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"New Paradigm for Public Health"

Why is tobacco a public health priority? Posted on September 30, 2007 by Ridwan Amiruddin i Rate This Tobacco is the second major cause of death in the world. It is currently responsible for the death of one in ten adults worldwide (about 5 million deaths each year). If current smoking patterns continue, it will cause some 10 million deaths each year by 2020. Half the people that smoke today -that is about 650 million people- will eventually be killed by tobacco.

Tobacco is the fourth most common risk factor for disease worldwide. The economic costs of tobacco use are equally devastating. In addition to the high public health costs of treating tobacco-caused diseases, tobacco kills people at the height of their productivity, depriving families of breadwinners and nations of a healthy workforce. Tobacco users are also less productive while they are alive due to increased sickness. A 1994 report estimated that the use of tobacco resulted in an annual global net loss of US$ 200 thousand million, a third of this loss being in developing countries. Tobacco and poverty are inextricably linked. Many studies have shown that in the poorest households in some low-income countries as much as 10% of total household expenditure is on tobacco. This means that these families have less money to spend on basic items such as food, education and health care. In addition to its direct health effects, tobacco leads to malnutrition, increased health care costs and premature death. It also contributes to a higher illiteracy rate, since money that could have been used for education is spent on tobacco instead. Tobacco’s role in exacerbating poverty has been largely ignored by researchers in both fields. Experience has shown that there are many cost-effective tobacco control measures that can be used in different settings and that can have a significant impact on tobacco consumption. The most cost-effective strategies are population-wide public policies, like bans on direct and indirect tobacco advertising, tobacco tax and price increases, smoke-free environments in all public and workplaces, and large clear graphic health messages on tobacco packaging. All these measures are discussed on the provisions of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

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Only 100% smoke-free environments adequately protect from dangers of second-hand smoke Posted on September 30, 2007 by Ridwan Amiruddin i Rate This 29 MAY 2007 | GENEVA — The World Health Organization (WHO) signalled the urgent need for countries to make all indoor public places and workplaces 100% smoke-free with the release of its new policy recommendations on protection from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in advance of World No Tobacco Day (31 May), which focuses this year on this theme. Related links :: World No Tobacco Day (http://ridwanamiruddin.wordpress.com/entity/tobacco/wntd/en/index.html) :: Activities around the world (http://ridwanamiruddin.wordpress.com/entity/tobacco/communications/events/wntd/2007/activities/en/index.html) :: WHO policy recommendations on protection from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (http://ridwanamiruddin.wordpress.com/entity/tobacco/resources/publications/wntd/2007/pol_recommendations/en/index.html) :: Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (http://ridwanamiruddin.wordpress.com/entity/tobacco/framework/countrylist/en/index.html) :: Global Youth Tobacco Survey (http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/global/gyts/GYTS_links.htm) :: Health risks associated with tobacco [pdf 7.98Mb] (http://ridwanamiruddin.wordpress.com/entity/tobacco/resources/publications/smokersbody_en_fr.pdf) “The evidence is clear, there is no safe level of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke,” said the WHO Director-General Dr Margaret Chan. “Many countries have already taken action. I urge all countries that have not yet done so to take this immediate and important step to protect the health of all by passing laws requiring all indoor workplaces and public places to be 100% smoke-free.” There are about 4000 known chemicals in tobacco smoke; more than 50 of them are known to cause cancer. Exposure to second-hand smoke causes heart disease and many serious respiratory and cardiovascular diseases that can lead to premature death in adults. It also causes diseases and worsens existing conditions, such as asthma, in children. The new WHO policy recommendations are based on the evidence of three recent major reports, which all reached the same conclusion: Monograph 83 Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the United States Surgeon General’s Report on The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke and the California Environmental Protection Agency’s Proposed Identification of Environmental Tobacco Smoke as a Toxic Air Contaminant. Exposure to second-hand smoke occurs anywhere smoking is permitted: homes, workplaces and other public places. An estimated 200 000 workers die each year due to exposure to smoke at work. WHO estimates that around 700 million children, or almost half of the world’s children, breathe air polluted by tobacco smoke, particularly at home. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey, developed by WHO and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), interviewed students between 13 and 15 years old in 132 countries between 1999 and 2005. The results of the survey show that 43.9% of the students are exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke at home, while 55.8% are exposed to smoke in public places. Support for smoking bans in public places is global, with 76.1% of the students surveyed in favour. The costs of second-hand smoke are not limited to the burden of disease. Exposure also imposes economic costs on individuals, businesses and society as a whole. These include primarily direct and indirect medical costs, but also productivity losses. In addition, workplaces where smoking is permitted incur higher renovation and cleaning costs, and increased risk of fire, and may experience higher insurance premiums. Later this year, countries participating in the second Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are expected to discuss guidelines for protection against exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke. The second Conference of the Parties, starts on June 30 in Bangkok, Thailand. “This topic should matter to everyone, because everyone benefits from smoke-free places,” said Dr Douglas Bettcher, Acting Director of the WHO Tobacco Free Initiative. “With this year’s theme, we hope that everyone, especially policy makers and employers, will be inspired to claim, create and enjoy spaces that are 100% free from tobacco smoke. By doing so, we keep the bodies inside those spaces smoke-free too, and greatly increase our effectiveness in preventing serious diseases and saving lives in future generations.” Organizations, institutions and communities around the world celebrate World No Tobacco Day with different activities, for example marches, educational meetings and smoking cessation workshops, to raise awareness of the lethal health consequences of tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke. The day is also used to mark the beginning of extended media and advocacy campaigns or to introduce lasting policy changes, such as making public and workplaces 100% smoke-free. Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death globally, causing more than five million deaths a year. Tobacco use continues to expand most rapidly in the developing world, where currently half of tobacco-related deaths occur. By 2030, if current trends continue, 8 out of every 10 tobacco-related deaths will be in the developing world. 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Berita Kesehatan Posted on September 30, 2007 by Ridwan Amiruddin i Rate This Efek Timbal Balik Serangan Jantung & Diabetes (http://www.info-sehat.com/news.php?nid=624 (http://www.info-sehat.com/news.php?nid=624)) Sudah banyak diketahui bahwa diabetes merupakan faktor predisposisi untuk terjadinya serangan jantung. Tapi kini juga ditemukan bahwa serangan jantung sebaliknya juga merupakan faktor predisposisi untuk diabetes. Menurut publikasi Journal Lancet, keduanya memang saling memberikan efek timbal balik. Selenium dan Diabetes ( (http://www.info-sehat.com/news.php?nid=590)http://www.info-sehat.com/news.php?nid=629 (http://www.info-sehat.com/news.php?nid=629)) Selenium merupakan antioksidan yang berguna untuk perlindungan terhadap berkembangnya diabetes tipe 2. Namun, menurut para ilmuwan dari University at Bufallo, selenium ternyata dapat meningkatkan berkembangnya gangguan diabetes. Hasil penelitian itu diterbitkan dalam jurnal Annals of Internal Medicine. Pemanis Buatan dalam Makanan ( (http://www.info-sehat.com/news.php?nid=576)http://www.info-sehat.com/news.php?nid=630 (http://www.info-sehat.com/news.php?nid=630)) Beberapa negara telah melarang penggunaan Siklamat sebagai pemanis buatan dalam makanan karena dapat menimbulkan kanker, setidaknya pada hewan percobaan. Aspartam juga dinyatakan berbahaya oleh lembaga riset European Ramazzini Foundation of Oncology & Environmental Sciences, Italia. Pangan Pengekang Nafsu Makan ( (http://www.info-sehat.com/news.php?nid=526) (http://www.info-sehat.com/news.php?nid=592)http://www.info-sehat.com/news.php?nid=631 (http://www.info-sehat.com/news.php? nid=631)) Kesehatan memang bukan segala-galanya, tapi tanpa kesehatan, segala-galanya tak berarti apa-apa. Kegemukan misalnya, sangat berpotensi memicu penyakit kronis termasuk diabetes. Mereka yang kegemukan berpeluang terkena diabetes 18 kali lebih tinggi dibandingkan yang berberat badan normal. Ngemil Seperti Apa yang Menyehatkan? ( http://www.info-sehat.com/news.php?nid=632 (http://www.info-sehat.com/news.php?nid=632)) Kita biasanya cenderung mengabaikan rasa lapar yang timbul sebelum waktu makan utama tiba, akibatnya makan utama kita menjadi berlebihan dan menyebabkan berat badan bertambah. Sebenarnya ngemil dapat mengendalikan nafsu makan yang berlebihan, sehingga kenaikan berat badan dapat dikontrol. Posted in sains

current issue preeklampsi dan eklampsi Posted on September 25, 2007 by Ridwan Amiruddin i Rate This (http://ridwanamiruddin.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/current-baru-preeklamsi.doc) (http://ridwanamiruddin.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/current-baru-preeklamsi.doc) (http://ridwanamiruddin.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/current-baru-preeklamsi.doc) (http://ridwanamiruddin.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/current-baru-preeklamsi.doc) (http://ridwanamiruddin.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/current-baru-preeklamsi.doc) (http://ridwanamiruddin.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/current-baru-preeklamsi.doc) (http://ridwanamiruddin.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/current-baru-preeklamsi.doc) (http://ridwanamiruddin.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/current-baru-preeklamsi.doc) (http://ridwanamiruddin.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/current-baru-preeklamsi.doc) (http://ridwanamiruddin.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/current-baru-preeklamsi.doc) (http://ridwanamiruddin.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/current-baru-preeklamsi.doc) (http://ridwanamiruddin.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/current-baru-preeklamsi.doc) (http://ridwanamiruddin.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/current-baru-preeklamsi.doc) (http://ridwanamiruddin.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/current-baru-preeklamsi.doc) (http://ridwanamiruddin.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/current-baru-preeklamsi.doc) Posted in Uncategorized Leave a comment

Berita artikel yang diterima di Konferensi ASIA PASIFIC Public Health Japan 23 Novenber 2007 Posted on September 9, 2007 by Ridwan Amiruddin i Rate This Berita menggembirakan tahun ini sebanyak 14 dosen FKM unhas yang diterima abstraknya penelitiannya untuk dipresentasikan di forum public health dunia Japan pada 23 November 2007, termasuk Dr. Ridwan, SKM.M.Kes. . Dan kami semua sudah mendaftar nih, sekarang lagi cari biaya akomodasi selama di Japan, apa ada yang berminat untuk memberi sponsor kami? untuk satu orang kami butuhkan dana sekitar $ 1.500. Posted in Anouncement 1 Comment

Predikat dosen berdedikasi Unhas 2007 Posted on September 9, 2007 by Ridwan Amiruddin i Rate This Salam Untuk seluruh sahabat, Dalam rangka dies natalis Unhas yang ke 51 10 September 2007, pada 8 september 2007, pada acara malam ramah tama Unhas yang digelar di tepian danau Unhas, sungguh luar biasa, berbagai acara yang di gelar mulai dari tarian, dancing, kembang api dan pemberian penghargaan untuk dosen, staf dan honorer yang berdedikasi tinggi. Nah pada kesempatan itu satu dosen FKM Unhas yang mendapatkan penghargaan tersebut adalah ; Dr Ridwan, SKM. M.Kes. Sebuah bentuk reward yang barangkali memang diperlukan untuk menggenjot kinerja dosen, karyawan Unhas. Bagi saya pribadi itu adalah bentuk kepedulian universitas bagi kemajuan pendidikan, dan semakin memacu kami untuk berkreasi. Thank for alot.. Posted in Anouncement Leave a comment

Stigma Terhadap HIV/AIDS di Makassar 2007 Posted on September 3, 2007September 3, 2007 by Ridwan Amiruddin i Rate This STIGMA ON HIV/AIDS AT MAKASSAR 2007 Ria Afri yana*Ridwan Amiruddin **Ida Leida Maria**( *) Alumni FKM Unhas**)Staf Bagian Epidemiologi FKM Unhas Makassar)AbstractSum up the case HIV/AIDS in Indonesia progressively mount. One of resistance in overcoming of epidemic HIV/AIDS is there still stigma to status HIV/AIDS. Stigma to status HIV/AIDS is biggest resistance at prevention realization, prepare treatment, support and medication and also hamper the extenuation affect of epidemic HIV/AIDS.This research to get information about stigma to status HIV/AIDS at healthy service area, the family and society environment. This research using epidemiology survey with the descriptive approach. Sample of research is person with HIV/AIDS (ODHA) which take place in Makassar which got with helping from LSM-LSM (volunteers) struggling in area of overcome HIV/AIDS. Data collecting by questioner and indepth interview to obtain the clear and complete information about stigma to status HIV/AIDS. Processing and analyse the data done by using SPSS, making of matrix and content analysis. Result of this research is found that stigma to status HIV/AIDS which got by ODHA is higher in society environment (71,4%), the place healthy service (35,5%) and which lowest in family environment (18,5%). Raising of society knowledge, health care providers and family member become the matter which require to be done to increase disease understanding of HIV / AIDS. Keyword: Stigma, HIV/AIDS, ODHA Abstrak

Jumlah kasus HIV/AIDS di Indonesia semakin meningkat. Salah satu hambatan dalam penanggulangan epidemi HIV/AIDS adalah masih adanya stigma terhadap status HIV/AIDS. Stigma terhadap status HIV/AIDS adalah hambatan terbesar pada pelaksanaan pencegahan, penyediaan perawatan, dukungan dan pengobatan serta menghambat peringanan dampak epidemi penyakit HIV/AIDS.

Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk memperoleh informasi mengenai stigma terhadap status HIV/AIDS di tempat pelayanan kesehatan, lingkungan keluarga dan lingkungan masyarakat. Penelitian ini menggunakan survei epidemiologi dengan pendekatan deskriptif. Sampel penelitian adalah Orang dengan HIV/AIDS (ODHA) yang ada di Makassar yang didapatkan dengan bantuan dari LSM-LSM yang bergelut di bidang penanggulangan HIV/AIDS. Pengumpulan data dengan kuesioner dan indepth interview untuk memperoleh informasi yang lengkap dan jelas mengenai stigma terhadap status HIV/AIDS. Pengolahan dan analisis data dilakukan dengan menggunakan SPSS, pembuatan matrix dan content analysis.

Hasil penelitian ini ditemukan bahwa stigma terhadap status HIV/AIDS yang didapatkan oleh ODHA lebih tinggi di lingkungan masyarakat (71,4%), selanjutnya di tempat pelayanan kesehatan (35,5%) dan yang terendah adalah di lingkungan keluarga (18,5%). Peningkatan pengetahuan masyarakat, penyedia layanan kesehatan dan anggota keluarga menjadi hal yang perlu dilakukan untuk meningkatkan pemahaman akan penyakit HIV/AIDS. Kata kunci: Stigma, HIV/AIDS, ODHA Posted in artikel ilmiah "NEW PARADIGM FOR PUBLIC HEALTH"

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"New Paradigm for Public Health" | "Smart and Visioner For Health

"New Paradigm for Public Health" Why is tobacco a public health priority? Posted on September 30, 2007 by Ridwan Amiruddin i Rate This Tobacco is the...

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