Mughal Gardens Bibliography - Gardens of the Mughal Empire


GARDENS OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE BIBLIOGRAPHIC UPDATE James L. Wescoat, Jr. (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) Abdul Rehman (University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore) Edited by Laura T. Schneider

June 11, 2007 This reference list builds upon the original Bibliography for the Web site Key additions include: • • •

References from 2001 through 2007. Earlier references that were omitted in the initial bibliography, including references to water in South Asian environmental design. References for the new Roads beyond Lahore Web pages with an emphasis on Mughal history and culture in Pakistan.

The categories in this update are more streamlined than those in the main bibliography, with references organized in seven main sections: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Indo-Islamic History, Geography, and Culture Mughal and Islamicate Gardens, Waterworks, Arts, and Conservation Cultural Heritage of Punjab Cultural Heritage of Lahore Cultural Heritage of Multan and Southern Punjab Cultural Heritage of Peshawar and the Western Grand Trunk Road Plants and Vegetation of Southwest Asia

1. Indo-Islamic History, Geography, and Culture (with emphasis on Mughal culture) Alam, Muzaffar and Françoise Delvoye Nalini. The Making of Indo-Persian Culture: Indian and French studies. New Delhi: Manohar Publishers & Distributors, 2000. Ali, M. Athar. The Mughal Nobility under Aurangzeb. Delhi and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. Ali, M. Athar. Mughal India: Studies in Polity, Ideas, Society, and Culture. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2006. Anooshahr A. “Mughal Historians and the Memory of the Islamic Conquest of India.” Indian Economic and Social History Review 43, no. 3 (2006): 275-300.

Arlinghaus, Joseph Theodore. “The Transformation of Afghan Tribal Society: Tribal Expansion, Mughal Imperialism and the Roshaniyya Insurrection, 1450-1600.” Ph.D. diss., Duke University, 1988. Ashraf, Kunwar Muhammad. Life and Conditions of the People of Hindustan (1200-1550 A.D.): Mainly Based on Islamic Sources. New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House, 2000. Asher, Catherine B., and Cynthia Talbot. India Before Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Babur, Emperor of Hindustan, 1483-1530. Porso Shamsiev, Sodiq Mirzaev, and others. Boburnoma. Toshkent: “Sharq” nashriët-matbaa aktsiiadorlik kompaniiasi Bosh tahririiati, 2002. Bakshi, S. R. and S. K. Sharma. Society, Culture and Administration in Mughal India. New Delhi: Deep & Deep Publications, 2000. Balabanlilar Lisa. “Lords of the Auspicious Conjunction: Turco-Mongol Imperial Identity on the Subcontinent.” Journal of World History 18, no. 1 (2007): 1-39. Barzegar, Karim Najafi. Mughal-Iranian Relations during the Sixteenth Century. Delhi: Indian Bibliographies Bureau, 2000. Beach, Milo Cleveland, Ebba Koch, and W. M. Thackston. King of the World: The Padshahnama, an Imperial Mughal Manuscript from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle. London: Royal Collection, 1997. Behl, Aditya. “Rasa and Romance: The Madhumalati of Shaikh Manjhan Shattari.” Ph.D. diss.,University of Chicago, 1995. Bennison, Amira K.; Gascoigne, Alison L. Cities in the Pre-Modern Islamic World: The Urban Impact of State, Society and Religion. New York, N.Y.: Routledge, 2007. Chandra, Satish. Medieval India: from Sultanat to the Mughals. New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications, 2000. _________. Parties and Politics at the Mughal Court, 1707-1740. New Delhi and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Choudhary, Muhammad Ali. “Shah Shuja’s Flight to Iran and Its Consequences.” Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society L, no. 4 (2002): 27-38. Clingingsmith, David, and Jeffrey G. Williamson. “Mughal Decline, Climate Change, and Britain's Industrial Ascent: An Integrated Perspective on India's 18th and 19th Century Deindustrialization.” Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2005.


Dadvar, Abolghasem. Iranians in Mughal Politics and Society, 1606-1658. New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House, 2000. Dani, A.H. “Unity and Diversity in Islamic Architecture.” Journal of Central Asia XXI, no. 1 (July 1999): 50-58. Desai, Zia ud Din. “The Fifteenth-Century Maathir Muhammad Shahi Written in Gujrat: Dynastic History, Monographic History or Universal History?” Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society XLVI, no. 3 (1998): 63-68. Eaton, Richard M. India’s Islamic Traditions, 711-1750. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. Eraly, Abraham. The Mughal Throne: The Saga of India's Great Emperors. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2003. Farooqi, N. R. “The Resurgence of the Chishtis: A Survey of the Expansion and Fulfillment of a Sufi Order in Mughal India.” Islamic Culture 78, no. 1 (2004): 1ff. Farooqui, Salma Ahmed. Islam and the Mughal State. New Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan, 2005. Faruqui, Munis Daniyal. “Princes and Power in the Mughal Empire, 1569-1657.” Ph.D. diss., Duke University, 2002. Fisher, Michael Herbert. Visions of Mughal India: An Anthology of European Travel Writing. London: I. B. Tauris, 2007. Flores, Jorge Manuel, and António Vasconcelos deSaldanha. Os Firangis na Chancelaria Mogol: cópias Portuguesas de documentos de Akbar, 1572-1604. Nova Deli: Embaixada de Portugal, 2003. Flores, Jorge, and Sanjay Subrahmanyam. “The Shadow Sultan: Succession and Imposture in the Mughal Empire, 1628-1640.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 47, no. 1 (2004): 80-121. Foltz, Richard. Mughal India and Central Asia. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1998. Gadebusch, Raffael Dedo. “Celestial Gardens: Mughal Miniatures from an EighteenthCentury Album.” Orientations 31, no. 9 (2000): 69-75. Gobind Singh, Guru, 1666-1708. Zafaranama: Epistle of Victory. Aurangzeb, Darshan Singh, and others. New Delhi: ABC Pub. House, 2000.


Gordon, Stewart. Robes of Honour: Khil'at in Pre-colonial and Colonial India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2003. Haidar, Mansura. S. Zaidi, A. Inayat, and M.A. Ansari. Central Asian Heritage in the Mughal Polity. Delhi: Aakar Books, 2003. Hasan, Farhat. State and Locality in Mughal India: Power Relations in Western India, circa 1572-1730. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Ishtiaq Khan, Muhammad. World Heritage Sites in Pakistan. Islamabad: UNESCO, 2000. Joffee, Jennifer Beth. “Art, Architecture and Politics in Mewar, 1628-1710 (India).” Ph.D. diss., University of Minnesota, 2005. Johnson, Nola Jeanette. “Paradisiacal imagery in early Islamic art.” Ph.D. diss., University of Toronto, 1998. Keene, Manuel, and Salam Kaoukji. Treasury of the World: Jewelled Arts of India in the Age of the Mughals. London: Thames & Hudson in association with the al-Sabah Collection, Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah, Kuwait National Museum, 2001. Kessler, Rochelle L. Studies in Islamic and Later Indian Art from the Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Harvard University Art Museums. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Art Museums, Arthur M. Sackler Museum, 2002. Koch, E. “Netherlandish Naturalism in Imperial Mughal Painting.” Apollo 152, no. 465 (2000): 29-37. Krynicki, Annie K. Captive Princess: Zebunissa, Daughter of Emperor Aurangzeb. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2005. Lal, Ruby. Domesticity and Power in the Early Mughal World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. LaRocque, Brendan P. “Trade, State, and Religion in Early Modern India: Devotionalism and the Market Economy in the Mughal Empire.” Ph.D. Diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2004. Littlefield, Sharon E. “The Object in the Gift: Embassies of Jahangir and Shah Abbas.” Ph.D. diss., University of Minnesota, 1999. Losensky, Paul E. Welcoming Fighani: Imitation and Poetic Individuality in the SafavidMughal Ghazal. Costa Mesa, Calif.: Mazda, 1998.


Maloni, Ruby. Surat, Port of the Mughal Empire. Mumbai: Himalaya Publishing House, 2003. Mitchell, Colin Paul. Sir Thomas Roe and the Mughal Empire. Karachi: Area Study Centre for Europe, 2000. Mohammed, Jigar. Revenue-Free Land Grants in Mughal India: Awadh Region in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (1658-1765). New Delhi: Manohar, 2002. Mughal Empire, Time Map. Muhamud b. Amir Wali Balkhi. Bahr al- Asrar Fi Marifat il-Akhyar.Vol. I: Annotated English translation of portion related to South Asia; ed. Ansar Zahid Khan. Karachi: Pakistan Historical Society, 1996. Mukherjee, Soma. Royal Mughal Ladies and their Contributions. New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House, 2001. Mukhia, Harbans. The Mughals of India: A Framework for Understanding. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, 2004. Palit, Mriducchanda. “Powers behind the Throne: Women in Early Mughal Politics.” Faces of the Feminine in Ancient, Medieval, and Modern India. Ed. Mandakranta Bose. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Pandian, Anand S. “Predatory Care: The Imperial Hunt in Mughal and British India.” Journal of Historical Sociology 14, no. 1 (2001): 79-107. Phukan, Shantanu. “Through a Persian Prism: Hindi and Padmavat in the Mughal Imagination. Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 2000. Pirbhai, Reza. “Antagonistic Utopias: A Cultural Approach to Mughal Polity and Muslim Nationalism.” Ph.D. diss., University of Toronto, 2004. Polier, Colonel de, Muzaffar Alam, and Seema Alavi. A European Experience of the Mughal Orient: The I`jaz-i Arsalani (Persian letters 1773-1779) of Antoine-Louis Henri Polier. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001. Qureshi, M. Imran, Hammad Nasr, Qamaar Adamjee. Karkhana: A Contemporary Collaboration. Ridgefield, Conn.: Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum, 2005. Rajgor, Dilip, and Zubair Khan. Collector's Guide to Mughal Coins. Mumbai : University of Mumbai, Dinesh Mody Numismatic Museum, 2002. Robinson, Francis. The Mughal Emperors and the Islamic Dynasties of India, Iran, Central Asia. London: Thames & Hudson, 2007.


Ruggles, D. Fairchild. Women, Patronage, and Self-Representation in Islamic Societies. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2000. Rustomji, Nerina. “The Garden and the Fire: Materials of Heaven and Hell in Medieval Islamic Culture.” Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 2003. Sapra, Rahul. “The Limits of Orientalism: Seventeenth-Century Representations of India.” Ph.D. diss., Queen's University (Canada), 2004. Saxena, R. K. Karkhanas of the Mughal Zamindars: A Study in the Economic Development of 18th Century Rajputana. Jaipur: Publication Scheme, 2002. Scherer, Mary Alice. “Annette Akroyd Beveridge: Victorian Reformer, Oriental Scholar (England).” Ph.D. diss., Ohio State University, 1995. Schimmel, Annemarie. The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture. London: Reaktion Books. Schmitz, Barbara, and Ziyaud-Din A. Desai. Mughal and Persian Paintings and Illustrated Manuscripts in the Raza Library, Rampur. New Delhi: Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts; Rampur: Rampur Raza Library; and New Delhi: Aryan Books International, 2006. Seyller, John William. Pearls of the Parrot of India: The Walters Art Museum, Khamsa of Amir Khusraw of Delhi. Baltimore: Walters Art Museum, 2001. Seyller, John William, and W.M. Thackston. The Adventures of Hamza: Painting and Storytelling in Mughal India. Washington, DC: Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, in association with Azimuth Editions, London, 2002. Siddiqui, Iqtidar Husain. “The Process of Urbanisation and Social Change in Pre-Mughal India.” Islamic Culture 77, no. 2 (2003): 35-56. Skelton, Robert, Rosemary Crill, and others. Arts of Mughal India: Studies in Honour of Robert Skelton. London : Victoria & Albert Museum; Ahmedabad, India: Mapin Pub., 2004. Srivastava, Ashok Kumar. Mughal Painting: An Interplay of Indigenous and Foreign Traditions. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 2000. Srivastava, S. P. Jahangir, a Connoisseur of Mughal Art. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 2001.


Stronge, Susan. Painting for the Mughal Emperor: The Art of the Book, 1560-1660. London: V&A and Harry N. Abrams, 2002. Suvorova, A. A. Muslim Saints of South Asia: The Eleventh to Fifteenth Centuries. New York: Routledge Curzon, 2004. Tan, Leng, William Edwards, Gregory Minissale, and others. Jewelled Treasures from the Mughal Courts. London: Islamic Art Society, 2002. Tirmizi, S. A. I. Mughal Documents, Vol. II: 1628-1659. New Delhi: Manohar, 1995 Topsfield, Andrew. Paintings from Mughal India. Oxford: Bodleian Library, 2007. Verma, Som Prakash, ed. Painting the Mughal Experience. New Delhi and New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Wolf, Richard K. “The Poetics of ‘Sufi’ Practice: Drumming, Dancing, and Complex Agency at Madho Lāl Husain (and Beyond).” American Ethnologist 33, no. 2 (2006): 246-268. Ziad, Zeenut. The Magnificent Mughals. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

2. Mughal and Islamicate Gardens, Waterworks, Arts, and Conservation Agarwal, A., and S. Narain. Dying Wisdom: Rise, Fall and Potential of India's Traditional Water Harvesting Systems. New Delhi: Centre for Science and Environment, 1997. _________. Making Water Everybody’s Business. New Delhi: Centre for Science and Environment, 1999. A`lam, Husang. “Fruit.” Encyclopedia Iranica, pp. 222-7. Ali, Daud. “Gardens in Early Indian Courtly Life.” Studies in History 19 (2003): 221-52. Archaeological Survey of India. Humayun's Tomb & Adjacent Monuments. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India, 2002. Bagh-e Babur Restoration Project. Aga Khan Trust for Culture and GtZ, 2002-3. Bargoti, Rajeev. Bayana, a Concept of Historical Archaeology: The Pre-Modern Urban Center. Jaipur: Publication Scheme, 2003.


Becker-Ritterspach, R. O. A. Water Conduits in the Kathmandu Valley. New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1995. Bellafiore, Vince, Terry Harkness, Amita Sinha, and J.L. Wescoat, Jr. “Taj Mahal: Romance and Reality.” Landscape Architecture Magazine (October, 2003). “Botany in India—Past and Present.” The Cultural Heritage of India, Sri Ramakrishna Centenary Memorial III (1936): 421-43. Bowe. Patrick. “Some Kew-Trained Gardeners and the Gardens of Baroda, Gujarat, India.” Garden History 34, no. 2 (2006): 192-205. Brand, Michael. “Orthodoxy, Innovation, and Revival: Considerations of the Past in Imperial Mughal Tomb Architecture.” Muqarnas 10 (1993): 323-334. Chakravarty, Kalyan Kumar, and G. L. Badam Traditional Water Management Systems of India. Bhopal: Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya; and New Delhi: Aryan Books International, 2006. Cherian, Danny. “Land, Water and Urban Form in Sultanate Delhi: Hydraulics and City Planning from 1200-1500 A.D.” in U. Fratino et al., Landscapes of Water: History, Innovation and Sustainable Design 1 (2002): 225-8. Cohen, Steven, and Nobuko Kajitani. Gardens of Eternal Spring: Two Newly Conserved Seventeenth-Century Mughal Carpets in the Frick Collection. New York: Frick Collection, 2006. Conan, Michel, ed. Middle East Garden Traditions: Unity and Diversity. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, 2007. Coomaraswamy, A. K. Yaksas. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1980. Dara Shikuh, Prince, son of Shahjahan, Emperor of India, 1615-1659, and K.L. Mehra. Nuskha dar fanni-falahat: Persian Manuscripts Compiled in the 17th Century by the Mughal Prince Dara Shikoh. Secunderabad: Asian Agri-History Foundation, 2000. Davidson-Jenkins, D. J. The Irrigation and Water Supply System of the City of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: American Institute of Indian Studies and Manohar, 1997. Day, Ian. “Project Profile: Mughal Water Garden, Bradford [England].” Landscape Design no. 304 (2001): 24. Diemer, Henrik Jørgensen. “Shalamar Bagh--en mogulhave i Indien.” Landskab 72, no. 3 (1991): 66-73. [Kashmir]


Edensor, T. Tourists at the Taj: Performance and Meaning at a Symbolic Site. London: Routledge, 1998. Ehlers, Eckart, and Thomas Krafft, eds. Shahjahanabad/Old Delhi: Tradition and Colonial Change. New Delhi: Manohar, 2003. Feldhaus, A. Water and Womanhood: Religious Meanings of Rivers in Maharashtra. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995. “Garden.” Multiple authors and articles in Encyclopedia Iranica 10, fasc. 3: 297-313. Göbel-Gross, Thomas, and Hans-Joachim Oppel, Hans-Joachim. “Die Palastgärten von Deeg.” Gartenkunst 10, no. 2 (1998): 191-209. Harkness, Terence, and Amita Sinha. “Pilgrimage to Yamuna riverfront, Agra: A Cultural Heritage Landscape.” Marg 56, no. 1 (2004): 60-69. _________. “Taj Heritage Corridor: Intersections between History and Culture on the Yamuna Riverfront.” Places 16, no. 2 (2004): 62-69. Hasan, Sheikh Khursheed. “Mughal Gardens.” Journal of Pakistan Historical Society XLVII, no.3 (1999): 81-94. Hegewald, J. “Water Architecture in Rajasthan.” Marg: Stones in the Sand—The Architecture of Rajasthan. G. Tillotson. Mumbai: Marg, 2001. Hegewald, J. A. B. Water Architecture in South Asia: A Study of Types, Developments and Meanings. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2002. Herbert, Eugenia W. “The Taj and the Raj: Garden Imperialism in India.” Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 25, no. 4 (2005): 250-272. Homayoun, Naseer Takmil. “Gardens in the History and Culture of Iran.” Journal of Central Asian Civilization XXIV (July 2001); 130-168. Hooshangi, Farideh. “Isfahan, City of Paradise: A Study of Safavid Urban Pattern and a Symbolic Interpretation of the Chahar-Bagh Gardens (Iran).” March thesis, Carleton University (Canada), 2000. Hummel, Karl. “Flora I. Historical Background.” Encyclopedia Iranica, pp. 43-6. Jain, K. B. “Contouring Urban Form: Water in Jodhpur City,” in U. Fratino et al., Landscapes of Water: History, Innovation and Sustainable Design 1 (2002): 279-82. _________. Thematic Space in Indian Architecture. Ahmedabad: India Research Press, 2002.


Jain, M. “Rescued Water Landscapes at the Fort of Nagaur, Rajasthan, India,” in U. Fratino et al., Landscapes of Water: History, Innovation and Sustainable Design 1 (2002) 282-88. _________, and K. B. Jain. The Fort of Nagaur. Jodhpur: Mehrangarh Museum Trust, 1993. Joffee, Jennifer, and D. F. Ruggles. “Rajput Gardens and Landscapes.” In Middle East Garden Traditions: Unity and Diversity, pp. 269-86. Ed. M. Conan. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks. Jutla, Rajinder Singh. “The Visual and Spatial Structure in Mughal Urban Design: The 16th Century City of Fatehpur Sikri, India.” Ph.D. diss. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1995. Kausar, Sajjad. “Symbolism in Mughal Landscape,” Journal of Central Asian Civilization XXIV, no 1. (July 2001): 102-111. Kavuri, Santhi. “From Picturesque Ruin to World Heritage Site: Spatial History of Fatehpur Sikri.” Ph.D. diss., UCLA, 2002. Keshani, Hussein. “The Architecture of Ritual: Eighteenth-Century Lucknow and the Making of the Great Imambarah Complex, a Forgotten World Monument (India).” Ph.D. diss.,University of Victoria (Canada), 2004. _________. “Building Nizamuddin: A Delhi Sultanate Dargah and Its Surrounding Buildings (India).” Master’s thesis, University of Victoria (Canada), 2000. Khan, A. N. Studies in Islamic Archaeology of Pakistan. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel, 1998 [Includes chapters on Anarkali’s tomb, Lahore Fort, and the Hiran Minar.] Khan, Mohammad Afzal. “A Monument of the Early Mughal Period: The Jami' Masjid of Pilakhna (Aligarh District).” Islamic Culture 77, no. 1 (2003): 90ff. Koch, Ebba. The Complete Taj Mahal: And the Riverfront Gardens of Agra. London: Thames & Hudson, 2006. _________. “Diwan-i Amm and Chihil Sutun: The Audience Halls of Shah Jahan.” Muqarnas 11 (1994): 143-165. _________. Mughal Art and Imperial Ideology: Collected Essays. New Delhi and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. [Includes several of her classic essays on gardens.]


_________. “‘My Garden Is Hindustan’: The Mughal Padshah’s Realization of a Political Metaphor.” In Middle East Garden Traditions: Unity and Diversity, edited by Michel Conan,159-175. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, 2007. Kulkarni, S. Y. “Rediscovering the Great Taj through the Landscape of Water,” in U. Fratino et al., Landscapes of Water: History, Innovation and Sustainable Design 1 (2002): 305-10. Littlefield, Sharon. Doris Duke’s Shangri La. Honolulu, Hawaii: Doris Duke Foundation for Islamic Art; Honolulu Academy of Arts, 2002. Livingstone, M. Steps to Water: The Ancient Stepwells of India. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2002. Mahmood, Shahid. “British Alterations to the Palace Complex of Shahjahanabad (India).” March thesis. McGill University (Canada), 1998. Misra, Neeru and Tanay Misra. The Garden Tomb of Humayun: An Abode in Paradise. New Delhi: Aryan Books International, 2003. Modi, S. M. “Water Intelligent city: Champaner-Pavagadh,” in U. Fratino et al., Landscapes of Water: History, Innovation and Sustainable Design (2002), 103-10. Mohammed, Jigar. “Flora in Northern India: A Study of the Tree Plantation during the Mughals [sic] (1526-1658),” The Panjab Past and Present (2000): 102-112. Moynihan, Elizabeth B. “Garden of Gladness: Nishat Bagh, a Sixteenth-Century Mughal Masterpiece in Kashmir.” House & Garden 157, no. 10 (1985): 140-147. Okada, Amina, and Jean-Louis Nou. Mughal Jewel: The Mausoleum of I'timad udDaulah. Woodbridge: 5 Continents ACC Distribution, 2003. Osler, Mirabel. “Echoes of the Mogul Emperors: Two Centuries of Paradise Gardens in Rajasthan.” Garden Design 6, no. 4 (1987-1988): 18-24. Page, J. A. and Y. D. Sharma. Qutab Minar & Adjoining Monuments. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India, 2002. Parihar, Subhash. Some Aspects of Indo-Islamic Architecture. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1999. [Includes many of his classic articles on Mughal gardens.] Peppiatt, Michael. “A Mustique Fantasy: Re-Creating Mughal Magic on Distant Caribbean Shores.” Architectural Digest 57, no. 8 (2000): 114-123. Rehman, Abdul. Earthly Paradise: The Garden in Times of Great Muslim Empires. Lahore: Dost Associates, 2001.


_________. “The Mughal’s Concept of Gardens: An Inquiry into Shah Jahani Sources.” In The Mughal Garden, edited by M. Hussain et al. Lahore: Ferozsons (Pvt.) Ltd., 1996. Rehman, Abdul, and Shama Anbrine. “Unity and Diversity of Mughal Garden Experiences.” In Middle East Garden Traditions: Unity and Diversity, edited by Michel Conan, 221-38. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, 2007. Roberts, Judith. “Paradise on Earth: The British Treatment of Mughal Gardens in Delhi.” Transactions of the Ancient Monuments Society, 43 (1999): 45-64. Shakirullah. Admiration of Afdal Abad Garden. Journal of Central Asia XX, no.1 (July 1997): 54-64. Sharma, J. P. “A Cross-Cultural Dialogue: A Case Study of Pre-Mughal Mosques in Delhi.” Built environment 28, Part 3 (2002): 249-262. Sharma, Praduman K. Mughal Architecture of Delhi: A Study of Mosques and Tombs (1556-1627 A.D.). New Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan, 2000. Shokoohy, M. and N. H. Shokoohy. Nagaur: Sultanate and Early Mughal History and Architecture of the District of Nagaur, India. London: Royal Asiatic Society Monographs XXVII, 1993. Siddiqi, W. H. “Discovery of Fourteenth and Fifteenth-Century Historic Garden Remains in Delhi and Champanir (Gujrat).” Journal of Central Asian Civilization XXIV, no.1 (July 2001): 168-176. Sinha, Amita et al. Champaner-Pavagadh: Cultural Sanctuary. Report to the Heritage Trust, Baroda. Champaign: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Landscape Architecture, 2003. Sinha, Amita, and D. Fairchild Ruggles. “The Yamuna Riverfront, India: A Comparative Study of Islamic and Hindu traditions in Cultural Landscapes.” Landscape Journal 23, no. 2 (2004): 141-152. Sinha, Amita, D. F. Ruggles, and James L.Wescoat, Jr. Champaner-Pavagadh: Panch Yatras, Gujarat, India. Baroda: Heritage Trust, 2005. Sinha, Amita, G. B. Kesler, D. F. Ruggles, and James L. Wescoat, Jr. “ChampanerPavagadh, Gujarat, India: Challenges and Responses in Cultural Heritage Planning and Design.” Tourism Recreation Research. 29, no. 3 (2004): 75-78.


Sinha, Amita, G. Kesler, D. F. Ruggles, and J. L. Wescoat, Jr. “Champaner-Pavagadh, Gujarat, India: Challenges and Responses in Cultural Heritage Planning and Design,” in abstracts of The 7th US/ICOMOS Symposium, Natchitoches, Louisiana, 2004. Walker, Daniel S. Flowers Underfoot: Indian Carpets of the Mughal Era. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1997. Wattas, Rajnish. “Water as Element of Landscape Design in Mughal Gardens, Pinjore,” in U. Fratino et al., Landscapes of Water: History, Innovation and Sustainable Design (2002), pp. 423-28. Wescoat, J. L., Jr. “‘Beneath Which Rivers Flow’: Water, Geographic Imagination, and Sustainable Landscape Design,” in U. Fratino et al., Landscapes of Water: History, Innovation and Sustainable Design 1 (2002):13-34. _________. “Conserving Mughal Garden Waterworks,” Sir Bernard Feilden Lecture publication. New Delhi: UK-Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage, 2007. _________. “Garden and Waterworks Conservation Workshop at Nagaur Fort, Rajasthan,” LA! Journal of Landscape Architecture (India), 16 (2007): 16-17. _________. “The Indo-Islamic Garden: Heritage Conflict, Conservation and Conciliation in Gujarat, India,” in Cultural Heritage and Human Rights, edited by D.F. Ruggles and H. Silverman. Dordrecht: Springer Publishing, 2007. _________. “Islamic Environmental Ethics” and “Islamic Gardens and Landscape Design,” on-line Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, 2004. _________. “Questions about the Political Significance of Mughal Garden Waterworks.” In Middle Eastern Garden Traditions, edited by Michel Conan, 177-96. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, 2007. _________. “The Taj Mahal in Its Yamuna River Context,” A+D Architecture and Design (India), special issue on the Taj Mahal (December 2003), pp. 80-83. _________. “Toward an Aesthetic of Water in Indo-Islamic Gardens: The Case of Nagaur Fort, Rajasthan.” [Estetica dell’acqua nei giardino di Nagaur nel Rajastan (India)]. Giardini Islamici: Architettura, Ecologia. Genoa: Microarts Edizioni, 2001, pp. 109-20. _________. “Water-Conserving Design: From Historic Landscapes to the 21st Century.” LA! Journal of Landscape Architecture (India). 16 (2007): 38-42. _________. “Waterworks Conservation at Nagaur Fort,” and “Estimating Plant Water Requirements and Conservation Alternatives.” Project reports. 2007.


_________. “Waterworks and Landscape Design in the Mahtab Bagh,” in Elizabeth B. Moynihan, The Moonlight Garden: New Discoveries at the Taj Mahal, pp.59-78. Washington, D.C.: Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, and Seattle and London, University of Washington Press, 2000.

3. Cultural Heritage of Greater Punjab Grewal, Reeta. Five Thousand Years of Urbanization: The Punjab Region. New Delhi: Manohar, 2005. Haq, Saleem ul. Annual Report. Department of Archeaology. Lahore: 2001-2002 to 2004. Hoti, Baba Prem Singh, and Mandeep Kaur Samra. Modern Sikh Historiography: Analysis of Times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. New Delhi: K.K., 2004. Mughal, M. R. et al. “Archaeological Sites and Monuments in Punjab: Preliminary Results of Excavation, 1992-96.” Pakistan Archaeology 29 (special issue), 1994-96. Parihar, Subhash. “Baolis of Punjab and Haryana.” Marg 51, no. 1 (1999): 59-74. _________. History and Architectural Remains of Sirhind: The Greatest Mughal City on Delhi-Lahore Highway. New Delhi: Aryan Books International, 2006. Rasool, Niaz, ed. Archaeological Sites and Monuments in Punjab. Pakistan Archaeology 29 (special issue), 1994-96. Rehman, Abdul. Historic Towns of Punjab: Ancient and Medieval Period. Lahore: Ferozsons (Pvt) Ltd., 1997. Rinehart, Robin. Interpretations of the Poetry of Bullhe Shah. International Journal of Punjab Studies 3, no. 1 (1996): 49-63. Talbot, Ian. Divided Cities: Partition and Its aftermath in Lahore and Amritsar, 19471957. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2006.


_________. “A Tale of Two Cities: The Aftermath of Partition for Lahore and Amritsar 1947-1957.” Modern Asian Studies 41 (2007): 151-185. Verma, Devinder Kumar. Foreigners at the Court of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Patiala: Arun, 2006.

4. Cultural Heritage of Lahore Aijazuddin, F. S. Lahore Recollected: An Album. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publishers, 2003. Alter, Stephen. Amritsar to Lahore: A Journey across the India-Pakistan Border. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001. Brown, T. Louise. The Dancing Girls of Lahore: Selling Love and Saving Dreams in Pakistan's Ancient Pleasure District. New York: Fourth Estate, 2005. Chaudhry, Nazir Ahmad. A Guide to Lahore Fort. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel, 2004. _________. A Short History of Lahore and Some of Its Monuments. Lahore: Sang-eMeel Publications, 2000. Hussain S. D., N. Mustafa, and N. A. Khan. “Leakage Investigation at Shalamar Garden, Lahore, Using Radioisotopes.” Archaeometry 24 (1982): 65-70. Journal of Asian Civilizations XXIV, no. 2 (2001). Special issue on Lahore in the Ghaznavid period. Essays include: N.A. Baloch, “Political Stature of Lahore during the Ghaznavid period,” pp. 1-5; H. Rehman, “The Role of Muslim Saints during Ghaznavid Period in the Development of Lahore Culture,” pp. 21-31; A. Rehmani, “Mandakuku, the Lost Capital of Lahore Empire,” pp. 32-52; and S.R. Dar, “The Primordial Site of the Ghaznavid Lahore: Its Location and Limits,” pp. 53-86. Khan, Ahmad Nabi. Development of Mughal Monuments and Gardens at Shahdara, Lahore. Karachi: Dept. of Archaeology, Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Govt. of Pakistan, 1980. Kipling, John Lockwood, 1837-1911, and T.H. Thornton. Lahore As It Was: Travelogue, 1860. Lahore: National College of Arts, 2002. Kumar, Santosh. Lahore nama. New Delhi: Vibha Publications, 2002. Nadiem, I. H. Gardens of Mughal Lahore. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel, 2005. Quraeshi, Samina. “Harvest, Delight and Memory: Lessons of Lahore's Shalimar Gardens.” Places 15, no. 3 (2003): 18-25.


Rehman, Abdul. “Garden Types of Mughal Lahore According to Early SeventeenthCentury Written and Visual Sources,” Muqarnas, Suppplement VII, 1997. _________. "Hydraulics of a Mughal Garden: Recent Discoveries at Shalamar Garden Lahore," in Landscapes of Water: History, Innovation, and Sustainable Design. Edited by Umberto Fratino, Antonio Petrillo, Attilio Petruccioli, and Michele Stella. Volume II, pages 367-372. Bari: Uniongrafica Corcelli Editrice, 2002. Saeed, Fouzia. Taboo! The Hidden Culture of a Red Light Area. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2001. Saeed, T. “Maryam Zamani Mosque: The Earliest Dated Mughal Period Mosque in Lahore.” Journal of Central Asia XIX, no. 2 (1996): 91-103. Sharma, Sunil. Persian Poetry at the Indian frontier: Mas`sud Sa`d Salmân of Lahore. New Delhi: Permanent Black, Distributed by Orient Longman, 2000. Sidhwa, Bapsi. City of Sin and Splendour: Writings on Lahore. New Delhi: Penguin Books, 2005. Wolf, Richard K. “The Poetics of ‘Sufi’ Practice: Drumming, Dancing, and Complex Agency at Madho Lāl Husain (and Beyond).” American Ethnologist 33, no. 2 (2006): 246-268.

5. Cultural Heritage of Multan and Southern Punjab Dar, S. R. “Mausoleum of Hazrat Lal Eisan at Karorr, a So-Far Unrecorded Monument in Multan Style of Architecture.” Journal of Central Asia 15, no. 2 (December 1992): 142 ff. Dasti, Humaira F. Multan: A Province of the Mughal Empire (1525-1751). Karachi: Royal Book Company, 1998 Durrani, Ashiq M. K. History of Multan (from the early period to 1849 A.D.). Lahore: Vanguard Press, 1991. Edwards, Holly Frances Cameron. “The Genesis of Islamic Architecture in the Indus Valley (Pakistan).” Ph.D. diss., New York University, 1990. Hillenbrand, Robert. “Turco-Iranian Elements in the Medieval Architecture of Pakistan: The Case of the Tomb of Rukn-i 'Alam at Multan.” Muqarnas IX: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1992.


Huda, Qamar-ul. “The Sufi Order of Shaikh 'Abu Hafs 'Umar al-Suhrawardi and the Transfer of Suhrawardiyya Religious Ideology to Multan.” Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1998. Ivanow, Wladimir. “Shums Tabriz of Multan” in S. M. Abdallah, ed., Professor Muhammad Shafi Presentation Volume. Lahore, 1955, pp. 109-18. Khan,`Abdurrahman. Tarikh-i Multan: Multan ki tarikhi `azmaton aur rif`aton ka lasani musavvar muraqqa`. Multan: `Alami Idarah-yi Isha`at-i `Ulum-i Islamiyah, 2000. Khan, Ahmed Nabi. Uchchh: History and Architecture. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research, 1980. _________. Multan: History and Architecture. Islamabad: Islamic University, 1983. __________. “Advent and Spread of Isma'ili Da'wat and the Establishment of its Rule in Sindh and Multan.” Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society. 52, no. 1 (2004): 3-20. Khan, Hasan. “Brief History and Antiquities of Sakkhur Region.” Journal of Central Asian Civilization XXV, no.1 (July 2002): 137-150. Khan, Muhammad Wali Ullah. Mausoleum of Shaikh Rukn e Alam, Multan. Lahore: Department of Auqaf, 1985. Mughal, M. R. Ancient Cholistan: Archaeology and Architecture. Lahore: Ferozsons, 1997. O'Brien, Edward, James Wilson, and Hari Kishan Kaul. Glossary of the Multani Language. Multan: Siraiki Adbi Board, 2002. Qasimi, Jafar. Baba Farid ud Din Masud Ganj I Shakar. Lahore: Islamic Book Foundation, 1978.

6. Cultural Heritage of Peshawar and the Western Grand Trunk Road Ali, Ihsan. “Urbanization in Kushan Time: Irrigation, Trade Routes, Settlements Hierarchy and Religion in the Valley of Peshawar. Journal of Central Asia XXII, no.1 (July 1999): 1-38. Ali, Taj. “Baolis, Bridges and Caravansarais along Ancient Trunk Road in NWFP. Ancient Pakistan XIII (1999-2000): 69-108. Ammanullah. “Attock Fort.” Journal of Asian Civilization XXIV, no.1 (July 2002): 97110.


Dani, A. H. Peshawar: Historic City of the Frontier. Peshawar: Khyber Mail Press, 1969. Dar, S. R. “Caravansarai along Grand Trunk Road in Pakistan: A Central Asian Legacy.” Journal of Central Asia XVII, nos. 1&2 (July –Dec. 1994): 15-68. _________. “Caravansarai and Related Buildings in Pakistan: System and Structures.” Journal of Central Asian Civilization XXII, no. 1 (July1999): 104-125. Dümpelmann, Sonia. Maria Teresa Parpagliolo Shepard (1903-1974): Ein Beitrag zur Entwicklung der Gartenkultur in Italien im 20. Jahrhundert. Munich: VDG, 2004. Franke-Vogt, U., K. Bartl, and Th. Urban. “Bagh-e Babur, Kabul: Excavations in a Mughal Garden.” South Asian Archaeology 2003 (Bonn 2005): 539-555. Online summary at: Checked 11 June 2007. Khan, Ahmad Nabi. Master Plan: Farudgah-i-Shahan-i-Mughlia and Wah Gardens, Preservation and Presentation. Dept. of Archaeology, Ministry of Education and Provincial Coordination, Government of Pakistan, 1976. Khan, M. A. et al. “Archaeological Survey and Documentation in District Attock Punjab—Pakistan,” Journal of Asian Civilizations XXIV, 1 (2001): 93-6. Khan, Mohammad Nawaz. Ali Mardan Khan's Garden Villa and the Flag Staff House in Peshawar Cantonment. Peshawar: Headquarters 11 Corps, 1998. Leslie, Jolyon. “Reclaiming the Light Garden, Baghe Babur, Kabul [Afghanistan].” Topos: The International Review of Landscape Architecture and Urban Design 55 (2006): 62-65. Moorcroft, William, George Trebeck, H. H. Wilson, and others. Travels in India: Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Punjab, in Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz and Bokhara: from 1819 to 1825. New Delhi: Low Price Publications, distributed by D.K. Publishers Distributors PVT, 2000. Nichols, Robert. Settling the Frontier: Land, Law and Society in the Peshawar Valley, 1500-1900. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2001. Rajput. S. A. “The Hydraulic System of Wah Garden at Hasan Abdal.” Journal of Central Asia XVIII, no.1 (1995): 45-72. Shah, Ibrahim. “Discovery of the Remains of a Mughal Period Bridge on the Zindai Stream: The Provenance of the So-Called Bara Bridge Inscription.” Ancient Pakistan XV, 2002.


_________. “Monuments of the Time of Emperor Akbar in the Peshawar Valley with Special Reference to the Pakki Masjid of Akhund Panju Baba.” Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society L, 3 (2002): 125-33. Shakirullah. “Rang Mahal at Valai.” Journal of Central Asia XVIII, no. 1 (July 1995): 127-133. Sultan i-Rome. “Mughals and Swat.” Journal of Pakistan Historical Society L, no. 4 (2002): 39-50.

7. Plants and Vegetation of Southwest Asia Agri-Horticultural Society. List of Non-Herbaceous Plants Grown in the Gardens. Lahore: Agri-Horticultural Society, 1916. Aitchison, James E. T. A Catalogue of the Plants of the Punjab and Sindh, to Which Are Added Some Others That, from Their Present Geographical Proximity, May Be Found Hereafter to Occur in the Punjab. Dehra Dun, India : Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, 1982 reprint. Ahmad, Nazir, and Muhammad Younus. Aquatic plants of Lahore. Lahore: Pakistan Association for the Advancement of Science, 1979. Ahmad, Sultan. Flora of the Panjab: Keys to Genera and Species. Nos. 9-10. Lahore: Biological Society of Pakistan, 1980--. Ali, S. I. “The Flora of Pakistan: Some General and Analytical Remarks.” Notes Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 36 (1978): 427-439. Ali, S. I., and A. Ghaffar, A. eds.. Plant Life of South Asia. Shamim Press: Karachi, 1991. Arid Zone Research Centre (AZRC), Quetta Checked 11 June 2007. Baden-Powell, B. H. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Seeds, Plants, Shrubs and Trees, Cultivated and Available for Sale in the Government Agri-Horticultural Gardens, Lahore: With Notes on the Ornamentation of Gardens, Railway Stations, &C., &C., and Calendar of Gardening Work throughout the Year. Lahore: Arya Press, 1885. Bamber, Charles James. Plants of the Punjab: A Descriptive Key to the Flora of the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, and Kashmir. Dehra Dun: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh; Delhi: Periodical Experts, 1976, 1916. Baquar, Syed Riaz. Trees of Pakistan: Their Natural History, Characteristics and Utilization. Karachi: Royal Book Co., 1995.


Bhandari, M. M. Flora of the Indian Desert. Revised ed. Jodhpur: MPS Repros, 1990. Boissier, P. E. Flora Orientalis. 6 vols. Geneva: H. Georg, 1867-1888. Chaudhri, M. N. “The Pakistan Herbarium.” Pakistan Systematics 1 (1978): 100-105. Dastur, J. F. Useful Plants of India and Pakistan: A Popular Handbook of Trees and Plants of Industrial, Economic, and Commercial Utility. Bombay: D.B. Taraporevala Sons, 1964. Hedge, I. C. & P. Wendelbo. “Patterns of Distribution and Endemism in Iran.” Notes Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh 36 (1978): 441-464. Hooker, J. D. Flora of British India. 7 vols. London: Reeve, 1872-1897. Hummel, Karl. “Flora I. Historical Background.” Encyclopedia Iranica, pp. 43-6. Kazmi S. M. A. Bibliography on the Botany of West Pakistan and Kashmir and Adjacent Regions, by Henry Field and Edith M. Laird. 4 vols. Miami: Field Research Projects, 1970-71. Khan, Abu Said. Town & Hghway Pantations in West Pakistan. Lahore: Evergreen Press, 1963. Kitamura, S. Flora of Afghanistan. Kyoto: Kyoto University, 1960. _________. Plants of West Pakistan and Afghanistan. Kyoto: Kyoto University, 1964. Malik, Sadiq, and Shahid Farooq. Cultivated Trees, Shrubs & Climbers of Gardens of Pakistan: Taxonomic Studies. Peshawar: Peshawar Laboratory, Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1984. Medicinal plants of Pakistan database—Checked 11 June 2007. Misra, R. L., and Rupinder Khullar. Flowering Trees: Shrubs & Climbers of India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and Nepal. New Delhi: Timeless Books, 2006. Mohammed, Jigar. “Flora in Northern India: A Study of the Tree Plantation during the Mughals [sic] (1526-1658),” The Panjab Past and Present (2000): 102-112. Nasir, E., and S. I. Ali, eds. Flora of Pakistan. Islamabad: PanGraphics, Ltd., 1982. National Agricultural Research Centre (Pakistan) – Horticulture Research Institute. Checked 11 June 2007.


National Agricultural Research Centre (Pakistan) —National Institute of Plant and Environmental Protection. Checked 11 June 2007. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council. Flora of Pakistan. Over 200 volumes. Islamabad: 1980-. Electronic databases available at the Missouri Botanic Garden and efloras:; Checked 11 June 2007. Parker, R. N. A Forest Flora for the Punjab with Hazara and Delhi. Dehra Dun: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh and Periodical Experts, Delhi, 1973, 1918. Plant Genetic Resource Institute database – Pakistan. Checked 11 June 2007. Punjab (India), Department of Agriculture. Names of the Field and Garden Crops Grown in the Punjab. Lahore, Printed by the Superintendent, Govt. Print., Punjab, 1918. Quraishi, M. A., and Sayeed Ahmad Khan. An Illustrated Flora of Peshawar District and Khyber Agency. Peshawar: Pakistan Forest Institute, 1971. Rechinger, Karl Heinz. Flora Iranica: Flora des Iranischen Hochlandes und der umrahmenden Gebirge: Persien, Afghanistan, Teile von West-Pakistan, Nord-Iraq, Azerbaidjan, Turkmenistan. 176 vols. Graz, Austria: Akademische Druck-u. Verlagsanstalt, 1963-- . Sen, David N. Ecology and Vegetation of Indian Desert. Bikaner: Agro Botanical Publishers, 1990. Sheikh, M. I. Trees of Pakistan. N.p.: Sheikh, 1993. Stewart, J. Lindsay. Punjab Plants, Comprising Botanical and Vernacular Names, and Uses of Most of the Trees, Shrubs, and Herbs of Economical Value, Growing within the Province: Intended as a Hand-Book for Officers and Residents in the Punjab. Dehra Dun: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, 1869, 1977. Stewart, R. R. A Bibliography of the Flowering Plants of West Pakistan and Kashmir. Lahore: Urdu Press, 1956. _________. Flora of Pakistan: History and Exploration of Plants in Pakistan and Adjoining Areas. Islamabad: Printed at PanGraphics, 1982. Zohary, M. Geobotanical Foundations of the Middle East. 2 vols. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1973.



Mughal Gardens Bibliography - Gardens of the Mughal Empire

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