negative impacts of television program (private television - TIJOSS

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NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TELEVISION PROGRAM (PRIVATE TELEVISION PROGRAM CASES IN INDONESIA) Dr. DEDE MULKAN Lecturer Department of Journalism, Faculty of Communication Science Padjadjaran University, Bandung, Indonesia ABSTRACT The presence of private television station in Indonesia, has given a new color to the development of television in Indonesia. Private television which has been present in Indonesia since about twenty years ago, has brought a paradigm shift in television viewing. Unfortunately, the change was not all for the better, but on the contrary, the presence of private television has given the adverse implications for most television viewers in Indonesia, particularly children. Various impressions of violence is not good for the development of children in Indonesia, has been born to run programs on private television. This condition is certainly cause for concern for parents when they leave their children in front of the television, as it turns out the media has brought negative effect on a child's development. Moreover, time spent watching children in Indonesia can be a tough audience with more than eight hours a day. The negative impact of television for children's development has been widely studied by the recognized expert, and the results are television has negative effect on children's development. That concern is justified because, private television stations only consider the program in terms of rating. If the program was very beneficial to the station --even though the program was not good for the audience-- then it will show the program. On the one hand, the medium of television into a container to accelerate the progress of Indonesian society, but on the other hand, television also has an impact that is not profitable for them. To that required a firm attitude in using the medium of television as a medium to accelerate the development process in Indonesia. Watching television in Indonesia, to be with a firm attitude and full of selfprotection. The attitude of the wisest in watching television: "Let us smart watch television. Let us watch smart television. Let's intelligent smart watch television ". Keywords: Television, Violence, Smart Watch.

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aggressive behavior. Not one or two surveys, but hundreds of research concluded that "watching violence on television will increase aggressive behavior for the audience!" Have we ever thought for a moment, that what is presented in our televisions - are packaged in the form of entertainment - in fact no longer able to provide proper entertainment value. Have we ever thought that television offerings were labeled "education", it actually has an impact that is "not educated"? Television can be a source of "evil" that is present without permission in the middle of our living rooms, if we do not address the intelligent presence.

1. BACKGROUND In our daily lives, almost certainly we will never be separated from the "media trap". When we're at home, we never missed a television. When we are on a journey, driving a car, for example, radio broadcasting is a medium that accompany our journey. And when we get to the office though, we are still exposed to newspapers or magazines, internet media and the like. Such consequences should we experience life in the information age today. If we try to escape from reality, then we will be a human being "excluded" from the association of our daily lives. Inevitably, that what we are talking about day-to-day, whether at home, on the go and in which we work, least affected by what we know from the media. Media has enriched our knowledge and the media also have given the significance of our lives, so that we become a person who could be "acceptable" in the scope of social interaction in the community. Who can hinder the presence of a number of new values in our house, when information technology is so open and the presence of the mass media can no longer containable. Even the television media has now become a guest "uninvited" who stop by every day and every hour in our house. Through these media, the new values imparted to almost all members of the family, especially our children. Not all the new values it instilled positive meaning. There is research that says that of the 10 events on television, nine of which contain hardness value! Another survey showed that watching violence increases

2. IDEAL VALUES MEDIA TELEVISION Ideally, the presence of the mass media should be able to create a civilization of the nation to be treading a better life. Private television that has existed since 20 years ago has not been doing a lot of progress to release the nation from chaos. The mass media should be a major pioneer in improving the welfare of the nation, including providing the motivation to be more optimistic look to the future. But what may make, it is a fact that happened, the presence of the mass media is not in accordance with what we would expect. Moreover for the television medium. That burden should be greater because the television mentioned having a very strong influence in comparison to other media. As the electronic media, the presence of television using the public domain in the form of publicly owned frequencies and penetration into private houses directly without "permission". Therefore, anyone can not circumvent the media exposure.

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Academic environment is usually the loudest media highlights this television because it is influenced by the adherents of critical media paradigm of the Frankfurt School (1930) led by Theodor Adorno and Max Hockheimer. They give special attention to the quality of communication and human life, especially on the issue of inequality and oppression. Television pictures are now much more intoxicated with the events that just thinking reap as many ads as much as possible, without ever taking into account the impact on the audience. If that was the case, but any labels that appear in a television show is now more oriented to the business, rather than its primary function as a means of education for the audience. Not everything that is presented by the mass media have a positive impact on our lives. Several studies conducted mention that the mass media could also negatively impact the community. Of course, the negative impact of the media will occur, when just thinking about the business side of the media only. Thought is then called by experts, that the mass media has now transformed into an octopus who calls himself a "neo-capitalist", a neatly packaged, but it still "colonized" lives. Idealistic side and the business side of the media-management of any type and form described as a knife "double-edged". On the one hand, the mass media should serve the mission ideal as a means to convey information to the public, and the aspirations of the people as a means of social control, but on the other side, the media should also be able to support themselves in order to live sustainably. Unfortunately, sometimes the medium is more

likely to turn to the business side rather than the idealist. Consideration to earn "profit" has overcome greater importance of the media as a tool in the information is true to the community. The negative impact of the mass media, especially audio-visual media television has been studied by experts. Why is the television media to attract more experts to investigate, because this medium has the advantage of sound and pictures, A blend of form submission of messages may also be very attractive to the majority of the people of Indonesia. When reading the numbers of our society is still relatively low and radio broadcast media over the media serve as "entertainment", the medium of television was born as an alternative media that are of interest to our community. Not surprisingly, that when we talk about the most widely "consumed" by the people of Indonesia, the television media is the answer. Television is so familiar and has become an indispensable part of our daily lives. This is the most common media we consume, because it is so easily accessible. Television has become the media "learning" for the majority of the Indonesian people; especially the middle to lower the level of education is relatively low. Because it is so easily accessible, then the messages through media such as television are now difficult to distinguish, where the message really gives the educational process and which shows that it could be "misleading". 3. NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TELEVISION DISPLAY Along with the presence of the private television station in Indonesia since about twenty years ago, followed by a booming presence back a private television station,

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including local television elapsed areas-areas since the last five years, the euphoria of private television now strongly felt by our society. On the one hand, the presence of the television media should we welcome gracefully as it will give enlightenment to the people of Indonesia, but on the other hand we also feel concerned, because the shows on television these days as is "deviated" and already "too far", out of the way it should be. A variety of new programs try to be born by the managers of the program broadcast on a number of private television stations. While trying to update the old program, adapted to the contemporary era. On the pretext of maintaining the rating, which broadcasts programs should no longer worthy to be watched by the public continues to be maintained. Almost every day of our society that in fact most of which are in the category of low levels of education, and hold "fooled" by the shows on television. Shows that explore the problem of "occult" for example, which should only believed that the world was indeed exist, is now abuzz "revealed" to the real world. Due to the low level of education, then the impression like that, just to digest the audience without going through the process of filtration. Since the medium of television shows are audio-visual, then the message would be more readily accepted by the audience. Mystical impressions on television it had become a trend in some of our television stations a few years ago, although the trend is now starting to decline. Hearing his name, such as "natural magic", "magical world", or "mystical world" and the like, is already making it appear

daunting and unreasonable. Visualization of supernatural beings who considered too excessive concern. Some soap operas are commonly present a frightening and horrible images and sadistic acts. Soap operas aired on strategic hours while the family watched television together. As a result, the impression has the potential to make children become frightened. Visualization to be greatly exaggerated, as the maggots out of the body remains, or flailing hand from the grave. Such scenes were very inappropriate aired through the television screen that can reach millions of viewers from all walks of life. In other cases, shows soap operas on television, air-setting schools and school uniforms, it has been harassing the world of education and the example is not good and does not educate. Sexual harassment between a students as if something reasonable. They argue is a portrait of teen soap operas today. In fact, there is no educational world as portrayed in the soap opera. Therefore, the government should take strict action against exploitation of actions in the world of education is not true. Ministry of Education, should intervene to ban certain things to the producer, in order to run for children and adolescents are not excessive. State must act decisively, not only with the statement "poor" or "regret". Symptoms that previously occurred in some soap opera on television shows us, is already in "alarming" viewers. The stories that appear not "grounded", visualizing ideas and no longer reflect the real condition of our society. Even the solution was raised, not try to explore the potential and fighting spirit of the audience.

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In other words, the shows were soap operas we really have to be a "dream world" momentary "lull" the audience. They forget that life is to be fought, hard work is not easy to produce a successful future. Then, the real soap opera stories actually were telling the people of the world. This fact makes us more "bitter" by the presence of television in our homes. During this (probably) do not realize, that television has become a "sitter" both for the children, when they are not with us. Television has become a source of inspiration for the children, when the parents - as the place to ask - do not be by his side. Then how we should behave to some television shows that were increasingly "out of control" and not showing "good intentions"? The mass media, especially television, is touted as an extension (the extension of man) to reach the information. Television is an extension of the audience's eyes and ears to see and hear things going on around us, even the events that took place away from the reach of our reason, including the supernatural events are then visualized in the form of mystical earlier. So the mass media such as television can indeed be used for various things, including adding science. Be our television audience that is instrumental, that is what makes the television audience as "business friend". He will approach us when they want to know something. We control our television and not controlled television.

ability to instill certain beliefs about the facts that are happening around us. For example, when a television with incessant preaching terrorism, we tend to believe that terrorists are all around us. Moreover, if the display is something that we have previously believed, as the existence of the supernatural and supernatural beings before, shows like that tends to reinforce our beliefs about it. There are three criteria when a message of mass media (television) audience received. First, the message of television up to the viewer without the need for guidance or direction. Secondly, the message to the medium of television without the need for thought. Third, the message through the medium of television does not provide for the separation of viewers, meaning that anyone can watch television images. The three characteristics of a message through the medium of television is going to be good if the message is a message of good and moral. Instead, it will be a great danger when the television broadcast programs that are likely to mislead, as in some mystical impressions. One of the three criteria of concern due to the audience was under age (children). It was hard to explain the sound of reason and logic are correct, when children witness scenes outside the boundaries of knowledge. In fact, children tend to trust and believe 100 percent truth, from what they saw on screen. Many things related to embedded values and norms embedded television to viewers. First, the type of audience. If we fall into the category audience heavyweight (6-8 hours a day watching television), we tend to be

4. STRENGTHS MESSAGE MEDIA TELEVISION Because of its advantages audiovisual, television has the function of cultivation, the

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easily influenced by the norms propagated television. However, if we become spectators lightweight (1-2 hours a day), we can weigh the offer values exhibited television. Second, the source of information held. If television is the only source of information, it could be assumed that television can influence the values and norms of society completely. However, if we also read books, including religious books, following discussions and lectures regularly, and seek information elsewhere comparison of values and norms is not easy at the television will affect our attitude. We will try to compare the last televised information with other knowledge we have. Third, if our social ties, starting from the smallest unit (the family) are strong, the onslaught of values and norms that delivered the television can be offset. Changes in values and norms are often apt to occur among people who "breaks", who lack strong social bonds. Therefore, suggested that in the face watching television and the mass media, we should not be losing my mind. We must be critical in capturing any information delivered television. Perceptibility must continue vigorous as good as any television show. Make religious values and norms that we believe to have been the benchmark in assessing each case that comes to us. Moreover, Muslim viewers would have its own views and beliefs relating to matters that are supernatural. TV is one of the most important media in influencing and shaping the character of a nation. For that deliver quality programs and education becomes absolute broadcasters to do this. The Indonesian Broadcasting Commission (KPI) is an independent agency that regulates

many things about broadcasting primarily on broadcast content. Various possessed such authority to give tickets for public broadcasting licenses, and monitor all of the content of the broadcast, making it one of the fortress KPI monitoring to protect the public from broadcast content containing pornography and violence. Rating that is considered a "god" major determinant of the sustainability of a program, it can not describe the quality of a program. Many great events but rather the rating is low (range 1-2), so that with these conditions many people in the television industry are frustrated because it continues the chase with the rating. But many phenomena occur, an event that is less qualified -- though the ratings are low - but the ad is adequate, because there is an audience and advertisers who do not need a rating, but the quality of the show. There are things that are methodologically questionable than this rating, because we have no idea how much margin of error of their research. But they (AC Nielsen, agency of rating program) still believe in the absence of rating agencies in Indonesia. By because the government needs to conduct a thorough assessment of the television rating agencies, rating agencies worry because activities "distort" the role of education at the expense of quality television. Impact TV rating agency committed by only one agency (AC Nielsen) is recognized by the Commission I, KPI (Indonesian Broadcasting Commission), private TV and Chairman of the Press Council, has a weak methodology. Generally outsourcers rely on high and low rating (a measure of the duration or frequency of the event watched by viewers), regardless of

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the quality and impact of the TV broadcast in the public eye. If this phenomenon continues to proceed without evaluation, it can collide with the mandate of the 1945 Constitution, Article 31 paragraph 3 related to the ideals of national education "increase faith and devotion and noble character in the context of the intellectual life of the nation". This phenomenon is also contrary to the Broadcasting Law No. 32/2002 which direction to maintain and improve the morality and religious values and national identity (Article 5 Paragraph b & b and Article 48 Paragraph 2 and 4).

Because, if the program violent movies or soap operas can be explained that the scene was just a game scenario aka "fake", while the news program, scenes of violence were actually real and going somewhere. Thus the influence of media on public opinion about the ins and outs of crime. Redatin (2002) in his dissertation titled “Television Media Influence on Deviation Values and Behavior in the city of Yogyakarta” (Gadjah Mada University, 2002) found that watching violent scenes that pay attention not just indulgence. There were respondents who claimed to learn the tricks of violent scenes on television just to commit a crime. The study further strengthens the argument that no matter how bright side, reporting crime to exploit violence and irregularities fixed value more bad for society. Conditions "bipolar" will happen, people will feel secure against evil (fear of crime), and or even less concerned with crime so look at all events against humanity as the familiar. According to criminologist, Masdiana, mimicry or imitation (copycat) crimes refer to the theory of imitation by the French sociologist Gabriel Tarde (1843-1904), people are always in the process of imitating. When people are fed daily values of hardness and roughness, people will eventually imitate the violence. According to the grants, the mass media has the strongest effect on the community in terms of imitation is the medium of television. Referring to the theory of cultivation was initiated by George Gerbner (1960), the mass media can instill values that will influence the attitudes and behavior of audiences. News that aired criminals with high intensity increases

5. WATCH DISPLAY OF VIOLENCE IN TELEVISION Another phenomenon also appeared in the television shows we are shown private blood spills due to victims of violence and crime. Every day the people served by the shows that "sadistic" that makes them become "accustomed" with atmosphere of violence and crime. Through the shows like that was the end of our society "learn" about the violence and sadism. Impressions of violence was no longer on the program films or soap operas off the end of the story is not clear. But this time there is violence in news programs, as a statement of facts and data or actual occurrence of an event. On behalf of "exclusivity" which successfully recorded images from the scene, a scene of violence that continues to be repeated, from dawn till dusk, in a program that serves the truth of fact, that "television news". Why impressions scenes of violence in news programs is much more "dangerous" than the other programs such as film separated.

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the likelihood of implantation outlook and people's fear of crime in the vicinity. There is a close relationship between televised violence to what happens in real life. This was based on research findings Leonard Eron and Rowell Huesman against violence programs in American television shows in the late 1990's. Eron and a scrape Huesman media effect on the audience of children who grew up from the age of 8 years to 22 years later. As a result, violent spectacle enjoyed by children at age 8 would encourage criminal acts at the age of 30 years. Other researchers, Fishman (1976), in how media create crime waves, found evidence in his research in New York, reported that the crime wave that is formed by the media. A lot of the crime that has been presented in the media is a selection of journalists according to his perception. Preaching crime he did not heed the lively atmosphere in the community could prove very dangerous. At midnight on March 3, 1991, a young black man named Rodney King (25) drive the car in a state of half-drunk. Police on duty tried to stop him, but King actually sped faster. In this pursuit, he eventually caught. King then beaten by a gang of four police officers from the LAPD. The scene was captured by someone through handycame camera device and then send it to one of the television stations, and broadcast news programs. Footage that has sparked riots in almost all the continental United States. Back on impressions of violence that often appear in news programs on our television lately. It is likely unrest or violence following in some areas, may be triggered by the display of

violence shown our television news. If that's the cause, then all parties, especially the television media managers have to start thinking about the impact of the news presented. In the concept of policy coverage, there is the so-called news value (the value of news) and news judgment. An event or events that have a very high news value is not necessarily feasible appointed as news, when viewed from the side of the news judgment, would cause undesirable effects. Therefore, when in the field to cover the facts of events, a journalist had to think hard to fully mature consideration, whether the news will be airing it will not cause a more severe impact on the community. This is what is meant by consideration of news or news judgment. Scenes of violence shown in television news programs in the media lately as if it gets a "justification", when the media confronted with increasingly fierce competition with other media. Pursuit of ratings, the media will be willing to take pains to present something completely different. It is easy to understand because it linked to the struggle for a powerful ad serving on business continuity. Television stations serving impressions crime "bold", was reaping ad spending is relatively larger. In the media industry competition more exciting, technical considerations are only based on technical ethical issues. At this time, in the context of media competition, each vying to present a live broadcast or a reality show. Picture taken without directing process. Viewers as if invited to be in the middle of the event. Because of the events covered by running fast, then the aspects that need to be considered for both

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broadcasters often overlooked. No matter what the impact to the community, what is important is the running catch. Competition of this kind inevitably, has penetrated in our television world. Fruits of fierce competition is reflected in the rise of crime and violence exploitation impressions on television stations. Interest in viewers to violence has been a farm business inexhaustible excavated. However, it always needs to be watched because every creation of the reality of violence and crime contains many dangers in the future. The mass media tend to be the more "inspiring" people to commit crimes, the perpetrators of crime tend to imitate the practices of other crimes through the mass media. The indication is the emergence of symptom similarity crime cases are prominent in recent years. It can not directly accuse the media (television) as a direct cause of the incident, but to say that television has become "inspiration" for the perpetrators of similar crimes, it does not seem to be denied. According grants, media becomes a learning tool for actors in the crime package. He cited the cases of mutilation murders with the latter appearing repeatedly. Impersonation or imitation mechanisms occur either directly (direct effect) or delayed (delayed effect). In children, the media provide an immediate impact, such as the case of impressions smackdown on television, while for adults, the impact is delayed. The mass media has the strongest effect on the community in terms of imitation is television. Indeed, reality is always fragmentatif media. The fragmentation of the media is of

course influenced by the preaching of the options according to broadcaster interests. The reality of the displayed media is a reality that has been selected, or known as "second-hand reality" (Grace, 2001). Television selecting certain characters to be displayed and the exclusion of other figures. Unfortunately, we can not check the events presented media. We tend to get information is solely based on what the media presented, so that in the end, we form our image of social reality based on second hand shown earlier mass media. One theory about media mentions, that the audience learn from what they read, what they hear and what they see in their daily life. This is called the media has given the process of learning (social learning) for the audience. Most of the science in the communities, including obtained from the mass media. The process of social learning from the mass media are believed to be more easily captured and broadly accepted, rather than learning from formal knowledge, such as formal education. When the owners and managers of mass media (television) are more concerned with business than idealistic element, then in the end the word "rating" has become the sole reason enough to be used as a reference resulted in a program. If a program enthused audience-even though the program is likely to mislead - it will soon be followed by other television. The reason is very pragmatic, if a program is watched by many viewers-which means a lot of money through ad insertionthere is no reason for private television stations to stop those impressions.

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By observers, television is now referred to as a form of "new capitalism" is no longer ignored moral values prevailing in society. Just for the reason that the pursuit of ratings, most TV shows in Indonesia has strayed from the values and social institutions that embraced the community. All the reasons cited by the managers of the private television station-the reason for the pursuit of business value-perhaps due to the absence of the control efforts of the community to display television programs. When a program containing the value of the 'controversial' aired by a television station, the public was just resigned to just accept the program. Although in his heart a desire to "protest", but people do not know through which the protest was to be done. Society ended up just being on the "helpless", and could not do anything when the impressions she had seen no soul liking. The manager of the television media was not yet optimal to make himself as a powerful force to change people's behavior for the better. Various complaints of programs televised frequently asked by certain community groups. However, along with that, the kind of program is still running. In fact, there is a tendency for managers of private television vying for profits regardless of the impact that might be caused by "greed" is.

competitors who do not hesitate to do anything for the sake of ratings. Therefore, though conscious of his guilt, most industry leaders feel powerless to take no part take the lowly. If you do not take a penalty rocking “dangdut” very vulgar and stimulating, they will be buried by “dangdut” shows on television next door. Mass production programs, other television bandwagon because they were sold, as it is a necessity. Because the market demand can not be avoided by those who want to survive in this highly competitive industry. Therefore, the question is, to what extent would a television station and dare not to show the program turned bad taste, a program that befouled the nation, in order to achieve a higher rating? All those who have seen the television Indonesia would not be difficult to digest that education and public awareness to be able to think intelligently and not the main goal telecast in the country. The television industry is also not to blame for granted. Therefore, the fact that polls ever held Kompas (9/2008), indicating that the audience was satisfied with television images today. Attempts to criticize the content of television programs should be done because of the high trust that the media, especially television, has a powerful effect on the audience. Indeed, in the study of classical communication and the dominant influence of the media have ups and downs. However, the general theory of media effects has been moved from the limited effects (limited effect) a powerful effects (effects not limited). Most experts believe mass communications, media have great power to influence the audience.

6. BE SMART TV VIEWERS Indonesian television industry is experiencing an era of foolish or perish. Those who refused to deliver a program that is becoming a trend-even though the program was tasteful and not educating low-be crushed by

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Fight smart media, this may be the key word for parents in dealing with television lately. Because we can not force the television media managers that will follow us, providing the shows that fit our expectations. Inevitably we alone must take intelligent attitude toward the television media. We ourselves must explicitly decide which impressions may be stopped in the middle of our living rooms and which shows that we are not at all allowed to be in our living rooms. This is called a smart action on television. The condition of Indonesian society is far different from the western countries, the conditions of life and level of education is very advanced. If in the western countries, a certain group of people can make a motion "advocacy" to reject television shows that do not comply with the conditions of their audience. While our society, the same situation still could not be created. When there is an event that is not worth watching, people we just let go, helpless and accept what is. As one of the awareness of the media (media literacy), we need to understand also that the television media does not simply affect the audience directly. The question is, do we need to take that risk? Why not broadcast programs that are not only based on the market, but also by our common sense that will enlighten and educate the audience. If we trace the other democracies, in fact many things we can do deals with programs that do not educate the public television audience. The point is to gather the strength to respond to media impressions rather than just remain silent. One of the "extreme" is often

done is "boycotting" products that advertise on programs that are considered twit. However, if the station's managers realized that they were actually a time bomb that could explode at any time decline in moral values and civilization of mankind? It urges that we may force managers to be done is a kind of television station signing a "moratorium" together. This sort of "truce" between managers television stations not to broadcast programs that are thought to fool the public. A small scale and as a form of awareness and learning to the media, public television viewers can sort out its own interests in the television media consumption. This perspective is a paradigm by looking at the audience motivation in determining whether or not a functional media and messages (Blumler, Katz, 1974). Audiences are used as a point of major concern by policy makers (managers of television stations) in determining and designing each message. Logic is not much different from the patterns adopted by the industry that is always oriented to the market. Criteria for the design of a program is compliance with the market share of viewers (market share) are anticipated to receive the product. Products will only be made if it can be projected markets and consumers who will accept it. Television programs will only be made if it is known who the audience will enjoy it. 7. CONCLUSION Within the scope of a democratic society, the mass media imperative objective function that connects people with public life.

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The goal is nothing to protect the citizens of the state structural power penetration, capital, and social (or religious communalism). People have the right to get the correct information. One of the actions that can be done to break the "chain" spread "the virus of violence" against children as a result of television is to turn off the television itself. But turn off the television in the midst of children who were engrossed in watching a television program, it is also not an easy job. If turning off the television is not an act of a "wise", then one of the actions that can be done is to accompany children when they watch the program on the screen. Parents must be willing to sit with them, even if the program is being watched children's events. Parents should help explain each image that appears in front of him, if the image contains illogical that can not be accepted by common sense children. Because it is not possible, the program shows children though, incoherence may arise, either in the form of drawings or in narrative form the theme displayed. The position of children on television is very weak. This relates to the nature of the child include: first, children difficult to distinguish where impressions are good or bad, which is appropriate imitated or ignored. Second, children do not have and do not have restrictions selfcensorship value. Third, children who watch television are passive and uncritical. Consequently, all of which will be televised as a natural thing. These properties are very vulnerable when television images of "antisocial" as violence and pornography hit them.

Maybe we still remember, how the story of a boy named Sinchan figure, the behavior is not "obscene" to the teachers at her school. Sinchan figure is not a good role model for our children, but surprisingly, it is a place Sinchan movie and highly favored by nearly all of the children in this country. From the results of a survey, known to many parents who do not realize the impact of TV viewing on the development of children. Some parents do not even feel the need to prohibit or direct the child who wants to watch a show for adults. With the advocacy of people who refuse certain impressions of a television station, at least, would be its own record for the managers of television stations are concerned, the event airing less pleasing in the community and does not make them smart. Efforts to empower the mass media (especially television media) in order to be a medium that gives enlightenment to the public, is to be critical of the shows on television. The critical attitude is then known as a form of "media advocacy", which is pushing for the television media to join the frontline in educate audiences The key to making the television media as a vehicle to educate the nation is to have the attitude determination of the media. The concept is the three key words, namely "Let smart watch television. Let us watch smart television, and let's intelligent smart watch television ". *** 8. REFERENCES: Asep Syamsul M. Romli, Jurnalistik Praktis, PT. Rosdakarya, Bandung, 2005

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Baksin, Askurifai, Jurnalistik Televisi: Teori dan Praktek, Simbiosa Rekatama Media. Brooks, Brian S., et al., News Reporting and Writing, third edition, St. Martin Press, NY, 1998. Chandler, Daniel, 1994. Grammar of Televison and Film. Download (22/12/06) dari http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/short /gramtv.html Iskandar Muda, Deddy, Jurnalistik Televisi: Menjadi Reporter Profesional, PT. Remaja Rosdakarya, Bandung, 2005. Iswara, Dana, Mengangkat Peristiwa ke Layar Kaca: Panduan Menjadi Jurnalis Televisi, Lembaga Studi Pers dan Pembangunan, Jakarta,2007. Kekuasaan, Merosotnya Peran Kaum Profesional dalam Masyarakat, Penerbit PT Pustaka Utama Grafiti, Jakarta, 1972. Kovach, Bill dan Tom Rosenstiel. Sembilan Elemen Jurnalisme, Jakarta: Pantau, 2003. Littlejohn, Stephen, W., Theories of Human Communication, Belmont, California, 2001. Lynch, Jake, et al., ( 2000), 'Peace journalism & the Kosovo crisis': the UK's first analysis of the Kosovo conflict from a peace journalism perspective”, www.mediachannel.org Mcluhan, Marshallm Understanding Media: The Extension of Man. London: Routledge, 2002 McQuail D and S Windahl, Communication Models: for the Study of Mass Communications, London : Longman Group UK Limited, 1987. Morissan, Jurnalistik Televisi Mutakhir, Ramdina Prakarsa, Tangerang, 2005.

Mulyana, Deddy, Ilmu Komunikasi: Suatu Pengantar, PT. Remaja Rosdakarya, Bandung, 2002. PJTV Program Pelatihan Jurnalistik Televisi, ABC Program Berita TV, FISIP UI, Jakarta, 2001. Piliang, Yasraf Amir, “Hegemoni, Kekerasan Simbolik Media, Sebuah Analisis tentang Ideologi Media”, makalah pada Seminar Keberpihakan Media Cetak dalam Pemberitaan, Lembaga Studi Perubahan Sosial, Surabaya, 22 Mei 2000 Rakhmat, Jalaluddin, Psikologi Komunikasi, Bandung: Remaja Karya, 1985 Salajan, Horea., Peasgood, Russell., Reynolds, Imelda. ABC Paket Berita TV. PJTV Internews Indonesia. 2001. Sri Andayani dan Hanif Suranto, Perilaku Antisosial di Layar Kaca; Bercinta dengan Televisi, Bandung: Remaja Rosda Karya, 1997 Wibowo, Fred, Teknik Produksi Program Televisi, Pinus, Yogyakarta, 2007. (http://dsccfikomunpad.blogspot.com/2007/12/ pre-production-editor-section.html) (http://www.esmartschool.com/PNK/002/PNK0020006.asp). (http:/wikipedia/editing.com). Televisi Berita Produser Deskripsi Pekerjaan How.com http://www.ehow.com/facts_5899240_televisio n-news-producer-jobdescription.html#ixzz18EYS7zuK Webster's New Dictionary and Thesaurus. Concise Edition. 1990. New York: Russel, Geddes & Grosset. About Author:

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Dr. DEDE MULKAN. PhD in the field of television in the Graduate School of Communication Studies, University of Padjadjaran, Bandung in 2011. Graduated levels Postgrad S2 Master of Communication Studies at the University of Indonesia in 1996, and the program of the Department of Journalism Degree, Faculty of Communication UNPAD of 1988. Active as a lecturer in the Department of Journalism Padjadjaran University since the year 1989 until now, especially for courses in television; Television News Production, Television Feature Production, Television Journalism, Journalism Languages, Introduction to Journalism and Basic of Photography. Some popular writings frequently appear in local newspapers and other daily in the capital. Has written books, including: Intelligent Watching Television (2011), Death of Journalism Code of Ethics (2012), Notes a

Corner, a collection of essays in a newspaper article (2013), and an Introduction to Journalism (2013). The International Seminar ever attended as speakers, among others: “The Effects of Violence on Indonesian Television Programs” on The 10th Indonesia-Malaya Culture Symposium, Malaysia, 29-31 May 2007. Seminar on "New Media and Human Civilization", in Bandung, 28 September 2011. "Developing a Media and Information Literacy Program" at the 15th CONSAL Meeting and General Conference, Bali, 28-31 May 2012. In addition to providing a brief training to the field of Journalism Television and Photography, Communications and Public Relations. To be able to communicate via email: [email protected] Now runs a forum on facebook under the name "Smart Watch Television" (Cerdas Nonton Televisi).

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negative impacts of television program (private television - TIJOSS

NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TELEVISION PROGRAM (PRIVATE TELEVISION PROGRAM CASES IN INDONESIA) Dr. DEDE MULKAN Lecturer Department of Journalism, Faculty of C...

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