (friendly, informal)


Signature Block: Align this with the Complimentary Close (11). Leave four blank lines to sign your name. Sign it exactly the same as you typed it below your signature. Title is optional depending on relevancy and degree of formality. Examples are •John Doe, Manager •P. Smith Director, Technical Support •R. T. Jones - Sr. Field Engineer

82 13.

Identification Initials: If someone typed the letter for you, he or she would typically include three of your initials in all uppercase characters, then two of his or hers in all lowercase characters. If you typed your own letter, just skip it since your name is already in the Signature Block (12). Common styles are below. •JAD/cm •JAD:cm •clm


Enclosure Notation: This line tells the reader to look in the envelope for more. Type the singular for only one enclosure, plural for more. If you don't enclose anything, skip it. Common styles are below. •Enclosure •Enclosures: 3 •Enclosures (3)


cc: Stands for courtesy copies (formerly carbon copies). List the names of recipients in alphabetical order. If addresses would be useful to the recipient of the letter, include them. If you don't copy your letter to anyone, skip it.

Tips:  Replace the text in brackets [ ] with the component indicated. Don't type the brackets.  Try to keep your letters to one page, but see page 2 of this sample if you need continuation pages.  How many blank lines you add between lines that require more than one, depends on how much space is available on the page.  The same goes for margins. One and one-half inch (108 points) for short letters and one inch (72 points) for longer letters are standard.  If there is a letterhead, its position determines the top margin on page 1.  If you don't type one of the more formal components, don't leave space for them. For example, if you don't type the Reference Line (3), Special Mailing Notations (4) and OnArrival Notations (5), type the Inside Address (6) four lines below the Date (2).

83 3.5.3 Modified Semi-Block Style Business Letter Components


Return Address: If your stationery has a letterhead, skip this. Otherwise, type your name, address and optionally, phone number, five spaces to the right of center or flush with the right margin. Five spaces to the right of center is common. These days, it's also common to include an email address.


Date: Type the date five spaces to the right of center or flush with the right margin, two to six lines below the letterhead.

84 Five spaces to the right of center and three lines below the letterhead are common. If there is no letterhead, type it where shown. 3.

Reference Line: If the recipient specifically requests information, such as a job reference or invoice number, type it on one or two lines, immediately below and aligned with the Date (2). If you're replying to a letter, refer to it here. For example, •Re: Job # 625-01 •Re: Your letter dated 1/1/200x.


Special Mailing Notations: Type in all uppercase characters, if appropriate. Examples include •SPECIAL DELIVERY •CERTIFIED MAIL •AIRMAIL


On-Arrival Notations: Type in all uppercase characters, if appropriate. You might want to include a notation on private correspondence, such as a resignation letter. Include the same on the envelope. Examples are •PERSONAL •CONFIDENTIAL


Inside Address: Type the name and address of the person and/or company to whom you're sending the letter, three to eight lines below the last component you typed. Four lines are standard. If you type an Attention Line (7), skip the person's name here. Do the same on the envelope.


Attention Line: Type the name of the person to whom you're sending the letter. If you type the person's name in the Inside Address (6), skip this. Do the same on the envelope.


Salutation: Type the recipient's name here. Type Mr. or Ms. [Last Name] to show respect, but don't guess spelling or gender. Some common salutations are •Ladies: •Gentlemen: •Dear Sir: •Dear Sir or Madam: •Dear [Full Name]: •To Whom it May Concern:

85 9.

Subject Line: Type the gist of your letter in all uppercase characters. Be concise on one line. If you type a Reference Line (3), consider if you really need this line. While it's not really necessary for most employment-related letters, examples are below. •SUBJECT: RESIGNATION •LETTER OF REFERENCE •JOB INQUIRY

10. Body: Indent the first sentence in paragraphs five spaces. Type two spaces between sentences. Keep it brief and to the point. 11. Complimentary Close: Type this aligned with the Date (2). What you type here depends on the tone and degree of formality. For example, •Respectfully yours (very formal) •Sincerely (typical, less formal) •Very truly yours (polite, neutral) •Cordially yours (friendly, informal) 12. Signature Block: Align this block with the Complimentary Close (11). Leave four blank lines to sign your name. Sign it exactly the same as you typed it below your signature. Title is optional depending on relevancy and degree of formality. Examples are •John Doe, Manager •P. Swami Director, Technical Support •R. T. Jadhav - Sr. Field Engineer 13. Identification Initials: If someone typed the letter for you, he or she would typically include three of your initials in all uppercase characters, then two of his or hers in all lowercase characters. If you typed your own letter, just skip it since your name is already in the Signature Block (12). Common styles are below. •JAD/cm •JAD:cm •clm

86 14.

Enclosure Notation: This line tells the reader to look in the envelope for more. Type the singular for only one enclosure, plural for more. If you don't enclose anything, skip it. Common styles are below. •Enclosure •Enclosures: 3 •Enclosures (3)


cc: Stands for courtesy copies (formerly carbon copies). List the names of people to whom you distribute copies, in alphabetical order. If addresses would be useful to the recipient of the letter, include them. If you don't copy your letter to anyone, skip it.

Tips:  Replace the text in brackets [ ] with the component indicated. Don't type the brackets.  Try to keep your letters to one page, but see page 2 of this sample if you need continuation pages.  How many blank lines you add between lines that require more than one, depends on how much space is available on the page.  The same goes for margins. One and one-half inch (108 points) for short letters and one inch (72 points) for longer letters are standard. If there is a letterhead, its position determines the top margin on page 1.  If you don't type one of the more formal components, don't leave space for them. For example, if you don't type the Reference Line (3), Special Mailing Notations (4) and OnArrival Notations (5), type the Inside Address (6) four lines below the Date (2).



Business letters have the following elements: 3.6.1 Heading If you are using letterhead stationery, include only the date two lines below the bottom of the letterhead. Spell out the name of month. If you are not using letterhead stationery, begin with your full address (city, street, and zip code) 1 to 1½ inches from the top of the page. Spell out address designations, such as Street, Avenue, and West. The state name may be abbreviated using the two-letter,

87 all-capitals U.S. Postal Service designations. Include the date aligned at left with the address, spelling out the name of the month. 3.6.2 Recipient's Address Two to four lines below the date, place the following items: The recipient's title (such as Mr., Ms., or Dr.) and full name (address a woman who does not have a professional title as Ms. unless you know she prefers Miss or Mrs.; if the recipient does not have a title and you are unsure of his or her gender, omit the title). The recipient's job title, if appropriate. The name of the company or institution, if appropriate. The full address, following the same format as for the address in the heading. The recipient's address is always aligned on the left margin. 3.6.3 Salutation Place the salutation two lines below the recipient's address. The salutation begins with the word Dear, continues with the recipient's title and last name, and ends with a colon. If you are unsure of the recipient's gender and the recipient does not have a professional title, omit the title and, instead, use both the first and the last names in the salutation (Dear Leslie Perelman:). If you do not know the name of the recipient of the letter, refer to the department you are writing to (Dear Technical Support :). Avoid salutations such as Dear Sir or Madam: 3.6.4 Body Start the letter two lines after the salutation. Body paragraphs should be single spaced with a double space between paragraphs. (Indenting the first line of each paragraph is acceptable but is more informal than the unindented style.) Be concise, direct, and considerate. State the letter's purpose in the opening paragraph. Include supporting information in a middle paragraph or two, and conclude your letter with a brief paragraph that both establishes goodwill and expresses what needs to be done next. If a letter requires more than one page, make sure there are at least two lines of body text on the final page. Never use an entire page for just the closing. The second page and all subsequent pages must include a heading with the recipient's name, the date, and the page number. 3.6.5 Closing Phrase Write a complimentary closing phrase two lines below the final body paragraph. Yours truly, Sincerely, or Sincerely yours are common endings for professional letters. Capitalize the first letter of

88 the first word of your complimentary closing, and end the complimentary closing with a comma. Four lines below the closing phrase, write your full name. If you are writing in an official capacity that is not included in the stationery's letterhead, write your title on the next line. Your signature goes above your typed name. 3.6.6 End Notations At the bottom of the last page of a business letter, end notations may show who typed the letter, whether any materials are enclosed with the letter, and who is receiving a copy of the letter. The typist's initials, in lowercase letters, follow the initials of the author, in capital letters, and a colon or a front-slash (LCP: ecb or LCP/ecb). An enclosure notation--Enclosure:, Encl., or Enc.--alerts the recipient that additional material (such as a résumé or a technical article) is included with the letter. You can either identify the enclosure or indicate how many pieces there are. Enclosure: (1) Article by Satyawan Encl. (2) Enc. (2) In addition to the enclosure notation, always refer to your enclosures explicitly within the text of the letter. A copy notation (cc :) lets the recipient of the letter know who else is receiving a copy. Put each recipient of a copy on a separate line. cc: Dr. D Murkikar Mr. Dhanraj Mane

3.7 PROCESS OF LETTER WRITING Wherever you are today as a letter writer — good, bad, or indifferent — you can take your level of skill to the next level in a relatively short time. The benefit of doing so is that you will write more effective letters: Letters that get your message across without the reader calling you for clarification. Letters that persuade your readers to accept your point of view, or take the actions you want them to take. Letters that get you the results — business and personal — you desire.

89 In this part, we cover some rules and tools for effective letter writing. They may seem like a lot of work right now — and maybe they will be, for now. But soon they will become a reflexive part of your letter-writing process. You won’t have to think about most of them; you will just use them to make your letters sharper, clearer, and more convincing than ever. 3.7.1 Prewriting Planning You would not start building an addition onto your home until you had an architect make a drawing to show you what it would look like, would you? And a manager in charge of a division or product line would not start marketing the products without a marketing plan, would she? In the same way, doing some preliminary preparation — rather than just turning on the PC and starting to type, can help you craft better letters. Of course writing a letter is not as big a job as planning a marketing campaign or building a family room. But it is important. As the saying goes, “Anything worth doing is worth doing well.” Besides, the “planning” you do for a small writing job, like a letter, need not and should not be elaborate or time-consuming. A few minutes spent thinking and following the steps that follow can help you write a better letter, and may actually save time rather than take more time. Here are some simple steps to take when planning a letter or other communication of any significance: 

Do a SAP (subject, audience, and purpose) analysis as outlined in the sections that follow.

Gather the information you need and do whatever additional research is required to complete the letter.

Make a simple 1-2-3 outline of the points you need to cover, in the order you want to present them.

Now sit down, and start writing!

Subject, Audience and Purpose analysis is a process that quickly enables you to pin down the content and organization of your letter. The process requires you to ask and answer three questions:  What is the subject (topic) of your letter? 

Who is your audience? (Who will be receiving your letter?)

What is the purpose of your letter?

90 3.7.2 Subject What is the subject (topic) of the letter? Make it as narrow and specific as possible. For instance, “marketing product X” is too broad for a letter; you’ll need a report or other longer document to cover it. But “approving copy for product X in our next catalog” is narrow and specific; there’s room in a letter to cover it. 3.7.3 Audience Who is your reader? Well, you know who your reader is, but do you know what he or she thinks, likes, and worries about? Or what he or she wants, hopes, dreams, and desires? Most of us spend too much time thinking about what we want, and not enough time thinking about what the reader wants. Written communications are most effective when they are personal. Your writing should be built around the needs, interests, desires, and profit of the reader. The better you understand the other person, the more effectively you can communicate with him or her. Crafting a letter that fits the reader is relatively easy when you are writing a personal letter to a friend or relative you know well. In the case of a business letter, it makes sense to ask yourself, “Who is my reader? What does he or she know about this subject? What is my relationship with the reader — subordinate, superior, colleague, or customer? How can I get the message across so that the reader will understand and agree?” When writing business letters, here are some things you want to know about your reader: • Job title: Mechanics are interested in your compressor’s reliability and serviceability, while the purchasing agent is more concerned with cost. A person’s job colors his perspective of your product, service, or idea. Are you writing for plant engineers? Office managers? CEOs? Shop foremen? Make the tone and content of your writing compatible with the professional interests of your readers. • Education: Is your reader a PhD or a high-school dropout? Is he a chemical engineer? A doctor? A carpenter? A senior citizen? Write simply enough so that the least technical and educated of your readers can understand you completely. When in doubt, err on the side of simplicity. You will never have a recipient of your letter complain to you that it was too easy to read. • Industry: When chemical producers buy a reverse-osmosis waterpurification system for a chemical plant, they want to know every

91 technical detail down to the last pipe, pump, fan, and filter. Marine buyers, on the other hand, have only two basic questions: What does it cost? How reliable is it? The weight and size are also important, since the system must be carried onto and bolted onto the floor of a boat. • Level of interest: A prospect who has responded to your ad is more likely to be receptive to a salesman’s call than someone who the salesman calls on “cold turkey.” Is your reader interested or disinterested? Friendly or hostile? Receptive or resistant? Understanding the reader’s state of mind helps you tailor your message to meet his needs. Often, however, when writing business letters and longer documents—articles, papers, manuals, reports, and brochures — you are writing for many readers, not an individual. Even though you may not know the names of your readers, you still need to develop a picture of who they are — their job titles, education, industry, and interests. 3.7.4 Purpose What is the purpose of your letter? You might be tempted to say, “to transmit information.” Sometimes merely transmitting information is the letter’s sole purpose, but often it is more than that. Is there a request you want the reader to comply with, or a favor you are hoping they will grant? Keep your goal in mind as you write, so that you may persuade the reader to agree with your point of view. 3.7.5 Gather Information In order to write an effective letter and save time in doing so, you need to have all your information at hand, such as copies of previous correspondence on the topic, customer records, service orders, and so on. If you don’t have all the information you need, do the necessary research. For instance, if you are answering a technical question for a customer, and you do not know the answer, ask someone in engineering to explain it to you or if you are writing a letter to insurance company explaining. Often when people write, they’re afraid to make mistakes, and so they edit themselves word by word, inhibiting the natural flow of ideas and sentences. But professional writers know that writing is a process consisting of numerous drafts, rewrites, deletions, and revisions. Rarely does a writer produce a perfect manuscript on the first try. The task ideally should be divided into three steps: writing, rewriting, and polishing.

92 1.

Writing Most professional writers go through a minimum of three drafts. The first is this initial “go with the flow” draft where the words comes tumbling out. When you sit down to write, let the words flow freely. Don’t worry about style, syntax, punctuation, or typos — just write. You can always go back and fix it later. By “letting it all out,” you build momentum and overcome inhibitions that block your ability to write and think. 2.

Rewriting In the second draft — the rewriting step — you take a critical look at what you’ve written. You edit for organization, logic, content, and persuasiveness. Using your PC, you add, delete, and rearrange paragraphs. You rewrite jumbled passages to make them clear. 3.

Polishing In the third draft, you give your prose a final polishing by editing for style, syntax, spelling, and punctuation. This is the step where you worry about things like consistency in numbers, units of measure, equations, symbols, abbreviations, and capitalization. 3.7.6 Make a Simple outline For any document longer than a short e-mail, an outline can make the writing easier and ensure that all key points are covered. The outline also helps you keep your points in a logical order and transition smoothly between them. A letter requesting a scholarship or financial aid, for instance, might be organized along the following lines: 1. Describe your educational goals and ambitions. 2. Explain why you need financial aid to attain these goals. 3. Say why you deserve to be given the aid. 4. Cite specific evidence (e.g., community service, extracurricular activities, grade point average, honors and awards). 5. Ask for the specific amount of money you need. Here’s the outline for a memo requesting budget approval from your supervisor at work: 1. List what you want to buy. 2. Describe the item and its function or purpose. 3. Give the cost. 4. Explain why you need it and how the company will come out ahead (e.g., how much time or money will it save?). 5. Do a cost/benefit analysis showing projected return on investment and payback period.

93 6. Ask for authorization or approval. 3.7.7 Rules for Better Letter Writing Better writing can result in proposals that win contracts, advertisements that sell products, instruction manuals that users can follow, billboards that catch a driver’s attention stories that make us laugh or cry, and letters, memos, and reports that get your message across to the reader. Here are 12 tips on style and word choice that can make writing clear and persuasive. Present your Best Self Your moods vary. After all, you’re only human. But while it is sometimes difficult to present your best self in conversation, which is spontaneous and instant, letters are written alone and on your own schedule. Therefore, you can and should take the time to let your most pleasant personality shine through in your writing. Be especially careful when replying to an e-mail message you have received. The temptation is to treat the message as conversation, and if you are irritated or just outrageously pressured and busy, the tendency is to reply in a clipped and curt fashion — again, not showing you at your best. The solution? Although you may be eager to reply immediately to e-mail so you can get the message out of your inbox, a better strategy for when your reply is important is to set it aside, compose your answer when you are not so time pressured, and read it carefully before sending. A Tip: Never write a letter when angry. If you must write the letter when angry, then put it aside without sending it, and come back to it later. You will most likely want to throw it out and start over, not send it at all, or drastically revise it. Remember, once you hit the Reply button, it is too late to get the message back. It’s out there, and you can’t retrieve it. Same thing when you drop a letter in the mailbox (it’s actually a felony to reach into the mailbox and try to retrieve the letter!). Writing in a Clear Conversational Tone Naturally, a memo on sizing pumps shouldn’t have the same chatty tone as a personal letter. But most business and technical professionals lean too much in the other direction, and their sharp thinking is obscured by windy, overly formal prose. The key to success in business or technical writing? Keep it simple. I’ve said this before, but it bears repeating: Write to express — not to impress. A relaxed, conversational style can add vigor and clarity to your letters.

94 Be Concise Professionals, especially those in industry, are busy people. Make your writing less time-consuming for them to read by telling the whole story in the fewest possible words. How can you make your writing more concise? One way is to avoid redundancies — a needless form of wordiness in which a modifier repeats an idea already contained within the word being modified. For example, a recent trade ad described a product as a “new innovation.” Could there be such a thing as an old innovation? The ad also said the product was “very unique.” Unique means “one of a kind,” so it is impossible for anything to be very unique. Many writers are fond of overblown expressions such as “the fact that,” “it is well known that,” and “it is the purpose of this writer to show that.” These take up space but add little to meaning or clarity. Be Consistent “A foolish consistency,” wrote Ralph Waldo Emerson, “is the hobgoblin of little minds.” This may be so. But, on the other hand, inconsistencies in your writing will confuse your readers and convince them that your information and reasoning are as sloppy and unorganized as your prose. Good writers strive for consistency in their use of numbers, hyphens, and units of measure, punctuation, equations, grammar, symbols, capitalization, technical terms, and abbreviations. Keep in mind that if you are inconsistent in any of these matters of usage, you are automatically wrong at least part of the time. For example, many writers are inconsistent in the use of hyphens. The rule is: two words that form an adjective are hyphenated. Thus, write: first-order reaction, fluidized-bed combustion, high-sulfur coal, space-time continuum. Use Jargon Sparingly Many disciplines and specialties have a special language all their own. Technical terms are helpful shorthand when you’re communicating within the profession, but they may confuse readers who do not have your special background. Take the word, “yield,” for example. To a chemical engineer, yield is a measure of how much product a reaction produces. But to car drivers, yield means slowing down (and stopping, if necessary) at an intersection. Other words that have special meaning to chemical engineers but have a different definition in everyday use include: vacuum, pressure, batch, bypass, recycle, concentration, mole, purge, saturation, catalyst. A good working definition of jargon is,

95 “Language more complex than the ideas it serves to communicate.” Use legitimate technical terms when they communicate your ideas precisely, but avoid using jargon just because the words sound impressive. In other words, do not write that material is “gravimetrically conveyed” when it is simply dumped. If you are a dentist, do not tell patients you have a procedure to help “stabilize mobile dentition” when what it really does is keeps loose teeth in place. 3.7.8 Tips for better Letter Writing Avoid Big Words Some writers prefer to use big, important-sounding words instead of short, simple words. This is a mistake; fancy language just frustrates the reader. Write in plain, ordinary English and your readers will love you for it. Prefer the General to the Specific Your readers want information — facts, figures, conclusions, and recommendations. Do not be content to say something is good, bad, fast, or slow when you can say how good, how bad, how fast, or how slow. Be specific whenever possible. Break up your writing into short sections Long, unbroken blocks of text are stumbling blocks that intimidate and bore readers. Breaking up your writing into short sections and short paragraphs makes the text easier to read. If your paragraphs are too long, go through them. Wherever a new thought starts, type a return and start a new paragraph. In the same way, short sentences are easier to grasp than long ones. A good guide for keeping sentence length under control is to write sentences that can be spoken aloud without losing your breath (do not take a deep breath before doing this test). Use Visuals Drawings, graphs, and other visuals can reinforce your text. In fact, pictures often communicate better than words; we remember 10 percent of what we read, but 30 percent of what we see. In the days when letters were written on typewriters, the idea of using visuals was out of the question. Today, software makes it relatively easy to add a chart, table, or graph to your letter. Why not do so, if it helps get your point across in a clearer and more persuasive fashion? Use the Active Voice Voice refers to the person speaking words or doing an action. An “active verb” stresses the person doing the thing. A

96 “passive verb” stresses the thing being done. In the active voice, action is expressed directly: “John performed the experiment.” In the passive voice, the action is indirect: “The experiment was performed by John.” When possible, use the active voice. Your writing will be more direct and vigorous; your sentences more concise.



Effective letter writing is an art. It is an essential part of the business, personal and technical communication. Letters help in establishing professional relations, facilitating in learning psyche and behaviour, creates relations and helps in maintain the accountability. The courtesy, consideration, conciseness, clarity, correctness, consistency and concreteness forms the principals of effective letter writing. The commonly used letter writing formats are full block format, semi block format Modified block format. The common letter components include heading, sender’s address, receiver’s address, salutation, reference, subject, attention line, body of the letter, closing paragraph, closing remarks, signatory line and bottom line. The process of letter writing involves the subject, purpose, organisation, audience and effective presentation.



1. Describe the characteristic features of a business letter. In what respect does it differ from other types of letters? 2. Write a note on the various purposes for which a business letter is written. 3. What are the principles of business correspondence? Explain the significance of each by giving suitable examples. 4. Prepare a write-up on the guidelines for business letter writing to be included in the office manual of a professional organization. 5. What are the four important functions correspondence? Discuss each one in brief.




6. Explain the significance of subject and e language in effective letter writing. 7. Make a list of at least ten words or phrases which you should not use in your letter writing. 8. What is the importance of early reply? 9. What are the ways that you can make your business letter attractive and effective? 10. A business letter should be written in a manner in which the reader would like to read. Discuss.

97 11. Discuss the importance of effective letter writing. 12. Illustrate the idea contained in the remark the "you attitude means that you see through the reader's eyes, talk his language, present his message in the light (for his interests.) 13. A business letter should be written not in a manner in which a writer should like to write, but in a manner in which a reader would like to read" Discuss. 14. How does the persuasive function of a business letter differ from the goodwill function of a business letter? 15. Why is it necessary to write follow-up-letters? How do they help the businessman? In what way are they different from "reminders'? 16. Why do businessmen use prewritten messages? What is the main advantage and disadvantage of using a form paragraph or letter?' 17. Write short notes: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.

The Cs of business letter writing. The 'You' Attitude. The stationery — quality. The Letter Head. The Window Envelope The need for business communication. Follow-up letters Form Paragraph.

18. Is it necessary to have a plan in a business letter? Why? 19. What is meant by 'balanced lay-out' and 'unbalanced layout' of a business letter? 20. What purpose does an 'unbalanced layout' serve? Give examples of balanced and unbalanced layouts in business letters. 21. Write short notes on: a. b. c. d.

Semi Block Form Full Block Form Semi Block Form Effective organisation of the letter

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4 Unit III BUSINESS COMMUNICATION AT WORK PLACE-II Unit Structure 4.1 Objectives 4.2 Introduction 4.3 Job Application Letters 4.4 Resume 4.6 Resignation Letters 4.7 Job Resignation Letter 4.8 Termination Letter 4.9 Goodwill Letters 4.10 Condolence Letter 4.11 Letters of Congratulation 4.12 Employment Letters 4.13 Promotion Letter 4.14 E-mails 4.15 Summary 4.16 Exercise



 To learn the formats, strategies and possible content of business communication at work place  To learn the various ways of writing job application and resumes  To learn the letters of resignation, promotion, termination and goodwill  To learn the communication








The study material in this chapter is designed to give you the in depth understanding of various formats of job application, the various ways to design the resume for seeking right job. In the same way, you also learnt the letters of resignation, promotion, termination, goodwill and etc. required at work place. The idea

99 behind introducing you these forms of letters is to make you ware of various ways of the business communication.



A job application letter (also called a "cover letter") is written to apply for a specific position. It is a persuasive message that sells the applicant's talents to a prospective employer. It persuades the reader to believe in his/her suitability for a particular position. It serves several specific purposes:  introduces the applicant to the hiring organisation;  introduces the applicant's resume;  highlights the applicants positive personal traits and achievements;  shows how the applicants special talents will benefit the organisation;  emphasises how the applicant is right for the job by matching the requirements of the job with his/her qualifications; and  asks for an opportunity to be interviewed by the organisation. 4.3.1 Opening The opening of an application letter is the most important part of a "job application package" because sets the tone and focus of the application. Solicited Application Letters In order to open a letter of application for a job that has been advertised, any of the following strategies may be tried to catch the attention of the reader: Mentioning Source of Information The letter may open by mentioning the source of the information about the job clearly — newspaper advertisement, website vacancy notice, company circular. “Your advertisement for an Accounts Manger in the May 5 issue of The Times of India (Daily edition) caught my attention because with a Degree in Accounts Management and four years experience in the accounting field, I could serve JBM well.” Matching Credentials to Employer Needs An important strategy to open a solicited letter of application could be to focus on the applicant's qualifications that meet the needs of the prospective employer.

100 My 15 years' experience in export of automobile components, with thorough knowledge of the international market and export documentation, has given me well-rounded skills in export Marketing to meet the challenges of Head, Export marketing, the position that your company advertised in the March 6 issue of The Hindu. Using References Making use of references is a popular strategy to open solicited application letters. It strengthens the application because most of the employers prefer to hire known people rather than strangers. Mr. Shreyas Talpade, a career counsellor at your business school, told me that ICFAI is looking for research associates. As an MBA from IIM Bangalore with two years academic experience, I am particularly interested in being a part of your institute's Centre for Management Research. Unsolicited Application Letters When a job is not advertised and the applicant is writing to explore possible openings, more persuasive strategies should be used to open a letter of application. One of the "owing strategies may catch the attention of the reader:

Using Stimulating Questions that highlight your Strengths Using stimulating questions that high-Fight the applicant's qualifications and strengths is an effective strategy to open unsolicited application letters. It attracts the attention of the reader by raising his/her curiosity to continue.

Using Facts that Show Understanding of the Employer's Business Using facts that reflect an speciation, understanding, or knowledge of the employer's business could be an effective opening for unsolicited application letters. Startling Statements An unsolicited letter of application may open by using a startling saw-merit. Surprising or unexpected statements or statistics that surprise can be used. Sometimes, this would be very effective in capturing the attention of the reader. 4.3.2 Body Copy In order to make a job application letter persuasive and convincing, the following steps should be included in body copy:

101 Describe Achievements and Capabilities A summary of the applicant's qualifications, professional training, and experiences should be presented. If the applicant has sufficient experience in the field of employment, he/she should emphasise his/her experiences. However, if he/she is a fresher with little or no experience, he/she should emphasise his/her qualifications, special training, professional development programmes, or any fresher/orientation courses that he/she might have done. Highlight Your Strengths The applicants should describe his/her strong points and special assets. He/ Me should also mention his/her intuitive and learned skills, special traits, and positive qualities that are normally not included in the resume. 4.3.3 Closing After supporting his/her candidature, the applicant has to conclude the letter by motivating the reader to act. He/She should tell the reader how he/she can get in touch with him/her and request a formal interview. In order to persuade the reader to act, the following steps may be followed: Refer to the Resume Refer the employer to the attached resume for getting additional information regarding education, training, experiences, skills, and achievements. •Enclosed is my resume, which provides additional information regarding my Restate Interest in the Company While closing a so letter of application, the applicant may restate his/her interest in the company or reinforce his/her ability for the position. •I am excited by an opportunity such as the one you advertised, and I believe I would be asset to Reach Management Consultants Private Limited. •I have been looking for an opening like this one, which provides a fast moving, dynamic environment, and accelerated and challenging growth opportunities.

Express Eagerness to Meet the Employer or directly ask for an Interview I look forward to having the opportunity to talk with you at your convenience, about the Execution Engineer position.


Include Contact Information You, Such as Phone Numbers, e-mail, Date, and Time You can reach me at (91 22) 27715535 between 8:00 a.m. and 6:00 pm, or contact me via e mail: [email protected] Final Writing Tips A letter of job application is an important employmentseeking document and it should be made as persuasive as possible. The following aspects should be taken care of: Give the Letter a Professional Look Use a Positive Tone Show Confidence Show Genuine Interest Use Specific Details. Be Factual and Objective Follow Consistent Style Examples of an unsolicited letter of application written by the jobseeker on his or her own initiative are as follows: Full Block Form Unsolicited — Single Letter VIDHYADHAR PATIL A-25/31, Sector-20, Nerul, Navi Mumbai 400706 E-mail: [email protected] September 10 2012 The Personnel Manager Patil and Sons Consultant Pvt. Ltd. 100 Gadgil Road, Pune - 5. Dear Sir: Prof. C.R. Savikar of K J Somaiya College of Commerce has informed me that you are looking for a young and energetic graduate of Commerce to work as a Senior Accountant in your company. My qualifications and experience meet your requirements admirably I am a B.Com.of the University of Mumbai, having graduated from K J Somaiya College of Commerce in 2007, with Advanced Accounting and Auditing as my special subject. I was placed in First Class and was recipient of the Dinshaw Vaccha Prize for securing the highest number of marks in the special subject. I have also taken diplomas in Costing and Company Secretaryship. I have been working as an Asstt. Accountant in the Tekson Engineering Works, Thane, since 2007. Although I enjoy the work I am now

103 doing, I am in search of an opportunity for advancement in the near future. Mr. Dinesh Patil, Chief Accountant, Tekson Engineering Works, has agreed to be a referee and will be pleased to furnish you with additional information about me. Prof. Dilip Palsapur, Head of the Department of Accountancy, K J Somaiya College of Commerce will be pleased to tell you about my interest in the subject of Accountancy and my practical knowledge of it. I should like to know when I would be called for a personal meeting with you, which will give me an opportunity to demonstrate my knowledge and ability in the field. Yours truly Sd/VIDHYADHAR PATIL 1. Solicited letter Akshay Khamkar 49/C Paradise View S.V. Road Vile Parle (W) Mumbai - 400 057 20th October, 2011 The Advertiser Box No. C.K. 580 A "The Indian Express" Mumbai-400001 Dear Sir, I am responding to your advertisement, which appeared in "The Indian Express" of October 18, 2008. I am confident that I am the most suitable candidate for the post of the Marketing Manager, as I possess all the qualities, qualifications and experience required by you. I am at present working as an Assistant Marketing Manager with the Household Devices Private Limited, Mumbai. My employers have no objection if I try for a higher post. I am sending this application with their knowledge. The enclosed bio-data sheet and xerox copies of certificates will convince you that I deserve to be called for an interview. Yours faithfully, Akshay Khamkar Encl: (1) Bio data sheet (2) Five Xerox copies.

104 2. Letter of application E-2 Apartment Heights Shivaji Nagar, Pune. Maharashtra, INDIA February 22, 2012 Dr. Milchandani Jr. Rode Principal, Somaiya Elementary School 1205 Beulah Road, Mumbai-400077 Dear Dr. Rode: I enjoyed our conversation on February 18th at the Family and Child Development seminar on teaching young children and appreciated your personal input about helping children attend school for the first time. This letter is to follow-up about the Fourth Grade Teacher position as discussed at the seminar. I will be completing my Bachelor of Science Degree in Family and Child Development with a concentration in Early Childhood Education at Veer Jijamata Tech’s in May of 2009, and will be available for employment at that time. The teacher preparation program at Veer Jijamata Tech’s includes a full academic year of student teaching. Last semester I taught second grade and this semester, fourth grade. These valuable experiences have afforded me the opportunity to: develop lesson plans on a wide range of topics and varying levels of academic ability, work with emotionally and physically challenged students in a total inclusion program, observe and participate in effective classroom management approaches, assist with parent-teacher conferences, and complete In-Service sessions on diversity, math and reading skills, and community relations. Through my early childhood education courses I have had the opportunity to work in a private day care facility, Rainbow Riders Childcare Center, and in Veer Jijamata Tech’s Child Development Laboratory. Both these facilities are UGC accredited and adhere to the highest standards. At both locations, my responsibilities included leading small and large group activities, helping with lunches and snacks, and implementing appropriate activities. Both experiences also provided me with extensive exposure to the implementation of developmentally appropriate activities and materials. I look forward to putting my knowledge and experience into practice in the public school system. Next week I will be in Mumbai, and I plan to call you then to answer any questions that you may

105 have. I can be reached before then at 02227715535. Thank you for your consideration. Sincerely, (Handwritten signature) Dolly Harkishan Enclosures 3. Letter of application April 14, 2012 Mr. Wellingkar Janardhan Employment Manager Acme Pharmaceutical Corporation 13764 MIDC, Nerul, Navi Mumbai-400706 Dear Mr. Jackson: From your company's web site I learned about your need for a sales representative for the Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh areas. I am very interested in this position with Acme Pharmaceuticals, and believe that my education and employment background are appropriate for the position. While working toward my master’s degree, I was employed as a sales representative with a small dairy foods firm. I increased my sales volume and profit margin appreciably while at Farmer’s Foods, and I would like to repeat that success in the pharmaceutical industry. I have a strong academic background in biology and marketing, and think that I could apply my combination of knowledge and experience to the health industry. I will complete my master's degree in marketing in mid-May and will be available to begin employment in early June. Enclosed is a copy of my resume, which more fully details my qualifications for the position. I look forward to talking with you regarding sales opportunities with Acme Pharmaceuticals. Within the next week I will contact you to confirm that you received my email and resume and to answer any questions you may have. Thank you for your consideration. Sincerely, Lyly Jadhav 542 Hunt Club Lane, #1 Backbay Reclamation, Mumbai. Resume attached as MS Word document (assuming company web site instructed applicants to do this)

106 4. Letter of application March 14, 2009 Ms. Charlee Prathamesh Director of Personnel Large National Bank Corporation Mumbai, Maharashtra, INDIA Dear Ms. Prathamesh, As I indicated in our telephone conversation yesterday, I would like to apply for the marketing research position you advertised in the March 12th edition of the Roanoke Times and World News. With my undergraduate research background, my training in psychology and sociology, and my work experience, I believe I could make a valuable contribution to Large National Bank Corporation in this position. In the month of May I will complete my Bachelor of Science in Psychology with a minor in Sociology from Vieer Jijamata Polytechnic Institute and Mumbai University. As part of the requirements for this degree, I am involved in a senior marketing research project that has given me experience interviewing and surveying research subjects and assisting with the analysis of the data collected. I also have completed a course in statistics and research methods. In addition to academic work, my experience also includes working part-time as a bookkeeper in a small independent bookstore with an annual budget of approximately Rs.150,000. Because of the small size of this business, I have been exposed to and participated in most aspects of managing a business, including advertising and marketing. As the bookkeeper, I produced monthly sales reports that allow the owner/buyer to project seasonal inventory needs. I also assisted with the development of ideas for special promotional events and calculated book sales proceeds after each event in order to evaluate its success. I believe that the combination of my business experience and social science research training is well-suited to the marketing research position you described. I have enclosed a copy of my resume with additional information about my qualifications. Thank you for your consideration. I look forward to receiving your reply. Sincerely, Josh Lalwany 250 Prices Fork Road Bandra(W), Mumbai, Maharashtra

107 5. Letter of application 1000 Terrace View Apts. Blacksburg, VA 24060 (540) 555-4523 [email protected] March 25, 2012 Ms. Charlee Prathamesh Director of Personnel Large National Bank Corporation Mumbai, Maharashtra, INDIA Dear Ms. Prathamesh, I read in the March 24th Times of India classified section of your need for a Civil Engineer or Building Construction graduate for one of your Washington, DC, area sites. I will be returning to the Washington area after graduation in May and believe that I have the necessary credentials for the project. I have worked at various levels in the construction industry every summer since the 8th grade. As you can see from my resume, I worked several summers as a general laborer, gradually moved up to a carpenter, and last summer I worked as assistant construction manager on a 100 million dollar job. In addition to this practical experience, I will complete requirements for my Building Construction degree in May. As you may know, Virginia Tech is one of the few universities in the country that offers such a specialized degree for the construction industry. I am confident that my formal qualification and my work experience in Building Construction make me an excellent candidate for your job. The Anderson Construction Company projects are familiar to me, and my aspiration is to work for a company that has your excellent reputation. I would welcome the opportunity to interview with you. I will be in the Washington area during the week of April 12th and would be available to speak with you at that time. In the next week to ten days I will contact you to answer any questions you may have. Thank you for your consideration. Sincerely, (hand written signature) Josh Lalwany 250 Prices Fork Road Bandra (W), Mumbai, Maharashtra Enclosure




4.4.1 Introduction The success of employment search largely depends on a candidate's ability to design a persuasive resume and an effective job application A resume is a selective record of an individual's background. It is basically a professional employment-seeking document that presents a summary of an individual's education, professional experience, skills, abilities, achievements, and references. It introduces the individual to a potential employer. Writing an effective resumes that represents one's current skills, abilities, and background is a challenge faced by all candidates. 4.4.2 Resume Design The design of a resume largely depends on a person's background, employment needs, career goals, and professional conventions in the area of specialization. For best results, a resume must be designed to reflect the candidate's personality, employment goals and his or her career aspirations. A resume should be original. However, whatever the resumes design, the resume must answer the following questions: (a) How can the employer contact the candidate? (b) What are his/her career objectives? (c) Which institution has been attended? (d) What courses (academic or professional) has been completed? (e) What is his/her work experience? (f) What are his/her career achievements? (g) What are his/her special skills or capabilities? (h) What are the/her awards or honors that he/she has received? (i) What are his/her activities/special interests/hobbies? (j) Who are his/her references? The standard elements of a resume include the heading; position sought, career objective, education, work experience, specific skills, achievements, activities, interests, and references. Heading The heading of a resume includes contact information, which contains the applicant's name, full postal address with pin code, telephone number with area code, fax number, and e-mail address. Position Sought If applying for a solicited job position, the position sought should be mentioned so that the employer is able to distinguish the

109 application from those who might have applied for other positions available in the company/organisation. However, it is not necessary to include this part in the r6sum6 if the application is for an unsolicited job position. Career Objective Career objective is a special part in a r6sum6. It occurs just above the main experience and education parts. If responding to an advertised job position, the resume should include the applicant’s career objective, which should be tailored to the position he/she is seeking. Thus, it should be & specific one-sentence focused statement expressing his career goals in relation to the targeted position. It should convey his/her motivation and interest in the job he/she is seeking. It would just express your general career goals and tell the potential employer the sort of work you are hoping to do. Study the following examples: 1. Seeking a suitable position in finance and capital management. 2. Challenging position in capital and investment firms. 3. Position in academic administration. Professional Summary Some resumes may include a professional summary in place of career objective. It is a one-sentence statement listing the applicant's most important qualifications, his/her skills, and his/her key work experience. This part should be included in the resume if the wishes to highlight the relevance of his/her qualifications, special skills, and key work experience position he/she is applying for. Four years of experience as a accounts manager. Education In this part of the resume, specific details regarding the applicant's education and professional training must be included. The name and location of the school/ college/university/institution attended, dates of attendance, major areas of study, degrees/certificates received should be mentioned applicant's grade point average/class/division if it is on the higher side may also be mentioned. The training programmes, special courses, seminars and workshops that the applicant might have co attended, or conducted should also be included. Reverse chronological order is used to list educational information that is, starting from the most recent educational information. Work Experience This part of the resume should provide a brief and specific overview of the work and professional experience. As prior work experience is a vital part of any hiring decision applicant must draft this part of the resume very carefully. If he/she has impressive work

110 ex relevant to the position he/she is seeking, it makes more sense to mention it before providing the educational information. Special Skills, Abilities, and Aptitudes In this part of the resume, the applicant's special abilities and aptitudes that are of significance and of direct relevance to the job applied for are examples of learned skills include computer programming, computer programming, and data processing. Foreign languages, accounts handling, consulting, drafting, commercial writing, and so on must be included. It is necessary to be selective and specific, highlighting only those skills and talents that are relevant to the targeted job. Activities and Interests Extra-curricular, co-curricular, professional activities, and hobbies and interest must be mentioned. These activities must show that the applicant is a dynamic and energetic person who can accept challenges. Companies prefer such people. Achievements/Accomplishments/Honours The applicant's achievements, accomplishments, and distinguish him from the rest. They convince the employer that he/she is an achiever and there-worth hiring. This part should include scholarships, fellowships, awards, distinctions, commendation certificates, or anything that shows achievement or recognition. References Some employers need references from persons who know the applicant's work or professional and competence through formal and professional interaction with him/her. When applying for a solicitation position where the employer wants references, the names of three persons who can give letters of recommendations or references should be mentioned.



Choosing an appropriate resume style largely depends on the applicant's qualifications, career goals, and personal preferences. 4.5.1 Model Resume I VIDHYADHAR PATIL A-25/31, Sector-20, Nerul, Navi Mumbai 400706 E-mail: [email protected]


Chief Accountant To contribute to the growth of a leading financial consultant & management company by working in a challenging position where I will have opportunities to utilise my exposure to finance management methodologies and experience as chief accountant in auditing of various types of accounts.


Chief Accountant, Shirke & Bros Financial Consultants Pvt. Ltd., Pune, Maharashtra, December 2001 to present Handled various projects within or ahead of the schedule through strict planning, monitoring, and control while maintaining the best accounting standards Maintain customer relations through effective presentation of accounting expertise

Assistant Finance Manager (Civil), Shivaji Finance and Capital Investment Pvt. Ltd, Bhosle Street, Pune-1 December 1998 to November 2001 • Assist in the accounting management of various accounting • Coordinate with Head Office, clients, various departments and others. • Maintain close liaison with clients EDUCATION • K J Somaiya College of Accounting and Finance B.Com in Accounting and Financial Management, July 1998 • Institute of Information Technology, Mumbai Certificate in Computer Programming, December, 1998 • K J Somaiya Institute of Management and Research, MBA July, 2001. SPECIAL SKILLS • •

Proficient in MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows, Excel, and Word 98 and 2000 Good problem-solving skills

112 • •

Excellent communication interpersonal skills Competent in speaking French



Member, Institution of Managers, Mumbai Member, National Cadet Corps, 19941996 Secretary, Society for Promotion of Peace and Harmony, New Delhi


Badminton, Football, Cycling Classical Music, Movies, Fiction

4.5.2 Model Resume II 225 West 70 Sam New Mumbai, NM10M3 Phone: 022-2771555 Email: [email protected] Amruta Gorhe Objective: Entry-level staff accounting position with a public accounting ilia Experience: Summer 2002:

Accounting Intern: Coopers & Lybrand, NM

Assisted in preparing corporate tax returns

Attended meetings with clients

Conducted research in corporate tax library and wrote research reports

Nov. 1998 – Payroll Specialist: City of New Mumbai Aug. 2000 •

Worked in a full-time civil service position in tin Department of Administration

Used payroll and other accounting software an both DEC 1034 minicomputer and Pentium IR

Represented 28-person work unit on the departments management–labor committee

Left job to pursue college degree full-time

113 Education: Jan. 1996 to Present •

Pursuing a 5-year bachelor of business administration degree (major in accounting) from NYU

Graduation date: June 2003

Attended part-time from 1996 until 2001 wb& holding down a full-time job

Have financed 100% of all college expenses

Plan to sit for the CPA exam in May 2009 through savings, work, and student loans

Personal Data • Helped start the Minority Business Student Association at NM, and served as program director for two years; secured the publishers dalit Enterprise magazine as a banquet speaker • Have traveled extensively throughout South India • Am a member of the Accounting Society • Am willing to relocate Reference Available upon request 4.5.3 Model Resume III RAYMOND J. ARNOLD OBJECTIVE Labor relations position in a large multinational firm that requires well-developed labor relations, management, and communication skills SKILLS LABOR RELATIONS • Majored in labor relations; minored in psychology • Belong to Local 463 of International Office Workers Union • Was crew chief for the second-shift work team at Wainwright Bank MANAGEMENT • Learned time-management skills by working 30 hours per week while attending school full-time • Was promoted twice in three years at Wainwright Bank • Practiced discretion while dealing with the financial affairs of others; treated all transactions confidentially

114 COMMUNICATION • Developed a Web page for Alpha Kappa Psi business fraternity • Ran for senior class vice president, making frequent campaign speeches and impromptu remarks • Took elective classes in report writing and business research • Am competent in Microsoft Office XP and Internet research EDUCATION B.S. Degree from Boston University to be awarded June 2003 Major: Labor Relations; Minor: Psychology EXPERIENCE Bank teller, Wainwright Bank, Boston, Massachusetts: 2000–Present Salesperson, JC Penney, Norfolk, Nebraska: Summer 1998 REFERENCES Available from the Career Information Center Boston University, Boston, MA 02215; phone: 617-555-2000 4.5.4 Final Tips Like a job application, a resume is an important employmentseeking document. Thus, it should be as persuasive as possible. As a resume is created, reviewed, or revised, the following simple points should be borne in mind: Give the Resume a Professional Look Be Factual, Complete and Objective Use Appropriate Writing Style Use Specific Details Organise the Resume properly. Take Care of Grammar, Usage, Vocabulary, Spelling and Punctuation



4.6.1 Introduction to Resignation Letter Resignation letters are generally one of the last communications from the employee to the organization or company. It is important to keep it positive or neutral, as it would be in the records of the company. The letter must be brief and to the point. The letter must include the effective date of resignation, the post from which you

115 wish to resign and also the last date of working in the organization. The Sample Resignation letter would be one such example. The letter may also include a thanking line for the opportunities provided by the company. It is important to leave on a positive note, without burning the bridges, as it were. This would not only help in garnering a reference in the future but also help in networking in the future, if need be. It is good to give a valid reason for tendering the resignation as it would help the employer or the organization understand your reasons for leaving. If your resignation is because of a genuine complain, it could be formatted on the lines of the Sample Resignation letter with complaint. 4.6.2 Tips to Write Resignation letter One of the highest regarded things that enable an employee to leave employment without burning any bridges and leaving a final and positively lasting impression to the company is a resignation letter. The letter should be submitted in a timely manner because it spells out the time of notice and the date the employee finally leaves the company. It should be formal and professionally formatted too. It should be concise without much detail. However, some letters do call for more information, in which case, one ought to decide how much information should be given in the letter. To write a good resignation letter, one ought to have served long productive years in the company. Further, complete all outstanding projects that one has been working on and show commitment in doing so. It is always prudent to mention the experience and enjoyment one received while working for that company, more so if the tenure has been long. Be careful not to air any long-held grudges and grievances. Finally, show in the letter that under the right circumstances and at the opportune chance of a position falling vacant, one can return to the organization. Leaving a company in good terms earns the employee good references plus good networking possibilities in future. Always keep a copy of the letter.

116 1. Format Sender’s Name, Designation, Address E.g. Robert Brown, Manager, Hall Institutions, Ohio Date 26 June 2001 (or) June 26 2001 Receiver’s Name (with salutation Mr/Ms/Mrs/Dr) Designation, Address E.g. Mrs. Red Hall, CEO, Hall Institutions, Ohio Dear (Salutation and Last Name) Dear Mrs. Hall, The first paragraph should have a brief introduction of the sender of the letter. Be concise and to the point. The second paragraph should be the actual reason of writing the letter. Mention the reasons of the resignation and be honest about the new offer. Mention the experience and the positive points about the organization already working. Ask for a personal meeting to formally resign. Finally end the letter with thanks. Sincerely, Sender’s Name




15 July 2007 Dear Mrs. MacKaine: RE: JOB RESIGNATION LETTER This letter is to inform the company that I have been presented with a business proposal to enable me work in my preferred area of business, which is accounting. I therefore wish to tender my resignation from my position here at Sypone’s Printers and Stationers Company. This letter gives a 2 week’s notice as my last day of employment will be 31st July 2007. I am going into business with my partner. I would like to thank you for the support and guidance that I received while here at Sypone’s Printers and Stationers Company. My contacts are [email protected] and my telephone contact is + 030 26589. Please keep in touch and if you need me to assist in pending paperwork, do not hesitate to call on me. Yours sincerely, 4.7.1 Copy of resignation Letter 5 July 2007 Dear Sir: RE: RESIGNATION Kindly accept my letter as a formal notice of my leaving the position I hold at BeeSee’s Holiday Resort. I will be leaving on August 6, 2007. I have accepted a new position at Holiday Inn Resorts and Clubs. The opportunities and experiences that I received working in this company are many and I thank you for that. I also appreciate the teamwork practiced by the colleagues in your department. Please do not hesitate to contact me if you need me during the transition period and to make the person taking over me more comfortable. My email address is [email protected] and my telephone contact is +91 3265974. Yours sincerely, 4.7.2 Standard Resignation Letter Writer’s address1st July 2006 Dear Sir/Madam: RE: LETTER OF RESIGNATION

118 I hereby tender my resignation to leave the Excel Computers Company Limited. My last working date will be 30th July 2006. I therefore give a notice period of one month as stipulated in my contract. I will be taking up a new position at Fast Move Electronics Company in Chicago. I really appreciate the support and guidance I received during my tenure. The 5 years I have working in the company have seen me grow in experience and confidence in my career. I have completed all pending projects. My contacts are writer’[email protected] and my cell phone number is +01 258 2356. Please do not hesitate to contact me. Yours sincerely,



4.8.1 Introduction Although it’s an unpleasant duty, the issue of Termination of Employment letters is an inescapable aspect of effective Management. However, in all fairness, a Termination Letter should be used only as a last resort after periodic counseling for improvement of performance has had no effect. Termination letters must be polite and not hurt the sentiments of the employee. If possible, a broad idea of the reason for termination should be given. A Termination letter should be given at the far end of the working day so that the employee does not linger or brood in the office to demotivate the other employees. 4.8.2 Termination Letter Format From: Manager HRD & Admin …………………… (Name of Company) To: Mr. /Ms …………………..

119 ……………………. (Designation) …………………….. (Dept) Dear Mr. /Ms ………………… Sub: Termination of Services. Ref: Our Letter No…../Performance/…..dated ……….. Please refer to our letter cited above wherein you were counseled by your HOD to improve your performance. It is pointed out that no improvement in your sales figures has taken place during the subsequent quarter. Hence, we regret to inform you that your services are no longer required with effect from ……….. (Date). Please obtain Clearance Certificate from Accounts dept. We wish you the very best of success in your future endeavours. Yours sincerely, ………………. Copy to:Accounts Dept Place: ……………Dated …………… 4.8.3 Notice of Termination Letter From: Manager HRD & Admin Hyderabad Mahendra Satyam Ltd Letter No.1 /Admin/Termination/1/2010 28th January, 2010 To: Ms Bharati Reddy Administrative Executive Dear Ms Bharati,

120 Sub: Notice of Termination of Services. Ref: Our Letter No 1/Warning/ dated 20-11-2009. Please refer to our letter cited above wherein you were counseled by your HOD to abstain from frequent unauthorized absence from duty. It is stated that no improvement in your attendance has taken place and you continue to be absent without prior approval/intimation subsequently. Hence, you are warned that your services will be terminated without further notice if you absent yourself from duty without prior approval. Please acknowledge receipt of this warning letter. Yours sincerely, —————————– From: Manager HRD & Admin Mahendra Satyam Ltd Hyderabad 28th January, 2010 To: Ms Bharati Reddy Administrative Executive Dear Ms Bharati, Sub: Termination of Services. Ref: Our Letter No 1/Warning/ dated 20-11-2009.

121 Please refer to our letter cited above wherein you were counseled by your HOD to abstain from frequent unauthorized absence from duty. It is stated that no improvement in your attendance has taken place and you continued to be absent without prior approval/intimation subsequently. Hence, we regret to inform you that your services are no longer required with effect from 30th January, 2010 (AN). We wish you the very best of success in your future endeavours. Yours sincerely, ………………. Copy to:Accounts Dept



4.9.1 An apology Letters Obviously, none of us is perfect, so the need to apologize does occur when we commit mistakes. Needless to say, that a written apology is more effective than a verbal one. An Apology letter is written to try and make amends for the mistakes we make. So, sincerity takes precedence over everything. It is a good idea to state exactly why you are apologizing, just so that the person knows you are ready to acknowledge your mistake. It is best to keep the letter sincere, simple and brief. It is good to avoid rhetoric and stick to short “I am sorry letters”. The letter must start with an unequivocal apology and also express your wish to rectify the situation, where it is possible to do so. For instance, if you are writing a Business Apology letter, you could offer something as a gesture of goodwill to make amends for

122 the mistakes committed. After all, the aim of an apology letter is to build bridges and such acts can reiterate the sincerity of your written apology. It is also a good thing to reassure the reader that the same mistake would not be repeated. Be it an apology letter for stealing or a Behaviour apology letter, an assurance of not committing the same mistake again always helps. 4.9.2 Behaviour Apology Letter From: Front End Manager General Hotel Sea View Goa To Manager Hotel Sea View Goa 28th December, 2006. Dear Sir, I would like to sincerely apologize for my behavior on (27th December, 06). I can only attribute it to the high levels of stress I am facing because of my (ill-health). I know that this is not an excuse for my behavior at work. But, I request you to kindly overlook my mistake and forgive me. I would like to reassure you that I shall not repeat such inappropriate behavior in the future. I sincerely and eagerly look forward to your magnanimity. Thanking You, Sincerely, Keshav Rao 4.9.3 Personal Apology Letter To:Bina Singh 459, Pali Hill Mumbai 15th February, 2007. Dear Bina, I would like to sincerely apologize for not making it to your birthday party on (12th February). I had to rush out of town to attend an

123 important business meeting. Had it not been so important, I would never have missed your party. I hope you understand my predicament and forgive me. I do look forward to other occasions for us to celebrate together. With best wishes, Warmly, Raj

4.10 CONDOLENCE LETTER Life is full of exciting events, some happy and some sad. Human beings need to respond to such moments appropriately with felicitations or condolence, as the case may be. A Condolence Letter is written by an individual to a relative, friend, colleague or sister concern expressing his/her sympathy and giving solace on the occurrence of a sad event such as death, accident, serious illness, business loss or loss of employment. Condolence letters must be written in a formal tone and express ones heartfelt grief and solace. They must wish for better times to come in the life of the recipient. 4.10.1

Condolence Letter Format

From: ……………………. (Name) …………… (Place) …………………….. (Address) …………………….. Phone: ……………. ……………. (Date) My …………………. (First Name), I was very sad to know of the sudden demise of your beloved mother on …………. (Date) due to ……………….. (Nature of disease/event). Please accept my sincere condolence in your moment of grief. May God rest her soul in peace and give you the strength and fortitude to bear the deep loss. I would like to add that she treated me like her son and I will miss her unstinted love and affection.

124 With regards and feelings of solace. Yours sincerely, ………………. (First Name) 4.10.2


From: Mr Wilbur Smith London-WC 2 # 212, Kensington Place Piccadilly Phone: 444892038146 30th January, 2010 My dear Charles, It is with profound grief that I came to know of the untimely demise of your beloved mother on 28th January, 2010 due to Cardiac arrest. Please accept my heartfelt condolence on this sad occasion. May God rest her soul in peace and also give you the fortitude to bear the irreparable loss. Your mother had a special place for me in her heart and treated me like her son. I will miss her. With regards and good wishes for better times to come. Yours in grief, Wilbur 4.10.3

Words of Sympathy

From: Mr Samuel McCain Los Angeles Police Captain Los Angeles Police Dept Phone: 15120948136 30th January, 2010 Dear Mrs Johnson,

125 On behalf of the LAPD I wish to convey my profound sympathy on the death of your son, Sgt Douglas Johnson on 28th January, 2010 in a shoot-out with druggies on Highway-17. I knew him personally as an upright and honest Police Officer with the highest integrity for law enforcement. Please accept our heartfelt condolences in your hour of grief. With kind regards. Yours sincerely, Samuel McCain 4.10.4

Formal Condolence

To: Mrs Susannah Johnson # 2432, San Jose California-4352 From: Mr Samuel Gates Washington DC, Secretary of State Office of Defense, Pentagon Phone: 15120948136 30th January, 2010 Dear Mrs. Johnson, It is my onerous duty to intimate the sad news of the death of your son, Captain Mark Johnson of the US Marine Corps on 28th January, 2010 at Bagdam in Afghanistan in a gun battle with the Taleban insurgents. On behalf of the President of the United States, I would like to convey my deepest words of sympathy to you and hope and pray that God Almighty will give you the strength to bear this great personal loss. With kind regards, Yours sincerely, Samuel Gates

126 4.10.5

On death

To: Mrs Evangeline Johnson # 12 Sunset Boulevards Fremont California-4352 From: Mr Stefan Zachary Wolverhampton # 212, Hampton Court Sussex Phone: 444156268179 30th January, 2010 My dear Mike, It is with a heavy heart that I came to know of the sad demise of your beloved father on 28th January, 2010 due to Cardiac arrest. Please accept my profound condolence in your hour of grief on this sad occasion. May God rest his soul in peace and give you the strength to bear the loss of your dearest person in life. Whenever, I visited you, he always had a good word for me and my family. I will miss him very much. With regards and wishing for better times. Yours sincerely, Stefan 4.11 Letters of Congratulation 4.11.1 Introduction Human beings are social animals who are gregarious. They like to communicate with each other on various occasions of happiness and rejoicing. It is customary to write Letters of Congratulations to ones relatives, close friends, colleagues and business associates on events such as birth, marriage, anniversary, graduation from school/college, securing a job/promotion, success of business venture/project etc to show feelings of friendship and mutual rejoicing.

127 The occasions, format, tone and tenor of such letters will differ from person to person depending on the degree of intimacy and association with each other. Congratulation letters must be warm, sincere and convey genuine feelings of happiness 4.11.2 Sample Congratulation Format From: Mr. /Ms ……………………. ………………… (Postal Address) ………………. Phone/Cell No. ………………… Date: …………….. Place: …………… My dear …………. (Name-Formal or First Name as applicable) It gives me immense happiness/pleasure (as applicable) to convey my felicitations/best wishes (as applicable) on the glad/auspicious occasion of …………………… (Name the event- birthday, marriage, promotion, success in exam/project etc as applicable) on …………… (Day/Date). May God Bless and grant you many happy returns of the day/ or many more such favours (as applicable). With warm regards. Yours sincerely or Yours affectionately (as applicable) To: Mr. /Ms ……………………… ……………………………… (Postal Address) …………………. (City) Phone/Cell No. ……………. 4.11.3

Sample Letter

From: Mr. Adarsh Gupta 104, Major Residency Rd No.10, Banjara Hills Hyderabad-500034 Phone: 23357788 20th January, 2012

128 My Dear Pradeep, It gives me immense pleasure to convey my best wishes on the auspicious occasion of the marriage of your elder son, Sunil with Sangeeta on Monday, the 25th January 2010. May God Bless and grant a happy and long wedded life to the newly married couple. I am unable to attend the marriage ceremony as I will be on a business trip to London during that period which cannot be postponed. Yours affectionately, Adarsh 4.11.4


To: Mr. Pradeep Lahkotia 12/3, Garden Towers Masab Tank Hyderabad-500028 From: Mr. M.S Bhatia No.12, Sheronwali Gate Azad Nagar, Jalandhar Phone: 11224488 25th January, 2010 My Dear Narayan, It gives me immense pleasure to convey my felicitations on the happy occasion of your securing a new job with ICICI Bank Secunderabad as Credit Analyst with good career prospects and promotion avenues. May God Bless you and shower many more favours to you. You must now lay down a solid foundation in ICICI Bank for a Managerial position. With warm regards, Yours sincerely,

129 To: Mr. M. Narayan Rao #43, Marredpally East Secunderabad-500003 Phone: 27782049 4.12

Employment Letters

To Whomsoever It May Concern (On Company Letter Head) Letter No. 12/HRD/Mktg/Ref/2/2010 Dated ………………….. This is to certify that Mr. /Ms ………………….. S/O or D/O ………………………. Residing at H.No ……………………….. Mehdipatnam, Hyderabad-500028 was employed in our Company in the position of Manager Marketing from ……………. To ………………… (Dates) on a salary of Rs ………………….. pm (Basic) plus allowances as applicable in the Company. During his above period of service with us, his services were highly satisfactory and his discipline and conduct were exemplary. He has left our Company on his own for better prospects. We wish him the very best of success in his future endeavours. Hyderabad


Date: …………



Effective ‘Promotion’ letters from Employer to Employees foster incentive for work and generate motivation in the Staff. They must contain praise of the positive services of the employee and link it up with the promotion. They should send a clear message to the Staff that promotion has to be ‘earned’ and not to be taken for granted. Although, a promotion letter is addressed to a particular individual, such letters are shared by the recipient with his colleagues and thereby, the message is circulated to all the Staff.

130 Promotion letters are intended for ‘Record’ and go into the personal files (dossiers) of the Staff. Hence, they must be carefully worded in order to satisfy legal requirements and not set a precedent to all employees to ‘demand’ promotion. Promotion letters should be Congratulatory in tone and show appreciation of the good work of the concerned employee. 4.13.2


From: Managing Director …………………. (Name of Company) Letter No. ….. MD/Promotion/Mktg/1/2010 To: Mr. /Ms ……………. (Full Name) …………………… (Designation) Dear Mr. /Ms ………………. The Management has had occasion to review your performance as Marketing Manager during the past 2 years. Your Head of the Dept has forwarded a recommendation for your raise based on your good work. It gives me great pleasure to announce your promotion as Senior Manager Marketing with effect from ……….. (Date) in the pay scale of Rs …………… plus allowances as applicable to the grade. I hope that your promotion will serve as an incentive to better performance and to achieve further laurels in the Company. Well done, keep it up! With regards and best wishes. Yours sincerely, ……………….. Distribution To individual Personal file

131 Accounts Section Place: ………… Dated …………..

4.13.2 Sample II Managing Director …………………. (Name of Company) Letter No. ….. MD/Promotion/Mktg/1/2010 To: Mr. /Ms ……………. (Full Name) …………………… (Designation) Dear Mr. /Ms ………………. Your Head of the Dept has forwarded a recommendation for your raise based on your good work during the past 2 years. We have reviewed your performance and concur with the appraisal of your HOD. It is the policy of the Company to reward high quality performance of the Staff in order to motivate and retain high performers as part of Organization Development. It gives me great pleasure to announce your promotion as Senior Manager Marketing with effect from ……….. (Date) in the pay scale of Rs …………… plus allowances as applicable to the grade. I hope that your promotion will serve as an incentive to achieve further laurels in the Company and that you will not rest with your past achievements. Well done, keep it up! With regards and best wishes. Yours sincerely, ……………….. Distribution To individual Personal file Accounts Section


4.14 E-MAILS 4.14.1

What is email? It's hard to remember what our lives were like without e-mail. Ranking up there with the Web as one of the most useful features of the Internet, e-mail has become one of today's standard means of communication. Billions of messages are sent each year. If you're like most people these days, you probably have more than one e-mail address. After all, the more addresses you have, the more sophisticated you look.. . E-mail is part of the standard TCP/IP set of protocols. Sending messages is typically done by SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) and receiving messages is handled by POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3), or IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol). IMAP is the newer protocol, allowing you to view and sort messages on the mail server, without downloading them to your hard drive. Email, also sometimes written as e-mail, is simply the shortened form of electronic mail, a protocol for receiving, sending, and storing electronic messages. Email has gained popularity with the spread of the Internet. In many cases, email has become the preferred method of communication. Though there is some degree of uncertainty as to when email was invented, the father of the modern version is generally regarded to be American Ray Tomlinson. Before Tomlinson, messages could be sent between users, but only when they were connected to the same computer. Even once computers were networked, messages could not be targeted to a particular individual. Tomlinson devised a way to address email to certain users, and thus was credited for one of the most important communication inventions in the 20th century. Tomlinson's idea was to identify the name of the user and the computer at which he or she was located. As a result, the basic formula for addressing an email was [email protected] This standard has not changed much over the years, other than the user computer now commonly being replaced by the name of an email provider. In some cases, this is the same as the user's Internet service provider. The influence of email cannot be overstated. The United States Postal Service, for example, notes that it handles 212 billion pieces of mail per year. Many sources have nearly that many emails being sent back and forth every single day. In other words,

133 email handles more than 300 times the amount of mail of the largest postal system in the world. Users receive and send email using simple message transfer protocol (STMP). Other protocols, including Post Office Protocol (POP) and Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP), allow users to retrieve and store messages. Although there are other protocols for message retrieval and storage, SMTP is the standard protocol for sending and receiving messages via Internet Protocol (IP). In the beginning, email usage required having a program dedicated to the application, or at least having an email service provider with a system set up to handle it. The software for the application is called email client software. There are many different email applications available, some of which cost money to use while others are free. In addition to accessing electronic mail through email client software, Webmail has also become very popular. Most email service providers offer this as an additional benefit, where the user can access their mailbox over the Internet. Some email services are specifically designed using the World Wide Web as its primary interface. These sites have become very popular, as they usually offer individuals a chance to open an email account at no charge. 4.14.2

Internal Email Internal emails, just like other emails, should not be too informal. Remember, these are written forms of communication that can be printed out and viewed by people other than those for whom they were originally intended! Always use your spell checker, and avoid slang. 4.14.3 Email Writing Tips 4.14.3 .1. Write a meaningful subject line. Recipients scan the subject line in order to decide whether to open, forward, file, or trash a message. Remember -- your message is not the only one in your recipient's mailbox. Before you hit "send," take a moment to write a subject line that accurately describes the content. Subject: [Blank] If you don't put a subject line on your e-mail, you are sending the message that your name in the "From" line is all your recipient should need in order to make it a top priority. That could come across as arrogant, or at the very least, thoughtless. Take

134 advantage of the opportunity to get your recipient thinking about your message even before opening it. Subject: "Important! Read Immediately!!" What is important to you may not be important to your reader. Rather than brashly announcing that the secret contents of your message are important, write an informative headline that actually communicates at least the core of what you feel is so important: "Emergency: All Cars in the Lower Lot Will Be Towed in 1 Hour." Subject: "Quick question." If the question is quick, why not just ask it in the subject line? This subject line is hardly useful. Subject: "Follow-up about Friday" Fractionally better -- provided that the recipient remembers why a follow-up was necessary. Subject: "That file you requested." If you're confident your recipient will recognize your e-mail address, and really is expecting a file from you, then this would be fine. But keep in mind that many e-mail providers get scads of virus-laden spam with vague titles like this. The more specific you are, the more likely your recipient's spam-blocker will let your message through. Subject: "10 confirmed for Friday... will we need a larger room?" Upon reading this revised, informative subject line, the recipient immediately starts thinking about the size of the room, not about whether it will be worth it to open the e-mail. 4.14.3 .2. Keep the message focused and readable. Often recipients only read partway through a long message, hit "reply" as soon as they have something to contribute, and forget to keep reading. This is part of human nature. If your e-mail contains multiple messages that are only loosely related, in order to avoid the risk that your reader will reply only to the first item that grabs his or her fancy, you could number your points to ensure they are all read (adding an introductory line that states how many parts there are to the message). If the points are substantial enough, split them up into separate messages so your recipient can delete, respond, file, or forward each item individually.

135 Keep your message readable. 

 

Use standard capitalization and spelling, especially when your message asks your recipient to do work for you. o If you are a teenager, writing a quick gushing "thx 4 ur help 2day ur gr8" may make a busy professional smile at your gratitude. o But there comes a time when the sweetness of the gesture isn't enough. u want ur prof r ur boss 2 think u cant spl? LOL ;-) Skip lines between paragraphs. Avoid fancy typefaces. Don't depend upon bold font or large size to add nuances. Many people's e-mail readers only display plain text. In a pinch, use asterisks to show *emphasis*. Use standard capitalization. All-caps comes across as shouting, and no caps invokes the image of a lazy teenager. Regardless of your intention, people will respond accordingly.

4.14.3 .3. Avoid attachments. To: All 1000 Employees From: Eager Edgar Subject: A helpful book everyone should read -------Hello, everyone. I've attached a PDF that I think you'll all find very useful. This is the third time I sent it the file -- the version I sent yesterday had a typo on page 207, so I've sent the whole thing again. Since some of you noted that the large file size makes it a bit awkward, I've also attached each chapter as a separate document. Let me know what you think! Attachments: • Big Honking File.pdf (356MB) • BHF Cover.pdf (25MB) • BHF Chapter 1.pdf (35MB) • BHF Chapter 2.pdf (27MB) • [... ]

To: Bessie Professional From: Morris Ponsybil Subject: E-mail tips -- a subject for an office workshop? Bessie, I came across a book that has lots of tips on streamlining professional communications. Has anyone volunteered to present

136 at the office workshop next month? Let me know if you'd like me to run a little seminar (2o minutes?) on using e-mail effectively. Below, I'll paste the table of contents from the book. Let me know if you want me send you the whole thing as a PDF. Table of Contents 1. Write a meaningful subject line. 2. Keep the message focused and readable. 3. Avoid attachments. 4. [...] E-mail works best when you just copy and paste the most relevant text into the body of the e-mail. Try to reduce the number of steps your recipient will need to take in order to act on your message. If your recipient actually needs to view the full file in order to edit or archive it, then of course sending an attachment is appropriate. In general, attachments   

take time to download (and check for viruses) take up needless space on your recipient's computer, and don't always translate correctly for people who read their email on portable devices.

4.14.3 .4. Identify yourself clearly. When contacting someone cold, always include your name, occupation, and any other important identification information in the first few sentences. If you are following up on a face-to-face contact, you might appear too timid if you assume your recipient doesn't remember you; but you can drop casual hints to jog their memory: "I enjoyed talking with you about PDAs in the elevator the other day." Every fall, I get e-mails from "[email protected]" or "[email protected]" who ask a question about "class" and don't sign their real names. While formal phrases such as "Dear Professor Sneedlewood" and "Sincerely Yours," are unnecessary in e-mail, when contacting someone outside your own organization, you should write a signature line that includes your full name and at least a link to a blog or online profile page (something that does not require your recipient to log in first).

137 4.14.3 .5. Be kind. Don't blame. Think before you click "Send." If you find yourself writing in anger, save a draft, go get a cup of coffee, and imagine that tomorrow morning someone has taped your e-mail outside your door. Would your associates and friends be shocked by your language or attitude? Or would they be impressed by how you kept your cool, how you ignored the bait when your correspondent stooped to personal attacks and how you carefully explained your position (or admitted your error, or asked for a reconsideration, etc.). Don't pour gasoline on a fire without carefully weighing the consequences. Will you have to work with this person for the rest of the semester? Do you want a copy of your bitter screed to surface years from now, when you want a letter of recommendation or you're up for promotion? Go ahead... write it, revise it, live it up with traditional Lebanese curses, print it out, throw darts on it, and scribble on it with crayon. Do whatever you need in order to get it out of your system. Just don't hit "Send" while you're still angry. From: Clair Haddad To: Ann O. Ying Subject: Re: Ongoing Problems with Project I'm not sure how to respond, since at the meeting last week you told Sue that you didn't need any extra training, so I cancelled Wednesday's workshop. I can CC Sue in on this thread if you like, since she's the one who will have to approve the budget if we reschedule it. Meanwhile, I can loan you my copies of the manual, or we can look into shifting the work to someone else. Let me know what you'd like me to do next. ---Original Message -From: Ann O. Ying I tried all morning to get in touch with you. Couldn't you find a few minutes in between meetings to check your messages? I'm having a rough time on this project, and I'm sorry if this is last-

138 minute, but I've never done this before and I think the least you could do is take some time to explain it again. If your recipient has just lambasted you with an angry message, rather than reply with a point-by-point rebuttal, you can always respond with a brief note like this, which 1.

Casually invokes the name of someone the angry correspondent is likely to respect (in order to diffuse any personal antagonism that may otherwise have developed) and


Refocuses the conversation on solutions (in this conversation, Ann has already dug herself into a hole, and Clair has nothing to gain by joining her there)

4.14.3 .6.


If you are asking someone else to do work for you, take the time to make your message look professional. While your spell checker won't catch every mistake, at the very least it will catch a few typos. If you are sending a message that will be read by someone higher up on the chain of command (a superior or professor, for instance), or if you're about to mass-mail dozens or thousands of people, take an extra minute or two before you hit "send". Show a draft to a close associate, in order to see whether it actually makes sense. 4.14.3 .7.

Don't assume privacy.

Unless you are Donald Trump, praise in public, and criticize in private. Don't send anything over e-mail that you wouldn't want posted -- with your name attached -- in the break room. E-mail is not secure. Just as random pedestrians could easily reach into your mailbox and intercept the envelopes that you send and receive through the post office, a curious hacker, a malicious criminal, or the FBI can easily intercept your e-mail. In some companies, the e-mail administrator has the ability to read any and all e-mail messages (and may fire you if you write anything inappropriate). 4.14.3 .8. Distinguish between formal and informal situations. When you are writing to a friend or a close colleague, it is OK to use "smiles":-), abbreviations (IIRC for "if I recall correctly", LOL for "laughing out loud," etc.) and nonstandard punctuation and

139 spelling (like that found in instant messaging or chat rooms). These linguistic shortcuts are generally signs of friendly intimacy, like sharing cold pizza with a family friend. If you tried to share that same cold pizza with a first date, or a visiting dignitary, you would give off the impression that you did not really care about the meeting. By the same token, don't use informal language when your reader expects a more formal approach. Always know the situation, and write accordingly.

Respond Promptly.

If you want to appear professional and courteous, make yourself available to your online correspondents. Even if your reply is, "Sorry, I'm too busy to help you now," at least your correspondent won't be waiting in vain for your reply. 4.14.3 .10.

Show Respect and Restraint

Many a flame war has been started by someone who hit "reply all" instead of "reply." While most people know that e-mail is not private, it is good form to ask the sender before forwarding a personal message. If someone e-mails you a request, it is perfectly acceptable to forward the request to a person who can help -- but forwarding a message in order to ridicule the sender is tacky. Use BCC instead of CC when sending sensitive information to large groups. (For example, a professor sends a bulk message to students who are in danger of failing, or an employer telling unsuccessful applicants that a position is no longer open.) The name of everyone in the CC list goes out with the message, but the names of people on the BCC list ("blind carbon copy") are hidden. Put your own name in the "To" box if your mail editor doesn't like the blank space. Be tolerant of other people's etiquette blunders. If you think you've been insulted, quote the line back to your sender and add a neutral comment such as, "I'm not sure how to interpret this... could you elaborate?" 4.14.4 .1 Sample Subject: Title of E-mail in Initial Capitals Engineers and scientists use e-mails to make requests, to answer questions, and to give announcements. E-mails are read quickly. For that reason, get to the point in the first paragraph--the first sentence, if possible. In other words, state what you want up

140 front. Be careful about e-mails that make complaints, which are usually better handled in person. In e-mails, keep the sentence lengths and paragraph lengths relatively short. Sentences should average fewer than twenty words, and paragraphs should average fewer than seven lines. In the format suggested here, you should single space your e-mails, skip a line between paragraphs, and use a typeface that is easily read on a computer. If possible, keep the total e-mail length to a length that can be viewed entirely on the screen. Because the reader sees only the title of your e-mail in the Inbox or in the folder where it has been filed, give some thought to that title. Choose a title that orients the reader to the subject of the e-mail and, if possible, distinguishes your e-mail from other e-mails about that subject. For example, choose "Proposal Draft for Our ME 440W Design Project" as opposed to "Design Project" or "ME 440W." With e-mails, send copies to anyone whose name you mention in the e-mail or who would be directly affected by the email. Also, be sure to mention explicitly any attachments. Finally, remember that final paragraphs of e-mails generally tell readers what you want them to do or what you will do for them. Sincerely, Your Name Your Contact Information 4.14.4 .2


To: [email protected] cc: Bcc: Subject: Invite to the monthly meeting Dear Mr. Brown, I hope you are doing alright with the new assignment. I must compliment you on the quality of work you presented during the last monthly meeting. This mail is an invitation to the monthly meeting of June. I hope to see all the details requested by the board ready for presentation in the meet which is scheduled at the end of the week in the last week

141 of June. I regard that you have ample time to assimilate the details and make them ready. In case there are any changes or details that I need to know beforehand, I recommend that we meet in my office to discuss the same. Please talk to my secretary for an appointment. Feel free to call me on my extension if there is an emergency. Regards, William Jones, Director, SyntelPro Solutions 4.14.4 .3


To: [email protected] Cc: Bcc: Subject: Resume for the post of Software Engineer (Job ID: 4521) Attached: Resume Dear Sir/Madam, I am Sonia Williams and I am writing this email in answer to your advertisement published in the Times asking for Software Engineers with an experience of more than 3 years. The Job ID is 4521 and it was published on the 16th of March. I submit my candidature in reply to the above advertisement. I am a software engineer working with Canbay for the past 4 years. I have all the technical qualifications required for the job. I can also speak French which is a prime requisite as mentioned in the advertisement. My resume and other relevant information are attached with the email. I will be looking forward from any intimation from your end. Thanks and regards, Sonia Williams


4.15 SUMMARY A perfect manger is one who is good in designing the business communication for better results. The communication at work place is a part of our daily official routine. Moreover, we can’t ignore the very basics required to be aware of the theory of communication at work place as it determines our capability and dignity in general. The effective writing of job application and designing of the resume makes difference to the potentiality of the candidate. Also, we need to know how to write the resignation letter or issue termination letter as it helps in maintaining the personal and business relations in long term. The goodwill letters are part of the internal and the external public relations. We understand that a word of sympathy for person in distress may boost his courage to fight the situation, therefore, any ignorance here may cost an opportunity of creating a good relations. A day without email makes us dry these days. An effective email makes your day. A good thinking before typing an email is essential.

4.16 EXERCISE Draft a reply to the following advertisements: 1. Wanted an assistant manager for a Mahape, Navi Mumbai based Software Company. Candidate must be good at computer skills and must posssess management skills. Preference will be given to candidates with a fluent command over English and some relevant work experience. Write along with bio-data to Box. No.3245. The Indian Express, Mumbai 400 023. 2.

You have just passed your B. Sc. examination. Draft a letter of application along with bio-data to Mr. R. D. Kadam, Manager, New Maharashtra Software Pvt. Ltd showing your willingness for their training positions for managerial positions.,


Wanted immediately an experienced accountant, capable of taking charge of all the accounts of a reputed departmental store. Apply along with your detail bio-data to Box ST236, The Times of India, Times Building, Mumbai 400001 with particulars of qualification, experience salary expected etc.


Wanted young male/ female go-getters to achieve centpercent sales target of electronic items for a very popular house. Salary plus commission, special award for good performance, excellent future prospects. Apply within 7 days along with bio-data to P.O. Box 1175, Mumbai; 400 001

143 5.

Wanted Salespersons to promote high quality products of new hardware firm all over Mumbai. Fluency in Marathi, Hindi and English languages is required. Good starting salary as well incentives and excellent prospects as well. Apply within 15 days along with bio-data to The Personal Manger, Maratha Software Pvt. Ltd. Head Office, Parel, Mumbai.


Write an application for the post of a junior manager representative for yourself in Jaydeep and Marathe Ford Pvt. Ltd. Mumbai. As you are a fresh graduate, you may use the single-letter format for writing the letter and biodata.


A leading concern requires the services of a salesman who can push cotton and synthetic fabrics in export markets. Salary on merit. Apply along with bio-data giving details Box No. 82345. The Times of India. Mumbai - 1.


Wanted an assistant manager for a Phoenix Software Pvt. Goregaon, Mumbai. - Candidates must be good at drafting and should preferably have some software background or qualifications along with Bsc. IT. Preference will be given to the candidates having previous experience. Apply along with bio-data.


You have just passed the B.Sc. examination with computer programming as major subject. Draft an application along with bio-data for the post of an accounts officer in any organisation of your choice.


Wanted a fast, accurate and hard-working data entry operator. Apply along with bio-data stating qualifications and salary expected to PO Box No.96241, The Maratha Herald, Fort, Mumbai-1


Wanted immediately a B. Sc. Graduate capable of handling independent correspondence. Preference will be given to those knowing office routine and skills of correspondence through internet. Apply giving full particulars and salary expected and bio-data to The Manager, Marathe Builders, Shivaji Nagar Pune-1


T.R Patil reads in a newspaper that there is a vacancy for the post of A Software Programmer in the Tata Consultancy Ltd. The post being now vacant. Draft an application along with bio-data to this situation.


Write short notes on: a) The You Attitude in the application letter. b) The tone in a letter of application.

144 c) d) e)

The merits of the bio-data or record sheet form. The tone and contents of Appointment Letters and Rejection Letters. Follow-up Application letters.


Explain the terms "single letter application" and "resume'covering' letter application".


Wanted an experienced sales assistant manager with knowledge of computer hardware. Apply along with bio-data immediately in own handwriting to Box K: 550 - K. The Times of India, Mumbai - 400 001."


Draft an application along with bio-data for the post of a junior programmer in a local college. Mention that you know programming and specify the programs that you are well versed in.


Reputed Engineering firm requires Assistant Accounts and finance manager. Applicants must be B. Sc. graduates of a recognised University, 2 Years experience in a similar capacity and must be capable of handling software programs as well as hardware problems independently.


Wanted smart young girls and boys to work as Trainee Managers in a software firm. - Candidates must have passed B. Sc. and must have a good command over English, Marathi and Hindi. Apply along with bio-data to The Manger, Maharashtra Software Pvt. Ltd, Kalbadevi, Mumbai-04


A leading business house requires an Assistant Manager good command over spoken and written English essential. Knowledge of Marathi is desirable. The post carries a good salary and perks. Apply along with bio-data to PO Box M501. The Times of India, Mumbai-1


Wanted a Company Secretary for a commercial concern in Mumbai. Candidates good at drafting with legal knowledge and previous experience in general administration will be preferred. Apply along with bio-data to The Manager, Mumbai 400 001


Wanted an experienced sales-assistant with the knowledge of stenography and office routine. Apply immediately in own hand writing with a Bio-data sheet to Box No. E of 550-F, The Times of India, Mumbai – 400 001.


Requires Personal Secretary, graduate girl, Computer literate with fluent in English from Western Suburbs of Mumbai for

145 Managing Director, Garments Export Ltd. Company at Kandivali (West), Mumbai-75. Apply within 7days . 23.

Wanted Male graduate, Assistant to Director, Computer literate with good knowledge of English, for co-coordinating development of Garment samples for Ghatkopar (E) office, person staying up to Thane/Navi Mumbai. Send bio-data with photo/certificate/ testimonial/ration hard copy by post to the Manager, 6/31, Mittal Estate, Andheri-Kurla Road, Kurla (E), Mumbai – 400 054.


Wanted an experienced Management Graduate to work as the Assistant Public Relations Manager in a reputed Company in New Delhi. Candidates with the required qualifications, legal background and knowledge of at least two foreign languages and communication skills will be preferred. Apply with a Bio-data sheet to Box. No. M 786 P, The Times of India, Mumbai – 400 001."


Imagine you have received an invitation for job interview. Draft a reply of the email.


Your friend has met with an accident recently. You could not find a time to meet him personally. Draft a goodwill letter convincing your compulsion and conveying your regards for him to recover soon and assuring him all the support he may need in future.


Your colleague in your department is getting married soon. He has invited you for his wedding ceremony to be held in Latur. But, you already have an urgent and important meeting on the same day which you cannot skip for any reason. Write an appropriate goodwill letter to him conveying the real situation and wishes for his future married life.

  


5 Unit III EMPLOYMENT COMMUNICATION-III MEMORANDUM Unit Structure 5.1 Objectives 5.2 Introduction 5.3 Structure 5.4 Sample Memo Format / Template 5.5 Tips to write model business memo 5.6 Meeting 5.7 Brochure 5.8 Summary 5.9 Exercise



 To understand the concept of memorandum and the forms of memorandum  To learn the significance of meeting as a part of the employment communication  To learn to draft the appropriate notice for meeting and writing the minutes of meeting  To learn to draft the brochures required to sale the product.



A memorandum or memo is a document or other communication that helps the memory by recording events or observations on a topic, such as may be used in a business office. The plural form is either memoranda or memorandums. A memorandum may have any format, or it may have a format specific to an office or institution. In law specifically, a memorandum is a record of the terms of a transaction or contract, such as a policy memo, memorandum of understanding, memorandum of agreement, or memorandum of association.

147 Alternative formats include memos, briefing notes, reports, letters or binders. They could be one page long or many. If the user is a cabinet minister or a senior executive, the format might be rigidly defined and limited to one or two pages. If the user is a colleague, the format is usually much more flexible. At its most basic level, a memorandum can be a handwritten note to one's supervisor. A specific type of memorandum is the policy briefing note (alternatively referred to in various jurisdictions and governing traditions as policy issues paper, policy memoranda, or cabinet submission amongst other terms), a document for transmitting policy analysis into the political decision making sphere. Typically, a briefing note may be denoted as either “for information” or “for decision”. The primary purpose of a briefing note “for decision” is to support decision making – to “help (or sometimes influence) a decision-maker to make a better decision in a particular problem situation than he might otherwise have made without the analysis”.



As the communication mechanism of the policy analysis process, the briefing note should provide a coherent synopsis of a policy problem; identify different policy options for addressing the problem, articulate opposing perspectives and advocate a recommended option. The typical structure for a briefing note includes: a description of the proposed policy; relevant background information; a discussion of key considerations (including implementation concerns, financial considerations, stakeholder impacts, and possible unanticipated consequences), a summary of arguments for and against the policy and a recommended decision. Policy documents, that start with a proposal and assemble an argument that position are more accurately referred to as a government white paper. A government green paper which raises a policy option and is meant to open a dialogue on the proposal is more similar in tone to a briefing note than is a white paper.



TO: FROM: DATE: SUBJECT: First Sentence: Reason for the memo Second Sentence - Main Body: Any Instructions or information

148 Closing Sentence What is required of the reader e.g. Confirmation, answers or feedback 5.4.2 Sample Memo TO: Kelly Anderson, Marketing Executive FROM: Jonathon Fitzgerald, Market Research Assistant DATE: June 14, 2007 SUBJECT: Fall Clothes Line Promotion Through market research and analysis, it has been discovered that the proposed advertising media for the new fall lines need to be reprioritized and changed. Findings from focus groups and surveys have made it apparent that we need to update our advertising efforts to align them with the styles and trends of young adults today. No longer are young adults interested in sitcoms as they watch reality televisions shows. Also, it is has become increasingly important to use the internet as a tool to communicate with our target audience to show our dominance in the clothing industry. Internet Advertising XYZ Company needs to focus advertising on internet sites that appeal to young people. According to surveys, 72% of our target market uses the internet for five hours or more per week. The following list shows in order of popularity the most frequented sites: * Google * Facebook * Myspace * EBay * iTunes Shifting our efforts from our other media sources such as radio and magazine to these popular internet sites will more effectively promote our product sales. Young adults are spending more and more time on the internet downloading music, communicating and researching for homework and less and less time reading paper magazines and listening to the radio. As the trend for cultural icons to go digital, so must our marketing plans. Television Advertising It used to be common to advertise for our products on shows like Friends and Seinfeld for our target audience, but even the face of television is changing. Young adults are tuning into reality television shows for their entertainment. Results from the focus group show that our target audience is most interested in shows like American Idol, The Apprentice, and America's Next Top Model. The only non-reality television show to be ranked in the top ten most commonly watched shows by males and females 18-25 is

149 Desperate Housewives. At Blue Incorporated, we need to focus our advertising budget on reality television shows and reduce the amount of advertising spent on other programs. By refocusing our advertising efforts of our new line of clothing we will be able to maximize the exposure of our product to our target market and therefore increase our sales. Tapping into the trends of young adults will help us gain market share and sales through effective advertising. Attachments: Focus Group Results, January- May 2007; Survey Findings, January - April 2007.



Almost all companies have a conventional heading that signals an internal memo. "Memorandum" (or "Memo") usually appears in bold letters either left- or center-justified at the top of the page. Other important information that appears at the top of page one includes: Date: Subject: (or Re:) To: From: It should be noted that most word processors like Microsoft Word provide some nice templates for memo layout should you be looking for one. If this is a memo designed to communicate the findings of some project or investigation assigned to the author, then the structure of the memo typically progresses as follows: Introduction (or Background) Two or three sentences that orient your reader about why your are writing to him or her. Your boss may not remember why he or she assigned you this project. In this section, refresh your boss's memory. This should not be an editorial (for example, don't include philosophy about how important this issue is to your company--your readers already know that). Rather, the Introduction should inform the reader about specific background info regarding the project you are writing about (for example, who, what, when, where, why). In most analytical memos, your tone should be unemotional and objective. Avoid putting your conclusions or key points in this section-those things go in the next section.

150 5.5.1 Key Points This section may also be labeled "Recommendations", "Highlights", "Summary", "Conclusions", or something else with a similar summative tone. This is where you place your key points for that busy executive that only has three minutes on the subway. Key points are usually best communicated by listing them as single sentences or phrases (like we have done here). Avoid big blocks of narrative text--most busy readers have difficulties navigating large, wordy paragraphs. Limit your key points to three or less. In an analytical memo your three key points might consist of: * Major strengths or weaknesses that you'd like to highlight. * Opportunities for improvement. * At least one recommendation for action. Your key points must all fit on the first page. Analysis Data, Method, Assumptions Before you engage in any analysis you need to tell your reader some things: * Data. What data will you be using? How and where did you obtain it? * Method. What methods will you be using to analyze your data? * Assumptions. Are there some key assumptions that you will be making during your analysis? By informing your reader about these issues, they'll better know what to expect as they read on... Specific Analysis. This section may also be labeled "Findings", "Details", "Results", or something else that signifies that this is where you provide the details of your analysis. This is for the reader that needs more specific information than the summary info presented in the key points listed above. A useful rule about the analysis section: It should be easy for the reader to clearly link the portions of your Analysis section with each point listed in the Key Points section above. Positioning the Analysis Section. If there is room, begin your analysis section on the bottom of page one. If your analysis is fairly lengthy, consider using subheadings that divide your analysis into logical pieces. Notice that we have done this here by using bold-face phrases to signal the general content of each paragraph.

151 Use of Boldface for Headings and Subheadings. Just like we are doing here, use boldface and different size fonts to highlight section headings and subheadings. Today's word processing software makes it easy for the writer to use different font sizes and headings to guide the reader's eye through the report. Paragraph Size: Avoid big blocks of narrative text. Large paragraphs are impossible to read quickly. Better to break up your thoughts into smaller size chunks. Augment them with boldfaced subheadings--just like we are doing here. Use of Data Most analytical reports require the incorporation of data in order to be convincing. Data provide a sense of objectivity and encourage "managing by fact". Data are usually expressed in either tables or graphs. They can be placed inside the analysis section (increasingly popular as word processors facilitate cut-andpaste) or at the end of the report as attachments. In either case, all tables and graphs should have a title and numerical reference, and your analysis should make specific reference to each table or graph you have included in your report. Attaching the raw data used in your analysis is usually a good idea. Limitations What are the limitations of your analysis and findings? For example, the data that you use may be incomplete or suspect--you may need to note that to your reader. Indeed, a "Limitations" or similar section may be a chance to impose your superior grasp of the context that frames your project. Your reader will appreciate this. What Not to Include. Never incorporate data that is not specifically referenced in your analysis. Do not end the memo with your conclusions! They should be stated in list form on Page One. Persuasive Memorandum To: Andy Andler, Benita Buchanan, Charles Chavez CC: Darcy Danko From: Heady the Head Honcho Date: June 1, 2006 Re: Need for New Memo Format I’ve noticed that we don’t seem to be able to communicate important changes, requirements and progress reports throughout the company as effectively as we should. I propose developing one

152 consistent memo format, recognizable by all staff as the official means of communicating company directives. While I know this seems like a simple solution, I believe it will cut down on needless e-mail, improve universal communication and allow the staff to save necessary information for later referral. Please talk among yourselves to determine the proper points of memo writing and return the input to me by 12 noon. I will then send out a notice to the entire staff regarding the new memo format. Thank you for your prompt attention to this.


Memo To: All Staff From: Heady the Head Honcho Date: June 1, 2006 Re: New Memo Format Effective June 1 In order to make interoffice communications easier, please adhere to the following guidelines for writing effective memos:      

Clearly state the purpose of the memo in the subject line and in the first paragraph. Keep language professional, simple and polite. Use short sentences. Use bullets if a lot of information is conveyed. Proofread before sending. Address the memo to the person(s) who will take action on the subject, and CC those who need to know about the action. Attach additional information: don’t place it in the body of the memo if possible.

Please put this format into practice immediately. We appreciate your assistance in developing clear communications. If you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to call me. Thank you.



Memo To: Heady the Head Honcho, Andy Adler From: Darcy Darko Date: June 15, 2006 Re: Update on the T-12 Phase Three testing As we enter Phase Four of the T-12 testing, I wanted to provide a progress overview of the Phase Three testing. The body of the memo might include two-four paragraphs outlining the purpose of the memo. If this is a longer memo, each paragraph will have a subhead to help guide the reader through the document. Finally, the writer includes a summary paragraph, which features bullets highlighting the main points of each previous paragraph, and concludes the memo with a stated action required by the reader or writer. A quick note about the use of "memo" vs. "memorandum:" it doesn't really matter. It falls in line with the style selected by the writer.



Formal or informal deliberative assembly of individuals called to debate certain issues and problems, and to take decisions. Formal meetings are held at definite times, at a definite place, and usually for a definite duration to follow an agreed upon agenda. In a corporate setting, they are divided into two main groups Organizational meeting: normally a regular meeting involving stockholders (shareholders) and management, such as a board meeting and annual general meeting (AGM). Operational meeting: regular or ad hoc meeting involving management and employees, such as a committee meeting, planning meeting, and sales meeting. A meeting is typically headed by a chairperson, and its deliberations are recorded in a written form called minutes. Under corporate legislation, two main types of meetings are general meetings and special or extraordinary meetings. Such meetings must have a minimum number of members (called quorum) present to make the legally operative. Decisions (called resolutions) are made on the basis of number of votes the assenting and dissenting parties can muster. Under the doctrine of collective responsibility, decisions taken at these

154 meetings bind all members whether present or not. However, a dissenting minority may apply to a court to have an already adopted resolution set aside if it is deemed illegal, iniquitous, or ultra vires 5.6.1 Effective Conductance of Meeting Don't Meet Avoid a meeting if the same information could be covered in a memo, e-mail or brief report. One of the keys to having more effective meetings is differentiating between the need for one-way information dissemination and two-way information sharing. To disseminate information you can use a variety of other communication media, such as sending an e-mail or posting the information on your company's intranet. If you want to be certain you have delivered the right message, you can schedule a meeting to simply answer questions about the information you have sent. By remembering to ask yourself, "Is a meeting the best way to handle this?" you'll cut down on wasted meeting time and restore your group's belief that the meetings they attend are necessary. Set Objectives for the Meeting Set objectives before the meeting! Before planning the agenda for the meeting, write down a phrase or several phrases to complete the sentence: By the end of the meeting, I want the group to… Depending on the focus of your meeting, your ending to the sentence might include phrases such as: …be able to list the top three features of our newest product, …have generated three ideas for increasing our sales, …understand the way we do business with customers, …leave with an action plan, …decide on a new widget supplier, or …solve the design problem. One benefit of setting objectives for the meeting is to help you plan the meeting. The more concrete your meeting objectives, the more focused your agenda will be. A second important benefit of having specific objectives for each meeting is that you have a concrete measure against which you can evaluate that meeting. Were you successful in meeting the objectives? Why or why not? Is another meeting required? Setting meeting objectives allows you to continuously improve your effective meeting process. Provide an Agenda Beforehand Provide all participants with an agenda before the meeting starts. Your agenda needs to include a brief description of the meeting objectives, a list of the topics to be covered and a list stating who will address each topic and for how long. When you send the agenda, you should include the time, date and location of the meeting and any background information participants will need to know to hold an informed discussion on the meeting topic. What's the most important thing you should do with your agenda? Follow it closely!

155 Assign Meeting Preparation Give all participants something to prepare for the meeting, and that meeting will take on a new significance to each group member. For problem-solving meetings, have the group read the background information necessary to get down to business in the meeting. Ask each group member to think of one possible solution to the problem to get everyone thinking about the meeting topic. For example, to start a sales meeting on a positive note, have all participants recall their biggest success since the last meeting and ask one person to share his success with the group. For less formal meetings or brainstorming sessions, ask a trivia question related to the meeting topic and give the correct answer in the first few minutes of the meeting. These tips are sure-fire ways to warm up the group and direct participants' attention to the meeting objectives. Assign Action Items Don't finish any discussion in the meeting without deciding how to act on it. Listen for key comments that flag potential action items and don't let them pass by without addressing them during your meeting. Statements such as We should really…, that's a topic for a different meeting…, or I wonder if we could… are examples of comments that should trigger action items to get a task done, hold another meeting or further examine a particular idea. Assigning tasks and projects as they arise during the meeting means that your follow-through will be complete. Addressing off-topic statements during the meeting in this way also allows you to keep the meeting on track. By immediately addressing these statements with the suggestion of making an action item to examine the issue outside of the current meeting, you show meeting participants that you value their input as well as their time. Examine Your Meeting Process Assign the last few minutes of every meeting as time to review the following questions: What worked well in this meeting? What can we do to improve our next meeting? Every participant should briefly provide a point-form answer to these questions. Answers to the second question should be phrased in the form of a suggested action. For example, if a participant's answer is stated as Jim was too long-winded, ask the participant to re-phrase the comment as an action. The statement we should be more to-thepoint when stating our opinions is a more constructive suggestion. Remember – don't leave the meeting without assessing what took place and making a plan to improve the next meeting!

156 5.6.2 Notice Introduction to Notice writing A notice is written by an individual, a group, an organization or a body to draw the attention of the readers to a certain issue that needs immediate attention or active participation. Points to remember * Notice to be within a box. * All the relevant details to be given. * A captivating heading needed. * The name and the designation of the writer to be given at the end. * Adhere to the word limit Sample Notice writing Put up a notice on the school bulletin board, asking the Group Captains and the Vice-captains to meet at the auditorium to discuss about the Athletic Meet of the year with the Principal and the Vice-Principal. You are George Page, the College Prefect.(50 words) 5.6.3 Sample GREYFIELD PUBLIC COLLEGE NOTICE 12th November, 2009 ATTENTION! GROUP CAPTAINS AND VICE-CAPTAINS The Group captains and vice-captains have to assemble in the auditorium at 3 p. m. today for a discussion on the Annual Athletic Meet of the year with the Principal and the Vice-Principal. For further enquiries contact the undersigned. Jigar Mehata College Prefect Standard Sample SAMPLE MEETING NOTICE The _________________ [Name of Governing Body] of the _________________ [Name of Public Entity] (hereafter referred to as "governing body") will be holding a(n) __________ [regular, special, or emergency] meeting on _______ [Date] at ________ [Time]. The meeting will be held in the _________ room at_________________________ [Location of the Meeting]. In the event that any or all any or all of the members of the governing body participate in the meeting by telephone or video, a speakerphone or monitor will be available at the location noted above.

157 At the time this notice is being prepared, the governing body expects the agenda of its meeting to include the following topics: [Include all topics the governing body expects to discuss. Also include the topics to be discussed during, and the legal authority for holding, any anticipated executive sessions.] 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Where noted, the discussion of some of the above topics may be held in executive session rather than during the portion of the meeting which is open to the public. If this is a regular meeting, additional topics may be discussed. If this is a special or emergency meeting, the governing body's discussion will be limited to the topics and executive sessions listed above. Date of Notice: ___________ Name of Person Preparing Notice: _____________________ Example University of Pune Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 Graphic Address: “UNIPUNA” Phone No.s : 020 - 25691341, 25601206 25601218 Ref. : Exam. Co.ord. /1683 Date 07.12.2009 The Principals, All affiliated colleges of Engineering, Sir/Madam, I am to inform you that F.E. On Line examination for the subject ‘Fundamentals of programming languages’ will be held between 6th January 2010 and 10th January 2010.The detail schedule will be uploaded shortly on University website ‘’. You are requested to communicate the same to the concerned Students, Teachers and all the other concerned. Thanking You, Yours Faithfully, Dy.Registrar Exam-Co-ordination Notice and Agenda



According to Wikipedia, a brochure (also referred to as a pamphlet) is a type of leaflet. Brochures are most commonly found at places that tourists frequently visit, such as museums, major shops, and tourist information centres. Brochure racks or stands may suggest visits to amusement parks and other points of interest. Another type of brochure is interpersonal brochures, which are brochures based

158 on other people. Then there are pamphlets that you can find in health clinics and hospitals that give help and advice to do with your health. The two most common brochure styles are single sheet, and booklet (folded leaflets) forms. The most common types of single-sheet brochures are the bi-fold (a single sheet printed on both sides and folded into halves) and the tri-fold (the same, but folded into thirds). A bi-fold brochure results in four panels (two panels on each side), while a tri-fold results in six panels (three panels on each side). Other folder arrangements are possible: the accordion or "Zfold" method, the "C-fold" method, etc. Larger sheets, such as those with detailed maps or expansive photo spreads, are folded into four, five, or six panels. Booklet brochures are made of multiple sheets most often saddle stitched (stapled on the creased edge) or "perfect bound" like a paperback book, and result in eight panels or more. Brochures are often printed using four color process on thick gloss paper to give an initial impression of quality. Businesses may turn out small quantities of brochures on a computer printer or on a digital printer, but offset printing turns out higher quantities for less cost. Compared with a flyer or a handbill, a brochure usually uses higher-quality paper, more color, and is folded. 5.7.1 How to Design and Layout a Brochure Designing a basic brochure - how hard can that be? For good graphic designers, the answer is a lot tougher than you think. Even for the most basic type of brochure, before you ever put pencil to paper or click your mouse, there is essential information the client and you need to discuss. The first thing you need to know is the purpose of the brochure or what the client wants that brochure to accomplish. That ties directly into who the target audience is and what the message of the brochure will be. There are three main types of brochures and in each case; the cover is used to accomplish a specific goal. The three types of brochures are those that are used to advertise or market, those that educate or inform, and those that entertain. For a brochure whose primary purpose is to advertise or market products and services, the cover will most likely have two parts: a catchy phrase that grabs the potential customer’s attention, and then lists the benefits of the product (what will this product do for me?). In the instance of a brochure that is primarily educational or

159 informative, the product generally appears on the cover with the information of what it does or can do listed inside. The entertaining brochure is used the least. You might see it in a family-style restaurant, for example, and it contains puzzles, drawings, etc. for kids to keep them occupied. But, for this piece, I’ll focus on the first two types of brochures. The next thing you and the client need to decide is the number of panels in the brochure, which is influenced by a number of factors. Some questions to consider: How much information will be in this brochure? How is this brochure going to be used? Is there a bleed? Is the brochure going to be of a unique design that might include die-cuts or unusual folding? Will the brochure be a direct mail piece? If so, what are the postal regulations for the size and mailing costs? Also under mailing, will there be a returned piece such as a Business Reply Card (BRC)? What is the allotted budget for the brochure? Designers need to get the parameters and specifications from the client before they proceed, as these may greatly affect the cost. Printers can also be a tremendous resource in explaining how a brochure’s parameters and specifications will affect everything from the size of paper a brochure is printed on, to trimming, folding, and special cuts. Once those decisions are made, the graphic designer and client need to discuss what is often referred to as the “hierarchy of information”• or what’s the order of information; starting with the most important and moving onto the least. At this stage, you’ll need to know on which panel or panels information is being placed. In some brochures, information (particularly photographs and maps) can go across two panels to striking effect. At the same time, when thinking about how the brochure will be laid out, consider whether each individual panel will hold distinct information or are the panels related? You’re still not quite ready to move into the actual design process as you need to refer back to that target audience the brochure is aimed at. Here you need to know the answer to the following question: what is the message the client is sending with this brochure? Advertising, educating, informing, and entertaining are how that message is presented; the actual message is what you want to say about the particular product, service, or company.

160 When all that information is gathered, you can finally get down to the business of designing. You’ll take into account the basic elements of good design - alignment, repetition for a sense of unity, contrast and a focal point that provides interest, balance, scale and perspective, color, and so on. You’ll also want to keep in mind the font, size, color, and orientation of the text. As with any design there are also things you’ll want to avoid. These include: Avoid over-used typefaces, two of which are Arial and Helvetica. For content type, keep the point size under 12. Don’t use more than three type faces in a brochure. Generally don’t use more than one alignment. As you can see, designing even a standard six-panel brochure is often a much more complicated process than you initially might think. The more organized you are, the easier the graphic design process will be, and probably a lot more fun. With any design project, it’s a good idea to have all the necessary information, pictures, parameters, and specifications before you let your creative juices flow.

5.7.2 Brochure Writing Sample One page sample from highlevel corporate product brochure Executive Summary Dependable Systems for Total Data Protection VAX systems and servers provide the dependability, reliability, and peace-of-mind you need in a system that supports your business-critical applications. You can count on a VAX system to protect your data anywhere -- on the desktop, in the department, or in the computer room. The inherent reliability of VAX hardware combined with the data protection features of the VMX operating system create a computing environment you can depend on now.

161 Broad Range of Systems with Exceptional Growth With a VAX system you can choose the best system for your organization today with the knowledge that it will still be the best system for your organization tomorrow. While building upon the strengths of the broad, compatible range of VAX systems, Digital will actively develop new technology that will keep you and your VAX systems on the cutting edge for years to come. Performance Leadership in Open Networks Digital offers exceptional networking products for local and wide area networking with systems from Digital and other vendors. Our network management products ensure that your networks operate at peak performance, distributing business-critical data throughout your enterprise. Open Computing Through Standards Through standards and Network Application Support (NAS) services, Digital enables more computers and people to work together, so your organization is productive and competitive. We now tie together applications running across the widest range of desktops, operating systems, and large-system resources from a variety of vendors And we will provide maximum applications portability for VAX/VMS systems through the support of POSIX and X/Open's XPG3. Over 10,000 Applications and the Best Tools to Write Your Own VAX systems today run well over 10,000 applications. These applications offer solutions for offices, data centers, factories, laboratories, and engineering departments. For writing your own applications, Digital provides a CASE environment so rich in development tools that programming time is often cut in half. Exceptional Reliability, Quality, and Service The quality that Digital designs and builds into every VAX system and server translates into maximum system uptime and availability. The hardware design is inherently reliable, and the software design ensures that your data is safe. A Digital service partnership covers every aspect of planning, installation, implementation, and maintenance worldwide.


5.7.3 Samp le II Brochure Writing Sample Interior page from high-level corporate product brochure A VAX system is a wise investment for today, and for the future. VAX systems comprise the broadest family of 100-percent compatible computers available, so you can choose the best workstation, departmental system, or mainframe for your organization. It's a cost-effective approach to computing because you never have to purchase more computing power than you need, yet you still keep your options open. With VAX systems, you can always adapt to changes in your marketplace. If your business grows, you can easily make your system grow without having to sacrifice investments in hardware, software, and training. Digital is aggressive when it comes to improving the performance and price/performance of VAX systems without compromising our history of compatibility. You can be assured that these benefits will be passed along to you, so that you and your VAX system can continually grow -- keeping your competitive edge sharp.

163 One Family, Unlimited Options The versatility of VAX systems makes them perfect for a wide variety of tasks. Want timesharing? Client/server computing? High availability, fault-tolerance, transaction processing, real time, or vector processing? A VAX system is always the right answer. The entire VAX family is versatile enough to suit everyone's needs -- from the small business interested in a MicroVAX system for the price of a PC, to the multinational corporation with wide area networks of VAX cluster systems containing VAX mainframes and supercomputers. Investment Protection and Enhancement Growth opportunities are built into each level of the VAX family, making the value of your computing investment continue to grow over time. A VAX system gives you the ability to react to unpredictable changes in the marketplace. If your priorities change, you can take advantage of new applications or shift computing resources. If your organization experiences unforeseen growth, you can be confident that your VAX systems will grow with you -protecting and actually enhancing your investments in hardware, software, and personnel.

5.8 SUMMARY A memorandum or memo is a document or other communication that helps the memory by recording events or observations on a topic, such as may be used in a business office. The plural form is either memoranda or memorandums. A memorandum may have any format, or it may have a format specific to an office or institution. In law specifically, a memorandum is a record of the terms of a transaction or contract, such as a policy memo, memorandum of understanding, memorandum of agreement, or memorandum of association. Formal or informal deliberative assembly of individuals called to debate certain issues and problems, and to take decisions. Formal meetings are held at definite times, at a definite place, and usually for a definite duration to follow an agreed upon agenda. In a corporate setting, they are divided into two main groups: Organizational meeting, Operational meeting: regular or ad hoc meeting involving management and employees, such as a

164 committee meeting, planning meeting, and sales meeting. A meeting is typically headed by a chairperson, and its deliberations are recorded in a written form called minutes. A brochure (also referred to as a pamphlet) is a type of leaflet. Brochures are most commonly found at places that tourists frequently visit, such as museums, major shops, and tourist information centers. Brochure racks or stands may suggest visits to amusement parks and other points of interest.




What do you understand by the memorandum? What is its significance in the business communication?


What are the common formats of the memorandums? Explain it giving details of the essential components.


Draft a memo to be issued to your employee asking them to maintain the discipline in the working hours.


Imagine that one of your subordinates is involved in misconduct while on duty. Draft a memo to be issued to him.


Your locality is infested with lots of rodents and the pests. Draft a memorandum presented to the health officer of your area.


Discuss various tips required to maintain while drafting the brochure.


Draft a sample brochure to sale a new personal computer.


What is the significance of meeting in routine business affairs?


Explain the various tips to be followed while conducting a meeting?


Discuss the role of chairman in conducting a meeting.


Draft a notice to the following events:



Annual general body meeting of your company.


A special meeting to discuss a progress report of your company


Annual Share Holders Meeting


Pre Budget Meeting

Draft model minutes for the following meetings: a.

Annual general body meeting of your company.

165 b.

A special meeting to discuss a progress report of your company


Annual Share Holders Meeting


Pre Budget Meeting

        


6 Unit IV WRITING REPORTS Unit Structure 6.1 Objectives 6.2 Introduction 6.3 Different types of reports 6.4 Stages in report writing 6.5 Structuring your report 6.6 Style of writing 6.7 Sample 6.8 Summary 6.9 Exercise



 To know what report writing is  To understand and equip the art of report writing  To learn the various steps involved in report writing



A report is a statement of the results of an investigation or of any matter on which definite information is required. (Oxford English Dictionary) Formal report writing in professional, technical and business contexts has evolved certain conventions regarding format, style, referencing and other characteristics. These will vary in detail between organisations, so the information given below should be treated as general guidelines which hold good in the absence of any more specific `house styles' Reports are a highly structured form of writing often following conventions that have been laid down to produce a common format. Structure and convention in written reports stress the process by which the information was gathered as much as the information itself. As the business environment grows in its complexity, the importance of skillful communication becomes essential in the

167 pursuit of institutional goals. In addition to the need to develop adequate statistical skills, you will find it necessary to effectively communicate to others the results of your statistical studies. It is of little use to formulate solutions to business problems without transmitting this information to others involved in the problemsolving process. The importance of effectively communicating the results of your statistical study cannot be overemphasized. Unfortunately, it seems that many business managers suffer from inadequate communication skills. The December 1990 issue of the Training and Development Journal reports that "Executives polled in a recent survey decry the lack of writing skills among job candidates." A report in 1993 issue of Management Review notes the "liability imposed on businesses by poor writing sills." The report states that employers are beginning to place greater emphasis on communication in hiring practices. Many employers have adopted policies requiring job candidates to submit a brief written report as part of the screening process. An August 1992 issue of Marketing News reveals that "Employers seek motivated communicators for entry-level marketing positions." Obviously, the pressing lack of adequate writing and communications skills in American businesses is well documented. Therefore, the purpose of this appendix is to illustrate some of the major principles of business communication and the preparation of business reports. We examine the general purpose and essential features of a report and stress the benefits of effective report writing. Emphasis is placed on the customary form a business report should take and the format, content, and purpose of its component parts. We will study illustrations of practical reports and the problems will provide the opportunity for students to develop and sharpen their communication skills. 6.2.1 The Need to Communicate Most business decisions involve the cooperation and interaction of several individuals. Sometimes dozens of colleagues and co-workers strive in unison to realize mutual goals. Lines of communication must therefore be maintained to facilitate these joint efforts. Without communicating ideas and thoughts it would be impossible to identify common objectives and purposes necessary for successful operations. Without communication and the team effort it permits, the successful completion of any important project can be jeopardized. Some aspects of the project would be unnecessarily replicated while other tasks would be left unattended. Further, in the absence of adequate communication, colleagues would find themselves working at Coors purposes and perhaps pursuing opposing goals. What one team member may have worked to assemble one day, a second team member may dismantle the next. Without communication the chances for a

168 successful outcome of any business endeavor are significantly reduced. 6.2.2 The Characteristics of the Reader Business reports are quite often intended for a wide variety of different audiences. It is critical that you carefully identify the intended audience for your report; otherwise, it is likely that your report will be misdirected and less effective. You should consider exactly what the readers of your report already know and what they need to know to make informed decisions. You should also consider the attitude the audience will adopt toward your report. If you fear that the readers may be somewhat hostile toward your report, you may want to offer more supporting evidence and documentation that you would if their reception was thought to be more favorable. The educational background and work experience of the audience is also a key factor in the formulation of your report. A report written for top executives will differ considerably from the prepared for line supervisors in terms of style, word usage, and complexity. Even age, gender, and other demographic characteristics might serve to shape the report. One thing is certain. Whether you earn your livelihood as an accountant, a marketing manager, a production supervisor, or a sales representative, you will work in a vacuum. You will find it necessary to constantly communicate with others in order to successfully complete your job. Generally speaking, the larger the institution in which you work, the greater will be the need to prepare written reports. As the organization grows in complexity, so does the required degree of formal communication.



During your time at university you may be asked to write different types of reports, depending upon the subject area which you have chosen. These could include laboratory reports, technical reports, and reports of a work placement or industrial visit, reports of a field trip or field work. Reports vary in their purpose, but all of them will require a formal structure and careful planning, presenting the material in a logical manner using clear and concise language. The types of reports are as follows: Laboratory reports Health and safety reports Research reports Case study reports

169 Field study reports Cost-benefit analysis reports Proposals Comparative advantage reports Progress reports Feasibility studies Technical reports Instruction manuals Financial reports And on it goes …



The format will depend upon the type and purpose of the report, its intended readers, and the conventions of presentation and layout prescribed by the organisation in which you are operating. In general, there are two broad types of format which are differentiated by whether the summary and/or recommendations are placed after the main body of the report, or are placed earlier, before the main body. The eventual format chosen might be a combination or a condensed version of these two formats. The following stages are involved in writing a report: clarifying your terms of reference planning your work collecting your information organising and structuring your information writing the first draft checking and re-drafting. 6.4.1. Terms of reference The terms of reference of a report are a guiding statement used to define the scope of your investigation. You must be clear from the start what you are being asked to do. You will probably have been given an assignment from your tutor but you may need to discuss this further to find out the precise subject and purpose of the report. Why have you been asked to write it?

170 Knowing your purpose will help you to communicate your information more clearly and will help you to be more selective when collecting your information. 6.4.2 Planning your report Careful planning will help you to write a clear, concise and effective report, giving adequate time to each of the developmental stages prior to submission. Consider the report as a whole Break down the task of writing the report into various parts. How much time do you have to write the report? How can this be divided up into the various planning stages? Set yourself deadlines for the various stages. Draw up an outline structure for your report and set the work within a sensible time scale for completion by the given deadline. Some of the most time-consuming parts of the process are collecting and selecting your information, and checking and revising your report. 6.4.3 Collecting information There are a number of questions you need to ask yourself at this stage:What is the information you need? Where do you find it? How much do you need? How shall you collect it? In what order will you arrange it? You may have much of the information you need already such as results from a laboratory experiment or descriptions of your methods of data collection. However, there may be other material which is needed such as background information on other research studies, or literature surveys. You may need to carry out some interviews or make a visit to the university library to collect all the information you need. Make a list of what information you need. Make an action plan stating how you are going to gather this. 6.4.5 Organising information One helpful way of organising your information into topics is to brainstorm your ideas into a ‘spider diagram.’ Write the main theme in the centre of a piece of paper.

171 Write down all the ideas and keywords related to your topic starting from the centre and branching out along lines of connecting ideas. Each idea can be circled or linked by lines as appropriate. When you have finished, highlight any related ideas and then sort topics. Some ideas will form main headings, and others will be subsections under these headings. You should then be able to see a pattern remerging and be able to arrange your main headings in a logical order 6.5

Structuring your report We discussed earlier that there are different types of report such as laboratory reports or reports on an industrial placement. Always check with the person commissioning the report (your tutor, your placement supervisor) to find out precisely what your report should include and how it should be presented. The following common elements can be found in many different reports:  Title page  Acknowledgements  Contents  Abstract or summary  Introduction  Methodology  Results or findings  Discussion  Conclusion and recommendations  References  Appendices 6.5.1 Title page This should include the title of the report (which should give a precise indication of the subject matter), the author’s name, module, course and the date.

172 6.5.2 Acknowledgements You should acknowledge any help you have received in collecting the information for the report. This may be from librarians, technicians or computer centre staff, for example. 6.5.3 Contents You should list all the main sections of the report in sequence with the page numbers they begin on. If there are charts, diagrams or tables included in your report, these should be listed separately under a title such as ‘List of Illustrations’ together with the page numbers on which they appear. 6.5.4 Abstract or summary This should be a short paragraph summarising the main contents of the report. It should include a short statement of the main task, the methods used, conclusions reached and any recommendations to be made. The abstract or summary should be concise, informative and independent of the report. Write this section after you have written the report. 6.5.5 Introduction This should give the context and scope of the report and should include your terms of reference. State your objectives clearly, define the limits of the report, outline the method of enquiry, give a brief general background to the subject of the report and indicate the proposed development. Introductions to formal reports deal with the following aspects of the text: (a) Topic or subject matter: how the report relates to a field, discipline or area of knowledge (reference to external framework). This is normally expressed in terms of why the topic is of sufficient importance or significance to deserve detailed coverage in a report. (b) Purpose: what is the communicative intention in compiling the report (to describe, explain, examine, review, discuss etc.). (c) Scope: which aspects of (a) does the report seek to highlight in fulfilling this purpose; often takes the form of an overview of the organization and structure of the report, i.e. the focus of the major sections; may mention aspects of the topic which have been intentionally omitted. The above form of introduction differs from that of introductions to shorter scientific reports, in which a brief statement of the aim of the experiment or the hypothesis to be tested is all that is normally found.

173 The above three-part structure also distinguishes formal report introductions from essay introductions; the latter normally place more emphasis on the topic/field relationship through taking up a position (the thesis of the essay) in relation to the aspect of the topic highlighted in the title (often in the form of an arresting statement or thought provoking quotation). Report introductions may—especially in the case of longer or more formal reports—refer in addition to the sources of the information incorporated within the document; this is done in terms of categories of sources (ie general statements about how and where you gathered your information: from books, articles, statistics, other reports, interviews and so forth). A final point to note: in this form of introduction the focus should be on the particular report which is being introduced, rather than on the wider field or area to which it relates. The length of the introduction will vary in proportion to that of the report. 6.5.6 Methodology In this section you should state how you carried out your enquiry. What form did your enquiry take? Did you carry out interviews or questionnaires, how did you collect your data? What measurements did you make? How did you choose the subjects for your interviews? Present this information logically and concisely. 6.5.7 Results or findings Present your findings in as simple a way as possible. The more complicated the information looks, the more difficult it will be to interpret. There are a number of ways in which results can be presented. Here are a few: Tables Graphs Pie charts Bar charts Diagrams 6.5.8 Illustration checklist Are all your diagrams / illustrations clearly labelled? Do they all have titles? Is the link between the text and the diagram clear?

174 Are the headings precise? Are the axes of graphs clearly labelled? Can tables be easily interpreted? Have you abided by any copyright laws when including illustrations/tables from published documents? 6.5.9 Discussion This is the section where you can analyse and interpret your results drawing from the information which you have collected, explaining its significance. Identify important issues and suggest explanations for your findings. Outline any problems encountered and try and present a balanced view. 6.5.9 Conclusions and recommendations This is the section of the report which draws together the main issues. It should be expressed clearly and should not present any new information. You may wish to list your recommendations in separate section or include them with the conclusions. 6.5.10 Abstracts The form and function of the abstract of a report include the following: definition, providing the essence of the report in a few words informative form, or descriptive form impersonal tone connected writing length 150-250 words (for longer reports, 1/2-1 page singlespaced) American academic Kenneth K. Landes, irritated by what he perceived to be the inadequacies of many abstracts in professional journals, wrote in `A scrutiny of the abstract' (1966): The abstract is of utmost importance, for it is read by 10 to 500 times more people than hear or read the entire article. It should not be a mere recital of the subjects covered. Expressions such as “is discussed” and “is described” should never be included! The abstract should be a condensation and concentration of the essential information in the paper. (Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists vol 50, no 9)

175 Informative abstract An informative abstract is usually written by the author(s) of a report. It appears in the same document as part of the complete text. This abstract describes the research or project and presents the main ideas of the report in a summarised form. Informative abstracts do not duplicate references or tables of results. To achieve economy of expression, the style of informative abstracts often omits terms which identify the particular report (such as `this paper' or `this report'). Lawson, J. (1990) `The education of the future senior health manager'. Australian Health Review Vol. 13 no 3 pp 184-8 Primarily due to economic forces, health services are being forced into a tight organisational framework of hospitals, clinics and services which need to be managed by educated professional managers. These managers need to be competent general and financial managers, competent planners, knowledgeable about health status, health issues, the Australian health care systems and knowledgeable about society, law and ethics. Assumptions that recruitment of people with such a formidable array of talents would be difficult are incorrect as judged by current experiences. Very talented and experienced candidates are being attracted to graduate education programs in health service management in many Australian universities. Accordingly the future management of Australian health services should be in good hands. Descriptive abstract A descriptive abstract is compiled by someone other than the author of the report to appear in another source, such as a data bank or library catalogue. A descriptive abstract describes the contents of a report but does not include interpretive statements, conclusions or recommendations. It is possible to base a descriptive abstract on the table of contents of a report. It is usually much briefer than an informative abstract. Edwards, P. & Gould, W. (1988) New directions in apprentice selection: self perceived `On the job' literacy (reading) demands of apprentices. Victorian TAFE Papers 8, 14-17 6.5.11 References The reference list is placed at the end of the report. It is arranged in alphabetical order of authors' surnames and chronologically for each author. The reference list includes only references cited in the text. The author's surname is placed first, immediately followed by the year of publication. This date is often

176 placed in brackets. The title of the publication appears after the date followed by place of publication, then publisher (some sources say publisher first, then place of publication). There are many other minor differences in setting out references (exa. use of commas, colons, full stops) depending upon personal preferences or house styles. The important thing is to check for any special requirements or, if there are none, to be consistent. Some lecturers require only a reference list. Others require, in addition, a bibliography. While the reference list includes only those texts cited in the body of your paper, a bibliography includes all material consulted in the preparation of your report. It is important that you give precise details of all the work by other authors which has been referred to within the report. Details should include: Author’s name and initials Date of publication Title of the book, paper or journal Publisher Place of publication Page numbers Details of the journal volume in which the article has appeared. References should be listed in alphabetical order of the authors' names. Make sure that your references are accurate and comprehensive. 6.5.12 Appendices An appendix contains additional information related to the report but which is not essential to the main findings. This can be consulted if the reader wishes but the report should not depend on this. You could include details of interview questions, statistical data, a glossary of terms, or other information which may be useful for the reader. 6.6 Style of writing There are several points that you will need to consider when you are writing your report: Active or passive? Your tutor will be able to advise whether the report should be written in the ‘active’ or ‘passive’ voice. The active voice reads as follows:

177 ‘I recommend ...’ The passive voice reads: ‘It is recommended that ...’ The active voice allows you to write short, punchy sentences. The passive appears more formal and considered. Be aware of these differences and avoid mixing the two voices. 6.6.1 Simplicity Most written reports should avoid using overly complicated language. If a report is to persuade, brief or justify, its message must be clear. Furthermore, the factual presentation of data should not be swamped with sophisticated, lengthy sentences. Avoid using unnecessary jargon. This confuses even the most informed reader. Ensure that your abbreviations are standardised. All too often authors invent their own jargon to ease the pressure on writing things in full. Be cautious of confusing your reader. 6.6.2 Use of language Most reports should avoid the use of subjective language. For example, to report on a change incolouration from a "stunning green to a beautiful blue" is to project your own values onto a measurable outcome. What does the term "beautiful" mean k to you? What will it mean to your reader? Such subjective or personal language commonly has no place in the more objective field of report writing. 6.6.3 Layout Most reports have a progressive numbering system. The most common system is the decimal notation system. The main sections are given single Indian numbers 1, 2, 3 and so on. Sub-sections are given a decimal number - 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and so on. Sub-sections can be further divided into - 1.11, 1.12, 1.13 and so on. An example structure would look as follows; 1. Introduction 1.1 ———————1.11 ———————1.2 ———————1.21 ———————2. Methodology 2.1 ———————2.11 ———————2.12 ———————-

178 The following suggestions will help you to produce an easily read report: • Leave wide margins for binding and feedback comments from your tutor. • Paragraphs should be short and concise. • Headings should be clear - highlighted in bold or underlined. • All diagrams and illustrations should be labelled and numbered. • All standard units, measurements and technical terminology should be listed in a glossary of terms at the back of your report. 6.6.4 Conclusion Report conclusions, unlike introductions, cannot readily be analysed in terms of characteristic structural features. Conclusions are distinguished more by function than by form. In general terms, the principal function of conclusions is to relate to the purpose and scope of the report, as stated in the Introduction. In other words, the conclusion should confirm for the reader that the communicative intention has been achieved, and that the previewed aspects of the topic have been covered. This general function can be more specifically expressed in a number of ways, including     

to restate purpose and scope to review or synthesise the main sections or units of the discussion to reiterate the principal points or findings to affirm the validity of argument or judgement To assert the viability of approach or interpretation

Two further points to note: 

Though normally and substantially retrospective, conclusions can extend or advance the topic, for instance by disclosing a further perspective (to be pursued elsewhere) or by making an additional, final judgment. Thus it is not strictly true to say that conclusions never contain anything `new'. In reports, the conclusion section can take the form of a series of separately stated points and for these the plural term `conclusions' may be used. Subsequent recommendations would then be intended to address these points.

6.6.5 Presentation Once you have written the first draft of your report you will need to check it through. It is probably sensible to leave it on your desk for a day or so if you have the time. This will make a clear

179 break from the intensive writing period, allowing you to view your work more objectively. Assess your work in the following areas: • Structure • Content • Style Look at the clarity and precision of your work. Use the report writing checklist at the end of this section to check your report. You may like to carry out a more formal evaluation. Use the section Assessing yourself to help you draft assessment criteria and evaluate your work. The skills involved in writing a report will help you to condense and focus information, drawing objective findings from detailed data. The ability to express yourself clearly and succinctly is an important skill and is one that can be greatly enhanced by approaching each report in a planned and focused way. 6.6.6 Redrafting and checking Summary • Title page Does this include the : Title? Author’s name? Module/course details? • Acknowledgements Have you acknowledged all sources of help? • Contents Have you listed all the main sections in sequence? Have you included a list of illustrations? • Abstract or summary Does this state: The main task? The methods used? The conclusions reached? The recommendations made? • Introduction Does this include: Your terms of reference? The limits of the report? An outline of the method? A brief background to the subject matter?

180 • Methodology Does this include: The form your enquiry took? The way you collected your data? • Reports and findings Are your diagrams clear and simple? Are they clearly labelled? Do they relate closely to the text? • Discussion Have you identified key issues? Have you suggested explanations for your findings? Have you outlined any problems encountered? Have you presented a balanced view? • Conclusions and recommendations Have you drawn together all of your main ideas? Have you avoided any new information? Are any recommendations clear and concise? • References Have you listed all references alphabetically? Have you included all the necessary information? Are your references accurate? • Appendices Have you only included supporting information? Does the reader need to read these sections? • Writing style Have you used clear and concise language? Are your sentences short and jargon free/ Are your paragraphs tightly focused? Have you used the active or the passive voice? • Layout Have you clearly labelled each section? Is your labelling consistent throughout the report? • Presentation Have you left sufficient margin space for binding/feedback? Are your headings clear? Have you checked your spelling? Overall: • What are the main points for consideration? • What have you done well? • What needs fine tuning? A long report usually has the following sections:

181 This is an example long report template for you to copy to your word processor or print out. Then you can fill in your own details

Title Page The Title; e.g.'A Report on ....' .....................'An Investigation into...' .....................'An Analysis of ...' .....................'A Comparison of ... and ...' Your Name Submitted in partial fulfillment ............................course.






If you are a HKPU student, your student number. The date.

Acknowledgments "I would like to thank my supervisor, Mr. _______, for the valuable advice and support he has given me in the writing of this report. I would also like to thank my teachers, Mrs._______ and Mr. _______ for their encouragement and guidance. Thanks also to my typist, Ms. _______, for her immaculate job and her suggestions. My deepest thanks go to my wife/husband, for her/his love, understanding and support." Summary / Abstract This study was to ______________________________ It was requested by ____________________________ It was requested on (date). The investigation was done by ____________________ The main findings were that ______________________ It was concluded that __________________________ The recommendations are that _______should be ______

182 Contents Page Section......................................................Page Number 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Introduction.......................................................................1 Literature Review..............................................................3 Methodology.....................................................................5 Findings.............................................................................7 Conclusions.....................................................................14 Recommendations............................................................16 Appendices......................................................................18 Bibliography.....................................................................25

List of Figures 1. Bar Chart of Answers to Question 1...................................8 2. Pie Chart of Socio-economic Status of the Respondents.....9 List of Tables 1. Survey Findings by Gender and Age Group........................10

1. Introduction Background This report has been written because .... It was requested by ... It was requested on (date). Objectives The objectives of this report are to .... Scope This report examines .... . It does not examine ..... because ......

183 2. Literature Review The area of investigation has been commented on by Channel (1994), Hoey (1993), Halliday (1993) and Lesser (1979), who are in agreement that... However, they have different opinions on .... Due to the differences highlighted above, it was decided to investigate ....

3. Methodology (also called the 'Method' or 'Procedure') ___ respondents, chosen by the method of _____ were surveyed from (start date) to (end date). Of these, ______ were invited for interview on (date). The statistics were analysed using a _______ test because ......... The significance of the results was __________

4. Findings 4.1. In general, the findings indicated that...


The major finding of the investigation was that... In addition, .... Surprisingly, ........ , which was an unexpected consequence of .....

5. Conclusions The main conclusion that can be drawn is therefore that... In the light of this, it is recommended that... (+ a general recommendation; e.g. that something needs to be changed. The detailed recommendations should go in the Recommendations section below.)

184 6. Recommendations In the light of these conclusions, I recommend that _____ should be ____ In addition, a _______ could ______ Grammar Note: To make suggestions and recommendations you should use 'could + infinitive verb' (if you are less sure), or 'should + infinitive verb' (if you are more sure). You could also use 'suggest + _ing' or 'suggest that + a subject noun (e.g. 'we') + a verb (e.g. 'could' + infinitive verb). Do NOT use 'suggest to'. Appendices Appendix 1: Sample Survey Form Appendix 2: Results of Statistical Analysis by ______ Bibliography Channel, J. (1994). Vague language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Halliday, M.A.K. (1993). Quantitative studies and probabilities in grammar. In Hoey, M.(Ed.) Data, description, discourse. London: HarperCollins, 1-25. Hoey, M. (1993). HarperCollins, 1-25.





Lesser, R. (1979). Linguistic investigations of aphasia. Studies in language disability andremediation 5. London: Edward Arnold.



Computer systems computer systems Assignment 1 - Topic: scanners Date: Student name: Student number: Tutor name: Tutorial time:

185 Abstract This report investigates the current state of scanner technology and examines the predicted future advancements of scanners. A brief history of the scanner and its operation is initially outlined. The discussion then focuses on the advantages and limitations of the five main types of scanners in common use today: drum, flatbed, sheet-fed, slide, and hand held scanners. The performance of these scanners is examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. It is concluded that further technological advances in these four areas as well as the deployment of new sensor technology will continue to improve the quality of scanned images. It is also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into other types of technology such as digital cameras. Table of contents Abstract i 1.0 Introduction 1 2.0 How scanners work 2 3.0 Types of scanners 2 3.1 Drum scanners 2 3.2 Flatbed scanners 2 3.3 Sheet-fed scanners 2 3.4 Slide scanners 3 3.5 Hand held scanners 3 4.0 Scanner specifications 3 4.1 Resolution 3 4.2 Bit-depth 4 4.3 Dynamic range 4 4.4 Software 4 5.0 Future developments 5 6.0 Conclusion 5 7.0 Reference list 5 Appendices 6 Appendix 1 Image Sensor Scanner 8 Appendix 2 Frequently Used References 9 Appendix 2.1 Scanner Tips 10 Appendix 2.2 Scanners, Digital Cameras and Photo 11 CDs Appendix 2.3 The PC Technology Guide 12

186 1. Introduction The purpose of this report is to survey the current state of scanner technology and to briefly discuss predicted advancements in the field. By examining a range of recently published journal articles, magazine articles and internet sites on the topic of scanners this report describes the main types of scanners in common use today and examines their performance in relation to four criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. The report then considers the effect of further technological advances in these four areas, as well as the deployment of new sensor technology on the future development of scanners. The first scanner, initially referred to as a 'reading machine', was developed in 1960 by Jacob Rabinow, a Russian born engineer. The device could scan printed material and then compare each character to a set of standards in a matrix using, for the first time, the "best match principle" to determine the original message (Blatner, Fleishman and Roth 1998, p.3). This reading machine was to form the basis for the development of current scanning, sorting and processing machines. An early improvement on the reading machine was the drum scanner. These scanners used a type of scanning technology called photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Drum scanners are still used in industry today because of the high quality images they produce. The development of smaller, more economical scanners such as desktop scanners and scanners for domestic use followed the drum scanner as the number of computer users increased and computer technology advanced. Scanners can now capture images from a wide variety of two and three dimensional sources. These images are converted to digitised computer files that can be stored on a hard-drive or floppy disk. With the aid of specific software, these images can then be manipulated and enhanced by the user. It is now possible to deploy electronic acquisition to create an entire layout (including all graphic elements) from the same computer. This means manual stripping is no longer required (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). Scanners are considered an invaluable tool for adding graphics and text to documents and have been readily adopted by both business and domestic users. 2. How scanners work A scanner is a device that uses a light source to electronically convert an image into binary data (0s and 1s). This

187 binary data can then be used to store the scanned image on a computer. A scanner recreates an image by using small electronic components referred to as the scanner's 'eyes' (Scanner tips 2000). The type of 'eyes' used in today's scanners are charge-coupled devices (CCD) and photomultiplier tubes (PMT). These electronic eyes measure the amount of light reflected from individual points on the page and translate it to digital signals that correspond to the brightness of each point (Englander 2000). To create a file on the computer that represents a colour image, the scanner divides the image into a grid with many individual points called pixels or picture elements (Scanner tips 2000). A scanning head, termed a row of 'eyes', reads over the grid and assigns a number to each pixel based on the main colour in that pixel, using green, blue and red. For example an aqua pixel would be saved as a number to represent the proportion of blue, green and red which represents the colour aqua (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). 3. Types of scanners There are five main types of scanners in common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, slide scanners, and hand held scanners. 3.1 Drum scanners Drum scanners were widely used in the past, however they are much less commonly used today due to advances in scanner technology. As a result of their expense, these machines are primarily used by professionals in industry, where they are considered important due to the high-end quality image they produce and because they use PMT technology which is more sophisticated than charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and contact image sensor's (CISs). Drum scanners are difficult to operate and technicians operate these scanners by placing the item to be scanned on a glass cylinder rotating at high speeds around the sensor (Sullivan 1996). 3.2 Flatbed scanners The most popular scanners for general use are flatbed scanners. This type of scanner is highly versatile because it is able to scan flat objects as well as small three dimensional objects. Flatbed scanners operate by placing the item to be scanned on a glass window while scanning heads move underneath it. A transparency adapter is used to scan transparent originals such as slides or xrays, and an automatic document feeder is available for scanning large numbers of documents (Scanner tips 2000).

188 3.3 Sheet-fed scanners Sheet-fed scanners have grown in popularity in recent years, particularly for small office or domestic use as they are reasonably priced, can scan full-sized documents and are compact, requiring limited desk space (Scanner tips 2000). Most models of sheet-fed scanners have an inbuilt document feeder to overcome the problem of manually feeding one sheet of paper at a time. However the actual process or scanning with a sheet-fed scanner may result in distortion as the image to be scanned moves over the scanning heads (Scanner tips 2000). A further limitation of sheet-fed scanners is that they are unable to scan three dimensional objects. 3.4 Slide scanners This type of scanner is used to scan items such as slides that need careful handling during scanning. Unlike other scanners, the scanning heads in slide scanners do not reflect light from the image, but rather pass light through it. This enables these scanners to produce superior results without distortions caused by reflective light. To be able to scan small and detailed items, these scanners have a large number of eyes on the scanning head which produces a high quality result. Slide scanners tend to be more expensive and less versatile than flatbed and sheet-fed scanners as they are limited to only scanning slides and film. These scanners, however, are well suited to users requiring high quality scans of large numbers of slides (Scanner tips 2000). 3.5 Hand held scanners Hand held scanners are compact, portable scanners which are simply dragged across a page manually to capture an image. These scanners are easy to use and economical to purchase; however, their use is limited to text of up to four inches in diameter that does not require a high resolution. For this reason, hand held scanners are unsuitable for colour images. A further disadvantage of hand held scanners is that the user must have a steady hand when scanning or the resulting image will be distorted (Scanner tips 2000). 4. Scanner specifications The performance of a scanner can be examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. 4.1 Resolution Resolution is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can sample in a given image. It is used to describe the amount of detail

189 in an image (Figeiredo, McIllree and Thomas 1996). Higher resolution scanners are generally more expensive and produce superior results as they have a greater capacity to capture detail. Scanners have two types of resolutions: optical resolution and interpolated resolution. Optical resolution, or hardware resolution, is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can actually read. A current model desktop scanner typically has a resolution of 300 x 300 dots per inch (dpi) (Anderson 1999). This means that this scanner has a scanning head with 300 sensors per inch, so it can sample 300 dpi in one direction and 300 dpi in the other direction by stopping the scanning head 300 times per inch in both directions. Some scanners stop the scanning head more frequently as it moves down the page, giving an optical resolution of 300 x 600 dpi; however, scanning more frequently in one direction does not improve the result of the scan. The basic requirement for scanning detailed images and line art from photos or other printed originals is an optical resolution of 600 dpi. When scanning slides and negatives the minimum optical resolution is 1200 dpi. Interpolated resolution measures the number of pixels a scanner is able to predict. A scanner can turn a 300 x 300 dpi scan into a 600 x 600 dpi scan by looking in-between scanned pixels and guessing what that spot would have looked like if it had been scanned. This prediction is then used to insert new pixels in between the actual ones scanned. This technique is less precise than optical resolution; however it assists in improving the enlargement of scanned images. 4.2 Bit depth Bit depth refers to the amount of information that a scanner records for each pixel when converting an image to digital form. Scanners differ in the amount of data they record for each pixel within an image. The simplest kinds of scanners only record data related to black and white details and have a bit depth of 1 (Anderson 1999). The minimum bit depth required for scanning photographs and documents is 24-bits, while slides, negatives or transparencies need a scanner with at least 30-bits. Thus for a scanner to produce a high quality scan with colour, a higher bit depth is required. In general, current scanners have a bit depth of 24, which means that 8 bits of information can be collected for the three primary colours used in scanning; blue, red and green (Anderson 1999). This high resolution allows scanners to produce images close to photographic quality.

190 4.3 Dynamic range Dynamic range refers to the measurement of the range of tones a scanner can record on a scale of 0.0 to 4.0, with 0.0 being perfect white and 4.0 being perfect black. Colour flat-bed scanners usually have a dynamic range of 2.4. A range of this measurement is unable to provide high quality colour scans. A dynamic range of 2.8 and 3.2 is suited to professional purposes and can be found in high-end scanners. An even higher dynamic range of 3.0 to 3.8 can be provided by drum scanners. 4.4 Software A scanner, like any type of hardware, requires software. Typically the two most common pieces of software provided with scanners include optical character recognition (OCR) and image editing software. Optical character recognition software translates the information recorded in a scan, tiny dots, into a text file which can be edited. Image editing software allows the tones and colours of an image to be manipulated for better printing and display. Image editing also gives filters to apply special effects to scanned images 5. Future developments The quality of scanned images is constantly improving as characteristics such as resolution, bit-depth and dynamic range are enhanced and further developed. More sophisticated image editing and optical character recognition software development is also resulting in superior quality scans. Future advances are expected to result in the incorporation of specialized scanners into other types of technology such as the recently developed digital camera. This device allows the user to take pictures of three-dimensional objects much like a regular camera, except that instead of using film, the objects are scanned by the camera in a similar process to the functioning of a flatbed scanner. The relatively new area of sensor technology in the form of a contact image sensor (CIS) (see Appendix 1) is expected to improve the functionality of scanners and the quality of images as it "replaces the cumbersome optical reduction technique with a single row of sensors" (Grotta and Wiener 1998, p. 1). Developers have already been able to produce a CIS scanner which is thinner, lighter, more energy efficient and cheaper to manufacture than a traditional CCD base device. However, the quality of the scan is not as good as its counterparts. Further development of CIS technology is needed to improve image quality and colour, and to address the problem of a limited 300 or 600 dpi.

191 6. Conclusion This report has identified five types of scanners currently available. Some are primarily used for professional purposes such as the drum scanner; others are used more broadly in the workplace and home such as flatbed scanners and to a lesser extent sheet fed scanners. Scanners for specialized purposes have also been identified such as slide and handheld scanners. The performance of these scanners is dependent upon their resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. Scanners have improved significantly in recent years in terms of weight, size, price and speed, and the replacement of CCD technology with CIS technology is anticipated to produce further benefits to these areas as well as to scan quality. The impact of these improvements is expected to increase the accessibility of scanner technology to a wider range of users and its suitability for a wider range of purposes. In relation to this, the future of scanner technology seems to point to the convergence of different technologies. Specialized scanners are currently being incorporated into other types of technologies such as digital cameras, printers, and photocopiers. This can be expected to continue with other forms of technology in conjunction with further improvements to image quality, speed, price, size and weight. 7. Reference list Anderson, D. The PC Guide. []. Blatner, D., Fleishman, G. Roth, G. (1998) Real world scanning and halftones 2nd edition, Tata McGraw Hill Englander, I (2000). The Architecture of computer hardware and systems software. John Wiley, India, p272. Figeiredo, J. McIllree, J. Thomas, N. (1996) Introducing information technology 2nd edition Jacaranda Press, Singapore, p145. Grotta, D. and Weiner, S. What's now ...What's next. [] PC Magazines 20 October 1998. 8/4/00 Prepress, scanners, digital cameras and photo [] 6/4/00 Scansoft scanner tips [] 2000.6/4/00 Sullivan. M. Types of scanners. [] 1996. 8/4/00

CDs. 1998.




Formal report writing in professional, technical and business contexts has evolved certain conventions regarding format, style, referencing and other characteristics. Reports are a highly structured form of writing often following conventions that have been laid down to produce a common format. Structure and convention in written reports stress the process by which the information was gathered as much as the information itself.



1. Explain the concept of a report? What is the significance of report writing to the modern business organisation? 2. How do you organise a report logically? 3. What is the difference between statutory and non-statutory reports? In what other ways can reports be classified? 4. What is the essential difference between a report written by an individual and a report written by a committee? 5. What are the different forms of report writing? Explain them. 6. Bring out the salient features of an Ideal Report. 7. What is a Progress Report? What purpose does it serve the organisations? 8. What form should be adopted for a Committee Report? What points should be borne in mind while writing such a report?

6.10 EXERCISE II 1. You are team leader of your bank. Your bank has introduced new deposit scheme. Draft a progress report to be submitted to the Manager. 2. Draft the progress report of the correspondence and share departments under your charge. 3. Draft the half yearly progress report of a training of your employees for new recruits of your company of which you have been appointed to train them. 4. Write a progress report on three officers and ten office assistants of the Share Department which -is in your charge. 5. A committee has been entrusted to investigate the possibility of starting a new bank branch in Navi Mumbai. Submit the findings of the committee in the form of a report. 6. The workers in a large industry have been asking for a rise in wages and housing accommodation. The management appoints a committee to investigate the merits of the demand. Draft the committees report.

193 7. Your office caught fire a week before and it has been badly damaged your office. You are the manager. Draft a report to your directors, informing them of the accident and your preliminary findings. 8. A committee has been appointed to investigate the possibility of expanding an export business with African nations. Draft the committee report regarding prospects and legal hurdles and solutions to it. 9. As Labour Welfare Officer, you have been asked by the Board of Directors to investigate the cause of frequent slow down and poor performance of your employees. Submit your report with recommendations to improve the situation. 10. A public limited company is considering a proposal to establish a new factory in your city. Some of the factors that will influence its decisions are a) Availability of raw materials b) Labour c) Transport facilities d) Market e) Competition climate f) Construction cost and h) Communication facilities. Draft a report with the help of the above points. 11. Invent other necessary details and write a report to the Managing Director of the company about the suitability of the place for the establishment of the new car service center at Latur Maharashtra. 12. A committee of finance and accounting experts is appointed by the Director of your financial consultants firm. Submit a report on the causes of poor auditing and management of accounts of your banks. Draft the committee's report outlining the causes and also recommending measures improve the situation. 13. The Kadam Garment Co. Mumbai has been receiving frequent complaints from customers from the Karnataka state about nondelivery and shortage of goods dispatched from its factory in Navi Mumbai. Draft a report to be submitted to the Manager.

14. The Chief Executive of the Sales Department of your insurance company has been asked to investigate and report with recommendations. Draft the report. 15. A committee has been formed to investigate the possibility of

194 starting a book stall and stationery store in your college Draft the report of the committee making favorable recommendations. 16. As the general secretary of the Students' council of your college, submit the report to the principal on the necessity of opening a fully equipped gymkhana in your college. 17. A committee has been appointed to look into the case of a big financial mismanagement in your company. As the chairman of the committee, draft a suitable report along with a covering letter. 18. Draft a periodic progress report of the personnel department, which you are heading for the past two years at your financial consultant firm located at Navi Mumbai. 19. Submit a proposal to the regional manager of the industrial bank you are working for, on the feasibility of expanding your bank at Navi Mumbai Industrial area.

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7 WRITING: SUMMARIES, AND ABSTRACTS AND TECHNICAL DEFINITIONS Unit Structure 7.1 Objectives 7.2 Introduction 7.3 TIPS: Follow these helpful steps when writing a summary 7.4 Executive Summary 7.5 Abstract Summary 7.6 Technical Definitions 7.7 Definitions 7.8 Informal Definitions 7.9 Formal Definition 7.10 Dictionaries 7.11 Extended Definitions 7.12 Summary 7.13 Exercise 7.14 Exercise

7.1    


OBJECTIVES To equip with special skill of summarizing To know the different types of summaries To understand the skill of framing technical definitions To learn the art of writing technical definition


A summary is a condensed account of the essential information included in a longer piece of writing. A summary usually appears at the end of an article or report. The function of a summary is similar to that of a schematic diagram, which gives a clear, brief presentation of a device without the clutter of the actual materials necessary to build the device.

196 For example, if you needed information on a report about the HST (Hubble Space Telescope), you would find information in many sources, too many sources to actually read. You might find professional abstracts of journal (magazine) articles. By reading these brief summaries, you would be able to judge which articles would be most useful to you. A summary answers the basic questions that readers want answered before they devote more time to reading the article or book. Many people who are interested in keeping up with technology do not have the time to read every article printed about their field. They often rely on professional abstracts to find the most useful articles. A reader searching for information has predictable questions for each article: What? Who'? Where? When? Why? How? Summaries include only the key facts, ideas, and conclusions.



1. Read the article carefully—more than once—before starting to write. Use your pencil to mark key ideas, phrases, and conclusions. 2. Look for the author's own summaries at the beginning or end of the article. Often, boldface headings indicate a transition and a new key idea. 3. Note the author's organization—find the main idea of each paragraph or section. 4. The length of a summary is usually about 33 percent of the length of the article, although this is by no means a rule. Instructors seldom require more than one page, and professional abstracts are rarely longer than one paragraph, no matter how long the article. 5. Summarize each section (of longer articles) or paragraph (of shorter ones). Disregard figures of speech, examples, detailed descriptions, and discussions. 6. Do not include personal interpretations, agreements, or disagreements (no I statements). Write in the third person (he, she, it, they). 7. Read the article once more and compare it to your summary. Make any revisions that are necessary for clarity. 8. Format: the summary should contain the following information,

197 a. Identification of the article being summarized (name of author, title of article, title of book or magazine, date of publication). b. Statement of the main idea of the article, c. Statements that explain all the important points used to support the main idea, d. Explanation or clarification of important points, if necessary, In a summary, writers reword and condense ideas. Copying exact sentences is considered plagiarism. Do not plagiarize other people's writing in a summary, or any other piece of documentation, for that matter, A summary of a research project would recap the purpose, results, conclusions, and recommendations, and would be written for a semi-technical or nontechnical audience. Two special types of summaries are the executive summary and abstract.



An executive summary is a modified summary located at the beginning of a report or document. Its purpose is to highlight the bottom-line information needed by upper management to make a decision, including staffing, budget, and timeline considerations, sometimes in a bulleted list. It might also include a final recommendation or conclusion depending on the purpose of the report. If the document describes a research project, the executive summary includes the purpose, background, results, conclusions, and recommendations, written for a semi-technical or nontechnical audience.



Abstracts can include the author(s), title and subtitle, source (such as the magazine and date), description of the article, and identifier keywords related to the topic. Services and databases include a record number for easier retrieval. Academic abstracts also include the affiliation (university or institution) of the first (lead) author. To conduct extensive research on a topic, ask a librarian or search the Internet for an abstracting service. Most services charge a fee and specialize in categories of information, such as astronomy or current events. When you enroll, you can provide authors' names, publication dates, or keywords and combinations of keywords to the service. Then the service provides you a list of abstracts that match your entries. From the list of abstracts, you select the articles you want to read.




The reading passage included definitions of terms essential for understanding the topic. Without a precise definition of defamation and harassment, we might not understand the legal issues surrounding the use (and misused of e-mail on the Internet.



Definitions of terms are the foundation of technical writing. A precise set of terms is used in technology, and only with a common understanding of those terms can information be communicated accurately. Some terms used in technology, have meanings entirely different from those with which you are familiar in everyday life. Examples of such words are power, force, and communication. For example, the term communication used in casual conversation can include speaking, listening, reading, writing, and body language. But to an electronics technician, if the message wasn't transferred electronically, it wasn't communicated at all. In fact, the study of communications systems begins with Samuel Morse's invention of the telegraph in 1837, even though we all know that throughout history, people have been sending verbal and nonverbal messages to anyone who would pay attention. Some terms are used with more precision in technology than in everyday life. Words such as the following have precise meanings in technology and must be used carefully: absolute current fundamental critical force ground intensity pow specific inversely rate static potential relative uniform Some terms are frequently confused. Can you state the difference between force and power? These are words that are used interchangeably in everyday language, but in technology the meanings are different. There are many such terms in technical writing. Sometimes students are in such a hurry to do problems and assignments that they skip to the end of the chapter, referring to the chapter only as a last resort. These students are missing the "verbal" part of their field—how the concepts are explained in words. Don't be this kind of reader. Eventually, you will have to communicate what you know in words, either spoken or written. You won't be able to communicate entirely in numbers. Get used to how the experts, the authors, describe the principles of your technology. Learn the terms and how to use them correctly. Several

199 examples of short and long, and formal and informal definitions are presented in this chapter to give you practice in this skill.



You can probably remember learning your first definition in your field. In electronics, it was probably Resistance- opposition to current flow. This is an informal definition. A definition placed between commas or parentheses is usually an informal definition. A potentiometer (variable resistor) is used for volume controls. If too many informal definitions are used, a report may become, disjointed and distracting. Normally, who plans on using more than two unfamiliar technical terms in a report will define the terms formally in the introduction of glossary.



A formal definition has two functions: it identifies the larger class (group or category) that the term belongs to, and it provides distinguishing characteristics. Term>class> characteristics For example, consider the term Porsche. A porsche is the class called automobiles, or more specifically, German automobiles. The definition goes on to provide distinguishing characteristics or details about the term that make it different from other members of the group. A Porsche, pronounced "pour-sha" (term), is a Germanmade automobile (class) with high- performance capabilities, a small, aerodynamic body design, and a price tag starting at S25,0019(characteristics). A formal definition can be written for any technical term, and often the most difficult part is determining the class! For example, is resistance a device, a quality, a capability or an action? Technicians must occasionally make such subtle distinctions. Device












In which of the groups above does each of the following terms belong?

200 Resonance resonant



Resonator is an object, something you can touch, so it would be in the class of devices. Resonate is a verb, so it is a process or action.Resonant is how we describe an object, an adjective, so it is a quality. Resonance is the capability of performing the action. Once the group has been determined, technicians usually don't have much trouble following the distinguishing characteristics. A resistor electronic that is used in electronic circuit to oppose and control current flow. (term) (Class) (distinguishing characteristics) Its capacity to resist current is indicated by color code or stamped values. One final point to remember to avoid-variation of the term in the remainder of the definition Wrong: A resistor is electronic device that resists current flow. In the example above, find a synonym to (another word with same meaning) for resist, such as oppose or control. Technical writing can be efficient. Writers say things one time only--no repetition, no rewording. Technical terms and jargon have been defined and clarified by professionals in your field. Most jargon been established because it describes an idea or concept in a few words. Imagine trying to describe waveforms without using jargon such as sawtooth or square, or trying to describe joint designs without V- root c. J-groove, or scarf joint. The result would be wordy and cumbersome. The disadvantage of jargon is that it assume- that the reader also understands the technical meaning of the term. Writing for non technical audience, those not expert in your technology, takes special attention. It requires explicit definitions of terms in clear, simple language.

7.10 DICTIONARIES Dictionaries are written for certain audiences. Think for a minute about a car manual. It may be geared for general owners with only the basic operating needs, or for highly trained automotive specialists who need precise specifications. Likewise dictionaries may be geared for everyday word usage or for highly specialized purposes.

201 Small, pocket-sized dictionaries provide only the most commonly used words and definitions. If you look up resistance in one of these dictionaries, you will probably only find the root word, resist, with several common endings but no mention of current flow. At the opposite end of the spectrum are technical or scientific dictionaries that offer only technical terms and definitions. One example is Websters World Dictionary of Computer Terms by Bryan Pfaffenberg (Que. 1999). If you look up resistance in this book, you will find only the electronic, usage. This dictionary and others like it are useful guides for beginning technical students and people who need to read technical information. "College editions" and large dictionaries include the comma and used definitions as well as an extensive number of technical definitions of terms that are used in different scientific disciplines. Keys such as Elec. or Mech. indicate the specific definition used in technology. If you look up resistance, you may find seven or more distinct definitions of how the word is used in different disciplines.

7.11 EXTENDED DEFINITIONS Some objects or concepts require more than a one-sentence definition. An extended definition might require a paragraph or even several pages to fully define a complex concept or object. An extended definition includes the standard definition sentence, but also provides more details that describe the object. It can contain related definitions and examples that illustrate the term. The following paragraph defines harassment by providing not only a definition, but also two differing situations under which harassment can occur and the legal consequences of each one. Harassment is words or actions that are designed to threaten, intimidate, and/or make a person's workplace or educational environment unbearable and intolerable. E-mail can be harassing. If harassment occurs in the workplace and is directed toward employees of a certain race, ethnic group, age, disability, religion, or gender, then it is a violation of state and local EEO laws. If harassment is in an educational setting and is directed at students, then civil rights laws prohibiting discrimination in educational and/or public institutions are violated. More commonly, extended definitions include examples that illustrate and clarify the term or idea. For example, the author clarifies the definition of an e-mail discussion group by comparing it to an electronic roundtable:

202 An e-mail discussion group (newsgroup, listserv, chat room, etc.) is nothing more than an electronic roundtable. As with any roundtable, the participants share information about a particular topic. A subscriber to the group may ask other group members for a reference about a product or person, e.g., "Has anyone used (fill in name of product or service)? or has anyone worked with (fill in name of person or organization)?" Sometimes a subscriber warns or "advises" other subscribers about a product or vendor.

7.12 SUMMARY Writing summary is a special skills one need to develop in his career. Summaries are condensed from of the matter. It contains all relevant details and important points. It helps in quick revision. The summaries are abstract and executive in nature. We can manifest the art of writing summaries by following few tips mentioned above. The technical definitions are needed to be designed for preparing reports and instructions in process of the technical operations. Technical definitions contain the special language that makes the reader the idea of the term involved.

7.13 EXERCISE Summarise the following passages: 1. Cinema requires 'electricity. As there are many villages in India, especially in the Hindi heartland which have not received the benefits of electricity there are many people who 'have seen a film only once or- twice in their life time. The occasion arises when - the - villagers visit a neighbouring town or a rich farmer celebrates a marriage by installing a generator and screening' a film for the 'benefit of the populations of two or three neighbouring villages. For a country that covers 32 million sq. kilometers and has a population of over 950 million, India has just about 13,* 181 permanent cinema halls and 5,000 temporary or touring ones. Andhra Pradesh leads the country with 2615 theatres halls while Tamil Nadu -has 2447, Maharashtra 1,071, and Kerala 1,379(Figures of 1991). A recent development is that in cities like Bombay, cinema h4lls are being closed down as the owners find it more remunerative to build shopping, centers or residential blocks on the same site. Also the very high taxation by the state government leaves the theatre owner with a very meagre profit. The language barrier acts as a great hindrance to the development of the cinema. Except Hindi films, all - other - films have only a -regional -market. In order to earn" back their investment, film producers are reluctant to experiment and prefer to produce mythological, historical and run of the mill escapist films of

203 the Hindi type. The- Hindi film industry, which has the .resources to experiment with the medium suffer from a severe lack of talent and, is under the constraints of the star system. The film industry in India may be compared to a giant who is prisoner to himself. In terms of numbers the industry seems to have achieved a great d-cal. The Indian film industry is the biggest producer, of feature films in I the world. It produced 910 films in 1992. An estimated 70 million people watch these films’ every day. Many of these films are a craze in the neighboring countries of the sub-continent and among Indian residents abroad. One frequently hears of video tape smuggling of Hindi films. But in terms of social responsibility the film industry in India has failed miserably. The glossy, glamorous films of the make believe world encourage escapist trends among the people. And when the films are not unreal they wallow in vulgarity, obscenity and violence. An unsavory aspect of the Hindi films industry was exposed in March 1993 by the Bombay bomb blasts. A nexus was found to exist between underworld and anti-national elements with black money and film producers and artists. After the boycott initiated by some political parties, it is expected that the film industry will be purged of these elements and such illicit funding will stop. 2. India is very different from the West in social structure, religious orientation and political - experience. But -more importantly, its time-scale of recorded civilization is daunting, while its size and internal regional differences involve the student in an ente4prise equivalent to that o f investigating all the countries of Europe together. Some factors have to be taken for granted in any study of India. The essential starting point is India's geography. ‘Then one has to consider its social structure which is based on caste rather ' than class. This was a development that arose out of the particular ecological context of the sub-continent and the use I made of its human, resources. , Thirdly, the ideological underpinning of society in Hindu-religious tradition has to be given due importance in any analysis of India. These factors have for centuries been accepted as facts in Indian history, and have constrained and, at times, even imprisoned those who attempted political dominion of the subcontinent whether Moghuls, British or post-independence governments. A myth commonly heard even in scholarly circles in the past w a s that of- an "unchanging India" where,: values and social relations inhibited change, and economic development' in particular. This myth has been dispelled. It has been shown that

204 India's social structure and g many long-established attitudes have proved adaptable, enabling industrial production and modern investment within traditional towns. Village studies show much that is still traditional. Even here though, there is change. India's economic development, her involvement in an international economic community and' the emphasis on education are making their impact even in the villages. But the "feel" of India is elusive, whatever the amount of academic study devoted to it. Among the best ways for the outsider to enter into India's culture and history is through the door of, imaginative literature. 3. There are basic differences in' the way boys and girls experience the world, and more importantly, in the social- roles they are trained to fulfil., In the past, from childhood onwards the talents and ambitions of girls were channelled in directions - which were different ; from- those of boys. For boys, the family was the place, from ‘which'' they started: out and to which they returned for, comfort and support. But their field of action, was the larger world' of adventure industry, labour and politics. For girls, the family was, their world, and the'' home- was their field of action A man, expressed -himself in his work, and through his work and social action, helped to change his environment. A woman's -individual growth and choices, were restricted, and she expressed herself only through love, wifehood, and motherhood, that is, through supporting and carting for others. The way in which male and female roles were `x pressed changed in the course of history; the differences in the' roles -given to the sexes widened or narrowed, but the fact of different sex -role indoctrination remained. Life was experienced at a different - rhythm by men and women. For a boy education was directed toward a vocational or professional goal and his life ideally moved upward and outward in a straight line until, it reached a steady - level of fulfillment the girl's education was often interrupted; it did not lead to the fulfillment of her life role, but -rather competed with it. Her development was dependent: on her relationship with others and was, often determined by them; it seemed to move I n circles. In the boy's case, the important stages of his, life were connected to his career; separation 11 from the family for purposes of greater educational opportunity success or failures in his career; economic or losses. For the girls, the important stages in her life were connected with her biological development; transition from childhood to adolescence and then to marriage which meant, in the past, loss of freedom and greater restrictions, rather than the independence which it meant for the boy. Love and marriage for her meant only a shifting from one household to another and the beginning of her serious responsibilities childbirth, child rearing and caring for the

205 family. Finally came the crisis of widowhood which could mean, depending on her economic circumstances, increasing freedom and independence or a difficult struggle for economic survival.

7.14 EXERCISE 1.

Write formal definitions for the following terms in your own words. The classes are provided for the first five terms. Find the technical definitions, noted in dictionaries by abbreviations in italics such as Elec. (electronics) or Mech. mechanics). Example Conductor—A conductor is a device or material that readily carries electricity, heat or sound. i. Electron (particle) ii. Torque (twisting effect) iii. Piston (sliding piece) iv. Girder (structural beam) v. Fillet (concave junction or arc) vi. Module vii. Power viii. S. Battery ix. Chord x. Load


Define 10 technical terms in your area of study. Write formal, one-sentence definition of each term. Find a magazine article focused on your area of study. Locate and copy five technical definitions from various articles in the magazine. Then critique each definition, and revise it to include any elements needed to make it a formal definition. Choose one term from earlier exercise, and write an extended definition in a paragraph. Write the definition sentence as your topic sentence. Include the details or examples that give meaning to the term.







USER INSTRUCTION MANUAL Unit Structure 8.1 Objectives 8.2 Introduction 8.3 Elements of Formal Instructions 8.4 Guidelines for Writing Instructions 8.6 Summary 8.7 Exercise



 To learn the art of preparing user instruction manual  To make aware of the different tips for effective user instruction manual



We are all familiar with the statement, "If all else fails, read the directions." Why is it so common to avoid reading the directions? Why do people risk the trial-and-error approach rather than reading the instructions before beginning? Possibly it's because they are impatient to get started. Or possibly the instructions seem incomprehensible, as though the writer assumes the reader has technical training and fails to define terms, locate parts with graphics, or provide basic information. To make matters worse, some instructions sound ridiculous, possibly due to poor translation from other languages: On a kitchen knife: Warning keep out of children. Today, as the chapter states, people expect readable, accurate instructions, ranging from easy-to-follow steps to multivolume user manuals and service guides. Companies that fail to provide good instructions for customers lose revenue due to technical support calls and product returns. For this reason, many companies hire technical writers—those who write documentation as their primary job—to complete the finished user information. These writers may or may not have any technical training, but they know the art of writing understandable instructions.

207 However, as indicated in the chapter, technical writers cannot do the job alone. Your employer might one day ask you to provide input into the documentation provided to your customers, either as a technical expert or as a reviewer. Some technicians and engineers turn to technical writing as a career, drawing on their training and expensive to make instructions and manuals more accurate. These people must take special care to understand the audience, listen to users' questions, and add the basic information sometimes unintentionally overlooked by technical experts. More commonly, you will be asked to write informal instructions to coworkers and customers. You could be asked to write instructions to install a software program, assemble a piece of equipment, troubleshoot a problem, or drive from the nearest major airport to your office. Following a few, simple guidelines can improve the readability and usefulness of your directions. You can adapt these guidelines for different types of instructions, as needed.



TIP Formal instructions should include the following elements: • Orientation: Provide an overview of the device, such as the purpose of the instructions or function and starting state of the device. • List of materials: Specify the materials, including sizes, part numbers, and quantities, needed to complete the procedure. • Step-by-step instructions: In each step (usually numbered), use the active, imperative voice with the implied "you." • Graphics: When needed for clarity or understanding, add numbered or labeled graphics. Reference each numbered graphic in the text, or adds a description under the graphic to orient the reader to the figure. Use consistent terms in the text and the description. • Conclusion or summary: Describe the final state after following the instructions so readers can complete the project, and add information for any additional or optional procedures. Some instructions for complex devices or procedures also include troubleshooting tips or frequently asked questions. This information should address typical problems with the procedures, based on your own testing and customer feedback.




The following guidelines describe the general process of writing instructions. As an example, consider the task of writing instructions for using a new software program Whether the end product will be a one-page "Fast Track" for colleagues or a full manual for users, the general guidelines are the same. Step 1: Perform the procedure yourself Learn all you can about the process or product before you start writing anything. This might include observing others performing the procedure or talking to the experts (such as a developer or engineer) or other involved people, Read the product specification or user manual. Become familiar with all the features and terminology. Perform the procedures, logging all the steps you complete. It is easy to miss the small steps unless you perform them yourself. Don't rely on others to tell you how something is supposed to work. If you experience problems, log the scenario in which the problem occurred. Then log what you did to correct the problem. Use your log to add information in your steps at the appropriate spot to prevent those same problems. Or, for longer documents, add a troubleshooting section with the problems you encountered and a description of what you did to correct (or prevent) them. Step 2: Prepare a working draft. Write a draft of the numbered steps. Focus on the behaviors. Don't worry about spelling, grammar, or even complete sentences at this point. Let others read your draft, following each step. Their feedback will uncover missing or confusing information. Often, test subjects uncover confusing wording, such as: ``When you said to 'Close all applications before starting the installation,' did you mean I have to close Windows, too, or just the programs running on my Windows desktop?" Thinking like a new user can be the hardest part of writing instructions. If you write for the broadest audience (nontechnical), your instructions should pass the "6th-grader test," meaning that the instructions should be clear enough for the average 6th-grade student to follow. Revise your initial draft to clarify the instructions. Step 3: Write the steps using simple, direct language. Now start to refine the language. If you struggle with describing a step, do more research and experimentation. Ask others to suggest alternatives for vague words or confusing sentences. Rewrite the instructions using an action verb and the implied "you." Don't worry about Use standard terminology that is appropriate for the audience. If you are writing for coworkers, use the terms or

209 acronyms common within your company or industry If you are writing for a general audience, use simple language as much as possible. If a technical term is unavoidable, define it the first time you use the term. When possible, use terms that are common in the industry rather than terms used solely by your company. Step 4: Include graphics if needed. Not all instructions require graphics. However, if the steps include parts' names, users will appreciate a graphic that illustrates or labels the trickier parts. If you include callouts to labeled parts, be sure to use consistent terms in the callout and in the text. If a step includes details difficult to describe clearly, an illustration can show the details in pictures to supplement the discussion. A flow chart with decision points can illustrate different paths or options, and better orient the reader. Step 5: Format the instructions to identify the organization. Select a layout and format that make the instructions clear and easy to follow. For example, if your steps are brief, simple numbering is appropriate. If the process has several distinct stages with steps within each stage, use headings to identify each stage. Typically, writers increase the font size of headings and make them bold. Use a consistent format for headings and text to clarify the organization. For example, use the same font, font size, and paragraph spacing for all main headings, use a slightly different appearance for subheadings, and so on. Avoid overuse of bold, italics, underlining, font changes, and unimportant graphics. When overused, these elements add "noise" that distracts readers from the information and overall organization. Use numbered steps when they must be followed in sequence (and check that the numbers are sequential—numbers can easily get mixed up during revisions). Become familiar with numbering formats available with your word processor, because they can provide a consistent style (font and margins) for numbered steps. Typically, writers indent the entire step so the numbers are easy to spot. Add white space between steps. If sequential steps require more than one paragraph with long explanations of each step, a numbered format is sometimes not practical, instead, use a standard paragraph format with other methods to identify separate steps, such as clear transition words that signal sequence. For example, use words such as first, next, then, and finally at the beginning of a paragraph starting a new step. Start a new paragraph for each new step. For exceptionally long steps, consider using headings and subheading for steps instead of numbers.

210 Use bulleted lists for alternatives within a step or for, steps that do not have to be followed in order. Lists are easier to read than paragraphs. But they ' are most effective with only one or two sentences per bullet. Although most writers stick to the standard round or square bullet symbol, you can use other symbols, For other options, check your clip art set or the symbols set available with your word processor. Use consistent tabs and spacing between bullets to improve the appearance of the list. Experiment with other layout techniques, such as centering headings, changing the font type or size, and manipulating the line spacing to increase the visual clarity. Step 6: Write an introduction to orient the reader. Discuss who should follow this procedure and why, when or where to folio", it, what it does, and where to go for further information or questions. This is the information that lays the groundwork for the instructions and identifies the intended audience and outcome. Writers sometimes write the introduction last because they don't have all the information themselves until the end. Building a Bookcase Our pine bookcase features a simple design to be built with basic woodworking tools. We made i the case out of materials available at most lumberyards. These instructions will produce a 4shelf bookcase with overall dimensions of 10" deep - 34" wide x 48" tall. While the depth of the case is directly tied to the 1 x 10 stock, you can vary the height.... Some writers also include a summary or conclusion at the end of the document, which further clarifies the expected outcome, or briefly describes any remaining steps not included with the instructions. Adding the Finishing Touch If you plan to paint your bookcase, first apply two coats of shellac over each knot to prevent the knots from bleeding through the final paint job. Then prime and paint the bookcase according to the manufacturer's instructions.... Step 7: Add a materials or requirements list. Include all equipment, tools, or minimum requirements needed for the complete project. Many writers include this information in a listed or bulleted format to make the items easy to spot. Include precise quantities, sizes, and part numbers. Categorise the materials into logical groups, especially if different types of materials are needed:

211 Materials List Basic tools: Lumber: Portable circular saw (1) 1/2 x 1/4" parting strip Block plane (2) pieces of 1 x 4 pine Combination square... (5) Pieces of 1 x 10 pine... Step 8: Identify notes and warnings. Use clear wording and formats to highlight information that has special importance to the user. Use Notes, Tips, Cautions, and Warnings, according to the conventions of your style guide. Position the information prior to or within the relevant step, not hidden at the end of the document. General warnings belong at the beginning of the document. Use a box, bold heading, or special symbol to catch the reader's eye. Many companies have a guideline for the correct usage of each type. For example, the conventions at one company are the following: • Use "Note" to emphasize information or supplement information that was already provided in the instructions but might apply only to certain situations. Note: Becoming a registered user makes you eligible for discounts, updates, and free technical support. • Use "Tip" to provide shortcuts, alternative methods, or techniques for performing an action, but not for essential information. Tip: If you choose not to include this program in your Startup folder, you can start it using Start > Programs. • Use "Caution" when an action or failure to take an action could result in loss of data. Caution! Back up each file weekly for archival purposes. • Use "Warning" when an action or failure to take an action could result in harm to the user or damage to the hardware. Warning! Unplug the power cable before opening the console casing. Step 9: Edit, revise, and refine your language. Review your document, and, if possible, ask other people to review it. Aim for two types of reviews: one for language and one for technical accuracy. Each reviewer might suggest different revisions. Most professionals consider the review process an integral part of document development—a time to fillet (prepare) the instructions before they "go out the door." From time to time, reviewers disagree with each other or write conflicting edits. Sometimes you might disagree with their edits. When this happens, focus on the audience, your intended readers. Discuss disagreements with your reviewers, letting them understand the other viewpoint.

212 This is also the time to examine grammar and spelling, reduce wordiness, eliminate repetition, and sharpen your language. Revise the steps as needed, based on the review process. Step 10: Observe someone follow your instructions. The best way to test instructions is to ask someone (a test subject) to read and follow your instructions. Avoid helping the subject; let the person rely only on the written information. Keep a log of difficulties experienced by the tester—they are bound to occur at unanticipated spots. Note where, when, and why the test subject had problems. Then revise your document accordingly, clarifying misunderstood steps and adding missing information in places where the test subject had problems. If possible, ask another person to test your revised document. Step 11: Put the final touches on the instructions. Complete the final revisions based on the testing. Take a last look at the layout, send the document to the printer, and give yourself a standing ovation! Writing instructions might not be as easy as one, two, three, but you can feel a great deal of satisfaction from producing instructions that work.



Technicians and engineers need to write on their training and expensive to make instructions and manuals more accurate. These people take special care to understand the audience, listen to users' questions, and add the basic information sometimes unintentionally overlooked by technical experts. The guidelines describe the general process of writing instructions.




Internet assignment. Use keywords such as "create Web site" to search for instructions on how to set up a Web site. Test them by setting up your own Web page. Evaluate the effectiveness of the instructions. Copy a set of instructions for a device. Critique the instructions by answering the following questions: What makes them effective? What can be improved? Do they pass the 6th-grader test? Write travel directions on how to get to your house from college, including a map.



213 4.


Write numbered instructions for one of the following procedures: i. Hook up a VCR. ii.

Install a car radio.


Set up a campsite.


Set a digital watch.


Prepare for a journey.

Expand the instructions from Exercise 4 into a formal set of instructions. Include the following elements: i. An introduction (background, purpose, definitions) ii. Materials list (all items, including quantities, needed for the procedure) iii. Step-by-step instructions iv. Conclusion (finishing tips or how to evaluate correct performance)

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9 Unit V (REQUIRED SKILLS) READING SKILLS Unit Structure 9.1 Objectives 9.2 Introduction: Reading 9.3 Types of reading 9.4 Reading to study type of reading 9.5 Summary 9.6 Exercise



 To learn the reading skills  To know various types of reading  To develop good habit of reading



Most of us think of reading as a simple, passive process which involves reading words in a linear fashion and internalizing their meaning one at a time. But reading is actually a very complex process that requires a great deal of active participation on the part of the reader. To get a better sense of the complexity of reading, read what some experts in the field have said about the reading process: What do we read? The message is not something given in advance--or given at all-- but something created by interaction between writers and readers as participants in a particular communicative situation. - Roy Harris in Rethinking Writing (2000) Reading is asking questions of printed text. And reading with comprehension becomes a matter of getting your questions answered. - Frank Smith in Reading without Nonsense (1997)

215 Reading is a psycholinguistic guessing game. It involves an interaction between thought and language. Efficient reading does not result from precise perception and identification of all elements, but from skill in selecting the fewest, most productive cues necessary to produce guesses which are right the first time. The ability to anticipate that which has not been seen, of course, is vital in reading, just as the ability to anticipate what has not yet been heard is vital in listening. - Kenneth Goodman in Journal of the Reading Specialist (1967) Literacy practices are almost always fully integrated with, interwoven into, constituted as part of, the very texture of wider practices that involve talk, interaction, values, and beliefs.- James Gee in Social Linguistics and Literacies (1996) As you can see, reading involves many complex skills that have to come together in order for the reader to be successful. For example, proficient readers recognize the purpose for reading, approach the reading with that purpose in mind, use strategies that have proven successful to them in the past when reading similar texts for similar purposes, monitor their comprehension of the text in light of the purpose for reading, and if needed adjust their strategy use. Proficient readers know when unknown words will interfere with achieving their purpose for reading, and when they won't. When unknown words arise and their meaning is needed for comprehension, proficient readers have a number of word attack strategies available to them that will allow them to decipher the meaning of the words to the extent that they are needed to achieve the purpose for reading. Reading is also a complex process in that proficient readers give to the text as much as they take. They make meaning from the text by using their own prior knowledge and experiences. Proficient readers are constantly making predictions while reading. They are continuously anticipating what will come next. Their prior knowledge and experiences with texts as well as with the world around them allow them to do this. It is this continuous interaction with the text that allows readers to make sense of what they are reading.



9.3.1 Survey Reading Let’s look at the basics of learning how to comprehend when reading. 1. Look at a book cover. What information is the author/publisher giving you about the story? What does the title suggest? Why did they use this particular graphic on the cover? 2. Read the Table of Contents. It’s an outline of the story.

216 3.

Read the Introduction or Preface. It gives you a good idea of where the author wants to take you. 4. Can you make any predictions about the story with this information alone? 5. Look at the back cover. What are the comments being made by critics who have read the book? What other clues can you pick up? 6. Preview the book to make sure it’s what you are looking for. Skim the headings and subheadings. 7. Remember that the first and last sentences of a paragraph give you the essence of that paragraph, especially when reading non-fiction. 8. What do you know about the subject? Prior knowledge will help you to fill in information, to understand vocabulary words and concepts the author wants you to know. "People often read slowly and carefully, because teachers in elementary schools require students to sound and read the word aloud, which takes longer than "seeing" the word. As a young student matures he continues pronouncing each word in his mind as he reads" (Foster) Reciting the word in your head is called subvocalization and is what slows a reader down. 9.3.2 Scanning Type of Reading Scanning is the first thing that you do when you select a resource. It answers the question: - Is this the right resource to help me find the answers to my questions? Will it give me the answers I want? Scan - by zapping through the whole resource homing in on the important bits. Scan before you start skimming. Scanning gives you a feeling for the whole item. Think about: * Is it relevant? * Is there anything in it that answers the target questions? Look at: * Title page. * The contents page. Are there chapters or sections that you may want to read? Are there maps, diagrams, pictures, captions? Do they look as if they would be helpful? Scanning involves running your eyes down the page looking for specific facts or key words and phrases. Recall how you find a word in a vocabulary? You don't read any more than necessary to find the word you seek. Notice that you go directly down a column. Maybe you use your finger to guide your eyes. This type of reading is usually called scanning.

217 Scanning is a technique you often use when looking up a word in the telephone book or dictionary. You search for key words or ideas. In most cases, you know what you're looking for, so you're concentrating on finding a particular answer. Scanning involves moving your eyes quickly down the page seeking specific words and phrases. Scanning is also used when you first find a resource to determine whether it will answer your questions. Once you've scanned the document, you might go back and skim it. When scanning, look for the author's use of organizers such as numbers, letters, steps, or the words, first, second, or next. Look for words that are bold faced, italics, or in a different font size, style, or color. Sometimes the author will put key ideas in the margin. Reading off a computer screen has become a growing concern. Research shows that people have more difficulty reading off a computer screen than off paper. Although they can read and comprehend at the same rate as paper, skimming on the computer is much slower than on paper. Similarly, scanning skills are valuable for several purposes in studying science. First, they are an aid in locating new terms, which are introduced in the chapter. Unless you understand the new terms, it is impossible to follow the author's reasoning without dictionary or glossary. Thus a preliminary scanning of the chapters will alert you to the new terms and concepts and their sequence. When you locate a new term, try to find its definition. If you are not able to figure out the meaning, then look it up in the glossary or dictionary. (Note: usually new terms are defined as they are introduced in science texts. If your text does not have a glossary, it is a good idea to keep a glossary of your own in the front page of the book. Record the terms and their definition or the page number where the definition is located. This is an excellent aid to refer to when you are reviewing for an examination, as it provides a convenient outline of the course). Secondly, scanning is useful in locating statements, definitions, formulas, etc. which you must remember completely and precisely. Scan to find the exact and complete statement of a chemical law, the formula of a particular compound in chemistry, or the stages of cell division. Also, scan the charts and figures, for they usually summarize in graphic form the major ideas and facts of the chapter. Just start: Scan how the page is laid out, and use bold headers and captions to get an overview of the ideas and themes. * Use peripheral vision; don't focus only on the logical flow of the text. Observe what you're reading with a wide-angle scope, as if

218 you were looking at an image rather than a block of text. Use the same wide-eye span as you do when driving, looking at all that surrounds you and heading your way. * Using the wide-span approach, there are several methods in which you can "read" a page. - Read paragraphs diagonally, and place emphasis on the key words. - Read the page in a "Z" - Read in a "U", moving down the page, and back up. * Skim the text by reading the first sentence of each paragraph. * Try to speed up your eye movements to take in more per reading, rather than stay fixated and focused on a word. * Use the help of your index finger, by moving it at a slightly faster pace than your reading speed. When reading on the Internet, scroll down quicker than you actually read. 9.3.3 Skimming Type of Reading Skim by zooming through the text quickly trying to spot key words. Don't start at the beginning and plod or shuffle through the text. After you have scanned the text and found the bits that you think look relevant and interesting then skim read. Concentrates keep your keywords and questions in your mind. Skimming involves searching for the main ideas by reading the first and last paragraphs, noting other organizational cues, such as summaries, used by the author. Skimming is used to quickly identify the main ideas of a text. When you read the newspaper, you're probably not reading it wordby-word; instead you're scanning the text. Skimming is done at a speed three to four times faster than normal reading. People often skim when they have lots of material to read in a limited amount of time. Use skimming when you want to see if an article may be of interest in your research. There are many strategies that can be used when skimming. Some people read the first and last paragraphs using headings, summarizes and other organizers as they move down the page or screen. You might read the title, subtitles, subheading, and illustrations. Consider reading the first sentence of each paragraph. This technique is useful when you're seeking specific information rather than reading for comprehension. Skimming works well to find dates, names, and places. It might be used to review graphs, tables, and charts.

219 Skimming is when you "browse", or glance randomly through a book. It has great importance in learning and is emphasized as a strategy in speed reading particularly for exam taking. The purpose of skimming is to get an "overview" not the specific details of the material. We use it to decide if the book, article or report is worth our time, and has anything new and worthwhile to tell us. Why waste time if it is a rehash of stuff we already know? Skim several times When reading extensive material, you can first skim over the chapter and section titles to give you an idea of when the material is about. Then quickly scan through the material again to get a better idea of the topic. Finally, you read the assignment, but still reading rapidly. Skimming is a step you should always take before you read any article of factual or practical narrative. You will soon be able to detect most important facts, strange vocabulary, and words that are clues to important relationships. It's a good practice to skim everything in mass media after reading the title and first paragraph. You may get all the information you want. This keeps your skimming skills from deteriorating, or will give you the practice you need to develop necessary skills. Skim everything you intend to read before you make a final decision to read, discard, or study the material. Skim all highlighting and develop a read-skim pattern to use for rapid review. And don't overlook this! Reviewing frequently and rapidly is the best way to memorize (or simply remember information) from notes and long text assignments. ... And then read Some speed reading methods have you first skim-read the material and then read it over a second time more carefully, but yet still at high speed. In skim reading you often just scan through the material, letting your eyes catch key words that give you the crux of the written material. Take some reading material and read it as fast as you can for a minute. When reading at this pace you do not have to understand a single word of what you are reading. Then start over for another minute and try to get to a further point that you did the last. Repeat this step over and over trying to beat the place where you got to last. Eventually time yourself for a minute and read for comprehension and you will see how fast you can really read.

220 Like scanning, skimming requires you to read quickly. When you skim a text, though, you are not looking for specific information, but rather, you are trying to get the main idea or point of the text you are reading. When skimming a reading selection, start with the title of the text, then read the topic sentence of each paragraph. Skimming is a skill that is especially suited for doing research. By skimming a few pages of a reference book or novel, you can generally tell if the book or novel will be useful for your research. 9.4


A method of reading for study is called SQ3R2, (SQ3R, SQ4R, and PSQ5R) the aim is to understand the material in some depth. The method involves five simple steps; Survey, Question, Read, Recall and Review. * Survey: skim through to gain an overview and not key points. * Question: devise questions you hope the text will answer. * Read: slowly and carefully. * Recall: from memory, write down the main points made by the chapter. * Review: revisit your questions - compare these to your recall and establish how well the text has answered them; fill in any gaps by further reading and note-taking. 9.4.1 Practice and speed reading Question: I'm currently interested in speed reading, a possibly useful augmentation on my natural state, I'm not sure about its effectiveness (or even possible effectiveness). A bit curious about the experiences of others, and of possible studies into the subject. So, the question is, do you happen to have some information that might help me? Answer: A few things to look at: 1. How much do you read? 2. How often do you read? 3. How much do you enjoy reading? Speed reading is a skill that is acquired after much reading. I started heavily reading at the age of 10 and by the time I was 12-13 I could speed read flawlessly. That skill has not degraded at all over the years. I think the more you read the more your mind adapts to it, to were eventually it will pick out the most important words, naturally to were with less words you understand it as well as if you read every word or the whole sentence.

221 9.4.2 SQ4R Reading The SQ4R Method will help you keep studying organized and efficient. The steps to SQ4R ( Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Record, Review) are explained in the steps below. SURVEY Glance over the material to get a feel for what you will be reading. Survey the entire text When you first receive the text, spend about 20 minutes skimming the entire textbook to acquire an overall understanding of how the book is organized. 1. Read at the title page. 2. Read at the copyright page. 3. Read at the table of contents. 4. Read the preface. 5.Read at the ancillary material (appendix, glossary, bibliography, and index) 6. Read at any illustrations (including charts, graphs, and tables) Survey each chapter Survey a chapter assignment before you actually read it. Survey should tell the scope of the content, how different topics are organized, and what the author's purpose and point of view are. The chapter survey will also give you sufficient background information for class notes. 1. Read the chapter title. 2. Read the chapter objectives. 3. Read the chapter summary or review. 4. Read the major headings and subheadings. 5. Read the visual aids. 6. Read the italicized and/or underlined words and terms. Survey the illustrations Our society is visually oriented; authors and publishers are well aware that effective use of illustrations in textbooks is more necessary than ever. Illustrations can literally replace hundreds of words and convey a message more dramatically and quickly than a comparable section of text. Formats range from equations, theorems, and formulas to tables and graphic illustrations. QUESTION Ask questions before, during, and after reading the material As you survey the material, ask the questions about what you will be reading and what you will try to answer. Turn the headings and subheadings into questions. These questions give

222 you a real reason for reading and will help you concentrate on the subject you are reading. Imagine, as you read the textbook, that the author is speaking directly to you. Question the author statements. Challenge the ideas presented. Textbooks are not the A final word, but are a means of actively involving you, the reader, in the learning process. Do not passively accept the author is presentation of material; look at it critically and read with a questioning and searching attitude. Ask the standard questions: what, why, and how. READ Read for the main ideas and organization Now you should read actively with these certain questions in mind and attempt to answer the questions and organize the material. These answers will be the important facts and details. Read everything in a chapter including any of the visual aids such as picture captions, graphs, charts, etc. Note any words or phrases that are italicized, underlined, or in bold print (there=s a reason this material is highlighted!) The tendency in reading is to keep going, but you should stop at the end of each section to see if you can answer the questions you asked at the start of the section. Find the main ideas in each chapter or section. Textbook authors write as you have been taught to write: they develop a topic sentence and/or paragraph, substantiate it, and draw conclusions. Concentrate on what you are reading. Try to feel the rhythm of the author's prose (short, snappy sentences or long, labored explanations) and then "go with the flow." Note particularly the headings and subheadings; they indicate the relative importance of each topic. Study the illustrations. These serve as "pegs" to help you remember the major points being discussed in the text. RECITE Summarize aloud what you read: Recite the main ideas, in other words, aloud or to yourself, after finishing a page. Check the comprehension and make sure you have the correct information. Do the same for the major points after reading each section or chapter. By reciting what you've read, you are able to see how much information you absorbed, areas you didn't understand and need to review, and answers to the questions you generated for yourself. If you cannot answer the questions, go back to the material and reread.

223 RECORD Marking words in the books increases understanding of the material for the present and for future reference. The process of selecting and marking requires you to find the main ideas. Later, when you review the text for exam purposes, you will find that the textbook markings and highlights enable you to grasp the essential points without having to read entire paragraphs and chapters again. Write down the central points for the chapter or section in the notebook. Do each assignment before class. This will prepare you to participate in class discussions which will, in turn, help you remember the material you have read and to put it into perspective. Underline and make marginal notes: Underlining key words and sentences will make those items stand out in the mind. Marginal notes give you the opportunity to question a statement or position taken by the author as well as making you select the key words or items you want to remember from the paragraph. Summaries enable you to write a brief summation of a section in other words. Develop your own system of reading: Use whatever facilitates your retention of the material and works best for you. You might use the following: a double underline for main ideas and a single underline for supporting points; a bracket to enclose several consecutive lines that are important, rather than underlining all of them; or a box or circle around key terms. Read before you mark. Read a few paragraphs or sections and then go back over the material and underline those topics and/or words that you feel are important. Be selective: Underline only those points that are clearly essential. You will then have a visible outline of the major points on a page. Use other words: Marginal notations and summaries should be in other language so you can readily recall the original material as you review. Using the text in this manner enables you to extract all that the book has to offer you in a learning situation, now and in the future. You will be able to use the texts for review in later softwares in the same field or in an allied field, thus reducing the need to re-read the material. You will reap the most benefit from reviewing the notes in the text, rather than being distracted by notes you may find written by some other person in a used text. Coordinate class notes and textbook notes: Read the textbook material on time and prior to the corresponding class or lecture if at all possible. You can then follow the instructor's thought more

224 easily, separate important points from lesser details, and have class notes become more meaningful to you. Develop your own note-taking technique for each class. Many students use only one side of the paper for class notes, leaving a 2- or 3-inch margin on the left side of the page for writing key words and labeling. Combine the text notes and class notes. Do this by writing class notes on the right hand page of the notebook and transferring text notes to the appropriate left hand facing page. You can then easily review all the information gained from class and text reading. REVIEW Review constantly. Reviewing is an essential part of retention. Review the textbook notes shortly after you have written them and continue to review them periodically. Spend a few minutes going over the earlier notes before beginning a new reading assignment. This will help you keep the overall picture of the author's development in mind and will let you place the new material properly within that arrangement. Review any and all supplements to the text. These usually contain quizzes and self tests on material in the text which will prepare you better for examinations. Constantly review throughout the software will greatly reduce the time you will need to spend preparing for exams and will make that time less stressful ("cramming") and more relaxing ("reviewing"). 9.4.5 Active Reading Keep paper and pen within reach. Before beginning to read, think about the purpose for the reading. Why has the teacher made this assignment? What are you supposed to get out of it? Use the cursor on computer like a magic wand as you read text. Underline reading text. The cursor becomes a finger, and instinct kicks in - your eyes follow for moving object. This increase information perception on 50%, and add that important 10% to memory and concentration. So that's it, you're on the way to improved knowledge acquisition. Want to know why the most intelligent people hate reading? It slow and boring and their brain is moving at the speed of sound. Use a guide (pencil, finger, ruler) to stop regression. Train yourself to bypass your automatic response to mentally speak each word. Reading groups of words and phrases at a time, using our

225 peripheral vision. Specifically, taking in a sentence in three gulps, not ten, which is typical for educated professionals. But now you have the first two steps. When you are reading it is often useful to highlight, underline and annotate the text as you go on. This emphasizes information in the mind, and helps you to review important points after you have finished studying the text. Active reading helps to keep the mind focused on the material and stops it wandering. This is obviously only something to do if you own the document or book. If you find that active reading helps significantly, then it may be worth copying information in more expensive texts. You can then read and mark the photocopies. Marking & Underlining in a Textbook 1. First read a section. 2. Review the section, marking and underlining selectively. 3. Underline information as if you were preparing brief notes from which you could study. 4. Underline all definitions of terminology. 5. Mark or label examples that represent main ideas. 6. Circle and box special vocabulary words and transitional words and phrases. 7. Number important or sequential ideas. 8. Jot down paraphrases, questions, and summaries in available space within the text. Readers should use a pen or finger to trace each line of text as they move down the page to keep track of where they are reading. Use index and middle fingers to run across the text. Switching fingers with each line previews the next, and you can grasp the information better. The eye sees the next line. Subconsciously, the eye will skip around a page of text, which is why reading can take so much time. Always read with a pen in your fist underlining each word of a sentence as you think. You will increase speed reading in 50%, and add 10% to concentration and memory. It's an instinct - our

226 eyes follow a moving object. It's what saved our cave-dwelling ancestors from sneaky dinosaurs and enemies next door.



Reading is a skill. People read for different purposes. But reading is actually a very complex process that requires a great deal of active participation on the part of the reader. The reading is of different types which include survey reading, active reading, scanning, skimming, SQ3R, SQ4R or etc. We can profess this art only on practicing in a perfect way and reading with a purpose.



Read the following paragraphs and answer the questions given below: 1. Thomas Alva Edison lit up the world with his invention of the electric light. Without him, the world might still be a dark place. However, the electric light was not his only invention. He also invented the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and over 1,200 other things. About every two weeks he created something new. Thomas A. Edison was born in Milan, Ohio, on February 11, 1847. His family moved to Port Huron, Michigan, when he was seven years old. Surprisingly, he attended school for only two months. His mother, a former teacher, taught him a few things, but Thomas was mostly self-educated. His natural curiosity led him to start experimenting at a young age with electrical and mechanical things at home. When he was 12 years old, he got his first job. He became a newsboy on a train that ran between Port Huron and Detroit. He set up a laboratory in a baggage care of the train so that he could continue his experiments in his spare time. Unfortunately, his first work experience did not end well. Thomas was fired when he accidentally set fire to the floor of the baggage car. Thomas then worked for five years as a telegraph operator, but he continued to spend much of his time on the job conducting experiments. He got his first patent in 1868 for a vote recorder run by electricity. However, the vote recorder was not a success. In 1870, he sold another invention, a stock-ticker, for $40,000. A stock-ticker is a machine that automatically prints stock prices on a tape. He was then able to build his first shop in Newark, New Jersey.

227 Thomas Edison was totally deaf in one ear and hard of hearing in the other, but thought of his deafness as a blessing in many ways. It kept conversations short, so that he could have more time for work. He called himself a "twoshift man" because he worked 16 out of every 24 hours. Sometimes he worked so intensely that his wife had to remind him to sleep and eat. Thomas Edison died at the age of 84 on October 18, 1931, at his estate in West Orange, New Jersey. He left numerous inventions that improved the quality of life all over the world. 1. Thomas Edison did things in this order: a.

he became a telegraph operator, a newsboy, and then got his first patent


he became a newsboy, got his first patent, and then became a telegraph operator


he got a patent, became a telegraph operator, and then became a newsboy


he became a newsboy, a telegraph operator, and then got a patent

2. a.

Edison considered his deafness: a disadvantage


a blessing


something from a priest


a necessity

3. Of all the inventions, __________ was probably the most important for civilization. a. the vote recorder b.

the stock ticker


the light bulb


the motion picture camera

4. The main idea of this passage is: a. Thomas Edison was always interested in science and inventions, and he invented many important things.



Thomas Edison could not keep a job.


Thomas Edison worked day and night on his experiments.


Deaf people make good inventors because they can focus without the distraction of spoken conversation. Summarise the above passage.

228 6.





His mother, a former teacher, taught him a few things, but he was mostly self-educated. taught himself


born a genius


loved school


thought of himself His natural curiosity soon led him to start experimenting with electrical and mechanical things at home. a. experiencing b.



making tests and playing with



He left numerous inventions that improved the quality of life all over the world. a. numbered b.






Sometimes he worked so intensely that his wife had to remind him to sleep and eat. a. passionately and with great focus b.

carelessly and with many distractions





10. Make notes of the above passage. II. In Glacier National Park, which is in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, there once roamed a little deaf Indian boy. He loved to wander in the forest, and made friends with the animals who lived there. Since he loved animals, he would observe them intently and learn their habits. This little Indian boy's name was John Lewis Clarke. John Lewis Clarke's grandfather was a graduate from West Point and a captain in the U.S. Army. He was married to the daughter of a Blackfoot Indian Chief and adopted by the tribe. His son, John Lewis Clarke's father, also married an Indian princess, the daughter of Chief Stands Alone. Sadly, John's grandfather was later killed by Indians of another tribe near Helena, Montana.

229 John Lewis Clarke was not born deaf. He became ill at a young age with scarlet fever. Though he survived, he could no longer hear the sounds that the forest animals made. He could not hear his Indian friends when they called to him. Scarlet fever had caused him to lose his hearing. His Indian friends gave him the name Cutapuis (Cu-ta-pu-ee) which means, "man who talks not." Because John could not talk, he could not tell his parents about his many animal friends in the forest and the exciting things that he saw, but he found another way to express himself. He made figures of them out of clay from the river banks. Later, when he was older, he learned to carve things out of wood. He loved to carve animals. With an axe and a pocket knife, he carved a life-sized image of a bear from a cedar trunk. The bear looked so real, the only thing missing was its growl. When John was old enough to go to school, his parents sent him to the Fort Shaw Indian School. However, since he needed special education, he was transferred to a school for the deaf at Boulder, Montana. He also attended the School for the Deaf at Devil's Lake, North Dakota. When he was older, he enrolled at St. Francis Academy in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he studied wood carving. While he was still in his teens, John returned to Montana and opened a studio. He began to carve all the animals he had known very well in his childhood, and offer them for sale. He made models of animals out of wood, clay, and stone. He painted pictures using water colors and oils, and did excellent pen and ink drawings. He began to make a name for himself as an artist. John spent most of his 89 years at his home studio in Glacier Park. Every year when the park season was over, he continued his work in Great Falls, Montana, his second home. Many important people bought John's work. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., the famous multimillionaire, was one of them. John's work was on exhibit in many places in this country. John died on November 20, 1970. In his life-time, he literally carved his way to fame. 1.

John probably started Language as soon as: a. he became deaf.





he entered a school for the deaf.


he could make figures out of clay.


his Indian friends taught him.


230 2.






The subject of his artwork was mostly animals. This is most likely because: a. the environment he grew up in influenced him. b.

he was an Indian.


it was his way of expressing ideas.


he did not like people.

"The bear looked so real. The only thing missing was its 'growl.'" This phrase means: a. John forgot to add one more thing. b.

the bear was missing.


the bear missed growling.


the bear looked perfect except that it could not make any sound.

During the course of his education, John attended: a. two schools. b.

only a residential school for the deaf.


four different schools.


a school in Maine.

Because John could not talk, he could not tell his parents about his many animal friends in the forest and the exciting things that he saw, but he found another way to express himself. He made figures out of clay. a. speak with voice b.

be quiet




write his thoughts

The bear looked so real. The only thing missing was its growl. a. snarl b.





talking back

Since he needed special education, he was transferred to a school for the deaf at Boulder, Montana. a. traveled by train b.

moved to







kept at



John's work was on exhibit in many places in the country. a. sale b.






In his lifetime, he literally carved his way to fame. a. in action b.






Many important people bought John's work. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., the famous multimillionaire, was one of them. a. someone who has many millions of dollars b.

someone who has a million dollars


someone who gives a lot of money to charity


someone who doesn't care about money

People can lose their hearing at any age - before they are born, as infants, during childhood, or as _____1_____. Each age of onset has a different name and the deafness may have different origins. Prenatal deafness means that a baby is born deaf. There are several reasons why this can happen. If parents are deaf, they may have a deaf baby. There are genes related to deafness that hearing parents can also pass on to their child. Genes control the way we look and all of our characteristics. If the baby gets the right genes from hearing parents, it will be born deaf. Other prenatal _____2_____ of deafness can include: accidents; medicine or drugs that the mother takes; illnesses; and genetic syndromes. Genetic syndromes are a group of characteristics that a child inherits from its parents. There are two very common types of genetic syndromes related to deafness. One is Waardenburg's Syndrome. Its characteristics are very ____3______. The person may have pigment disorders: a streak of white hair; two different color eyes; or streaks of white in a man's _____4_____. Most residential schools have children with these characteristics. It is possible to

232 have the physical traits of Waardenburg's Syndrome but not be deaf. Usher's Syndrome is also fairly common. Children with Usher's Syndrome are born with a hearing loss and later lose their vision. The first symptoms of this genetic syndrome occur at _____5_____. A person with Usher's Syndrome will experience problems seeing well in the dark. Later, they will lose their peripheral vision and see only within a tunnel area in front of them. This is called "tunnel vision." Persons may eventually lose more and more of their vision and become blind or partially blind. If you notice that a deaf person does not see you when you stand at his or her _____6_____, that person may have this syndrome. The best way to communicate with a person who has Usher's Syndrome is to stand directly in front and to sign _____7_____. “Adapted from Deaf Heritage: A Student Text and Workbook. National Association of the Deaf.’’ 1

People can lose their hearing at any age - before they are born, as infants, during childhood, or as __________. adults friends relatives students citizens


Other prenatal __________ of deafness can include: accidents; medicine or drugs that the mother takes; illnesses; and genetic syndromes. benefits causes degrees tests results


The characteristics of Waardenburg's Syndrome are very __________. rare valuable old-fashioned obvious dangerous

233 4

The person may have pigment disorders: a streak of white hair; two different color eyes; or streaks of white in a man's __________. smile clothing picture glasses beard


The first symptoms of the Usher's Syndrome occur at __________. night home dinner rest recess


If you notice that a deaf person does not see you when you stand at his or her __________, that person may have this syndrome. window rear side door mirror


The best way to communicate with a person who has Usher's Syndrome is to stand directly in front and to sign __________. politely clearly quickly quietly English


Make notes of the above text and give suitable title to it.

IV. In cobra country a mongoose was born one day who didn't want to fight cobras or anything else. The word spread from mongoose to mongoose that there was a mongoose who didn't want to fight cobras. If he didn't want to fight anything else, it was his own business, but it was the duty of every mongoose to kill cobras or be killed by cobras.

234 "Why?"asked the peacelike mongoose, and the word went round that the strange new mongoose was not only procobra and anti-mongoose but intellectually curious and against the ideals and traditions of mongoosism. "He is crazy," cried the young's mongoose's father. "He's sick, "said his mother. "He is a coward," shouted his brothers. "He's a mongoosexual," whispered his sisters. Strangers who had never laid eyes on the peacelike mongoose remembered that they had seen him crawling on his stomach, or trying cobra hoods, or plotting the violent overthrow of Mongoodia. "I am trying to use reason and intelligence,"said the strange new mongoose. "Reason is six-sevenths of treason,"said one of his neighbours. "Intelligence is what the enemy uses," said another. Finally the rumour spread that the mongoose had venom in his sting, like a cobra, and he was tried, convicted by a show of paws, and condemned to banishment. Moral: Ashes to ashes, and clay to clay, if the enemy doesn't get you your own folks may. Exercise: THE PEACELIKE MONGOOSE The only question in the whole text is___________ and it is asked by the _________ mongoose. The fact that a mongoose must inevitably cobras ____________ isn't obvious to him so he wants to know the ____________ for such behaviour. However, this is interpreted by his fellow mongooses as ___________ . If you look closely at the words "reason" and "treason" you will find out they have letters ____________ in common, that is why the author refers to reason being of treason. The other mongooses have never asked themselves questions about ____________ and they have been ____________ to think that this is the only way to ____________. This blind acceptance of ideals and traditions has led them not only to constant ____________ against cobras with no hope of an end but also ____________ towards anyone who ____________ such behaviour. They have not been taught to use either ____________ or intelligence. Can you relate the story and its moral to any particular historical event? If you do, write a short paragraph describing it, making a parallel between both stories and send it to us.

235 V.

English as a National Foreign Language India has two national languages for central administrative purposes: Hindi and English. Hindi is the national, official, and main link language of India. English is an associate official language. The Indian Constitution also officially approves twenty-two regional languages for official purposes. Dozens of distinctly different regional languages are spoken in India, which share many characteristics such as grammatical structure and vocabulary. Apart from these languages, Hindi is used for communication in India. The homeland of Hindi is mainly in the north of India, but it is spoken and widely understood in all urban centers of India. In the southern states of India, where people speak many different languages that are not much related to Hindi, there is more resistance to Hindi, which has allowed English to remain a lingua franca to a greater degree. Since the early 1600s, the English language has had a toehold on the Indian subcontinent, when the East India Company established settlements in Chennai, Kolkata, and Mumbai, formerly Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay respectively. The historical background of India is never far away from everyday usage of English. India has had a longer exposure to English than any other country which uses it as a second language, its distinctive words, idioms, grammar and rhetoric spreading gradually to affect all places, habits and culture. In India, English serves two purposes. First, it provides a linguistic tool for the administrative cohesiveness of the country, causing people who speak different languages to become united. Secondly, it serves as a language of wider communication, including a large variety of different people covering a vast area. It overlaps with local languages in certain spheres of influence and in public domains. Generally, English is used among Indians as a ‘link’ language and it is the first language for many well-educated Indians. It is also the second language for many who speak more than one language in India. The English language is a tie that helps bind the many segments of our society together. Also, it is a linguistic bridge between the major countries of the world and India. English has special national status in India. It has a special place in the parliament, judiciary, broadcasting, journalism, and in the education system. One can see a Hindi-speaking

236 teacher giving their students instructions during an educational tour about where to meet and when their bus would leave, but all in English. It means that the language permeates daily life. It is unavoidable and is always expected, especially in the cities. The importance of the ability to speak or write English has recently increased significantly because English has become the de facto standard. Learning English language has become popular for business, commerce and cultural reasons and especially for internet communications throughout the world. English is a language that has become a standard not because it has been approved by any ‘standards’ organization but because it is widely used by many information and technology industries and recognized as being standard. The call centre phenomenon has stimulated a huge expansion of internet-related activity, establishing the future of India as a cyber-technological super-power. Modern communications, videos, journals and newspapers on the internet use English and have made ‘knowing English’ indispensable. The prevailing view seems to be that unless students learn English, they can only work in limited jobs. Those who do not have basic knowledge of English cannot obtain good quality jobs. They cannot communicate efficiently with others, and cannot have the benefit of India’s rich social and cultural life. Men and women who cannot comprehend and interpret instructions in English, even if educated, are unemployable. They cannot help with their children’s school homework everyday or decide their revenue options of the future. A positive attitude to English as a national language is essential to the integration of people into Indian society. There would appear to be virtually no disagreement in the community about the importance of English language skills. Using English you will become a citizen of the world almost naturally. English plays a dominant role in the media. It has been used as a medium for inter-state communication and broadcasting both before and since India’s independence. India is, without a doubt, committed to English as a national language. The impact of English is not only continuing but increasing. 1. According to the writer, the Indian constitution recognises 22 official languages Hindi as the national language 2 national, official languages 2 national languages

237 2.





7. 8.

English's status as a lingua franca is helped by its status in northern India the fact that it is widely understood in urban centres the fact that people from the south speak languages not much related to Hindi it shares many grammatical similarities with Hindi In paragraph 3, 'toehold' means that English dominated India changed the names of some cities in India has had a presence in India has been in India longer than any other language Hindi-speaking teachers might well be heard using English only use English only use English for instructions do not use English In paragraph eight, it says 'the prevailing view', which suggests that the view is correct the view is held by the majority the view is incorrect the view is held by the minority English in India is going to decrease has decreased since independence causes disagreement is going to have a greater importance54rtfvg Summarise the above text into one third of it. Make the note points of the text given above.



10 NOTE MAKING AND PRECISE WRITING Unit Structure 10.1 Objectives 10.2 Note Making: Introduction 10.3 Note-making or note-taking 10.4 Note-making techniques 10.5 Note-making tips 10.6 Checklist/tips 10.7 Précis Writing: Introduction 10.8 Summary 10.8 Exercise

10.1 OBJECTIVES  To learn the note making techniques  To understand and adopt the strategies for effective note making  To know the concept of precise writing  To learn the art of precise writing

10.2 NOTE MAKING: INTRODUCTION The notes you make whilst studying at university are a valuable resource for our learning and they will build up quickly during your studies. They help you to map and record what you are learning, and then to recall and understand it later. You will depend upon your notes for exam revision, as well as for preparation of essays and other coursework assignments. It is therefore important to develop efficient and effective skills for both creating notes and keeping study records. This guide suggests ways in which you can use the note-making process to engage with your subject as well as ensuring that your records are easy to use and contain all the information you need.


10.3 NOTE-MAKING OR NOTE-TAKING Note-taking can mean you write down what you hear or read without thinking about the material, perhaps by copying from the original source and re-written in a similar format. They are often non-selective, covering most or all of the information given. Notetaking is a passive study technique, where note-making is active. When making notes, be selective, find one or two ‘learning points’ rather than noting everything the speaker or writer says (Levin, 2009). Remember that the introductions and conclusions usually summarise the key ideas. Note-making requires concentration as you have to select, analyse and summarise what you hear or read. If you have never thought about how you make notes, ask yourself:  What sort of notes do I make? 

What do I do with my notes after I have made them?

Are my notes effective for revising or assignments? (After Burns and Sinfield, 2004)

10.4 NOTE-MAKING TECHNIQUES 10.4.1 Sequential or linear notes usually follow the same order as the speaker or writer. Good sequential notes include key words, headings and sub-headings to express the connections between key concepts, accompanied by extra information in brief. It helps if you leave wide margins and write on every other line as this provides space for comments or the addition of further notes at a later date; the inclusion of diagrams and flow charts enhance sequential notes and usually reduce the number of words you need to write. Underlining and highlighting will focus your attention and enable you to find the important points quickly. Both annotating (making brief notes in the margins), and abbreviating speed up your note-making. Summarising, which involves writing a much shorter version, may save time and reduce the risk of plagiarism (using others’ words or ideas and representing them as your own). When making sequential notes, you are following the sense of what is being said/read and creating a set of notes for review that can be quickly scanned for the main points. You should also be helping yourself to think creatively by focusing on concepts and ideas, rather than becoming immersed in the detail. 10.4.2 Visual notes some learners prefer to make visual notes organised around particular concepts or ideas. Pattern notes, spider-diagrams and mind maps use lines, arrows and circles to

240 link key ideas. Pattern note-making reduces the impulse to make notes in the order the information was presented– you have to reprocess and organise it at the point when you receive it. When using visual note-making, you are expressing your understanding of the information by thinking through where each aspect fits in relation to all other aspects. You are also creating a unique visual image which may be easy to recall. These techniques can take many forms but may look something like the example below in figure 1. There are a number of other methods of visually, or graphically, representing what you have heard or read. These include:  flowchart/series of events chain – to express stages or sequencing of an event or process 

continuum scale – to rank items from one end of a spectrum to another e.g.: time line or low to high

compare and contrast matrix – table or chart which is good for showing similarities and differences

fishbone map – shows the causal interaction in a complex setting

cycle/process – with an emphasis on circularity, a cycle stresses patterns of repetition

241 If you are a slow writer, experiment with pattern techniques. Essentially, any note-making technique that supports quick, easy and informative review is good. Experiment and choose the approach which best suits your needs. 10.4.3 Concept Maps and Diagrams You can set down information in a concept map or diagram. This presents the information in a visual form and is unlike the traditional linear form of note taking. Information can be added to the concept map in any sequence. Concept maps can easily become cluttered, so we recommend you use both facing pages of an open A4 note book. This will give you an A3 size page to set out your concept map and allow plenty of space for adding ideas and symbols.   

Begin in the middle of the page and add ideas on branches that radiate from the central idea or from previous branches. Arrows and words can be used to show links between parts of the concept map. Colour and symbols are important parts of concept maps, helping illustrate ideas and triggering your own thoughts.


Fig 2 Concept Maps

10.4.4 Use Symbols and Abbreviations The use of symbols and abbreviations is useful for lectures, when speed is essential. You also need to be familiar with symbols frequently used in your courses.  

Develop a system of symbols and abbreviations; some personal, some from your courses Be consistent when using symbols and abbreviations

243 Some examples of commonly used symbols abbreviations are presented in the following tables.



Meaning in note making


equals/is equal to/is the same as

is not equal to/is not the same as

is equivalent to

therefore, thus, so because


and, more, plus

> <

more than, greater than less than

less, minus

gives, causes, leads to, results in, is given by, is produced by, results from rises, increases by falls, decreases by


proportional to


not proportional to

10.5 NOTE-MAKING TIPS You will make your best notes when you are well-prepared. Consider what you already know about the topic, how it fits in with the whole course and what you now need to find out. Do not be intimidated by academic language. You may not be familiar with all the terms you hear and read or the way in which language is used, but you will get used to it. Note any terms you do not understand and check their meanings later. Be aware that some sources are more valid than others – many websites, magazines and newspapers base their content on opinion rather than research-based evidence. Remember this if you are considering referencing them in your academic work. If you understand why the source exists – to inform, advertise, entertain etc – this will help you to select according to your need.

244 Regard your notes as part of a learning cycle. Any activity which takes you back to your notes later will contribute to your learning. So set yourself regular review tasks based on your notes. 10.5.1

Identify How Information is Organised Most texts use a range of organising principles to develop ideas. While most good writing will have a logical order, not all writers will use an organising principle. Organising principles tend to sequence information into a logical hierarchy, some of which are:         

Past ideas to present ideas The steps or stages of a process or event Most important point to least important point Well known ideas to least known ideas Simple ideas to complex ideas General ideas to specific ideas The largest parts to the smallest parts of something Problems and solutions Causes and result

10.5.2 Record keeping Plan how you are going to keep and store your notes before you begin to make them: Paper notes:  Ensure you have the necessary notebooks to meet your needs – avoid merging all your notes together on consecutive pages, especially when you are working on more than one module at the same time.  Keep lecture notes separate from your own research notes for assignments so you can navigate your files quickly and easily.  Label and store handouts, photocopies and notes in folders.  Consider having a colour code to represent specific topics. Electronic notes:  Organise your work folders in a clear and logical way.  Use comment boxes to annotate documents and colour (text and highlighter) to indicate key ideas and themes.  Keep video and audio files within your electronic storage system.

245 Important: When making notes from books, journals and web sources remember to record the bibliographic or reference information. This includes: name(s) of author(s), year of publishing, title of book/journal and the specific chapter/article title, place of publishing and publisher (in the case of a book) and volume number and issue number (in the case of an article) and the exact page(s) that your notes come from (Pears & Shields, 2008). If the book or journal you accessed is an e-version, include the exact URL and the date you accessed the material. The university library has Metalib and Voyager which can track your resource searches. For further information contact the library. For other electronic resources copy the exact link with your notes. If you do not do this, you may have difficulty finding the page again later.

10.6 CHECKLIST/TIPS        

Plan in advance. Ensure you always have a pen and paper. Experiment with different note-making techniques to see if they work for you. Be selective. Get the main points down; don’t get hung up on detail. Note concepts/ideas or terms you don’t understand so you can clarify meaning later. Store your notes carefully and always note the bibliographic source or reference. Review your notes to improve your learning Label and store handouts, photocopies and notes in folders Consider having a colour code to represent specific topics.

10.6.1 Electronic notes:  Organise your work folders in a clear and logical way  Use comment boxes to annotate documents and colour (text and highlighter) to indicate key ideas and themes.  Keep video and audio files within your electronic storage system. Important: When making notes from books, journals and web sources remember to record the bibliographic or reference information. This includes: name(s) of author(s), year of publishing, title of book/journal and the specific chapter/article title, place of publishing and publisher (in the case of a book) and volume number and issue number (in the case of an article) and the exact

246 page(s) that your notes come from (Pears & Shields, 2008). If the book or journal you accessed is an e-version, include the exact URL and the date you accessed the material. The university library has Metalib and Voyager which can track your resource searches. For further information contact the library. For other electronic resources copy the exact link with your notes. If you do not do this, you may have difficulty finding the page again later. 10.6.2 Checklist/tips  Plan in advance. Ensure you always have a pen and paper.  Experiment with different note-making techniques to see if they work for you.  Be selective. Get the main points down, don’t get hung up on detail.  Note concepts/ideas or terms you don’t understand so you can clarify meaning later.  Store your notes carefully and always note the bibliographic source or reference.  Review your notes to improve your learning

10.7 PRECIS WRITING: INTRODUCTION A precise (form both singular and plural, pronounced “pray— see”) is a brief summary of the essential thought of a longer composition. It attempts to provide a miniature of the original selection, reproducing the same proportions on smaller scale, the same ideas, and the same mood and tone, so far as possible. The writer of a précis cannot interpret or comment; his or her sole function is to give a reduced photograph of the original author’s exact and essential meaning. Nor can he or she omit important details. Lamb’s Tales from Shakespeare, for example, is not really a series of précis, because from the originals have been deleted some important subplots as well as all that was thought unfit for children. Précis (pray-see, pl. pray-seez) writing is a basic and very useful skill. It has been variously referred to as 'abbreviation', 'subtraction', 'abstract', 'summary', and 'condensation'. The French gave it the name 'précis' — the pruning away of all that is inessential. 10.7.1 Definition "A précis is a brief, original summary of the important ideas given in a long selection. Its aim is to give the general effect created by the original selection." It is a concise and lucid summary that forsakes all unnecessary details (including illustrations,

247 amplifications, and embellishments) in favor of reproducing the logic, development, organization and emphasis of the original. Retaining the substance of a fuller statement, it seeks to articulate another author’s thoughts by extracting the maximum amount of information and carefully conveying it in a minimum number of words. 10.7.2 The Purpose Précis writing aims at intelligent reading, and clear and accurate writing. It is a skill of both analysis and genesis that critically questions every thought included and excluded, each word used to express those thoughts, and the proportions and arrangements of those thoughts — both in the original and in the précis. In its exaction it mercilessly reveals an author's wordiness and looseness or thinness of thought and construction. It should strengthen our style, our sense of proportion and emphasis, and our sensitivity to word meanings and an author's viewpoint, A précis is usually reduced to at least one-fourth of its original length and frequently much more. How long it is will be determined by its purpose and by the nature of the original. 10.7.3 Preliminary to Precise Writing 1. An abstract is a condensation of a passage, the important words, phrases, and sentences containing the essential thoughts being worked as simply as possible into sentences. It simply requires the ability to pick out essential facts. Exercises in abstracting will involve underscoring the essential facts in a passage and combining them into a single whole. (N.B.: Here 'abstract' is used in its narrow sense to mean a digest or running summary.) 2. A paraphrase is a restatement of a difficult passage, stating clearly and fully in language of the simplest sort just what the passage means. Because it clarifies hidden meanings and obscure passages, it is usually longer than the original." Précis writing involves the ability to paraphrase, but adds to it concision, all the while being careful to not to lose or distort the original meaning Exercising in paraphrasing might involve transposing poetry to prose, explaining the meaning of proverbs, etc. 3. In précis writing it is necessary to say as much as possible in as few words as possible." A word may substitute for a

248 phrase and a phrase for a clause. The concern is for the precise meaning or connotation of a word. 4. The proper use of the colon and semicolon in punctuation is an aid to good précis writing. 5. Generally a précis should be written in reported or indirect speech. This means a précis will be in third person, in the past tense. Exercises will involve the change of direct speech to indirect speech. 6. A précis title must be cold and matter of fact, not attractive to the imaginative mind. It is a précis of the précis. 10.7.4 Method “It will be well to remember the object of précis writing: a brief and clear summary — or précis — of what you have first carefully read. No words, phrases, clauses, or sentences which are unessential to the thought of the selection, are considered. Every unnecessary word is discarded until all that you have left is the thought, the dominating idea, of what you have read. Then in your own words, give this thought as briefly and clearly as possible. Your sentences must be carefully constructed. Do not omit any essential articles, prepositions, or conjunctions.” First Reading 1. Read every word slowly and carefully until you clearly understand the sense of the passage. 2. Look up all unfamiliar words, phrases, and allusions 3. Identify the dominating idea, the essential thought, of the passage. Ask if this idea were omitted, would the fundamental meaning of the passage be changed? 4. Determine what emphasis and space to give the thought in each section; write a heading for each section. Second Reading 1. Underscore with a pencil the important facts containing the essential thoughts. This is a process of differentiation between what is essential and what is not. Generally you will omit examples, illustrations, conversations, and repetitions. 2. Reread your selections to see that they are wise and adequate. 3. Determine if your underscoring expresses the main ideas.

249 Final Reading Rapidly and intensely reread the origin, dwelling on the important facts selected for a précis. In constructing a précis, follow these suggestions 1. Select carefully the material to be condensed. Some selections can be reduced satisfactorily, but others are so tightly knit that condensation is virtually impossible. You can make précis of novels, short stories, speeches, or essays, but do not select material the style of which is especially compact and epigrammatic. Avoid material which has already been summarized, edited, or abridged; “continual distillation” cannot accurately indicate the essential thought of the original composition. 2. Read the selection carefully. The major purpose of a précis is to present faithfully, as briefly and clearly as possible, the important ideas of the selection being “cut down.” In order to grasp the central ideas, you must read carefully, analytically, and reflectively. Look up the meanings of all words and phrases about which you are in doubt. Do not skim, but look for important or key expressions. Before starting to write, you must, to use Sir Francis Bacon’s phrase, “chew and digest” the selection, not merely “taste” it or “swallow” it whole in a single gulp. You must see how the material has been organized, what devices the writer has used, what kinds of illustrations support the main thought. You must be sure to distinguish fact and opinion, and you will want to question critically the writer’s statements. These suggestions are, of course, those which you would ordinarily follow every time that you attempt to read and to think as intelligently as you can. 3. Use your own words. Quoting sentences—perhaps topic sentences—from each paragraph results in a sentence outline, not a précis. You must use your own words for the most part, although a little quotation is permissible. Ordinarily, the phrasing of the original will not be suitable for your purposes. Once you have mastered the thought of the selection, your problem is one of original composition. You are guided and aided by the order and wording of the material, but the précis itself represents your own analysis and statement of the main thought. 4. Do not use too many words. Nothing of real importance can be omitted, but you must remember that the central aim of a précis

250 is condensation. The length of a condensation cannot arbitrarily be determined, but it is safe to say that most prose can be reduced by two-thirds to two-fourths. Some verse is so compact that it can hardly be condensed at all; other verse can be shortened far more than most good prose. 5. Do not alter the plan of the original. Follow the logical order of the original so that the condensation will be accurate. Thoughts and facts should not be rearranged; if they are, the essence of the original may be distorted. Give attention to proportion. Try to preserve as much as possible of the mood and tone of the original. 6. Write the précis in good English. The condensation should not be a jumble of disconnected words and faulty sentences. It should be a model of exact and emphatic diction and clear, effective sentence construction because it must be intelligible to a reader who has not seen the original. Transition from sentence to sentence must be smooth and unobtrusive, emphasizing the unity of the summarization. The précis is not often likely to be so well written as the original, but it should read smoothly and possess compositional merit of its own. 10.7.5

Examples ORIGINAL For a hundred years and more, the monarchy in France had been absolute and popular. It was beginning now to lose both power and prestige. A sinister symptom of what was to follow appeared when the higher ranks of society began to lose their respect for the sovereign. It started when Louis XV selected as his principal mistress a member of the middle class; it continued when he chose her successor from the streets. When the feud between Madame Du Barry and the Duke de Choiseul ended in the dismissal of the Minister, the road to Chanteloup, his country house, was crowded with carriages, while familiar faces were absent from the court at Versailles. For the first time in French history, the followers of fashion flocked to do honor to a fallen favorite. People wondered at the time, but hardly understood the profound significance of the event. The king was no longer the leader of society. Kings and presidents, prime ministers and dictators provide at all times a target for the criticism of philosophers, satirists, and reformers. Such criticism they can

251 usually afford to neglect, but when the time-servers, the sycophants, and the courtiers begin to disregard them, then should the strongest of them tremble on their thrones. (208 words). —Duff Cooper, “Talleyrand” Précis For more than a hundred years, the monarchy in France had been absolute and popular. But Louis XV lost the respect of the upper ranks of society by choosing his mistresses from lower classes. When the feud of the Duke de Choiseul with Madame Du Barry resulted in the Minister’s dismissal, the court turned its attention to him, away from the king. The king, no longer the leader of society, could well tremble for his throne. (76 words) ORIGINAL But as for the bulk of mankind, they are clearly devoid of any degree of taste. It is a quality in which they advance very little beyond a state of infancy. The first thing a child is fond of in a book is a picture, the second is a story, and the third a jest. Here then is the true Pons Asinorum, which very few readers ever get over. (69 words) —Henry Fielding Précis Most people lack taste; they remain childlike. Readers, like children, rarely ever get over the “bridge of assess” constituted by pictures, stories, and jokes. (24 words) Today there are 3000 million people in the world. Fifty years ago only about 2000 million people lived in it. If earth’s population were evenly distributed over its land surface, there would be about 550 persons to the square mile. But Earth has vast areas of forest, mountains and desert which are almost totally inhabited. On the other hand, it has great cities each with millions of people living in a few square miles. To feed the fast growing population of our earth, scientists and planners have to discover new ways to produce more. One possible way is to bring more land not under cultivation. This can be done only in places where there is lot of land not used for productive purposes. In many places there is no longer possible all the arable land is already cultivated. A second way is to make use of new types of seeds to produce more. Already a number of new strains of paddy and wheat have been developed in different parts f the world. India is one of the countries where a lot of useful work has been done in the field of agriculture research.

252 Précis Title: World Population and Food Production During the last fifty years, the world population has increased from 2000 to 3000 million. It is unevenly distributed with millions of people living in a few big cities. Scientists in India and abroad are, therefore, busy with agriculture research to find out new methods of increased food production to feed them all and they have already developed many new strains of paddy and wheat.

10.8 SUMMARY Note making is an advanced writing skill which is acquiring increasing importance due to knowledge explosion. There is a need to remember at least the main points of any given subject. Making notes is a complex activity which combines several skills. Anyone can make notes, but it is difficult to make good, concise, brief, accurate notes that may both reflect and comment on the nature of the information you are referring to and which you can use and understand at a later date. There are, however, a number of techniques that you can use for making effective notes. A precise (form both singular and plural, pronounced “pray—see”) is a brief summary of the essential thought of a longer composition. It attempts to provide a miniature of the original selection, reproducing the same proportions on smaller scale, the same ideas, and the same mood and tone, so far as possible.





1. "Children display an amazing ability to become fluent speakers of any language consistently spoken around them. Every normal human child who is not brought up in' complete isolation from language -use soon comes to speak one or more languages fluently. The child's acquisition of his native language is not dependent on any special tutoring. Parents may spend many hours reinforcing every reorganizable bit of their' child's verbal activity with a smile or some other reward, or trying by means of "baby talk" to develop their linguistic skills. But there is no particular reason to believe that such activity has any bearing on the child's ultimate success in becoming a native speaker of his parents' language. Children can pick up a language by playing with other children who happen to speak it just as, well a s they can through the concentrated efforts of fond parents, All they seem to need is sufficient exposure to the' language , in question.

253 The capacity for acquiring language is remarkable for a number of .reasons. It is remarkable first because of, its uniformity throughout the human race. There simply are no cases of normal children who given the chance, fail to acquire a native language. By way of comparison, it is not at all unusual for a child to fail to master arithmetic, reading, swimming, or gymnastics, despite a considerable' amount of f instruction. Language acquisition, in other words, is uniform'" far all human beings. It is also specific to the human species. Every normal person learns a human language, but no other animal, not even the most intelligent ape, has been shown to be capable of making the slightest progress in this direction, although some animals cart learn to solve problems, use tools, and so on Language acquisition thus appears to 'be different in kin d from acquisition of other skills mentioned. The process is further remarkable for its comparative speed and perfection. When we - actually attempt to take a language apart to see how it works, we find that it is extraordinarily complex and that it involves highly abstract organizational principles. Yet, within the first few years of his life, human chi1d had succeeded in mastering at least one such system. Furthermore, the linguistic system that the child masters, I s for all practical purposes, identical to the one employed by - the people around him. The differences are slight indeed when measured against the magnitude of the accomplishment." 2. 'The effect of books Ls two-fold they preserve knowledge in time and spread it in space. Suppose for example that you think of a n important idea or a beautiful poem. Unless you can write ' it down, your idea or poem will die when you die. Even if you I do write it down it perishes as soon as the mice eat the paper, which they often do and do quickly. But once printing had been discovered, it did not matter how soon – you died or, how many copies of what you had written were eaten by mice, for, so long 'as one new copy remained the idea or the poem could-. be made to last -for just as long as people chose to -go' on printing. it. And s o it could live long after you died. 'Not only could, it live in time, it could spread through space, for - by making enough copies of it you could bring it to the notice of hundreds and thousands of people until today you can send it all- over the world. Books are the chief carriers of civilization because of them ideas live and spread. How important books are you can judge from the fact that very hot countries, as, is well known are slow in becoming civilized in the modern sense. There are many reasons for this, but one of the most important is that the white ants, which live in the tropics, eat up all the bold. For example, in tropical South America there are practically no books more than forty or fifty years old. Where there are no books there are no records and no

254 literature; the ideas and knowledge of one generation can only be handed down -by word of 'mouth, and it is much more difficult for the race to progress and become civilized. But it is n o use having books unless people can read them and learning to read is part of what is called education. It may seem strange to speak of education as a piece of machinery, but looked, at properly that is just what, it is, machinery for passing o n knowledge and ideas. By its means each fresh generation of people can be made acquainted with all that the preceding generations have found ' out, so ,that instead of beginning all over again, as it 'were, - they, can start where those who went before Ahem left off. Thus knowledge is like a torch which is passed on from generation to generation by the hand of education." 3. "Arthur Koestler in his novel 'Darkness at Noon' describes how political prisoner in a Russian jail communicated with each other by tapping messages s on the pipes in their cells. Modern crime a n d detective fiction had made us familiar with the idea that members of the "underworld" have sub-codes and communicate by signals which others do not understand. This, is what the dictionary means when' it explains grapevine as "a means of secret communication, used by criminals or prisoners." This is, of course, in addition to the usual meaning of the word as "a kind of vine on which grapes grow. Writers on Communication have given a degree of respectability to the word by using it" to mean an informal means of communication within an organisation by which news and information are quickly transmitted among - people who work together in a I group. Strangely enough the word has retained a-part of its, original meaning. Like, the plant, the grapevine, spreads rapidly to every part of the organisation and it- is a "secret communication" in the sense -that this information is supposed to be spread without the knowledge of the management. Grapevine is a kind of horizontal communication and it consists of a -complex network of informal contacts that occur all day long on the job, spontaneous channels through 'which facts, half-truths and rumours pass. It is possible for such rumours to result in upward and downward communication, but the general direction is horizontal as such communication takes place between people who work at the same level and who know and trust each other. Thus- one fine morning, the story may spread among the clerks in the Share Department that the supervisor, Mr. Prabhu, has been transferred to another department to, hush up - a scandal about his dealing with a firm of stock brokers.. As may well ' b e imagined the grapevine can do great harm or good to an

255 organisation it may cause the workers to lose their morale or to work with redoubled vigour. If top management is intelligent it will feed the* grapevine with information that is accurate and- which will serve as a morale booster." 4. The problem which most preoccupies the public mind at the present moment is that of scientific warfare. It has become evident that, if scientific skill is, allowed free scope, the human race will be totally destroyed, if not in the next, war, then in the next but one or the next but two at any rate at no very distant date. To this problem there are two possible reactions: there are those who say, “Let us create social institutions which will make large scale war impossible; there are others who say, Let us not allow war to become too scientific. We cannot perhaps go back to bows and arrows, but let us fit any rate agree with our enemies so that, if we fight them, both sides will fight inefficiently. For my part, I favour the former', answer since I cannot see that either side could be expected to observe an 'agreement not to use modern weapons once war had broken out. It is on this ground what I do, not think that there will long continue to be human beings methods are found for permanently preventing large-scale wars. There are things which an individual must not do because the criminal law forbids them. The law and the police are in most case strong, enough to prevent such things from being done murderers are a very small percentage of the population of any civilised country. But the relations between nations are not governed by law and cannot' be until there is a supranational armed "force'' strong enough. ' to enforce the decisions of a supranational authority. In the past, although the wars resulting from international `anarchy caused much suffering and destruction, mankind was able to survive them. Today, however, the risks of war have become so great that the continued existence of our species either has become or will become impossible in the face of the new methods of scientific destruction.

   







Formal Presentations


Informal Presentations


Preparation of Presentations




Body Language


Visual Aids





11.1 OBJECTIVES  To know the techniques of presentation  To learn the art of presentation  To learn to use the audio and video aids in presentation  To learn to make the presentation effective

11.2 INTRODUCTION Developing proper solutions is one thing, but getting moral and financial support for the ideas is as important. Thus, a proper presentation to organisations, to stakeholders, or to potential donors for getting support for the ideas is vital. Therefore one has to pay some attention to presentation techniques: each module ends with a presentation by some of the participants. To facilitate these presentations, a short introduction into the basic skills for giving oral as well as written presentations is provided. Moreover, after a brief introduction of the distinct stages of a project (project cycle) this module will acquaint the participants with the contents of a feasibility study and explain how to structure the presentation of projects in a written document.

257 At the end of this module the participants will be able to: 1. Compose a presentation within a set time frame. 2. Realise an oral presentation within a set time frame, using basic presentation skills (E.g. Visual aids, time management, and delivery performance). 3. Prepare and present a project proposal to address the problem that requires mitigation. Many people openly admit that their biggest fear is public speaking. Whether it's in front of a class, coworkers, managers, or total strangers, they experience physical symptoms of sweating, trembling, rapid heartbeats, and worse. Their minds go blank, their mouths go dry, and their voices quiver—all classic signs of nervousness. For a few people, the fear is debilitating—we hear now and then of talented singers and musicians who are so paralyzed by stage fright that they cannot perform in public. Most people experience some degree of fear when facing an audience, but they learn techniques to control their voice tone and body language to project confidence. Successful public speakers often attribute their apparent relaxation to rehearsal—practicing their speech or presentation enough times, and in a similar setting to the real one, that the words flow easily, despite a jittery stomach. Rehearsal appears to be the key solution for beginning speakers. If a public-speaking class is available in your college, you will find it a good opportunity to practice different types of speeches and polish your delivery—your case of nerves might not go away entirely, but it can become manageable.

11.3 FORMAL PRESENTATIONS In business, people in sales and marketing make formal presentations at customers' sites, annual meetings, and training seminars. When money is at stake or the audience is large, the presentation becomes more formal. For these situations, people take extra steps to guarantee a successful speech. Speakers sometimes videotape themselves giving the speech to observe facial expressions, body language, and delivery. They prepare visual aids that look polished and professional. They create handouts with detailed information and allow extra white space for notes. Many speakers enlist technical experts as backups to help answer detailed technical questions or operate the presentation equipment.


11.4 INFORMAL PRESENTATIONS Most presentations are less formal. For example, some companies hold "brown-bag lunches," where a speaker discusses a topic while the audience eats lunch (the presentation-might be recorded or telecast), or an employee presents an idea to a manager. While these situations are less formal than a sales presentation to a customer, the speakers usually prepare in similar ways, with research, an outline and notes, and handouts. Even more informally, a manager might ask an employee to discuss a technical topic at a staff meeting. Sometimes these speeches are impromptu, meaning a speaker begins speaking without preparation or planning.

11.5 PREPARATION OF PRESENTATIONS Begin by checking all the details you need to plan your presentation, this includes: · The duration of the talk. · Whether time for questions is included. · The size and location of the room. Have a look around the room and try out the equipment not later than the day before your presentation, so you are able to use it with confidence. The most important thing to remember is that people have a limited attention span, and that you must therefore organize your talk very clearly so that the main points stand out. This is how you do it: 11.5.1 Analyse your audience and limit your topic accordingly. What do your listeners already know? What do they need to know? How much information can they absorb? 11.5.2 Determine your primary purpose. What is the main point you wish to communicate? Build your presentation around that. 11.5.3 Select effective supporting information. Remember, your listeners will only remember at most three or four supporting points and only two or three supporting details for these points. So choose the information that will sell your case to your particular audience. 11.5.4 Choose an appropriate pattern of organization. Often your supporting information can be ordered according to one dominant pattern of organization: problem-solution, criteria, chain of reasoning, process of elimination, experimental research,

259 chronological description, or comparison and contrast, to mention a few. Whatever pattern you choose, stick to it. 11.5.5 Prepare an outline. Main points and main supporting points only. Only write out the whole text if you feel the information is too technical for you to be able to just explain it. Select appropriate visual aids. These are indispensable, firstly as prompts to help you and secondly as attention-getters. People remember visuals much more than they do words. The following options are available for technical oral presentations: - Overhead transparencies - Slides - Flip charts - Chalkboard - Handouts - Computer screen projection (PowerPoint) Capture the interest of your audience from the beginning – make your opening comments strong. Never begin with an apology. Remember that it takes a few minutes for an audience to establish a relationship with a new speaker: do not begin with key information. You might say what your talk is about and show a transparency with the title on it. This allows the audience to settle in. After these preliminaries, you should introduce your topic. Make sure your listeners are clear about whatever the basic problem or issue is. If necessary, provide background information and define essential terms. In the introduction you should: 1. Explain the structure of your talk. 2. Set out the aims and objectives of the presentation. 3. Explain your approach to the topic.

11.6 GUIDELINES Generally, the better prepared you are, the better your presentation will be. TIPS: Although you might never have the advantage of a professional speechwriter, as President Kennedy undoubtedly did, you can follow these guidelines to reduce nervousness and increase the effectiveness of your presentation: 11.6.1. Research your topic. Choose a topic and collect the data to back up your message or convince your audience. You might not use all the data, but keep them with you for questions from the audience.

260 11.6.2. Analyse your audience. Determine their level of technical background. Anticipate what your audience wants to know about the topic and what the audience intends to do with the information. Anticipate possible questions (general and technical) and prepare for them. To help you think about your audience ask yourself... • Who are they? • How many will be there? • Do they have any prior knowledge of the subject? • What are their age, sex, and level of ability? • Why are they there? • What are their needs? • What do they need to know? The presentation will be a failure if the audience does not understand it. Therefore, you should aim to make your message clear and easy to understand. 11.6.3. Outline your message. State the main point you want to make in one sentence. Then write the supporting points you want to make in a bulleted list. Sequence them in the order that makes sense for your purpose. 11.6.4. Use a multimedia approach. Most people are poor listeners, so provide visual aids for them to see and read. Handouts or transparencies not only visually organize and reinforce your message, but add interest, as well. 11.6.5. Rehearse the speech out loud. When you recite your speech, you can work out exact wording and possibly discover areas within the topic that need more research. Time yourself Not only will you know, but you can inform others, if asked, of the time allotment needed. You can rehearse in front of the mirror (good for practicing facial expressions, as well), while driving the car, or at the front of an empty room. If possible, ask someone to listen and give you feedback. Ask the person to note any signs of nervousness, such as tight facial expressions or fiddling with hair or glasses. 11.6.6. Arrive early. Get comfortable in the room, take some deep breaths, and arrange your notes and visual aids. If you plan to use any electronic equipment, make sure it works and you know how to turn it on, to reduce stress, many professional trainers carry vital supplies in their briefcases, including their own markers, masking tape, and even an extra bulb for a projector. Greet people as they arrive, making eye contact and starting to establish rapport. For smaller audiences, this might be an opportunity to learn some of

261 the names and backgrounds of your audience. Write down a few names in your notes, especially key people, so you can address people by name, if needed. 11.6.7. Start with an introduction. Instead of launching into the body of your speech, take a few minutes to introduce yourself and your subject and orient your audience to the scope of your speech. Experienced speakers include a "springboard motivator," such as an anecdote, question, or activity that captures the interest and attention of the audience and gets them involved with the subject. 11.6.8. Use note cards or your visual aids to keep on track and prevent from missing an important point. (But do not read your speech from a script.) 11.6.9. Don't let questions digress from your main topic. If someone in the audience asks a question that is unrelated to your topic, or strays too far from the scope of your presentation, tactfully ask the person to "hold that question" until the end of your presentation. If you have time later, respond to the question. Also, if you do not know the answer to a question, admit it, and establish how you will follow up with the person. For example, ask for the person's phone number or e-mail address. Or ask the person to send you an e-mail with more details about the question. 11.6.10. End with a summary of your main points. Your closing is an opportunity to reestablish your key points and show how they logically lead to your conclusion. Do not throw in new points or reargue your prior points during your conclusion—just restate them and close.

11.7 BODY LANGUAGE Body language consists of all the nonverbal messages we deliver to our audience. Nonverbal signals can be deliberate actions to support a message. For example, public speakers might pound a podium to emphasize a point, or walk into an audience to increase audience participation. Tapping fingers signal impatience. Clenched fists signal anger. Open, uplifted palms signal a need for understanding or help. Waving arms signal intense emotion. Other nonverbal messages can be physiological reactions to situations that we cannot easily control. For example, when someone is angry, lips get thinner, brows furrow, and faces get red and warm (hence the expression "hothead"). When someone is afraid, eyebrows go up, causing eyes to get wide ("wide-eyed with fear").

262 When the message delivered by body language contradicts the spoken message, listeners remember the body language. This means we must pay attention not only to what we say, but how we say it. Our entire appearance adds to our message, including our posture, where our eyes focus, how we move our hands, and how close we get to the audience. The detailed explanation to the body language is taken up in earlier chapter . Observe how professionals (actors or public speakers whom you consider convincing) use facial expressions and hands gestures to augment their words. When you have written the content of your speech, you must practice speaking in front of a mirror. While practice use verbal and nonverbal expressions and gestures that support your message. Record yourself using a video camera, or ask someone you trust, to identify any distracting habits or mannerisms, such as words that you might overuse (saying "OK" frequently), wringing your hands, or fidgeting. Many times, we can break these habits just by becoming aware of them. This is where you have to deliver or present your message to the audience. When you begin to speak, the audience will listen carefully to what you say and watch closely how you perform. It is important to understand that how you say something is just as important as what you say. Did you know? The tone of your voice and your body language can account for 65% of the message. Your body language (body movements) can express your attitudes and thoughts. Therefore pay attention to the following parts of your body: 11.7.1 Your voice Speak slowly so that everyone can follow Speak loudly so that everyone can hear Speak clearly so that everyone can understand Don’t use slang (e.g. I ain’t) 11.7.2 Your face Smile to give your audience reassurance and try not to look confused, bored or scared. Try to be yourself and natural. 11.7.3 Your eyes You can build a good relationship with the audience by looking at them when you are presenting your message. Looking at someone when you are talking to them is called ‘eye contact’. Don’t read from your notes all the time.

263 Maintain eye contact with your audience. Move your eyes slowly from person to person. Watch out for staring at one person (which is bound to make that person uncomfortable) or staring at only a part of the room (the rest of the room will feel left out and possibly lose interest). 11.7.4 Your posture Stand up straight and don’t lean against objects. Make sure you are not standing in the way of the visual aid. Check that everyone can see the board. 11.7.5 Your hands Don’t play with objects e.g. a pen in your hand and don’t leave your hands in your pockets when you are talking. Rest or fold your hands comfortably on the table or podium, or hold an appropriate object, such as a pointer. This reduces the chance that hand gestures will become distracting to listeners. With experience, speakers learn to use natural hand gestures that amplify the spoken message. 11.7.6 Your feet Try not to walk up and down the room too much or tap your feet when you are talking. 11.7.7 Your appearance Dress appropriately for the presentation – not too casual (e.g. jeans). Remember to dress for the audience and not yourself. Try to remember not to wear jewellery that might shine or move about. Smile occasionally, especially during introductions and conclusions. Usually a genuine smile can lighten the intensity of any information or news. It makes the speaker appear relaxed and confident, and that relaxes listeners, as well. 11.7.8 Your attitude Be enthusiastic about the subject you are presenting and be confident. Try to stay calm and be professional!

11.8 VISUAL AIDS Select the visual aids that are practical for you and appropriate for your audience, including transparencies, slide shows, videos, flip charts, eraser boards, demonstration models, and handouts. Consider the following factors when making your choice:

264 11.8.1 Size of audience: As a general guideline: The larger the audience, the larger the visual aids. People in the back of the room want to see your visual aids. If you can't find a projection system to do that, consider handouts. For smaller audiences, your choices are broader. 11.8.2 Location and logistics: Consider the size of the room, placement of chairs in the room, and equipment available. For example, auditoriums usually have projectors and screens available for far-away viewing. Other types of visual aids, such as flip charts or demonstration models, might not be visible by people in the back of a large room. Conference or seminar rooms, on the other hand, are usually smaller and have flip charts, eraser boards, and projectors readily available. All types of visual aids will be viewed easily. 11.8.3 Subject matter: If your speech includes numerical data (such as statistical results or budgets) or detailed drawings (such as engineering drafts), provide the data on handouts for easier viewing—projections of detailed items are difficult to read. Bulleted lists of key points, however, are easily viewed on projections, flip charts, or eraser boards. 11.8.4 Resources: Your resources, including software, hardware, time, and materials. Make the best of what you have to create a professional visual aid. If you have to learn a program or software application to create visual aids, allow enough time for experimentation. 11.8.5 Ambiance: Keep the audience, room, and subject matter in mind when creating visual aids. For example, use a large enough font for projections and transparencies that the people in the back of the room can read them. If the audience can read your message as well as hear it, you increase the chances that they'll remember it. 11.8.6 Multimedia: Multimedia presentation programs, such as Microsoft PowerPoint and Lotus Freelance Graphics, can incorporate photographs, slides, bulleted lists, and other text in exciting colors, fonts, and formats. Depending on the hardware available, you can project them on a screen from a computer or print them as transparencies and hand-outs. These programs might require a little training to use, although each contains ready-made templates, from which you can quickly choose the style and format for your presentation. If you are unfamiliar with the program, ask for assistance from friends, classmates, or instructors to get started, and allow a little practice time. 11.8.7 Additional Media: If no hardware will be available in the room (no transparency projector or computer), create posters or flip

265 charts to take with you. You can hand-letter your lists and charts. Or you can purchase templates for letters, or even paste computercreated words and graphics for a more professional look. 11.8.8 Few additional Guidelines: Limit the scope of each visual aid to one point. If you pack too much onto a projection or page, it will be unreadable. Stick to one bulleted list, one chart, or one graphic per page. Include key words or phrases, not entire concepts. If you want to interact with your audience, such as brainstorming for ideas, use equipment that you can write on and that will be visible to the audience, such as clear transparencies, flip charts, or eraser boards. Be sure you have the correct markers for each type. If you prefer, ask someone in the audience to write on the board while you lead the discussion. Demonstrate with actual objects, when possible. For example, when discussing a software program, bring in a laptop computer and show a pre developed and well-rehearsed demonstration of the program. Or when discussing how to take blood pressure (BP), bring in a BP cuff and demonstrate on a member of the audience. Remember that audiences stay more attentive if they participate somehow. If time allows (sometimes it won't), ask for personal experiences, questions, or demonstrations—the audience will feel more involved.

11.9 SUMMARY 11.10.1 Exercise 1. How far do you agree that presentation makes a great difference in business organisation? Explain with reference to significance of presentation in business. 2. What factors would you like to consider for framing presentation for sales promotion? 3. List out the general factors to be considered for presentation. 4. Differentiate between presentation and speech. 5. What are the different forms of presentation? State their general features. 6. What is the importance of visual aids in presentation? 7. To what extent the body language matters in oral presentation? Illustrate it with suitable examples.



Draft presentations on the following topics: 1. Introduction of New Recurring Deposit Scheme of your bank. 2. On New Life Insurance Policy 3. AIDS Awareness Campaign 4. Stress Management and Motivation For Employees 5. Health Awareness Program 6. The Progress of the Sale of New Product in Market 7. Need of Protecting Environment 8. The Importance of Communication In Business 9. The Water Conservation: A Need 10. The Leadership Skills



12 ORAL COMMUNICATION Unit Structure 12.1 Objectives 12.2 Introduction: Oral Communication Skills 12.3 Importance of Oral Communication in Business 12.4 Face to Face Communication 12.5 Telephone Communication 12.6 Communication with Visitors 12.7 Listening 12.8 Summary 12.9 Exercise 12.10 Exercises for Discussion

12.1 OBJECTIVES  To explain the importance of oral communication to business  To Identify and give examples of the objectives of oral communication  To describe the similarities and differences between face-toface oral communication and using the telephone  To explain the techniques for communicating with visitors  To identify and explain the techniques of effective listening




For successful communication, students require more than the formal ability to present well and a range of formulaic expressions. Successful communication is context dependent and therefore embedded in its particular discourse community (Bizzell, 1989). Oral communication reflects the persistent and powerful role of language and communication in human society. As Halliday (1978, p. 169 explains, communication is more than merely an

268 exchange of words between parties; it is a “…sociological encounter” (Halliday, p. 139) and through exchange of meanings in the communication process, social reality is “created, maintained and modified” (Halliday, p. 169). Such a capacity of language is also evident in Austin’s (1962) earlier work on speech act theory where, as cited by Clyne (1994, p. 2), language and thus communication is a “…instrument of action”. Speech act theory, concerned with the communicative effect, that is, the function and effect of utterances, dissects an utterance into three components: the actual utterance (the locution); the act performed by the utterance (the illocution); and the effect the act has on the hearer (the perlocution). Searle’s (1969) work further defined speech acts as directives, imperatives, requests, and so on. Communication is a dynamic interactive process that involves the effective transmission of facts, ideas, thoughts, feelings and values. It is not passive and does not just happen; we actively and consciously engage in communication in order to develop information and understanding required for effective group functioning. It is dynamic because it involves a variety of forces and activities interacting over time. The word process suggests that communication exists as a flow through a sequence or series of steps. The term process also indicates a condition of flux and change. The relationships of people engaged in communication continuously grow and develop. Communication is an exchange of meaning and understanding. Meaning is central to communication. Communication is symbolic because it involves not only words but also symbols and gestures that accompany the spoken words because symbolic action is not limited to verbal communication. Communication is an interactive process. The two communication agents involved in the communication process are sender (S) and receiver (R). Both the communication agents exert a reciprocal influence on each other through interstimulation and response. At its most basic level, oral communication is the spoken interaction between two or more people. The interaction is far more complex than it seems. Oral communication is composed of multiple elements which, when taken as a whole, result in the success or failure of the interaction. Not everyone is an effective communicator. In order to function successfully academically and professionally, one needs to learn effective oral communication skills. For many, conversational speech comes naturally. However, in more formal speech, effective communication skills are essential. A poorly conducted interview, sales

269 presentation, or legal argument could have ramifications that affect many more people than the speaker. By becoming an effective communicator one will be able to conduct himself in a variety of personal, professional, and academic environments with confidence. Oral communication is a unique and learned rhetorical skill that requires understanding what to say and how to say it. Unlike conversational speech, speech in more formal environments does not come naturally. What should be learnt is how to critically think about how to present oneself as a speaker in all occasions and then how to function in a variety of speaking environments? Oral communication can take many forms, ranging from informal conversation that occurs spontaneously and, in most cases, for which the content cannot be planned, to participation in meetings, which occurs in a structured environment, usually with a set agenda. As a speaker there are several elements of oral communication of which one needs to be aware in order to learn how to use them to his advantage. Apart from the language used for communication, there are several others elements which the speaker should learn to communicate effectively. The Skills are eye contact, body language, style, understanding the audience, adapting to the audience, active and reflexive listening, politeness, precision, conciseness, etc. At tertiary level it is assumed that the learners know the basics of the language. At this level teaching speaking skills is irrelevant.

12.3 IMPORTANCE OF ORAL COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS Oral communication constitutes the bulk of all communication. Most0 authorities agree that people on the job, including secretaries, spend an average of about 75 percent of their communication time either speaking or listening. Most secretaries work in jobs demanding well-developed oral communication skills. Oral communication plays two important roles in business:  It establishes the procedures for accomplishing whatever needs to be done. People usually discuss problems and solutions before deciding on a course of action. 

Oral communication helps establish human relationships. Office conversations help people understand each other and make working together enjoyable.

270 12.3.1 Advantages of Oral Communication Oral communication has several advantages over written communication for most day-to-day, routine transactions: • Oral communication is faster: Two or more people talking can deliver a message, discuss an issue, reach an agreement, or ask a question and receive an answer much more quickly than they could using written communication. •

Oral communication permits immediate feedback: When the receiver does not understand a message, he or she can ask for clarification right away.

Oral communication a usually more effective for conveying messages with emotional content: When people communicate orally, the message consists of more than the spoken words. A nonverbal message accompanies every oral communication. Facial expressions, body movements, gestures, tone of voice, rate of speech, and voice inflection all add meaning to the words actually spoken. These nonverbal components help the receiver interpret the emotional significance of the message.

Oral communication helps establish human relationships: Through oral communication, people working together are able to develop team spirit and a sense of mutual responsibility. By communicating with each other orally, people are able to improve each other's morale.

12.3.2 Formal and Informal Speaking Situations In general, oral communication directly related to organizational objectives, tends to be formal. That related to establishing human relationships tends to be informal. Compare, for example, a job interview with a typical morning conversation between a secretary and supervisor. In the job interview, interviewer and interviewee communicate within a framework of well-established rules. The questioning-and-answer format of most interviews helps interviewer and interviewee achieve their objectives, but it affords little opportunity for establishing an interpersonal relationship. Because of the need to proceed carefully, interviewer and interviewee tend to be formal with each other. They select words carefully; they stick to the subject. They do not permit themselves to relax and simply enjoy each other's company. The morning conversation between supervisor and secretary may also proceed along predictable lines, but, under normal circumstances, neither worries about the results of the

271 exchange or about what to say next. Business and personal matters are discussed interchangeably. In such an atmosphere, people can converse in a casual, comfortable way. As a secretary, you will need to distinguish between formal and informal communication situations. To be formal when informality is called for is to be considered uncaring; to be informal when formality is required is to be considered unprofessional. This chapter discusses formal oral communication situations. Chapters 18 and 19 discuss human relations and interpersonal communication skills.

12.4 FACE TO FACE COMMUNICATION Just as each written communication has a specific objective to achieve, oral communication also has specific objectives. These objectives fall into three separate categories: asking questions, giving information, and persuading, 12.4.1 Asking Questions Much oral communication consists of asking questions and providing answers. Most questions asked in the office environment are informal. You will ask questions as they occur to you without worrying about how your listener might interpret them. For example, while arranging office furniture, you might ask or be asked, "Should we move the filing cabinet to- the east wall?" Few people would look for hidden meanings in such questions, and questions of this sort rarely present problems. Questions in formal communication situations, however, can cause difficulties. In formal situations, questions are often perceived as threatening. The person answering the questions may resent the other person for asking them. For example, you might be assigned the job of finding out and reporting on how office personnel perceive a new executive in the organization. To complete your assignment, you would need to ask a series of questions of the office workers. When you are fared with a formal communication situation in which you'll need to ask the other person questions, try to keep the following guidelines in mind: 

Ask questions rather than make statements: As obvious as this advice seems, too often people attempt to obtain information by making statements. Statements that require the other person to provide information are usually perceived as more threatening than a polite question requesting the same information. "Where did you grow up?" is less threatening than "Tell me a bit about yourself." Also, statements made in the hope of eliciting

272 information are often less specific than questions. "I would like to know about your job at Exxon" is less specific than, "What were your job duties at Exxon?" 

Ask essential questions only: Most people resent answering several questions in a row. Each new question appears more threatening than the last. When possible, keep the number of questions to a minimum. When you must ask several questions, take the time to explain why you want the information. Also, provide positive feedback after each question to reassure the other person, Be sure to ask the easy questions first. Questions that can be answered with short answers should come before difficult questions requiring complex answers.

Avoid deliberately threatening questions: Questions that make the other person feel defensive will reduce both the amount and the quality of the information you will obtain. (See Chapter 19, pages 502-504, for specific examples of questions to ask and those to avoid.)

Provide positive reinforcement for helpful answers: Let the other person know that she or he has been helpful. Thank the other person, and provide appropriate explanations of your need for the information.

12.4.2 Giving Information As is true with asking questions, giving information rarely presents problems in informal situations. If you' asked an informal question and the other person doesn't understand your response, the other person will say so and give you another opportunity to answer. In informal situations, speaker and "audience" agree to share the responsibility for effective communication. In formal situations, however, the responsibility for effective communication lies with the person for whom the communication is more important. Formal situations also require a person to speak for a longer time than is usually required by the questions and answers of informal situations. When you have the responsibility for presenting information in a formal situation, your presentation will be more effective if you keep the following guidelines in mind: 

Be aware of the audience: Why should your listener—or listeners—be interested in the information you are presenting?

273 What does your audience know already about your topic? How much detail does your audience need to solve the problem? Because people have a natural inclination to present information from their own point of view, emphasizing those things that arc interesting to themselves, they sometimes tend to forget that the audience may not share their interests. Try to .select and provide information that will he of most interest to the audience. 

Make specific points. Just as you are likely to obtain more and better information by asking specific questions, you are likely to be better understood if you make clear and specific points. When possible, make u list of the most important points before you begin trying to speak so that you will be sure to include everything you want to say. Avoid undermining your point of view with contradictory phrases ("I'm probably \\rong, but . . ." or "It's probably not important, but . . .").

Provide clear transitions from point to point; because much oral communication depends on chronological or spatial relationships, listeners need to know what those relationships are. Use transitional words and phrases to clarify the relationships between your points. The following words and phrases can help orient a listener: first, second, third next, thus, however then, later in two weeks, two weeks ago turn right at the second light after completing step two a small town near Indianapolis before turning off the machine

12.4.3 Persuading Most of us do some persuading every day. In our daily conversations, we frequently need to convince others that our point of view is correct or persuade them to do something they wouldn't ordinarily do. As a rule, the (act that we want them to think or do something is not enough. To persuade someone, you have to convince him or her that doing as you suggest will be to her or his benefit as well as your own. As is true for asking questions and giving information, the

274 listener's point of view is important. That is, what does the listener currently believe? What is the listener currently doing in place of the action you would like the listener to perform? How will the listener benefit from believing what you say or from doing as you ask? Concentrate on those beliefs and actions related to the topic for persuasion. You won't, for example, need to know the religious beliefs of the secretarial personnel in your organization to persuade them to change their procedures for records management. When you wish to persuade, find out as much as you can about your listener’s current beliefs, actions, and perceived benefits before you attempt to influence his or her opinion or course of action. In some cases you may be able to learn all you need to know by asking some informal questions of a few members of the group you wish to persuade. In other cases, you may need to distribute a questionnaire to group members to discover their attitudes. Instill other cases, you may have to infer their attitudes based on what you do know about them. However you learn what you can about your audience’s attitudes and current actions, that knowledge gives you the starting point for Your persuasive Message. Think of persuading as a journey; you wish to lead your audience from where they are now to where you wish them to be. You are responsible for leading then,-merely describing the destination is not enough. Some of your listeners may move quickly from one point to the next; so may not move at all. But unless you make the trip with them, beginning at a point they are ready to accept and moving carefully from point to point at a pace they are willing to accept, none of them will reach the destination you desire. In asking for and providing information, you have the right to expect the other person to cooperate in the communication process. Most people will be as helpful as they can be. In a persuasive situation, however, the person who wishes to persuade must assume full responsibility for the success or failure of the communication. The other person under no obligation is to be persuaded. In fact, the other person may feel obligated to resist being persuaded. When you communicate to persuade, you'll need to overcome the other person’s natural inclination to resist. Persuading orally requires many of the same techniques written persuasion (see pages 224-226). When the situation is informal, you'll omit many of the details you would need to persuade in a formal situation. It’s easier, for example, to persuade a friend to join you for lunch than it is to persuade an executive to invest in a new piece of office equipment. Because the investment is small and the benefit is obvious, your friend should be easy to

275 persuade. The investment for the executive, however, is larger, and more risk is involved. To persuade the executive, you would need to provide specific details about the benefits and prove that those benefits would be realized.

12.5 TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION Talking on the telephone is not the same as talking with someone facet of While the telephone is an extremely useful device for bringing two or people together, some of the communication is lost since nonverbal behavior cannot be observed. In face-to-face situations, body language and facial expressions help people interpret each other's messages. In telephone conversations, the words themselves and the tone of voice must do all the work. 12.5.1 Using the Phone Because most people have grown up with telephones, they tend to think of themselves as experts in their use. And, to a great extent, techniques learned through trial and error are correct. Proper business use of a telephone is not all that different from proper personal use. Identifying yourself clearly and distinctly, being polite, and being sensitive to the other person's needs are important regardless of whether the call is for personal or business reasons. In business, the telephone serves as a public relations agent for your organization. Callers may form their entire impress on of your organization based on their conversations with you n the telephone. Your voice, manners, and discretion should all indicate that you and your company will make good business associates. Your voice should show that you are alert, pleasant, and natural. Use your normal speaking range. Avoid speaking too loudly or too softly. Speak at a moderate rate, neither too fast nor too slow, and .speak distinctly. In face-to-face communication, people watch each other’s eyes and mouths to supplement the oral messages. The added communications elements help clarify words that might otherwise be misunderstood. In a telephone conversation, each word must be clear so it can be understood without the additional visual cues. Manners The common courtesies of please and thank you are even more important in telephone conversations than they are in person. In face-to-face situations, your smile may substitute for a thank you, and the other person will still understand your message. Over the telephone, however, the only way the other person will know that you appreciate her or his business is by stating your appreciation explicitly.

276 Make sure that you know the other person's name. If you miss it the first time, ask him or her to repeat it-and to spell it, if necessary. Write it down, and use it in the conversation from time to time. Give the person to whom you are talking your full attention. Avoid sounding hurried. You should give the caller the feeling that she or he is your most important business at the moment. When the other person talks, you must listen carefully. When you talk, be as pleasant and as cheerful as possible. Put a smile in your voice. Avoid side comments and conversations with others while a person is waiting on the line. If you must leave the line to obtain information or to handle other business, give the other person the option of holding or having y on return the call. Use the hold button if your telephone has one. If sour telephone does not have a hold button, lay the receiver down gently. Remember that if the line is "open," the other person will be able to hear much of what you say even though you may not be next to the telephone. Return to the phone promptly. If you need to be away from the phone for are than a few minutes, tell the other person that you will call back as soon as possible. Discretion Remember that every time you talk on the telephone, you represent the company to the person on the other end of the line. Your telephone manners and behavior will form an image of the entire organization in the other person's mind. The image you should give a of efficiency and helpfulness. Avoid the impression that your organization is run in a haphazard fashion. Compare, for example, the different impressions that result from the following responses "I'm sorry. but 1 can't find Mr. Milton anywhere. I can't imagine where could be." "I m sorry, but Mr. Milton has gone home for the day." "Air. Milton is not in his office at the moment. May 1 take a message?" Alone with using discretion about conveying the right company image, be sure to use discretion in discussing sensitive information. The telephone may lull you into a sense of privacy and confidentiality, but private matters should normally be reserved for face-to-face conversations. 12.5.2

Receiving Calls When your telephone rings, answer it promptly. Try to answer on the first ring. Your promptness shows your caller that you take her or his call seriously and helps establish your reputation for efficiency.

277 Personalize the call by identifying yourself. You may answer with your name rather than the customary "hello" used to answer a home telephone. If you share a telephone line with others in your department, give the department name as well: "Personnel Department, Janice Churay." "Credit Office, Michelle speaking." If you answer the telephone for someone else, give the name of the other person as well as your own: "Ms. Steven's office, Ted lo- speaking." In addition to observing good manners, try to be as helpful as possible. Handle the call yourself if you can. When it is necessary to transfer a call, explain why the transfer is necessary and make sure that the person calling wants to be transferred. If the person would rather have someone return the call, make the proper arrangements to have the appropriate person call with the correct information. Be prepared to take accurate messages. Whether the call is for you or for someone else, you'll need to keep a record of the call until all business associated with it is complete. Record the date, time, name of the person calling, the name of the company represented, the other person's telephone number, and the purpose of the call. Most companies provide forms similar to that shown in Figure 10.1 for recording messages for someone else in your office. When you are taking notes for yourself, use a clean 8'/s x 11 inch piece of paper to keep an curate record of the conversation. File it, or use it to prepare any necessary follow-up correspondence. 12.5.3 Placing Calls Before you place a telephone call-prepare. Make sure that you have the correct number, including area code, number, and extension number. Use the telephone directory-when necessary, and follow the correct procedures for placing local and longdistance calls. Have your notepaper and pen handy. Be prepared to take notes covering the important aspects of the conversation. Remember that unless you have been specifically invited to call at a particular meeting or other activity. Be prepared to have to call back or to wait for your party to return your call. Also, remember time differences when placing long-distance calls. Most telephone directories contain a map showing the four time zones in the continental United States so that you can make sure that you a calling at a convenient time. If your company does business in Europe or Asia, you will need to be familiar with appropriate calling times for those in other countries as well.


12.6 COMMUNICATION WITH VISITORS Most secretarial positions require communicating with visitors to the organization. Whether one is working as a receptionist, whose chief responsibility is to greet visitors, or as an administrative assistant, who may see visitors on regular basis only, communicating with visitors is an important public relations function. Visitors will form their impression of your organization based on your appearance and the way you treat them. Ideally, visitors should be greeted by a receptionist in a specially designed receiving area. The receptionist has the responsibility of checking credentials (if appropriate) and ensuring that the visitor is directed to the appropriate person or office. Visitors with appointments should not have to wait long before seeing the person they are scheduled to see. Waiting makes mast people feel uncomfortable and resentful. If an emergency has occurred, the visitor should be told what has happened and how long the wait is likely to be. The appointment should be rescheduled if the visitor prefers to return rather than wait. Visitors without appointments .should be treated courteously and according to individual policies. That is, .some supervisors maintain an "open door" policy and will. see people as they arrive. Others prefer to see only those who have scheduled appointments in advance. Visitors without appointments. should recognize that they are likely to have to wait longer than they would have if they had made appointments. Whether the visitor is scheduled o unscheduled, the secretary or receptionist is responsible for making the guest feel welcome, much as you would try to make a guest feel welcome in your home. You should show the visitor where to hang her or his coat, provide coffee when appropriate, and tell the visitor how long the wait will be. Some visitors may prefer to leave messages than to wait, and you should be prepared to take the message and to ensure that it reaches the appropriate person. Once you have made the visitor comfortable, you should return to your regular office work. You should make an effort to learn the names and faces of regular visitors and to develop an intuitive understanding of which people various supervisors would prefer to see (even when they don't have appointments) and which they would prefer to avoid seeing. Regular visitors will appreciate being remembered. Unscheduled visitors who are impatient about having to wait and those your supervisor would prefer not to see need to be handled firmly but politely. When possible, make an appointment

279 for these individuals at a time your supervisor would be willing to see them. For others, you may need to discuss an appointment with you, supervisor before informing them. Promise to ask your supervisor and to call with information about an appointment as soon as you Some organizations and offices require receptionists and secretaries to keep a record of visitors either for reasons of security or for billing purposes. Many manufacturing firms, for example, are in the process of developing products or processes that should remain confidential. Visitors to those plants will need to be screened. Additionally, such visitors may require temporary identification cards and perhaps even a full-time escort while they are on the premises. Doctors, lawyers, and many consultants also require a record of visitors so that they can keep accurate time logs for billing purposes. Secretaries have the responsibility of introducing the visitor to the super-r. In general, when you are introducing two people, you should name the person of a higher rank ,,told,, person first: "Mr. Important. may I introduce Mr. Less Important." The main exception to this rule is that when you are introducing a woman and a man, the woman should be named first, regardless of rank or age "Ms. Smith, may 1 present Mr. Jones." The table below provides the basic rules for introductions: Introduction Distinguished visitor and Supervisor Official (political or religious) and Supervisor Woman and man

First Name Distinguished visitor Official Woman

Older person and younger person

Older person

Individual and group


12.7 LISTENING Oral communication requires re than speaking. Listening is actually far more important for effective oral communication than speaking is. But most people do not listen very efficiently in spite of the great amount of time they spend listening. Unlike hearing. which is a passive process, listening is an active process. You hear words, but you listen for meaning. Whether the communication situation is a face-to-face conversation, a small group discussion,

280 or a public lecture, effective listening requires concentration. To be able to listen effectively, you will need to overcome any barriers to the listening process and to develop specific techniques for listening efficiently. 12.7.1 Barriers to Effective Listening Anything that interferes with the ability to listen is a barrier. While not all barriers to effective listening can be controlled, you can overcome many by becoming aware of them and by working to compensate for the difficulties. Barriers can be either internal (caused by your attitudes or state of being) or external (caused by factors often beyond your control). The following barriers are the most common: Internal Barriers Assumptions Cultural difference Emotions Prejudices Semantics

External Barriers Distractions interruptions, changes)

(e.g., accents, Attitudes volume

Hearing loss Physical condition (e.g., fatigue, hunger

Social differences As you can see, you might be faced with the problem of overcoming several barriers in anyone listening situation. For example, in a small group discussion you would need to listen very carefully to a person from different social group who speaks with an accent. Furthermore, if that Pearson represents a radically different viewpoint from your own, and you both hungry and tired while the meeting is taking place, and the meeting room is noisy, you will have to work very hard to ensure that you receive the message the other person intends to send. In such situations, it is easy to give in to prejudices and assume you understand the other person, when actually you don't. 12.7.2

Techniques for Effective Listening Before you can listen effectively, you must want to know what the other per-on is saying badly enough to expend the energy required to listen. Effective listening is usually an eight-step process that begins before the listening situation occurs and continues after the situation has concluded. These steps are preparation, concentration, summarization, anticipation, exploration, clarification, note taking, and evaluation. Preparation The amount of preparation you need to do to listen effectively naturally vanes from situation to situation. Informal

281 face-to-fare conversations, for example, may not require preparation beyond your knowing that it’s important to listen carefully. A formal, public lecture, on the other hand, may require that you prelisting by reading about the subject so that you will be familiar with basic concepts and the terminology the speaker will use. Preparation also includes considering any barriers that might interfere with the listening process and, as far as possible, eliminating or minimizing them. Concentration Most people would rather talk than listen to somebody else. Too often, instead of listening to what the other person is saying, people are busy thinking about what they are going to say just as soon as they can get a word in edgewise. The most important aspect of effective listening is paying attention to what the speaker is actually saying. Whenever you are involved in an important listening situation, identify the central subject matter and the speaker's organizational pattern. Formal speeches are usually arranged either inductively (specific facts followed by conclusions) or deductively (generalizations supported by specific facts). Informal conversations and discussions usually proceed by association (idea to related idea) or m chronological order, As an aid to concentration, identify each point as evidence (specific facts) or conclusions (generalizations or inferences). Focus on the message, not the speaker. Remind yourself from time to time that if you truly understand the other person, you'll be in a better position to reply effectively. Summarization To understand what someone else has said, we need to be able to grasp the message in its entirety. As the speaker talks assign one or two key words to each main point. Use the key words to help you review what the speaker has said. In some listening situations, it may be worthwhile to restate the message in your own words so that the speaker can evaluate how much of her or his message you have understood. Anticipation During a speaker's pause in presentation, ask yourself what the speaker is likely to say next. Whether you guess correctly or not, this will help you concentrate on the message as it is delivered. Because we can think much faster than others can talk, w needs to use that extra speed to help us focus on and remember the message. Summarization and anticipation are two methods of putting that extra speed to practical use. Exploration Because nobody communicates, perfectly, the important aspects of a message are sometimes distorted, concealed, or

282 omitted completely from a message. You may need to explore both what has been said and what has not been said to uncover the real meaning of a message. This is especially true when the message is an emotional one. People find it difficult to acknowledge their feelings, especially when they feel threatened or fearful. In such a situation, you need to listen between the lines to discover the meaning behind the message. Listen for emotionally charged words that indicate an absence of facts to support the conclusion the speaker wants you to draw. Ask yourself how you feel about the subject being discussed. What do you know about it already? Do you agree or disagree with the speaker? In what way do your feelings and previous knowledge of the subject influence your reaction to the speaker? Do you know of additional facts that either support or contradict the speaker? Does the speaker have a valid point in spite of a poor presentation? Clarification when you have the opportunity to ask questions to clarify what the speaker means, do so. One of the best ways to see whether you have understood the message is to summarize what you think the other person has said and ask him or her whether you have summarized accurately and fairly. This technique especially useful when differences of opinion are strong and emotions may interfere with effective listening. In less emotionally charged situations, asking questions is useful to ensure that you have under-stood the speaker's language. You can often overcome a semantic barrier by asking a speaker to explain what she or he means by a particular word or phrase. Note Taking When you need to remember the message for any length of time, take notes. As you recall, one of the important advantages of a written message is that it provides a permanent record. Oral messages are distorted rather quickly by time. If it is important for you to have an accurate record of the message, listen carefully for main points and supporting evidence. And write them down. In most situations, it will not be possible for you to take down every word a speaker utters and at the same time listen carefully to the content of the message. Notes should be taken. Sparingly, using the key words you’ve selected for your summary. As soon after the discussion or speech as possible, review your notes and prepare more complete summary. If you require a complete transcript, use a tape recorder. Evaluation An accurate, fair evaluation of the message is possible only after 1. You've heard the speech or discussion in its entirety. 2. You've had a chance to question the speaker about points needing clarification.

283 3. You've made sure that barriers have not distorted your perception of the message. Thus, before you can assess the usefulness of the material or make a sensible reply, you need to ensure that you've understood the message and the speaker’s intent. In your evaluation, ask yourself whether you agree or disagree and what evidence supports the speaker's point of view. What evidence counters the speaker's point of view? How can you benefit from agreeing with the speaker? Will the benefits that might result outweigh the costs? Affair and thorough evaluation will help you make the best response possible.

12.8 SUMMARY Oral communication constitutes the bulk of all communication and is important to business for two reasons. First, oral communication helps establish procedures for meeting objectives. Second, oral communication helps establish human relationships. The advantages of oral communication are that it is faster than written communication, permits immediate feedback, is more effective for conveying messages with emotional content, and helps establish human relationships. Oral communications should be organized to achieve the specific objectives of asking questions, giving information, and persuading. Talking on the telephone is not the same as talking with someone face to face. Face-to-face communication supplements the spoken word with a wide variety, of nonverbal cues that help the listener understand the speaker. 1u a telephone conversation, each word must be understood without the addition of visual cues, so the speaker must be careful to speak distinctly and at a moderate rate. Telephone use requires good manners and discretion so that the listener will not draw the wrong conclusion or overhear remarks intended for others. Listening is just as important to effective oral communication as speaking. Listening, your source of information is an active mental process. To listen effectively, you need to be aware of and overcome internal and external barriers you may have and practice the techniques of effective listening. These techniques include preparation, concentration, summarization, anticipation, exploration, clarification, note taking, and evaluation.


12.9 EXERCISE 1. Why is oral communication important to business? 2. What are the main advantages oral communication has over written communication for most day-to-day, routine transactions? 3. What are the general and communications in business?





4. What arc the differences between a face-to-face conversation and a telephone conversation? 5. Who would you introduce first, your supervisor or a distinguished visitor? Ms. Wilson, a reporter, or your supervisor? 6. List five internal barriers to effective listening. List three external barriers. 7. What are the techniques required for effective listening?

12.10 EXERCISES FOR DISCUSSION 1. Under what circumstances would you prefer to deliver a message orally rather than in writing? Why? 2. Describe typical formal and informal oral communication situations with which a secretary should be familiar. Would you be effective in these situations? Explain your answer. 3. Is it easier to lie when talking with someone face-to-face or on the phone? Why or why not? 4. How do nonverbal messages influence people in a face-toface conversation? 5. What special dangers do telephone communication present for the secretary? How can these be avoided? 6. Why is it important to prepare for incoming and outgoing calls? 7. What method of preparing notes for a speech do you prefer? Why? 8. If 40 people all hear the same speech, will they interpret it the same way? Explain your answer.

285 12.10.1 Exercise: Problems 1. Attend a public speech or lecture. Write a summary of the speech and analyze the speaker's purpose; the audience; the organization or the subject; the external barriers; the speaker's delivery; and your internal barriers. 2. Prepare and deliver a 5-minute formal presentation on a business topic of your choice (for example, sell a product, present a new business concept, or demonstrate a new procedure).

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13 Unit VI MECHANICS OF WRITING (TRANSITION WORDS, SPELLING RULES AND HYPHENATION) Unit Structure 13.1 Objectives 13.2 Introduction: Transition Words 13.3 Introduction: English Spelling Rules 13.4 Understanding English spelling 13.5 General Spelling Rules 13.6 Hyphenation 13.7 Summary 13.8 Exercise


To understand the methods of mechanics of writing

To learn the art of an effective use of transition words

To learn the various spelling rules in general

To learn the art of hyphenation

13.2 INTRODUCTION: TRANSITION WORDS Transition words are connecting words or phrases that act like bridges between parts of your writing. They link your sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas. Transition words act like signposts to indicate to the reader the order and flow of your writing and ideas. They strengthen the internal cohesion of your writing. Using transitions makes it easier for the reader to follow your ideas. They help carry over a thought from one sentence to another, from one paragraph to another, or from one idea to another. There are several different transition words. Some lead your reader forward and imply the building of an idea or thought, while others make your reader compare ideas or draw conclusions from

288 the preceding thoughts. The following words and phrases can be used to indicate transitions and to curb your reader about how ideas are logically connected in your writing. 13.2.1 To Introduce an Example: especially in this case for example one example of this is for instance on this occasion frequently specifically

take the case of to demonstrate to illustrate

13.2.2 of course certainly

it is true that

To Show Agreement admittedly no doubt

13.2.3 To Introduce an Additional Idea additionally as well as in addition again besides moreover also equally important one could also say and finally nor and then further not to mention another furthermore 13.2.4 To show Cause and Effect and so consequently as a consequence for this reason as a result hence

therefore thus

13.2.5 To Summarise or Conclude as a result in conclusion as shown in other words consequently in summary finally on the whole hence summing up in brief

therefore thus to conclude to summarise ultimately

13.2.6 also likewise equally

To Compare (similarity to what has preceded) in the same way both . . . and . . . correspondingly similarly too

13.2.7 To Show Sequence of Thought Now regarding turning to with respect/regard to 13.2.8 To Show Time after a while now afterwards once at last presently at previously at the same time shortly



289 before earlier formerly until initially meanwhile

simultaneously currently since soon eventually subsequently finally then thereafter in the meantime in the past until now whenever later while

13.2.9 To Show Reference (refers back to previous sentences) and mainly as follows mostly chiefly namely for instance notably for example or in other words particularly in particular such as including that is 13.2.10 To Show Example for example for instance to illustrate as an illustration

such as to demonstrate


To Show Result (expresses the consequence or result from what is implicit in the preceding sentence or sentences) accordingly now as a result so as a consequence so that because of the consequence is consequently the result is for this/that reason then hence therefore in order that thus 13.2.12 To Indicate Place above in front in the background at the side behind there elsewhere to the right

adjacent in the foreground below to the left here


To Express Reformulation (expresses something in another way) better in other words in that case rather that is that is to say to put it (more) simply

13.2.14 To Show Replacement Again alternatively another possibility would be better/worse still on the other hand rather the alternative is


13.3 INTRODUCTION: ENGLISH SPELLING RULES There are about half a million words in the English language. Even though it uses 26 letters for about 44 sounds, many of its words are not spelt the way they sound. There are historical reasons for this. English began as an Indo-European Teutonic dialect, but during the past millennium it has been subject to changes within the language itself, as well as the influences of many other languages. The early form of English (or Anglo-Saxon) was more phonetically regular than Modern English. In the original English, grammatical meaning was heavily dependent on word endings: word order was less important. Some of these original features still remain (e.g. ox–oxen, man–men; mouse-mice). Over time, as word order assumed greater importance, many of the word endings dropped off. The silent e at the end of many English words is due to this change. After the introduction of Christianity and the Norman invasion, large numbers of Latin and French words entered the language. Because the Anglo-Saxon language had many sounds that were not found in French, and also because French handwriting was different from that used by the Anglo-Saxons, some spelling compromises had to be made when writing the language down. For example, the latter phenomenon led to the introduction of the letter o in words like love, son, and women. Regional variations in pronunciation have always been a feature of English. Consistency in spelling is a comparatively recent phenomenon. For example, as Anglo-Saxon moved towards Middle English and into Elizabethan times, many words with i and e vowels and the ae diphthongs changed. In Shakespeare’s time, for example, the word reason was pronounced “raisin” (as it still is in parts of the United Kingdom today), which is why Shakespeare indulges in a play on words with reasons and blackberries in Henry IV Since medieval times, English has acquired thousands of new words from a variety of sources. Many of these were derived from Latin and Greek, because of the Renaissance. Many were derived from the languages of communities colonised by Britain. Following the industrial revolution, many new words had to be made up.

291 When scientific knowledge was growing in the early modern age, Greek words were used as the basis for coining many new scientific words. The Greek alphabet has some letter sounds that the English alphabet does not have, such as phi, chi and psi. This accounts for the non-phonetic spelling of a host of English words, such as telephone, trachea and psychology. With the invention of printing in the fifteenth century it became necessary to standardise the way in which words were spelt. Since then, the spelling of words has changed far less, although with the use of American spelling checkers on computers, there has been a pressure to Americanise the spelling of some words.

13.4 UNDERSTANDING ENGLISH SPELLING Writers need to understand English spelling, in order to spell correctly. English spelling is a system which integrates phonetic and morphemic patterns to produce meaning in writing. Understanding phonetic patterns enables writers to spell those words that have predictable sound-letter relationships, e.g. mat. Morphemes are the smallest units of language that carry meaning. The phonemes /b/, /a/ and /t/ together form the morpheme /bat/. While the word bat carries some meaning, its particular meaning depends on the context of its use. For example, its meaning is different in each of the following: “I bought a cricket bat.” “She went in to bat.” “The bat spread its wings.” The ending -ing is also a morpheme, even though it carries meaning only when it is bound to a word like bat, to make batting. As you see, adding the -ing morpheme causes a change to the other morpheme, in this case the doubling of the end consonant. Fortunately, such morphemic changes are fairly regular in English, which is why understanding morphemic patterns is another important aspect of spelling knowledge. This is often the point of spelling “rules”. Understanding these features of the English language helps writers to spell, because it is useful to remember that many of the words that are difficult to spell have non-phonetic spellings for a variety of reasons: their present spelling might reflect the way they were pronounced many years ago (the word knight is an example) or they might be borrowed from a foreign language (the word charade, from French, is an example).

292 Most of these features must be learnt as individual cases. There is no consistent approach to what the English language does with words borrowed from other languages. Either visual knowledge or etymological knowledge is used in these instances. The best way to learn how to spell the common word two correctly is simply to learn that it looks like that, relying on visual knowledge. On the other hand, the best way to learn how to spell psychology correctly is to learn that it starts with the Greek letter psi and has within it the other Greek letter chi, the same letter as in Christmas. This demonstrates the importance of etymological knowledge, not only for older students, but also for students at any stage of learning when they need to learn the spelling of a particular word.

13.5 GENERAL SPELLING RULES 13.5.1 Rule 1: i before e Write i before e except after c or when sounding like a as in neighbor and weigh. Examples: believe, piece, priest, "except after c" Examples: receive deceive receipt "or when sounding like a/as in neighbor and weigh" Examples: reign feint freight Exceptions: The exceptions to this rule: 9. The rule applies only when the ei/ie cluster is pronounced as one syllable; it does not apply when the letters are divided between two syllables, as in deity and science. 10. If the word is borrowed from a foreign language, then the rule may not be applicable; examples are sheik and reichsmark. 11. Some words simply don't follow the rule; examples are heir, height, and weird. The following is a list of some of the exceptions to this rule. Ancient caffeine codeine counterfeit Either Fahrenheit financier height Leisure neither prescience protein Reveille seize sheik sleight Stein surfeit their weird

293 13.5.2 Rule 2 drop the final SILENT e This rule concerns words that end in a silent e, such as make and argue. When a suffix is added to a word ending in a silent e, drop the e if the suffix begins with a vowel, for example -ing, -ile, ; keep the e if the suffix begins with a consonant, for example, -ment, -ly, ful. Example:



suffix =

new word




























-ment =


Exceptions: Once again, there are exceptions to this rule. Here are a few of the exceptions: argue + -ment = argument
































Rule 3 : CHANGING y TO i This rule applies when you add a suffix to a word that ends in y. Change y to i before a suffix when the y is preceded by a consonant. For example, apply + -ance = appliance. Do not change y to i when the y is preceded by a vowel; for example, pay + -s =pays. Examples: word + suffix = new word Flabby + -est = flabbiest lazy + -er = lazier byway + -s = byways pray + -ed = prayed

294 Exceptions: 1. If the suffix itself begins with an i, as in, -ing or -ine, then do not change the y to i before adding the suffix. Exa : word + suffix = new word fry + -ing = frying marry + -ing = marrying worry + -ing = worrying 2. Certain irregular verbs have exceptions to this rule in their past tense form. You can memorize the irregular past-tense pattern of these three verbs: Present Past pay paid say said lay laid 13.5.4

Rule 4: Doubling the Final Consonant This rule is very useful, but it is a bit more complicated than the previous ones. You may find it a bit confusing, yet the rule is worth studying, because it explains why there are two r's in preferred, but only one in preference. The rule for doubling a final consonant has three parts. 1.

A final consonant may only be doubled before a suffix beginning with a vowel; e.g., -ed, -ing.


The final consonant must be preceded by a single vowel, e.g., get + -ing = getting

but greet + -ing = greeting. 3. The base word must either be only one syllable, sit, stop, spit or it must have an accent on the final syllable when the suffix has been added, beginning, occurrence, but not reference, or development An accented syllable is one that is emphasized or is the loudest one you hear. Examples- Double the consonant: mop + -ing = mopping begin + -ing = beginning submit + -ed = submitted tan + -ing = tanning Do not double the consonant: Jump + -ed = jumped develop + -ing = developing prefer + -ence = preference

295 13.5.5 1.








Rule 5: Spelling Rules for Regular Past Tense Verbs Add – ed to the base form of most verbs start started finish finished wash washed Add only –d when the base form ends in an e. Live lived Care cared Die died If the verb ends in a consonant + y, change the y to I and add –ed Dry dried Carry carried Spy spied If the verb ends in a vowel + y, do not change the y. Just add –ed Pray prayed Stay stayed Destroy destroyed If the verb has one syllable and ends in a consonant + vowel + consonant (CVC), double the final consonant and add –ed. Stop stopped Rob robbed Beg begged Do not double final w or x. Sew sewed Mix mixed If the verb has two syllables, and the final syllable is stressed, double the final consonant. ad mit’admitted oc cur’occurred per mit’ permitted If the verb has two syllables, and the final syllable is not stressed, do not double the final consonant. hap’ pen happened lis’ ten listened o’ pen opened

13.5.6 Rule 6 1. qu: Q is always written as qu. It never stands by itself. Examples: queen, opaque, quarrel. 13.5.7 Rule 7 –ve: We use -ve at the end of words that sound like they end in (v). Examples: crave, leave, live, love. Only exception in English: spiv.

296 13.5.8 Rule 8 –ge: We use -ge at the end of words that sound like they end in (j). Examples: age, cringe, orange. Exceptions: none in English. 13.5.9 Rule 9: Formation of Plurals 1. Regular Plural Nouns The plural morphological suffix for most English nouns is simply -s, which is added to the end of the singular form. For example, the following chart identifies the singular and plural forms of some common regular English nouns:





















However, if the singular form of the noun ends with s(e) or c(e) [s], z(e) [z], sh [š], ch [č], or dg(e) [ĵ], then the plural morphological suffix is -es. For example, the following chart identifies the singular and plural forms of some common regular English nouns ending in s(e) or c(e) [s], z(e) [z], sh [š], ch [č], or dg(e) [ĵ]: Singular


















If the singular form of the noun ends with a consonant followed by a y, then the y changes to an i and is followed by the plural morphological suffix is -es. For example, the following chart identifies the singular and plural forms of

297 some common regular English nouns ending in a consonant followed by a y:




















If the singular form of the noun ends with f or fe, then the f or fe changes to a ve and is followed by the plural morphological suffix is -s. For example, the following chart identifies the singular and plural forms of some common regular English nouns ending in f or fe: Singular


















The f or fe to ve rule does not apply if the verb form of the noun ends in ve as in belief-beliefs (noun) and believe-believes (verb). 5.

Nouns Ending in -o The plural morphological suffix for English nouns ending in o is either -s or -es, which is added to the end of the singular form, depending on the specific noun. If the singular form of the noun ends with an o preceded by another vowel or vowel sound, then the plural morphological suffix is -s. For example, the following chart identifies the singular and plural forms of some common English nouns ending in an o preceded by a vowel or vowel sound:






















If the singular form of the noun ends in o and the word is of foreign origin including most musical terms, then the plural morphological suffix is also -s. For example, the following chart identifies the singular and plural forms of some common English nouns of foreign origin ending in an o: Singular


















If the singular form of the noun ends with an o preceded by a consonant, then the plural morphological suffix is -es. For example, the following chart identifies the singular and plural forms of some common English nouns ending in an o preceded by a consonant: Singular




















For some nouns ending in an o preceded by a consonant, however, the plural morphological suffix is either -s or -es. For example, the following chart identifies the singular and plural forms of some common English nouns that take either the -s or the -es suffix: Singular


















The current trend for spelling the plurals of nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant seems to be moving in the direction of adding only the morphological suffix -s, particularly in the case of nouns with variable spellings. Rule 10 Spelling Formation of Present Participle 1. Spelling rules for the formation of the Present Participle. The general rule is: base form of the verb + '-ing':



work - working

read - reading

go - going

listen - listening

meet - meeting

sleep - sleeping

enjoy - enjoying

ski - skiing

grow - growing

fix – fixing

If a one syllable verb ends in consonant + vowel + consonant double the final consonant and add '-ing': run - running beg - begging sit - sitting jog - jogging If a verb has more than one syllable and ends in consonant + vowel + consonant, we double the final consonant only if the final syllable is stressed and add '-ing': occur - occurring begin - beginning admit - admitting refer – referring

300 4. 5.




When a verb ends in '-ic' we add '-k' and then '-ing': picnic - picnicking panic - panicking When a verb ends in '-l' the '-l' is doubled and '-ing' is added (in British English): travel - travelling cancel - cancelling When a verb ends in silent '-e', the silent '-e' is dropped and '-ing' is added: close - closing move - moving live - living have - having When a verb ends in an '-e' which is not silent, the final '-e' is not dropped before the ending '-ing' is added: be - being see - seeing When a verb ends in '-ie', the '-ie' is changed to '-y' before the ending '-ing' is added: die - dying lie - lying The Present Participial can be also used as an adjective in front of a noun: a running boy, a crying baby, a dancing lady, etc.

13.5.11 Rule 11 Formation of Suffixes and Prefixes Antiagainst antifreeze deopposite defrost dis* not, opposite of disagree en-, emcause to encode, embrace forebefore forecast in-, imin infield in-, im-, il-, ir* not injustice, impossible interbetween interact midmiddle midway miswrongly misfire nonnot nonsense overover overlook prebefore prefix re* again return semihalf semicircle subunder submarine superabove superstar transacross transport un-* not unfriendly underunder undersea -able, -ible can be done comfortable -al, -ial having personal characteristics -ed * past-tense verbs hopped -en made of wooden -er comparative higher -er, one who worker, actor -est comparative biggest -ful full of careful -ic having linguistic

301 -ing* -ion, -tion, -ation, ition -ity, -ty -ive, -ative, -itive -less -ly* -ment -ness -ous, -eous, -ious -s, -es* -y


verb form act, process occasion,

running attraction

state of adjective form without characteristic of action or process state of, condition of possessing the qualities of more than one characterized by

infinity plaintive fearless quickly enjoyment kindness joyous books, boxes happy



Introduction Certain words and phrases tend to evolve from separation to linkage. The trend in English is for frequently used word combinations to "grow together" from two words to one, sometimes passing through a hyphenated stage. The two-word phrase data base, for example, is now most commonly written as one word: database. (It apparently skipped the hyphenated transition phase.) The best rule to follow for particular words and phrases is to check a recent dictionary. However, the following principles are useful to know. Two or more adjectives before a noun that act as one idea (one-thought adjectives) are connected with a hyphen. Examples: This is a low-budget job. [The sense is not: this is a low job and a budget job. The words low and budget are linked into the single concept of "low-budget."] First-class decisions require clear-headed thinking. He has a devil-may-care attitude. 13.6.2

NOTES, VARIATIONS, AND APPLICATIONS When the adjectives before the noun act separately, we are usually implying the word and (which we replace with a comma), as in "a ripe, red tomato." The meaning is a ripe tomato and a red tomato or a ripe and red tomato. But a low-budget job, in contrast, is not a low job and a budget job or a low and budget job. When the modifying words are positioned differently in the sentence - say, after the noun - the hyphen is usually not used. For instance, well-known has no hyphen in the sentence, "This institution is well known." Note, however, that some two-word

302 expressions are always linked by a hyphen, regardless of position in the sentence; examples are part-time and full-time. When we refer to a twelve-year-old boy, the hyphens follow the rule for one-thought adjectives. No hyphens are used when the phrase is positioned differently (i.e., after boy): "The boy is twelve years old." The hyphens are used, though, when we make the phrase a noun, e.g., "He is a typical twelve-year-old." (In a sense, the word boy or child is understood.) Hyphens are used to link words and parts of words. They are not as common today as they used to be, but there are three main cases where you should use them: Hyphens in compound words Hyphens are used in many compound words to show that the component words have a combined meaning (e.g. a pick-meup, mother-in-law, good-hearted) or that there is a relationship between the words that make up the compound: for example, rockforming minerals are minerals that form rocks. But you don’t need to use them in every type of compound word. Compound adjectives Compound adjectives are made up of a noun + an adjective, a noun + a participle, or an adjective + a participle. Many compound adjectives should be hyphenated. Here are some examples: noun + adjective noun + participle adjective + participle accident-prone















With compound adjectives formed from the adverb well and a participle (e.g. well-known), or from a phrase (e.g. up-to-date), you should use a hyphen when the compound comes before the noun: well-known brands of coffee an up-to-date account but not when the compound comes after the noun: His music was also well known in England. Their figures are up to date.

303 It’s important to use hyphens in compound adjectives describing ages and lengths of time: leaving them out can make the meaning ambiguous. For example, 250-year-old trees clearly refers to trees that are 250 years old, while 250 year old trees could equally refer to 250 trees that are all one year old. Compound verbs Use a hyphen when a compound formed from two nouns is made into a verb, for example: Noun verb an ice skate

to ice-skate

a booby trap

to booby-trap

a spot check

to spot-check

a court martial

to court-martial Phrasal verbs You should NOT put a hyphen within phrasal verbs - verbs made up of a main verb and an adverb or preposition. For example: Phrasal verb Example build up You should continue to build up your pension. break in They broke in by forcing a lock on the door. stop off We stopped off in Hawaii on the way home. If a phrasal verb is made into a noun, though, you SHOULD use a hyphen: Noun Example build-up There was a build-up of traffic on the ring road. break-in The house was unoccupied at the time of the break-in. stop-off We knew there would be a stop-off in Singapore for refuelling. Compound nouns A compound noun is one consisting of two component nouns. In principle, such nouns can be written in one of three different ways: one word two words hyphenated aircrew air crew air-crew playgroup play group play-group chatroom chat room chat-room In the past, these sorts of compounds were usually hyphenated, but the situation is different today. The tendency is now to write them as either one word or two separate words. However, the most important thing to note is that you should choose one style and stick to it within a piece of writing. Don’t refer to a playgroup in one paragraph and a play-group in another.

304 13.6.4 Rules: Hyphens between Words Hyphens showing word breaks Hyphens can also be used to divide words that are not usually hyphenated. They show where a word is to be divided at the end of a line of writing. Always try to split the word in a sensible place, so that the first part does not mislead the reader: for example, hel-met not helmet; dis-abled not disa-bled. Hyphens are also used to stand for a common second element in all but the last word of a list, e.g.: You may see a yield that is two-, three-, or fourfold. Rule 1: To check whether a compound noun is two words, one word, or hyphenated, you may need to look it up in the dictionary. If you can't find the word in the dictionary, treat the noun as separate words. Examples: eyewitness, eye shadow, eye-opener Rule 2: Phrases that have verb, noun, and adjective forms should appear as separate words when used as verbs and as one word when used as nouns or adjectives. Examples: The engine will eventually break down. (verb) We suffered a breakdown in communications. (noun) Please clean up your room. (verb) That Superfund site will require specialized cleanup procedures. (adjective) Rule 3:

Compound verbs are either hyphenated or appear as one word. If you do not find the verb in the dictionary, hyphenate it. Examples: To air-condition the house will be costly. We were notified that management will downsize the organization next year.

Rule 4:

Generally, hyphenate between two or more adjectives when they come before a noun and act as a single idea. Exa: friendly-looking man (compound adjective in front of a noun) friendly little girl (not a compound adjective) brightly lit room (Brightly is an adverb describing lit, not an adjective.)

305 Rule 5:

When adverbs not ending in -ly are used as compound words in front of a noun, hyphenate. When the combination of words is used after the noun, do not hyphenate. Examples: The well-known actress accepted her award. Well is an adverb followed by another descriptive word? They combine to form one idea in front of the noun. The actress who accepted her award was well known. Well known follows the noun it describes, so no hyphen is used. A long-anticipated decision was finally made. He got a much-needed haircut yesterday. His haircut was much needed.

Rule 6:

Remember to use a comma, not a hyphen, between two adjectives when you could have used and between them. Examples: I have important, classified documents. Jennifer received a lovely, fragrant bouquet on Valentine's Day.

Rule 7:

Hyphenate all compound numbers from twenty-one through ninety-nine. Exa: The teacher had thirty-two children in her classroom. Only twenty-one of the children were bilingual.

Rule 8:

Hyphenate all spelled-out fractions. Exa: You need one-third of a cup of sugar for that recipe. More than one-half of the student body voted for removing soda machines from campus.

13.6.5 Rules:Hyphens with Prefixes Hyphens joining prefixes to other words Hyphens can be used to join a prefix to another word, especially if the prefix ends in a vowel and the other word also begins with one (e.g. pre-eminent or co-own). This use is less common than it used to be, though, and one-word forms are becoming more usual (e.g. prearrange or cooperate). Use a hyphen to separate a prefix from a name or date, e.g. post-Aristotelian or pre-1900.

306 Use a hyphen to avoid confusion with another word: for example, to distinguish re-cover (= provide something with a new cover) from recover (= get well again). Rule 1:

The current trend is to do away with unnecessary hyphens. Therefore, attach most prefixes and suffixes onto root words without a hyphen. Exa: noncompliance copayment semiconscious fortyish

Rule 2:

Hyphenate prefixes when they come before proper nouns. Example: un-American Hyphenate prefixes ending in an a or i only when the root word begins with the same letter. Exa: ultra-ambitious semi-invalid When a prefix ends in one vowel and a root word begins with a different vowel, generally attach them without a hyphen. Exa: antiaircraft proactive Prefixes and root words that result in double e's and double o's are usually combined to form one word. Exa: preemployment coordinate Exceptions: de-emphasize, co-owner Hyphenate all words beginning with self except for selfish and selfless. Exa: self-assured self-respect self-addressed Use a hyphen with the prefix ex. Example: His ex-wife sued for nonsupport. Use the hyphen with the prefix re only when: the re means again AND omitting the hyphen would cause confusion with another word.

Rule 3:

Rule 4:

Rule 5:

Rule 6:

Rule 7: Rule 8:

Examples: 9. Will she recover from her illness? -Re does not mean again. 10. I have re-covered the sofa twice. -Re does mean again AND omitting the hyphen would have caused confusion with another word.

307 11. The stamps have been reissued. -Re means again but would not cause confusion with another word. 12. I must re-press the shirt. -Re means again AND omitting the hyphen would have caused confusion with another word.

13.7 SUMMARY Transition words are connecting words or phrases that act like bridges between parts of your writing. They link your sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas. Transition words act like signposts to indicate to the reader the order and flow of your writing and ideas. English spelling is a system which integrates phonetic and morphemic patterns to produce meaning in writing. Understanding phonetic patterns enables writers to spell those words that have predictable sound-letter relationships. Hyphens are used to link words and parts of words. They are not as common today as they used to be, but there are three main cases where you should use them. Hyphenation are used in compound words, in joining prefixes, between words, in phrasal verbs and etc.

13.8 EXERCISE Use the Transitions to complete the following paragraphs: 1. Our state’s correctional system is plagued with problems. (a) _________, (example) high officials increase their personal wealth by awarding building and catering contracts to disreputable companies in return for bribes. (b) ___________, (addition) promotions within the system are made on the basis of politics, not merit. (c) __________, the system is filled __________ (result) with people at the top who know little about what they are doing. (d) __________, (addition) careless security measures, allowing trusted inmates to control certain operations of the institution, are part of the growing problem. But one increasing tendency in particular is doing harm to the system’s image and efficiency. This is the tendency of officials who are charged with important tasks and who make faulty decisions to cover up their mistakes. (e) __________, one would think that amid all the strife some effort __________ (conclusion) would be made to rectify these problems, but a seemingly dogged determination to resist change overshadows the system.

308 2.


Genetic screening in business, or testing the genes of employees to see if they are susceptible to workplacerelated diseases, may present problems for the tested. (a) __________, the genetic screening tests and technology in general are in their infancy stages. (b) __________, many physicians and health professionals doubt their reliability. (c) ___________, once genetic information is recorded on employees; it cannot always be kept secret. Even though employers are assured that their medical files are confidential, clerical staff has access to them. (d) __________, if they are entered into a computer data base, they are available to anyone with access. (e) __________, some argue that such screening procedures are violations of personal rights. (f) __________, many cite similarities between genetic screening and drug testing, noting that both involve a process of obtaining information from unwilling individuals that might affect them adversely. Opponents of genetic screening point out that some employees with the potential for workplace diseases would rather run the risk than lose their jobs. Make a list of suffixes forming nouns, adjectives and adverbs.


List out fifty words showing the hyphenation.


What is hyphenation? Why it is used in language?


List out the rules of hyphenation with examples showing the combination of prefixes.


List out the rules of hyphenation with examples showing the combination of words.


List out the rules of hyphenation with examples showing the combination of phrasal verbs.


What do you understand by the word ‘spelling rules’ in language?



14 TRANSCRIBING NUMBERS AND ABBREVIATING THE TECHNICAL AND NON TECHNICAL TERMS Unit Structure 14.0 Objectives 14.1 Transcribing Numbers 14.2 Guidelines for transcribing numbers 14.3 Abbreviations/Acronyms 14.4 Summary


To know what is transcribing numbers

To learn the strategies of transcribing numbers

To know the techniques of framing abbreviations of Technical and non technical terms

14.1 TRANSCRIBING NUMBERS The system of transcribing the numbers refers to the use of numbers in a sentences and the guidelines one need to keep in mind about the perfect usage. We could see the numbers forming the part of the proper nouns in these days. For example, T20, i10, G8 countries etc. In India, we use Arabic numerical and roman numbers in some limited instances. For example, in names of chapters or the headings, we use Roman numbers. In addition to this, we also use the regional number system in our writings. Therefore, a common guideline can make the uniformity of its use.

14.2 GUIDELINES FOR TRANSCRIBING NUMBERS There are two types of numerals, Arabic and Roman, which are used in any transcription. Numbers denote quantities, ages, time and position in a series.


Arabic numerals are in all 10, which are 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. Roman numerals are made of 7 letters, given below: • I1 • V5 • X 10 • L 50 • C 100 • O 500 • K 1000 Roman numerals are used to a lesser extent in transcription usually in staging of diseases, syndromes or the most common statement, for example: Cranial nerves II through XII are normal, Stage I disease. Arabic numerals are widely used in transcription to denote ages, units of measure, dosages, vitals, lab values, and dimensions. For example: Hemoglobin was 14.4, platelet count was 156,000, a 45-year-old male was seen today. If a sentence begins with a number, the number has to be spelled out and/or if needed rephrase the sentence. For example: "Twenty-two years ago, the patient had her last menstrual period." Or one can rephrase the sentence as "The patient had her last menstrual period 34 years ago." Numbers used to represent position in a series are called ordinal numbers. Ordinals from (1st) first to ninth (9th) are spelled out in report while ordinals greater than 9th are transcribed in figures like 12th, 21st. No periods or space is used with ordinals. For example: The patient underwent his fourth cesarean section without any complications. The obese female met with a severe accident on her 50th birthday. Use of commas in Arabic numbers: When a whole number has 5 or more digits, a comma should be sued to separate a group of 3 numerals, starting from the end of the number. For example: White blood cell count was 45,700, platelet count was 290,000.

311 However, if the whole number comprises of 4 digits only, a comma should not be used. For example: White count is 6400. When two sets of interrelated numbers are used next to each other, generally the one dictated earlier should be spelled out one or rather any one of them can be spelled out depending on convenience. For example: The subjects used for the experiment were fifteen 7-year-old boys. The laceration was sutured with two 2-0 Vicryl sutures. Use of hyphens in numbers: Always hyphenate compound numbers from 21 through 99. For example: fifty-five, sixty-six, eleven thousand five hundred fortysix Always Hyphenate compound nouns which use numbers are prefix. For example: 2-D echocardiogram When numbers are used as compound modifiers with words, they should be hyphenated when they precede the noun. For example: An 18-day cycle, a 3-cm incision Forming Plurals in numbers: To form plurals, apostrophe "s"is used with single digit number and lower cased s is used with 2 or more than 2 i.e. multiple digit number. For example: He died in his 50s. The patient was born in 1950s. He required at least four 6’s to reach to his century. Numbers used in proper nouns are transcribed the way they are used in the proper noun. For example: figure-of-eight suture and not figure of 8 suture.

14.3 ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or term. The shortened form may include letters, numbers, and symbols. The process of reducing as many words as possible to a series of acronyms. This practice is often found in organizations where group think is rampant and human interpersonal skills are undeveloped.

312 To make words into acronyms that doesn’t stand for anything with the sole purpose of emphasizing the word! Especially as wall posts or status updates on social networking sites. To reduce a perfectly acceptable title or phrase into an acronym. Generally thought to be best avoided in most cases, certainly those not in extensive use, or those whose original phrasing was selected for it's poetic or prosaic beauty or clarity. Especially egregious are acronyms that have been "Reverse Acronymized", or cooked up from acronyms that happen to be words, but whose constituent words are contrived at best. Abbreviation Full Term CFM contamination free manufacturing COO cost of ownership 3 CM cubic centimeter RIE reactive ion etch An acronym is an abbreviation that can be pronounced and used as a name. BMC, BARC, CAD, TCAD Use the following guidelines for all forms of abbreviation. 14.2.2 When to Use In Text Define any abbreviation/acronym you use unless its meaning is clearly understood by everyone in your audience. For example, the following are some abbreviations and acronyms that are generally understood by a technical audience. laser mm I/O PC CPU Define an abbreviation/acronym at its first use in text unless the first reference is in a heading. In this case, either uses the abbreviation/acronym or the full term in the heading, but define the abbreviation/acronym in the following paragraph. In documents that have a lot of abbreviations/acronyms, include a list defining them. Even if using a list, you still must define them within the body of the document. When defining an abbreviation, spell out the term and follow with the abbreviation in parentheses. “...documents the alpha site developmental activity for the Automatic Defect Classification (ADC) program. Several key steps, necessary to provide production-worthy ADC capability...” Unless the abbreviation is more familiar to your reader than it’s fully expanded term (for example, BARC or ISRO), do not

313 abbreviate a phrase that appears only once or infrequently. The following term should not have been abbreviated because it is not used again and is not a familiar abbreviation. “...described model management and reusability, describing the Hierarchical Intelligent Simulation Environment (HISE) and how it could be used to facilitate...” 14.2.3 When to Use In Graphics Abbreviate in figures and tables to conserve space. Define possibly unfamiliar or ambiguous abbreviations in a note or key— even if they have already been defined in text—since a graphic may be read independently. 14.2.4 Sources Use the definition of an abbreviation/acronym as it appears in the SEMATECH Acronym and Abbreviation List. If the abbreviation is not defined there, look in The New IEEE Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms, or the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. For additional sources, see REFERENCE WORKS. 14.2.5 How to Use Articles Preceding Acronyms The choice of a or an before an abbreviation/acronym depends on the way the abbreviation is pronounced. If the abbreviation begins with a consonant sound (including a sounded h or long u), use , If it begins with a vowel sound, use an. an ECR a CIM system an X-ray a HBO channel an RIE 14.2.6 Capitalization Although the abbreviation or acronym may be all capitalized, the term it stands for often is not. Capitalize only proper nouns when defining an abbreviation/acronym. Mumbai Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (MMRDA) Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) Gallium arsenide (GaAs) In an abbreviation of a term that includes proper nouns with prepositions, do not use lower case for the prepositions. Cost of Ownership (COO) model Department of Defense (DOD) contract

314 14.2.7 Chemical Abbreviations Use formulas freely in tables and graphics. In text, spell out the name at its first reference, followed by the formula in parentheses. The formula alone may be used subsequently. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) boron trichloride (BCl3) To avoid ambiguity, it is preferable to spell out the word tungsten. However, if the word is used heavily within the same document, use of the symbol W saves time and space, and alleviates repetition. Isotopes may be written as carbon-14 or 14C. When written out, names of chemical elements and compounds are written in lowercase letters. The chemical symbols are capitalized as they appear in the periodic table of elements . 14.2.8 Measurements and Symbols Plural Forms Many abbreviations use the same form whether plural or singular. mm MOS Use’s only for abbreviations that end with periods or lowercase letters used as nouns. M.B.A.'s x's and y's 14.2.9 Punctuation Most abbreviations do not end with a period. Exceptions include abbreviations that may be confused with a word, are personal titles, or traditionally end with periods. Check punctuation in the SEMATECH Official Dictionary, The Chicago Manual of Style, or another REFERENCE WORK. in. Ph.D. U.S. When an abbreviation that normally ends with a period appears at the end of a sentence, do not add a second period. “ the U.S. Further analyses indicate...” Set off i.e., e.g., and etc., as you would the full phrases they abbreviate. Both i.e. and e.g. should be immediately followed by commas. The type of punctuation that precedes them depends on sentence structure and context.

315 “...on a cost-plus basis with no ceiling; i.e., there was no contractual limit on costs.” “...aggressive lithography development in Japan, e.g., in phase-shift mask, cell projection E-beam direct wafer write, and X-ray lithography.” “...level of automation, wafer size, and fab design capacity (i.e., wafer starts per day).” Always precede etc. with a comma. When it appears in the middle of a sentence, follow etc. with a comma as well. A lastminute check should confirm that all references to other sections, figures, etc., remain correct. 14.2.10 State Names Spell out the state name when used alone. When used with a city name, use the two-letter postal abbreviation. Three universities in MH participate... ...workshop held in MH, Mumbai, October 19-20. Common Technical and Non Technical abbreviations used: 14.2.11 Letters and correspondence


as soon as possible


per pro (through the agency of)


For the attention of




copies to (carbon copies)


please turn over




in the mater of


exempli gratia (for example)



enc./encl. enclosure




for the attention of


please reply


for your information





w. ref.

with reference to


id est (that is)

x ref.

cross reference




Yours (sincerely/faithfully …)


not applicable to


note well



In the office






Annual General Meeting




Chief Executive Officer

Man.Dir. Managing Director


any other business


public limited company




part time


curriculum vitae


Research and Development












visual display unit




word processor


extension (phone number) Xer.



hardware (computer)


Head of Department


Finance and banking


current account


free of tax

a/cs pay

accounts payable


Gross Domestic Product

a/cs rec

accounts receivable


no charge


brought forward




bill of materials (goods)


or nearest offer


bills payable


Quarterly (accounts)


bill of sale


sale or return (goods)


carried forward




cash on delivery


to be arranged


deposit account






Value Added Tax


free of charge




14.2.14 Deliveries C&E

Customs & Excise




Certificate of Origin


postage and packing


delivery order


parcel post insured


estimate time of arrival




Time of delivery


Job Order

(2NOTE: There are some variations regarding full stops. For example, you will see both a.s.a.p. and asap.)

14.2.15 English punctuation


full stop (UK), period (US), dot in computer language “”








quotation marks


single quotes


exclamation mark


question mark


ampersand, at in computer language











paragraph sign




curved brackets

318 []

square brackets



ä,ö, umlaut = (vowel) mutation ü 14.2.16 Other %Percentage µ = £ °C 2,4-D 2-iP AMR APW AW B.C. B Ca CBI CD CF CH3Br Cl cm Cu DMSO DNA e.g. EC EC et al. ET f.sp. Fam. FAO FDA Fe Fig. FOB g

Micron is a synonym of British Pound Degree Celsius 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid N6-(2-isopentyo) adenine Amount of Water Required African Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus phoenicis F.) Depth of Water Before Christ Boron Calcium Centre for the Promotion of Imports from Developing Countries Codex Alimentarius Crop Factor Methyl Bromide Chloride Centimetre Copper Dimethylsulfoxide Desoxyribonucleic Acid exempli gratia; for example European Commission Electric Conductivity and others Evapotranspiration forma specialis Family Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Food and Drug Administration Iron Figure Free On Board Gram


Hectare Hazardus Analytical Critical Control Point Indol acetic acid Indol butyric acid International Organisation for Standardisation Kilogram Kilometre Litre Pound Liquid Nitrogen Leaching Requirement Metre Square metre Cubic metre Milligram Magnesium Millilitre Manganese Molybdium Minimum Residue Limit Murashige and Skoog medium Metric Ton North Naphtalene acetic acid Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Order Polymerase Chain Reaction A measure of acidity or alkalinity Poliyoritan Vinyl Chloride Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.) Republic of South Africa South Sulphur Species Total available soil moisture Total dissolvable solubles United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United Nations United Nations Environment Program United States Dollar United States of America

320 WHO Zn

World Health Organisation Zinc

14.5.16 Computer Abbreviations There are literally thousands of computer abbreviations out there. Many are concerned with the technical aspects of the computer while others deal with personal communication. Following are some more common ones that you may have heard but do not know exactly what they mean. Following are 21 of the numerous computer abbreviations in use today. The first group concerns the computer, its operating systems, and its storage of data. BIOS: This is the Basic Input Output System which controls the computer, telling it what operations to perform. These instructions are on a chip that connects to the motherboard. BYTE: A byte is a storage unit for data. “K” stands for Kilobyte which is 1024 bytes. “MB” is Megabyte which is a million bytes, and “GB” is a Gigabyte, which equals 1000 Megabytes. CPU: This stands for the Central Processing Unit of the computer. This is like the computer’s brain. MAC: This is an abbreviation for Macintosh, which is a type of personal computer made by the Apple Computer company. OS: This is the Operating System of the computer. It is the main program that runs on a computer and begins automatically when the computer is turned on. PC: This is the abbreviation for personal computer. It refers to computers that are IBM compatible. PDF: This represents the Portable Document Format which displays files in a format that is ready for the web. RAM: This stands for Random Access Memory which is the space inside the computer that can be accessed at one time. If you increase the amount of RAM, then you will increase the computer’s speed. This is because more of a particular program is able to be loaded at one time. ROM: This is Read Only Memory which is the instruction for the computer and cannot be altered. VGA: The Video Graphics Array is a system for displaying graphics. It was developed by IBM.

321 WYSIWYG: This initialism stands for What You See Is What You Get. It is pronounced “wizziwig" and basically means that the printer will print what you see on your monitor. Internet and Computer Language Abbreviations The next group of computer abbreviations deals with the computer when it is connected to the internet as well as some abbreviations of languages used by the computer: FTP: This is a service called File Transport Protocol which moves a file between computers using the internet. HTML: Hypertext Markup Language formats information so it can be transported on the internet. HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol is a set of instructions for the software that controls the movement of files on the internet. IP: This stands for Internet Protocol which is the set of rules that govern the systems connected to the internet. IP Address is a digital code specific to each computer that is hooked up to the internet. ISP: The Internet Service Provider is the company which provides internet service so you can connect your computer to the internet. LAN: This stands for Local Area Network which is the servers that your computer connects to in your region PPP: Point-to-Point Protocol is the set of rules that allow your computer to use the internet protocols using a phone line and modem. URL: This is the Universal Resource Locator which is a path to a certain file on the World Wide Web. USB: The Universal Serial Bus is used for communications between certain devices. It can connect keyboards, cameras, printers, mice, flash drives, and other devices. Its use has expanded from personal computers to PDAs, smartphones, and video games, and is used as a power cord to connect devices to a wall outlet to charge them. VR: Virtual Reality simulates a three-dimensional scene on the computer and has the capability of interaction. This is widely used in gaming. The VRML is the Virtual Reality Mark-up Language which allows the display of 3D images.


14.6 SUMMARY The system of transcribing is an advanced system of the perfect transcription on numbers in the language. The numbers are associated with the cardinals, enumerators and noun. The abbreviating is shortening of a set of words or the phrases forming the proper nouns or the titles. There are millions of abbreviations used in these days. The use of abbreviations has become common these days.

   


15 PROOF READING Unit Structure 15.1 Objectives 15.2 Introduction 15.3 Why is Proofreading important? 15.4 Prewriting/Brainstorming 15.5 Proofreading 15.6 Summary 15.7 Exercise


To know the mechanics of proof reading

To know the various strategies involved in proof reading

To learn the art of proofreading

15.2 INTRODUCTION Proofreading means examining your text carefully to find and correct typographical errors and mistakes in grammar, style, and spelling. "Proofreading is a special kind of reading: a slow and methodical search for misspellings, typographical mistakes, and omitted words or word endings. Such errors can be difficult to spot in your own work because you may read what you intended to write, not what is actually on the page. To fight this tendency, try proofreading out loud, articulating each word as it is actually written. You might also try proofreading your sentences in reverse order, a strategy that takes you away from the meanings you intended and forces you to think about small surface features instead. "Although proofreading may be dull, it is crucial. Errors strewn throughout an essay are distracting and annoying. If the writer doesn't care about this piece of writing, thinks the reader, why should I? A carefully proofread essay, however, sends a positive message: It shows that you value your writing and respect

324 your readers." (Diana Hacker, The Bedford Handbook. Bedford/St. Martin's, 2002) "Avoid doing your final proofreading on a computer screen. Ideally, you should do a preliminary editing and proofreading job while you are working on the computer. After printing out a copy, edit and proofread once more, before making final corrections on the computer and printing out your final copy." (Robert DiYanni and Pat C. Hoy II, The Scribner Handbook for Writers. Allyn and Bacon, 2001) "In traditional proofreading, the proofreader checks the proofs (live copy) against the manuscript (dead copy) to ensure that proof copy corresponds word for word with the edited manuscript. With the advent of computer typesetting, however, it is not always possible to provide the proofreader with an accurate manuscript against which to check the typeset copy. In this case the proofreader must read the proofs without reference to an authoritative manuscript. This entails checking the accuracy of spelling against the dictionary, and checking for correct style against the publisher's accepted manual of style and any other references provided by the publisher. The proofreader is responsible to see that all typographical specifications (specs) called for by the editor are carried out correctly." (Robert Hudson, The Christian Writer's Manual of Style. Zondervan, 2004)

15.3 WHY IS PROOFREADING IMPORTANT? Proofreading is an essential final stage of the essay writing process which should not be overlooked as a poorly presented piece of work can lose marks. After the effort of finding information and writing the essay, don’t lose marks by submitting a work spoiled by spelling and grammatical errors, or that does not adhere to your module’s requirements. A well-presented essay indicates to your tutor that you care about your work.

15.4 PREWRITING/BRAINSTORMING First, it is important to figure out what you know about a topic. Since many ideas come to mind when you begin to think about a topic, take time to write them down. First thoughts are easily forgotten if they are not committed to paper. You can do this with a prewriting technique such as brainstorming, clustering, mapping, or listing. You can use graphic organizers like charts, story maps, diagrams, or a cluster like the example on the next page.

325 Prewriting can take place in all sorts of inconvenient locations, and you may only have a napkin, a piece of scrap paper, or an envelope on which to write. Just don’t think a napkin with scribbles on it is the final draft. You still have much work to do. 15.4.1 Drafting The next step is turning those thoughts into a first draft. Those of you who skip the prewriting step and jump right into a first draft will find that the editing stage takes more time than it should. You may even find that you have changed your mind from the beginning to the end of a piece, or that the first paragraph is spent getting ready to say something. That’s fine, but be prepared to reorganize your entire draft. Writing with a plan makes the entire writing process easier. Imagine you are a famous writer of mystery novels. If you don’t know whodunit, how can you write the chapters that lead up to the part where the detective reveals the culprit? It is the same with your writing. Without an organizational plan, the paper you write may not take the right shape and may not say all you intended to say. 15.4.2 Revising As You Go Most writers revise as they write. That’s why pencils with erasers were invented. If you are a writer who uses pen and paper, feel free to fill your first drafts with arrows and crossed-out words. You may continue a sentence down the margin or on the back of the page, or use asterisks to remind you of where you want to go back and add an idea or edit a sentence. If you use a computer to compose, use symbols to remind you of changes that need to be made. Put a questionable sentence in boldface or a different color so you can remember to return to it later. A short string of unusual marks like #@$*%! will also catch your eye and remind you to return to a trouble spot. Typing them may even relieve some of the tension you’re feeling as you struggle with your draft. Just remember that if you’re planning to show your draft to someone, like a teacher or coworker, you may want to clean it up a little first. Computers also make it easier to make changes as you go, but remember that a computer’s grammar check or spell check is not foolproof. Computers do not understand the subtle nuances of our living language. A well-trained proofreader or editor can.

15.5 PROOFREADING Proofreading is simply careful reading. As you review every word, sentence, and paragraph, you will find errors. When you

326 locate them, you can use proofreading symbols to shorten the amount of time you spend editing. It is an excellent idea to become familiar with these symbols. At the bottom of this page are a few examples of the most common ones, but be sure to check Appendix A for a complete list. Of course, in order to find errors, you must know what they are. Read on to discover the culprits that can sabotage a good piece of writing. 15.5.1 Capitalization and Punctuation Capitalization and punctuation are like auto mechanics for your writing. They tune up your sentences and make them start, stop, and run smoothly. Example the russian Ballet travel’s. all over the world, Performing to amazed Audiences. in each new city; This sentence jerks along like an old car driven by someone who doesn’t know how to use the brakes. Edited Example The Russian Ballet travels all over the world, performing to amazed audiences in each new city. Every sentence begins with a capital letter. That’s the easy part. Many other words are capitalized, too, however, and those rules can be harder to remember. While every sentence begins with a capital letter, every sentence ends with some sort of punctuation. The proper use of end marks like periods, exclamation points, and question marks and other punctuation like commas, colons, semicolons, apostrophes, and quotation marks will help your reader make sense of your words. Punctuation is often the difference between a complete sentence and a sentence fragment or run-on. Other punctuation marks like hyphens, dashes, and ellipses give flare to your writing and should be used for function as well as style. 15.5.2 Spelling Correct spelling gives your work credibility. Not only will your reader know that you are educated, but also that you are careful about your work. You should have a dictionary handy to confirm that you have correctly spelled all unfamiliar words, especially if they are key words in the piece. In the workplace, a memo with a repeatedly misspelled word can be embarrassing. An essay with a

327 misspelled word in the title, or a word that is spelled incorrectly throughout the piece, can affect your final grade. Avoid embarrassing situations like these by checking your spelling. Even if you know all the spelling rules by heart, you will come across exceptions to the rules. Words that come from other languages (bourgeois, psyche), have silent letters (dumb, knack), or are technical terms (cryogenics, chimerical) can present problems. In addition, the spelling can change when the word is made plural (puppies, octopi). Homonyms like bear/bare or course/coarse can be easily confused, as can words that have unusual vowel combinations (beauty, archaeology).When in doubt, check it out by consulting a dictionary. 15.5.3 Spell Check Programs If you use a computer, most word processing programs contain a spell check and a dictionary, so use them. Just be aware that spell check doesn’t always provide the right answer, so doublecheck your choices. If your spell check gives three suggestions, you will have to consult a dictionary for the right one. Example He read thru the entire paper looking for a story on the protest march. Spell check suggests replacing “thru” with “through,” “threw,” or “thorough.” The dictionary will tell you that the correct spelling is “through.” Choosing a suggested spelling from spell check that is incorrect in the context of your sentence can affect an entire piece. As teachers and employers become more familiar with spell check programs, they learn to recognize when a writer has relied on spell check. For example, homonyms such as pane and pain and commonly confused words, such as where, wear, and were present a problem for spell check, just as they do for many writers. Ultimately, there is no substitute for a dictionary and a set of trained eyes and ears. 15.5.4 Grammar Unfortunately, there is no “grammar dictionary,” but there are thousands of reliable grammar handbooks. In order to communicate in standard written English, you have to pay attention to the rules. You need to understand the parts of speech when you write, and you have to combine them properly.

328 Example The dance team felt that they had performed bad. “Bad” in this form is an adjective, and adjectives modify nouns. The word “bad” must be replaced by an adverb to modify the verb had performed. To turn bad into an adverb, you must add the ending -ly. Edited Example The dance team felt that they had performed badly. One of the best ways to check for grammatical errors is to read your writing aloud. When you read silently, your eyes make automatic corrections, or may skip over mistakes. Your ears aren’t as easily fooled, however, and will catch many of your mistakes. If you are in a situation where you can’t read aloud, try whispering or mouthing the words as you read. If something doesn’t sound right, check the grammar. 15.5.5 Grammar Check Computers that use grammar check programs cannot find every error. Grammar check will highlight any sentence that has a potential error, and you should examine it. The program is helpful for correcting some basic grammatical issues, but it also functions in other ways. Many grammar check programs flag sentences in the passive voice, which is a style choice. While the passive voice is not wrong, it can lead to some very flat and sometimes confusing writing. It may be a good idea to change some of the passive verbs to active ones. Many programs also highlight sentence fragments and sentences that are over 50 words long. Sentence fragments are never correct grammatically, although they may be used intentionally in certain informal situations. It is important to remember that not only does grammar check programs sometimes point out sentences that are correct, but they also do not always catch sentences that are incorrect. Example I have one pairs of pants. Edited Example I have one pair of pants. There is no substitute for understanding the rules governing grammar and careful proofreading.

329 15.5.6 Editing Once you are finished proofreading, you will probably need to cut words out of your piece in some places and add more material in other places. Repetitive words or phrases and awkward or wordy sentences can be edited. If you begin to write without an organizational plan, you may have to cut some good-sized chunks from your writing because they wander from the main idea. You may also need to expand ideas that you did not explain fully in your first draft. Editing is about streamlining your piece. Good writing is clear, concise, and to the point. 15.5.7 Revision Reading your writing a few times allows you to work on different aspects of your piece. Some revision takes place as you write, and some takes place after you have read the whole piece and are able to see if it works. Most writers revise more than once, and many writers proofread and edit each draft. If your draft has errors that make it difficult to understand, you should start by proofreading. Print out your paper, mark it with proofreading symbols, and make any necessary corrections in grammar or mechanics. Proofreading and editing can help make your meaning clear, and clarity makes your piece easier to understand. If your draft is cohesive, you can concentrate more on the big picture. Are your paragraphs in the right order? Do they make sense and work together? Are your transitions smooth and your conclusions strong? Have you avoided sounding wishy-washy or too aggressive? Is the voice too passive? Some writers prefer to think about these issues during the first reading. Others proofread, edit, and rearrange while they read the draft. It doesn’t matter which approach you use, but plan to read each draft at least twice. Read it once focusing on the big picture, and once focusing on the smaller details of the piece. Real revision is the process of transforming a piece; the results of your revisions may not look much like your first draft at all. Even if you start with an organizational plan, it is possible that you will decide that the piece needs to be reorganized only after you have written an entire draft. If the piece is research-based, discovering new information can require a completely new treatment of the subject. If your piece is supposed to be persuasive, maybe you will discover it is not persuasive enough. Thinking of your writing as a work in progress is the ideal approach. Writing and revising several drafts takes time, however, and time is a luxury many writers do not have. Perhaps you have a

330 pressing due date or an important meeting. You can still improve your writing in a short period of time. One strategy for revising is to create an outline from your draft. This may sound like you are working backward because usually the outline precedes the draft, but even if you originally worked from an outline, this second outline can be helpful. Read your writing and summarize each paragraph with a word or short phrase. Write this summary in the margin of your draft. When you have done this for the entire piece, list the summary words or phrases on a separate sheet. If you originally worked from an outline, how do the list and outline compare? If you did not work from an outline, can you see places where re-ordering paragraphs might help? You may want to move three or four paragraphs and see if this improves the piece. “Cut and paste” editing like this is easy to do on a computer. In a word processing program, you can highlight, cut, and paste sentences and whole paragraphs. If you are uneasy or afraid you may destroy your draft, you may want to choose “select all” and copy your work into a new blank document just so your original draft is safe and accessible. Now, you can experiment a little with moving and changing your text. If you are working with a handwritten draft, making a photocopy is a good way to revise without destroying the original. Remember to double space or skip lines on the first draft to give yourself room to revise. To move paragraphs, simply number them and read them in your new order. If you are working from a copy, take out your scissors and literally cut the paragraphs into pieces. Instead of using glue or paste, use tape, or thumbtack the pieces to a bulletin board. That way you can continue to move the pieces around until they are in an order that works best for you. No matter how you approach revising, it is a valuable part of the writing process. Don’t be afraid to rearrange whole paragraphs and finetune your tone, voice, and style as you revise. 15.5.8 Tone The tone of the piece is the way in which the writer conveys his or her attitude or purpose. The tone is the “sound” of your writing, and the words you choose affect the way your writing sounds. If you use qualifying words (Lesson 3) like “I believe” and “to a certain extent,” your piece has a less confident tone. If you use imperative words like “must” and “absolutely,” your piece sounds assertive. Just like the tone of your speaking voice, your tone when you write can be angry, joyful, commanding, or indifferent. If you are writing about a topic in which you are emotionally invested, the tone of your first draft may be too strong.

331 Be sure to consider your audience and purpose and adjust the tone through revision. For example, if you bought a CD player and it broke the next day, you would probably be upset. If the salesperson refused to refund your money, you would definitely be upset. A first draft of a letter to the store manager might help you sort out your complaint, but if your purpose is to receive a refund, your first draft might be too angry and accusatory. It is a business letter, after all. A second draft, in which you keep your audience (the store manager) and your purpose (to get a refund) in mind, should clearly state the situation and the service you expect to receive. 15.5.9 Slang The words you choose make a big difference. If your piece of writing is an assignment for school, it should use language that is appropriate for an educational setting. If it is for work, it should use language that is professional. The secret is to know your audience. Slang is not appropriate in an academic piece, but it can give a creative short story a more realistic tone. Slang is language that is specific to a group of people. When we think of slang, we usually think of young people, but every generation has its slang. Have you heard the terms “23 Skidoo” or “Top Drawer” or “The Cat’s Pajamas?” These words are American slang from the 1920s—the ones that you’re my grandfather may have used when he was young. If these old-fashioned phrases were used in your favorite magazine, you probably would not understand them. On the other hand, Grandpa is probably not going to read the magazine that discusses “New Jack’s gettin’ real.” Slang has a use, but it tends to alienate people who do not understand it. Colloquialisms and dialect are inappropriate for certain types of writing as well. The stock market predictions that you write for your brokerage firm should not declare, “I am so not gonna recommend blue chip stocks to every Tom, Dick, and Harry.” It should say, “Blue chip stocks are not recommended for everyone.” In an academic or work related piece, it is safest to write in proper English in order to appeal to the largest audience. 15.5.10 Voice Voice can be active or passive, depending on your choice of verbs (see Lesson 8). Most pieces work better using the active voice. Like a well-made action movie, an active voice grabs the audience’s attention. The subject of the sentence becomes a “hero” who performs courageous feats and death defying acts with action verbs like flying, running, and capturing.

332 The passive voice has a purpose, also. It is used to express a state of being. Where would we be without the passive verb “to be?” The appropriate verb in a sentence could very well be am, are, or have been. The passive voice should also be used when the writer doesn’t know or doesn’t want to state who performed the action. Example The purse was stolen. In this case, no one knows who stole the purse, so the active voice would not work. 15.5.11 Style Style is the particular way in which you express yourself in writing. It is the craft of your writing, and is the product of careful revision. It is the combination of voice, tone, and word choice, in which all the parts of writing—language, rhythm, even grammar— come together to make your writing unique. Style should be your goal when you revise. Find changes that will make each sentence an important part of the whole. Tinker with your words until your language becomes accurate and clear. As in fashion, one little “accessory” can be the difference between an average outfit and a real eye catcher. Style is always recognizable, and good style will make others take note of what you have to say.


15.5.12 Proofreader’s Symbols and Marks The following list contains the common symbols and marks used in roofreading:


15.6 SUMMARY Following the advice in this chapter will help you learn to proofread, edit, and revise your writing. As a writer, you should remember to keep important tools handy. A dictionary, a grammar handbook, and a thesaurus are essential. Remember: Write often, proofread carefully, edit judiciously, and revise until you are satisfied. Successful writing means putting sentences together precisely. It can be compared to baking. If you don’t follow the recipe or if you leave out a key ingredient, the cake will not turn out right. To ensure baking success, it is important to follow a recipe. To ensure writing success, it is important to know that sentences have recipes too. As you proofread, edit, and revise your work, remember that the basic recipe is very simple: Combine one subject with one predicate to yield one complete thought.

15.7 EXERCISE Proofread the following paragraphs: 1. Dear New Customer We would like too thank you for taking the time to allowing us to possible be your next home repair company. We are new to the area but service many other states as MahrasHtra and karntka. We want to assure you that we wil do every we can to help restore and save your valued possession afters a bad fire or flodd. We are a franchise the world largest clearning company. “Service Master Clean.” We are all service professionals wit over 50 year of experience in teh cleaning and restoration business. Our goal is to make a crisis time as carefree and relaxing as we possible can for you you and your loved ones. Please take the time to read hour brochure and call our offices if we can be of any assistnac to your damage home needs. 2. Nitrifying bacteria are sensitive organism and extremely sensitive to a wide variety of inhibitor. A variety of organic and inorganic agent can inhibit the growth and action of these organisms. High concentration of ammonia and nitrous acid can be inhibitory. The effect of PH is also significant. A narrow optimal range between PH 7.5 to 8.6 exist, but system acclimated to lower PH condition have successfully nitrified. Temperature also exerts a tremendous influence on the growth of nitrifying bacteria. However, quantification of this effect has been difficult. Dissolved oxygen concentration above 1 mg/L are essential for nitrification to occur. If DO levels drop below this value, oxygen become the limiting nutrient and nitrification slows or cease.

335 3.


Clearly he wasn't an academic with a preface like this one. “I do not give the name of the play, act or scene, “in head or foot lines, in my numerous quotations from “Shakspere, designedly leaving the reader to trace and “find for himself a liberal education by studying the “wisdom of the Divine Bard. “There are many things in this volume that the ordinary “mind will not understand, yet I only contract with the “present and future generations to give rare and rich “food for thought, and cannot undertake to furnish the “reader brains with each book!” The holiday of halloween is a fun time for people of all ages. It is a time for children to use their imaginations. All children have to use their imaginations to come up with creative costumes. The good costumes always win prizes. Kids don’t want bad costumes. There are many other things that make Halloween a special time of the year for kids. They can get candy from their neighbors. They like staying out late at night. On the other hand, teenagers tend to use halloween as a time to cause trouble and play tricks on others in their neighborhood. They can get in trouble for doing many things. Even adults have parties on halloween to celebrate with their friends. It is a holiday that easily lends itself to fun gatherings with friends, no matter how old you are. halloween is a good holiday because of the many different things you can do to have fun.

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336 Bibliography 9. Koneru Aruna, Professional Communication McGraw Hill Pub. 1998, New Delhi 10. Murphy Herta, Herbert W Hidderbrandt, Jane P Thomas Effective Business Communication, 1997, McGraw Hill 11. Petit Lesikkar, Business Communication, 1994, McGraw Hill 12. Willey, Communication Skills Handbook, Summers Willey Pub. India 13. Rai and Rai, Business Communication, 1999,Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai. 14. Sharma R C and Krishna Mohan, Business Correspondence and Report Writing, 1994,Tata McGraw Hill, Delhi. 15. Hanegave Satyawan, Business Communication,2008, Rishabh Publishing House, Mumbai. 16. 17. 20th Jan 2012 18. 5th July, 2011 19. 20th November, 2011 20. 10th December, 2011 21. 11th December, 2011 22. 8th August 2012 23. 2nd February, 2012 24. 3rd February, 2012 25. 11th September, 2011 26. 28th December, 2011 27. 8th January, 2012 28. 9th January, 2012

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Syllabus - University of Mumbai - Mumbai University

1 Syllabus F.Y.B.Sc. IT Professional Communication Skills Unit I The Seven C’s of the Effective Communication 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Completeness Conc...

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