New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards - State of New Jersey

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New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards for Science INTRODUCTION Science Education in the 21st Century "Today more than ever before, science holds the key to our survival as a planet and our security and prosperity as a nation" (Obama, 2008). Scientific literacy assumes an increasingly important role in the context of globalization. The rapid pace of technological advances, access to an unprecedented wealth of information, and the pervasive impact of science and technology on day-to-day living require a depth of understanding that can be enhanced through quality science education. In the 21st century, science education focuses on the practices of science that lead to a greater understanding of the growing body of scientific knowledge that is required of citizens in an everchanging world. Mission: Scientifically literate students possess the knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs, and economic productivity. Vision: A quality science education fosters a population that:

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Experiences the richness and excitement of knowing about the natural world and understanding how it functions. Uses appropriate scientific processes and principles in making personal decisions. Engages intelligently in public discourse and debate about matters of scientific and technological concern. Applies scientific knowledge and skills to increase economic productivity.

Intent and Spirit of the Science Standards "Scientific proficiency encompasses understanding key concepts and their connections to other fundamental concepts and principles of science; familiarity with the natural and designed world for both its diversity and unity; and use of scientific knowledge and scientific ways of thinking for individual and social purposes" (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1990). All students engage in science experiences that promote the ability to ask, find, or determine answers to questions derived from natural curiosity about everyday things and occurrences. The underpinning of the revised standards lies in the premise that science is experienced as an active process in which inquiry is central to learning and in which students engage in observation, inference, and experimentation on an ongoing basis, rather than as an isolated a process. When engaging in inquiry, students describe objects and events, ask questions, construct explanations, test those explanations against current scientific knowledge, and communicate their ideas to others in their community and around the world. They actively develop their understanding of science by identifying their assumptions, using critical and logical thinking, and considering alternative explanations. Revised Standards The revision of the science standards was driven by two key questions:



What are the core scientific concepts and principles that all students need to understand in the 21st century?



What should students be able to do in order to demonstrate understanding of the concepts and principles?

In an attempt to address these questions, science taskforce members examined the scientific concepts and principles common to the National Science Education Standards, Benchmarks and Atlases for Science Literacy , and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Framework .This resulted in narrowing the breadth of content from 10 standards to four standards that include 17 clearly-defined key concepts and principles. •



Science Practices (standard 5.1) embody the idea of "knowledge in use" and include understanding scientific explanations, generating scientific evidence, reflecting on scientific knowledge, and participating productively in science. Science practices are integrated into the Cumulative Progress Indicators within each science domain in recognition that science content and processes are inextricably linked; science is both a body of knowledge and an evidence-based, model-building enterprise that continually extends, refines, and revises knowledge. Science content is presented in Physical Science (standard 5.2), Life Science (standard 5.3), and Earth Systems (standard 5.4). The most current research on how science is learned informed the development of learning progressions for each strand, which increase in depth of understanding as students progress through the grades.

Laboratory Science in the 21stCentury Laboratory science is a practice not a place. It is important to emphasize that standards-driven lab science courses do not include student manipulation or analysis of data created by a teacher as a replacement or substitute for direct interaction with the natural or designed world. The revised standards and course descriptions emphasize the importance of students independently creating scientific arguments and explanations for observations made during investigations. Science education thereby becomes a sense-making enterprise for students in which they are systematically provided with ongoing opportunities to:

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Interact directly with the natural and designed world using tools, data-collection techniques, models, and theories of science. Actively participate in scientific investigations and use cognitive and manipulative skills associated with the formulation of scientific explanations. Use evidence, apply logic, and construct arguments for their proposed explanations.

The 2009 Science Standards implicitly and explicitly point to a more student-centered approach to instructional design that engages learners in inquiry. Inquiry, as defined in the revised standards, envisions learners who:

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Are engaged by scientifically-oriented questions. Prioritize evidence that addresses scientifically-oriented questions. Formulate explanations from that evidence to address those scientifically-oriented questions. Evaluate their explanations in light of alternative explanations, particularly those reflecting scientific understanding. Communicate and justify their proposed explanations.

Fundamental principles of instructional design assist students in achieving their intended learning goals through lab-science experiences that:

• • • •

Are designed with clear learning outcomes in mind. Are sequenced thoughtfully into the flow of classroom science instruction. Integrate learning of science content with learning about science practices. Incorporate ongoing student reflection and discussion (National Research Council, 2007).

Students K-12 lab-science experiences should include the following:

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Physical manipulation of authentic substances or systems: This may include such activities as chemistry experiments, plant and animal observations, and investigations of force and motion. Interaction with simulations: In 21st-century laboratory science courses, students can work with computerized models, or simulations, that represent aspects of natural phenomena that cannot be observed directly because they are very large, very small, very slow, very fast, or very complex. Students may also model the interaction of molecules in chemistry or manipulate models of cells, animal or plant systems, wave motion, weather patterns, or geological formations using simulations. Interaction with authentic data: Students may interact with authentic data that are obtained and represented in a variety of forms. For example, they may study photographs to examine characteristics of the Moon or other heavenly bodies or analyze emission and absorption spectra in the light from stars. Data may be incorporated in films, DVDs, computer programs, or other formats. Access to large databases: In many fields of science, researchers have arranged for empirical data to be normalized and aggregated - for example, genome databases, astronomy image collections, databases of climatic events over long time periods, biological field observations. Some students may be able to access authentic and timely scientific data using the Internet and can also manipulate and analyze authentic data in new forms of laboratory experiences (Bell, 2005). Remote access to scientific instruments and observations: When available, laboratory experiences enabled by the Internet can link students to remote instruments, such as the environmental scanning electron microscope (Thakkar et al., 2000), or allow them to control automated telescopes (Gould, 2004).

References

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). (1990). Project 2061: Science for all Americans. New York: Oxford University Press. Available: http://www.project2061.org/publications/sfaa/online/sfaatoc.htm American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2008). Benchmarks for science literacy project 2061. Washington, DC: Author. American Association for the Advancement of Science & National Science Teachers Association. (2001, 2007). Atlas of science literacy, Volumes 1 and 2: Mapping K-12 science learning. Washington, DC: Author. American Diploma Project. (2004). Ready or not: Creating a high school diploma that counts. Washington, DC: Achieve. Bazerman, C. (1988). Shaping written knowledge: The genre and activity of the experimental article in science. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. Bell, P. (2005). The school science laboratory: Considerations of learning, technology, and scientific practice. Paper prepared for the National Academies Board on Science Education, High School Labs Study Committee. Available:

http://www7.nationalacademies.org/bose/High_School_Labs_Presentation_PBell.htm l Duschl, R. (2008). Science education in 3 part harmony: Balancing conceptual, epistemic, and social learning goals. In. J. Green, A. Luke, & G. Kelly (Eds.), Review of research in education, Vol. 32 (pp. 268-291). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. Duschl, R., & Grandy, R. (Eds.) (2008). Teaching scientific inquiry: Recommendations for research and implementation. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense Publishers.

Eichinger, D., Anderson, C. W., Palinscar, A. S., & David, Y. M. (1991, April). An illustration of the roles of content knowledge, scientific argument, and social norms in collaborative problem solving. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago. Gould, R. (2004). About micro observatory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University. Available: http://mo-

www.harvard.edu/MicroObservatory/

Hennessey, M. G. (2002). Metacognitive aspects of students reflective discourse: Implications for intentional conceptual change teaching and learning. In G. M. Sinatra and P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Intentional conceptual change (pp. 103-132). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Kastens, K. A., & Rivet, A. (2008). Multiple modes of inquiry in Earth science. The Science Teacher, 75(1), 26-31. Keeley, P. (2005). Science curriculum topic study: Bridging the gap between standards and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Kuhn, D. (1991). The skills of argument. New York: Cambridge University Press. Michaels, S., Shouse, A. W., and Schweingruber, H. A. (2008). Ready, set, science! Putting research to work in K-8 science classrooms. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Available:

http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11882

National Assessment Governing Board. (2008). Science framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress. Washington DC: Author. Available: http://www.nagb.org/publications/frameworks/science-09.pdf National Resource Council. (1996). National science education standards. Washington DC: National Academies Press. Available: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=4962 National Research Council. (2000). Inquiry and the national science education standards: A guide for teaching and learning. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Available: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=9596 National Research Council. (2006). Americas lab report: Investigations in high school science. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Available: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11311 National Research Council. (2007). Taking science to school: Learning and teaching science in grades K-8. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Available:http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11625 Obama, B. (2008, Dec. 20). President-Elect Barack Obamas weekly address (Radio presentation). Retrieved June 30, 2009, from http://change.gov/newsroom/entry/the_search_for_knowledge_truth_and_a_greater _understanding_of_the_world_aro/ Ogborn, J., Kress, G., Martins, I., & McGillicuddy, K. (1996). Explaining science in the classroom. Buckingham, England: Open University Press.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2004). Information and communication technology literacy maps. Tucson, AZ: Author.

Thakkar, U., Carragher, B., Carroll, L., Conway, C., Grosser, B., Kisseberth, N., et al. (2000). Formative evaluation of Bugscope: A sustainable world wide laboratory for K-12. Paper prepared for the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Special Interest Group on Advanced Technologies for Learning, New Orleans, LA. Retrieved May 1, 2009, from http://www.itg.uiuc.edu/publications/techreports/00-008/00-008.pdf

2009 New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards - Science Content Area Standard

Strand

By the end of grade P

4

4

4

8

Science 5.1 Science Practices: All students will understand that science is both a body of knowledge and an evidence-based, model-building enterprise that continually extends, refines, and revises knowledge. The four Science Practices strands encompass the knowledge and reasoning skills that students must acquire to be proficient in science. A. Understand Scientific Explanations : Students understand core concepts and principles of science and use measurement and observation tools to assist in categorizing, representing, and interpreting the natural and designed world. Content Statement

CPI#

Who, what, when, where, why, and how questions form the basis for young learners’ investigations during sensory explorations, experimentation, and focused inquiry. Fundamental scientific concepts and principles and the links between them are more useful than discrete facts. Connections developed between fundamental concepts are used to explain, interpret, build, and refine explanations, models, and theories. Outcomes of investigations are used to build and refine questions, models, and explanations. Core scientific concepts and principles represent the conceptual basis for modelbuilding and facilitate the generation of new and productive

5.1.P.A.1

Display curiosity about science objects, materials, activities, and longer-term investigations in progress.

5.1.4.A.1

Demonstrate understanding of the interrelationships among fundamental concepts in the physical, life, and Earth systems sciences.

5.1.4.A.2

Use outcomes of investigations to build and refine questions, models, and explanations.

5.1.4.A.3

Use scientific facts, measurements, observations, and patterns in nature to build and critique scientific arguments. Demonstrate understanding and use interrelationships among central scientific concepts to revise explanations and to consider alternative explanations.

5.1.8.A.1

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

8

8

12

12

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questions. Results of observation and 5.1.8.A.2 Use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to measurement can be used to build build conceptual-based models and to pose theories. conceptual-based models and to search for core explanations. Predictions and explanations are 5.1.8.A.3 Use scientific principles and models to frame and revised based on systematic synthesize scientific arguments and pose theories. observations, accurate measurements, and structured data/evidence. Mathematical, physical, and 5.1.12.A.1 Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of computational tools are used to evidence found in different central scientific explanations. search for and explain core scientific concepts and principles. Interpretation and manipulation of 5.1.12.A.2 Develop and use mathematical, physical, and evidence-based models are used computational tools to build evidence-based models and to build and critique to pose theories. arguments/explanations. Revisions of predictions and 5.1.12.A.3 Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine explanations are based on standards for data collection, posing controls, and systematic observations, accurate presenting evidence. measurements, and structured data/evidence.

Content Area Standard

Strand

By the end of grade P

P

P

4

4

4 4 8

Science 5.1 Science Practices: All students will understand that science is both a body of knowledge and an evidence-based, model-building enterprise that continually extends, refines, and revises knowledge. The four Science Practices strands encompass the knowledge and reasoning skills that students must acquire to be proficient in science. B. Generate Scientific Evidence Through Active Investigations : Students master the conceptual, mathematical, physical, and computational tools that need to be applied when constructing and evaluating claims. Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

Observations and investigations form young learners’ understandings of science concepts.

5.1.P.B.1

Experiments and explorations provide opportunities for young learners to use science vocabulary and scientific terms. Experiments and explorations give young learners opportunities to use science tools and technology. Building and refining models and explanations requires generation and evaluation of evidence. Tools and technology are used to gather, analyze, and communicate results. Evidence is used to construct and defend arguments. Reasoning is used to support scientific conclusions. Evidence is generated and

5.1.P.B.2

Observe, question, predict, and investigate materials, objects, and phenomena (e.g., using simple tools to crack a nut and look inside) during indoor and outdoor classroom activities and during any longer-term investigations. Use basic science terms and topic-related science vocabulary.

5.1.P.B.3

Identify and use basic tools and technology to extend exploration in conjunction with science investigations.

5.1.4.B.1

Design and follow simple plans using systematic observations to explore questions and predictions.

5.1.4.B.2

Measure, gather, evaluate, and share evidence using tools and technologies.

5.1.4.B.3

Formulate explanations from evidence.

5.1.4.B.4

Communicate and justify explanations with reasonable and logical arguments. Design investigations and use scientific instrumentation to

5.1.8.B.1

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8

8

12

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evaluated as part of building and refining models and explanations. Mathematics and technology are used to gather, analyze, and communicate results. Carefully collected evidence is used to construct and defend arguments. Scientific reasoning is used to support scientific conclusions.

5.1.8.B.2

5.1.8.B.3

5.1.8.B.4

collect, analyze, and evaluate evidence as part of building and revising models and explanations. Gather, evaluate, and represent evidence using scientific tools, technologies, and computational strategies. Use qualitative and quantitative evidence to develop evidence-based arguments.

Use quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of generating and reviewing explanations. Logically designed investigations 5.1.12.B.1 Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and are needed in order to generate evaluate evidence to determine measures of central the evidence required to build and tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and refine models and explanations. anomalous data. Mathematical tools and technology 5.1.12.B.2 Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using are used to gather, analyze, and mathematical, physical, and computational tools. communicate results. Empirical evidence is used to 5.1.12.B.3 Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and construct and defend arguments. connect explanations/arguments to established scientific knowledge, models, and theories. Scientific reasoning is used to 5.1.12.B.4 Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to evaluate and interpret data examine evidence as a means of generating and reviewing patterns and scientific explanations. conclusions.

Content Area Standard

Strand By the end of grade P

4

4

4

8

8

Science 5.1 Science Practices: All students will understand that science is both a body of knowledge and an evidence-based, model-building enterprise that continually extends, refines, and revises knowledge. The four Science Practices strands encompass the knowledge and reasoning skills that students must acquire to be proficient in science. C. Reflect on Scientific Knowledge : Scientific knowledge builds on itself over time. Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

Interacting with peers and adults to share questions and explorations about the natural world builds young learners’ scientific knowledge. Scientific understanding changes over time as new evidence and updated arguments emerge. Revisions of predictions and explanations occur when new arguments emerge that account more completely for available evidence. Scientific knowledge is a particular kind of knowledge with its own sources, justifications, and uncertainties. Scientific models and understandings of fundamental concepts and principles are refined as new evidence is considered. Predictions and explanations are revised to account more completely for available evidence.

5.1.P.C.1

Communicate with other children and adults to share observations, pursue questions, and make predictions and/or conclusions.

5.1.4.C.1

Monitor and reflect on one’s own knowledge regarding how ideas change over time.

5.1.4.C.2

Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of learning new information.

5.1.4.C.3

Present evidence to interpret and/or predict cause-andeffect outcomes of investigations.

5.1.8.C.1

Monitor one’s own thinking as understandings of scientific concepts are refined.

5.1.8.C.2

Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of discovering new evidence, learning new information, or using models.

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12

12

12

Science is a practice in which an established body of knowledge is continually revised, refined, and extended. Refinement of understandings, explanations, and models occurs as new evidence is incorporated. Data and refined models are used to revise predictions and explanations. Science is a practice in which an established body of knowledge is continually revised, refined, and extended as new evidence emerges.

5.1.8.C.3

Generate new and productive questions to evaluate and refine core explanations.

5.1.12.C.1 Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges. 5.1.12.C.2 Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations. 5.1.12.C.3 Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.

Content Area Standard

Strand By the end of grade P

4

4

4

Science 5.1 Science Practices: All students will understand that science is both a body of knowledge and an evidence-based, model-building enterprise that continually extends, refines, and revises knowledge. The four Science Practices strands encompass the knowledge and reasoning skills that students must acquire to be proficient in science. D. Participate Productively in Science : The growth of scientific knowledge involves critique and communication, which are social practices that are governed by a core set of values and norms. Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

Science practices include drawing or “writing” on observation clipboards, making rubbings, or charting the growth of plants. Science has unique norms for participation. These include adopting a critical stance, demonstrating a willingness to ask questions and seek help, and developing a sense of trust and skepticism. In order to determine which arguments and explanations are most persuasive, communities of learners work collaboratively to pose, refine, and evaluate questions, investigations, models, and theories (e.g., scientific argumentation and representation). Instruments of measurement can be used to safely gather accurate information for making scientific comparisons of objects and

5.1.P.D.1

Represent observations and work through drawing, recording data, and “writing.”

5.1.4.D.1

Actively participate in discussions about student data, questions, and understandings.

5.1.4.D.2

Work collaboratively to pose, refine, and evaluate questions, investigations, models, and theories.

5.1.4.D.3

Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.

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8 12

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events. Organisms are treated humanely, 5.1.4.D.4 Handle and treat organisms humanely, responsibly, and responsibly, and ethically. ethically. Science involves practicing 5.1.8.D.1 Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, productive social interactions with make sense of, and learn from others’ ideas, peers, such as partner talk, observations, and experiences. whole-group discussions, and small-group work. In order to determine which 5.1.8.D.2 Engage in productive scientific discussion practices during arguments and explanations are conversations with peers, both face-to-face and virtually, most persuasive, communities of in the context of scientific investigations and modellearners work collaboratively to building. pose, refine, and evaluate questions, investigations, models, and theories (e.g., argumentation, representation, visualization, etc.). Instruments of measurement can 5.1.8.D.3 Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and be used to safely gather accurate supplies. information for making scientific comparisons of objects and events. Organisms are treated humanely, 5.1.8.D.4 Handle and treat organisms humanely, responsibly, and responsibly, and ethically. ethically. Science involves practicing 5.1.12.D.1 Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, productive social interactions with make sense of, and learn from others’ ideas, peers, such as partner talk, observations, and experiences. whole-group discussions, and small-group work. Science involves using language, 5.1.12.D.2 Represent ideas using literal representations, such as both oral and written, as a tool for graphs, tables, journals, concept maps, and diagrams. making thinking public. Ensure that instruments and 5.1.12.D.3 Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments specimens are properly cared for and knowledge of how to handle animals with respect for and that animals, when used, are their safety and welfare.

treated humanely, responsibly, and ethically.

Content Area Standard

Strand By the end of grade P

2

2

4

4

Science 5.2 Physical Science: All students will understand that physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science. A. Properties of Matter : All objects and substances in the natural world are composed of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space, and matter has inertia. Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

Observations and investigations form a basis for young learners’ understanding of the properties of matter.

5.2.P.A.1

Living and nonliving things are made of parts and can be described in terms of the materials of which they are made and their physical properties. Matter exists in several different states; the most commonly encountered are solids, liquids, and gases. Liquids take the shape of the part of the container they occupy. Solids retain their shape regardless of the container they occupy. Some objects are composed of a single substance; others are composed of more than one substance. Each state of matter has unique properties (e.g., gases can be

5.2.2.A.1

Observe, manipulate, sort, and describe objects and materials (e.g., water, sand, clay, paint, glue, various types of blocks, collections of objects, simple household items that can be taken apart, or objects made of wood, metal, or cloth) in the classroom and outdoor environment based on size, shape, color, texture, and weight. Sort and describe objects based on the materials of which they are made and their physical properties.

5.2.2.A.2

Identify common objects as solids, liquids, or gases.

5.2.4.A.1

Identify objects that are composed of a single substance and those that are composed of more than one substance using simple tools found in the classroom.

5.2.4.A.2

Plan and carry out an investigation to distinguish among solids, liquids, and gasses.

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6

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compressed, while solids and liquids cannot; the shape of a solid is independent of its container; liquids and gases take the shape of their containers). Objects and substances have properties, such as weight and volume, that can be measured using appropriate tools. Unknown substances can sometimes be identified by their properties. Objects vary in the extent to which they absorb and reflect light and conduct heat (thermal energy) and electricity. The volume of some objects can be determined using liquid (water) displacement. The density of an object can be determined from its volume and mass. Pure substances have characteristic intrinsic properties, such as density, solubility, boiling point, and melting point, all of which are independent of the amount of the sample. All matter is made of atoms. Matter made of only one type of atom is called an element. All substances are composed of one or more of approximately 100 elements. Properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained by a model of

5.2.4.A.3

Determine the weight and volume of common objects using appropriate tools.

5.2.4.A.4

Categorize objects based on the ability to absorb or reflect light and conduct heat or electricity.

5.2.6.A.1

Determine the volume of common objects using water displacement methods.

5.2.6.A.2

Calculate the density of objects or substances after determining volume and mass.

5.2.6.A.3

Determine the identity of an unknown substance using data about intrinsic properties.

5.2.8.A.1

Explain that all matter is made of atoms, and give examples of common elements.

5.2.8.A.2

Analyze and explain the implications of the statement “all substances are composed of elements.”

5.2.8.A.3

Use the kinetic molecular model to predict how solids, liquids, and gases would behave under various physical

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8

8

8

12

matter as composed of tiny circumstances, such as heating or cooling. particles (atoms) in motion. The Periodic Table organizes the 5.2.8.A.4 Predict the physical and chemical properties of elements elements into families of elements based on their positions on the Periodic Table. with similar properties. Elements are a class of 5.2.8.A.5 Identify unknown substances based on data regarding substances composed of a single their physical and chemical properties. kind of atom. Compounds are substances that are chemically formed and have physical and chemical properties that differ from the reacting substances. Substances are classified 5.2.8.A.6 Determine whether a substance is a metal or nonmetal according to their physical and through student-designed investigations. chemical properties. Metals are a class of elements that exhibit physical properties, such as conductivity, and chemical properties, such as producing salts when combined with nonmetals. Substances are classified 5.2.8.A.7 Determine the relative acidity and reactivity of common according to their physical and acids, such as vinegar or cream of tartar, through a chemical properties. Acids are a variety of student-designed investigations. class of compounds that exhibit common chemical properties, including a sour taste, characteristic color changes with litmus and other acid/base indicators, and the tendency to react with bases to produce a salt and water. Electrons, protons, and neutrons 5.2.12.A.1 Use atomic models to predict the behaviors of atoms in are parts of the atom and have interactions. measurable properties, including mass and, in the case of protons

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and electrons, charge. The nuclei of atoms are composed of protons and neutrons. A kind of force that is only evident at nuclear distances holds the particles of the nucleus together against the electrical repulsion between the protons. Differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained by the ways in which the atoms, ions, or molecules of the substances are arranged, and by the strength of the forces of attraction between the atoms, ions, or molecules. In the Periodic Table, elements are arranged according to the number of protons (the atomic number). This organization illustrates commonality and patterns of physical and chemical properties among the elements. In a neutral atom, the positively charged nucleus is surrounded by the same number of negatively charged electrons. Atoms of an element whose nuclei have different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. Solids, liquids, and gases may dissolve to form solutions. When combining a solute and solvent to prepare a solution, exceeding a particular concentration of solute will lead to precipitation of the

5.2.12.A.2 Account for the differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases.

5.2.12.A.3 Predict the placement of unknown elements on the Periodic Table based on their physical and chemical properties.

5.2.12.A.4 Explain how the properties of isotopes, including halflives, decay modes, and nuclear resonances, lead to useful applications of isotopes.

5.2.12.A.5 Describe the process by which solutes dissolve in solvents.

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solute from the solution. Dynamic equilibrium occurs in saturated solutions. Concentration of solutions can be calculated in terms of molarity, molality, and percent by mass. Acids and bases are important in 5.2.12.A.6 Relate the pH scale to the concentrations of various acids numerous chemical processes that and bases. occur around us, from industrial to biological processes, from the laboratory to the environment.

Content Area Standard

Strand By the end of grade P

2

4

6

8

8

Science 5.2 Physical Science: All students will understand that physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science. B. Changes in Matter : Substances can undergo physical or chemical changes to form new substances. Each change involves energy. Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

Observations and investigations form a basis for young learners’ understanding of changes in matter. Some properties of matter can change as a result of processes such as heating and cooling. Not all materials respond the same way to these processes. Many substances can be changed from one state to another by heating or cooling. When a new substance is made by combining two or more substances, it has properties that are different from the original substances. When substances undergo chemical change, the number and kinds of atoms in the reactants are the same as the number and kinds of atoms in the products. The mass of the reactants is the same as the mass of the products. Chemical changes can occur when

5.2.P.B.1

Explore changes in liquids and solids when substances are combined, heated, or cooled (e.g., mix sand or clay with various amounts of water; mix different colors of tempera paints; freeze and melt water and other liquids). Generate accurate data and organize arguments to show that not all substances respond the same way when heated or cooled, using common materials, such as shortening or candle wax.

5.2.2.B.1

5.2.4.B.1

5.2.6.B.1

Predict and explain what happens when a common substance, such as shortening or candle wax, is heated to melting and then cooled to a solid. Compare the properties of reactants with the properties of the products when two or more substances are combined and react chemically.

5.2.8.B.1

Explain, using an understanding of the concept of chemical change, why the mass of reactants and the mass of products remain constant.

5.2.8.B.2

Compare and contrast the physical properties of reactants

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two substances, elements, or with products after a chemical reaction, such as those that compounds react and produce one occur during photosynthesis and cellular respiration. or more different substances. The physical and chemical properties of the products are different from those of the reacting substances. An atom’s electron configuration, 5.2.12.B.1 Model how the outermost electrons determine the particularly of the outermost reactivity of elements and the nature of the chemical electrons, determines how the bonds they tend to form. atom interacts with other atoms. Chemical bonds are the interactions between atoms that hold them together in molecules or between oppositely charged ions. A large number of important 5.2.12.B.2 Describe oxidation and reduction reactions, and give reactions involve the transfer of examples of oxidation and reduction reactions that have either electrons or hydrogen ions an impact on the environment, such as corrosion and the between reacting ions, molecules, burning of fuel. or atoms. In other chemical reactions, atoms interact with one another by sharing electrons to create a bond. The conservation of atoms in 5.2.12.B.3 Balance chemical equations by applying the law of chemical reactions leads to the conservation of mass. ability to calculate the mass of products and reactants using the mole concept.

Content Area Standard

Strand

By the end of grade P

2 2

2

4

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Science 5.2 Physical Science: All students will understand that physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science. C. Forms of Energy : Knowing the characteristics of familiar forms of energy, including potential and kinetic energy, is useful in coming to the understanding that, for the most part, the natural world can be explained and is predictable. Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

Observations and investigations form a basis for young learners’ understanding of forms of energy.

5.2.P.C.1

The Sun warms the land, air, and water. An object can be seen when light strikes it and is reflected to a viewer's eye. If there is no light, objects cannot be seen. When light strikes substances and objects through which it cannot pass, shadows result. Heat (thermal energy), electricity, light, and sound are forms of energy. Heat (thermal energy) results when substances burn, when certain kinds of materials rub against each other, and when electricity flows though wires. Metals are good conductors of heat (thermal energy) and

5.2.2.C.1

Investigate sound, heat, and light energy (e.g., the pitch and volume of sound made by commercially made and homemade instruments, looking for shadows on the playground over time and under different weather conditions) through one or more of the senses. Compare, citing evidence, the heating of different colored objects placed in full sunlight. Apply a variety of strategies to collect evidence that validates the principle that if there is no light, objects cannot be seen.

5.2.2.C.2

5.2.2.C.3

Present evidence that represents the relationship between a light source, solid object, and the resulting shadow.

5.2.4.C.1

Compare various forms of energy as observed in everyday life and describe their applications.

5.2.4.C.2

Compare the flow of heat through metals and nonmetals by taking and analyzing measurements.

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electricity. Increasing the temperature of any substance requires the addition of energy. Energy can be transferred from one place to another. Heat energy is transferred from warmer things to colder things. Light travels in straight lines. When light travels from one substance to another (air and water), it changes direction. Light travels in a straight line until it interacts with an object or material. Light can be absorbed, redirected, bounced back, or allowed to pass through. The path of reflected or refracted light can be predicted. Visible light from the Sun is made up of a mixture of all colors of light. To see an object, light emitted or reflected by that object must enter the eye. The transfer of thermal energy by conduction, convection, and radiation can produce large-scale events such as those seen in weather. A tiny fraction of the light energy from the Sun reaches Earth. Light energy from the Sun is Earth’s primary source of energy, heating Earth surfaces and providing the energy that results in wind, ocean currents, and storms.

5.2.4.C.3

Draw and label diagrams showing several ways that energy can be transferred from one place to another.

5.2.4.C.4

Illustrate and explain what happens when light travels from air into water.

5.2.6.C.1

Predict the path of reflected or refracted light using reflecting and refracting telescopes as examples.

5.2.6.C.2

Describe how to prisms can be used to demonstrate that visible light from the Sun is made up of different colors.

5.2.6.C.3

Relate the transfer of heat from oceans and land masses to the evolution of a hurricane.

5.2.8.C.1

Structure evidence to explain the relatively high frequency of tornadoes in “Tornado Alley.”

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Energy is transferred from place 5.2.8.C.2 Model and explain current technologies used to capture to place. Light energy can be solar energy for the purposes of converting it to electrical thought of as traveling in rays. energy. Thermal energy travels via conduction and convection. Gas particles move independently 5.2.12.C.1 Use the kinetic molecular theory to describe and explain and are far apart relative to each the properties of solids, liquids, and gases. other. The behavior of gases can be explained by the kinetic molecular theory. The kinetic molecular theory can be used to explain the relationship between pressure and volume, volume and temperature, pressure and temperature, and the number of particles in a gas sample. There is a natural tendency for a system to move in the direction of disorder or entropy. Heating increases the energy of 5.2.12.C.2 Account for any trends in the melting points and boiling the atoms composing elements points of various compounds. and the molecules or ions composing compounds. As the kinetic energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions increases, the temperature of the matter increases. Heating a pure solid increases the vibrational energy of its atoms, molecules, or ions. When the vibrational energy of the molecules of a pure substance becomes great enough, the solid melts.

Content Area Standard

Strand By the end of grade 2

4

6

8

Science 5.2 Physical Science: All students will understand that physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science. D. Energy Transfer and Conservation : The conservation of energy can be demonstrated by keeping track of familiar forms of energy as they are transferred from one object to another. Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

Batteries supply energy to produce light, sound, or heat.

5.2.2.D.1

Electrical circuits require a complete loop through conducting materials in which an electrical current can pass. The flow of current in an electric circuit depends upon the components of the circuit and their arrangement, such as in series or parallel. Electricity flowing through an electrical circuit produces magnetic effects in the wires. When energy is transferred from one system to another, the quantity of energy before transfer equals the quantity of energy after transfer. As an object falls, its potential energy decreases as its speed, and consequently its kinetic energy, increases. While an object is falling, some of the object’s kinetic energy is

5.2.4.D.1

Predict and confirm the brightness of a light, the volume of sound, or the amount of heat when given the number of batteries, or the size of batteries. Repair an electric circuit by completing a closed loop that includes wires, a battery (or batteries), and at least one other electrical component to produce observable change.

5.2.6.D.1

Use simple circuits involving batteries and motors to compare and predict the current flow with different circuit arrangements.

5.2.8.D.1

Relate the kinetic and potential energies of a roller coaster at various points on its path.

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transferred to the medium through which it falls, setting the medium into motion and heating it. Nuclear reactions take place in the Sun. In plants, light energy from the Sun is transferred to oxygen and carbon compounds, which in combination, have chemical potential energy (photosynthesis). The potential energy of an object on Earth’s surface is increased when the object’s position is changed from one closer to Earth’s surface to one farther from Earth’s surface. The driving forces of chemical reactions are energy and entropy. Chemical reactions either release energy to the environment (exothermic) or absorb energy from the environment (endothermic). Nuclear reactions (fission and fusion) convert very small amounts of matter into energy. Energy may be transferred from one object to another during collisions. Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process that is significant in many systems, including biological, ecological, environmental, and geological systems. Chemical reactions occur at different rates.

5.2.8.D.2

Describe the flow of energy from the Sun to the fuel tank of an automobile.

5.2.12.D.1 Model the relationship between the height of an object and its potential energy.

5.2.12.D.2 Describe the potential commercial applications of exothermic and endothermic reactions.

5.2.12.D.3 Describe the products and potential applications of fission and fusion reactions. 5.2.12.D.4 Measure quantitatively the energy transferred between objects during a collision. 5.2.12.D.5 Model the change in rate of a reaction by changing a factor.

Factors such as temperature, mixing, concentration, particle size, and surface area affect the rates of chemical reactions.

Content Area Standard

Strand By the end of grade P

2

2

2

4

4

Science 5.2 Physical Science: All students will understand that physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science. E. Forces and Motion : It takes energy to change the motion of objects. The energy change is understood in terms of forces. Content Statement

CPI#

Observations and investigations form a basis for young learners’ understanding of motion.

5.2.P.E.1

Objects can move in many different ways (fast and slow, in a straight line, in a circular path, zigzag, and back and forth). A force is a push or a pull. Pushing or pulling can move an object. The speed an object moves is related to how strongly it is pushed or pulled. When an object does not move in response to a push or a pull, it is because another push or pull (friction) is being applied by the environment. Some forces act by touching, while other forces can act without touching.

5.2.2.E.1

Motion can be described as a change in position over a period of time. There is always a force involved

5.2.4.E.1

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI) Investigate how and why things move (e.g., slide blocks, balance structures, push structures over, use ramps to explore how far and how fast different objects move or roll). Investigate and model the various ways that inanimate objects can move.

5.2.2.E.2

Predict an object’s relative speed, path, or how far it will travel using various forces and surfaces.

5.2.2.E.3

Distinguish a force that acts by direct contact with an object (e.g., by pushing or pulling) from a force that can act without direct contact (e.g., the attraction between a magnet and a steel paper clip). Demonstrate through modeling that motion is a change in position over a period of time.

5.2.4.E.2

Identify the force that starts something moving or

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when something starts moving or changes its speed or direction of motion. A greater force can make an object move faster and farther. Magnets can repel or attract other magnets, but they attract all matter made of iron. Magnets can make some things move without being touched. Earth pulls down on all objects with a force called gravity. Weight is a measure of how strongly an object is pulled down toward the ground by gravity. With a few exceptions, objects fall to the ground no matter where they are on Earth. An object’s position can be described by locating the object relative to other objects or a background. The description of an object’s motion from one observer’s view may be different from that reported from a different observer’s view. Magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces can act at a distance. Friction is a force that acts to slow or stop the motion of objects. Sinking and floating can be predicted using forces that depend on the relative densities of objects and materials. An object is in motion when its

changes its speed or direction of motion.

5.2.4.E.3

Investigate and categorize materials based on their interaction with magnets.

5.2.4.E.4

Investigate, construct, and generalize rules for the effect that force of gravity has on balls of different sizes and weights.

5.2.6.E.1

Model and explain how the description of an object’s motion from one observer’s view may be different from a different observer’s view.

5.2.6.E.2

Describe the force between two magnets as the distance between them is changed.

5.2.6.E.3

Demonstrate and explain the frictional force acting on an object with the use of a physical model. Predict if an object will sink or float using evidence and reasoning.

5.2.6.E.4

5.2.8.E.1

Calculate the speed of an object when given distance and

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position is changing. The speed of an object is defined by how far it travels divided by the amount of time it took to travel that far. Forces have magnitude and direction. Forces can be added. The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object. An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion at constant velocity will continue at the same velocity unless acted on by an unbalanced force. The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time. Objects undergo different kinds of motion (translational, rotational, and vibrational). The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied. The magnitude of acceleration of an object depends directly on the strength of the net force, and inversely on the mass of the object. This relationship (a=Fnet/m) is independent of the nature of the force.

time.

5.2.8.E.2

Compare the motion of an object acted on by balanced forces with the motion of an object acted on by unbalanced forces in a given specific scenario.

5.2.12.E.1 Compare the calculated and measured speed, average speed, and acceleration of an object in motion, and account for differences that may exist between calculated and measured values.

5.2.12.E.2 Compare the translational and rotational motions of a thrown object and potential applications of this understanding. 5.2.12.E.3 Create simple models to demonstrate the benefits of seatbelts using Newton's first law of motion. 5.2.12.E.4 Measure and describe the relationship between the force acting on an object and the resulting acceleration.

Content Area Standard

Science 5.3 Life Science: All students will understand that life science principles are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of the complexity, diversity, and interconnectedness of life on Earth. Order in natural systems arises in accordance with rules that govern the physical world, and the order of natural systems can be modeled and predicted through the use of mathematics. A. Organization and Development : Living organisms are composed of cellular units (structures) that carry out functions required for life. Cellular units are composed of molecules, which also carry out biological functions.

Strand

By the end of grade P

P

2

4

Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

Observations and discussions about the natural world form a basis for young learners’ understanding of life science. Observations and discussions form a basis for young learners’ understanding of the similarities and differences among living and nonliving things. Living organisms:

5.3.P.A.1

Investigate and compare the basic physical characteristics of plants, humans, and other animals.

5.3.P.A.2

Observe similarities and differences in the needs of various living things, and differences between living and nonliving things.

5.3.2.A.1

Group living and nonliving things according to the characteristics that they share.

5.3.4.A.1

Develop and use evidence-based criteria to determine if



Exchange nutrients and water with the environment.



Reproduce.



Grow and develop in a predictable manner.

Living organisms:

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4



Interact with and cause changes in their environment.



Exchange materials (such as gases, nutrients, water, and waste) with the environment.



Reproduce.



Grow and develop in a predictable manner.

Essential functions required for the well-being of an organism are carried out by specialized structures in plants and animals. Essential functions of the human body are carried out by specialized systems: 

Digestive



Circulatory

an unfamiliar object is living or nonliving.

5.3.4.A.2

5.3.4.A.3

Compare and contrast structures that have similar functions in various organisms, and explain how those functions may be carried out by structures that have different physical appearances. Describe the interactions of systems involved in carrying out everyday life activities.

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Respiratory



Nervous



Skeletal



Muscular



Reproductive

Systems of the human body are interrelated and regulate the body’s internal environment. Essential functions of plant and animal cells are carried out by organelles. All organisms are composed of cell(s). In multicellular organisms, specialized cells perform specialized functions. Tissues, organs, and organ systems are composed of cells and function to serve the needs of cells for food, air, and waste removal. During the early development of an organism, cells differentiate and multiply to form the many

5.3.6.A.1

Model the interdependence of the human body’s major systems in regulating its internal environment.

5.3.6.A.2

Model and explain ways in which organelles work together to meet the cell’s needs.

5.3.8.A.1

Compare the benefits and limitations of existing as a single-celled organism and as a multicellular organism.

5.3.8.A.2

Relate the structures of cells, tissues, organs, and systems to their functions in supporting life.

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specialized cells, tissues, and organs that compose the final organism. Tissues grow through cell division. Cells are made of complex molecules that consist mostly of a few elements. Each class of molecules has its own building blocks and specific functions. Cellular processes are carried out by many different types of molecules, mostly by the group of proteins known as enzymes. Cellular function is maintained through the regulation of cellular processes in response to internal and external environmental conditions. Cells divide through the process of mitosis, resulting in daughter cells that have the same genetic composition as the original cell. Cell differentiation is regulated through the expression of different genes during the development of complex multicellular organisms. There is a relationship between the organization of cells into tissues and the organization of tissues into organs. The structures and functions of organs determine their relationships within body systems of an organism.

5.3.12.A.1 Represent and explain the relationship between the structure and function of each class of complex molecules using a variety of models.

5.3.12.A.2 Demonstrate the properties and functions of enzymes by designing and carrying out an experiment.

5.3.12.A.3 Predict a cell’s response in a given set of environmental conditions.

5.3.12.A.4 Distinguish between the processes of cellular growth (cell division) and development (differentiation).

5.3.12.A.5 Describe modern applications of the regulation of cell differentiation and analyze the benefits and risks (e.g., stem cells, sex determination).

5.3.12.A.6 Describe how a disease is the result of a malfunctioning system, organ, and cell, and relate this to possible treatment interventions (e.g., diabetes, cystic fibrosis, lactose intolerance).

Content Area Standard

Strand

By the end of grade P

2

2

2

4 6

Science 5.3 Life Science: All students will understand that life science principles are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of the complexity, diversity, and interconnectedness of life on Earth. Order in natural systems arises in accordance with rules that govern the physical world, and the order of natural systems can be modeled and predicted through the use of mathematics. B. Matter and Energy Transformations : Food is required for energy and building cellular materials. Organisms in an ecosystem have different ways of obtaining food, and some organisms obtain their food directly from other organisms. Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

Investigations form a young learners’ understanding of how a habitat provides for an organism’s energy needs. A source of energy is needed for all organisms to stay alive and grow. Both plants and animals need to take in water, and animals need to take in food. Plants need light. Animals have various ways of obtaining food and water. Nearly all animals drink water or eat foods that contain water. Most plants have roots to get water and leaves to gather sunlight. Almost all energy (food) and matter can be traced to the Sun. Plants are producers: They use the energy from light to make food (sugar) from carbon dioxide and water. Plants are used as a source of food (energy) for other

5.3.P.B.1

Observe and describe how plants and animals obtain food from their environment, such as by observing the interactions between organisms in a natural habitat.

5.3.2.B.1

Describe the requirements for the care of plants and animals related to meeting their energy needs.

5.3.2.B.2

Compare how different animals obtain food and water.

5.3.2.B.3

Explain that most plants get water from soil through their roots and gather light through their leaves.

5.3.4.B.1

Identify sources of energy (food) in a variety of settings (farm, zoo, ocean, forest). Describe the sources of the reactants of photosynthesis and trace the pathway to the products.

5.3.6.B.1

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organisms. All animals, including humans, are consumers that meet their energy needs by eating other organisms or their products. Food is broken down to provide energy for the work that cells do, and is a source of the molecular building blocks from which needed materials are assembled. All animals, including humans, are consumers that meet their energy needs by eating other organisms or their products. As matter cycles and energy flows through different levels of organization within living systems (cells, organs, organisms, communities), and between living systems and the physical environment, chemical elements are recombined into different products. Each recombination of matter and energy results in storage and dissipation of energy into the environment as heat. Continual input of energy from sunlight keeps matter and energy flowing through ecosystems. Plants have the capability to take energy from light to form sugar molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. In both plant and animal cells,

5.3.6.B.2

Illustrate the flow of energy (food) through a community.

5.3.8.B.1

Relate the energy and nutritional needs of organisms in a variety of life stages and situations, including stages of development and periods of maintenance.

5.3.8.B.2

Analyze the components of a consumer’s diet and trace them back to plants and plant products.

5.3.12.B.1 Cite evidence that the transfer and transformation of matter and energy links organisms to one another and to their physical setting.

5.3.12.B.2 Use mathematical formulas to justify the concept of an efficient diet.

5.3.12.B.3 Predict what would happen to an ecosystem if an energy source was removed. 5.3.12.B.4 Explain how environmental factors (such as temperature, light intensity, and the amount of water available) can affect photosynthesis as an energy storing process. 5.3.12.B.5 Investigate and describe the complementary relationship

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sugar is a source of energy and can be used to make other carbon-containing (organic) molecules. All organisms must break the high-energy chemical bonds in food molecules during cellular respiration to obtain the energy needed for life processes.

(cycling of matter and flow of energy) between photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

5.3.12.B.6 Explain how the process of cellular respiration is similar to the burning of fossil fuels.

Content Area Standard

Strand By the end of grade P

2

2

2

4

4

Science 5.3 Life Science: All students will understand that life science principles are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of the complexity, diversity, and interconnectedness of life on Earth. Order in natural systems arises in accordance with rules that govern the physical world, and the order of natural systems can be modeled and predicted through the use of mathematics. C. Interdependence : All animals and most plants depend on both other organisms and their environment to meet their basic needs. Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

Investigations and observations of the interactions between plants and animals form a basis for young learners’ understanding of interdependence in life science. Organisms interact and are interdependent in various ways; for example, they provide food and shelter to one another. A habitat supports the growth of many different plants and animals by meeting their basic needs of food, water, and shelter. Humans can change natural habitats in ways that can be helpful or harmful for the plants and animals that live there. Organisms can only survive in environments in which their needs are met. Within ecosystems, organisms interact with and are dependent on their physical and living environment. Some changes in ecosystems

5.3.P.C.1

Observe and describe how natural habitats provide for the basic needs of plants and animals with respect to shelter, food, water, air, and light (e.g., dig outside in the soil to investigate the kinds of animal life that live in and around the ground). Describe the ways in which organisms interact with each other and their habitats in order to meet basic needs.

5.3.2.C.1

5.3.2.C.2

Identify the characteristics of a habitat that enable the habitat to support the growth of many different plants and animals.

5.3.2.C.3

Communicate ways that humans protect habitats and/or improve conditions for the growth of the plants and animals that live there, or ways that humans might harm habitats. Predict the biotic and abiotic characteristics of an unfamiliar organism’s habitat.

5.3.4.C.1

5.3.4.C.2

Explain the consequences of rapid ecosystem change

occur slowly, while others occur rapidly. Changes can affect life forms, including humans. 6

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Various human activities have changed the capacity of the environment to support some life forms. The number of organisms and populations an ecosystem can support depends on the biotic resources available and on abiotic factors, such as quantities of light and water, range of temperatures, and soil composition. All organisms cause changes in the ecosystem in which they live. If this change reduces another organism’s access to resources, that organism may move to another location or die. Symbiotic interactions among organisms of different species can be classified as: •

Producer/consumer



Predator/prey



Parasite/host

5.3.6.C.1

(e.g., flooding, wind storms, snowfall, volcanic eruptions), and compare them to consequences of gradual ecosystem change (e.g., gradual increase or decrease in daily temperatures, change in yearly rainfall). Explain the impact of meeting human needs and wants on local and global environments.

5.3.6.C.2

Predict the impact that altering biotic and abiotic factors has on an ecosystem.

5.3.6.C.3

Describe how one population of organisms may affect other plants and/or animals in an ecosystem.

5.3.8.C.1

Model the effect of positive and negative changes in population size on a symbiotic pairing.

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Scavenger/prey



Decomposer/prey

Biological communities in ecosystems are based on stable interrelationships and interdependence of organisms. Stability in an ecosystem can be disrupted by natural or human interactions.

5.3.12.C.1 Analyze the interrelationships and interdependencies among different organisms, and explain how these relationships contribute to the stability of the ecosystem. 5.3.12.C.2 Model how natural and human-made changes in the environment will affect individual organisms and the dynamics of populations.

Content Area Standard

Strand

By the end of grade P

2

Science 5.3 Life Science: All students will understand that life science principles are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of the complexity, diversity, and interconnectedness of life on Earth. Order in natural systems arises in accordance with rules that govern the physical world, and the order of natural systems can be modeled and predicted through the use of mathematics. D. Heredity and Reproduction : Organisms reproduce, develop, and have predictable life cycles. Organisms contain genetic information that influences their traits, and they pass this on to their offspring during reproduction. Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

Observations of developmental changes in a plant or animal over time form a basis for young learners’ understanding of heredity and reproduction. Plants and animals often resemble their parents.

5.3.P.D.1

Observe and record change over time and cycles of change that affect living things (e.g., use baby photographs to discuss human change and growth, observe and photograph tree growth and leaf changes throughout the year, monitor the life cycle of a plant). Record the observable characteristics of plants and animals to determine the similarities and differences between parents and their offspring. Determine the characteristic changes that occur during the life cycle of plants and animals by examining a variety of species, and distinguish between growth and development. Compare the physical characteristics of the different stages of the life cycle of an individual organism, and compare the characteristics of life stages among species.

5.3.2.D.1

2

Organisms have predictable characteristics at different stages of development.

5.3.2.D.2

4

Plants and animals have life cycles (they begin life, develop into adults, reproduce, and eventually die). The characteristics of each stage of life vary by species. Reproduction is essential to the continuation of every species. Variations exist among organisms of the same generation (e.g., siblings) and of different generations (e.g., parent to

5.3.4.D.1

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5.3.6.D.1 5.3.6.D.2

Predict the long-term effect of interference with normal patterns of reproduction. Explain how knowledge of inherited variations within and between generations is applied to farming and animal breeding.

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offspring). Traits such as eye color in human beings or fruit/flower color in plants are inherited. Some organisms reproduce asexually. In these organisms, all genetic information comes from a single parent. Some organisms reproduce sexually, through which half of the genetic information comes from each parent. The unique combination of genetic material from each parent in sexually reproducing organisms results in the potential for variation. Characteristics of organisms are influenced by heredity and/or their environment.

5.3.6.D.3

Distinguish between inherited and acquired traits/characteristics.

5.3.8.D.1

Defend the principle that, through reproduction, genetic traits are passed from one generation to the next, using evidence collected from observations of inherited traits.

5.3.8.D.2

Explain the source of variation among siblings.

5.3.8.D.3

Describe the environmental conditions or factors that may lead to a change in a cell’s genetic information or to an organism’s development, and how these changes are passed on. 5.3.12.D.1 Explain the value and potential applications of genome projects.

Genes are segments of DNA molecules located in the chromosome of each cell. DNA molecules contain information that determines a sequence of amino acids, which result in specific proteins. Inserting, deleting, or substituting 5.3.12.D.2 Predict the potential impact on an organism (no impact, DNA segments can alter the significant impact) given a change in a specific DNA code, genetic code. An altered gene and provide specific real world examples of conditions may be passed on to every cell caused by mutations. that develops from it. The resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring’s success in its

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environment. Sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction result in a great variety of possible gene combinations in the offspring of any two parents.

5.3.12.D.3 Demonstrate through modeling how the sorting and recombination of genes during sexual reproduction has an effect on variation in offspring (meiosis, fertilization).

Content Area Standard

Strand

By the end of grade 2 2

4

4

6

8

Science 5.3 Life Science: All students will understand that life science principles are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of the complexity, diversity, and interconnectedness of life on Earth. Order in natural systems arises in accordance with rules that govern the physical world, and the order of natural systems can be modeled and predicted through the use of mathematics. E. Evolution and Diversity: : Sometimes, differences between organisms of the same kind provide advantages for surviving and reproducing in different environments. These selective differences may lead to dramatic changes in characteristics of organisms in a population over extremely long periods of time. Content Statement

CPI#

Variations exist within a group of the same kind of organism. Plants and animals have features that help them survive in different environments.

5.3.2.E.1

Individuals of the same species may differ in their characteristics, and sometimes these differences give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing in different environments. In any ecosystem, some populations of organisms thrive and grow, some decline, and others do not survive at all. Changes in environmental conditions can affect the survival of individual organisms and entire species. Individual organisms with certain traits are more likely than others

5.3.4.E.1

5.3.2.E.2

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI) Describe similarities and differences in observable traits between parents and offspring. Describe how similar structures found in different organisms (e.g., eyes, ears, mouths) have similar functions and enable those organisms to survive in different environments. Model an adaptation to a species that would increase its chances of survival, should the environment become wetter, dryer, warmer, or colder over time.

5.3.4.E.2

Evaluate similar populations in an ecosystem with regard to their ability to thrive and grow.

5.3.6.E.1

Describe the impact on the survival of species during specific times in geologic history when environmental conditions changed.

5.3.8.E.1

Organize and present evidence to show how the extinction of a species is related to an inability to adapt to changing

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to survive and have offspring in environmental conditions using quantitative and particular environments. The qualitative data. advantages or disadvantages of specific characteristics can change when the environment in which they exist changes. Extinction of a species occurs when the environment changes and the characteristics of a species are insufficient to allow survival. Anatomical evidence supports 5.3.8.E.2 Compare the anatomical structures of a living species with evolution and provides additional fossil records to derive a line of descent. detail about the sequence of branching of various lines of descent. New traits may result from new 5.3.12.E.1 Account for the appearance of a novel trait that arose in a combinations of existing genes or given population. from mutations of genes in reproductive cells within a population. Molecular evidence (e.g., DNA, 5.3.12.E.2 Estimate how closely related species are, based on protein structures, etc.) scientific evidence (e.g., anatomical similarities, substantiates the anatomical similarities of DNA base and/or amino acid sequence). evidence for evolution and provides additional detail about the sequence in which various lines of descent branched. The principles of evolution 5.3.12.E.3 Provide a scientific explanation for the history of life on (including natural selection and Earth using scientific evidence (e.g., fossil record, DNA, common descent) provide a protein structures, etc.). scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth as evidenced in the fossil record and in the similarities that exist within the diversity of existing organisms.

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Evolution occurs as a result of a combination of the following factors: •

Ability of a species to reproduce



Genetic variability of offspring due to mutation and recombination of genes



Finite supply of the resources required for life Natural selection, due to environmental pressure, of those organisms better able to survive and leave offspring

5.3.12.E.4 Account for the evolution of a species by citing specific evidence of biological mechanisms.

Content Area Standard Strand

By the end of grade 2

4

4

4

4

Science 5.4 Earth Systems Science: All students will understand that Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a part of the all-encompassing system of the universe. A. Objects in the Universe : Our universe has been expanding and evolving for 13.7 billion years under the influence of gravitational and nuclear forces. As gravity governs its expansion, organizational patterns, and the movement of celestial bodies, nuclear forces within stars govern its evolution through the processes of stellar birth and death. These same processes governed the formation of our solar system 4.6 billion years ago. Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

The Sun is a star that can only be seen during the day. The Moon is not a star and can be seen sometimes at night and sometimes during the day. The Moon appears to have different shapes on different days. Objects in the sky have patterns of movement. The Sun and Moon appear to move across the sky on a daily basis. The shadows of an object on Earth change over the course of a day, indicating the changing position of the Sun during the day. The observable shape of the Moon changes from day to day in a cycle that lasts 29.5 days. Earth is approximately spherical in shape. Objects fall towards the center of the Earth because of the pull of the force of gravity. Earth is the third planet from the

5.4.2.A.1

Determine a set of general rules describing when the Sun and Moon are visible based on actual sky observations.

5.4.4.A.1

Formulate a general description of the daily motion of the Sun across the sky based on shadow observations. Explain how shadows could be used to tell the time of day.

5.4.4.A.2

Identify patterns of the Moon’s appearance and make predictions about its future appearance based observational data. Generate a model with explanatory value that explains both why objects roll down ramps as well as why the Moon orbits Earth.

5.4.4.A.3

5.4.4.A.4

Analyze and evaluate evidence in the form of data tables

Sun in our solar system, which includes seven other planets. 6

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6

8

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The height of the path of the Sun in the sky and the length of a shadow change over the course of a year. Earth’s position relative to the Sun, and the rotation of Earth on its axis, result in patterns and cycles that define time units of days and years. The Sun’s gravity holds planets and other objects in the solar system in orbit, and planets’ gravity holds moons in orbit. The Sun is the central and most massive body in our solar system, which includes eight planets and their moons, dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets. The relative positions and motions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon result in the phases of the Moon, eclipses, and the daily and monthly cycle of tides. Earth’s tilt, rotation, and revolution around the Sun cause changes in the height and duration of the Sun in the sky. These factors combine to explain the changes in the length of the day and seasons. Gravitation is a universal attractive force by which objects

5.4.6.A.1

and photographs to categorize and relate solar system objects (e.g., planets, dwarf planets, moons, asteroids, and comets). Generate and analyze evidence (through simulations) that the Sun’s apparent motion across the sky changes over the course of a year.

5.4.6.A.2

Construct and evaluate models demonstrating the rotation of Earth on its axis and the orbit of Earth around the Sun.

5.4.6.A.3

Predict what would happen to an orbiting object if gravity were increased, decreased, or taken away.

5.4.6.A.4

Compare and contrast the major physical characteristics (including size and scale) of solar system objects using evidence in the form of data tables and photographs.

5.4.8.A.1

Analyze moon-phase, eclipse, and tidal data to construct models that explain how the relative positions and motions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon cause these three phenomena.

5.4.8.A.2

Use evidence of global variations in day length, temperature, and the amount of solar radiation striking Earth’s surface to create models that explain these phenomena and seasons.

5.4.8.A.3

Predict how the gravitational force between two bodies would differ for bodies of different masses or bodies that

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with mass attract one another. The gravitational force between two objects is proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the objects. The regular and predictable motion of objects in the solar system (Kepler’s Laws) is explained by gravitational forces. Prior to the work of 17th-century astronomers, scientists believed the Earth was the center of the universe (geocentric model). The properties and characteristics of solar system objects, combined with radioactive dating of meteorites and lunar samples, provide evidence that Earth and the rest of the solar system formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas 4.6 billion years ago. Stars experience significant changes during their life cycles, which can be illustrated with an Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) Diagram. The Sun is one of an estimated two hundred billion stars in our Milky Way galaxy, which together with over one hundred billion other galaxies, make up the universe. The Big Bang theory places the origin of the universe at

are different distances apart.

5.4.8.A.4

Analyze data regarding the motion of comets, planets, and moons to find general patterns of orbital motion.

5.4.12.A.1 Explain how new evidence obtained using telescopes (e.g., the phases of Venus or the moons of Jupiter) allowed 17th-century astronomers to displace the geocentric model of the universe. 5.4.12.A.2 Collect, analyze, and critique evidence that supports the theory that Earth and the rest of the solar system formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas 4.6 billion years ago.

5.4.12.A.3 Analyze an H-R diagram and explain the life cycle of stars of different masses using simple stellar models.

5.4.12.A.4 Analyze simulated and/or real data to estimate the number of stars in our galaxy and the number of galaxies in our universe.

5.4.12.A.5 Critique evidence for the theory that the universe evolved as it expanded from a single point 13.7 billion years ago.

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approximately 13.7 billion years ago. Shortly after the Big Bang, matter (primarily hydrogen and helium) began to coalesce to form galaxies and stars. According to the Big Bang theory, 5.4.12.A.6 Argue, citing evidence (e.g., Hubble Diagram), the theory the universe has been expanding of an expanding universe. since its beginning, explaining the apparent movement of galaxies away from one another.

Content Area Standard Strand By the end of grade 4

6

6

6

Science 5.4 Earth Systems Science: All students will understand that Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a part of the all-encompassing system of the universe. B. History of Earth : From the time that Earth formed from a nebula 4.6 billion years ago, it has been evolving as a result of geologic, biological, physical, and chemical processes. Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

Fossils provide evidence about the plants and animals that lived long ago, including whether they lived on the land or in the sea as well as ways species changed over time. Successive layers of sedimentary rock and the fossils contained in them tell the factual story of the age, history, changing life forms, and geology of Earth. Earth’s current structure has been influenced by both sporadic and gradual events. Changes caused by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions can be observed on a human time scale, but many geological processes, such as mountain building and the shifting of continents, are observed on a geologic time scale. Moving water, wind, and ice continually shape Earth’s surface by eroding rock and soil in some areas and depositing them in other areas.

5.4.4.B.1

Use data gathered from observations of fossils to argue whether a given fossil is terrestrial or marine in origin.

5.4.6.B.1

Interpret a representation of a rock layer sequence to establish oldest and youngest layers, geologic events, and changing life forms.

5.4.6.B.2

Examine Earth’s surface features and identify those created on a scale of human life or on a geologic time scale.

5.4.6.B.3

Determine if landforms were created by processes of erosion (e.g., wind, water, and/or ice) based on evidence in pictures, video, and/or maps.

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8

8

12

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Erosion plays an important role in 5.4.6.B.4 Describe methods people use to reduce soil erosion. the formation of soil, but too much erosion can wash away fertile soil from ecosystems, including farms. Today’s planet is very different 5.4.8.B.1 Correlate the evolution of organisms and the than early Earth. Evidence for environmental conditions on Earth as they changed one-celled forms of life (bacteria) throughout geologic time. extends back more than 3.5 billion years. Fossils provide evidence of how 5.4.8.B.2 Evaluate the appropriateness of increasing the human life and environmental conditions population in a region (e.g., barrier islands, Pacific have changed. The principle of Northwest, Midwest United States) based on the region’s Uniformitarianism makes possible history of catastrophic events, such as volcanic eruptions, the interpretation of Earth’s earthquakes, and floods. history. The same Earth processes that occurred in the past occur today. The evolution of life caused 5.4.12.B.1 Trace the evolution of our atmosphere and relate the dramatic changes in the changes in rock types and life forms to the evolving composition of Earth’s atmosphere. atmosphere, which did not originally contain oxygen gas. Relative dating uses index fossils 5.4.12.B.2 Correlate stratigraphic columns from various locations by and stratigraphic sequences to using index fossils and other dating techniques. determine the sequence of geologic events. Absolute dating, using radioactive 5.4.12.B.3 Account for the evolution of species by citing specific isotopes in rocks, makes it absolute-dating evidence of fossil samples. possible to determine how many years ago a given rock sample formed.

Content Area Standard Strand By the end of grade P

2

4 4

6

6

Science 5.4 Earth Systems Science: All students will understand that Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a part of the all-encompassing system of the universe. C. Properties of Earth Materials : Earth’s composition is unique, is related to the origin of our solar system, and provides us with the raw resources needed to sustain life. Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

Observations and investigations form a basis for young learners’ understanding of properties of Earth materials. Soils are made of many living and nonliving substances. The attributes and properties of soil (e.g., moisture, kind and size of particles, living/organic elements, etc.) vary depending on location. Rocks can be broken down to make soil. Earth materials in nature include rocks, minerals, soils, water, and the gases of the atmosphere. Attributes of rocks and minerals assist in their identification. Soil attributes/properties affect the soil’s ability to support animal life and grow plants. The rock cycle is a model of creation and transformation of rocks from one form (sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic) to another. Rock families are determined by the

5.4.P.C.1

Explore and describe characteristics of and concepts about soil, rocks, water, and air.

5.4.2.C.1

Describe Earth materials using appropriate terms, such as hard, soft, dry, wet, heavy, and light.

5.4.4.C.1

Create a model to represent how soil is formed.

5.4.4.C.2

Categorize unknown samples as either rocks or minerals.

5.4.6.C.1

Predict the types of ecosystems that unknown soil samples could support based on soil properties.

5.4.6.C.2

Distinguish physical properties of sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic rocks and explain how one kind of rock could eventually become a different kind of rock.

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8

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8

12

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origin and transformations of the rock. Rocks and rock formations contain 5.4.6.C.3 Deduce the story of the tectonic conditions and erosion evidence that tell a story about forces that created sample rocks or rock formations. their past. The story is dependent on the minerals, materials, tectonic conditions, and erosion forces that created them. Soil consists of weathered rocks 5.4.8.C.1 Determine the chemical properties of soil samples in order and decomposed organic material to select an appropriate location for a community garden. from dead plants, animals, and bacteria. Soils are often found in layers, each having a different chemical composition and texture. Physical and chemical changes 5.4.8.C.2 Explain how chemical and physical mechanisms (changes) take place in Earth materials when are responsible for creating a variety of landforms. Earth features are modified through weathering and erosion. Earth’s atmosphere is a mixture of 5.4.8.C.3 Model the vertical structure of the atmosphere using nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases information from active and passive remote-sensing tools that include water vapor. The (e.g., satellites, balloons, and/or ground-based sensors) atmosphere has a different in the analysis. physical and chemical composition at different elevations. Soils are at the interface of the 5.4.12.C.1 Model the interrelationships among the spheres in the Earth systems, linking together Earth systems by creating a flow chart. the biosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. The chemical and physical 5.4.12.C.2 Analyze the vertical structure of Earth’s atmosphere, and properties of the vertical structure account for the global, regional, and local variations of of the atmosphere support life on these characteristics and their impact on life. Earth.

Content Area Standard Strand By the end of grade 6

6

6

8

8

8

Science 5.4 Earth Systems Science: All students will understand that Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a part of the all-encompassing system of the universe. D. Tectonics : The theory of plate tectonics provides a framework for understanding the dynamic processes within and on Earth. Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

Lithospheric plates consisting of continents and ocean floors move in response to movements in the mantle. Earth’s landforms are created through constructive (deposition) and destructive (erosion) processes. Earth has a magnetic field that is detectable at the surface with a compass. Earth is layered with a lithosphere, a hot, convecting mantle, and a dense, metallic core. Major geological events, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building, result from the motion of plates. Sea floor spreading, revealed in mapping of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and subduction zones are evidence for the theory of plate tectonics. Earth’s magnetic field has north and south poles and lines of force

5.4.6.D.1

Apply understanding of the motion of lithospheric plates to explain why the Pacific Rim is referred to as the Ring of Fire.

5.4.6.D.2

Locate areas that are being created (deposition) and destroyed (erosion) using maps and satellite images.

5.4.6.D.3

Apply knowledge of Earth’s magnetic fields to successfully complete an orienteering challenge.

5.4.8.D.1

Model the interactions between the layers of Earth.

5.4.8.D.2

Present evidence to support arguments for the theory of plate motion.

5.4.8.D.3

Explain why geomagnetic north and geographic north are at different locations.

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that are used for navigation. Convection currents in the upper mantle drive plate motion. Plates are pushed apart at spreading zones and pulled down into the crust at subduction zones. Evidence from lava flows and ocean-floor rocks shows that Earth’s magnetic field reverses (North – South) over geologic time.

5.4.12.D.1 Explain the mechanisms for plate motions using earthquake data, mathematics, and conceptual models.

5.4.12.D.2 Calculate the average rate of seafloor spreading using archived geomagnetic-reversals data.

Content Area Standard Strand By the end of grade P

2

Science 5.4 Earth Systems Science: All students will understand that Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a part of the all-encompassing system of the universe. E. Energy in Earth Systems : Internal and external sources of energy drive Earth systems. Content Statement

CPI#

Observations and investigations form the basis for young learners’ understanding of energy in Earth systems. Plants need sunlight to grow.

5.4.P.E.1

Explore the effects of sunlight on living and nonliving things.

5.4.2.E.1

Describe the relationship between the Sun and plant growth. Develop a general set of rules to predict temperature changes of Earth materials, such as water, soil, and sand, when placed in the Sun and in the shade. Generate a conclusion about energy transfer and circulation by observing a model of convection currents.

4

Land, air, and water absorb the Sun’s energy at different rates.

6

The Sun is the major source of 5.4.6.E.1 energy for circulating the atmosphere and oceans. The Sun provides energy for 5.4.8.E.1 Explain how energy from the Sun is transformed or plants to grow and drives transferred in global wind circulation, ocean circulation, convection within the atmosphere and the water cycle. and oceans, producing winds, ocean currents, and the water cycle. The Sun is the major external 5.4.12.E.1 Model and explain the physical science principles that source of energy for Earth’s global account for the global energy budget. energy budget. Earth systems have internal and 5.4.12.E.2 Predict what the impact on biogeochemical systems would external sources of energy, both be if there were an increase or decrease in internal and of which create heat. external energy.

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5.4.4.E.1

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

Content Area Standard Strand By the end of grade P

2

4

6

6

8

8

Science 5.4 Earth Systems Science: All students will understand that Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a part of the all-encompassing system of the universe. F. Climate and Weather : Earth’s weather and climate systems are the result of complex interactions between land, ocean, ice, and atmosphere. Content Statement

CPI#

Observations and investigations form the basis for young learners’ understanding of weather and climate. Current weather conditions include air movement, clouds, and precipitation. Weather conditions affect our daily lives. Weather changes that occur from day to day and across the seasons can be measured and documented using basic instruments such as a thermometer, wind vane, anemometer, and rain gauge. Weather is the result of shortterm variations in temperature, humidity, and air pressure. Climate is the result of long-term patterns of temperature and precipitation. Global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather. Climate is influenced locally and globally by atmospheric interactions with land masses and

5.4.P.F.1

Observe and record weather.

5.4.2.F.1

Observe and document daily weather conditions and discuss how the weather influences your activities for the day.

5.4.4.F.1

Identify patterns in data collected from basic weather instruments.

5.4.6.F.1

Explain the interrelationships between daily temperature, air pressure, and relative humidity data.

5.4.6.F.2

Create climatographs for various locations around Earth and categorize the climate based on the yearly patterns of temperature and precipitation. Determine the origin of local weather by exploring national and international weather maps.

5.4.8.F.1

5.4.8.F.2

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

Explain the mechanisms that cause varying daily temperature ranges in a coastal community and in a community located in the interior of the country.

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bodies of water. Weather (in the short term) and climate (in the long term) involve the transfer of energy and water in and out of the atmosphere. Global climate differences result from the uneven heating of Earth’s surface by the Sun. Seasonal climate variations are due to the tilt of Earth’s axis with respect to the plane of Earth’s nearly circular orbit around the Sun. Climate is determined by energy transfer from the Sun at and near Earth’s surface. This energy transfer is influenced by dynamic processes, such as cloud cover and Earth’s rotation, as well as static conditions, such as proximity to mountain ranges and the ocean. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels, also affect the global climate. Earth’s radiation budget varies globally, but is balanced. Earth’s hydrologic cycle is complex and varies globally, regionally, and locally.

5.4.8.F.3

Create a model of the hydrologic cycle that focuses on the transfer of water in and out of the atmosphere. Apply the model to different climates around the world.

5.4.12.F.1 Explain that it is warmer in summer and colder in winter for people in New Jersey because the intensity of sunlight is greater and the days are longer in summer than in winter. Connect these seasonal changes in sunlight to the tilt of Earth’s axis with respect to the plane of its orbit around the Sun.

5.4.12.F.2 Explain how the climate in regions throughout the world is affected by seasonal weather patterns, as well as other factors, such as the addition of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and proximity to mountain ranges and to the ocean.

5.4.12.F.3 Explain variations in the global energy budget and hydrologic cycle at the local, regional, and global scales.

Content Area Standard Strand

By the end of grade P

2

2 2

2

4

4

Science 5.4 Earth Systems Science: All students will understand that Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a part of the all-encompassing system of the universe. G. Biogeochemical Cycles : The biogeochemical cycles in the Earth systems include the flow of microscopic and macroscopic resources from one reservoir in the hydrosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, or biosphere to another, are driven by Earth's internal and external sources of energy, and are impacted by human activity. Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

Investigations in environmental awareness activities form a basis for young learners’ understanding of biogeochemical changes.

5.4.P.G.1

Water can disappear (evaporate) and collect (condense) on surfaces. There are many sources and uses of water. Organisms have basic needs and they meet those needs within their environment. The origin of everyday manufactured products such as paper and cans can be traced back to natural resources. Clouds and fog are made of tiny droplets of water and, at times, tiny particles of ice. Rain, snow, and other forms of precipitation come from clouds; not all clouds produce precipitation.

5.4.2.G.1

Demonstrate emergent awareness for conservation, recycling, and respect for the environment (e.g., turning off water faucets, using paper from a classroom scrap box when whole sheets are not needed, keeping the playground neat and clean). Observe and discuss evaporation and condensation.

5.4.2.G.2

Identify and use water conservation practices.

5.4.2.G.3

Identify and categorize the basic needs of living organisms as they relate to the environment.

5.4.2.G.4

Identify the natural resources used in the process of making various manufactured products.

5.4.4.G.1

Explain how clouds form.

5.4.4.G.2

Observe daily cloud patterns, types of precipitation, and temperature, and categorize the clouds by the conditions that form precipitation.

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Most of Earth’s surface is covered 5.4.4.G.3 Trace a path a drop of water might follow through the by water. Water circulates water cycle. through the crust, oceans, and atmosphere in what is known as the water cycle. Properties of water depend on 5.4.4.G.4 Model how the properties of water can change as water where the water is located moves through the water cycle. (oceans, rivers, lakes, underground sources, and glaciers). Circulation of water in marine 5.4.6.G.1 Illustrate global winds and surface currents through the environments is dependent on creation of a world map of global winds and currents that factors such as the composition of explains the relationship between the two factors. water masses and energy from the Sun or wind. An ecosystem includes all of the 5.4.6.G.2 Create a model of ecosystems in two different locations, plant and animal populations and and compare and contrast the living and nonliving nonliving resources in a given components. area. Organisms interact with each other and with other components of an ecosystem. Personal activities impact the local 5.4.6.G.3 Describe ways that humans can improve the health of and global environment. ecosystems around the world. Water in the oceans holds a large 5.4.8.G.1 Represent and explain, using sea surface temperature amount of heat, and therefore maps, how ocean currents impact the climate of coastal significantly affects the global communities. climate system. Investigations of environmental 5.4.8.G.2 Investigate a local or global environmental issue by issues address underlying defining the problem, researching possible causative scientific causes and may inform factors, understanding the underlying science, and possible solutions. evaluating the benefits and risks of alternative solutions. Natural and human-made 5.4.12.G.1 Analyze and explain the sources and impact of a specific chemicals circulate with water in industry on a large body of water (e.g., Delaware or the hydrologic cycle. Chesapeake Bay). Natural ecosystems provide an 5.4.12.G.2 Explain the unintended consequences of harvesting

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array of basic functions that affect humans. These functions include maintenance of the quality of the atmosphere, generation of soils, control of the hydrologic cycle, disposal of wastes, and recycling of nutrients. Movement of matter through Earth’s system is driven by Earth’s internal and external sources of energy and results in changes in the physical and chemical properties of the matter. Natural and human activities impact the cycling of matter and the flow of energy through ecosystems. Human activities have changed Earth’s land, oceans, and atmosphere, as well as its populations of plant and animal species. Scientific, economic, and other data can assist in assessing environmental risks and benefits associated with societal activity. Earth is a system in which chemical elements exist in fixed amounts and move through the solid Earth, oceans, atmosphere, and living things as part of geochemical cycles.

natural resources from an ecosystem.

5.4.12.G.3 Demonstrate, using models, how internal and external sources of energy drive the hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen cycles.

5.4.12.G.4 Compare over time the impact of human activity on the cycling of matter and energy through ecosystems.

5.4.12.G.5 Assess (using maps, local planning documents, and historical records) how the natural environment has changed since humans have inhabited the region.

5.4.12.G.6 Assess (using scientific, economic, and other data) the potential environmental impact of large-scale adoption of emerging technologies (e.g., wind farming, harnessing geothermal energy). 5.4.12.G.7 Relate information to detailed models of the hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen cycles, identifying major sources, sinks, fluxes, and residence times.

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New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards - State of New Jersey

New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards for Science INTRODUCTION Science Education in the 21st Century "Today more than ever before, science hold...

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