Monthly Energy Review - EIA

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Monthly Energy Review The Monthly Energy Review (MER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) primary report of recent and historical energy statistics. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, stocks, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international petroleum; carbon dioxide emissions; and data unit conversions. Release of the MER is in keeping with responsibilities given to EIA in Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), which states, in part, in Section 205(a)(2):

“The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information…” The MER is intended for use by members of Congress, federal and state agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the MER and other EIA publications. Related monthly publications: Other monthly EIA reports are Petroleum Supply Monthly, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, Natural Gas Monthly, and Electric Power Monthly. For more information, contact EIA’s Office of Communications via email at [email protected]

Important notes about the data Data displayed: For tables beginning in 1949, annual data are usually displayed only in 5-year increments between 1950 and 2000 in the tables in Portable Document Format (PDF) files; however, all annual data are shown in the Excel files, comma-separated values (CSV) files, application programming interface (API) files, and in the data browser. Also, only two to three years of monthly data are displayed in the PDF files; however, for many series, monthly data beginning with January 1973 are available in the Excel files, CSV files, API files, and in the data browser. Comprehensive changes: Each month, most MER tables and figures carry a new month of data, which is usually preliminary (and sometimes estimated or forecast) and likely to be revised the succeeding month. Annual data from 1949: In 2013, EIA expanded the MER to incorporate annual data as far back as 1949 in those data tables that were previously published in both the Annual Energy Review (AER) and MER. The last edition of the AER was released in September 2012 with 2011 data. Annual data beginning in 1949 for many related supplemental data series that are not found in the MER are available at http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/annual.

Electronic access The MER is available on EIA’s website in various formats at http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly.  Full report and report tables: PDF files  Table data (unrounded): Excel files, CSV files, API files, and data browser  Graphs: PDF files and data browser Note: PDF files display selected annual and monthly data; Excel files, CSV files, API files, and data browser display all available annual and monthly data, often at a greater level of precision than the PDF files. Timing of release: The MER is posted on the EIA website no later than the last work day of the month at http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly.

Released: December 22, 2017

DOE/EIA-0035(2017/12)

Monthly Energy Review December 2017

U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Statistics U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585

This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA’s data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other federal agencies.

Contacts The Monthly Energy Review is prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Statistics, Office of Survey Development and Statistical Integration, Integrated Energy Statistics Team, under the direction of Barbara T. Fichman, 202-586-5737 ([email protected]). Questions and comments specifically related to the Monthly Energy Review may be addressed to Alexander Sun, 202-287-5948 ([email protected]). For assistance in acquiring data, please contact EIA’s Office of Communications at 202-586-8800 ([email protected]). Questions about the collection, processing, or interpretation of the information may be directed to the following subject specialists:

Section

1.

Energy Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dianne R. Dunn

202-586-2792 [email protected]

Section

2.

Energy Consumption by Sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dianne R. Dunn

202-586-2792 [email protected]

Section

3.

Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jennifer Barrick

202-586-6254 [email protected]

Section

4.

Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jennifer Wade

Section

5.

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource Development . . . Gary Long

Section

6.

Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rosalyn Berry

Section

7.

Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lisa Cabral

202-287-6533 [email protected]

Section

8.

Nuclear Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tim Shear

202-586-0403 [email protected]

Section

9.

Energy Prices

202-586-4749 [email protected] 202-586-3467 [email protected] 202-586-6393 [email protected]

Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maureen Klein

202-586-8013 [email protected]

Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jennifer Wade

202-586-4749 [email protected]

Average Retail Prices of Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peter Wong Cost of Fuel at Electric Generating Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rebecca Peterson

202-586-7574 [email protected] 202-586-4509 [email protected]

Section

10. Renewable Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lolita Jamison

202-586-9567 [email protected]

Section

11. International Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Patricia Smith

202-586-6925 [email protected]

Section

12. Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Perry Lindstrom

ii

202-586-0934 [email protected]

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Contents Page Section

1.

Energy Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Section

2.

Energy Consumption by Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Section

3.

Petroleum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Section

4.

Natural Gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

Section

5.

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Section

6.

Coal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

Section

7.

Electricity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

Section

8.

Nuclear Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

Section

9.

Energy Prices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

Section

10.

Renewable Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

Section

11.

International Petroleum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

Section

12.

Environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

Appendix

A.

British Thermal Unit Conversion Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

Appendix

B.

Metric Conversion Factors, Metric Prefixes, and Other Physical Conversion Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

Appendix

C.

Population, U.S. Gross Domestic Product, and U.S. Gross Output. . . . . 211

Appendix

D.

Estimated Primary Energy Consumption in the United States, Selected Years, 1635–1945. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

Appendix

E.

Alternative Approaches for Deriving Energy Contents of Noncombustible Renewables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

Glossary

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

iii

Tables Section 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4a 1.4b 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11a 1.11b

Page Energy Overview Primary Energy Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Primary Energy Production by Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Primary Energy Consumption by Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Primary Energy Imports by Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Primary Energy Exports by Source and Total Net Imports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Merchandise Trade Value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Cost of Fuels to End Users in Real (1982–1984) Dollars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Primary Energy Consumption, Energy Expenditures, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Indicators. . . . 17 Motor Vehicle Mileage, Fuel Consumption, and Fuel Economy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Heating Degree Days by Census Division. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Cooling Degree Days by Census Division. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels in Physical Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Heat Content of Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Section 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8

Energy Consumption by Sector Energy Consumption by Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Residential Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commercial Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industrial Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric Power Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U.S. Government Energy Consumption by Agency, Fiscal Years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U.S. Government Energy Consumption by Source, Fiscal Years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Section 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3

Petroleum Petroleum Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs and Net Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Petroleum Trade 3.3a Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3.3b Imports and Exports by Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 3.3c Imports From OPEC Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3.3d Imports From Non-OPEC Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Petroleum Stocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Petroleum Products Supplied by Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Heat Content of Petroleum Products Supplied by Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Petroleum Consumption 3.7a Residential and Commercial Sectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 3.7b Industrial Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 3.7c Transportation and Electric Power Sectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption 3.8a Residential and Commercial Sectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 3.8b Industrial Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 3.8c Transportation and Electric Power Sectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

3.8

Section 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

iv

Natural Gas Natural Gas Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural Gas Trade by Country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural Gas Consumption by Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural Gas in Underground Storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

31 33 35 37 39 41 42 43

85 86 87 88

Tables Section 5. 5.1 5.2

Page Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource Development Crude Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Activity Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory and Development Wells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

Section 6. 6.1 6.2 6.3

Coal Coal Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Coal Consumption by Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Coal Stocks by Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Section 7. 7.1 7.2

7.5 7.6

Electricity Electricity Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Electricity Net Generation 7.2a Total (All Sectors). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 7.2b Electric Power Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 7.2c Commercial and Industrial Sectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation 7.3a Total (All Sectors). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 7.3b Electric Power Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 7.3c Commercial and Industrial Sectors (Selected Fuels). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output 7.4a Total (All Sectors). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 7.4b Electric Power Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 7.4c Commercial and Industrial Sectors (Selected Fuels). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Stocks of Coal and Petroleum: Electric Power Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Electricity End Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

Section 8. 8.1

Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

Section 9. 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10

Energy Prices Crude Oil Price Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F.O.B. Costs of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Landed Costs of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail Motor Gasoline and On-Highway Diesel Fuel Prices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refiner Prices of Residual Fuel Oil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refiner Prices of Petroleum Products for Resale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refiner Prices of Petroleum Products to End Users. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average Retail Prices of Electricity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cost of Fossil-Fuel Receipts at Electric Generating Plants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural Gas Prices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.3

7.4

135 136 137 138 139 140 141 143 145 147

Section 10. Renewable Energy 10.1 Renewable Energy Production and Consumption by Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 10.2 Renewable Energy Consumption 10.2a Residential and Commercial Sectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 10.2b Industrial and Transportation Sectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 10.2c Electric Power Sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 10.3 Fuel Ethanol Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 10.4 Biodiesel and Other Renewable Fuels Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 10.5 Solar Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 10.6 Solar Electricity Net Generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

v

Tables Page Section 11. International Petroleum 11.1 World Crude Oil Production 11.1a OPEC Members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1b Persian Gulf Nations, Non-OPEC, and World. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Petroleum Consumption in OECD Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 Petroleum Stocks in OECD Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

172 173 175 177

Section 12. Environment 12.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Residential Sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Commercial Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.4 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.5 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.6 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.7 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

181 183 184 185 186 187 188

Appendix A. A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6

British Thermal Unit Conversion Factors Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum and Other Liquids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum Production, Imports, and Exports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption and Fuel Ethanol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Approximate Heat Content of Natural Gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Approximate Heat Content of Coal and Coal Coke. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Approximate Heat Rates for Electricity, and Heat Content of Electricity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

193 194 195 196 197 198

Appendix B. B1 B2 B3

Metric Conversion Factors, Metric Prefixes, and Other Physical Conversion Factors Metric Conversion Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Metric Prefixes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Other Physical Conversion Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

Appendix C. Population, U.S. Gross Domestic Product, and U.S. Gross Output C1 Population, U.S. Gross Domestic Product, and U.S. Gross Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Appendix D. Estimated Primary Energy Consumption in the United States, Selected Years, 1635–1945 D1 Estimated Primary Energy Consumption in the United States, Selected Years, 1635–1945. . . . . . . 213 Appendix E. Alternative Approaches for Deriving Energy Contents of Noncombustible Renewables E1 Noncombustible Renewable Primary Energy Consumption: E1a Conventional Hydroelectric Power, Geothermal, and Wind. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 E1b Solar and Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

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U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Figures Section 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4a 1.4b 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

Page Energy Overview Primary Energy Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Primary Energy Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Primary Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Primary Energy Imports and Exports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Primary Energy Net Imports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Merchandise Trade Value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Cost of Fuels to End Users in Real (1982–1984) Dollars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Primary Energy Consumption and Energy Expenditures Indicators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Motor Vehicle Mileage, Fuel Consumption, and Fuel Economy, 1949–2015 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Section 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

Energy Consumption by Sector Energy Consumption by Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Residential Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commercial Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industrial Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric Power Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Section 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3

Petroleum Petroleum Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refinery and Blender Net Inputs and Net Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Petroleum Trade 3.3a Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3b Imports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Petroleum Stocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Petroleum Products Supplied by Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat Content of Petroleum Products Supplied by Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Petroleum Consumption by Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption by End-User Sector, 1949–2016. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption by End-User Sector, Monthly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8a 3.8b

30 32 34 36 38 40

50 52 54 56 60 62 64 66 70 71

Section 4. 4.1

Natural Gas Natural Gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Section 5. 5.1

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource Development Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource Development Indicators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

Section 6. 6.1

Coal Coal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

Section 7. 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

Electricity Electricity Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electricity Net Generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stocks of Coal and Petroleum: Electric Power Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electricity End Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.5 7.6

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

108 110 114 118 122 124

vii

Figures Page Section 8. 8.1

Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

Section 9. 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4

Energy Prices Petroleum Prices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average Retail Prices of Electricity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cost of Fossil-Fuel Receipts at Electric Generating Plants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural Gas Prices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

134 142 144 146

Section 10. Renewable Energy 10.1 Renewable Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Section 11. International Petroleum 11.1 World Crude Oil Production 11.1a Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1b By Selected Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Petroleum Consumption in OECD Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 Petroleum Stocks in OECD Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

170 171 174 176

Section 12. Environment 12.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 12.2 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

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U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Content Changes Year-End Summary 2017 1. New Tables 1.11a and 1.11b, “Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels in Physical Units” and “Heat Content of Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels” (formerly AER Table 1.15), have been added. The tables display estimated consumption, in physical units and British thermal units, of fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal) not combusted for energy use (November). 2. The following tables have been reconfigured to align with EIA’s definition of hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL): 3.2, 3.3b, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7a, 3.7b, 3.7c, 3.8a, 3.8b, 3.8c, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, and A3 (September). 3. The colors of the trend lines and bars shown in the figures have been revised. To improve consistency, colors have been assigned by energy source, sector, and year throughout the MER (February). December 2017 release 1. Electricity statistics have been revised in coordination with EIA's Electric Power Annual 2016. Final 2016 heat rates for electricity (Table A6) have also been incorporated and are used as estimated 2017 heat rates. Revisions affect data series in Energy Overview, Energy Consumption by Sector, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Coal, Electricity, Nuclear Energy, Energy Prices, Renewable Energy, and Environment. 2. “Approximate Heat Content of Coal and Coal Coke” (Table A5) includes revisions for 2016 and 2017 that affect data in Energy Overview, Energy Consumption by Sector, and Environment. November 2017 release New Tables 1.11a and 1.11b, “Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels in Physical Units” and “Heat Content of Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels” (formerly AER Table 1.15), have been added. The tables display estimated consumption, in physical units and British thermal units, of fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal) not combusted for energy use. October 2017 release 1. Natural gas statistics have been revised in coordination with EIA's Natural Gas Annual 2016. Revisions affect data series in Energy Overview, Energy Consumption by Sector, Natural Gas, Energy Prices, and Environment. 2. Updated heat contents for petroleum (Table A2 and Table A3) from 2010 through 2016 have been incorporated. Revisions affect Btu data in Energy Overview, Energy Consumption by Sector, Petroleum, and Environment. The revised 2016 heat contents are used as estimated 2017 heat contents. 3. Updated 2015 and 2016 heat contents for natural gas (Table A4) have been incorporated. Revisions affect Btu data in Energy Overview, Energy Consumption by Sector, and Environment. The revised 2016 heat contents are used as estimated 2017 heat contents. September 2017 release 1. Final 2016 monthly and annual statistics for the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products have been incorporated. Revisions affect data series in Energy Overview, Energy Consumption by Sector, Petroleum, Renewable Energy, International Petroleum, and Environment. 2. The following tables have been reconfigured to align with EIA’s definition of hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL): 3.2, 3.3b, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7a, 3.7b, 3.7c, 3.8a, 3.8b, 3.8c, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, and A3.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

ix

April 2017 release 1. “Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption and Fuel Ethanol” (Table A3) has revised petroleum consumption factors for 2015-2016 and a revised fuel ethanol feedstock factor for 2017. Revisions affect data in Energy Overview, Energy Consumption by Sector, Petroleum, Renewable Energy, and Environment. 2. “Approximate Heat Content of Natural Gas” (Table A4) includes revisions for 2016 that affect data in Energy Overview, Energy Consumption by Sector, Natural Gas, and Environment. 3. “Approximate Heat Content of Coal and Coal Coke” (Table A5) includes revisions for 2016 that affect data in Energy Overview, Energy Consumption by Sector, and Environment. March 2017 release 1. “Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum Production, Imports, and Exports” (Table A2) and “Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption and Fuel Ethanol” (Table A3) have revised petroleum factors for 2016. Revisions affect Btu data in Energy Overview, Energy Consumption by Sector, Petroleum, Renewable Energy, and Environment. 2. Energy Overview, Energy Consumption by Sector, and Environment now include preliminary 2016 statistics for U.S. total energy consumption, production, trade, and carbon dioxide emissions. February 2017 release The colors of the trend lines and bars shown in the figures have been revised. To improve consistency, colors have been assigned by energy source, sector, and year throughout the MER. January 2017 release 1. Tables 3.7a, 3.7b, 3.7c, 3.8a, 3.8b, and 3.8c on petroleum consumption, in physical units and Btu, have been modified to reflect revised sector allocation estimates for motor gasoline. 2. Tables 10.2a and 10.2b on renewable energy consumption have been modified to reflect revised sector allocation estimates for fuel ethanol.

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U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

by Sector

1. Energy Overview

Figure 1.1

Primary Energy Overview (Quadrillion Btu)

Overview, 1949–2016 120 Consumption

100 80 Production

60 40 20

Imports Exports

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

J J A 2017

S O N D

Overview, Monthly 10 Consumption 8 Production

6

4 Imports 2 Exports 0 J

F M A M

J J A 2015

S O N D

J

F M A M

Overview, September 2017

J J 2016

A

S O N D

F M A M

Net Imports, January–September

10

10.0 8.301

8

J

7.632

7.230

8.714

8.0 6.232

6

6.0

4

4.0 1.988

2

2.0

1.488

0

0.0 Production

Imports

Exports

Consumption

2015

2016

Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary. Source: Table 1.1.

2

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

2017

Table 1.1 Primary Energy Overview (Quadrillion Btu) Production

Total

Imports

Exports

Net Importsc

2.978 2.784 2.928 3.396 4.070 4.687 5.428 6.084 6.040 6.557 6.102 5.162 5.731 5.942 6.063 6.221 6.586 6.510 7.191 7.620 8.077 9.095 8.743 9.250 9.607

35.540 40.148 42.803 50.674 63.495 61.320 67.175 67.698 70.704 71.173 71.330 71.732 70.710 69.935 70.228 69.431 70.735 71.398 73.200 72.636 74.728 77.907 79.129 81.693 87.575

1.913 2.790 4.188 5.892 8.342 14.032 15.796 11.781 18.817 22.180 28.865 30.052 29.331 31.007 33.492 34.659 34.649 34.679 32.970 29.690 29.866 28.748 27.068 24.623 23.241

1.465 2.286 1.477 1.829 2.632 2.323 3.695 4.196 4.752 4.496 3.962 3.731 3.608 4.013 4.351 4.462 4.727 5.338 6.949 6.920 8.176 10.373 11.267 11.788 12.270

0.448 .504 2.710 4.063 5.709 11.709 12.101 7.584 14.065 17.684 24.904 26.321 25.722 26.994 29.141 30.197 29.921 29.341 26.021 22.770 21.690 18.375 15.801 12.835 10.971

-1.372 -.444 -.427 -.722 -1.367 -1.065 -1.210 1.110 -.284 2.174 2.583 -1.883 1.211 .989 .721 .560 -1.171 .276 -.331 -1.288 1.027 .564 -.518 2.636 -.224

31.632 37.410 42.137 50.577 63.522 65.357 69.828 66.093 72.332 77.262 84.735 82.906 83.700 83.992 85.754 85.709 84.570 85.927 83.178 78.042 80.891 79.452 77.482 79.446 80.233

0.000 .000 .006 .043 .239 1.900 2.739 4.076 6.104 7.075 7.862 8.029 8.145 7.960 8.223 8.161 8.215 8.459 8.426 8.355 8.434 8.269 8.062 8.244 8.338

2.978 2.784 2.928 3.396 4.070 4.687 5.428 6.084 6.040 6.559 6.104 5.160 5.726 5.944 6.075 6.233 6.637 6.523 7.174 7.604 8.030 8.999 8.706 9.276 9.570

34.616 40.208 45.086 54.015 67.838 71.965 78.067 76.392 84.484 91.031 98.817 96.170 97.643 97.918 100.090 100.188 99.485 101.015 98.891 94.118 97.444 96.847 94.412 97.164 98.323

.777 .664 .675 .625 .688 .717 .747 .757 .695 .633 .630 .728 8.337

.808 .753 .817 .814 .807 .773 .798 .772 .723 .755 .807 .862 9.487

7.693 6.866 7.574 7.311 7.345 7.103 7.516 7.629 7.300 7.344 7.098 7.260 88.037

2.075 1.840 2.079 1.922 2.000 1.963 2.032 2.082 1.925 1.901 1.899 2.076 23.794

1.103 1.006 1.035 1.105 1.110 1.032 1.095 1.054 1.076 1.070 1.060 1.156 12.902

.972 .834 1.044 .816 .890 .930 .937 1.028 .849 .832 .839 .920 10.892

.614 .901 -.195 -.669 -.595 -.137 -.027 -.348 -.467 -.563 -.265 .186 -1.566

7.692 7.174 6.915 6.001 6.122 6.385 6.858 6.754 6.237 6.208 6.220 6.763 79.328

.777 .664 .675 .625 .688 .717 .747 .757 .695 .633 .630 .728 8.337

.793 .748 .813 .812 .808 .775 .799 .776 .730 .755 .804 .857 9.471

9.280 8.601 8.422 7.458 7.639 7.897 8.425 8.309 7.682 7.612 7.672 8.366 97.363

R .759 R .687

R .855 R .845 R .921 R .871 R .881 R .838 R .850 R .801 R .768 R .815 R .815 R .920

7.220 6.808

R 1.100 R 1.038 R 1.168 R 1.123 R 1.243 R 1.191 R 1.132 R 1.188 R 1.186 R 1.125 R 1.264 R 1.372

R 1.003 R .988 R .967 R .902 R .921 R .879 R 1.121 R 1.023 R .911 R .932 R .841 R .751

R .759 R .687

R .836 R .836 R .912 R .865 R .878 R .833 R .850 R .801 R .768 R .809 R .813 R .912

R 9.050 R 8.225 R 7.979 R 7.444 R 7.581 R 7.931 R 8.470 R 8.538 R 7.747 R 7.649 R 7.715 R 9.080

R 10.181

R 84.226

R 25.368

R 14.130

R 11.238

R .827 R .429 R -.121 R -.179 R -.343 R .157 R .215 R .329 R -.011 R -.375 R -.138 R 1.155 R 1.946

R 7.437 R 6.687 R 6.359

R 7.092 R 7.012 R 7.174

R 2.102 R 2.026 R 2.135 R 2.026 R 2.165 R 2.070 R 2.253 R 2.210 R 2.097 R 2.057 R 2.104 R 2.123

R 78.665

R 10.112

R 97.410

R .920 R .866 R 1.018 R .985 R 1.011 R .969 R .898 R .840

R 7.285 R 6.733 R 7.329 R 6.982 R 7.276 R 7.253 R 7.415 R 7.501

R 2.300

R 1.404 R 1.397 R 1.452 R 1.406 R 1.456 R 1.426 R 1.461 R 1.402

R .897 R .561 R .717 R .692 R .791 R .677 R .654 R .743

R .779 R .326 R .454 R -.219 R -.257 R .041 R .354 R .096

R 7.284 R 6.087 R 6.802 R 5.868 R 6.146 R 6.284 R 6.762 R 6.728

R .895 R .851 R 1.005 R .979 R 1.009 R .970 R .895 R .834

.822 8.328

7.230 65.005

1.488 12.891

.500 6.232

-.099 1.474

6.088 58.048

.765 .670 .681 .593 .641 .701 .746 .757 .712 6.266

R 8.961

1.957 2.169 R 2.098 R 2.246 R 2.102 R 2.115 R 2.145 1.988 19.123

.815 8.253

7.632 72.711

7.631 7.063

62.948 66.335

19.083 17.918

10.368 9.616

8.714 8.301

1.304 -.923

58.872 60.137

6.360 6.345

7.578 7.054

72.966 73.713

Nuclear Electric Power

Renewable Energyb

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

32.563 37.364 39.869 47.235 59.186 54.733 59.008 57.539 58.560 57.540 57.366 58.541 56.834 56.033 55.942 55.049 55.934 56.429 57.583 56.660 58.216 60.543 62.324 64.199 69.631

0.000 .000 .006 .043 .239 1.900 2.739 4.076 6.104 7.075 7.862 8.029 8.145 7.960 8.223 8.161 8.215 8.459 8.426 8.355 8.434 8.269 8.062 8.244 8.338

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

6.108 5.449 6.082 5.872 5.849 5.614 5.971 6.100 5.882 5.956 5.661 5.670 70.213

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

R 5.607 R 5.276 R 5.520 R 5.193 R 5.425 R 5.355 R 5.549 R 5.637 R 5.394 R 5.642 R 5.515 R 5.504 R 65.619

.692 R .656 .696 .703 .736 .748 R .685 .635 .682 R .750 R 8.427

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

R 5.601 R 5.197

5.696 50.411

.765 .670 .681 .593 .641 .701 .746 .757 .712 6.266

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

48.957 52.927

6.360 6.345

5.631 R 5.404 R 5.624

5.583 5.772 R 5.904

Consumption Stock Change and Otherd

Fossil Fuelsa 1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Trade

R 7.133 R 6.721

7.002 R 6.896 R 7.135 R 7.187

6.847

a Coal, natural gas (dry), crude oil, and natural gas plant liquids. b See Tables 10.1–10.2c for notes on series components and estimation; and see Note, "Renewable Energy Production and Consumption," at end of Section 10. c Net imports equal imports minus exports. d Includes petroleum stock change and adjustments; natural gas net storage withdrawals and balancing item; coal stock change, losses, and unaccounted for; fuel ethanol stock change; and biodiesel stock change and balancing item. e Coal, coal coke net imports, natural gas, and petroleum. f Also includes electricity net imports. R=Revised.

Fossil Fuelse

Nuclear Electric Power

Renewable Energyb

5.911 R 5.990 R 6.377 R 6.863 R 6.969 R 6.282

6.188 R 6.201 R 7.403

.692 R .656 .696 .703 .736 .748 R .685 .635 .682 R .750 R 8.427

Totalf

7.619 R 8.500 R 7.455 R 7.810 R 7.971 R 8.424 R 8.340

Notes: • See "Primary Energy," "Primary Energy Production," and "Primary Energy Consumption," in Glossary. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • Production: Table 1.2. • Trade: Tables 1.4a and 1.4b. • Stock Change and Other: Calculated as consumption minus production and net imports. • Consumption: Table 1.3.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

3

Figure 1.2

Primary Energy Production (Quadrillion Btu)

By Source, 1949–2016 30 25

Coal

20 Natural Gas 15 Crude Oil and NGPLa 10 5

Renewable Energy Nuclear Electric Power

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

By Source, Monthly 2.5

Natural Gas

2.0 Crude Oil and NGPLa 1.5

Coal Renewable Energy

1.0

Nuclear Electric Power

0.5

0.0 J

F M A M

J J 2015

A

S O N D

J

F M A M

Total, January–September

J J A 2016

S O N D

J

F M A M

J J A 2017

S O N D

By Source, September 2017

72 66.335 62.948

65.005

60

Natural Gas

48

Crude Oil and NGPLa

36

2.333

2.039

Coal

24

1.324

Renewable Energy

0.822

12 Nuclear Electric Power

0.712

0 2015

2016

2017

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

a

Natural gas plant liquids. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary. Source: Table 1.2.

4

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

2.0

2.5

3.0

Table 1.2 Primary Energy Production by Source (Quadrillion Btu) Renewable Energya

Fossil Fuels

Coalb

Natural Gas (Dry)

Crude Oilc

NGPLd

Total

Nuclear Electric Power

Hydroelectric Powere

Geothermal

Solar

.................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. ..................

14.060 12.370 10.817 13.055 14.607 14.989 18.598 19.325 22.488 22.130 22.735 23.547 22.732 22.094 22.852 23.185 23.790 23.493 23.851 21.624 22.038 22.221 20.677 20.001 20.286

6.233 9.345 12.656 15.775 21.666 19.640 19.908 16.980 18.326 19.082 19.662 20.166 19.382 19.633 19.074 18.556 19.022 19.786 20.703 21.139 21.806 23.406 24.610 24.859 26.718

11.447 14.410 14.935 16.521 20.401 17.729 18.249 18.992 15.571 13.887 12.358 12.282 12.160 11.960 11.550 10.974 10.767 10.741 10.609 11.323 11.591 11.946 13.791 15.806 18.531

0.823 1.240 1.461 1.883 2.512 2.374 2.254 2.241 2.175 2.442 2.611 2.547 2.559 2.346 2.466 2.334 2.356 2.409 2.419 2.574 2.781 2.970 3.246 3.532 4.096

32.563 37.364 39.869 47.235 59.186 54.733 59.008 57.539 58.560 57.540 57.366 58.541 56.834 56.033 55.942 55.049 55.934 56.429 57.583 56.660 58.216 60.543 62.324 64.199 69.631

0.000 .000 .006 .043 .239 1.900 2.739 4.076 6.104 7.075 7.862 8.029 8.145 7.960 8.223 8.161 8.215 8.459 8.426 8.355 8.434 8.269 8.062 8.244 8.338

1.415 1.360 1.608 2.059 2.634 3.155 2.900 2.970 3.046 3.205 2.811 2.242 2.689 2.793 2.688 2.703 2.869 2.446 2.511 2.669 2.539 3.103 2.629 2.562 2.467

NA NA (s) .002 .006 .034 .053 .097 .171 .152 .164 .164 .171 .173 .178 .181 .181 .186 .192 .200 .208 .212 .212 .214 .214

2015 January .............. February ............ March ................. April ................... May .................... June ................... July .................... August ............... September ......... October .............. November .......... December .......... Total ..................

1.734 1.448 1.628 1.502 1.409 1.341 1.531 1.654 1.555 1.510 1.373 1.262 17.946

2.361 2.143 2.383 2.340 2.383 2.301 2.385 2.388 2.325 2.385 2.298 2.375 28.067

1.659 1.527 1.694 1.651 1.671 1.600 1.666 1.662 1.615 1.655 1.596 1.636 19.632

.355 .331 .376 .379 .387 .373 .389 .397 .386 .405 .393 .397 4.567

6.108 5.449 6.082 5.872 5.849 5.614 5.971 6.100 5.882 5.956 5.661 5.670 70.213

.777 .664 .675 .625 .688 .717 .747 .757 .695 .633 .630 .728 8.337

.225 .208 .226 .209 .188 .190 .196 .178 .150 .155 .180 .216 2.321

2016 January .............. February ............ March ................. April ................... May .................... June ................... July .................... August ............... September ......... October .............. November .......... December .......... Total ..................

R 1.221 R 1.155 R 1.114 R .969 R 1.068 R 1.197 R 1.244 R 1.373 R 1.308 R 1.378 R 1.348 R 1.275

2.372 2.247 2.377 2.297 2.363 2.255 2.350 2.325 2.237 2.296 2.242 2.288 27.649

1.630 1.511 1.620 1.529 1.571 1.494 1.540 1.546 1.468 1.559 1.524 1.556 18.548

.385 .363 .409 .398 .423 .408 .415 .393 .382 .408 .401 .386 4.770

R 5.607 R 5.276 R 5.520 R 5.193 R 5.425 R 5.355 R 5.549 R 5.637 R 5.394 R 5.642 R 5.515 R 5.504

R .759 R .687

R .236 R .223 R .253 R .239 R .235 R .215

2017 January .............. February ............ March ................. April ................... May .................... June ................... July .................... August ............... September ......... 9-Month Total ...

R 1.376 R 1.294 R 1.293 R 1.206 R 1.266 R 1.347 R 1.345 R 1.485

RE 1.565 RE 1.449 RE 1.615 RE 1.561 RE 1.620 RE 1.557 RE 1.633 RE 1.630 E 1.628 E 14.259

.387 .375 .420 .405 .428 .418 .432 .426 .411 3.703

R 5.601 R 5.197

1.324 11.936

RE 2.272 RE 2.079 RE 2.302 RE 2.232 RE 2.309 RE 2.261 RE 2.361 RE 2.363 E 2.333 E 20.513

2016 9-Month Total ... 2015 9-Month Total ...

10.649 13.801

20.823 21.008

13.910 14.745

3.575 3.373

1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

R 14.651

Wind

Biomass

Total

Total

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) .059 .068 .063 .062 .060 .058 .058 .058 .061 .065 .074 .078 .090 .111 .157 .225 .337

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) .029 .033 .057 .070 .105 .113 .142 .178 .264 .341 .546 .721 .923 1.168 1.340 1.601 1.728

1.562 1.424 1.320 1.335 1.431 1.499 2.475 3.016 2.735 3.099 3.006 2.624 2.705 2.805 2.996 3.101 3.212 3.472 3.868 3.953 4.316 4.501 4.406 4.647 4.861

2.978 2.784 2.928 3.396 4.070 4.687 5.428 6.084 6.040 6.557 6.102 5.162 5.731 5.942 6.063 6.221 6.586 6.510 7.191 7.620 8.077 9.095 8.743 9.250 9.607

35.540 40.148 42.803 50.674 63.495 61.320 67.175 67.698 70.704 71.173 71.330 71.732 70.710 69.935 70.228 69.431 70.735 71.398 73.200 72.636 74.728 77.907 79.129 81.693 87.575

.018 .017 .018 .017 .018 .017 .018 .018 .016 .018 .018 .018 .212

.021 .025 .035 .040 .043 .043 .045 .045 .039 .034 .030 .027 .426

.141 .139 .143 .167 .160 .125 .127 .122 .130 .153 .183 .187 1.777

.403 .364 .395 .381 .398 .397 .411 .408 .387 .395 .396 .414 4.751

.808 .753 .817 .814 .807 .773 .798 .772 .723 .755 .807 .862 9.487

7.693 6.866 7.574 7.311 7.345 7.103 7.516 7.629 7.300 7.344 7.098 7.260 88.037

R .026 R .035 R .043 R .048 R .055 R .056 R .062 R .061 R .055 R .049 R .041

R .170 R .186 R .203 R .192 R .174 R .151 R .163 R .125 R .151 R .188 R .179

R .404 R .385 R .405 R .376

R 2.472

R .018 R .017 R .018 R .016 R .018 R .017 R .017 R .018 R .017 R .018 R .018 R .019 R .210

R .570

R 2.096

R 4.833

R .855 R .845 R .921 R .871 R .881 R .838 R .850 R .801 R .768 R .815 R .815 R .920

R 10.181

R 84.226

R .257 R .227 R .279 R .271 R .297 R .281 R .238 R .196

R .018 R .016 R .018 R .018 R .017 R .017 R .018 R .018

R .035 R .040 R .064 R .070 R .082 R .087 R .081 R .079

R .419 R .380 R .416 R .389 R .406 R .403 R .415 R .425

R 1.018 R .985 R 1.011 R .969 R .898 R .840

R 7.285 R 6.733 R 7.329 R 6.982 R 7.276 R 7.253 R 7.415 R 7.501

.175 2.220

.017 .158

.074 .612

.190 R .204 R .240 .237 R .209 .181 .146 R .121 .160 1.689

R .920 R .866

5.631 R 5.404 R 5.624 5.583 5.772 R 5.904 5.696 50.411

.765 .670 .681 .593 .641 .701 .746 .757 .712 6.266

.396 3.649

.822 8.328

7.230 65.005

48.957 52.927

6.360 6.345

1.931 1.770

.155 .158

.442 .335

1.515 1.254

3.587 3.545

7.631 7.063

62.948 66.335

R 65.619

a Most data are estimates. See Tables 10.1–10.2c for notes on series components and estimation; and see Note, "Renewable Energy Production and Consumption," at end of Section 10. b Beginning in 1989, includes waste coal supplied. Beginning in 2001, also includes a small amount of refuse recovery. See Table 6.1. c Includes lease condensate. d Natural gas plant liquids. e Conventional hydroelectric power.

.692 R .656 .696 .703 .736 .748 R .685 .635 .682 R .750 R 8.427

.198

R .181 R .151 R .160 R .174 R .208

.037

.214

.399

R .400 R .410 R .416 R .393

.400

R .403 R .443

7.220 6.808

R 7.133 R 6.721

7.002

R 6.896 R 7.135 R 7.187

6.847

R 7.092 R 7.012 R 7.174

R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: • See "Primary Energy Production" in Glossary. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

5

Figure 1.3

Primary Energy Consumption (Quadrillion Btu)

By Source,a 1949–2016 45 Petroleum

30 Natural Gas

15

Coal Nuclear Electric Power Renewable Energy

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

By Source,a Monthly 4

Petroleum 3 Natural Gas 2 Coal 1

Renewable Energy Nuclear Electric Power

0 J

F

M A

M

J J 2015

A

S

O N D

J

F

M A

M

J J A 2016

S

O N D

J

F

M A

M

J J 2017

A

S

O N D

By Source,a September 2017

Total, January–September 80 73.713

72.966

72.711 Petroleum

2.946

60 1.996

Natural Gas

40

Coal

1.148

Renewable Energy

20

0.815

Nuclear Electric Power

0.712

0 2015

2016

2017

0

1

a

Small quantities of net imports of coal coke and electricity are not shown. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary. Source: Table 1.3.

6

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

2

3

4

Table 1.3 Primary Energy Consumption by Source (Quadrillion Btu) Fossil Fuelsa

Renewable Energyb

Coal

Natural Gasc

Petroleumd

Totale

Nuclear Electric Power

Hydroelectric Powerf

Geothermal

Solar

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

12.347 11.167 9.838 11.581 12.265 12.663 15.423 17.478 19.173 20.089 22.580 21.914 21.904 22.321 22.466 22.797 22.447 22.749 22.387 19.691 20.834 19.658 17.378 18.039 17.998

5.968 8.998 12.385 15.769 21.795 19.948 20.235 17.703 19.603 22.671 23.824 22.773 23.510 22.831 22.923 22.565 22.239 23.663 23.843 23.416 24.575 24.955 26.089 26.805 27.383

13.315 17.255 19.919 23.246 29.521 32.732 34.205 30.925 33.552 34.441 38.266 38.190 38.226 38.790 40.227 40.303 39.824 39.489 36.907 34.959 35.488 34.828 34.012 34.619 34.874

31.632 37.410 42.137 50.577 63.522 65.357 69.828 66.093 72.332 77.262 84.735 82.906 83.700 83.992 85.754 85.709 84.570 85.927 83.178 78.042 80.891 79.452 77.482 79.446 80.233

0.000 .000 .006 .043 .239 1.900 2.739 4.076 6.104 7.075 7.862 8.029 8.145 7.960 8.223 8.161 8.215 8.459 8.426 8.355 8.434 8.269 8.062 8.244 8.338

1.415 1.360 1.608 2.059 2.634 3.155 2.900 2.970 3.046 3.205 2.811 2.242 2.689 2.793 2.688 2.703 2.869 2.446 2.511 2.669 2.539 3.103 2.629 2.562 2.467

NA NA (s) .002 .006 .034 .053 .097 .171 .152 .164 .164 .171 .173 .178 .181 .181 .186 .192 .200 .208 .212 .212 .214 .214

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

1.498 1.409 1.238 1.037 1.206 1.439 1.587 1.531 1.351 1.138 1.045 1.070 15.549

3.225 3.029 2.682 2.077 1.922 1.965 2.139 2.124 1.967 2.056 2.327 2.679 28.191

2.971 2.738 2.995 2.889 2.996 2.984 3.133 3.100 2.919 3.016 2.850 3.015 35.605

7.692 7.174 6.915 6.001 6.122 6.385 6.858 6.754 6.237 6.208 6.220 6.763 79.328

.777 .664 .675 .625 .688 .717 .747 .757 .695 .633 .630 .728 8.337

.225 .208 .226 .209 .188 .190 .196 .178 .150 .155 .180 .216 2.321

1.297

R 3.204 R 2.748 R 2.442 R 2.159 R 2.038 R 2.074 R 2.267 R 2.290

2.936 2.864 3.051 2.908 2.993 2.989 3.068 3.161 2.968 3.050 2.946 3.083 36.017

R 7.437 R 6.687 R 6.359

R .759 R .687

R .236 R .223 R .253 R .239 R .235 R .215

1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

R 1.074 R .867 R .844

.960 R 1.314 R 1.529 1.521 R 1.296 R 1.147 1.022 1.352 R 14.222

R 28.445

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

R 1.322 R 1.017 R 1.035 R .944 R 1.071 R 1.229 R 1.440 R 1.369

R 3.002 R 2.408 R 2.662 R 1.993 R 1.966 R 1.979 R 2.217 R 2.214

1.148 10.575

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

10.702 12.296

2.019

R 1.995 R 2.238 R 2.971

5.911

R 5.990 R 6.377 R 6.863 R 6.969 R 6.282

6.188

R 6.201 R 7.403

R 78.665

.692

R .656

.696 .703 .736 .748 R .685 .635 .682 R .750 R 8.427

R 7.284 R 6.087 R 6.802 R 5.868 R 6.146 R 6.284 R 6.762 R 6.728

1.996 20.436

2.964 2.663 3.106 2.932 3.110 3.079 3.106 3.148 2.946 27.054

6.088 58.048

.765 .670 .681 .593 .641 .701 .746 .757 .712 6.266

21.241 21.129

26.938 26.725

58.872 60.137

6.360 6.345

a Includes non-combustion use of fossil fuels. b Most data are estimates. See Tables 10.1–10.2c for notes on series

components and estimation; and see Note, "Renewable Energy Production and Consumption," at end of Section 10. c Natural gas only; excludes supplemental gaseous fuels. See Note 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4. d Petroleum products supplied; excludes biofuels that have been blended with petroleum—biofuels are included in "Biomass." e Includes coal coke net imports. See Tables 1.4a and 1.4b. f Conventional hydroelectric power. g Includes coal coke net imports and electricity net imports, which are not

Wind

Biomass

Total

Totalg

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) .059 .068 .063 .062 .060 .058 .058 .058 .061 .065 .074 .078 .090 .111 .157 .225 .337

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) .029 .033 .057 .070 .105 .113 .142 .178 .264 .341 .546 .721 .923 1.168 1.340 1.601 1.728

1.562 1.424 1.320 1.335 1.431 1.499 2.475 3.016 2.735 3.101 3.008 2.622 2.701 2.806 3.008 3.114 3.262 3.485 3.851 3.936 4.270 4.405 4.369 4.673 4.825

2.978 2.784 2.928 3.396 4.070 4.687 5.428 6.084 6.040 6.559 6.104 5.160 5.726 5.944 6.075 6.233 6.637 6.523 7.174 7.604 8.030 8.999 8.706 9.276 9.570

34.616 40.208 45.086 54.015 67.838 71.965 78.067 76.392 84.484 91.031 98.817 96.170 97.643 97.918 100.090 100.188 99.485 101.015 98.891 94.118 97.444 96.847 94.412 97.164 98.323

.018 .017 .018 .017 .018 .017 .018 .018 .016 .018 .018 .018 .212

.021 .025 .035 .040 .043 .043 .045 .045 .039 .034 .030 .027 .426

.141 .139 .143 .167 .160 .125 .127 .122 .130 .153 .183 .187 1.777

.388 .360 .391 .380 .400 .399 .413 .413 .394 .396 .393 .408 4.734

.793 .748 .813 .812 .808 .775 .799 .776 .730 .755 .804 .857 9.471

9.280 8.601 8.422 7.458 7.639 7.897 8.425 8.309 7.682 7.612 7.672 8.366 97.363

R .026 R .035 R .043 R .048 R .055 R .056 R .062 R .061 R .055 R .049 R .041

R .170 R .186 R .203 R .192 R .174 R .151 R .163 R .125 R .151 R .188 R .179

R .385 R .376 R .396 R .370

.198 R .181 R .151 R .160 R .174 R .208 R 2.472

R .018 R .017 R .018 R .016 R .018 R .017 R .017 R .018 R .017 R .018 R .018 R .019 R .210

.037 R .570

.214 R 2.096

R .836 R .836 R .912 R .865 R .878 R .833 R .850 R .801 R .768 R .809 R .813 R .912

R 9.050 R 8.225 R 7.979 R 7.444 R 7.581 R 7.931 R 8.470 R 8.538 R 7.747 R 7.649 R 7.715 R 9.080

R .257 R .227 R .279 R .271 R .297 R .281 R .238 R .196

R .018 R .016 R .018 R .018 R .017 R .017 R .018 R .018

R .035 R .040 R .064 R .070 R .082 R .087 R .081 R .079

.175 2.220

.017 .158

1.931 1.770

.155 .158

.396

R .394 R .410 R .416 R .392

.395

R .401 R .434

R 4.765

R 10.112

R 97.410

R .204 R .240

.190

R .395 R .364 R .403

R 8.961

.074 .612

.237 R .209 .181 .146 R .121 .160 1.689

.383 R .404 R .404 R .412 R .419 .389 3.573

R .895 R .851 R 1.005 R .979 R 1.009 R .970 R .895 R .834

.815 8.253

7.632 72.711

.442 .335

1.515 1.254

3.535 3.537

7.578 7.054

72.966 73.713

7.619

R 8.500 R 7.455 R 7.810 R 7.971 R 8.424 R 8.340

separately displayed. See Tables 1.4a and 1.4b. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: • See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary. • See Table D1 for estimated energy consumption for 1635–1945. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

7

Figure 1.4a Primary Energy Imports and Exports (Quadrillion Btu) Imports by Source, 1949–2016 35 Petroleum

30 25 20 15 10

Natural Gas

5

Othera 0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Exports by Source, 1949–2016 12 10 Petroleum

8 6 4

Coalb

2 Natural Gas

Electricity

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

Imports by Source, Monthly

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Exports by Major Source, Monthly 1.2

2.5

2.0

1985

Petroleum

1.0

Petroleum

0.8 1.5 0.6 1.0 0.4 0.5

0.0

Natural Gas

Othera J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 2015 2 016 2017

a b

8

Coal, coal coke, biomass, and electricity. Includes coal coke.

Natural Gas

0.2 Coalb 0.0

Electricity

J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 2015 2 016 2017

Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary. Sources: Tables 1.4a and 1.4b.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Figure 1.4b Primary Energy Net Imports (Quadrillion Btu) Total, 1949–2016 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

2010

2015

By Major Source, 1949–2016 25

Crude Oila 20 15 10 5

Natural Gas

Petroleum Productsb

0

Coal -5 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

Total, Monthly

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

By Major Source, Monthly

2.0

2.0

Crude Oila

1.5 1.5 1.0 1.0 0.5

Petroleum Productsb Natural Gas

0.5 0.0

Coal 0.0

-0.5 J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 2015 2016 2017

a

Crude oil and lease condensate. Includes imports into the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, which began in 1977. b Petroleum products, unfinished oils, natural gasoline, and gasoline

J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 2015 2016 2017

blending components. Does not include biofuels. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary. Sources: Tables 1.4a and 1.4b.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

9

Table 1.4a Primary Energy Imports by Source (Quadrillion Btu) Imports Petroleum Coal

Coal Coke

Natural Gas

Crude Oila

Petroleum Productsb

Total

...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ......................

0.009 .008 .007 .005 .001 .024 .030 .049 .067 .237 .313 .495 .422 .626 .682 .762 .906 .909 .855 .566 .484 .327 .212 .199 .252

0.011 .003 .003 .002 .004 .045 .016 .014 .019 .095 .094 .063 .080 .068 .170 .088 .101 .061 .089 .009 .030 .035 .028 .003 .002

0.000 .011 .161 .471 .846 .978 1.006 .952 1.551 2.901 3.869 4.068 4.104 4.042 4.365 4.450 4.291 4.723 4.084 3.845 3.834 3.555 3.216 2.955 2.763

1.056 1.691 2.196 2.654 2.814 8.721 11.195 6.814 12.766 15.669 19.783 20.348 19.920 21.060 22.082 22.091 22.085 21.914 21.448 19.699 20.140 19.595 19.239 16.957 16.178

0.830 1.061 1.802 2.748 4.656 4.227 3.463 3.796 4.351 3.131 4.641 4.946 4.677 5.105 6.063 7.108 7.054 6.842 6.214 5.367 5.219 5.038 4.122 4.169 3.773

1.886 2.752 3.999 5.402 7.470 12.948 14.658 10.609 17.117 18.800 24.424 25.294 24.597 26.165 28.145 29.198 29.139 28.756 27.662 25.066 25.359 24.633 23.361 21.126 19.951

2015 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

.029 .020 .019 .020 .021 .019 .025 .022 .020 .019 .020 .022 .256

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) .002 (s) (s) .001 .003

.286 .261 .264 .210 .209 .211 .222 .219 .214 .232 .224 .233 2.786

1.348 1.206 1.427 1.311 1.362 1.332 1.384 1.451 1.315 1.335 1.341 1.486 16.299

.388 .331 .342 .354 .380 .372 .368 .356 .343 .288 .286 .305 4.111

2016 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

R .015 R .018 R .026

(s) (s) (s) (s) .001 .002 (s) (s) .002 .001 (s) (s) .006

.280 .258 .247 .247 .255 .248 .272 .269 .244 .237 .237 .288 3.082

1.429 1.389 1.503 1.382 1.488 1.373 1.519 1.504 1.460 1.420 1.457 1.467 17.392

.011 .024 .015 R .021 .019 .011 .143

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) .001 (s) (s) (s) .001

.299 .261 .288 .244 .250 .246 .257 .254 .235 2.334

.172 .195

.004 .002

2.320 2.097

1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

2017 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. 9-Month Total ....... 2016 9-Month Total ....... 2015 9-Month Total .......

.017 R .020 R .014

.022 .021 .018 .017 .016 .015 R .220 .017 .014 R .012

Electricity

Total

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA .001 (s) .002 .002 .002 .013 .012 .066 .055 .085 .027 .004 .019 .049 .102 .046

0.007 .016 .018 .012 .021 .038 .085 .157 .063 .146 .166 .131 .125 .104 .117 .150 .146 .175 .195 .178 .154 .178 .202 .236 .227

1.913 2.790 4.188 5.892 8.342 14.032 15.796 11.781 18.817 22.180 28.865 30.052 29.331 31.007 33.492 34.659 34.649 34.679 32.970 29.690 29.866 28.748 27.068 24.623 23.241

1.736 1.536 1.769 1.665 1.743 1.704 1.752 1.807 1.658 1.623 1.627 1.790 20.410

.003 .004 .004 .004 .005 .006 .009 .010 .009 .009 .008 .009 .079

.021 .019 .023 .022 .023 .023 .024 .024 .023 .018 .020 .020 .259

2.075 1.840 2.079 1.922 2.000 1.963 2.032 2.082 1.925 1.901 1.899 2.076 23.794

.353 .339 .333 .357 .376 .398 .402 .379 .343 .350 .359 .319 4.309

1.782 1.728 1.837 1.739 1.864 1.771 1.921 1.883 1.804 1.770 1.816 1.786 21.700

.003 .003 .005 .008 .008 .013 .012 .014 .012 .013 .015 .017 .123

R .021 R .018 R .019 R .015 R .018 R .022 R .025 R .024 R .017 R .019 R .021 R .018 R .237

R 2.102 R 2.026 R 2.135 R 2.026 R 2.165 R 2.070 R 2.253 R 2.210 R 2.097 R 2.057 R 2.104 R 2.123

1.583 1.337 1.510 1.476 1.576 1.455 1.468 1.481 1.321 13.207

.380 .326 .336 .342 .372 .355 .333 .357 .395 3.195

1.963 1.663 1.847 1.818 1.948 1.809 1.801 1.838 1.716 16.402

.003 .004 .006 .006 .008 .013 .012 .011 .005 .069

.019 .015 .016 .019 .017 .020 R .024 R .023 .020 .174

R 2.300

13.047 12.137

3.281 3.232

16.328 15.369

.078 .053

.180 .200

19.083 17.918

a Crude oil and lease condensate. Includes imports into the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, which began in 1977. b Petroleum products, unfinished oils, natural gasoline, and gasoline blending components. Does not include biofuels. c Fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) and biodiesel. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: • See "Primary Energy" in Glossary. • Totals may not equal sum of

10

Biomassc

R 25.368

1.957 2.169 R 2.098 R 2.246 R 2.102 R 2.115 R 2.145

1.988 19.123

components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 1.4b Primary Energy Exports by Source and Total Net Imports (Quadrillion Btu) Net Importsa

Exports Petroleum Coal

Coal Coke

Natural Gas

Crude Oilb

Petroleum Productsc

Total

...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ......................

0.786 1.465 1.023 1.376 1.936 1.761 2.421 2.438 2.772 2.318 1.528 1.265 1.032 1.117 1.253 1.273 1.264 1.507 2.071 1.515 2.101 2.751 3.087 2.895 2.435

0.010 .013 .009 .021 .061 .032 .051 .028 .014 .034 .028 .033 .020 .018 .033 .043 .040 .036 .049 .032 .036 .024 .024 .021 .023

0.027 .032 .012 .027 .072 .074 .049 .056 .087 .156 .245 .377 .520 .686 .862 .735 .730 .830 .972 1.082 1.147 1.519 1.633 1.587 1.528

0.202 .067 .018 .006 .029 .012 .609 .432 .230 .200 .106 .043 .019 .026 .057 .067 .052 .058 .061 .093 .088 .100 .143 .284 .744

0.440 .707 .413 .386 .520 .427 .551 1.225 1.594 1.776 2.003 1.956 1.963 2.083 2.068 2.276 2.554 2.803 3.626 4.101 4.691 5.820 6.261 6.886 7.414

0.642 .774 .431 .392 .549 .439 1.160 1.657 1.824 1.976 2.110 1.999 1.982 2.110 2.125 2.344 2.606 2.861 3.686 4.194 4.780 5.919 6.404 7.170 8.158

2015 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

.197 .163 .191 .181 .169 .145 .128 .161 .135 .144 .118 .121 1.852

.002 .001 .001 .002 .003 .003 .001 .001 .002 .002 .002 .002 .021

.146 .146 .165 .132 .135 .139 .145 .146 .164 .160 .157 .163 1.800

.087 .070 .077 .102 .093 .076 .096 .081 .070 .088 .055 .069 .964

.662 .615 .590 .680 .701 .660 .715 .656 .697 .667 .721 .790 8.153

2016 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

R .114 R .116 R .134 R .118 R .108 R .139 R .084 R .128 R .110 R .125 R .168 R .203

.001 (s) .001 .001 .001 .002 .001 .003 .003 .004 .005 .002 .025

.170 .164 .197 .179 .190 .185 .190 .216 .204 .178 .230 .253 2.356

.087 .075 .106 .107 .140 .091 .095 .128 .133 .089 .104 .083 1.238

.713 .666 .712 .699 .788 .757 .746 .694 .716 .710 .738 .811 8.752

1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

R 1.546

2017 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. 9-Month Total .......

R .189 R .177 R .206 R .186 R .186 R .188 R .184 R .220

2016 9-Month Total ....... 2015 9-Month Total .......

Biomassd

Electricity

Total

Total

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) (s) .001 .001 .001 .005 .036 .089 .035 .047 .108 .078 .076 .081

0.001 .002 .003 .013 .014 .017 .014 .017 .055 .012 .051 .056 .054 .082 .078 .065 .083 .069 .083 .062 .065 .051 .041 .039 .045

1.465 2.286 1.477 1.829 2.632 2.323 3.695 4.196 4.752 4.496 3.962 3.731 3.608 4.013 4.351 4.462 4.727 5.338 6.949 6.920 8.176 10.373 11.267 11.788 12.270

0.448 .504 2.710 4.063 5.709 11.709 12.101 7.584 14.065 17.684 24.904 26.321 25.722 26.994 29.141 30.197 29.921 29.341 26.021 22.770 21.690 18.375 15.801 12.835 10.971

.749 .685 .667 .782 .794 .736 .811 .737 .767 .755 .775 .859 9.118

.006 .006 .008 .007 .007 .007 .007 .006 .006 .007 .005 .008 .080

.003 .005 .003 .002 .002 .002 .002 .002 .002 .002 .002 .003 .031

1.103 1.006 1.035 1.105 1.110 1.032 1.095 1.054 1.076 1.070 1.060 1.156 12.902

.972 .834 1.044 .816 .890 .930 .937 1.028 .849 .832 .839 .920 10.892

.800 .742 .818 .807 .928 .848 .841 .822 .850 .799 .842 .894 9.990

.013 .014 .016 .016 .014 .014 .012 .015 .016 .017 .016 .017 .181

.002

R 1.100 R 1.038 R 1.168 R 1.123 R 1.243 R 1.191 R 1.132 R 1.188 R 1.186 R 1.125 R 1.264 R 1.372

R 1.003 R .988 R .967 R .902 R .921 R .879 R 1.121 R 1.023 R .911 R .932 R .841 R .751

R 14.130

R 11.238 R .897 R .561 R .717 R .692 R .791 R .677 R .654 R .743

R .002 R .003 R .002 R .002 R .003 R .003

.003 .003 .003 .002 R .003 R .032

.228 1.764

.003 .001 .002 .001 .001 .003 .001 .004 .002 .019

.274 .257 .274 .249 .256 .256 .251 .249 .251 2.318

.132 .179 .148 .172 .182 .135 .159 .137 .253 1.496

.784 .761 .801 .779 .811 .825 .846 .773 .737 7.117

.917 .940 .949 .950 .993 .960 1.004 .910 .990 8.613

.017 .017 .018 .015 .017 .016 .018 .017 .014 .148

.003 .003 .004 .004 .003 .004 .003 .003 .003 .029

R 1.404 R 1.397 R 1.452 R 1.406 R 1.456 R 1.426 R 1.461 R 1.402

1.488 12.891

.500 6.232

1.050 1.469

.013 .015

1.695 1.319

.962 .753

6.493 5.976

7.455 6.729

.130 .060

.024 .024

10.368 9.616

8.714 8.301

a Net imports equal imports minus exports. b Crude oil and lease condensate. c Petroleum products, unfinished oils, natural gasoline, and gasoline blending

components. Does not include biofuels. d Beginning in 2001, includes biodiesel. Beginning in 2010, also includes fuel ethanol (minus denaturant). Beginning in 2016, also includes wood and wood-derived fuels. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.

Notes: • See "Primary Energy" in Glossary. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

11

Figure 1.5

Merchandise Trade Value (Billion Dollarsa)

Imports and Exports, 1974–2016

Imports and Exports, Monthly

2,500

250

2,000

200

Total Imports

Total Imports 1,500

150 Total Exports

1,000

Total Exports

500

100

50 Energy Exports

Energy Exports Energy Imports

Energy Imports 0

0 1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Trade Balance, 1974–2016

J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 2015 2016 2017

Trade Balance, Monthly 0

100

Energy 0 -100

-25 Energy

-200 Non-Energy -300

-50

-400

NonEnergy

-500 -600 -75

Total

-700 -800 Total -100

-900 1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O ND 2015 2016 2017

a

Prices are not adjusted for inflation. S ee “Nominal Dollars” in Glossary. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary. Source: Table 1.5.

12

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 1.5 Merchandise Trade Value (Million Dollarsa) Petroleumb

1974 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Energyc

Exports

Imports

Balance

Exports

Imports

Balance

NonEnergy Balance

Exports

Total Merchandise Imports

Balance

................ 792 ................ 907 ................ 2,833 ................ 4,707 ................ 6,901 ................ 6,321 ................ 10,192 ................ 8,868 ................ 8,569 ................ 10,209 ................ 13,130 ................ 19,155 ................ 28,171 ................ 33,293 ................ 61,695 ................ 44,509 ................ 64,753 b ................ 102,180 ................ 111,951 ................ 123,218 ................ 127,818

24,668 25,197 78,637 50,475 61,583 54,368 119,251 102,747 102,663 132,433 179,266 250,068 299,714 327,620 449,847 251,833 333,472 b431,866 408,509 363,141 326,709

-23,876 -24,289 -75,803 -45,768 -54,682 -48,047 -109,059 -93,879 -94,094 -122,224 -166,136 -230,913 -271,543 -294,327 -388,152 -207,324 -268,719 b-329,686 -296,558 -239,923 -198,891

3,444 4,470 7,982 9,971 12,233 10,358 13,179 12,494 11,541 13,768 18,642 26,488 34,711 41,725 76,075 54,536 80,625 128,989 136,054 147,539 154,498

25,454 26,476 82,924 53,917 64,661 59,109 135,367 121,923 115,748 153,298 206,660 289,723 332,500 364,987 491,885 271,739 354,982 453,839 423,862 379,758 347,474

-22,010 -22,006 -74,942 -43,946 -52,428 -48,751 -122,188 -109,429 -104,207 -139,530 -188,018 -263,235 -297,789 -323,262 -415,810 -217,203 -274,357 -324,850 -287,808 -232,219 -192,976

18,126 31,557 55,246 -73,765 -50,068 -110,050 -313,916 -302,470 -364,056 -392,820 -462,912 -504,242 -519,515 -485,501 -400,389 -286,379 -361,005 -400,597 -442,638 -457,712 -541,506

99,437 108,856 225,566 218,815 393,592 584,742 781,918 729,100 693,103 724,771 818,775 905,978 1,036,635 1,148,199 1,287,442 1,056,043 1,278,495 1,482,508 1,545,821 1,578,439 1,621,874

103,321 99,305 245,262 336,526 496,088 743,543 1,218,022 1,140,999 1,161,366 1,257,121 1,469,704 1,673,455 1,853,938 1,956,962 2,103,641 1,559,625 1,913,857 2,207,954 2,276,267 2,268,370 2,356,356

-3,884 9,551 -19,696 -117,712 -102,496 -158,801 -436,104 -411,899 -468,263 -532,350 -650,930 -767,477 -817,304 -808,763 -816,199 -503,582 -635,362 -725,447 -730,446 -689,931 -734,482

2015 January ............ February .......... March ............... April ................. May .................. June ................. July .................. August ............. September ....... October ............ November ........ December ........ Total ................

7,754 6,685 6,646 7,762 8,359 7,838 8,298 6,809 6,532 6,345 6,323 6,380 85,733

18,216 13,815 14,826 15,567 15,578 17,434 18,075 15,203 13,811 11,657 11,148 12,126 177,455

-10,462 -7,130 -8,180 -7,805 -7,219 -9,596 -9,777 -8,394 -7,279 -5,312 -4,825 -5,746 -91,722

9,418 8,189 8,390 9,448 9,989 9,260 9,639 8,241 7,879 7,703 7,609 7,692 103,458

19,909 15,545 16,228 16,469 16,472 18,309 19,039 16,147 14,753 12,644 11,965 13,018 190,501

-10,491 -7,356 -7,838 -7,021 -6,483 -9,049 -9,400 -7,906 -6,874 -4,941 -4,356 -5,326 -87,043

-49,802 -37,324 -56,685 -54,495 -51,865 -57,326 -59,978 -59,304 -59,744 -59,907 -57,274 -54,338 -658,039

120,880 118,237 133,664 128,510 128,161 130,949 124,201 122,722 124,853 130,333 120,522 120,070 1,503,101

181,173 162,916 198,187 190,026 186,509 197,324 193,579 189,932 191,470 195,181 182,152 179,735 2,248,183

-60,293 -44,680 -64,523 -61,516 -58,348 -66,375 -69,378 -67,210 -66,618 -64,848 -61,630 -59,664 -745,082

2016 January ............ February .......... March ............... April ................. May .................. June ................. July .................. August ............. September ....... October ............ November ........ December ........ Total ................

5,342 4,775 5,712 5,865 6,961 6,728 6,313 6,381 6,418 6,187 6,850 7,102 74,636

10,256 8,416 9,395 10,041 11,349 13,733 13,173 14,184 12,917 12,705 13,503 13,260 142,933

-4,914 -3,641 -3,683 -4,176 -4,388 -7,005 -6,860 -7,803 -6,499 -6,518 -6,653 -6,158 -68,297

6,549 5,921 6,970 7,119 8,412 8,203 7,665 7,815 7,740 7,857 8,818 9,552 92,623

11,380 9,327 10,164 10,668 12,013 14,474 14,151 15,159 13,827 13,625 14,445 14,589 153,822

-4,831 -3,406 -3,194 -3,549 -3,601 -6,271 -6,486 -7,344 -6,087 -5,768 -5,627 -5,037 -61,199

-53,100 -51,348 -49,888 -51,902 -60,287 -57,339 -59,594 -64,173 -55,477 -57,815 -62,577 -52,093 -675,595

107,968 113,363 125,425 118,645 119,625 125,098 115,810 122,529 124,431 128,440 123,034 126,642 1,451,011

165,899 168,117 178,508 174,096 183,512 188,708 181,890 194,046 185,995 192,023 191,239 183,772 2,187,805

-57,931 -54,754 -53,082 -55,451 -63,888 -63,610 -66,080 -71,517 -61,564 -63,583 -68,204 -57,130 -736,794

2017 January ............ February .......... March ............... April ................. May .................. June ................. July .................. August ............. September ....... October ............ 10-Month Total

7,552 7,779 7,415 7,953 8,297 8,325 8,664 7,781 8,376 10,294 82,435

15,713 14,167 15,917 14,412 16,220 14,930 14,024 15,420 14,184 15,231 150,220

-8,161 -6,388 -8,502 -6,459 -7,923 -6,605 -5,360 -7,639 -5,808 -4,937 -67,782

10,321 10,522 10,215 10,537 10,826 10,593 10,892 10,272 11,070 13,366 108,615

17,077 15,293 17,215 15,558 17,234 15,866 15,090 16,457 15,235 16,281 161,308

-6,756 -4,771 -7,000 -5,021 -6,408 -5,273 -4,198 -6,185 -4,165 -2,915 -52,692

-61,104 -45,365 -52,086 -57,561 -66,118 -59,989 -65,792 -66,711 R -60,617 -72,029 -607,372

118,004 119,238 135,663 123,765 128,052 133,267 122,120 128,892 R 130,112 136,014 1,275,127

185,863 169,375 194,750 186,347 200,577 198,529 192,110 201,788 R 194,895 210,958 1,935,192

-67,860 -50,136 -59,086 -62,582 -72,526 -65,262 -69,990 -72,896 R -64,782 -74,944 -660,065

2016 10-Month Total 2015 10-Month Total

60,683 72,711

116,170 154,182

-55,487 -81,154

74,252 87,827

124,787 165,462

-50,537 -77,359

-560,923 -546,430

1,201,334 1,262,509

1,812,794 1,886,297

-611,459 -623,787

a Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. b Through 2010, data are for crude oil, petroleum preparations, liquefied

propane and butane, and other mineral fuels. Beginning in 2011, data are for petroleum products and preparations. c Petroleum, coal, natural gas, and electricity. R=Revised. Notes: • Monthly data are not adjusted for seasonal variations. • See Note 1, "Merchandise Trade Value," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of

components due to independent rounding. • The U.S. import statistics reflect both government and nongovernment imports of merchandise from foreign countries into the U.S. customs territory, which comprises the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1974. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

13

Figure 1.6

Cost of Fuels to End Users in Real (1982–1984) Dollars

Costs, 1960–2016 30

Dollars per Million Btu

25 Residential Electricitya 20 15

Residential Heating Oilb

10

Motor Gasolinea

5 Residential Natural Gasa 0 1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Residential Electricity,a Monthly

Costs, September 2017

8

18 15.79 Cents per Kilowatthour

Dollars per Million Btu

15 12 9.04

9

6.65 6

6

4

2

3

2015

0 Motor Gasolinea

J

Residential Natural Gasa

Motor Gasoline,a Monthly

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

0.75

0.50

0.25 2015

2016

2017

0.00

Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet

10

1.00 Dollars per Gallon

F

Residential Natural Gas,a Monthly

1.25

8

6

4

2 2015

2016

2017

0 J

F

M

A

M

J

Includes taxes. b Excludes taxes. Note: See “Real Dollars” in Glossary.

14

2017

0 Residential Electricitya

a

2016

J

A

S

O

N

D

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary. Source: Table 1.6.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

D

Table 1.6 Cost of Fuels to End Users in Real (1982–1984) Dollars Consumer Price Index, All Urban Consumersa

Motor Gasolineb

Residential Heating Oilc

Residential Natural Gasb

Residential Electricityb

Index 1982–1984=100

Dollars per Gallon

Dollars per Million Btu

Dollars per Gallon

Dollars per Million Btu

Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet

Dollars per Million Btu

Cents per Kilowatthour

Dollars per Million Btu

.................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. ..................

29.6 31.5 38.8 53.8 82.4 107.6 130.7 152.4 172.2 177.1 179.9 184.0 188.9 195.3 201.6 207.342 215.303 214.537 218.056 224.939 229.594 232.957 236.736

NA NA NA NA 1.482 1.112 0.931 0.791 0.908 0.864 0.801 0.890 1.018 1.197 1.307 1.374 1.541 1.119 1.301 1.590 1.609 1.538 1.447

NA NA NA NA 11.85 8.89 7.44 6.36 7.31 6.96 6.46 7.19 8.22 9.67 10.58 11.20 12.62 9.21 10.76 13.18 13.35 12.76 12.01

NA NA NA NA 1.182 0.979 0.813 0.569 0.761 0.706 0.628 0.736 0.819 1.051 1.173 1.250 1.495 1.112 1.283 NA NA NA NA

NA NA NA NA 8.52 7.06 5.86 4.10 5.49 5.09 4.52 5.31 5.91 7.58 8.46 9.01 10.78 8.02 9.25 NA NA NA NA

NA NA 2.81 3.18 4.47 5.69 4.44 3.98 4.51 5.44 4.39 5.23 5.69 6.50 6.81 6.31 6.45 5.66 5.22 4.90 4.64 4.43 4.63

NA NA 2.72 3.12 4.36 5.52 4.31 3.87 4.39 5.28 4.28 5.09 5.55 6.33 6.63 6.14 6.28 5.52 5.11 4.80 4.53 4.31 4.49

8.8 7.6 5.7 6.5 6.6 6.87 5.99 5.51 4.79 4.84 4.69 4.74 4.74 4.84 5.16 5.14 5.23 5.37 5.29 5.21 5.17 5.21 5.29

25.74 22.33 16.62 19.07 19.21 20.13 17.56 16.15 14.02 14.20 13.75 13.89 13.89 14.18 15.12 15.05 15.33 15.72 15.51 15.27 15.17 15.26 15.50

2015 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October .................... November ................ December ................ Average ..................

233.707 234.722 236.119 236.599 237.805 238.638 238.654 238.316 237.945 237.838 237.336 236.525 237.017

0.929 0.983 1.077 1.076 1.191 1.211 1.212 1.152 1.035 0.991 0.948 0.898 1.059

7.71 8.16 8.94 8.93 9.88 10.05 10.06 9.56 8.59 8.23 7.87 7.46 8.79

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

4.07 3.87 3.93 4.41 5.35 6.32 6.82 7.08 6.89 5.30 4.22 3.92 4.38

3.92 3.73 3.79 4.25 5.16 6.08 6.57 6.82 6.64 5.10 4.07 3.78 4.22

5.18 5.24 5.22 5.33 5.44 5.41 5.42 5.42 5.48 5.35 5.36 5.21 5.34

15.17 15.35 15.30 15.63 15.94 15.87 15.89 15.88 16.05 15.67 15.70 15.27 15.64

2016 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October .................... November ................ December ................ Average ..................

236.916 237.111 238.132 239.261 240.229 241.018 240.628 240.849 241.428 241.729 241.353 241.432 240.007

0.859 0.773 0.849 0.918 0.967 1.005 0.950 0.921 0.940 0.953 0.931 0.948 0.918

7.13 6.42 7.05 7.62 8.03 8.34 7.89 7.65 7.80 7.91 7.73 7.87 7.62

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

3.50 3.53 3.86 4.03 4.84 5.99 6.88 7.31 6.95 5.68 4.46 3.75 4.19

3.37 3.40 3.72 3.89 4.66 5.77 6.63 7.05 6.70 5.48 4.30 3.62 4.04

5.06 5.12

R 14.83

R 5.27

R 15.46

2017 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October .................... November ................

242.839 243.603 243.801 244.524 244.733 244.955 244.786 245.519 246.819 246.663 246.669

0.992 0.969 0.979 1.014 1.000 0.980 0.958 0.992 1.089 1.032 1.057

8.24 8.04 8.12 8.42 8.30 8.13 7.95 8.24 9.04 8.57 8.78

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

3.86 4.13 4.06 4.64 5.39 6.52 7.25 7.37 R 6.89 NA NA

3.72 3.98 3.92 4.48 5.19 6.28 6.99 7.11 R 6.65 NA NA

1960 Average 1965 Average 1970 Average 1975 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

a Data are U.S. city averages for all items, and are not seasonally adjusted. b Includes taxes. c Excludes taxes.

R=Revised. NA=Not available. Notes: • See "Real Dollars" in Glossary. • Fuel costs are calculated by using the Urban Consumer Price Index (CPI) developed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. • Annual averages may not equal average of months due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

5.20 5.32 5.28 5.27 R 5.35 5.33 5.15 5.28 R 5.07 5.23

15.01 15.23 15.60 R 15.48

15.44 R 15.67

15.62 15.11 15.48 R 14.85 15.33

5.03

14.75

R 5.25

R 15.38

5.29 5.19 5.32 5.40 5.36 5.37 R 5.39 NA NA

15.51 R 15.21

15.59 15.82 15.71 15.75 R 15.79 NA NA

Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1960 and monthly data beginning in 1995. Sources: • Fuel Prices: Tables 9.4 (All Grades), 9.8, and 9.10, adjusted by the CPI; and Monthy Energy Review, September 2012, Table 9.8c. • Consumer Price Index, All Urban Consumers: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, series ID CUUR0000SA0. • Conversion Factors: Tables A1, A3, A4, and A6.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

15

Figure 1.7 Primary Energy Consumption and Energy Expenditures Indicators Energy Consumption per Capita, 1949–2016 400

Million Btu

300

200

100

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

2005

2010

2015

Thousand Btu per Chained (2009) Dollara

Primary Energy Consumption per Real Dollar a of Gross Domestic Product, 1949–2016 20

15

10

5

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

Energy Expenditures as Share of Gross Domestic Product and Gross Output,b 1987–2015 10

8

Percent

Share of GDP 6

Share of Gross Output

4

2

0 1990

a

1995

2000

See "Chained Dollars" and "Real Dollars" in Glossary. Gross output is the value of gross domestic product (GDP) plus the value of intermediate inputs used to produce GDP. b

16

2005

2010

Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary. Source: Table 1.7.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

2015

Table 1.7 Primary Energy Consumption, Energy Expenditures, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Indicators Primary Energy Consumptiona

Consumption

Quadrillion Btu 1950 .............. 1955 .............. 1960 .............. 1965 .............. 1970 .............. 1975 .............. 1980 .............. 1981 .............. 1982 .............. 1983 .............. 1984 .............. 1985 .............. 1986 .............. 1987 .............. 1988 .............. 1989 .............. 1990 .............. 1991 .............. 1992 .............. 1993 .............. 1994 .............. 1995 .............. 1996 .............. 1997 .............. 1998 .............. 1999 .............. 2000 .............. 2001 .............. 2002 .............. 2003 .............. 2004 .............. 2005 .............. 2006 .............. 2007 .............. 2008 .............. 2009 .............. 2010 .............. 2011 .............. 2012 .............. 2013 .............. 2014 .............. 2015 .............. 2016 .............. a b c d e f

34.616 40.208 45.086 54.015 67.838 71.965 78.067 76.106 73.099 72.971 76.632 76.392 76.647 79.054 82.709 84.785 84.484 84.437 85.782 87.365 89.087 91.031 94.021 94.600 95.018 96.648 98.817 96.170 97.643 97.918 100.090 100.188 99.485 101.015 98.891 94.118 97.444 96.847 94.412 97.164 98.323 97.363 R 97.410

Energy Expendituresb

Consumption per Capita

Consumption per Real Dollard of GDPe

Million Btu

Thousand Btu per Chained (2009) Dollard

Million Nominal Dollarsg

Nominal Dollarsg

15.85 14.68 14.50 13.58 14.37 13.36 12.10 11.50 11.26 10.74 10.52 10.06 9.75 9.72 9.76 9.65 9.43 9.44 9.26 9.18 8.99 8.95 8.90 8.57 8.24 8.01 7.87 7.58 7.56 7.38 7.27 7.04 6.81 6.79 6.67 6.53 6.59 6.45 6.15 6.22 6.15 5.94 5.85

NA NA NA NA 82,875 171,851 374,347 427,898 426,479 417,617 435,309 438,339 384,088 397,623 411,565 439,046 474,647 472,434 476,840 492,267 504,854 514,622 560,292 567,960 526,280 558,624 687,708 696,240 663,962 755,068 871,209 1,045,729 1,158,819 1,233,864 1,408,750 1,066,275 1,213,336 1,392,945 1,356,215 1,378,885 1,399,486 1,127,132 NA

NA NA NA NA 404 796 1,647 1,865 1,841 1,786 1,846 1,842 1,599 1,641 1,683 1,779 1,901 1,867 1,859 1,894 1,919 1,933 2,080 2,083 1,908 2,002 2,437 2,443 2,308 2,603 2,975 3,539 3,884 4,096 4,633 3,476 3,922 4,469 4,319 4,361 4,393 3,512 NA

227 242 250 278 331 333 344 332 316 312 325 321 319 326 338 344 338 334 334 336 339 342 349 347 344 346 350 337 339 338 342 339 333 335 325 307 315 311 301 307 309 303 R 301

Expenditures

Expenditures per Capita

See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary. Expenditures include taxes where data are available. Carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption. See Table 12.1. See "Chained Dollars" and "Real Dollars" in Glossary. See "Gross Domestic Product (GDP)" in Glossary. Gross output is the value of GDP plus the value of intermediate inputs used to produce GDP. g See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. R=Revised. NA=Not available. Notes: • Data are estimates. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949. Sources: • Consumption: Table 1.3. • Consumption per Capita: Calculated as energy consumption divided by U.S. population (see Table C1).

Carbon Dioxide Emissionsc Expenditures as Share of Gross Outputf

Percent

Percent

NA NA NA NA 7.7 10.2 13.1 13.3 12.7 11.5 10.8 10.1 8.4 8.2 7.8 7.8 7.9 7.7 7.3 7.2 6.9 6.7 6.9 6.6 5.8 5.8 6.7 6.6 6.0 6.6 7.1 8.0 8.4 8.5 9.6 7.4 8.1 9.0 8.4 8.3 8.0 6.2 NA

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.2 4.0 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.3 3.2 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.8 4.0 4.4 4.7 4.7 5.3 4.3 4.6 5.1 4.7 4.7 4.5 3.6 NA

Expenditures as Share of GDPe

Emissions

Emissions per Capita

Emissions per Real Dollard of GDPe

Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide

Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide

Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide per Million Chained (2009) Dollarsd

15.6 16.2 16.1 17.8 20.8 20.5 20.9 20.2 19.0 18.7 19.5 19.3 19.1 19.6 20.4 20.5 20.2 19.7 19.8 19.9 20.0 20.0 20.5 20.5 20.4 20.4 20.8 20.2 20.2 20.2 20.4 20.3 19.8 19.9 19.1 17.6 18.1 17.5 16.7 17.0 17.0 16.4 16.1

1,091 980 937 871 902 821 736 699 677 644 631 605 585 585 588 R 577 563 558 549 R 545 531 523 522 506 489 472 467 454 450 441 433 421 405 404 392 374 378 363 341 344 339 322 311

2,382 2,685 2,914 3,462 4,261 4,421 4,750 4,625 4,393 4,371 4,600 R 4,593 4,598 4,757 R 4,982 5,065 5,039 4,993 R 5,090 5,184 5,261 5,324 5,511 R 5,584 5,637 R 5,690 R 5,867 5,762 5,805 5,855 R 5,971 R 5,992 5,912 6,005 5,815 R 5,396 5,591 R 5,454 R 5,243 5,372 5,419 5,274 5,187

• Consumption per Real Dollar of GDP: Calculated as energy consumption divided by U.S. gross domestic product in chained (2009) dollars (see Table C1). • Expenditures: U.S. Energy Information Administration, "State Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates, 1970 Through 2014" (June 2016), U.S. Table ET1. • Expenditures per Capita: Calculated as energy expenditures divided by U.S. population (see Table C1). • Expenditures as Share of GDP: Calculated as energy expenditures divided by U.S. gross domestic product in nominal dollars (see Table C1). • Expenditures as Share of Gross Output: Calculated as energy expenditures divided by U.S. gross output (see Table C1). • Emissions: 1949–1972—U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review 2011, Table 11.1. 1973 forward—Table 12.1. • Emissions per Capita: Calculated as carbon dioxide emissions divided by U.S. population (see Table C1). • Emissions per Real Dollar of GDP: Calculated as carbon dioxide emissions divided by U.S. gross domestic product in chained (2009) dollars (see Table C1).

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

17

Figure 1.8

Motor Vehicle Mileage, Fuel Consumption, and Fuel Economy, 1949–2015

Mileage

Thousand Miles per Vehicle

30

Heavy-Duty Trucksc

20

Light-Duty Vehicles, Long Wheelbaseb 10 Light-Duty Vehicles, Short Wheelbasea

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Fuel Consumption 5 Thousand Gallons per Vehicle

Heavy-Duty Trucksc 4

3

2

1

Light-Duty Vehicles, Long Wheelbaseb Light-Duty Vehicles, Short Wheelbasea

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Fuel Economy 25 Light-Duty Vehicles, Short Wheelbasea

Miles per Gallon

20

Light-Duty Vehicles, Long Wheelbaseb

15

10

5

Heavy-Duty Trucksc

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

a Through 1989, data are for passenger cars and motorcycles. For 1990–2006, data are for passenger cars only. Beginning in 2007, data are for light-duty vehicles (passenger cars, light trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles) with a wheelbase less than or equal to 121 inches. b For 1966–2000, data are for vans, pickup trucks, and sport utility vehicles. Beginning in 2007, data are for light-duty vehicles (passenger cars, light trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles) with a wheelbase greater than 121 inches. c For 1949–1965, data are for single-unit trucks with 2 axles and 6 or more tires, combination trucks, and other vehicles with 2 axles and 4

18

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

tires that are not passenger cars. For 1966–2006 data are for single-unit trucks with 2 axles and 6 or more tires, and combination trucks. Beginning in 2007, data are for single-unit trucks with 2 axles and 6 or more tires (or a gross vehicle weight rating exceeding 10,000 pounds), and combination trucks. Note: Through 1965, “Light-Duty Vehicles, Long Wheelbase” data are included in “Heavy-Duty Trucks.” Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary. Source: Table 1.8.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 1.8 Motor Vehicle Mileage, Fuel Consumption, and Fuel Economy Light-Duty Vehicles, Short Wheelbasea

Mileage Miles per Vehicle 1950 .......... 1955 .......... 1960 .......... 1965 .......... 1970 .......... 1975 .......... 1980 .......... 1981 .......... 1982 .......... 1983 .......... 1984 .......... 1985 .......... 1986 .......... 1987 .......... 1988 .......... 1989 .......... 1990 .......... 1991 .......... 1992 .......... 1993 .......... 1994 .......... 1995 .......... 1996 .......... 1997 .......... 1998 .......... 1999 .......... 2000 .......... 2001 .......... 2002 .......... 2003 .......... 2004 .......... 2005 .......... 2006 .......... 2007 .......... 2008 .......... 2009 .......... 2010 .......... 2011 .......... 2012 .......... 2013 .......... 2014 .......... 2015P .......

9,060 9,447 9,518 9,603 9,989 9,309 8,813 8,873 9,050 9,118 9,248 9,419 9,464 9,720 9,972 10,157 10,504 10,571 10,857 10,804 10,992 11,203 11,330 11,581 11,754 11,848 11,976 11,831 12,202 12,325 12,460 12,510 12,485 a 10,710 10,290 10,391 10,650 11,150 11,262 11,244 11,048 11,327

Fuel Fuel Consumption Economy Gallons per Vehicle 603 645 668 661 737 665 551 538 535 534 530 538 543 539 531 533 520 501 517 527 531 530 534 539 544 553 547 534 555 556 553 567 554 a 468 435 442 456 481 484 480 476 475

Miles per Gallon 15.0 14.6 14.3 14.5 13.5 14.0 16.0 16.5 16.9 17.1 17.4 17.5 17.4 18.0 18.8 19.0 20.2 21.1 21.0 20.5 20.7 21.1 21.2 21.5 21.6 21.4 21.9 22.1 22.0 22.2 22.5 22.1 22.5 a 22.9 23.7 23.5 23.3 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.2 23.9

Light-Duty Vehicles, Long Wheelbaseb

Mileage Miles per Vehicle (e) (e) (e) (e) 8,676 9,829 10,437 10,244 10,276 10,497 11,151 10,506 10,764 11,114 11,465 11,676 11,902 12,245 12,381 12,430 12,156 12,018 11,811 12,115 12,173 11,957 11,672 11,204 11,364 11,287 11,184 10,920 10,920 b 14,970 15,256 15,252 15,474 12,007 11,885 11,712 12,138 11,855

Heavy-Duty Trucksc

Fuel Fuel Consumption Economy Gallons per Vehicle (e) (e) (e) (e) 866 934 854 819 762 767 797 735 738 744 745 724 738 721 717 714 701 694 685 703 707 701 669 636 650 697 690 617 612 b 877 880 882 901 702 694 683 710 684

Miles per Gallon (e) (e) (e) (e) 10.0 10.5 12.2 12.5 13.5 13.7 14.0 14.3 14.6 14.9 15.4 16.1 16.1 17.0 17.3 17.4 17.3 17.3 17.2 17.2 17.2 17.0 17.4 17.6 17.5 16.2 16.2 17.7 17.8 b 17.1 17.3 17.3 17.2 17.1 17.1 17.2 17.1 17.3

a Through 1989, data are for passenger cars and motorcycles. For 1990–2006, data are for passenger cars only. Beginning in 2007, data are for light-duty vehicles (passenger cars, light trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles) with a wheelbase less than or equal to 121 inches. b For 1966–2006, data are for vans, pickup trucks, and sport utility vehicles. Beginning in 2007, data are for light-duty vehicles (passenger cars, light trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles) with a wheelbase greater than 121 inches. c For 1949–1965, data are for single-unit trucks with 2 axles and 6 or more tires, combination trucks, and other vehicles with 2 axles and 4 tires that are not passenger cars. For 1966–2006, data are for single-unit trucks with 2 axles and 6 or more tires, and combination trucks. Beginning in 2007, data are for single-unit trucks with 2 axles and 6 or more tires (or a gross vehicle weight rating exceeding 10,000 pounds), and combination trucks.

Mileage

All Motor Vehiclesd

Fuel Fuel Consumption Economy

Mileage

Miles per Vehicle

Gallons per Vehicle

Miles per Gallon

Miles per Vehicle

10,316 10,576 10,693 10,851 13,565 15,167 18,736 19,016 19,931 21,083 22,550 20,597 22,143 23,349 22,485 22,926 23,603 24,229 25,373 26,262 25,838 26,514 26,092 27,032 25,397 26,014 25,617 26,602 27,071 28,093 27,023 26,235 25,231 c 28,290 28,573 26,274 26,604 26,054 25,255 25,951 25,594 24,797

1,229 1,293 1,333 1,387 2,467 2,722 3,447 3,565 3,647 3,769 3,967 3,570 3,821 3,937 3,736 3,776 3,953 4,047 4,210 4,309 4,202 4,315 4,221 4,218 4,135 4,352 4,391 4,477 4,642 4,215 4,057 4,385 4,304 c 4,398 4,387 4,037 4,180 4,128 3,973 4,086 4,036 3,904

8.4 8.2 8.0 7.8 5.5 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.2 6.4 6.1 6.0 5.8 5.9 5.8 6.7 6.7 6.0 5.9 6.4 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.4

9,321 9,661 9,732 9,826 9,976 9,627 9,458 9,477 9,644 9,760 10,017 10,020 10,143 10,453 10,721 10,932 11,107 11,294 11,558 11,595 11,683 11,793 11,813 12,107 12,211 12,206 12,164 11,887 12,171 12,208 12,200 12,082 12,017 11,915 11,631 11,631 11,866 11,652 11,707 11,679 11,621 11,742

Fuel Fuel Consumption Economy Gallons per Vehicle

Miles per Gallon

725 761 784 787 830 790 712 697 686 686 691 685 692 694 688 688 677 669 683 693 698 700 700 711 721 732 720 695 719 718 714 706 698 693 667 661 681 665 665 663 666 656

12.8 12.7 12.4 12.5 12.0 12.2 13.3 13.6 14.1 14.2 14.5 14.6 14.7 15.1 15.6 15.9 16.4 16.9 16.9 16.7 16.7 16.8 16.9 17.0 16.9 16.7 16.9 17.1 16.9 17.0 17.1 17.1 17.2 17.2 17.4 17.6 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.6 17.5 17.9

d Includes buses and motorcycles, which are not separately displayed. e Included in "Heavy-Duty Trucks."

P=Preliminary. Note: Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949. Sources: • Light-Duty Vehicles, Short Wheelbase: 1990–1994—U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, National Transportation Statistics 1998, Table 4-13. • All Other Data: 1949–1994—Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, Table VM-201A. 1995 forward—FHWA, Highway Statistics, annual reports, Table VM-1.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

19

Table 1.9 Heating Degree Days by Census Division New Englanda

Middle Atlanticb

East North Centralc

West North Centrald

South Atlantice

East South Centralf

West South Centralg

Mountainh

Pacifici

United States

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

6,794 6,872 6,828 7,029 7,022 6,547 7,071 6,749 5,987 6,684 6,625 6,202 6,234 6,975 6,709 6,644 5,885 6,537 6,434 6,644 5,934 6,114 5,561 6,426 6,675

6,324 6,231 6,391 6,393 6,388 5,892 6,477 5,971 5,252 6,093 5,999 5,541 5,550 6,258 5,892 5,950 5,211 5,756 5,782 5,922 5,553 5,483 4,970 5,838 6,203

7,027 6,486 6,908 6,587 6,721 6,406 6,975 6,668 5,780 6,740 6,315 5,844 6,128 6,536 6,178 6,222 5,703 6,074 6,677 6,512 6,185 6,172 5,356 6,621 7,194

7,455 6,912 7,184 6,932 7,090 6,880 6,836 7,262 6,137 6,911 6,500 6,221 6,485 6,593 6,329 6,213 5,821 6,384 7,118 6,841 6,565 6,565 5,515 7,135 7,304

3,521 3,508 3,780 3,372 3,452 2,970 3,378 2,899 2,307 2,988 2,905 2,604 2,664 2,884 2,715 2,775 2,475 2,525 2,712 2,812 3,167 2,565 2,306 2,736 2,951

3,547 3,513 4,134 3,501 3,823 3,437 3,964 3,660 2,942 3,648 3,551 3,327 3,443 3,559 3,291 3,380 3,211 3,187 3,600 3,536 3,948 3,343 2,876 3,648 3,932

2,277 2,294 2,767 2,237 2,558 2,312 2,494 2,535 1,968 2,147 2,153 2,162 2,292 2,205 2,041 1,985 1,802 2,105 2,125 2,152 2,449 2,114 1,650 2,326 2,422

6,341 6,704 6,281 6,086 6,119 6,260 5,554 6,059 5,391 5,101 4,971 5,004 5,197 4,817 5,010 4,896 4,915 4,939 5,233 5,139 5,082 5,322 4,574 5,273 4,744

3,906 4,320 3,799 3,819 3,726 4,117 3,539 3,935 3,603 3,269 3,460 3,545 3,510 3,355 3,346 3,377 3,557 3,506 3,566 3,538 3,624 3,818 3,411 3,362 2,774

5,367 5,246 5,404 5,146 5,218 4,905 5,080 4,889 4,180 4,640 4,494 4,257 4,356 4,544 4,344 4,348 4,040 4,268 4,494 4,481 4,463 4,312 3,769 4,465 4,550

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

1,336 1,412 1,101 588 148 84 7 8 43 458 610 726 6,521

1,260 1,318 1,002 481 100 30 4 9 27 391 529 626 5,777

1,334 1,405 951 454 159 45 12 24 39 365 603 775 6,166

1,267 1,306 802 399 215 40 12 33 50 355 650 960 6,088

643 666 357 131 22 1 0 0 8 143 237 279 2,488

836 864 445 147 37 1 0 1 13 164 313 402 3,222

623 498 278 55 14 0 0 0 1 42 218 358 2,087

818 601 484 396 268 42 24 21 78 247 687 937 4,602

470 334 285 295 208 26 8 13 58 112 471 619 2,899

890 867 584 300 119 24 6 11 32 227 445 581 4,087

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

R 1,129 R 958

R 1,121

1,241 958 670 506 222 26 3 5 40 285 582 1,166 5,703

R 1,304

659 483 239 R 152 58 1 0 0 2 91 289 R 479 R 2,455

857

R 918 R 618

R 871

324 162 71 0 0 0 5 89 R 339 R 671 R 3,091

R 564 R 309 R 179

R 568

936 653 424 208 27 11 17 75 R 304 R 569 1,257 R 5,786

342 395 R 244 R 181 44 20 12 66 201 R 333 R 629 R 3,036

628 450 310 151 21 6 6 39 198 418 783 3,880

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

1,040 908 1,040 R 452 R 307 46 9 27 56 3,884

1,211 R 816 R 782 R 400 R 224 37 10 49 78 3,609

477 323 R 348 75 47 2 0 1 14 1,287

579 408 R 387 R 93 56 3 0 1 23 1,551

R 418

25 3 18 52 3,336

1,081 775 835 R 351 250 28 7 34 65 3,425

208 R 146 52 14 0 0 0 3 841

467 403 234 58 7 26 120 2,904

311 172 51 15 R9 46 2,167

25 5 15 44 2,351

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

3,819 4,727

3,459 4,231

3,670 4,422

3,656 4,123

1,594 1,829

1,992 2,343

1,132 1,470

2,915 2,731

1,872 1,697

2,481 2,833

1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

755 605 R 252 45 4 5 68 389 672 1,055 5,934

901

R 646

515 R 213 22 1 1 38 R 317 R 609 977 R 5,361 R 972 R 778 R 909

343

R 235

a Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. b New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. c Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin. d Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. e Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland (and the District of Columbia), North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. f Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee. g Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas. h Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. i Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. R=Revised. Notes: • Degree days are relative measurements of outdoor air temperature used as an index for heating and cooling energy requirements. Heating degree days are the number of degrees that the daily average temperature falls below 65 degrees Fahrenheit (°F). Cooling degree days are the number of degrees that the

20

R 574

62 17 0 0 0 1 22 154 R 442 R 1,750

542

R 382

254

R 42

15

R 30

114 R 265 R 512 926 R 4,617 R 961 R 627

R 670 R 500 R 394

767 547

R 543 R 248 R 154

daily average temperature rises above 65°F. The daily average temperature is the mean of the maximum and minimum temperatures in a 24-hour period. For example, a weather station recording an average daily temperature of 40°F would report 25 heating degree days for that day (and 0 cooling degree days). If a weather station recorded an average daily temperature of 78°F, cooling degree days for that station would be 13 (and 0 heating degree days). • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Source: State-level degree day data are from U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Centers for Environmental Information. Using these state-level data, the U.S. Energy Information Administration calculates population-weighted census-division and U.S. degree day averages using state populations from the same year the degree days are measured. See methodology at http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/steo/special/pdf/2012_sp_04.pdf.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 1.10 Cooling Degree Days by Census Division New Englanda 1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Middle Atlanticb

East North Centralc

West North Centrald

South Atlantice

East South Centralf

West South Centralg

Mountainh

Pacifici

United States

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

295 532 318 310 423 422 438 324 429 471 279 464 508 475 368 598 485 447 462 350 635 554 565 540 420

401 761 487 498 615 584 680 509 562 704 458 623 772 615 591 892 693 694 667 524 908 836 815 683 596

505 922 626 618 747 721 769 602 602 877 632 722 899 619 585 944 734 881 683 534 964 859 974 690 610

647 1,139 871 832 980 937 1,158 780 913 928 983 994 1,045 907 722 1,063 1,034 1,102 818 698 1,096 1,074 1,221 892 814

1,414 1,636 1,583 1,613 1,744 1,791 1,911 1,878 2,054 2,028 1,925 1,897 2,182 1,980 2,038 2,098 2,053 2,219 1,993 2,029 2,269 2,259 2,162 2,000 2,009

1,420 1,674 1,532 1,552 1,571 1,440 1,754 1,522 1,563 1,613 1,674 1,478 1,757 1,452 1,517 1,676 1,648 1,892 1,537 1,479 1,977 1,727 1,762 1,441 1,493

2,282 2,508 2,367 2,461 2,282 2,162 2,651 2,519 2,526 2,398 2,775 2,543 2,515 2,496 2,482 2,647 2,786 2,475 2,501 2,590 2,757 3,112 2,915 2,536 2,474

682 780 974 780 971 903 1,071 1,095 1,212 1,213 1,480 1,508 1,467 1,553 1,290 1,372 1,466 1,564 1,385 1,393 1,358 1,450 1,573 1,462 1,431

629 558 796 577 734 597 653 761 838 794 772 861 783 978 828 777 922 828 918 894 674 736 917 892 1,068

871 1,144 1,000 979 1,079 1,049 1,214 1,121 1,200 1,261 1,232 1,255 1,363 1,268 1,217 1,388 1,360 1,392 1,282 1,241 1,456 1,470 1,495 1,306 1,299

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

0 0 0 0 31 39 193 205 87 0 0 0 555

0 0 0 0 72 114 250 230 136 1 0 1 804

0 0 0 1 82 139 202 169 127 7 0 2 729

0 0 3 8 55 203 289 202 168 13 0 0 941

34 19 84 131 242 394 456 411 296 135 103 100 2,404

3 0 21 52 175 353 442 339 235 59 16 24 1,718

5 6 39 141 260 453 586 561 424 188 52 25 2,740

2 11 32 40 75 313 325 362 231 84 3 0 1,478

10 13 27 23 28 176 218 261 193 97 12 10 1,067

9 7 29 53 126 255 336 315 223 77 30 26 1,488

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

0 0 0 0 7 R 73 R 239 R 241 R 60 0 0 0 R 621

0 0 0 0 17 128 R 308 R 312 114 6 0 0 R 884

0 0 4 1 42 187 277 296 131 19 0 0 957

0 0 10 8 48 263 306 R 269 138 28 2 0 R 1,072

25

9 26

0 10 24 42 90 R 331 R 407 305 R 174 99 14 0 R 1,496

8 14 13 26 37 166 R 235 R 232 R 123 R 47 17 8 R 927

R7

90 88 185 380 R 510 485 R 353 R 157 56 66 R 2,417

2 3 36 38 125 371 R 474 460 320 R 114 12 4 R 1,960

11 36 42 R 98 271 383 R 362 219 87 26 17 R 1,558

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

0 0 0 0 3 R 71 R 171 R 126 68 439

0 0 0 2 R 14 R 122 R 250 161 89 638

0 0 1 R7 37 166 241 147 92 690

0 3 6 9 50 205 331 166 126 896

50 54 55 123 R 211 R 337 R 469 406 282 1,987

20 18 28 R 75 136 271 R 431 R 341 196 1,514

370 2,503

0 5 31 50 109 R 308 R 412 R 328 179 1,422

7 7 17 25 46 149 284 R 278 136 948

16 22 32 56 105 241 363 291 185 1,311

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

621 555

879 802

938 720

1,042 929

2,138 2,066

1,830 1,619

2,554 2,475

1,383 1,391

855 948

1,429 1,355

a Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. b New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. c Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin. d Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. e Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland (and the District of Columbia), North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. f Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee. g Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas. h Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. i Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. R=Revised. Notes: • Degree days are relative measurements of outdoor air temperature used as an index for heating and cooling energy requirements. Cooling degree days are the number of degrees that the daily average temperature rises above 65 degrees Fahrenheit (°F). Heating degree days are the number of degrees that the

R 23

R 86

123 238 R 475 620 547 429 233 80 17 R 2,884 35 67

R 113 R 141 R 240 R 447 R 584 R 507

daily average temperature falls below 65°F. The daily average temperature is the mean of the maximum and minimum temperatures in a 24-hour period. For example, if a weather station recorded an average daily temperature of 78°F, cooling degree days for that station would be 13 (and 0 heating degree days). A weather station recording an average daily temperature of 40°F would report 25 heating degree days for that day (and 0 cooling degree days). • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Source: State-level degree day data are from U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Centers for Environmental Information. Using these state-level data, the U.S. Energy Information Administration calculates population-weighted census-division and U.S. degree day averages using state populations from the same year the degree days are measured. See methodology at http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/steo/special/pdf/2012_sp_04.pdf.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

21

Table 1.11a Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels in Physical Units Petroleum

1973 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 1996 Total 1997 Total 1998 Total 1999 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Coal

Natural Gas

Thousand Short Tons

Billion Cubic Feet

Asphalt and Road Oil

Hydrocarbon Gas Liquidsa

Lubricants

Petrochemical Feedstocksb

Petroleum Coke

Special Naphthas

Otherc

Total

Thousand Barrels per Day

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

3,345 2,972 2,370 1,050 641 921 884 842 786 784 807 727 660 676 660 654 640 634 616 427 588 598 579 599 594

792 674 674 572 712 868 896 909 938 906 918 839 836 808 818 761 584 598 608 524 654 680 706 721 725

522 419 396 425 483 486 484 505 521 547 525 519 512 503 537 546 521 494 417 360 362 355 340 323 327

736 702 871 980 1,067 1,347 1,420 1,452 1,375 1,605 1,586 1,422 1,504 1,436 1,481 1,399 1,454 1,461 1,340 1,456 1,586 1,624 1,641 1,781 1,780

162 137 159 145 164 156 151 160 168 169 166 153 151 140 141 141 137 142 131 118 131 125 114 121 126

375 330 709 364 553 593 593 691 693 654 666 592 630 676 784 729 726 664 574 507 539 520 444 448 410

42 41 39 43 56 55 54 40 69 98 45 79 66 56 99 85 97 91 102 82 28 28 31 28 28

88 75 100 83 56 37 39 38 56 76 51 41 53 42 27 33 37 41 44 24 14 12 8 52 55

134 159 176 114 94 87 87 86 107 99 103 104 103 101 98 102 112 104 107 99 100 103 94 97 101

2,059 1,863 2,451 2,154 2,473 2,762 2,828 2,972 2,988 3,248 3,142 2,911 3,020 2,954 3,167 3,034 3,084 2,997 2,714 2,648 2,760 2,767 2,673 2,852 2,828

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

53 45 46 43 47 49 50 48 42 44 41 41 550

69 63 63 57 57 53 54 55 53 57 60 63 703

200 215 222 303 343 472 480 510 469 400 287 212 343

2,033 2,009 1,810 1,770 1,780 1,798 1,847 1,796 1,715 1,870 1,922 2,030 1,865

153 123 152 148 159 132 156 121 127 145 104 130 138

407 387 354 366 372 340 364 409 377 381 382 398 378

33 14 32 32 32 34 32 34 21 27 25 23 28

67 64 48 52 47 52 48 48 58 41 58 41 52

101 104 103 103 96 102 107 95 105 96 104 109 102

2,994 2,915 2,721 2,774 2,827 2,930 3,034 3,014 2,873 2,960 2,881 2,943 2,906

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

R 37 R 38 R 40 R 37 R 38 R 39 R 40 R 39 R 37 R 37 R 37 R 40

69 63

195 230 254 301 394 482 472 524 439 417 310 195 351

2,075 1,970 1,932 1,840 1,828 1,751 1,853 1,760 1,817 1,920 1,865 1,969 1,882

136 148 143 131 132 146 115 124 125 131 121 115 130

377 373 368 370 359 363 384 371 364 365 373 390 371

31 29 29 22 21 18 25 36 21 26 42 32 28

47 53 58 46 59 40 47 43 56 41 49 45 49

106 94 107 108 100 106 111 110 106 R 90 108 106 104

2,967 2,898 2,891 R 2,819 2,893 2,906 3,006 2,967 2,928 2,990 2,867 2,852 2,916

2,106 1,938 1,952 1,878 1,878 1,948 1,956 1,644 1,717 17,017

105 123 133 105 108 108 98 91 108 980

368 409 435 429 438 442 403 383 356 3,663

34 21 13 29 28 21 39 25 30 239

49 58 50 43 51 56 49 55 45 458

103 105 110 104 111 113 109 107 97 960

2,957 2,896 2,958 2,906 2,980 3,164 3,096 2,847 2,800 26,604

16,826 16,559

1,198 1,272

3,329 3,376

233 264

449 484

949 914

26,275 26,082

R 460

R 63 R 59 R 58 R 55

57 58 56 58 R 62 R 70 R 728

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

R 40 R 38 R 40 R 40 R 41 R 39 R 41 R 48

R 70

42 370

59 58 546

192 241 265 318 365 477 441 542 447 3,288

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

345 423

537 524

3,290 3,214

61

R 66 R 59 R 59

57

R 58

a Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, natural gasoline, and refinery olefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene). b Includes still gas not burned as refinery fuel. c Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, waxes, and miscellaneous products. R=Revised. Notes: • Data are estimates. • Non-combustion use estimates are included in total energy consumption. See Table 1.3. • Non-combustion estimates are all for industrial sector consumption, except for some lubricants consumed by the

22

transportation sector. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. • See Note 2, "Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels," at end of section. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • See Note 2, "Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels," at end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 1.11b Heat Content of Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels (Quadrillion Btu) Petroleum Hydrocarbon Gas Liquidsa

Lubricants

Petrochemical Feedstocksb

Coal

Natural Gas

Asphalt and Road Oil

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

0.107 .095 .076 .034 .021 .029 .028 .027 .025 .025 .026 .023 .021 .022 .021 .021 .020 .020 .020 .014 .019 .019 .019 .019 .019

0.808 .688 .690 .590 .733 .892 .921 .933 .969 .932 .942 .863 .856 .832 .840 .782 .600 .614 .625 .537 .669 .695 .724 .741 .749

1.264 1.014 .962 1.029 1.170 1.178 1.176 1.224 1.263 1.324 1.276 1.257 1.240 1.220 1.304 1.323 1.261 1.197 1.012 .873 .878 .859 .827 .783 .793

0.977 .921 1.147 1.251 1.393 1.764 1.856 1.894 1.789 2.098 2.065 1.844 1.945 1.869 1.924 1.812 1.871 1.872 1.722 1.839 2.010 2.027 2.062 2.248 2.233

0.359 .304 .354 .322 .362 .346 .335 .354 .371 .375 .369 .338 .334 .309 .313 .312 .303 .313 .291 .262 .291 .276 .254 .268 .280

0.767 .675 1.464 .747 1.138 1.222 1.211 1.410 1.409 1.336 1.353 1.205 1.276 1.371 1.592 1.474 1.477 1.351 1.172 1.031 1.096 1.057 .901 .901 .827

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

.002 .001 .001 .001 .001 .002 .002 .002 .001 .001 .001 .001 .018

.071 .066 .065 .060 .059 .055 .056 .057 .055 .059 .062 .065 .730

.041 .040 .046 .060 .070 .094 .099 .105 .093 .082 .057 .044 .832

.220 .194 .195 .183 .190 .187 .199 .194 .175 .201 .197 .217 2.351

.029 .021 .029 .027 .030 .024 .029 .023 .023 .027 .019 .024 .305

.069 .059 .060 .060 .064 .057 .063 .070 .062 .065 .063 .068 .760

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

R .001 R .001 R .001 R .001 R .001 R .001 R .001 R .001 R .001 R .001 R .001 R .001 R .015

R .072 R .066

.065 R .061 R .060 R .057 .059 .060 .058 R .061 .064 R .073 R .755

.040 .044 .052 .060 .081 .096 .097 .108 .087 .086 .062 .040 .853

.223 .196 .204 .189 .193 .180 .195 .185 .188 .205 .190 .210 2.358

.026 .026 .027 .024 .025 .027 .022 .023 .023 .025 .022 .022 .289

.065 .060 .063 .061 .062 .060 .066 .064 .061 .063 .062 .067 .754

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

R .001 R .001 R .001 R .001 R .001 R .001 R .001

.002 .001 .012

.072 .063 .068 .061 R .061 .059 .060 R .062 .060 .566

.039 .045 .054 .063 .075 .095 .091 .112 .089 .663

.225 .183 .207 .193 .197 .197 .207 .172 .176 1.756

.020 .021 .025 .019 .020 .020 .019 .017 .020 .180

.063 .063 .075 .072 .076 .074 .070 .066 .060 .617

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

.011 .014

.557 .543

.666 .649

1.753 1.737

.221 .234

.562 .565

1973 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 1996 Total 1997 Total 1998 Total 1999 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

a Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, natural gasoline, and refinery olefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene). b Includes still gas not burned as refinery fuel. c Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, waxes, and miscellaneous products. R=Revised. Notes: • Data are estimates. • Non-combustion use estimates are included in total energy consumption. See Table 1.3. • Non-combustion estimates are all for industrial sector consumption, except for some lubricants consumed by the transportation sector. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to

Petroleum Coke

Special Naphthas

Otherc

Total

Total

R 0.088 R .085 R .081 R .090 R .117 R .115 R .113 R .083 R .143 R .205 R .094 R .165 R .138 R .117 R .207 R .177 R .203 R .191 R .214 R .172 R .058 R .059 R .064 R .059 R .058

0.169 .144 .193 .159 .107 .071 .075 .072 .107 .145 .097 .078 .102 .080 .051 .063 .070 .078 .085 .046 .026 .023 .015 .100 .106

0.290 .341 .379 .242 .198 .185 .185 .183 .229 .211 .222 .223 .220 .217 .211 .218 .242 .223 .230 .212 .213 .221 .201 .206 .214

R 3.914 R 3.485 R 4.580 R 3.841 R 4.486 R 4.879 R 4.951 R 5.220 R 5.310 R 5.695 R 5.476 R 5.112 R 5.257 R 5.183 R 5.602 R 5.380 R 5.427 R 5.224 R 4.725 R 4.434 R 4.570 R 4.522 R 4.324 R 4.566 R 4.512

R 4.829 R 4.268 R 5.345 R 4.465 R 5.240 R 5.800 R 5.900 R 6.181 R 6.304 R 6.652 R 6.443 R 5.998 R 6.134 R 6.037 R 6.463 R 6.183 R 6.048 R 5.859 R 5.370 R 4.985 R 5.257 R 5.236 R 5.066 R 5.327 R 5.280

.006 .002 .006 R .005 .006 .006 .006 .006 .004 .005 R .004 .004 R .059

.011 .009 .008 .008 .008 .008 .008 .008 .009 .007 .009 .007 .099

.018 .017 .018 .018 .017 .018 .019 .017 .018 .017 .018 .020 .215

R .393

R .466

.006 .005

.008 .008 .010 .007 .010 .006 .008 .007 .009 .007 .008 .007 .094

.019 .016 .019 .019 .018 .019 .020 .020 .018 .016 .019 .019 .222

.008 .009 .008 .007 .008 .009 .008 .009 .007 .073

.019 .017 .020 .018 .020 .020 .020 .019 .017 .169

R .379

.002 .005 .005 .004 .007 R .004 .005 .042

.341 .392 .377 .402 .417 R .420 .399 .373 3.500

.453 .406 .461 .439 .464 .478 R .481 R .462 .434 4.078

.041 .046

.072 .077

.168 .161

3.482 3.468

4.050 4.025

R .005

.004 .004 .003 R .004 R .006 .004 .005 R .007 .006 R .058 .006

R .003

.343 .362 R .362 .385 .393 .422 .423 .385 .404 .367 .383 R 4.622 .386 .355

R .380

.364 .392 .391 R .412 R .413 .390 R .405 .370 .371 R 4.628

.410

R .428 R .423 R .445 R .449

.480 .481

R .441 R .464

.431 .450

R 5.369 R .458

.422 .447 .426 .453 .449 R .472 R .475 R .449 R .467 .435 .445 R 5.397

Percent of Total Energy Consumption 6.4 5.9

R 6.8 R 5.8

6.2 6.4 6.3 6.5 6.6 6.9 6.5 6.2 6.3 6.2 6.5 6.2 6.1 5.8 5.4 5.3 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.5 5.4 5.0 4.8 5.1 5.7 5.8 5.7 5.7 5.8 5.7 6.1 5.6 5.4 5.5 5.1 5.1 5.6 5.7 6.0 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.8 6.1 5.6 4.9 5.5 5.1 5.3

R 5.4

5.9 5.9 6.0 5.7 R 5.5 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.5

independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia.• See Note 2, "Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels," at end of section. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • See Note 2, "Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels," at end of section. • Percent of Total Energy Consumption: Calculated as total non-combustion use of fossil fuels divided by total primary energy consumption (see Table 1.3).

U. S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

23

Energy Overview Note 1. Merchandise Trade Value. Imports data presented are based on the customs values. Those values do not include insurance and freight and are consequently lower than the cost, insurance, and freight (CIF) values, which are also reported by the Bureau of the Census. All exports data, and imports data through 1980, are on a free alongside ship (f.a.s.) basis. “Balance” is exports minus imports; a positive balance indicates a surplus trade value and a negative balance indicates a deficit trade value. “Energy” includes mineral fuels, lubricants, and related material. “Non-Energy Balance” and “Total Merchandise” include foreign exports (i.e., re-exports) and nonmonetary gold and U.S. Department of Defense Grant-Aid shipments. The “Non-Energy Balance” is calculated by subtracting the “Energy” from the “Total Merchandise Balance.” “Imports” consist of government and nongovernment shipments of merchandise into the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the U.S. Foreign Trade Zones. They reflect the total arrival from foreign countries of merchandise that immediately entered consumption channels, warehouses, the Foreign Trade Zones, or the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. They exclude shipments between the United States, Puerto Rico, and U.S. possessions, shipments to U.S. Armed Forces and diplomatic missions abroad for their own use, U.S. goods returned to the United States by its Armed Forces, and in-transit shipments. Note 2. Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels. Most fossilfuels consumed in the United States and elsewhere are combusted to produce heat and power. However, some are used directly for non-combustion use as construction materials, chemical feedstocks, lubricants, solvents, and waxes. For example, coal tars from coal coke manufacturing are used as feedstock in the chemical industry, for metallurgical work, and in anti-dandruff shampoos; natural gas is used to make nitrogenous fertilizers and as chemical feedstocks; asphalt and road oil are used for roofing and paving; hydrocarbon gas liquids are used to create intermediate products that are used in making plastics; lubricants, including motor oil and greases, are used in vehicles and various industrial processes; petrochemical feedstocks are used to make plastics, synthetic fabrics, and related products. Coal The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) assumes all non-combustion use of coal comes from the process of manufacturing coal coke. Among the byproducts of the process are "coal tars" or "coal liquids," which typically are rich in aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, and are used as chemical feedstock. EIA's Office of Energy Analysis (OEA) estimates non-combustion use ratios of coal tar. Prior to 1995, estimate ratios are based on coal tar production data from the United States International Trade Commission's

24

Synthetic Organic Chemicals. From 1995 forward, coal tar production is estimated using the ratio of EIA’s estimate of 1994 coke production, reported in EIA's Quarterly Coal Report. Coal tar ratios prior to 1980 are assumed to be equal to the 1980 ratio. For Table 1.11b, coal tar values in Table 1.11a are multiplied by 32.0067 million Btu/barrel, which is the product of 4.95 (the conversion from barrels to short tons) and 6.466 (the approximate heat content of one barrel of coal tar). Natural Gas EIA assumes that all non-combustion use of natural gas takes place in the industrial sector. OEA estimates non-combustion ratios of natural gas using Form EIA-864A "Manufacturers Energy Consumption Survey" (MECS) and natural gas used as feedstock for hydrogen production using Form EIA-820 "Annual Refinery Report" data. For years when MECS data are unavailable, estimates are interpolated or extrapolated using chemical indices as scaling factors. Non-combustion ratios prior to 1980 are assumed to be equal to the 1980 ratio. For Table 1.11b, natural gas values in Table 1.11a are multiplied by the heat content factor for natural gas total consumption shown in Table A4. Asphalt & Road Oil EIA assumes all asphalt and road oil consumption is for non-combustion use. For Table 1.11b, asphalt and road oil values in Table 1.11a are multiplied by 6.636 million Btu/ barrel (the approximate heat content of asphalt and road oil) and the number of days in the period. Distillate & Residual Fuels OEA estimates non-combustion ratios of distillate and residual fuels using chemical industry fuel product data reported in MECS. Values for years after the most recent MECS are assumed to be equal to the most recent MECS values. Non-combustion ratios prior to 1980 are assumed to be equal to the 1980 ratio. Distillate and residual fuel oils are included in "other" petroleum products. For Table 1.11b, distillate fuel values in Table 1.11a are multiplied by the appropriate values in Table A3 and the number of days in the period. Residual fuel values in Table 1.11a are multiplied by 6.287 million Btu/barrel (the approximate heat content of residual fuel oil) and the number of days in the period. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL) OEA estimates non-combustion ratios of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) components, including ethane, propane, and butane, using chemical industry fuel product data reported in MECS. Values for years after the most recent MECS are assumed to be equal to the most recent MECS values. OEA estimates non-combustion ratios of natural gasoline (pentanes plus) with annual surveys of natural gas liquids and refinery gases sold to the chemical industry published in EIA's Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). All non-combustion ratios prior to 1980 are assumed to be equal to the 1980 ratio. For Table 1.11b, HGL values in Table 1.11a are multiplied by the appropriate heat content factors in Table A1 and the number of days in the period.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Lubricants EIA assumes all lubricants consumption are for non-combustion use. For Table 1.11b, lubricants values U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review September 2017 in Table 1.11a are multiplied by 6.065 million Btu/barrel (the approximate heat rate for lubricants) and the number of days in the period.

1989 forward: Coal production data from Table 6.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the coal production heat content factors in Table A5. Waste coal supplied data from Table 6.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the waste coal supplied heat content factors in Table A5. Coal production (including waste coal supplied) is equal to coal production plus waste coal supplied.

Petrochemical Feedstocks EIA assumes all naphthas and other oils for petrochemical feedstock use are for non-combustion use. OEA estimates non-combustion ratios of still gas by deducting all known fuel uses (refinery fuel use from PSA and pipeline gas supplies from EIA's Natural Gas Annual) from the products supplied value from the PSA. The remainder is assumed to be dispatched to chemical plants as a feedstock. Non-combustion ratios prior to 1980 are assumed to be equal to the 1980 ratio. For Table 1.11b, petrochemical feedstock values in 1.11a are multiplied by the appropriate values in Table A1 and the number of days in the period.

Natural Gas (Dry) 1949 forward: Natural gas (dry) production data from Table 4.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas (dry) production heat content factors in Table A4.

Petroleum Coke EIA assumes all petroleum coke consumption is for non-combustion use. For Table 1.11b, petroleum coke values in 1.11a are multiplied by 5.719 million Btu/barrel (the approximate heat content of petroleum coke) and the number of days in the period. Special Naphthas EIA assumes all special naphthas consumption is for noncombustion use. For Table 1.11b, special naphthas values in Table 1.11a are multiplied by 5.248 million Btu/barrel (the approximate heat content of special naphthas) and the number of days in the period. Waxes EIA assumes all waxes consumption is for non-combustion use. Waxes are included in "other" petroleum products. For Table 1.11b, waxes values in Table 1.11a are multiplied by 5.537 million Btu/barrel (the approximate heat content of waxes) and the number of days in the period. Miscellaneous Petroleum Products Miscellaneous products include all finished petroleum products not classified elsewhere. EIA assumes all miscellaneous petroleum products consumption are for non-combustion use and are included in "other" petroleum products. For Table 1.11b, miscellaneous petroleum values in Table 1.11a are multiplied by 5.796 million Btu/barrel (the approximate heat content of miscellaneous petroleum products) and the number of days in the period.

Table 1.2 Sources Coal 1949–1988: Coal production data from Table 6.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the coal production heat content factors in Table A5.

Crude Oil 1949 forward: Crude oil (including lease condensate) production data from Table 3.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the crude oil (including lease condensate) production heat content factors in Table A2. NGPL 1949 forward: Natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) production data from Table 3.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the NGPL production heat content factors in Table A2. Fossil Fuels Total 1949 forward: Total fossil fuels production is the sum of the production values for coal, natural gas (dry), crude oil, and NGPL. Nuclear Electric Power 1949 forward: Nuclear electricity net generation data from Table 7.2a are converted to Btu by multiplying by the nuclear heat rate factors in Table A6. Renewable Energy 1949 forward: Table 10.1. Total Primary Energy Production 1949 forward: Total primary energy production is the sum of the production values for fossil fuels, nuclear electric power, and renewable energy.

Table 1.3 Sources Coal 1949 forward: Coal consumption data from Table 6.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the total coal consumption heat content factors in Table A5. Natural Gas 1949–1979: Natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption data from Table 4.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the total natural gas consumption heat content factors in Table A4. 1980 forward: Natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption data from Table 4.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the total natural gas consumption heat content factors in Table A4. Supplemental gaseous fuels data in Btu are estimated using the method described in Note 3, “Supplemental

U. S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

25

Gaseous Fuels,” at the end of Section 4. Natural gas (excluding supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption is equal to natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption minus supplemental gaseous fuels.

1949 forward: Coal coke imports data from U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Monthly Report IM 145, are converted to Btu by multiplying by the coal coke imports heat content factor in Table A5.

Petroleum 1949–1992: Petroleum (excluding biofuels) consumption is equal to total petroleum products supplied from Table 3.6. 1993–2008: Petroleum (excluding biofuels) consumption is equal to total petroleum products supplied from Table 3.6 minus fuel ethanol consumption from Table 10.3. 2009 forward: Petroleum (excluding biofuels) consumption is equal to: total petroleum products supplied from Table 3.6; minus fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption from Table 10.3; minus refinery and blender net inputs of renewable fuels (excluding fuel ethanol) from U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Petroleum Supply Annual/Petroleum Supply Monthly, Table 1 (for biomass-based diesel fuel, the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the biodiesel heat content factor in Table A1; for other renewable diesel fuel, the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the other renewable diesel fuel heat content factor in Table A1).

Natural Gas 1949 forward: Natural gas imports data from Table 4.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas imports heat content factors in Table A4.

Coal Coke Net Imports 1949 forward: Coal coke net imports are equal to coal coke imports from Table 1.4a minus coal coke exports from Table 1.4b. Fossil Fuels Total 1949 forward: Total fossil fuels consumption is the sum of the consumption values for coal, natural gas, and petroleum, plus coal coke net imports. Nuclear Electric Power 1949 forward: Nuclear electricity net generation data from Table 7.2a are converted to Btu by multiplying by the nuclear heat rate factors in Table A6. Renewable Energy 1949 forward: Table 10.1. Electricity Net Imports 1949 forward: Electricity net imports are equal to electricity imports from Table 1.4a minus electricity exports from Table 1.4b. Total Primary Energy Consumption 1949 forward: Total primary energy consumption is the sum of the consumption values for fossil fuels, nuclear electric power, and renewable energy, plus electricity net imports.

Table 1.4a Sources Coal 1949 forward: Coal imports data from Table 6.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the coal imports heat content factors in Table A5. Coal Coke

26

Crude Oil 1949 forward: Crude oil imports data from Table 3.3b are converted to Btu by multiplying by the crude oil imports heat content factors in Table A2. Petroleum Products 1949–1992: Petroleum products (excluding biofuels) imports are equal to total petroleum imports from Table 3.3b minus crude oil imports from Table 3.3b; petroleum products (excluding biofuels) imports data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the total petroleum products imports heat content factors in Table A2. 1993–2008: Petroleum products (excluding biofuels) imports are equal to petroleum products (including biofuels) imports (see 1949–1992 sources above) minus fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) imports (see “Biomass—Fuel Ethanol (Minus Denaturant)” sources below). 2009 forward: Renewable fuels (excluding fuel ethanol) imports data are from U.S. Energy Information Administration, Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA), Tables 1 and 25, and Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), Tables 1 and 37 (for biomass-based diesel fuel and other renewable fuels, the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the biodiesel heat content factor in Table A1; for other renewable diesel fuel, the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the other renewable diesel fuel heat content factor in Table A1). Petroleum products (excluding biofuels) imports are equal to petroleum products (including biofuels) imports (see 1949–1992 sources above) minus fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) imports (see “Biomass—Fuel Ethanol (Minus Denaturant)” sources below) minus renewable fuels (excluding fuel ethanol) imports. Total Petroleum 1949 forward: Total petroleum imports are equal to crude oil imports plus petroleum products imports. Biomass—Fuel Ethanol (Minus Denaturant) 1993 forward: Fuel ethanol (including denaturant) imports data are from PSA/PSM Table 1. Fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) production is equal to fuel ethanol (including denaturant) production from Table 10.3 minus denaturant from Table 10.3. Fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) imports are equal to fuel ethanol (including denaturant) imports multiplied by the ratio of fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) production to fuel ethanol (including denaturant) production. Fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) imports data are converted to Btu by multiplying by 3.539 million

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Btu per barrel, the undenatured ethanol heat content factor in Table A3. Biomass—Biodiesel 2001 forward: Biodiesel imports data are from Table 10.4, and are converted to Btu by multiplying by the biodiesel heat content factor in Table A1. Biomass—Other Renewable Fuels 2009 forward: Other renewable fuels imports data are from PSA Table 25 and PSM Table 37. For other renewable diesel fuel, the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the other renewable diesel fuel heat content factor in Table A1; for other renewable fuels, the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the biodiesel heat content factor in Table A1. Total Biomass 1993–2000: Total biomass imports are equal to fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) imports. 2001–2008: Total biomass imports are equal to fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) imports plus biodiesel imports. 2009 forward: Total biomass imports are the sum of imports values for fuel ethanol (minus denaturant), biodiesel, and other renewable fuels. Electricity 1949 forward: Electricity imports data from Table 7.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the electricity heat content factor in Table A6. Total Primary Energy Imports 1949 forward: Total primary energy imports are the sum of the imports values for coal, coal coke, natural gas, total petroleum, total biomass, and electricity.

Table 1.4b Sources Coal 1949 forward: Coal exports data from Table 6.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the coal exports heat content factors in Table A5. Coal Coke 1949 forward: Coal coke exports data from U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Monthly Report EM 545, are converted to Btu by multiplying by the coal coke exports heat content factor in Table A5. Natural Gas 1949 forward: Natural gas exports data from Table 4.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas exports heat content factors in Table A4. Crude Oil 1949 forward: Crude oil exports data from Table 3.3b are converted to Btu by multiplying by the crude oil exports heat content factor in Table A2. Petroleum Products

1949–2009: Petroleum products (excluding biofuels) exports are equal to total petroleum exports from Table 3.3b minus crude oil exports from Table 3.3b; petroleum products (excluding biofuels) exports data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the total petroleum products exports heat content factors in Table A2. 2010: Petroleum products (including biofuels) exports are equal to total petroleum exports from Table 3.3b minus crude oil exports from Table 3.3b; petroleum products (including biofuels) exports data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the total petroleum products exports heat content factors in Table A2. Petroleum products (excluding biofuels) exports are equal to petroleum products (including biofuels) exports minus fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) exports (see “Biomass—Fuel Ethanol (Minus Denaturant)” sources below). 2011 forward: Biomass-based diesel fuel exports data are from U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA), Table 31, and Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), Table 49, and are converted to Btu by multiplying by the biodiesel heat content factor in Table A1. Petroleum products (excluding biofuels) exports are equal to petroleum products (including biofuels) exports (see 2010 sources above) minus fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) exports (see “Biomass—Fuel Ethanol (Minus Denaturant)” sources below) minus biomass-based diesel fuel exports. Total Petroleum 1949 forward: Total petroleum exports are equal to crude oil exports plus petroleum products exports. Biomass—Fuel Ethanol (Minus Denaturant) 2010 forward: Fuel ethanol (including denaturant) exports data are from PSA/PSM Table 1. Fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) production is equal to fuel ethanol (including denaturant) production from Table 10.3 minus denaturant from Table 10.3. Fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) exports are equal to fuel ethanol (including denaturant) exports multiplied by the ratio of fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) production to fuel ethanol (including denaturant) production. Fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) exports are converted to Btu by multiplying by 3.539 million Btu per barrel, the undenatured ethanol heat content factor in Table A3. Biomass—Biodiesel 2001 forward: Biodiesel exports data are from Table 10.4, and are converted to Btu by multiplying by the biodiesel heat content factor in Table A1. Biomass—Densified Biomass 2016 forward: Densified biomass exports data are from EIA, Form EIA-63C, “Densified Biomass Fuel Report.” Total Biomass 2001–2009: Total biomass exports are equal to biodiesel exports. 2010 forward: Total biomass exports are equal to fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) exports plus biodiesel exports.

U. S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

27

2016 forward: Total biomass exports are the sum of the exports values for fuel ethanol (minus denaturant), biodiesel, and densified biomass. Electricity 1949 forward: Electricity exports data from Table 7.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the electricity heat content factor in Table A6. Total Primary Energy Exports 1949 forward: Total primary energy exports are the sum of the exports values for coal, coal coke, natural gas, total petroleum, total biomass, and electricity. Total Primary Energy Net Imports 1949 forward: Total primary energy net imports are equal to total primary energy imports from Table 1.4a minus total primary energy exports.

Table 1.5 Sources U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, Foreign Trade Division: Petroleum Exports 1974–1987: “U.S. Exports,” FT-410, December issues. 1988 and 1989: “Report on U.S. Merchandise Trade,” Final Revisions. 1990–1992: “U.S. Merchandise Trade,” Final Report. 1993–2009: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” Annual Revisions. 2010–2011: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” 2012 Annual Revisions. 2012–2014: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” 2014 Annual Revisions. 2015 forward: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” FT-900, monthly. Petroleum Imports 1974–1987: “U.S. Merchandise Trade,” FT-900, December issues, 1975–1988. 1988 and 1989: “Report on U.S. Merchandise Trade,” Final Revisions. 1990–1993: “U.S. Merchandise Trade,” Final Report. 1994–2009: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” Annual Revisions. 2010–2011: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” 2012 Annual Revisions. 2012–2014: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” 2014 Annual Revisions.

28

2015 forward: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” FT-900, monthly. Energy Exports and Imports 1974–1987: U.S. merchandise trade press releases and database printouts for adjustments. 1988: January–July, monthly FT-900 supplement, 1989 issues. August–December, monthly FT-900, 1989 issues. 1989: Monthly FT-900, 1990 issues. 1990–1992: “U.S. Merchandise Trade,” Final Report. 1993–2009: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” Annual Revisions. 2010–2011: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” 2012 Annual Revisions. 2012–2014: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” 2014 Annual Revisions. 2015 forward: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” FT-900, monthly. Petroleum Balance 1974 forward: The petroleum balance is calculated by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) as petroleum imports minus petroleum exports. Energy Balance 1974 forward: The energy balance is calculated by EIA as energy imports minus energy exports. Non-Energy Balance 1974 forward: The non-energy balance is calculated by EIA as the total merchandise balance minus the energy balance. Total Merchandise 1974–1987: U.S. merchandise trade press releases and database printouts for adjustments. 1988: “Report on U.S. Merchandise Trade, 1988 Final Revisions,” August 18, 1989. 1989: “Report on U.S. Merchandise Trade, 1989 Revisions,” July 10, 1990. 1990: “U.S. Merchandise Trade, 1990 Final Report,” May 10, 1991, and “U.S. Merchandise Trade, December 1992,” February 18, 1993, page 3. 1991: “U.S. Merchandise Trade, 1992 Final Report,” May 12, 1993. 1992–2009: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” Annual Revisions. 2010–2011: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” 2012 Annual Revisions. 2012–2014: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” 2014 Annual Revisions. 2015 forward: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” FT-900, monthly.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

2. Energy Consumption by Sector

Figure 2.1 Energy Consumption by Sector (Quadrillion Btu) Total Consumption by End-Use Sector, 1949–2016 40 Industrial 30 Transportation

Residential

20 Commercial 10

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Total Consumption by End-Use Sector, Monthly 4

3

Industrial Transportation

2 Residential Commercial 1

0 J

F

M A

M

J J 2015

A

S

O N D

J

F

M A

M

J J 2016

A

S O N D

J

F

M A

M

J J 2017

A

S

O N D

By Sector, September 2017 4 Primary Consumption

Total Consumption 3.124

3 2.531 2.296

2

2.302

1.743 1.402

1.395

1 0.234

0.233

0 Residential

Commercial

Industrial

Transportation

Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumption. Source: Table 2.1.

30

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Electric Power

Table 2.1 Energy Consumption by Sector (Trillion Btu) End-Use Sectors Residential

Commerciala

Industrialb

Transportation

Electric Power Sectorc,d Balancing Itemg

Primary Totalh

Primarye

Totalf

Primarye

Totalf

Primarye

Totalf

Primarye

Totalf

Primarye

...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ......................

4,829 5,608 6,651 7,279 8,322 7,990 7,439 7,148 6,556 6,934 7,156 6,864 6,907 7,232 6,987 6,901 6,154 6,589 6,889 6,633 6,540 6,393 5,672 6,706 6,989

5,989 7,278 9,039 10,639 13,766 14,813 15,753 16,041 16,944 18,517 20,421 20,038 20,786 21,119 21,081 21,613 20,670 21,519 21,668 21,077 21,795 21,302 19,857 21,069 21,428

2,834 2,561 2,723 3,177 4,237 4,059 4,105 3,732 3,896 4,100 4,278 4,085 4,132 4,298 4,232 4,052 3,747 3,922 4,100 4,055 4,023 4,063 3,725 4,164 4,380

3,893 3,895 4,609 5,845 8,346 9,492 10,578 11,451 13,320 14,690 17,175 17,137 17,346 17,346 17,655 17,853 17,707 18,253 18,402 17,887 18,058 17,979 17,422 17,932 18,254

13,890 16,103 16,996 20,148 22,964 21,434 22,595 19,443 21,180 22,718 22,823 21,793 21,798 21,534 22,411 21,410 21,529 21,363 20,528 18,756 20,277 20,459 20,738 21,267 21,402

16,241 19,485 20,842 25,098 29,628 29,413 32,039 28,816 31,810 33,970 34,662 32,719 32,661 32,553 33,516 32,442 32,391 32,385 31,334 28,466 30,525 30,847 30,911 31,414 31,638

8,383 9,474 10,560 12,399 16,062 18,210 19,659 20,041 22,366 23,796 26,495 26,219 26,785 26,826 27,764 28,199 28,638 28,771 27,404 26,605 26,978 26,632 26,144 26,671 26,917

8,492 9,550 10,596 12,432 16,098 18,245 19,697 20,088 22,420 23,851 26,555 26,282 26,846 26,900 27,843 28,280 28,717 28,858 27,486 26,687 27,059 26,712 26,219 26,750 26,996

4,679 6,461 8,158 11,012 16,253 20,270 24,269 26,032 d 30,495 33,479 38,062 37,215 38,016 38,028 38,701 39,626 39,417 40,371 39,969 38,069 39,619 39,293 38,131 38,357 38,629

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1 -1 -4 -9 3 2 -6 5 -1 -6 (s) (s) -1 1 (s) 7 8 2 -1 6

34,616 40,208 45,086 54,015 67,838 71,965 78,067 76,392 84,484 91,031 98,817 96,170 97,643 97,918 100,090 100,188 99,485 101,015 98,891 94,118 97,444 96,847 94,412 97,164 98,323

2015 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

1,137 1,083 795 444 304 232 222 221 220 359 573 778 6,367

2,540 2,335 1,947 1,336 1,295 1,479 1,728 1,680 1,445 1,327 1,511 1,902 20,520

667 639 499 323 251 216 219 223 221 307 400 479 4,442

1,803 1,706 1,559 1,353 1,391 1,452 1,543 1,520 1,414 1,407 1,453 1,554 18,158

1,940 1,763 1,830 1,736 1,765 1,751 1,814 1,800 1,705 1,732 1,714 1,821 21,371

2,751 2,539 2,614 2,532 2,629 2,645 2,718 2,692 2,533 2,544 2,509 2,608 31,315

2,180 2,012 2,298 2,235 2,319 2,313 2,425 2,406 2,281 2,330 2,195 2,298 27,291

2,186 2,020 2,304 2,242 2,325 2,319 2,431 2,413 2,287 2,336 2,201 2,304 27,368

3,357 3,103 3,002 2,723 3,002 3,383 3,741 3,655 3,251 2,886 2,792 2,993 37,890

-1 1 -2 -3 -1 2 5 5 3 -2 -3 -2 1

9,280 8,601 8,422 7,458 7,639 7,897 8,425 8,309 7,682 7,612 7,672 8,366 97,363

2016 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

1,063 861 604 462 324 235 225 210 229 325 521 987 6,045

R 2,395 R 1,989 R 1,583 R 1,341 R 1,289 R 1,526 R 1,814 R 1,767 R 1,476 R 1,320 R 1,448 R 2,246

R 629

R 1,753 R 1,540 R 1,439 R 1,347 R 1,377 R 1,465 R 1,562 R 1,569 R 1,421 R 1,398 R 1,428 R 1,740

R 1,909 R 1,820 R 1,832 R 1,706 R 1,714 R 1,699 R 1,739

R 2,712 R 2,566 R 2,606 R 2,489 R 2,549 R 2,562 R 2,635 R 2,717 R 2,527 R 2,592 R 2,569 R 2,736

R 2,179

2,186 2,129

R 3,265 R 2,888 R 2,793 R 2,685 R 2,916 R 3,402 R 3,831 R 3,794 R 3,245 R 2,906 R 2,755 R 3,224

4 (s) -4 -3 -1 5 R8 9 5 2 (s) 4 R 31

R 9,050 R 8,225 R 7,979 R 7,444 R 7,581 R 7,931 R 8,470 R 8,538 R 7,747 R 7,649 R 7,715 R 9,080

R 3,211 R 2,695 R 3,009 R 2,717 R 2,989 R 3,321 R 3,733 R 3,583

R 8,961

3,124 28,383

4 -1 -1 -2 (s) 3 7 3 1 15

28,819 29,218

25 8

72,966 73,713

1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

534

R 406 R 330 R 267 R 223 R 223 R 225 R 231 R 292 R 384

597

R 20,186

R 4,342

R 18,043

R 613 R 470 R 488 R 312 R 234 R 222 R 231

R 1,726 R 1,450 R 1,603 R 1,338 R 1,405 R 1,454 R 1,542 R 1,516

1,831

R 1,725 R 1,793 R 1,790 R 1,921

R 21,478

R 31,266

1,913

R 2,687 R 2,402 R 2,686 R 2,520 R 2,620 R 2,591 R 2,676 R 2,671

2017 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. 9-Month Total .......

1,027 736 743 R 419 327 R 253 226 224 234 4,191

R 2,345

1,402 14,909

233 3,076

1,395 13,429

1,753 1,791 1,748 1,806 R 1,807 1,743 16,129

2016 9-Month Total ....... 2015 9-Month Total .......

4,212 4,658

15,181 15,784

3,069 3,257

13,474 13,742

15,974 16,103

1,735

R 1,821 R 1,338 R 1,349 R 1,504 R 1,763 R 1,652

273

R 1,692 R 1,876

a Commercial sector, including commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. b Industrial sector, including industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants. c Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. d Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities and independent power producers. e See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary. f Total energy consumption in the end-use sectors consists of primary energy consumption, electricity retail sales, and electrical system energy losses. See Note 1, "Electrical System Energy Losses," at end of section. g A balancing item. The sum of primary consumption in the five energy-use sectors equals the sum of total consumption in the four end-use sectors. However, total energy consumption does not equal the sum of the sectoral components due

2,123 2,349 2,264 2,361 2,367 2,444 2,470 R 2,311 2,331 2,264 2,347 R 27,809 2,193 2,027

R 2,354

2,270 2,367

R 2,373

2,451 2,476 2,318 2,337 2,270 2,354 R 27,884 2,200 2,033

R 2,383

R 2,390

2,531 23,385

2,255 R 2,431 2,411 R 2,429 R 2,491 2,296 20,917

2,261 R 2,437 R 2,418 R 2,435 R 2,498 2,302 20,974

23,364 23,651

20,867 20,469

20,924 20,527

R 37,705

R 97,410

7,619

R 8,500 R 7,455 R 7,810 R 7,971 R 8,424 R 8,340

7,632 72,711

to the use of sector-specific conversion factors for coal and natural gas. h Primary energy consumption total. See Table 1.3. R=Revised. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu and greater than -0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: • Data are estimates, except for the electric power sector. • See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. • See Note 2, "Energy Consumption Data and Surveys," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumption (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • End-Use Sectors: Tables 2.2–2.5. • Electric Power Sector: Table 2.6. • Balancing Item: Calculated as primary energy total consumption minus the sum of total energy consumption in the four end-use sectors. • Primary Total: Table 1.3.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

31

Figure 2.2

Residential Sector Energy Consumption (Quadrillion Btu)

By Major Source, 1949–2016 6 Natural Gas 5 4

Electricitya

3 2

Petroleum

1

Renewable Energy Coal

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

By Major Source, Monthly 1.2

Natural Gas

0.9

0.6

Electricitya

0.3 Renewable Energy Petroleum 0.0 J

F M A M

J J 2015

A

S O N D

J

F M A M

Total, January–September

J J 2016

A

S O N D

J

F M A M

J J 2017

A

S O N D

By Major Source, September 2017

20 Electricitya 16

15.784

15.181

0.405

14.909 Natural Gas

12

8

Petroleum

0.119

0.063

4 Renewable Energy

0.052

0 2015

2016

2017

0.0

0.1

0.2

a Electricity retail sales. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumption. Source: Table 2.2.

32

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

0.3

0.4

0.5

Table 2.2 Residential Sector Energy Consumption (Trillion Btu) Primary Consumptiona Renewable Energyb

Fossil Fuels Coal 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total

Natural Gasc

Petroleum

Total

Geothermal

Solard

Biomass

Total

Total Primary

Electricity Retail Salese

Electrical System Energy Lossesf

Total

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

1,261 867 585 352 209 63 31 39 31 17 11 12 12 12 11 8 6 8 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

1,240 2,198 3,212 4,028 4,987 5,023 4,825 4,534 4,491 4,954 5,105 4,889 4,995 5,209 4,981 4,946 4,476 4,835 5,010 4,883 4,878 4,805 4,242 5,023 5,242

1,322 1,767 2,227 2,432 2,725 2,479 1,734 1,565 1,394 1,373 1,553 1,528 1,456 1,546 1,519 1,450 1,221 1,249 1,324 1,157 1,121 1,028 891 971 1,008

3,824 4,833 6,024 6,811 7,922 7,564 6,589 6,138 5,916 6,345 6,669 6,429 6,463 6,768 6,511 6,405 5,704 6,092 6,334 6,040 5,999 5,833 5,133 5,994 6,250

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 6 7 9 9 10 13 14 16 18 22 26 33 37 40 40 40 40

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 55 63 58 55 53 52 51 50 53 55 58 60 65 71 79 92 109

1,006 775 627 468 401 425 850 1,010 580 520 420 370 380 400 410 430 380 420 470 500 440 450 420 580 590

1,006 775 627 468 401 425 850 1,010 640 589 486 435 444 465 475 496 451 497 555 593 541 560 539 711 739

4,829 5,608 6,651 7,279 8,322 7,990 7,439 7,148 6,556 6,934 7,156 6,864 6,907 7,232 6,987 6,901 6,154 6,589 6,889 6,633 6,540 6,393 5,672 6,706 6,989

246 438 687 993 1,591 2,007 2,448 2,709 3,153 3,557 4,069 4,100 4,317 4,353 4,408 4,638 4,611 4,750 4,711 4,657 4,933 4,855 4,690 4,759 4,801

913 1,232 1,701 2,367 3,852 4,817 5,866 6,184 7,235 8,026 9,197 9,074 9,562 9,534 9,687 10,074 9,905 10,180 10,068 9,788 10,321 10,054 9,496 9,604 9,638

5,989 7,278 9,039 10,639 13,766 14,813 15,753 16,041 16,944 18,517 20,421 20,038 20,786 21,119 21,081 21,613 20,670 21,519 21,668 21,077 21,795 21,302 19,857 21,069 21,428

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

972 935 656 331 184 128 112 106 112 209 421 612 4,777

118 104 89 63 67 51 56 60 56 98 104 117 983

1,090 1,039 744 394 251 180 168 166 169 307 525 729 5,760

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 40

6 7 10 11 12 13 13 13 12 11 9 8 128

37 34 37 36 37 36 37 37 36 37 36 37 440

47 44 51 51 53 52 54 54 52 52 49 49 607

1,137 1,083 795 444 304 232 222 221 220 359 573 778 6,367

470 423 400 308 325 410 498 493 428 339 316 381 4,791

933 830 752 584 667 836 1,007 966 797 630 622 743 9,362

2,540 2,335 1,947 1,336 1,295 1,479 1,728 1,680 1,445 1,327 1,511 1,902 20,520

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

910 714 471 339 200 127 110 104 113 194 393 822 4,496

110 104 85 75 73 58 63 54 67 83 84 121 976

1,020 818 556 414 273 184 173 158 181 277 476 943 5,472

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 40

8 10 13 R 15 16 17 17 17 15 13 11 10 161

32 30 32 31 32 31 32 32 31 32 31 32 373

43 42 48 48 51 50 52 52 49 48 45 45 573

1,063 861 604 462 324 235 225 210 229 325 521 987 6,045

R R

447 396 342 301 321 R 427 R 527 R 534 441 R 346 R 318 R 414 R 4,815

R R R R R R

R R R R R R R R R R R R

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

861 602 602 290 208 128 111 108 119 3,030

121 91 90 77 64 71 59 60 63 696

982 693 692 367 272 199 170 R 168 182 3,725

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 30

10 11 16 18 19 20 20 20 18 151

32 29 32 31 32 31 32 32 31 285

46 43 51 52 55 54 56 56 52 466

1,027 736 743 R 419 327 R 253 226 224 234 4,191

440 345 352 310 337 416 508 484 405 3,597

877 654 726 609 685 835 R 1,029 R 944 762 7,121

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

NA NA

3,088 3,536

689 664

3,777 4,200

30 30

127 99

279 329

435 458

4,212 4,658

3,736 3,755

a See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary. b See Table 10.2a for notes on series components. c Natural gas only; excludes the estimated portion of supplemental gaseous

fuels. See Note 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4. d Distributed (small-scale) solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation in the residential sector and distributed solar thermal energy in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. See Tables 10.2a and 10.5. e Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities and, beginning in 1996, other energy service providers. f Total losses are calculated as the primary energy consumed by the electric power sector minus the energy content of electricity retail sales. Total losses are allocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total

886 733 637 578 643 864 R 1,062 R 1,023 R 805 R 648 R 608 R 844 R 9,326

2,395 1,989 1,583 1,341 1,289 1,526 1,814 1,767 1,476 1,320 1,448 2,246 R 20,186

R

R

R R R R

R R R R R R

7,232 7,372

15,181 15,784

2,345 1,735 1,821 1,338 1,349 1,504 1,763 1,652 1,402 14,909

electricity retail sales. See Note 1, "Electrical System Energy Losses," at end of section. R=Revised. NA=Not available. Notes: • Data are estimates, except for electricity retail sales. • See Note 2, "Energy Consumption Data and Surveys," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumption (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

33

Figure 2.3

Commercial Sector Energy Consumption (Quadrillion Btu)

By Major Source, 1949–2016 5 Electricitya 4 Natural Gas 3

2

1

Petroleum Coal

Renewable Energy

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

S O N D

J

2000

2005

2010

2015

By Major Source, Monthly 0.6

Electricitya 0.4

0.2

Natural Gas Petroleum Renewable Energy

0.0 J

F M A M

J J A 2015

S O N D

J

F M A M

J J 2016

Total, January–September

A

F M A M

J J 2017

A

S O N D

By Major Source, September 2017

15 13.742

13.474

13.429

0.404

Electricitya

12 Natural Gas

0.151

9 Petroleum

0.060

6 Renewable Energy

0.021

3 Coal 0.001 0 2015

2016

2017

0.0

0.1

0.2

a

Electricity retail sales. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumption. Source: Table 2.3.

34

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

0.3

0.4

0.5

Table 2.3 Commercial Sector Energy Consumption (Trillion Btu) Primary Consumptiona Renewable Energyb

Fossil Fuels

Hydroelectric GeoPowere thermal Solarf

Total Primary

Electricity Retail Salesg

Electrical System Energy Lossesh

Total

19 15 12 9 8 8 21 24 98 119 128 101 105 114 120 121 120 121 130 137 142 154 161 182 199

2,834 2,561 2,723 3,177 4,237 4,059 4,105 3,732 3,896 4,100 4,278 4,085 4,132 4,298 4,232 4,052 3,747 3,922 4,100 4,055 4,023 4,063 3,725 4,164 4,380

225 350 543 789 1,201 1,598 1,906 2,351 2,860 3,252 3,956 4,062 4,110 4,090 4,198 4,351 4,435 4,560 4,559 4,459 4,539 4,531 4,528 4,562 4,614

834 984 1,344 1,880 2,908 3,835 4,567 5,368 6,564 7,337 8,942 8,990 9,104 8,958 9,225 9,451 9,525 9,771 9,743 9,373 9,497 9,385 9,168 9,206 9,261

3,893 3,895 4,609 5,845 8,346 9,492 10,578 11,451 13,320 14,690 17,175 17,137 17,346 17,346 17,655 17,853 17,707 18,253 18,402 17,887 18,058 17,979 17,422 17,932 18,254

13 12 13 13 13 13 14 13 13 13 13 13 154

18 17 20 20 21 20 21 21 20 19 18 18 232

667 639 499 323 251 216 219 223 221 307 400 479 4,442

381 360 368 355 373 407 438 439 417 385 355 365 4,643

756 707 692 674 767 829 886 859 776 715 698 711 9,073

1,803 1,706 1,559 1,353 1,391 1,452 1,543 1,520 1,414 1,407 1,453 1,554 18,158

13 12

R 18 R 18 R 20 R 20 R 21 R 21 R 22

R 629

R 377 R 353 R 361 R 348 R 370 R 411 R 444 R 461 R 421 R 385 R 358 R 376

R 747 R 654 R 672 R 668 R 741 R 831 R 895 R 883 R 769 R 721 R 685 R 767

R 1,753 R 1,540 R 1,439 R 1,347 R 1,377 R 1,465 R 1,562 R 1,569 R 1,421 R 1,398 R 1,428 R 1,740

Coal

Natural Gasc

Petroleumd

Total

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

1,542 801 407 265 165 147 115 137 124 117 92 97 90 82 103 97 65 70 81 73 70 62 44 41 40

401 651 1,056 1,490 2,473 2,558 2,651 2,488 2,682 3,096 3,252 3,097 3,212 3,261 3,201 3,073 2,902 3,085 3,228 3,187 3,165 3,216 2,960 3,380 3,572

872 1,095 1,248 1,413 1,592 1,346 1,318 1,083 991 769 806 789 725 841 809 761 661 646 660 659 647 631 562 561 568

2,815 2,547 2,711 3,168 4,229 4,051 4,084 3,708 3,798 3,982 4,150 3,983 4,027 4,184 4,113 3,931 3,627 3,801 3,970 3,919 3,881 3,908 3,565 3,982 4,180

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1 1 1 1 (s) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (s) (s) (s) (s)

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3 5 8 8 9 11 12 14 14 14 15 17 19 20 20 20 20

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) (s) 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 6 7 11 19 32 41 52

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA – – – – – – – – – – – (s) (s) (s) 1 1 1

19 15 12 9 8 8 21 24 94 113 119 92 95 101 105 105 103 103 109 112 111 115 108 120 126

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 31

552 536 400 240 166 140 138 140 143 202 293 365 3,316

93 82 76 61 63 53 57 60 57 84 86 93 863

649 622 479 303 231 196 197 202 201 288 382 461 4,210

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 20

3 4 5 5 6 6 6 6 5 5 4 3 57

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 24

520 427 308 241 177 143 139 145 147 198 290 479 3,213

88 85 75 68 67 58 61 57 63 72 73 96 864

611 516 386 310 R 245 202 202 204 211 272 366 578 R 4,100

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) R2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 20

R3 R4 R5 R6 R6 R6 R6 R6 R6 R5 R4

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total ..... 2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

4

R 62

1 1 1 1 1 1 14

498 374 386 221 186 143 139 R 144 151 2,242

93 76 78 69 63 67 59 62 60 627

594 452 467 291 250 R 211 199 R 208 212 2,883

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 15

R4 R4 R6 R7

17 24

2,247 2,456

622 601

2,886 3,080

1 (s)

15 15

3 2

R2

a See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary. b See Table 10.2a for notes on series components and estimation. c Natural gas only; excludes the estimated portion of supplemental gaseous

fuels. See Note 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4. d Does not include biofuels that have been blended with petroleum—biofuels are included in "Biomass." e Conventional hydroelectric power. f Solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity net generation in the commercial sector, both utility-scale and distributed (small-scale). See Tables 10.2a and 10.5. g Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities and, beginning in 1996, other energy service providers. h Total losses are calculated as the primary energy consumed by the electric power sector minus the energy content of electricity retail sales. Total losses are allocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total electricity retail sales. See Note 1, "Electrical System Energy Losses," at end of

Wind

Biomass

R 13

13 13 13 R 14 R 14 13 13 13 R 13 157

8 7 60

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

R 13

49 45

1 1

118 116

8 8

R8

12 13 13 13 13 13 13 12 115

Total

22

R 20 R 20

19

534

R 406 R 330 R 267 R 223 R 223 R 225 R 231 R 292 R 384

R 19 R 242

R 4,342

R 4,665

R 9,036

R 18,043

R 19 R 18 R 21 R 21

R 613 R 470 R 488 R 312

R 372 R 338 R 364 R 346 R 373 R 405 R 436

R 741 R 641 R 750 R 680 R 759 R 815 R 884 R 850

R 1,726 R 1,450 R 1,603 R 1,338 R 1,405 R 1,454 R 1,542 R 1,516

23 23

597

273

R 23 R 23

R 234 R 222 R 231

21 193

233 3,076

435 404 3,474

759 6,878

1,395 13,429

184 177

3,069 3,257

3,545 3,538

6,859 6,947

13,474 13,742

section. R=Revised. NA=Not available. – =No data reported. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: • Data are estimates, except for coal totals beginning in 2008; hydroelectric power; solar; wind; and electricity retail sales beginning in 1979. • The commercial sector includes commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. • See Note 2, "Energy Consumption Data and Surveys," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumption (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

35

Figure 2.4

Industrial Sector Energy Consumption (Quadrillion Btu)

By Major Source, 1949–2016 12 Petroleum 9 Natural Gas 6 Electricitya 3

Coal Renewable Energy

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

S O N D

J

2000

2005

2010

2015

By Major Source, Monthly 1.0 Natural Gas 0.8

0.6

Petroleum

0.4 Electricitya Renewable Energy

0.2

Coal 0.0 J

F M A M

J J A 2015

S O N D

J

F M A M

Total, January–September 25

23.651

23.364

J J A 2016

F M A M

J J A 2017

S O N D

By Major Source, September 2017 23.385

Natural Gas

0.773

20 Petroleum

0.685

15 0.274

Electricitya 10 Renewable Energy

0.188

5 Coal

0.099

0 2015

2016

2017

0.0

0.3

a Electricity retail sales. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumption. Source: Table 2.4.

36

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

0.6

0.9

Table 2.4 Industrial Sector Energy Consumption (Trillion Btu) Primary Consumptiona Fossil Fuelsb

Totalf

Hydroelectric Powerg

Geothermal

Solarh

3,960 5,123 5,766 6,813 7,776 8,127 9,509 7,714 8,251 8,585 9,073 9,177 9,167 9,229 9,825 9,634 9,767 9,442 8,576 7,806 8,166 8,135 8,143 8,326 8,138

13,288 15,434 16,277 19,260 21,911 20,339 20,962 17,492 19,463 20,726 20,895 20,074 20,078 19,809 20,560 19,540 19,603 19,405 18,493 16,784 18,070 18,187 18,479 18,995 19,088

69 38 39 33 34 32 33 33 31 55 42 33 39 43 33 32 29 16 17 18 16 17 22 33 12

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2 3 4 5 5 3 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1 1 1 2 3 4 7 9 11

882 809 824 766 763 729 752 760 735 774 795 837 9,426

731 656 693 673 696 717 747 729 673 655 619 674 8,262

1,739 1,583 1,637 1,547 1,570 1,559 1,615 1,602 1,517 1,540 1,521 1,620 19,050

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 4

887 819 827 778 774 745 777 788 758 780 810 896 9,638

R 723

1,712

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 4

Coal

Natural Gasd

Petroleume

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

5,781 5,620 4,543 5,127 4,656 3,667 3,155 2,760 2,756 2,488 2,256 2,192 2,019 2,041 2,047 1,954 1,914 1,865 1,793 1,392 1,631 1,561 1,513 1,546 1,530

3,546 4,701 5,973 7,339 9,536 8,532 8,333 7,032 8,451 9,592 9,500 8,676 8,832 8,488 8,550 7,907 7,861 8,074 8,083 7,609 8,278 8,481 8,819 9,140 9,441

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

128 119 121 110 114 116 117 115 109 112 110 109 1,380

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

R 102

1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

103

R 105 R 97 R 98 R 99 R 100

99

R 97

99 99 R 102 R 1,201

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

R 100

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total ..... a b c d

Renewable Energyc

892

712 705 R 650 650 664 665 748 686 724 692 706 R 8,324 720

1,508 1,542 R 1,632 R 1,539 1,601 R 1,596 R 1,701 R 19,145 R 1,709 R 1,506 R 1,677

Totalf

532 631 680 855 1,019 1,063 1,600 1,918 1,684 1,934 1,881 1,681 1,676 1,678 1,815 1,834 1,892 1,937 2,012 1,948 2,185 2,246 2,226 2,226 2,286

602 669 719 888 1,053 1,096 1,633 1,951 1,717 1,992 1,928 1,719 1,720 1,725 1,852 1,871 1,926 1,958 2,035 1,972 2,208 2,272 2,259 2,272 2,314

13,890 16,103 16,996 20,148 22,964 21,434 22,595 19,443 21,180 22,718 22,823 21,793 21,798 21,534 22,411 21,410 21,529 21,363 20,528 18,756 20,277 20,459 20,738 21,267 21,402

500 887 1,107 1,463 1,948 2,346 2,781 2,855 3,226 3,455 3,631 3,400 3,379 3,454 3,473 3,477 3,451 3,507 3,444 3,130 3,314 3,382 3,363 3,362 3,404

1,852 2,495 2,739 3,487 4,716 5,632 6,664 6,518 7,404 7,796 8,208 7,526 7,484 7,565 7,631 7,554 7,411 7,515 7,362 6,580 6,934 7,005 6,810 6,785 6,832

16,241 19,485 20,842 25,098 29,628 29,413 32,039 28,816 31,810 33,970 34,662 32,719 32,661 32,553 33,516 32,442 32,391 32,385 31,334 28,466 30,525 30,847 30,911 31,414 31,638

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

199 178 190 186 192 189 196 195 186 190 191 198 2,290

201 180 193 189 195 192 199 197 189 193 193 201 2,321

1,940 1,763 1,830 1,736 1,765 1,751 1,814 1,800 1,705 1,732 1,714 1,821 21,371

272 262 272 275 283 294 299 302 289 284 268 267 3,366

539 515 512 521 581 599 605 591 538 528 526 520 6,578

2,751 2,539 2,614 2,532 2,629 2,645 2,718 2,692 2,533 2,544 2,509 2,608 31,315

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

R 195 R 184 R 192 R 179 R 189 R 188 R 194

198

R 1,909 R 1,820 R 1,832 R 1,706 R 1,714 R 1,699 R 1,739

R 269 R 262 R 270 R 268 R 278 R 285 R 297 R 304 R 284 R 278 R 268 R 268

R 533 R 485 R 504 R 515 R 557 R 578 R 599 R 583 R 518 R 521 R 512 R 547

R 2,712 R 2,566 R 2,606 R 2,489 R 2,549 R 2,562 R 2,635 R 2,717 R 2,527 R 2,592 R 2,569 R 2,736

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA – – – – – – – – – – – – – (s) (s) (s) 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14 1 1

R2

2 2 2 2 2 2 R2 1 1 R 19

Wind

195

R 183 R 189

192

R 217 R 2,297 R 201 R 183 R 195

R 186 R 195 R 182

193

R 191 R 197

198

R 186 R 192

194

R 220 R 2,333

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

R 190

R 194

1,556 14,378

1 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 19

188 R 195 R 200 184 1,719

14,247 14,369

9 9

3 3

15 11

(s) (s)

1,699 1,711

693 727 705 685 6,277

R 1,555

96 104 99 893

853 780 785 768 786 798 773 7,226

902 1,049

7,152 7,019

6,202 6,314

688

Electrical System Energy Lossesj

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 3

R 791

R 715

Electricity Retail Salesi

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10

99

R 100 R 98 R 99 R 97

R 618 R 726

R 1,633 R 1,636 R 1,523 R 1,521

Total

Total Primary

Biomass

1,565 1,598 1,608

R 1,603

See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary. Includes non-combustion use of fossil fuels. See Table 10.2b for notes on series components and estimation. Natural gas only; excludes the estimated portion of supplemental gaseous fuels. See Note 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4. e Does not include biofuels that have been blended with petroleum—biofuels are included in "Biomass." f Includes coal coke net imports, which are not separately displayed. See Tables 1.4a and 1.4b. g Conventional hydroelectric power. h Solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity net generation in the industrial sector, both utility-scale and distributed (small-scale). See Tables 10.2b and 10.5. i Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities and, beginning in 1996, other energy service providers. j Total losses are calculated as the primary energy consumed by the electric power sector minus the energy content of electricity retail sales. Total losses are allocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total

184

203

1,831

R 1,725 R 1,793 R 1,790 R 1,921

R 21,478

R 3,333

R 6,456

R 31,266

1,913

R 259

R 515 R 465 R 545 R 509 R 555 R 563 R 582 R 572

R 2,687 R 2,402 R 2,686 R 2,520 R 2,620 R 2,591 R 2,676 R 2,671

R 186 R 199

R 1,692 R 1,876

188

192 R 199 R 203 188 1,751

1,753 1,791 1,748 1,806 R 1,807 1,743 16,129

280 287 293 274 2,435

514 4,821

2,531 23,385

1,727 1,734

15,974 16,103

2,518 2,547

4,872 5,001

23,364 23,651

245

R 265 R 259 R 273

electricity retail sales. See Note 1, "Electrical System Energy Losses," at end of section. R=Revised. NA=Not available. – =No data reported. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: • Data are estimates, except for coal totals; hydroelectric power in 1949–1978 and 1989 forward; solar; wind; and electricity retail sales. • The industrial sector includes industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. • See Note 2, "Energy Consumption Data and Surveys," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumption (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

37

Figure 2.5

Transportation Sector Energy Consumption (Quadrillion Btu)

By Major Source, 1949–2016 30 Petroleum 25 20 15 10 Renewable Energy

5 Natural Gas 0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

By Major Source, Monthly 3.0 2.5

Petroleum

2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5

Natural Gas Renewable Energy

0.0 J

F M A M

J J A 2015

S O N D

J

F M A M

Total, January–September

J J A 2016

S O N D

J

F M A M

S O N D

Total, Monthly

24

3.0 20.527

20.924

20.974

20

2.5

16

2.0

12

1.5

8

1.0

4

0.5

0

2015

2016

2017

0.0 2015

2016

2017

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumption. Source: Table 2.5. .

38

J J A 2017

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

A

S

O

N

D

Table 2.5 Transportation Sector Energy Consumption (Trillion Btu) Primary Consumptiona Renewable Energyb

Fossil Fuels Coal 1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

Natural Gasc

Petroleumd

Total

Biomass

Total Primary

Electricity Retail Salese

Electrical System Energy Lossesf

Total

1,564 421 75 16 7 1 (g) g ( ) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g)

130 254 359 517 745 595 650 519 680 724 672 658 699 627 602 624 625 663 692 715 719 734 780 887 760

6,690 8,799 10,125 11,866 15,310 17,615 19,009 19,472 21,626 22,959 25,689 25,419 25,917 25,969 26,872 27,236 27,538 27,505 25,888 24,955 25,184 24,740 24,202 24,506 24,865

8,383 9,474 10,560 12,399 16,062 18,210 19,659 19,992 22,306 23,683 26,361 26,077 26,616 26,596 27,474 27,860 28,163 28,169 26,580 25,670 25,903 25,474 24,982 25,394 25,625

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 50 60 112 135 142 170 230 290 339 475 602 825 935 1,075 1,158 1,162 1,278 1,292

8,383 9,474 10,560 12,399 16,062 18,210 19,659 20,041 22,366 23,796 26,495 26,219 26,785 26,826 27,764 28,199 28,638 28,771 27,404 26,605 26,978 26,632 26,144 26,671 26,917

23 20 10 10 11 10 11 14 16 17 18 20 19 23 25 26 25 28 26 27 26 26 25 26 26

86 56 26 24 26 24 27 32 37 38 42 43 42 51 54 56 54 60 56 56 55 54 51 53 53

8,492 9,550 10,596 12,432 16,098 18,245 19,697 20,088 22,420 23,851 26,555 26,282 26,846 26,900 27,843 28,280 28,717 28,858 27,486 26,687 27,059 26,712 26,219 26,750 26,996

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

(g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g)

85 80 71 55 51 52 57 56 52 54 62 71 745

2,000 1,837 2,120 2,075 2,152 2,144 2,250 2,231 2,113 2,161 2,024 2,115 25,221

2,085 1,917 2,191 2,130 2,203 2,196 2,307 2,287 2,165 2,215 2,085 2,185 25,966

94 95 107 105 116 117 118 120 116 114 110 113 1,325

2,180 2,012 2,298 2,235 2,319 2,313 2,425 2,406 2,281 2,330 2,195 2,298 27,291

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 26

5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 51

2,186 2,020 2,304 2,242 2,325 2,319 2,431 2,413 2,287 2,336 2,201 2,304 27,368

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

(g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g)

86 74 66 58 55 56 61 62 55 54 61 80 767

1,992 1,942

R 2,015

2,078

102 107 116 108 122 121 128 131 124 123 124 127 1,433

R 2,179

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 26

R4

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

(g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g)

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

(g) (g)

80

R 2,167

2,098

R 2,183

2,190 2,255 2,277 2,133 R 2,153 R 2,079 2,140 R 25,609

54 553

2,009 1,863 2,195 2,085 2,250 2,229 2,242 2,303 2,121 19,298

572 558

19,236 18,922

R 65 R 71

54

R 54 R 54 R 60 R 60

2,233 2,156 2,238 2,246 2,316 2,339 2,187 2,207 2,140 R 2,220 R 26,375 2,089 1,927

2,303 2,283 R 2,303 R 2,363 2,175 19,851

104 100 117 115 127 128 126 128 121 1,066

19,808 19,480

1,059 989

R 2,267 R 2,140

a See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary. b See Table 10.2b for notes on series components. c Natural gas only; does not include supplemental gaseous fuels—see Note 3,

"Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4. Data are for natural gas consumed in the operation of pipelines (primarily in compressors) and small amounts consumed as vehicle fuel—see Table 4.3. d Does not include biofuels that have been blended with petroleum—biofuels are included in "Biomass." Includes non-combustion use of lubricants. e Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities and, beginning in 1996, other energy service providers. f Total losses are calculated as the primary energy consumed by the electric power sector minus the energy content of electricity retail sales. Total losses are allocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total electricity retail sales. See Note 1, "Electrical System Energy Losses," at end of

2,123 2,349 2,264 2,361 2,367 2,444 2,470 R 2,311 2,331 2,264 2,347 R 27,809 2,193 2,027

2,411 R 2,429 R 2,491 2,296 20,917

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 19

20,867 20,469

19 20

R 2,383

2,255

R 2,431

4 4 4 4 4 R4 4 4 4 4 5 R 50 5 4

R5

4 4 4 4 4 4 38 37 39

2,186 2,129

R 2,354

2,270 2,367

R 2,373

2,451 2,476 2,318 2,337 2,270 2,354 R 27,884 2,200 2,033

R 2,390

2,261

R 2,437 R 2,418 R 2,435 R 2,498

2,302 20,974 20,924 20,527

section. g Beginning in 1978, the small amounts of coal consumed for transportation are reported as industrial sector consumption. R=Revised. NA=Not available. Notes: • Data are estimates, except for coal totals through 1977; and electricity retail sales beginning in 1979. • See Note 2, "Energy Consumption Data and Surveys," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumption (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

39

Figure 2.6

Electric Power Sector Energy Consumption (Quadrillion Btu)

By Major Source, 1949–2016 24 Coal 20 16 12 Nuclear Electric Power 8 Natural Gas

4

Renewable Energy

Petroleum 0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

By Major Source, Monthly 2.4

1.8 Coal 1.2

Natural Gas

0.6

Nuclear Electric Power Renewable Energy Petroleum

0.0 J

F M A M

J J A 2015

S O N D

J

F M A M

Total, January–September

J J A 2016

S O N D

J

F M A M

J J A 2017

S O N D

By Major Source, September 2017

35 Coal 30

29.218

28.819

1.049

28.383 Natural Gas

25

15

Nuclear Electric Power

10

Renewable Energy

20

5

0.896

0.712

0.433

Petroleum

0.017

0 2015

2016

2017

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumption. Source: Table 2.6. .

40

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

1.0

1.2

1.4

Table 2.6

Electric Power Sector Energy Consumption (Trillion Btu) Primary Consumptiona Renewable Energyb

Fossil Fuels

Total

Hydroelectric Powerd

Geothermal

Solare

472 471 553 722 2,117 3,166 2,634 1,090 1,289 755 1,144 1,276 961 1,205 1,201 1,222 637 648 459 382 370 295 214 255 295

3,322 5,123 6,565 8,938 13,399 15,191 18,534 18,767 20,859 22,523 26,658 26,348 26,511 26,636 27,101 27,974 27,474 28,461 27,801 25,630 27,031 26,042 25,322 25,082 25,085

0 0 6 43 239 1,900 2,739 4,076 6,104 7,075 7,862 8,029 8,145 7,960 8,223 8,161 8,215 8,459 8,426 8,355 8,434 8,269 8,062 8,244 8,338

1,346 1,322 1,569 2,026 2,600 3,122 2,867 2,937 3,014 3,149 2,768 2,209 2,650 2,749 2,655 2,670 2,839 2,430 2,494 2,650 2,521 3,085 2,606 2,529 2,454

NA NA (s) 2 6 34 53 97 161 138 144 142 147 146 148 147 145 145 146 146 148 149 148 151 151

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) 4 5 5 6 6 5 6 6 5 6 9 9 12 17 40 83 165

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) 29 33 57 70 105 113 142 178 264 341 546 721 923 1,167 1,339 1,600 1,726

5 3 2 3 4 2 4 14 317 422 453 337 380 397 388 406 412 423 435 441 459 437 453 470 530

1,351 1,325 1,571 2,031 2,609 3,158 2,925 3,049 3,524 3,747 3,427 2,763 3,288 3,411 3,339 3,406 3,665 3,345 3,630 3,967 4,064 4,855 4,586 4,833 5,026

6 14 15 (s) 7 21 71 140 8 134 115 75 72 22 39 85 63 107 112 116 89 127 161 197 182

4,679 6,461 8,158 11,012 16,253 20,270 24,269 26,032 30,495 33,479 38,062 37,215 38,016 38,028 38,701 39,626 39,417 40,371 39,969 38,069 39,619 39,293 38,131 38,357 38,629

29 59 18 17 19 19 23 21 20 17 18 17 276

2,130 2,013 1,865 1,630 1,869 2,252 2,566 2,492 2,182 1,860 1,710 1,771 24,341

777 664 675 625 688 717 747 757 695 633 630 728 8,337

224 207 225 208 186 189 195 177 149 154 179 214 2,308

13 12 13 12 13 12 13 13 11 12 12 13 148

11 14 19 22 23 23 24 25 20 17 16 14 228

141 139 143 166 160 125 127 122 130 152 183 187 1,776

45 41 43 40 41 44 48 48 43 41 44 47 525

433 412 443 448 423 393 407 384 354 378 434 476 4,985

18 14 19 20 20 21 21 22 20 16 18 17 227

3,357 3,103 3,002 2,723 3,002 3,383 3,741 3,655 3,251 2,886 2,792 2,993 37,890

23

R 2,012 R 1,704 R 1,552

R 759 R 687

R 235 R 222 R 251 R 238 R 234 R 213

R 12 R 11 R 12 R 11 R 12 R 12 R 12 R 12 R 12 R 12 R 13 R 13

R 13 R 20 R 24 R 26 R 31 R 32 R 36

R 170 R 186 R 202 R 192 R 174 R 150 R 163 R 125 R 151 R 188 R 179 R 213

R 44

R 475 R 482 R 533 R 506 R 491 R 448 R 451 R 399 R 388 R 426 R 432 R 501

R 19 R 16 R 16 R 13 R 16 R 19 R 22 R 20 R 13 R 16 R 19 R 15

R 3,265 R 2,888 R 2,793 R 2,685 R 2,916 R 3,402 R 3,831 R 3,794 R 3,245 R 2,906 R 2,755 R 3,224

Coal

Petroleum

1950 Total ...................... 1955 Total ...................... 1960 Total ...................... 1965 Total ...................... 1970 Total ...................... 1975 Total ...................... 1980 Total ...................... 1985 Total ...................... 1990 Totalg .................... 1995 Total ...................... 2000 Total ...................... 2001 Total ...................... 2002 Total ...................... 2003 Total ...................... 2004 Total ...................... 2005 Total ...................... 2006 Total ...................... 2007 Total ...................... 2008 Total ...................... 2009 Total ...................... 2010 Total ...................... 2011 Total ...................... 2012 Total ...................... 2013 Total ...................... 2014 Total ......................

2,199 3,458 4,228 5,821 7,227 8,786 12,123 14,542 16,261 17,466 20,220 19,614 19,783 20,185 20,305 20,737 20,462 20,808 20,513 18,225 19,133 18,035 15,821 16,451 16,427

651 1,194 1,785 2,395 4,054 3,240 3,778 3,135 3,309 4,302 5,293 5,458 5,767 5,246 5,595 6,015 6,375 7,005 6,829 7,022 7,528 7,712 9,287 8,376 8,362

2015 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

1,366 1,284 1,116 928 1,092 1,319 1,464 1,411 1,238 1,025 936 960 14,138

735 670 732 686 758 915 1,079 1,060 924 817 756 794 9,926

2016 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

R 1,190 R 970 R 765 R 750

R 799 R 712 R 768 R 741 R 830

863

R 1,211

1,422 1,415

R 1,195 R 1,046

923

R 1,245

R 12,996

R 1,001 R 1,176 R 1,188

944 R 767 R 683 R 692 R 10,301

2017 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. 9-Month Total .......

R 1,217 R 919 R 935 R 849 R 973 R 1,129 R 1,339 R 1,264

R 669 R 574 R 747 R 646 R 732 R 883

R 1,118 R 1,100

1,049 9,674

2016 9-Month Total ....... 2015 9-Month Total .......

9,782 11,217

Electricity Net Importsf

Nuclear Electric Power

Natural Gasc

R 22

18 R 19 19 20 24 24 20 16 R 18 20 R 244

1,510

R 1,712 R 2,232 R 2,622 R 2,627 R 2,158 R 1,830 R 1,623 R 1,958

R 23,542

692 R 656 696 703 736 748 R 685 635 682 R 750 R 8,427

896 7,365

21 16 17 13 19 19 18 R 17 17 157

R 1,907 R 1,509 R 1,699 R 1,507 R 1,723 R 2,032 R 2,476 R 2,382

1,962 17,196

765 670 681 593 641 701 746 757 712 6,266

8,158 7,558

189 224

18,130 18,999

6,360 6,345

a See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary. b See Table 10.2c for notes on series components. c Natural gas only; excludes the estimated portion of supplemental gaseous

fuels. See Note 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4. d Conventional hydroelectric power. e Solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal electricity net generation in the electric power sector. See Tables 10.2c and 10.5. f Net imports equal imports minus exports. g Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities and independent power producers. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.

197 180

R 150 R 159 R 173 R 207

36

R 33

29 25

R 22

R 2,459

R 146

R 256 R 225 R 278 R 269 R 296 R 279 R 236 R 195

R 13 R 11 R 13 R 13 R 12 R 12 R 13 R 13

R 23 R 40 R 43 R 52 R 57 R 50 R 49

174 2,208

12 111

47 381

1,920 1,760

108 111

251 180

Wind

R 328

R 2,094

20

R 190 R 204 R 240

Biomass

43 43 R 39 40 R 41 R 44 R 45 41 R 37 R 42 46 R 505 R 45

Total

R 5,531

R 206

R 37,705

R 523 R 504 R 616 R 602 R 610 R 573 R 491 R 423

R 3,211 R 2,695 R 3,009 R 2,717 R 2,989 R 3,321 R 3,733 R 3,583

28,819 29,218

160 1,688

41 R 46 R 40 42 R 43 R 46 R 46 41 388

433 4,777

16 12 12 15 14 16 R 21 R 21 17 144

1,514 1,253

380 393

4,173 3,697

156 177

237

R 209

181 146

R 121

Total Primary

3,124 28,383

Notes: • Data are for fuels consumed to produce electricity and useful thermal output. • The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. • See Note 2, "Energy Consumption Data and Surveys," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumption (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

41

Table 2.7 U.S. Government Energy Consumption by Agency, Fiscal Years (Trillion Btu) Fiscal Yeara 1975 .............. 1976 .............. 1977 .............. 1978 .............. 1979 .............. 1980 .............. 1981 .............. 1982 .............. 1983 .............. 1984 .............. 1985 .............. 1986 .............. 1987 .............. 1988 .............. 1989 .............. 1990 .............. 1991 .............. 1992 .............. 1993 .............. 1994 .............. 1995 .............. 1996 .............. 1997 .............. 1998 .............. 1999 .............. 2000 .............. 2001 .............. 2002 .............. 2003 .............. 2004 .............. 2005 .............. 2006 .............. 2007 .............. 2008 .............. 2009 .............. 2010 .............. 2011 .............. 2012 .............. 2013 .............. 2014 .............. 2015 .............. 2016 ..............

Agriculture

Defense

Energy

9.5 9.3 8.9 9.1 9.2 8.6 7.9 7.6 7.4 7.9 8.4 6.8 7.3 7.8 8.7 9.6 9.6 9.1 9.3 9.4 9.0 9.1 7.4 7.9 7.8 7.4 7.4 7.2 7.7 7.0 7.5 6.8 6.8 6.5 6.6 6.8 8.3 6.7 7.3 6.3 6.2 6.2

1,360.2 1,183.3 1,192.3 1,157.8 1,175.8 1,183.1 1,239.5 1,264.5 1,248.3 1,292.1 1,250.6 1,222.8 1,280.5 1,165.8 1,274.4 1,241.7 1,269.3 1,104.0 1,048.8 977.0 926.0 904.5 880.0 837.1 810.7 779.1 787.2 837.5 895.1 960.7 933.2 843.7 864.6 910.8 874.3 889.9 890.3 828.5 749.5 730.6 734.5 709.2

50.4 50.3 51.6 50.1 49.6 47.4 47.3 49.0 49.5 51.6 52.2 46.9 48.5 49.9 44.2 43.5 42.1 44.3 43.4 42.1 47.3 44.6 43.1 31.5 27.0 30.5 31.1 30.7 31.9 31.4 29.6 32.9 31.5 32.1 31.1 31.7 33.1 30.3 28.9 29.4 30.1 28.9

GSAb 22.3 20.6 20.4 20.4 19.6 18.1 18.0 18.1 16.1 16.2 20.7 14.0 13.1 12.4 12.7 17.5 14.0 13.8 14.1 14.0 13.7 14.5 14.4 14.1 14.4 17.6 18.4 17.5 18.5 18.3 18.4 18.2 19.1 18.8 18.6 18.8 18.5 16.3 16.4 17.0 16.9 15.8

HHSc 6.5 6.7 6.9 6.5 6.4 6.0 6.7 6.4 6.2 6.4 6.0 6.2 6.6 6.4 6.7 7.1 6.2 6.8 7.2 7.5 6.1 6.6 7.9 7.4 7.1 8.0 8.5 8.0 10.1 8.8 9.6 9.3 9.9 10.3 10.8 10.4 10.5 10.0 10.5 9.5 9.0 8.7

Interior

Justice

NASAd

Postal Service

9.4 9.4 9.5 9.2 10.4 8.5 7.6 7.4 7.7 8.4 7.8 6.9 6.6 7.0 7.1 7.4 7.1 7.0 7.5 7.9 6.4 4.3 6.6 6.4 7.5 7.8 9.5 8.2 7.3 8.7 8.6 8.1 7.5 7.1 7.9 7.3 7.3 6.7 6.2 6.2 6.8 6.4

5.9 5.7 5.9 5.9 6.4 5.7 5.4 5.8 5.5 6.4 8.2 8.6 8.1 9.4 7.7 7.0 8.0 7.5 9.1 10.3 10.2 12.1 12.0 15.8 15.4 19.7 19.7 17.7 22.7 17.5 18.8 23.5 20.7 19.0 16.5 15.7 13.9 15.1 15.3 15.6 16.2 15.6

13.4 12.4 12.0 11.2 11.1 10.4 10.0 10.1 10.3 10.6 10.9 11.2 11.3 11.3 12.4 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.4 12.6 12.4 11.5 12.0 11.7 11.4 11.1 10.9 10.7 10.8 9.9 10.3 10.2 10.6 10.8 10.2 10.1 10.1 8.9 8.7 8.3 8.4 8.5

30.5 30.0 32.7 30.9 29.3 27.2 27.9 27.5 26.5 27.7 27.8 28.0 28.5 29.6 30.3 30.6 30.8 31.7 33.7 35.0 36.2 36.4 40.8 39.5 39.8 43.3 43.4 41.6 50.9 50.5 53.5 51.8 45.8 47.1 44.2 43.3 43.0 40.8 41.9 43.0 44.0 43.9

a For 1975 and 1976, the U.S. Government’s fiscal year was July 1 through June 30. Beginning in 1977, the U.S. Government’s fiscal year is October 1 through September 30 (for example, fiscal year 2014 is October 2013 through September 2014). b General Services Administration. c Health and Human Services. d National Aeronautics and Space Administration. e Includes all U.S. government agencies not separately displayed. See http://ctsedwweb.ee.doe.gov/Annual/Report/AgencyReference.aspx for agency list. Notes: • Data in this table are developed using conversion factors that often differ from those in Tables A1–A6. • Data include energy consumed at foreign

42

Transportation

Veterans Affairs

19.3 19.5 20.4 20.6 19.6 19.2 18.8 19.1 19.4 19.8 19.6 19.4 19.0 18.7 18.5 19.0 19.0 17.0 19.4 19.8 18.7 19.6 19.1 18.5 22.6 21.2 17.8 18.3 5.5 5.2 5.0 4.6 5.6 7.7 4.3 5.7 6.7 5.6 5.3 5.2 6.0 6.0

27.1 25.0 25.9 26.8 25.7 24.8 24.0 24.2 24.1 24.6 25.1 25.0 24.9 26.3 26.2 24.9 25.1 25.3 25.7 25.6 25.4 26.8 27.3 27.6 27.5 27.0 27.7 27.7 30.6 29.9 30.0 29.3 30.0 29.0 29.9 30.2 30.6 29.7 29.9 31.4 30.7 30.3

Othere 10.5 11.2 11.9 12.4 12.3 12.3 11.1 11.6 10.8 10.7 13.1 10.8 11.9 15.8 15.6 17.5 18.1 15.7 16.2 17.1 17.1 17.7 20.8 19.5 19.8 20.3 20.7 18.4 41.0 44.0 42.1 38.1 38.1 44.1 40.4 42.9 41.7 40.6 39.3 39.0 37.8 37.6

Total 1,565.0 1,383.4 1,398.5 1,360.9 1,375.4 1,371.2 1,424.2 1,451.4 1,431.8 1,482.5 1,450.3 1,406.7 1,466.3 1,360.3 1,464.7 1,438.0 1,461.7 1,294.8 1,246.8 1,178.2 1,128.5 1,107.7 1,091.2 1,037.1 1,010.9 993.1 1,002.3 1,043.4 1,132.3 1,191.7 1,166.4 1,076.4 1,090.2 1,143.2 1,094.8 1,112.7 1,114.1 1,039.3 959.3 941.5 946.5 917.2

installations and in foreign operations, including aviation and ocean bunkering, primarily by the U.S. Department of Defense. U.S. Government energy use for electricity generation and uranium enrichment is excluded. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumption (Excel and CSV files) for all annual data beginning in 1975. Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management Program. See http://ctsedwweb.ee.doe.gov/Annual/Report/Report.aspx, "A-1 Total Site-Delivered Energy Use in All End-Use Sectors, by Federal Agency (Billion Btu)" dataset.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 2.8 U.S. Government Energy Consumption by Source, Fiscal Years (Trillion Btu) Petroleum Fiscal Yeara 1975 .............. 1976 .............. 1977 .............. 1978 .............. 1979 .............. 1980 .............. 1981 .............. 1982 .............. 1983 .............. 1984 .............. 1985 .............. 1986 .............. 1987 .............. 1988 .............. 1989 .............. 1990 .............. 1991 .............. 1992 .............. 1993 .............. 1994 .............. 1995 .............. 1996 .............. 1997 .............. 1998 .............. 1999 .............. 2000 .............. 2001 .............. 2002 .............. 2003 .............. 2004 .............. 2005 .............. 2006 .............. 2007 .............. 2008 .............. 2009 .............. 2010 .............. 2011 .............. 2012 .............. 2013 .............. 2014 .............. 2015 .............. 2016 ..............

Coal 77.9 71.3 68.4 66.0 65.1 63.5 65.1 68.6 62.4 65.3 64.8 63.8 67.0 60.2 48.7 44.3 45.9 51.7 38.3 35.0 31.7 23.3 22.5 23.9 21.2 22.7 18.8 16.9 18.1 17.4 17.1 23.5 20.4 20.8 20.3 20.0 18.5 15.9 14.3 13.5 12.6 10.2

Natural Gasb 166.2 151.8 141.2 144.7 148.9 147.3 142.2 146.2 147.8 157.4 149.9 140.9 145.6 144.6 152.4 159.4 154.1 151.2 152.9 143.9 149.4 147.3 153.8 140.4 137.4 133.8 133.7 133.7 135.5 135.3 135.7 132.6 131.5 129.6 131.7 130.1 124.7 116.2 122.5 125.6 123.3 115.4

Aviation Gasoline 22.0 11.6 8.8 6.2 4.7 4.9 4.6 3.6 2.6 1.9 1.9 1.4 1.0 6.0 .8 .5 .4 1.0 .7 .6 .3 .2 .3 .2 .1 .2 .2 .2 .3 .2 .4 .6 .4 .4 .3 .4 .9 .4 .7 .3 .3 .3

Fuel Oilc 376.0 329.7 348.5 332.3 327.1 307.7 351.3 349.4 329.5 342.9 292.6 271.6 319.5 284.8 245.3 245.2 232.6 200.6 187.0 198.5 178.4 170.5 180.0 174.5 162.1 171.3 176.9 165.6 190.8 261.4 241.4 209.3 212.9 198.4 166.4 157.8 166.5 148.6 140.0 133.5 134.4 129.7

Jet Fuel

LPGd

707.4 610.0 619.2 601.1 618.6 638.7 653.3 672.7 673.4 693.7 705.7 710.2 702.3 617.2 761.7 732.4 774.5 628.2 612.4 550.7 522.3 513.0 475.7 445.5 444.7 403.1 415.2 472.9 517.9 508.2 492.2 442.6 461.1 525.4 505.7 535.8 533.6 493.5 424.0 414.3 418.9 403.9

a For 1975 and 1976, the U.S. Government’s fiscal year was July 1 through June 30. Beginning in 1977, the U.S. Government’s fiscal year is October 1 through September 30 (for example, fiscal year 2014 is October 2013 through September 2014). b Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. c Distillate fuel oil, including diesel fuel; and residual fuel oil, including Navy Special. d Liquefied petroleum gases, primarily propane. e Includes E10 (a mixture of 10% ethanol and 90% motor gasoline) and E15 (a mixture of 15% ethanol and 85% motor gasoline). f Other types of fuel used in vehicles and equipment. Primarily includes alternative fuels such as compressed natural gas (CNG); liquefied natural gas (LNG); E85 (a mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% motor gasoline); B20 (a mixture of 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel fuel); B100 (100% biodiesel); hydrogen; and methanol.

5.6 4.7 4.1 3.0 3.7 3.8 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.6 2.7 3.5 3.8 3.0 3.0 3.5 3.2 3.0 3.1 2.6 3.5 2.4 2.5 3.1 2.8 3.2 2.9 3.4 2.7 2.7 2.3 3.2 2.5 2.0 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.7

Motor Gasolinee 63.2 60.4 61.4 60.1 59.1 56.5 53.2 53.1 51.6 51.2 50.4 45.3 43.1 41.2 41.1 37.2 34.1 35.6 34.5 29.5 31.9 27.6 39.0 43.0 41.1 43.9 42.5 41.3 46.3 44.1 48.8 48.3 46.5 49.0 48.3 51.3 52.7 50.1 46.6 44.9 46.8 46.5

Total 1,174.2 1,016.4 1,042.1 1,002.9 1,013.1 1,011.6 1,066.0 1,082.5 1,060.8 1,093.6 1,054.3 1,032.1 1,069.5 951.9 1,052.4 1,019.1 1,044.7 868.4 838.1 782.6 735.9 714.4 697.6 666.8 650.4 621.0 638.0 682.8 758.4 816.9 786.1 703.6 723.7 775.4 723.9 747.7 755.8 694.4 613.2 594.8 602.2 582.2

Other Mobility Fuelsf 0.0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .3 .4 .4 2.2 2.6 6.0 8.4 5.8 7.7 8.4 18.7 14.5 5.9 .4 1.8 4.8 3.2 3.3 3.1 5.6 2.1 2.9 3.6 10.1 3.0 2.7 3.1 2.8 3.6 3.7 3.6

Electricity 141.5 139.3 141.1 141.0 141.2 141.9 144.5 147.5 151.5 155.9 167.2 155.8 169.9 171.2 188.6 193.6 192.7 192.5 193.1 190.9 184.8 184.0 183.6 181.4 180.0 193.6 188.4 188.3 193.8 197.1 197.6 196.7 194.9 196.1 191.3 193.7 193.2 187.2 184.7 182.1 184.4 184.5

Purchased Steam and Otherg 5.1 4.6 5.7 6.4 7.1 6.8 6.2 6.2 9.0 10.1 13.9 13.7 13.9 32.0 20.6 19.1 18.3 22.5 18.6 18.2 18.2 20.1 19.2 18.8 21.5 20.2 18.6 18.5 23.2 22.0 24.3 18.2 16.7 17.7 17.7 18.2 19.1 22.5 21.8 21.9 20.3 21.4

Total 1,565.0 1,383.4 1,398.5 1,360.9 1,375.4 1,371.2 1,424.2 1,451.4 1,431.8 1,482.5 1,450.3 1,406.7 1,466.3 1,360.3 1,464.7 1,438.0 1,461.7 1,294.8 1,246.8 1,178.2 1,128.5 1,107.7 1,091.2 1,037.1 1,010.9 993.1 1,002.3 1,043.4 1,132.3 1,191.7 1,166.4 1,076.4 1,090.2 1,143.2 1,094.8 1,112.7 1,114.1 1,039.3 959.3 941.5 946.5 917.2

g Other types of energy used in facilities. Primarily includes chilled water, but also includes small amounts of renewable energy such as wood and solar thermal. Notes: • Data in this table are developed using conversion factors that often differ from those in Tables A1–A6. • Data include energy consumed at foreign installations and in foreign operations, including aviation and ocean bunkering, primarily by the U.S. Department of Defense. U.S. Government energy use for electricity generation and uranium enrichment is excluded. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumption (Excel and CSV files) for all annual data beginning in 1975. Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management Program. See http://ctsedwweb.ee.doe.gov/Annual/Report/Report.aspx, "A-5 Historical Federal Energy Consumption and Cost Data by Agency and Energy Type (FY 1975 to Present)" dataset.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

43

Energy Consumption by Sector

residential and commercial sectors coal consumption heat content factors in Table A5.

Note 1. Electrical System Energy Losses. Electrical system energy losses are calculated as the difference between total primary consumption by the electric power sector (see Table 2.6) and the total energy content of electricity retail sales (see Tables 7.6 and A6). Most of these losses occur at steamelectric power plants (conventional and nuclear) in the conversion of heat energy into mechanical energy to turn electric generators. The loss is a thermodynamically necessary feature of the steam-electric cycle. Part of the energy input-to-output losses is a result of imputing fossil energy equivalent inputs for hydroelectric, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic, and wind energy sources. In addition to conversion losses, other losses include power plant use of electricity, transmission and distribution of electricity from power plants to end-use consumers (also called "line losses"), and unaccounted-for electricity. Total losses are allocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to each sector's share of total electricity sales. Overall, about two thirds of total energy input is lost in conversion. Currently, of electricity generated, approximately 5% is lost in plant use and 7% is lost in transmission and distribution.

Natural Gas 1949–1979: Residential sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption data from Table 4.3 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas end-use sectors consumption heat content factors in Table A4. 1980 forward: Residential sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption data from Table 4.3 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas enduse sectors consumption heat content factors in Table A4. The residential sector portion of supplemental gaseous fuels data in Btu is estimated using the method described in Note 3, “Supplemental Gaseous Fuels,” at the end of Section 4. Residential sector natural gas (excluding supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption is equal to residential sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption minus the residential sector portion of supplemental gaseous fuels.

Note 2. Energy Consumption Data and Surveys. Most of the data in this section of the Monthly Energy Review (MER) are developed from a group of energy-related surveys, typically called "supply surveys," conducted by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Supply surveys are directed to suppliers and marketers of specific energy sources. They measure the quantities of specific energy sources produced, or the quantities supplied to the market, or both. The data obtained from EIA's supply surveys are integrated to yield the summary consumption statistics published in this section (and in Section 1) of the MER. Users of EIA's energy consumption statistics should be aware of a second group of energy-related surveys, typically called "consumption surveys." Consumption surveys gather information on the types of energy consumed by end users of energy, along with the characteristics of those end users that can be associated with energy use. For example, the “Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey” belongs to the consumption survey group because it collects information directly from end users (the manufacturing establishments). There are important differences between the supply and consumption surveys that need to be taken into account in any analysis that uses both data sources. For information on those differences, see “Energy Consumption by End-Use Sector, A Comparison of Measures by Consumption and Supply Surveys,” DOE/EIA-0533, U.S. Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC, April 6, 1990.

Petroleum 1949 forward: Table 3.8a. Fossil Fuels Total 1949–2007: Residential sector total fossil fuels consumption is the sum of the residential sector consumption values for coal, natural gas, and petroleum. 2008 forward: Residential sector total fossil fuels consumption is the sum of the residential sector consumption values for natural gas and petroleum. Renewable Energy 1949 forward: Table 10.2a. Total Primary Energy Consumption 1949 forward: Residential sector total primary energy consumption is the sum of the residential sector consumption values for fossil fuels and renewable energy. Electricity Retail Sales 1949 forward: Residential sector electricity retail sales from Table 7.6 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the electricity heat content factor in Table A6.

Table 2.2 Sources

Electrical System Energy Losses 1949 forward: Total electrical system energy losses are equal to electric power sector total primary energy consumption from Table 2.6 minus total electricity retail sales from Table 7.6 (converted to Btu by multiplying by the electricity heat content factor in Table A6). Total electrical system energy losses are allocated to the residential sector in proportion to the residential sector’s share of total electricity retail sales from Table 7.6. See Note 1, "Electrical System Energy Losses."

Coal 1949–2007: Residential sector coal consumption data from Table 6.2 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the

Total Energy Consumption 1949 forward: Residential sector total energy consumption is the sum of the residential sector consumption values for

44

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

total primary energy, electricity retail sales, and electrical system energy losses.

Table 2.3 Sources Coal 1949 forward: Commercial sector coal consumption data from Table 6.2 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the residential and commercial sectors coal consumption heat content factors in Table A5. Natural Gas 1949–1979: Commercial sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption data from Table 4.3 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas end-use sectors consumption heat content factors in Table A4. 1980 forward: Commercial sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption data from Table 4.3 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas end-use sectors consumption heat content factors in Table A4. The commercial sector portion of supplemental gaseous fuels data in Btu is estimated using the method described in Note 3, “Supplemental Gaseous Fuels,” at the end of Section 4. Commercial sector natural gas (excluding supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption is equal to commercial sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption minus the commercial sector portion of supplemental gaseous fuels. Petroleum 1949–1992: Table 3.8a. 1993–2008: The commercial sector share of motor gasoline consumption is equal to commercial sector motor gasoline consumption from Table 3.7a divided by motor gasoline product supplied from Table 3.5. Commercial sector fuel ethanol (including denaturant) consumption is equal to total fuel ethanol (including denaturant) consumption from Table 10.3 multiplied by the commercial sector share of motor gasoline consumption. Commercial sector petroleum (excluding biofuels) consumption is equal to commercial sector petroleum (including biofuels) consumption from Table 3.8a minus commercial sector fuel ethanol (including denaturant) consumption. 2009 forward: Commercial sector fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption is equal to total fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption from Table 10.3 multiplied by the commercial sector share of motor gasoline consumption (see 1993–2008 sources above). Commercial sector petroleum (excluding biofuels) consumption is equal to commercial sector petroleum (including biofuels) consumption from Table 3.8a minus commercial sector fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption.

Total Primary Energy Consumption 1949 forward: Commercial sector total primary energy consumption is the sum of the commercial sector consumption values for fossil fuels and renewable energy. Electricity Retail Sales 1949 forward: Commercial sector electricity retail sales from Table 7.6 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the electricity heat content factor in Table A6. Electrical System Energy Losses 1949 forward: Total electrical system energy losses are equal to electric power sector total primary energy consumption from Table 2.6 minus total electricity retail sales from Table 7.6 (converted to Btu by multiplying by the electricity heat content factor in Table A6). Total electrical system energy losses are allocated to the commercial sector in proportion to the commercial sector’s share of total electricity retail sales from Table 7.6. See Note 1, "Electrical System Energy Losses." Total Energy Consumption 1949 forward: Commercial sector total energy consumption is the sum of the commercial sector consumption values for total primary energy, electricity retail sales, and electrical system energy losses.

Table 2.4 Sources Coal 1949 forward: Coke plants coal consumption from Table 6.2 is converted to Btu by multiplying by the coke plants coal consumption heat content factors in Table A5. Other industrial coal consumption from Table 6.2 is converted to Btu by multiplying by the other industrial coal consumption heat content factors in Table A5. Industrial sector coal consumption is equal to coke plants coal consumption and other industrial coal consumption.

Fossil Fuels Total 1949 forward: Commercial sector total fossil fuels consumption is the sum of the commercial sector consumption values for coal, natural gas, and petroleum.

Natural Gas 1949–1979: Industrial sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption data from Table 4.3 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas end-use sectors consumption heat content factors in Table A4. 1980 forward: Industrial sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption data from Table 4.3 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas end-use sectors consumption heat content factors in Table A4. The industrial sector portion of supplemental gaseous fuels data in Btu is estimated using the method described in Note 3, “Supplemental Gaseous Fuels,” at the end of Section 4. Industrial sector natural gas (excluding supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption is equal to industrial sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption minus the industrial sector portion of supplemental gaseous fuels.

Renewable Energy 1949 forward: Table 10.2a.

Petroleum 1949–1992: Table 3.8b.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

45

1993–2008: The industrial sector share of motor gasoline consumption is equal to industrial sector motor gasoline consumption from Table 3.7b divided by motor gasoline product supplied from Table 3.5. Industrial sector fuel ethanol (including denaturant) consumption is equal to total fuel ethanol (including denaturant) consumption from Table 10.3 multiplied by the industrial sector share of motor gasoline consumption. Industrial sector petroleum (excluding biofuels) consumption is equal to industrial sector petroleum (including biofuels) consumption from Table 3.8b minus industrial sector fuel ethanol (including denaturant) consumption. 2009 forward: Industrial sector fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption is equal to total fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption from Table 10.3 multiplied by the industrial sector share of motor gasoline consumption (see 1993–2008 sources above). Industrial sector petroleum (excluding biofuels) consumption is equal to industrial sector petroleum (including biofuels) consumption from Table 3.8b minus industrial sector fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption. Coal Coke Net Imports 1949 forward: Coal coke net imports are equal to coal coke imports from Table 1.4a minus coal coke exports from Table 1.4b. Fossil Fuels Total 1949 forward: Industrial sector total fossil fuels consumption is the sum of the industrial sector consumption values for coal, natural gas, and petroleum, plus coal coke net imports. Renewable Energy 1949 forward: Table 10.2b. Total Primary Energy Consumption 1949 forward: Industrial sector total primary energy consumption is the sum of the industrial sector consumption values for fossil fuels and renewable energy. Electricity Retail Sales 1949 forward: Industrial sector electricity retail sales from Table 7.6 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the electricity heat content factor in Table A6. Electrical System Energy Losses 1949 forward: Total electrical system energy losses are equal to electric power sector total primary energy consumption from Table 2.6 minus total electricity retail sales from Table 7.6 (converted to Btu by multiplying by the electricity heat content factor in Table A6). Total electrical system energy losses are allocated to the industrial sector in proportion to the industrial sector’s share of total electricity retail sales from Table 7.6. See Note 1, "Electrical System Energy Losses." Total Energy Consumption 1949 forward: Industrial sector total energy consumption is the sum of the industrial sector consumption values for total primary energy, electricity retail sales, and electrical system energy losses. 46

Table 2.5 Sources Coal 1949–1977: Transportation sector coal consumption data from Table 6.2 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the other industrial sector coal consumption heat content factors in Table A5. Natural Gas 1949 forward: Transportation sector natural gas consumption data from Table 4.3 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas end-use sectors consumption heat content factors in Table A4. Petroleum 1949–1992: Table 3.8c. 1993–2008: The transportation sector share of motor gasoline consumption is equal to transportation sector motor gasoline consumption from Table 3.7c divided by motor gasoline product supplied from Table 3.5. Transportation sector fuel ethanol (including denaturant) consumption is equal to total fuel ethanol (including denaturant) consumption from Table 10.3 multiplied by the transportation sector share of motor gasoline consumption. Transportation sector petroleum (excluding biofuels) consumption is equal to transportation sector petroleum (including biofuels) consumption from Table 3.8c minus transportation sector fuel ethanol (including denaturant) consumption. 2009 forward: Transportation sector fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption is equal to total fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption from Table 10.3 multiplied by the transportation sector share of motor gasoline consumption (see 1993–2008 sources above). Transportation sector petroleum (excluding biofuels) consumption is equal to: transportation sector petroleum (including biofuels) consumption from Table 3.8c; minus transportation sector fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption; minus refinery and blender net inputs of renewable fuels (excluding fuel ethanol) from U.S. Energy Information Administration, Petroleum Supply Annual/Petroleum Supply Monthly, Table 1 (for biomass-based diesel fuel, the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the biodiesel heat content factor in Table A1; for other renewable diesel fuel, the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the other renewable diesel fuel heat content factor in Table A1). Fossil Fuels Total 1949–1977: Transportation sector total fossil fuels consumption is the sum of the transportation sector consumption values for coal, natural gas, and petroleum. 1978 forward: Transportation sector total fossil fuels consumption is the sum of the transportation sector consumption values for natural gas and petroleum. Renewable Energy 1981 forward: Table 10.2b. Total Primary Energy Consumption 1949–1980: Transportation sector total primary energy consumption is equal to transportation sector fossil fuels consumption.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

1981 forward: Transportation sector total primary energy consumption is the sum of the transportation sector consumption values for fossil fuels and renewable energy. Electricity Retail Sales 1949 forward: Transportation sector electricity retail sales from Table 7.6 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the electricity heat content factor in Table A6. Electrical System Energy Losses 1949 forward: Total electrical system energy losses are equal to electric power sector total primary energy consumption from Table 2.6 minus total electricity retail sales from Table 7.6 (converted to Btu by multiplying by the electricity heat content factor in Table A6). Total electrical system energy losses are allocated to the transportation sector in proportion to the transportation sector’s share of total electricity retail sales from Table 7.6. See Note 1, "Electrical System Energy Losses." Total Energy Consumption 1949 forward: Transportation sector total energy consumption is the sum of the transportation sector consumption values for total primary energy, electricity retail sales, and electrical system energy losses.

1980 forward: Electric power sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption data from Table 4.3 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas electric power sector consumption heat content factors in Table A4. The electric power sector portion of supplemental gaseous fuels data in Btu is estimated using the method described in Note 3, “Supplemental Gaseous Fuels,” at the end of Section 4. Electric power sector natural gas (excluding supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption is equal to electric power sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption minus the electric power sector portion of supplemental gaseous fuels. Petroleum 1949 forward: Table 3.8c. Fossil Fuels Total 1949 forward: Electric power sector total fossil fuels consumption is the sum of the electric power sector consumption values for coal, natural gas, and petroleum. Nuclear Electric Power 1949 forward: Nuclear electricity net generation data from Table 7.2a are converted to Btu by multiplying by the nuclear heat rate factors in Table A6.

Table 2.6 Sources

Renewable Energy 1949 forward: Table 10.2c.

Coal 1949 forward: Electric power sector coal consumption data from Table 6.2 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the electric power sector coal consumption heat content factors in Table A5.

Electricity Net Imports 1949 forward: Electricity net imports are equal to electricity imports from Table 1.4a minus electricity exports from Table 1.4b.

Natural Gas 1949–1979: Electric power sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption data from Table 4.3 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas electric power sector consumption heat content factors in Table A4.

Total Primary Energy Consumption 1949 forward: Electric power sector total primary energy consumption is the sum of the electric power sector consumption values for fossil fuels, nuclear electric power, and renewable energy, plus electricity net imports.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

47

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

3. Petroleum

Figure 3.1

Petroleum Overview (Million Barrels per Day)

Overview, 1949–2016 25 Products Supplied 20

15 Net Imports 10 Total Field Productiona

5

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

2010

2015

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Liquids Field Production, 1949–2016 12 10

Crude Oilb

8 6 4 Natural Gas Liquids

2 0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Total Field Production,a Monthly

Overview, January–November 25

16 2015

2016

2017 19.5 19.7 19.8

20

12 15 12.8 12.4 12.9

8

10 4.7 4.8

5

4 3.9

2015

2017

0

0 Total Field Productiona

Net Imports

Products Supplied

a Crude oil, including lease condensate, and natural gas liquids field production. b Includes lease condensate.

50

2016

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum. Source: Table 3.1.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 3.1 Petroleum Overview (Thousand Barrels per Day) Field Productiona

Trade

Crude Oilb,c Natural Gas Liquids

Renewable Fuels and Oxygenatese

Processing Gainf

Alaska

.................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. ..................

5,407 6,807 7,034 7,774 9,408 8,183 6,980 7,146 5,582 5,076 4,851 4,839 4,759 4,675 4,533 4,320 4,345 4,352 4,315 4,703 4,875 5,082 5,971 6,951 8,257

0 0 2 30 229 191 1,617 1,825 1,773 1,484 970 963 985 974 908 864 741 722 683 645 600 561 526 515 496

5,407 6,807 7,035 7,804 9,637 8,375 8,597 8,971 7,355 6,560 5,822 5,801 5,744 5,649 5,441 5,184 5,086 5,074 4,998 5,349 5,475 5,643 6,497 7,466 8,753

499 771 929 1,210 1,660 1,633 1,573 1,609 1,559 1,762 1,911 1,868 1,880 1,719 1,809 1,717 1,739 1,783 1,784 1,910 2,074 2,216 2,408 2,606 3,015

5,906 7,578 7,965 9,014 11,297 10,007 10,170 10,581 8,914 8,322 7,733 7,670 7,624 7,369 7,250 6,901 6,825 6,857 6,781 7,259 7,549 7,859 8,905 10,072 11,768

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 746 907 1,016 964 1,002 1,055

2 34 146 220 359 460 597 557 683 774 948 903 957 974 1,051 989 994 996 993 979 1,068 1,076 1,059 1,087 1,081

850 1,248 1,815 2,468 3,419 6,056 6,909 5,067 8,018 8,835 11,459 11,871 11,530 12,264 13,145 13,714 13,707 13,468 12,915 11,691 11,793 11,436 10,598 9,859 9,241

305 368 202 187 259 209 544 781 857 949 1,040 971 984 1,027 1,048 1,165 1,317 1,433 1,802 2,024 2,353 2,986 3,205 3,621 4,176

545 880 1,613 2,281 3,161 5,846 6,365 4,286 7,161 7,886 10,419 10,900 10,546 11,238 12,097 12,549 12,390 12,036 11,114 9,667 9,441 8,450 7,393 6,237 5,065

-56 (s) -83 -8 103 32 140 -103 107 -246 -69 325 -105 56 209 k 146 59 -152 195 107 39 -129 147 -139 267

-51 -37 -8 -10 -16 41 64 200 338 496 532 501 529 509 542 509 537 640 805 229 256 356 313 430 399

6,458 8,455 9,797 11,512 14,697 16,322 17,056 15,726 16,988 17,725 19,701 19,649 19,761 20,034 20,731 20,802 20,687 20,680 19,498 18,771 19,180 18,887 18,487 18,967 19,100

2015 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October .................... November ................ December ................ Average ..................

8,858 9,049 9,055 9,116 8,955 8,883 8,952 8,971 8,945 8,842 8,784 8,707 8,925

500 488 506 510 473 447 450 408 472 497 523 522 483

9,358 9,537 9,561 9,626 9,428 9,329 9,402 9,379 9,417 9,339 9,307 9,229 9,408

3,055 3,162 3,237 3,375 3,337 3,319 3,355 3,419 3,437 3,489 3,498 3,417 3,342

12,413 12,699 12,798 13,002 12,764 12,648 12,757 12,798 12,854 12,828 12,805 12,647 12,751

1,055 1,048 1,052 1,065 1,107 1,148 1,124 1,103 1,090 1,104 1,117 1,124 1,095

1,075 1,021 1,013 1,068 1,083 1,028 1,092 1,099 1,046 1,040 1,065 1,108 1,062

9,461 9,272 9,619 9,374 9,502 9,605 9,571 9,858 9,358 8,842 9,151 9,742 9,449

4,575 4,640 4,092 4,938 4,853 4,657 4,960 4,507 4,851 4,617 4,903 5,266 4,738

4,886 4,632 5,527 4,436 4,649 4,948 4,611 5,351 4,507 4,225 4,248 4,476 4,711

709 15 1,072 868 689 338 -72 710 311 243 466 -232 429

541 279 21 548 401 420 478 299 246 537 358 2 344

19,261 19,664 19,340 19,251 19,316 19,853 20,134 19,939 19,433 19,491 19,127 19,589 19,534

2016 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October .................... November ................ December ................ Average ..................

8,671 8,600 8,623 8,418 8,354 8,233 8,243 8,257 8,101 8,296 8,363 8,252 8,367

516 507 511 489 505 470 438 459 452 495 513 519 490

9,186 9,107 9,134 8,906 8,859 8,703 8,682 8,716 8,553 8,791 8,876 8,771 8,857

3,345 3,369 3,556 3,570 3,672 3,662 3,604 3,410 3,427 3,544 3,596 3,352 3,509

12,531 12,476 12,690 12,477 12,531 12,365 12,285 12,127 11,981 12,335 12,472 12,123 12,366

1,109 1,128 1,146 1,094 1,146 1,180 1,180 1,190 1,167 1,153 1,195 1,212 1,158

1,117 1,070 1,049 1,095 1,160 1,114 1,190 1,149 1,122 1,089 1,113 1,143 1,118

9,707 10,066 10,001 9,822 10,181 10,054 10,532 10,322 10,199 9,699 10,293 9,792 10,055

4,977 4,934 5,092 5,195 5,739 5,437 5,226 5,097 5,439 4,985 5,426 5,574 5,261

4,730 5,132 4,910 4,627 4,441 4,617 5,306 5,226 4,760 4,715 4,867 4,219 4,795

1,020 148 206 361 495 -36 550 -5 -504 58 107 -860 130

597 188 140 409 545 534 364 579 222 416 120 428 380

19,063 19,847 19,728 19,340 19,328 19,846 19,776 20,275 19,757 19,650 19,659 19,984 19,687

2017 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October .................... November ................ 11-Month Average

RE 8,309 RE 8,532 RE 8,581 RE 8,568 RE 8,627 RE 8,605 RE 8,786 RE 8,740 RE 8,999 E 8,776 E 9,157 E 8,698

E 516 E 513 E 526 E 525 E 508 E 463 E 423 E 451 RE 482 E 507 E 512 E 493

RE 8,825 RE 9,045 RE 9,107 RE 9,093 RE 9,134 RE 9,068 RE 9,209 RE 9,191 RE 9,481 E 9,283 E 9,669 E 9,191

3,365 3,604 3,644 3,633 3,721 3,752 3,755 3,704 R 3,693 E 3,755 E 3,707 E 3,667

RE 12,190 RE 12,650 RE 12,751 RE 12,726 RE 12,855 RE 12,819 RE 12,964 RE 12,895 RE 13,174 E 13,038 E 13,376 E 12,858

1,177 1,164 1,172 1,138 1,174 1,186 1,188 1,214 R 1,176 E 1,083 E 1,146 E 1,165

1,125 1,045 1,108 1,128 1,125 1,151 1,091 1,112 R 1,016 E 1,081 E 1,138 E 1,102

10,685 10,039 10,059 10,244 10,628 10,240 9,850 10,055 R 9,707 E 9,707 E 9,514 E 10,068

5,691 6,443 5,886 6,066 6,142 6,148 6,232 5,647 R 6,263 E 6,913 E 6,663 E 6,187

4,994 3,597 4,174 4,178 4,486 4,092 3,618 4,407 R 3,444 E 2,794 E 2,851 E 3,881

698 -94 -556 1 152 -824 -364 -377 R -261 E -1,211 E -581 E -311

R 457 R 610 R 287 R 388 R 551 R 422 R 795 R 155 R 509 E 581 E 681 E 493

19,244 19,159 20,047 19,556 20,039 20,494 20,020 20,161 R 19,581 E 19,788 E 19,773 E 19,811

8,378 8,946

487 479

8,865 9,425

3,524 3,335

12,388 12,760

1,154 1,092

1,116 1,058

10,080 9,421

5,232 4,689

4,848 4,732

222 490

376 376

19,660 19,528

1950 Average 1955 Average 1960 Average 1965 Average 1970 Average 1975 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

2016 11-Month Average 2015 11-Month Average

Total

Totalc

a Crude oil production on leases, and natural gas liquids (hydrocarbon gas liquids and a small amount of finished petroleum products) production at natural gas processing plants. Excludes what was previously classified as "Field Production" of finished motor gasoline, motor gasoline blending components, and other hydrocarbons and oxygenates; these are now included in "Adjustments." b Includes lease condensate. c Once a month, data for crude oil production, total field production, and adjustments are revised going back as far as the data year of the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) last published Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA)—these revisions are released at the same time as EIA’s Petroleum Supply Monthly. Once a year, data for these series are revised going back as far as 10 years—these revisions are released at the same time as the PSA. d United States excluding Alaska and Hawaii. e Renewable fuels and oxygenate plant net production. f Refinery and blender net production minus refinery and blender net inputs. See Table 3.2. g Includes Strategic Petroleum Reserve imports. See Table 3.3b. h Net imports equal imports minus exports. i A negative value indicates a decrease in stocks and a positive value indicates

Importsg

Exports

Net Stock Importsh Changei

Adjustmentsc,j

Petroleum Products Supplied

48 Statesd

an increase. The current month stock change estimate is based on the change from the previous month’s estimate, rather than the stocks values shown in Table 3.4. Includes crude oil stocks in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, but excludes distillate fuel oil stocks in the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve. See Table 3.4. j An adjustment for crude oil, hydrogen, oxygenates, renewable fuels, other hydrocarbons, motor gasoline blending components, finished motor gasoline, and distillate fuel oil. See EIA’s Petroleum Supply Monthly, Appendix B, "PSM Explanatory Notes," for further information. k Derived from the 2004 petroleum stocks value that excludes crude oil stocks on leases (1,628 million barrels), not the 2004 petroleum stocks value that includes crude oil stocks on leases (1,645 million barrels). R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 500 barrels per day and greater than -500 barrels per day. Notes: • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

51

Figure 3.2

Refinery and Blender Net Inputs and Net Production (Million Barrels per Day)

Net Inputs and Net Production, 1949–2016 24

18

Total Net Production

12 Crude Oil Net Inputsa

Total Net Inputs

6 Other Net Inputsb 0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

2010

2015

Net Production, Selected Products, 1949–2016 10

8

Motor Gasolinec

6

4

Distillate Fuel Oild

2

Jet Fuele Residual Fuel Oil

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

Net Inputs and Net Production, Monthly

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Net Production, Selected Products, Monthly 12

25 Total Net Production

Motor Gasolinec

20 Total Net Inputs 15

9

Crude Oil Net Inputsa 6

Distillate Fuel Oild

10 3 5

Jet Fuele

Other Net Inputsb

Residual Fuel Oil 0

0 J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 2017 2015 2016

a

Includes lease condensate. Natural gas liquids and other liquids. Beginning in 1993, includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. d Beginning in 2009, includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodieb c

52

J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 2015 2016 2017

sel) blended into distillate fuel oil. e Beginning in 2005, includes kerosene-type jet fuel only. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum. Source: Table 3.2.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 3.2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs and Net Production (Thousand Barrels per Day) Refinery and Blender Net Inputsa Crude Oild

Natural Gas Liquidse

Refinery and Blender Net Productionb HGLc

Other Liquidsf

Total

Distillate Fuel Oilg

Propaneh

Totali

Jet Fuelj

Motor Residual Other Gasolinek Fuel Oil Productsl

Total

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

5,739 7,480 8,067 9,043 10,870 12,442 13,481 12,002 13,409 13,973 15,067 15,128 14,947 15,304 15,475 15,220 15,242 15,156 14,648 14,336 14,724 14,806 14,999 15,312 15,848

259 345 455 618 763 710 462 509 467 471 380 429 429 419 422 441 501 505 485 485 442 490 509 496 511

19 32 61 88 121 72 81 681 713 775 849 825 941 791 866 1,149 1,238 1,337 2,019 2,082 2,219 2,300 1,997 2,211 2,214

6,018 7,857 8,583 9,750 11,754 13,225 14,025 13,192 14,589 15,220 16,295 16,382 16,316 16,513 16,762 16,811 16,981 16,999 17,153 16,904 17,385 17,596 17,505 18,019 18,574

1,093 1,651 1,823 2,096 2,454 2,653 2,661 2,686 2,925 3,155 3,580 3,695 3,592 3,707 3,814 3,954 4,040 4,133 4,294 4,048 4,223 4,492 4,550 4,733 4,916

NA NA NA NA 239 238 273 295 404 503 583 556 572 570 584 540 543 562 519 537 560 552 553 564 587

80 119 212 293 345 311 330 391 499 654 705 667 671 658 645 573 627 655 630 623 659 619 630 623 653

(j) 155 241 523 827 871 999 1,189 1,488 1,416 1,606 1,530 1,514 1,488 1,547 1,546 1,481 1,448 1,493 1,396 1,418 1,449 1,471 1,499 1,541

2,735 3,648 4,126 4,507 5,699 6,518 6,492 6,419 6,959 7,459 7,951 8,022 8,183 8,194 8,265 8,318 8,364 8,358 8,548 8,786 9,059 9,058 8,926 9,234 9,570

1,165 1,152 908 736 706 1,235 1,580 882 950 788 696 721 601 660 655 628 635 673 620 598 585 537 501 467 435

947 1,166 1,420 1,814 2,082 2,097 2,559 2,183 2,452 2,522 2,705 2,651 2,712 2,780 2,887 2,782 2,827 2,728 2,561 2,431 2,509 2,518 2,487 2,550 2,537

6,019 7,891 8,729 9,970 12,113 13,685 14,622 13,750 15,272 15,994 17,243 17,285 17,273 17,487 17,814 17,800 17,975 17,994 18,146 17,882 18,452 18,673 18,564 19,106 19,654

2015 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

15,456 15,342 15,640 16,273 16,402 16,701 16,879 16,700 16,168 15,440 16,458 16,742 16,188

589 545 494 406 394 418 432 449 546 600 683 649 517

1,721 2,112 2,281 2,292 2,317 2,131 2,280 2,377 2,294 2,573 1,669 1,377 2,119

17,766 17,998 18,415 18,971 19,112 19,250 19,591 19,526 19,008 18,613 18,810 18,768 18,824

4,835 4,752 4,894 4,991 4,983 5,032 5,101 5,107 5,061 4,817 5,169 5,042 4,983

561 529 536 589 582 569 580 574 529 520 559 578 559

392 401 610 815 885 864 853 839 583 442 343 333 615

1,513 1,525 1,498 1,591 1,608 1,640 1,670 1,600 1,547 1,554 1,634 1,698 1,590

9,260 9,504 9,524 9,720 9,771 9,846 9,989 9,998 9,878 9,935 9,799 9,806 9,754

377 420 478 467 436 413 426 404 414 419 377 376 417

2,464 2,418 2,424 2,455 2,513 2,483 2,644 2,677 2,572 2,487 2,554 2,621 2,527

18,841 19,019 19,428 20,039 20,195 20,278 20,683 20,625 20,054 19,653 19,875 19,876 19,886

2016 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

15,951 15,843 16,082 15,920 16,237 16,433 16,621 16,593 16,340 15,454 16,235 16,516 16,187

672 569 487 452 420 432 425 427 547 633 699 674 536

994 1,864 2,284 2,451 2,493 2,825 2,680 2,813 2,312 2,411 1,967 1,755 2,238

17,618 18,276 18,854 18,823 19,150 19,690 19,726 19,833 19,199 18,498 18,901 18,945 18,961

4,530 4,668 4,848 4,659 4,760 4,954 4,933 4,939 4,888 4,614 5,066 5,148 4,834

589 574 595 597 613 598 590 576 575 556 589 595 587

354 426 666 829 897 888 873 838 645 476 349 330 632

1,581 1,578 1,575 1,592 1,606 1,662 1,737 1,796 1,738 1,591 1,680 1,661 1,650

9,378 9,834 9,932 9,876 10,058 10,280 10,224 10,293 10,020 10,059 9,969 10,013 9,995

395 403 400 435 427 389 401 420 436 455 450 401 418

2,495 2,437 2,483 2,527 2,561 2,632 2,749 2,696 2,594 2,392 2,499 2,535 2,550

18,735 19,346 19,903 19,919 20,310 20,804 20,916 20,981 20,321 19,587 20,013 20,088 20,079

2017 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. 11-Month Average ...

16,129 15,546 16,028 16,970 17,212 17,205 17,318 16,979 R 15,460 E 15,973 E 16,878 E 16,526

650 586 518 477 484 473 446 480 R 605 F 597 F 680 E 545

1,131 2,034 2,266 1,963 2,216 2,492 2,257 2,348 R 2,216 RE 2,337 E 1,836 E 2,100

17,910 18,167 18,813 19,411 19,911 20,170 20,021 19,807 R 18,281 RF 18,907 F 19,394 E 19,170

4,797 4,672 4,781 5,036 5,230 5,275 5,171 5,064 R 4,570 E 4,939 E 5,305 E 4,987

564 543 586 601 622 615 607 589 R 513 RE 574 E 607 E 584

353 412 679 857 908 915 877 834 R 479 F 482 F 387 E 655

1,615 1,604 1,677 1,734 1,713 1,764 1,816 1,764 R 1,664 E 1,575 E 1,673 E 1,691

9,316 9,552 9,834 9,897 10,126 10,269 10,159 10,175 R 9,785 E 10,093 E 10,207 E 9,949

473 484 427 405 423 415 396 435 R 460 E 433 E 400 E 432

2,479 2,487 2,524 2,610 2,637 2,684 2,691 2,648 R 2,340 RE 2,466 E 2,561 E 2,558

19,035 19,212 19,921 20,538 21,036 21,321 21,111 20,920 R 19,297 RE 19,988 E 20,532 E 20,272

2016 11-Month Average ... 2015 11-Month Average ...

16,156 16,136

524 505

2,283 2,188

18,963 18,829

4,805 4,977

587 557

659 641

1,649 1,580

9,993 9,749

419 421

2,552 2,518

20,078 19,887

1950 Average 1955 Average 1960 Average 1965 Average 1970 Average 1975 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

a b c d e

See "Refinery and Blender Net Inputs" in Glossary. See "Refinery and Blender Net Production" in Glossary. Hydrocarbon gas liquids. Includes lease condensate. Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, and natural gasoline (pentanes plus). f Unfinished oils (net), other hydrocarbons, and hydrogen. Beginning in 1981, also includes aviation and motor gasoline blending components (net). Beginning in 1993, also includes oxygenates (net), including fuel ethanol. Beginning in 2009, also includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel). g Beginning in 2009, includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel) blended into distillate fuel oil. h Propane and propylene. Through 1983, also includes 40% of "ButanePropane Mixtures." i Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, and refinery olefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene). j Beginning in 1965, includes kerosene-type jet fuel. (Through 1964, kerosene-type jet fuel is included with kerosene in "Other Products.") For 1952–2004, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. (Through 1951, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in the products from which it was blended—gasoline, kerosene, and distillate fuel oil. Beginning in 2005, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in "Other Products.")

k Finished motor gasoline. Through 1963, also includes aviation gasoline and special naphthas. Beginning in 1993, also includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. l Asphalt and road oil, kerosene, lubricants, petrochemical feedstocks, petroleum coke, still gas (refinery gas), waxes, and miscellaneous products. Through 1964, also includes kerosene-type jet fuel. Beginning in 1964, also includes finished aviation gasoline and special naphthas. Beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. R=Revised. E=Estimate. F=Forecast. NA=Not available. Notes: • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • 1949–1975: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual reports. • 1976–1980: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual reports. • 1981–2016: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual, annual reports, and unpublished revisions. • 2017: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, monthly reports; and, for the current two months, Weekly Petroleum Status Report data system, Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System, and Monthly Energy Review data system calculations.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

53

Figure 3.3a Petroleum Trade: Overview Overview, September 2017

Million Barrels per Day

25

19.6

20

15 9.7

10

6.3 5

3.4

2.9 1.4 0 Imports From Persian Gulf

Imports From OPEC

Total Imports

Exports

Net Imports

Products Supplied

Imports From OPEC and Persian Gulf as Share of Total Imports, 1960–2016 80

Percent

60

OPEC

40 Persian Gulf

20

0 1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Net Imports as Share of Products Supplied, 1949–2016 75

Percent

50

25

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

Note: OPEC=Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum . Source: Table 3.3a.

54

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

2005

2010

2015

Table 3.3a Petroleum Trade: Overview As Share of Products Supplied Imports From Persian Gulfa

Imports From OPECb

Imports

Exports

Net Imports

Products Supplied

Imports From Persian Gulfa

Imports From OPECb

Imports

Thousand Barrels per Day 1950 Average 1955 Average 1960 Average 1965 Average 1970 Average 1975 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

As Share of Total Imports

Net Imports

Imports From Persian Gulfa

Imports From OPECb

Percent

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

NA NA 326 359 184 1,165 1,519 311 1,966 1,573 2,488 2,761 2,269 2,501 2,493 2,334 2,211 2,163 2,370 1,689 1,711 1,861 2,156 2,009 1,875

NA NA 1,233 1,439 1,294 3,601 4,300 1,830 4,296 4,002 5,203 5,528 4,605 5,162 5,701 5,587 5,517 5,980 5,954 4,776 4,906 4,555 4,271 3,720 3,237

850 1,248 1,815 2,468 3,419 6,056 6,909 5,067 8,018 8,835 11,459 11,871 11,530 12,264 13,145 13,714 13,707 13,468 12,915 11,691 11,793 11,436 10,598 9,859 9,241

305 368 202 187 259 209 544 781 857 949 1,040 971 984 1,027 1,048 1,165 1,317 1,433 1,802 2,024 2,353 2,986 3,205 3,621 4,176

545 880 1,613 2,281 3,161 5,846 6,365 4,286 7,161 7,886 10,419 10,900 10,546 11,238 12,097 12,549 12,390 12,036 11,114 9,667 9,441 8,450 7,393 6,237 5,065

6,458 8,455 9,797 11,512 14,697 16,322 17,056 15,726 16,988 17,725 19,701 19,649 19,761 20,034 20,731 20,802 20,687 20,680 19,498 18,771 19,180 18,887 18,487 18,967 19,100

NA NA 3.3 3.1 1.3 7.1 8.9 2.0 11.6 8.9 12.6 14.1 11.5 12.5 12.0 11.2 10.7 10.5 12.2 9.0 8.9 9.9 11.7 10.6 9.8

NA NA 12.6 12.5 8.8 22.1 25.2 11.6 25.3 22.6 26.4 28.1 23.3 25.8 27.5 26.9 26.7 28.9 30.5 25.4 25.6 24.1 23.1 19.6 16.9

13.2 14.8 18.5 21.4 23.3 37.1 40.5 32.2 47.2 49.8 58.2 60.4 58.3 61.2 63.4 65.9 66.3 65.1 66.2 62.3 61.5 60.6 57.3 52.0 48.4

8.4 10.4 16.5 19.8 21.5 35.8 37.3 27.3 42.2 44.5 52.9 55.5 53.4 56.1 58.4 60.3 59.9 58.2 57.0 51.5 49.2 44.7 40.0 32.9 26.5

NA NA 17.9 14.5 5.4 19.2 22.0 6.1 24.5 17.8 21.7 23.3 19.7 20.4 19.0 17.0 16.1 16.1 18.4 14.4 14.5 16.3 20.3 20.4 20.3

NA NA 68.0 58.3 37.8 59.5 62.2 36.1 53.6 45.3 45.4 46.6 39.9 42.1 43.4 40.7 40.2 44.4 46.1 40.9 41.6 39.8 40.3 37.7 35.0

2015 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

1,334 1,433 1,466 1,532 1,724 1,617 1,479 1,247 1,290 1,519 1,662 1,773 1,507

2,538 2,794 2,801 2,734 3,133 2,869 2,911 2,750 2,854 2,899 3,169 3,274 2,894

9,461 9,272 9,619 9,374 9,502 9,605 9,571 9,858 9,358 8,842 9,151 9,742 9,449

4,575 4,640 4,092 4,938 4,853 4,657 4,960 4,507 4,851 4,617 4,903 5,266 4,738

4,886 4,632 5,527 4,436 4,649 4,948 4,611 5,351 4,507 4,225 4,248 4,476 4,711

19,261 19,664 19,340 19,251 19,316 19,853 20,134 19,939 19,433 19,491 19,127 19,589 19,534

6.9 7.3 7.6 8.0 8.9 8.1 7.3 6.3 6.6 7.8 8.7 9.1 7.7

13.2 14.2 14.5 14.2 16.2 14.4 14.5 13.8 14.7 14.9 16.6 16.7 14.8

49.1 47.2 49.7 48.7 49.2 48.4 47.5 49.4 48.2 45.4 47.8 49.7 48.4

25.4 23.6 28.6 23.0 24.1 24.9 22.9 26.8 23.2 21.7 22.2 22.9 24.1

14.1 15.5 15.2 16.3 18.1 16.8 15.5 12.7 13.8 17.2 18.2 18.2 15.9

26.8 30.1 29.1 29.2 33.0 29.9 30.4 27.9 30.5 32.8 34.6 33.6 30.6

2016 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

1,520 1,592 1,820 1,709 1,949 1,716 1,797 1,820 1,982 1,698 1,702 1,882 1,766

3,054 3,230 3,576 3,354 3,665 3,303 3,769 3,427 3,575 3,330 3,560 3,491 3,446

9,707 10,066 10,001 9,822 10,181 10,054 10,532 10,322 10,199 9,699 10,293 9,792 10,055

4,977 4,934 5,092 5,195 5,739 5,437 5,226 5,097 5,439 4,985 5,426 5,574 5,261

4,730 5,132 4,910 4,627 4,441 4,617 5,306 5,226 4,760 4,715 4,867 4,219 4,795

19,063 19,847 19,728 19,340 19,328 19,846 19,776 20,275 19,757 19,650 19,659 19,984 19,687

8.0 8.0 9.2 8.8 10.1 8.6 9.1 9.0 10.0 8.6 8.7 9.4 9.0

16.0 16.3 18.1 17.3 19.0 16.6 19.1 16.9 18.1 16.9 18.1 17.5 17.5

50.9 50.7 50.7 50.8 52.7 50.7 53.3 50.9 51.6 49.4 52.4 49.0 51.1

24.8 25.9 24.9 23.9 23.0 23.3 26.8 25.8 24.1 24.0 24.8 21.1 24.4

15.7 15.8 18.2 17.4 19.1 17.1 17.1 17.6 19.4 17.5 16.5 19.2 17.6

31.5 32.1 35.8 34.1 36.0 32.9 35.8 33.2 35.1 34.3 34.6 35.6 34.3

2017 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. 11-Month Average ...

2,085 2,013 1,955 2,094 1,943 1,806 1,796 1,363 R 1,370 NA NA NA

3,793 3,445 3,592 3,737 3,644 3,537 3,399 3,181 R 2,880 NA NA NA

10,685 10,039 10,059 10,244 10,628 10,240 9,850 10,055 R 9,707 E 9,707 E 9,514 E 10,068

5,691 6,443 5,886 6,066 6,142 6,148 6,232 5,647 R 6,263 E 6,913 E 6,663 E 6,187

4,994 3,597 4,174 4,178 4,486 4,092 3,618 4,407 R 3,444 E 2,794 E 2,851 E 3,881

19,244 19,159 20,047 19,556 20,039 20,494 20,020 20,161 R 19,581 E 19,788 E 19,773 E 19,811

10.8 10.5 9.8 10.7 9.7 8.8 9.0 6.8 R 7.0 NA NA NA

19.7 18.0 17.9 19.1 18.2 17.3 17.0 15.8 R 14.7 NA NA NA

55.5 52.4 50.2 52.4 53.0 50.0 49.2 49.9 R 49.6 E 49.1 E 48.1 E 50.8

26.0 18.8 20.8 21.4 22.4 20.0 18.1 21.9 R 17.6 E 14.1 E 14.4 E 19.6

19.5 20.0 19.4 20.4 18.3 17.6 18.2 13.6 R 14.1 NA NA NA

35.5 34.3 35.7 36.5 34.3 34.5 34.5 31.6 R 29.7 NA NA NA

2016 11-Month Average ... 2015 11-Month Average ...

1,756 1,482

3,441 2,859

10,080 9,421

5,232 4,689

4,848 4,732

19,660 19,528

8.9 7.6

17.5 14.6

51.3 48.2

24.7 24.2

17.4 15.7

34.1 30.3

a Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and the Neutral Zone (between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia). b See "Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)" in Glossary. See Table 3.3c for notes on which countries are included in the data. R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. Notes: • For the feature article "Measuring Dependence on Imported Oil," published in the August 1995 Monthly Energy Review, see http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/pdf/historical/imported_oil.pdf. • Beginning in October 1977, data include Strategic Petroleum Reserve imports. See Table 3.3b. • Annual averages may not equal average of months due to independent rounding. • U.S. geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. U.S. exports include shipments to U.S. territories, and imports include

receipts from U.S. territories. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • 1949–1975: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual reports. • 1976–1980: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual reports. • 1981–2016: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual, annual reports, and unpublished revisions. • 2017: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, monthly reports; and, for the current two months, Weekly Petroleum Status Report data system and Monthly Energy Review data system calculations.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

55

Figure 3.3b Petroleum Trade: Imports (Million Barrels per Day) Overview, 1949–2016 12 10 Crude Oil 8 6 Petroleum Products

4 2 0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

OPEC and Non-OPEC, 1960–2016 10 Non-OPEC

8

6 OPEC 4

2

0 1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

From Selected Countries, September 2017 5

3.932

4

3

2

1

0.676

0.620

0.502

0.292

0.223

Nigeria

Ecuador

0.450

0.430

0.374

0.250

Russia

Mexico

Colombia

Brazil

0 Saudi Arabia

Venezuela

Iraq OPEC Countries

Canada

Non-OPEC Countries

Note: OPEC=Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum. Sources: Tables 3.3b–3.3d.

56

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

2015

Table 3.3b Petroleum Trade: Imports and Exports by Type (Thousand Barrels per Day) Imports Crude Oila SPRc

Total

Exports

HGLb Distillate Fuel Oil Propaned

Totale

Jet Fuelf

Motor Gasolineg

Residual Fuel Oil

Otherh

Total

Crude Oila

Petroleum Products

Total

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

–– –– –– –– –– –– 44 118 27 – 8 11 16 – 77 52 8 7 19 56 – – – – –

487 782 1,015 1,238 1,324 4,105 5,263 3,201 5,894 7,230 9,071 9,328 9,140 9,665 10,088 10,126 10,118 10,031 9,783 9,013 9,213 8,935 8,527 7,730 7,344

7 12 35 36 147 155 142 200 278 193 295 344 267 333 325 329 365 304 213 225 228 179 126 155 195

– – NA NA 26 60 84 67 115 102 161 145 145 168 209 233 228 182 185 147 121 110 116 127 108

– – 4 21 58 185 226 235 197 192 256 250 199 271 305 374 360 276 275 194 179 183 170 182 143

(f) (f) 34 81 144 133 80 39 108 106 162 148 107 109 127 190 186 217 103 81 98 69 55 84 94

(s) 13 27 28 67 184 140 381 342 265 427 454 498 518 496 603 475 413 302 223 134 105 44 45 49

329 417 637 946 1,528 1,223 939 510 504 187 352 295 249 327 426 530 350 372 349 331 366 328 256 225 173

27 24 62 119 150 70 120 501 695 662 897 1,051 1,069 1,041 1,377 1,562 1,854 1,856 1,891 1,623 1,574 1,637 1,421 1,438 1,242

850 1,248 1,815 2,468 3,419 6,056 6,909 5,067 8,018 8,835 11,459 11,871 11,530 12,264 13,145 13,714 13,707 13,468 12,915 11,691 11,793 11,436 10,598 9,859 9,241

95 32 8 3 14 6 287 204 109 95 50 20 9 12 27 32 25 27 29 44 42 47 67 134 351

210 336 193 184 245 204 258 577 748 855 990 951 975 1,014 1,021 1,133 1,292 1,405 1,773 1,980 2,311 2,939 3,137 3,487 3,824

305 368 202 187 259 209 544 781 857 949 1,040 971 984 1,027 1,048 1,165 1,317 1,433 1,802 2,024 2,353 2,986 3,205 3,621 4,176

2015 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

– – – – – – – – – – – – –

7,171 7,100 7,592 7,208 7,245 7,321 7,360 7,717 7,228 7,102 7,371 7,902 7,363

349 388 324 243 191 132 143 140 103 101 150 155 200

156 163 147 127 91 96 107 111 92 120 129 145 124

196 197 168 156 122 132 129 141 114 159 174 181 156

132 127 163 134 170 204 160 132 66 83 102 108 132

74 51 61 75 109 100 33 33 63 103 70 84 71

218 225 146 179 239 174 144 177 243 136 198 222 192

1,321 1,184 1,165 1,378 1,425 1,541 1,603 1,519 1,541 1,158 1,086 1,090 1,335

9,461 9,272 9,619 9,374 9,502 9,605 9,571 9,858 9,358 8,842 9,151 9,742 9,449

495 442 438 599 527 445 546 461 410 500 320 392 465

4,080 4,198 3,654 4,339 4,326 4,211 4,414 4,047 4,441 4,116 4,584 4,874 4,273

4,575 4,640 4,092 4,938 4,853 4,657 4,960 4,507 4,851 4,617 4,903 5,266 4,738

2016 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

– – – – – – – – – – – – –

7,615 7,914 8,012 7,611 7,927 7,560 8,096 8,016 8,040 7,570 8,023 7,817 7,850

172 231 150 177 123 88 123 164 150 75 145 167 147

164 212 139 116 113 105 116 122 126 142 169 186 142

219 244 163 142 149 177 162 174 151 168 198 219 180

154 117 155 122 182 132 174 147 139 154 153 129 147

60 65 66 78 44 76 82 34 71 44 63 29 59

272 173 266 176 145 242 225 230 153 150 241 178 205

1,215 1,323 1,188 1,516 1,610 1,779 1,671 1,558 1,495 1,538 1,470 1,253 1,468

9,707 10,066 10,001 9,822 10,181 10,054 10,532 10,322 10,199 9,699 10,293 9,792 10,055

490 454 596 624 788 530 536 720 775 502 606 468 591

4,487 4,480 4,496 4,571 4,952 4,906 4,690 4,376 4,665 4,483 4,820 5,105 4,670

4,977 4,934 5,092 5,195 5,739 5,437 5,226 5,097 5,439 4,985 5,426 5,574 5,261

2017 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. 11-Month Average ...

– – – – – – – – – – – –

8,435 7,890 8,048 8,131 8,397 8,010 7,825 7,890 R 7,275 E 7,652 E 7,562 E 7,922

204 199 108 116 124 102 111 112 R 112 E 113 E 149 E 131

242 214 166 112 120 116 110 108 R 131 E 128 E 174 E 147

283 253 195 152 166 152 147 146 R 165 NA NA NA

140 147 123 183 126 119 140 174 206 E 195 E 180 E 158

33 36 51 42 37 23 23 24 R 41 E 42 E 17 E 34

176 225 221 146 241 172 174 150 R 204 E 154 E 184 E 186

1,413 1,289 1,312 1,475 1,537 1,661 1,429 1,558 R 1,702 NA NA NA

10,685 10,039 10,059 10,244 10,628 10,240 9,850 10,055 R 9,707 E 9,707 E 9,514 E 10,068

746 1,116 834 1,001 1,023 786 893 772 R 1,473 E 1,667 E 1,339 E 1,057

4,945 5,327 5,052 5,065 5,119 5,362 5,339 4,876 R 4,791 E 5,246 E 5,324 E 5,129

5,691 6,443 5,886 6,066 6,142 6,148 6,232 5,647 R 6,263 E 6,913 E 6,663 E 6,187

2016 11-Month Average ... 2015 11-Month Average ...

– –

7,853 7,313

145 205

138 122

177 153

148 134

62 70

207 189

1,488 1,358

10,080 9,421

602 472

4,629 4,217

5,232 4,689

1950 Average 1955 Average 1960 Average 1965 Average 1970 Average 1975 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

a Includes lease condensate. b Hydrocarbon gas liquids. c "SPR" is the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, which began in October 1977.

Through 2003, includes crude oil imports by SPR only; beginning in 2004, includes crude oil imports by SPR, and crude oil imports into SPR by others. d Propane and propylene. Through 1983, also includes 40% of "ButanePropane Mixtures" and 30% of "Ethane-Propane Mixtures." e Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, natural gasoline (pentanes plus), and refinery olefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene). Through 1983, also includes plant condensate and unfractionated stream. f Beginning in 1965, includes kerosene-type jet fuel. (Through 1964, kerosene-type jet fuel is included with kerosene in "Other.") For 1956–2004, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. (Through 1955, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in "Motor Gasoline." Beginning in 2005, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in "Other.") g Finished motor gasoline. Through 1955, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. Through 1963, also includes aviation gasoline and special naphthas. Through 1980, also includes motor gasoline blending components. h Asphalt and road oil, aviation gasoline blending components, kerosene, lubricants, petrochemical feedstocks, petroleum coke, unfinished oils, waxes, other

hydrocarbons and oxygenates, and miscellaneous products. Through 1964, also includes kerosene-type jet fuel. Beginning in 1964, also includes finished aviation gasoline and special naphthas. Beginning in 1981, also includes motor gasoline blending components. Beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. – – =Not applicable. – =No data reported. (s)=Less than 500 barrels per day. Notes: • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • 1949–1975: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual reports. • 1976–1980: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual reports. • 1981–2016: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual, annual reports, and unpublished revisions. • 2017: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, monthly reports; and, for the current two months, Weekly Petroleum Status Report data system and Monthly Energy Review data system calculations.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

57

Table 3.3c Petroleum Trade: Imports From OPEC Countries (Thousand Barrels per Day) Libyae

Nigeriaf

Saudi Arabiad

Venezuela

182 74 48 16 27 21 86 218 272 250 228 220 250 243 185 181 210 182 197 191 305 328 311

(e) 42 47 232 554 4 – – 0 0 – – 20 56 87 117 103 79 70 15 61 59 6

(f) (f) (f) 762 857 293 800 627 896 885 621 867 1,140 1,166 1,114 1,134 988 809 1,023 818 441 281 92

84 158 30 715 1,261 168 1,339 1,344 1,572 1,662 1,552 1,774 1,558 1,537 1,463 1,485 1,529 1,004 1,096 1,195 1,365 1,329 1,166

911 994 989 702 481 605 1,025 1,480 1,546 1,553 1,398 1,376 1,554 1,529 1,419 1,361 1,189 1,063 988 951 960 806 789

34 155 172 832 577 439 199 98 72 105 83 61 70 47 38 39 26 50 3 16 9 10 23

1,233 1,439 1,294 3,601 4,300 1,830 4,296 4,002 5,203 5,528 4,605 5,162 5,701 5,587 5,517 5,980 5,954 4,776 4,906 4,555 4,271 3,720 3,237

227 222 122 139 283 214 133 117 203 375 269 447 229

266 241 277 186 222 314 144 113 211 150 140 193 204

20 4 – 3 12 – – 4 5 17 6 12 7

51 38 78 54 58 21 130 86 114 65 114 155 81

820 945 1,047 1,205 1,210 1,077 1,187 1,005 863 983 1,236 1,122 1,059

670 783 849 824 898 757 808 934 855 802 843 899 827

17 24 15 – 7 10 11 11 11 7 17 10 12

2,538 2,794 2,801 2,734 3,133 2,869 2,911 2,750 2,854 2,899 3,169 3,274 2,894

334 246 264 182 230 223 234 253 213 203 250 236 239

252 245 365 349 571 434 390 488 448 508 434 590 424

205 289 123 199 177 135 323 156 275 154 228 254 210

10 5 – 10 75 – 5 22 4 – 27 32 16

132 274 290 243 297 252 265 181 168 232 247 246 235

1,054 1,029 1,309 1,154 1,171 1,104 1,053 1,147 1,211 1,025 1,003 1,014 1,106

702 773 846 788 787 748 933 773 825 741 849 789 796

74 63 59 48 93 97 75 78 119 49 49 25 69

3,054 3,230 3,576 3,354 3,665 3,303 3,769 3,427 3,575 3,330 3,560 3,491 3,446

118 64 30 84 105 178 189 296 171 138

247 141 278 180 230 212 166 193 223 209

622 413 544 811 619 587 756 473 502 593

105 251 219 101 174 162 206 87 127 158

31 22 30 45 87 38 108 35 59 51

332 223 342 332 294 320 241 397 292 309

1,345 1,338 1,173 1,154 1,109 1,015 795 741 676 1,036

749 751 764 857 767 663 686 606 620 718

10 9 20 21 64 108 37 125 65 51

3,793 3,445 3,592 3,737 3,644 3,537 3,399 3,181 2,880 3,469

180 116

243 239

394 184

209 219

15 5

233 70

1,137 1,041

798 820

79 12

3,441 2,821

Algeriaa

Angolab

Ecuadorc

...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ......................

(a) (a) 8 282 488 187 280 234 225 278 264 382 452 478 657 670 548 493 510 358 242 115 110

(b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) 508 513 460 393 346 233 216 154

(c) (c) (c) 57 27 67 49 (c) (c) (c) (c) (c) (c) (c) (c) (c) 221 185 212 206 180 236 215

22 16 – 2 28 46 518 – 620 795 459 481 656 531 553 484 627 450 415 459 476 341 369

2015 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... October ........................ November .................... December .................... Average ......................

82 112 76 106 150 126 109 121 145 76 124 74 108

54 181 93 102 119 113 108 102 182 193 231 166 136

331 245 244 114 176 237 281 256 264 230 191 197 231

2016 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... October ........................ November .................... December .................... Average ......................

126 174 147 137 102 183 191 169 155 296 300 202 182

166 133 172 242 161 128 299 159 157 122 174 102 168

2017 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... 9-Month Average .......

232 234 193 153 196 254 215 229 145 206

2016 9-Month Average ....... 2015 9-Month Average .......

154 114

1960 Average 1965 Average 1970 Average 1975 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

Iraq

Kuwaitd

a Algeria joined OPEC in 1969. For 1960–1968, Algeria is included in "Total Non-OPEC" on Table 3.3d. b Angola joined OPEC in January 2007. For 1960–2006, Angola is included in "Total Non-OPEC" on Table 3.3d. c Ecuador was a member of OPEC from 1973–1992, and rejoined OPEC in November 2007. For 1960–1972 and 1993–2007, Ecuador is included in "Total Non-OPEC" on Table 3.3d. d Through 1970, includes half the imports from the Neutral Zone between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Beginning in 1971, imports from the Neutral Zone are reported as originating in either Kuwait or Saudi Arabia depending on the country reported to U.S. Customs. e Libya joined OPEC in 1962. For 1960 and 1961, Libya is included in "Total Non-OPEC" on Table 3.3d. f Nigeria joined OPEC in 1971. For 1960–1970, Nigeria is included in "Total Non-OPEC" on Table 3.3d. g Includes these countries for the dates indicated: Equatorial Guinea (May 2017 forward), Gabon (1975–1994 and July 2016 forward), Indonesia (1962–2008 and January–November 2016), Iran (1960 forward), Qatar (1961 forward), and United Arab Emirates (1967 forward).

58

Otherg

Total OPEC

– =No data reported. Notes: • See "Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)" in Glossary. Petroleum imports not classified as "OPEC" on this table are included on Table 3.3d. • The country of origin for petroleum products may not be the country of origin for the crude oil from which the products were produced. For example, refined products imported from West European refining areas may have been produced from Middle East crude oil. • Includes imports for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, which began in October 1977. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • U.S. geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1960 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • 1960–1972: Bureau of Mines, Minerals Yearbook, annual reports. • 1973–1975: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual reports. • 1976–1980: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual reports. • 1981–2016: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual, annual reports. • 2017: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, monthly reports.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 3.3d Petroleum Trade: Imports From Non-OPEC Countries (Thousand Barrels per Day) Brazil 1960 Average 1965 Average 1970 Average 1975 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

Canada

Colombia

Mexico

Netherlands

Norway

Russiaa

United Kingdom

U.S. Virgin Islands

Other

Total Non-OPEC

...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ......................

1 – 2 5 3 61 49 8 51 82 116 108 104 156 193 200 258 309 272 253 226 151 160

120 323 766 846 455 770 934 1,332 1,807 1,828 1,971 2,072 2,138 2,181 2,353 2,455 2,493 2,479 2,535 2,729 2,946 3,142 3,388

42 51 46 9 4 23 182 219 342 296 260 195 176 196 155 155 200 276 365 433 433 389 318

16 48 42 71 533 816 755 1,068 1,373 1,440 1,547 1,623 1,665 1,662 1,705 1,532 1,302 1,210 1,284 1,206 1,035 919 842

NA 1 39 19 2 58 55 15 30 43 66 87 101 151 174 128 168 140 108 100 99 89 85

NA – – 17 144 32 102 273 343 341 393 270 244 233 196 142 102 108 89 113 75 54 45

– – 3 14 1 8 45 25 72 90 210 254 298 410 369 414 465 563 612 624 477 460 330

(s) (s) 11 14 176 310 189 383 366 324 478 440 380 396 272 277 236 245 256 159 149 147 117

NA – 189 406 388 247 282 278 291 268 236 288 330 328 328 346 320 277 253 186 12 – –

NA 606 1,027 1,052 903 913 1,128 1,233 1,581 1,631 1,649 1,766 2,008 2,413 2,446 1,839 1,416 1,307 1,112 1,077 874 786 720

581 1,029 2,126 2,454 2,609 3,237 3,721 4,833 6,257 6,343 6,925 7,103 7,444 8,127 8,190 7,489 6,961 6,915 6,887 6,881 6,327 6,138 6,004

2015 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... October ........................ November .................... December .................... Average ......................

236 138 170 232 108 255 222 396 276 229 99 208 215

4,010 3,942 3,899 3,849 3,562 3,625 3,488 3,932 3,807 3,411 3,621 4,043 3,765

417 353 525 442 535 377 441 339 292 221 402 390 395

831 784 875 714 663 856 755 731 647 756 721 760 758

78 81 110 78 80 23 54 22 53 32 39 38 57

11 58 52 37 108 66 87 138 48 44 37 39 61

401 300 376 358 337 500 445 509 369 307 320 219 371

140 88 83 111 138 134 142 154 178 99 92 112 123

– – – – – – – – – – – – –

799 733 727 820 838 898 1,027 887 835 842 651 660 811

6,923 6,478 6,818 6,640 6,369 6,736 6,661 7,108 6,504 5,942 5,982 6,469 6,554

2016 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... October ........................ November .................... December .................... Average ......................

168 148 112 160 110 200 158 274 154 199 189 126 167

4,084 4,211 3,870 3,549 3,548 3,437 3,451 3,809 3,784 3,587 4,032 4,017 3,780

499 507 569 386 570 583 536 534 500 346 368 397 483

710 539 657 788 676 739 733 672 595 614 697 606 669

57 73 30 54 63 59 43 31 67 107 74 60 60

58 61 143 89 44 113 109 49 124 75 38 11 76

395 436 329 509 435 485 539 499 421 491 419 334 441

115 71 141 149 106 168 92 141 132 89 137 121 122

– – – – – 1 – – – – – – (s)

566 790 574 784 964 966 1,102 886 850 861 779 631 812

6,653 6,836 6,425 6,468 6,516 6,751 6,763 6,895 6,624 6,369 6,732 6,302 6,610

2017 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... 9-Month Average .......

206 240 229 168 132 202 376 258 250 229

4,282 4,182 4,065 3,887 4,123 3,804 3,768 3,960 3,932 4,000

345 401 338 417 424 334 357 388 374 375

730 607 630 680 810 784 668 573 430 658

75 81 47 62 49 72 45 74 93 66

134 34 12 86 73 122 64 186 118 92

348 319 379 308 401 503 358 443 450 390

141 96 120 123 167 126 113 67 149 123

– – – – – – – – – –

631 633 648 777 806 756 703 925 1,031 768

6,892 6,594 6,467 6,507 6,984 6,703 6,451 6,874 6,827 6,701

2016 9-Month Average ....... 2015 9-Month Average .......

165 227

3,748 3,789

521 415

679 762

53 64

88 68

449 400

124 130

(s) –

831 842

6,658 6,696

a Through 1992, may include imports from republics other than Russia in the former U.S.S.R. See "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)" in Glossary. NA=Not available. – =No data reported. (s)=Less than 500 barrels per day. Notes: • See "Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)" in Glossary. Petroleum imports not classified as "OPEC" on Table 3.3c are included on this table. • The country of origin for petroleum products may not be the country of origin for the crude oil from which the products were produced. For example, refined products imported from West European refining areas may have been produced from Middle East crude oil. • Includes imports for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, which began in October 1977. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • U.S. geographic coverage is the 50

states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1960 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • 1960–1972: Bureau of Mines, Minerals Yearbook, annual reports. • 1973–1975: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual reports. • 1976–1980: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual reports. • 1981–2016: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual, annual reports. • 2017: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, monthly reports.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

59

Figure 3.4

Petroleum Stocks

Overview, 1949–2016 2.5

2.0 BIllion Barrels

Total 1.5

Crude Oil

1.0

Petroleum Products

0.5

0.0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

SPR and Non-SPR Crude Oil Stocks, 1949–2016 SPR

Million Barrels

750

500

Non-SPR 250

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

Overview, Monthly

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Selected Products, Monthly 300

2.5

Motor Gasoline Total

250

Million Barrels

Billion Barrels

2.0

1.5 Crude Oil 1.0

200 Distillate Fuel Oil 150 Propaneb 100

Petroleum Products 0.5

50

Jet Fuela Residual Fuel Oil

0.0

0 J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D

2015 a

2016

2017

Includes kerosene-type jet fuel only. Includes propylene. Notes: • SPR=Strategic Petroleum Reserve. • Stocks are at end of b

60

J F MA M J J A S O ND J F MA M J J A S OND J F MA M J J A S OND

2015

2016

2017

period. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum. Source: Table 3.4.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 3.4 Petroleum Stocks (Million Barrels) Crude Oila SPRc 1950 Year 1955 Year 1960 Year 1965 Year 1970 Year 1975 Year 1980 Year 1985 Year 1990 Year 1995 Year 2000 Year 2001 Year 2002 Year 2003 Year 2004 Year 2005 Year 2006 Year 2007 Year 2008 Year 2009 Year 2010 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year

Non-SPRd,e

HGLb Totale

Distillate Fuel Oilf

Propaneg

Totalh

..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... .....................

–– –– –– –– –– –– 108 493 586 592 541 550 599 638 676 685 689 697 702 727 727 696 695 696 691

248 266 240 220 276 271 358 321 323 303 286 312 278 269 286 308 296 268 308 307 312 308 338 327 361

248 266 240 220 276 271 466 814 908 895 826 862 877 907 961 992 984 965 1,010 1,034 1,039 1,004 1,033 1,023 1,052

72 111 138 155 195 209 205 144 132 130 118 145 134 137 126 136 144 134 146 166 164 149 135 128 136

NA NA NA NA 44 82 71 39 49 43 41 66 53 50 55 57 62 52 55 50 49 55 68 45 78

2 7 23 35 74 133 137 82 104 100 88 128 113 101 111 117 125 106 127 113 120 127 152 125 174

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ...........

691 691 691 691 692 694 695 695 695 695 695 695

389 415 443 453 449 439 425 426 429 455 456 449

1,080 1,106 1,134 1,144 1,141 1,133 1,120 1,121 1,124 1,150 1,151 1,144

133 124 129 130 135 140 142 153 149 144 157 161

68 56 59 68 78 85 91 98 100 105 104 96

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ...........

695 695 695 695 695 695 695 695 695 695 695 695

472 492 505 509 512 501 493 487 472 491 491 485

1,167 1,187 1,200 1,204 1,207 1,196 1,189 1,182 1,167 1,186 1,186 1,180

161 162 160 155 155 150 157 160 161 155 161 166

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............

695 695 692 689 684 679 679 679 R 674 E 670 E 663

504 524 538 524 517 500 482 459 R 469 E 457 E 448

1,200 1,218 1,229 1,213 1,201 1,180 1,161 1,138 R 1,143 E 1,127 E 1,111

169 162 151 155 154 152 151 148 R 137 E 127 E 129

a Includes lease condensate. b Hydrocarbon gas liquids. c "SPR" is the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, which began in October 1977.

Crude oil stocks in the SPR include non-U.S. stocks held under foreign or commercial storage agreements. d All crude oil stocks other than those in “SPR.” e Beginning in 1981, includes stocks of Alaskan crude oil in transit. f Excludes stocks in the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve. Beginning in 2009, includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel) blended into distillate fuel oil. g Propane and propylene. Through 1983, also includes 40% of "ButanePropane Mixtures" and 30% of "Ethane-Propane Mixtures." h Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, natural gasoline (pentanes plus), and refinery olefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene). Through 1983, also includes plant condensate and unfractionated stream. i Beginning in 1965, includes kerosene-type jet fuel. (Through 1964, kerosene-type jet fuel is included with kerosene in "Other.") For 1952–2004, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. (Through 1951, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in the products from which it was blended—gasoline, kerosene, and distillate fuel oil. Beginning in 2005, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in "Other."). j Includes finished motor gasoline and motor gasoline blending components; excludes oxygenates. Through 1963, also includes aviation gasoline and special

Jet Fueli (i)

Motor Gasolinej

Residual Fuel Oil

Otherk

Total

3 7 19 28 30 42 40 52 40 45 42 39 39 40 42 39 39 38 43 43 41 40 37 38

116 165 195 175 209 235 261 223 220 202 196 210 209 207 218 208 212 218 214 223 219 223 231 228 240

41 39 45 56 54 74 92 50 49 37 36 41 31 38 42 37 42 39 36 37 41 34 34 38 34

104 123 137 176 181 181 189 165 156 158 159 158 144 140 146 148 157 146 149 142 145 146 154 149 151

583 715 785 836 1,018 1,133 1,392 1,519 1,621 1,563 1,468 1,586 1,548 1,568 1,645 1,682 1,703 1,648 1,719 1,758 1,772 1,725 1,779 1,728 1,825

152 132 138 158 178 193 206 221 226 225 214 194

39 40 38 38 42 44 44 43 40 37 38 40

244 241 233 229 223 221 218 218 225 217 223 235

34 37 38 39 41 42 40 39 42 43 44 42

165 168 170 170 167 166 167 164 161 158 162 164

1,847 1,848 1,881 1,907 1,928 1,939 1,936 1,958 1,968 1,975 1,989 1,982

79 66 67 74 77 85 91 99 104 103 102 84

164 147 152 168 185 210 229 247 251 243 233 200

43 43 44 44 45 41 42 43 45 45 45 43

262 256 244 243 243 243 241 230 228 226 234 239

44 46 45 43 40 40 39 40 39 39 41 41

173 176 179 178 175 170 171 164 161 159 157 161

2,014 2,018 2,024 2,035 2,051 2,049 2,066 2,066 2,051 2,053 2,056 2,030

59 51 44 43 50 61 69 80 R 77 E 78 E 74

165 154 148 154 171 191 207 231 R 230 F 224 F 211

42 44 42 45 44 41 41 40 43 E 40 E 40

260 253 239 244 242 238 233 226 R 224 E 210 E 221

40 40 41 40 40 35 34 35 36 E 33 E 31

172 175 179 180 181 173 171 169 R 165 E 169 E 169

2,049 2,046 2,029 2,029 2,034 2,009 1,998 1,986 R 1,978 E 1,930 E 1,912

naphthas. k Asphalt and road oil, aviation gasoline blending components, kerosene, lubricants, petrochemical feedstocks, petroleum coke, unfinished oils, waxes, miscellaneous products, oxygenates, renewable fuels, and other hydrocarbons. Through 1964, also includes kerosene-type jet fuel. Beginning in 1964, also includes finished aviation gasoline and special naphthas. Beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. R=Revised. E=Estimate. F=Forecast. NA=Not available. – – =Not applicable. Notes: • Stocks are at end of period. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • 1949–1975: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual reports. • 1976–1980: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual reports. • 1981–2016: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual, annual reports, and unpublished revisions. • 2017: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, monthly reports; and, for the current two months, Weekly Petroleum Status Report data system, Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System, and Monthly Energy Review data system calculations.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

61

Figure 3.5

Petroleum Products Supplied by Type (Million Barrels per Day)

Total Petroleum and Motor Gasoline, 1949–2016 24

Total Petroleum

18

12 Motor Gasolinea 6

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Selected Products,1949–2016 12

Motor Gasolinea 9

6 Distillate Fuel Oilb 3 Jet Fuelc

Residual Fuel Oil Propaned

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

Selected Products, Monthly

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

Total, January–November 24

12 Motor Gasolinea 9

18

6

12

19.528

19.660

19.811

2015

2016

2017

Distillate Fuel Oilb 3

Propaned Residual Fuel Oil

Jet Fuel

6 c

0

0 J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 2015 2017 2016 a

Beginning in 1993, includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. Beginning in 2009, includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel) blended into distillate fuel oil. c Beginning in 2005, includes kerosene-type jet fuel only. b

62

d Includes propylene. Note: SPR=Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum. Source: Table 3.5.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

2015

Table 3.5 Petroleum Products Supplied by Type (Thousand Barrels per Day) Asphalt Aviation and Road Oil Gasoline

HGLa Distillate Fuel Oilb

Propanec

Totald

Jet Fuele

Kerosene

Lubricants

Motor Gasolinef

Petroleum Coke

Residual Fuel Oil

Otherg

Total

.................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. ..................

180 254 302 368 447 419 396 425 483 486 525 519 512 503 537 546 521 494 417 360 362 355 340 323 327

108 192 161 120 55 39 35 27 24 21 20 19 18 16 17 19 18 17 15 14 15 15 14 12 12

1,082 1,592 1,872 2,126 2,540 2,851 2,866 2,868 3,021 3,207 3,722 3,847 3,776 3,927 4,058 4,118 4,169 4,196 3,945 3,631 3,800 3,899 3,741 3,827 4,037

NA NA NA NA 782 790 813 883 917 1,096 1,235 1,142 1,248 1,215 1,276 1,229 1,215 1,235 1,154 1,160 1,160 1,153 1,175 1,275 1,167

234 404 621 841 1,224 1,352 1,590 1,721 1,705 2,100 2,434 2,200 2,295 2,205 2,264 2,146 2,135 2,191 2,044 2,127 2,265 2,241 2,297 2,501 2,442

(e) 154 371 602 967 1,001 1,068 1,218 1,522 1,514 1,725 1,655 1,614 1,578 1,630 1,679 1,633 1,622 1,539 1,393 1,432 1,425 1,398 1,434 1,470

323 320 271 267 263 159 158 114 43 54 67 72 43 55 64 70 54 32 14 18 20 12 5 5 9

106 116 117 129 136 137 159 145 164 156 166 153 151 140 141 141 137 142 131 118 131 125 114 121 126

2,616 3,463 3,969 4,593 5,785 6,675 6,579 6,831 7,235 7,789 8,472 8,610 8,848 8,935 9,105 9,159 9,253 9,286 8,989 8,997 8,993 8,753 8,682 8,843 8,921

41 67 149 202 212 247 237 264 339 365 406 437 463 455 524 515 522 490 464 427 376 361 360 354 347

1,517 1,526 1,529 1,608 2,204 2,462 2,508 1,202 1,229 852 909 811 700 772 865 920 689 723 622 511 535 461 369 319 257

250 366 435 657 866 982 1,460 909 1,225 1,180 1,255 1,325 1,342 1,448 1,525 1,489 1,557 1,487 1,317 1,175 1,251 1,240 1,165 1,227 1,151

6,458 8,455 9,797 11,512 14,697 16,322 17,056 15,726 16,988 17,725 19,701 19,649 19,761 20,034 20,731 20,802 20,687 20,680 19,498 18,771 19,180 18,887 18,487 18,967 19,100

2015 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October .................... November ................ December ................ Average ..................

200 215 222 303 343 472 480 510 469 400 287 212 343

8 8 9 14 13 12 18 11 11 14 9 9 11

4,186 4,559 4,078 4,027 3,778 3,897 3,901 3,915 4,063 4,014 3,740 3,831 3,995

1,580 1,572 1,228 966 890 1,053 1,030 1,042 970 1,084 1,169 1,384 1,162

2,921 2,892 2,548 2,366 2,322 2,430 2,468 2,454 2,283 2,540 2,585 2,826 2,552

1,375 1,445 1,548 1,527 1,519 1,654 1,650 1,601 1,534 1,614 1,524 1,578 1,548

3 9 11 1 20 (s) 1 2 1 3 1 25 6

153 123 152 148 159 132 156 121 127 145 104 130 138

8,639 8,829 9,057 9,189 9,262 9,417 9,470 9,460 9,289 9,245 9,112 9,148 9,178

404 217 377 377 383 407 399 412 283 329 306 283 349

294 195 263 172 235 200 325 298 267 236 300 317 259

1,079 1,173 1,075 1,126 1,281 1,231 1,265 1,156 1,106 951 1,159 1,231 1,153

19,261 19,664 19,340 19,251 19,316 19,853 20,134 19,939 19,433 19,491 19,127 19,589 19,534

2016 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October .................... November ................ December ................ Average ..................

195 230 254 301 394 482 472 524 439 417 310 195 351

7 11 10 14 11 12 12 14 11 10 12 10 11

3,850 3,996 3,947 3,799 3,732 3,853 3,597 3,880 3,912 3,986 3,938 4,043 3,877

1,574 1,543 1,193 951 966 830 952 950 1,030 1,038 1,142 1,397 1,130

2,958 2,798 2,613 2,403 2,383 2,269 2,421 2,308 2,429 2,557 2,520 2,775 2,536

1,449 1,534 1,547 1,566 1,578 1,723 1,720 1,722 1,635 1,610 1,632 1,653 1,614

2 2 10 3 8 10 11 1 14 19 2 21 9

136 148 143 131 132 146 115 124 125 131 121 115 130

8,653 9,221 9,373 9,176 9,417 9,608 9,578 9,687 9,484 9,093 9,233 9,283 9,317

380 361 364 293 276 246 322 437 285 311 485 381 345

306 183 361 449 323 338 424 318 253 340 305 306 326

1,126 1,362 1,107 1,205 1,075 1,159 1,103 1,261 1,171 1,175 1,101 1,201 1,170

19,063 19,847 19,728 19,340 19,328 19,846 19,776 20,275 19,757 19,650 19,659 19,984 19,687

2017 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October .................... November ................ 11-Month Average

192 241 265 318 365 477 441 542 R 447 F 424 F 314 E 367

9 9 10 10 11 17 13 14 R 10 RF 9 F 11 E 11

3,781 3,905 4,154 3,791 3,969 3,969 3,707 3,992 R 3,922 E 3,821 E 3,964 E 3,907

1,687 1,321 1,143 1,051 863 842 921 851 R 1,076 E 1,016 E 1,263 E 1,092

3,049 2,684 2,634 2,510 2,415 2,439 2,512 2,145 R 2,346 RF 2,547 F 2,716 E 2,544

1,593 1,525 1,669 1,617 1,671 1,762 1,728 1,769 R 1,639 E 1,743 E 1,729 E 1,678

14 6 2 7 3 2 1 1 R 14 RF 9 F7 E6

105 123 133 105 108 108 98 91 R 108 RF 125 F 120 E 111

8,501 8,986 9,352 9,248 9,590 9,766 9,573 9,770 R 9,329 E 9,363 E 9,123 E 9,330

412 262 175 322 339 270 461 307 R 351 F 320 F 372 E 327

460 270 362 320 368 418 272 335 R 307 E 396 E 359 E 352

1,127 1,148 1,292 1,309 1,201 1,266 1,215 1,196 R 1,108 RE 1,032 E 1,059 E 1,178

19,244 19,159 20,047 19,556 20,039 20,494 20,020 20,161 R 19,581 E 19,788 E 19,773 E 19,811

366 356

11 12

3,862 4,010

1,105 1,141

2,514 2,526

1,611 1,545

8 5

132 139

9,320 9,181

342 355

328 254

1,167 1,145

19,660 19,528

1950 Average 1955 Average 1960 Average 1965 Average 1970 Average 1975 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

2016 11-Month Average 2015 11-Month Average

a Hydrocarbon gas liquids. b Beginning in 2009, includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel)

blended into distillate fuel oil. c Propane and propylene. Through 1983, also includes 40% of "ButanePropane Mixtures" and 30% of "Ethane-Propane Mixtures." d Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, natural gasoline (pentanes plus), and refinery olefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene). Through 1983, also includes plant condensate and unfractionated stream. e Beginning in 1957, includes kerosene-type jet fuel. For 1952–2004, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. (Through 1951, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in the products from which it was blended—gasoline, kerosene, and distillate fuel oil. Beginning in 2005, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in "Other."). f Finished motor gasoline. Through 1963, also includes special naphthas. Beginning in 1993, also includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. g Petrochemical feedstocks, still gas (refinery gas), waxes, and miscellaneous products. Beginning in 1964, also includes special naphthas. Beginning in 1981, also includes negative barrels per day of distillate and residual fuel oil reclassified as unfinished oils, and other products (from both primary and secondary supply) reclassified as gasoline blending components. Beginning in 1983, also includes crude oil burned as fuel. Beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel.

R=Revised. E=Estimate. F=Forecast. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 500 barrels per day and greater than -500 barrels per day. Notes: • Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the term "petroleum consumption" in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. See Note 1, "Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum Consumption," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • 1949–1975: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual reports. • 1976–1980: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual reports. • 1981–2016: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual, annual reports, and unpublished revisions. • 2017: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, monthly reports; and, for the current two months, Weekly Petroleum Status Report data system, Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System, and Monthly Energy Review data system calculations.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

63

Figure 3.6 Heat Content of Petroleum Products Supplied by Type Total, 1949–2016 50

Quadrillion Btu

40

30

20

10

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

2000

2005

2010

2015

Petroleum Products Supplied as Share of Total Energy Consumption, 1949–2016 50

Percent

40

30

20

10

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

By Product, November 2017 2.0

Quadrillion Btu

1.5

1.385

1.0 0.686 0.5 0.289 0.063 0.0 Asphalt and Road Oil

0.294

0.002 Aviation Gasoline

Distillate Fuel Oila

Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids

Jet Fuelb

a Includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel) blended into distillate fuel oil. b Includes kerosene-type jet fuel only. c Includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline.

64

0.198 0.001

0.022

Kerosene

Lubricants

Motor Gasolinec

0.068

0.068

Petroleum Coke

Residual Fuel Oil

d

Other d

All petroleum products not separately displayed. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum. Sources: Tables 1.1 and 3.6.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 3.6 Heat Content of Petroleum Products Supplied by Type (Trillion Btu) Asphalt Aviation and Road Oil Gasoline

HGLa Distillate Fuel Oilb

Propanec

Totald

Jet Fuele

Kerosene

Lubricants

Motor Gasolinef

Petroleum Coke

Residual Fuel Oil

Otherg

Total

...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ......................

435 615 734 890 1,082 1,014 962 1,029 1,170 1,178 1,276 1,257 1,240 1,220 1,304 1,323 1,261 1,197 1,012 873 878 859 827 783 793

199 354 298 222 100 71 64 50 45 40 36 35 34 30 31 35 33 32 28 27 27 27 25 22 22

2,300 3,385 3,992 4,519 5,401 6,061 6,110 6,098 6,422 6,812 7,927 8,170 8,020 8,341 8,642 8,745 8,831 8,858 8,346 7,661 8,014 8,217 7,903 8,059 8,499

NA NA NA NA 1,095 1,107 1,142 1,236 1,284 1,534 1,734 1,598 1,747 1,701 1,791 1,721 1,701 1,729 1,620 1,624 1,624 1,614 1,649 1,785 1,634

343 592 912 1,232 1,689 1,845 2,180 2,309 2,309 2,849 3,288 2,960 3,076 2,968 3,047 2,878 2,841 2,912 2,727 2,791 2,976 2,898 2,992 3,267 3,172

(e) 301 739 1,215 1,973 2,047 2,190 2,497 3,129 3,132 3,580 3,426 3,340 3,265 3,383 3,475 3,379 3,358 3,193 2,883 2,963 2,950 2,901 2,969 3,042

668 662 563 553 544 329 329 236 88 112 140 150 90 113 133 144 111 67 30 36 41 25 11 11 19

236 258 259 286 301 304 354 322 362 346 369 338 334 309 313 312 303 313 291 262 291 276 254 268 280

5,015 6,640 7,631 8,806 11,091 12,798 12,648 13,098 13,872 14,834 16,167 16,386 16,829 16,968 17,333 17,378 17,531 17,472 16,865 16,750 16,668 16,191 16,089 16,339 16,476

90 147 328 444 465 542 522 582 745 802 895 961 1,018 1,000 1,148 1,125 1,141 1,072 1,017 937 831 801 802 786 772

3,482 3,502 3,517 3,691 5,057 5,649 5,772 2,759 2,820 1,955 2,091 1,861 1,605 1,772 1,990 2,111 1,581 1,659 1,432 1,173 1,228 1,058 849 731 590

546 798 947 1,390 1,817 2,071 3,073 1,945 2,589 2,499 2,636 2,793 2,816 3,043 3,205 3,122 3,276 3,134 2,788 2,483 2,645 2,621 2,474 2,583 2,430

13,315 17,255 19,919 23,246 29,521 32,732 34,205 30,925 33,552 34,558 38,406 38,337 38,401 39,030 40,528 40,647 40,289 40,073 37,728 35,877 36,561 35,925 35,126 35,818 36,094

2015 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

41 40 46 60 70 94 99 105 93 82 57 44 832

1 1 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 21

749 736 729 697 675 674 697 700 703 718 647 685 8,411

188 169 146 111 106 121 123 124 112 129 135 165 1,627

326 290 285 253 256 261 274 274 242 282 274 313 3,331

242 229 272 260 267 281 290 281 261 284 259 277 3,204

(s) 1 2 (s) 4 (s) (s) (s) (s) 1 (s) 4 13

29 21 29 27 30 24 29 23 23 27 19 24 305

1,355 1,251 1,421 1,395 1,453 1,430 1,486 1,484 1,410 1,450 1,383 1,435 16,952

76 37 71 69 72 74 75 78 52 62 56 53 776

57 34 51 32 46 38 63 58 50 46 57 62 595

192 190 193 196 231 215 228 207 192 170 201 221 2,435

3,069 2,831 3,100 2,991 3,106 3,092 3,245 3,213 3,027 3,124 2,955 3,120 36,873

2016 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

40 44 52 60 81 96 97 108 87 86 62 40 853

1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 20

688 668 706 657 667 666 643 694 677 713 681 723 8,183

187 172 142 109 115 96 113 113 118 123 131 166 1,586

329 288 286 254 260 241 264 251 260 282 267 307 3,289

255 252 272 266 277 293 302 303 278 283 278 291 3,350

(s) (s) 2 1 1 2 2 (s) 2 3 (s) 4 18

26 26 27 24 25 27 22 23 23 25 22 22 289

1,357 1,353 1,470 1,393 1,477 1,458 1,502 1,519 1,439 1,426 1,401 1,456 17,251

72 64 69 54 52 45 61 83 52 59 89 72 771

60 33 70 85 63 64 83 62 48 66 58 60 751

208 235 205 215 199 208 205 233 210 217 197 222 2,553

3,036 2,966 3,160 3,011 3,104 3,101 3,182 3,278 3,078 3,161 3,056 3,197 37,330

2017 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. 11-Month Total .....

39 45 54 63 75 95 91 112 R 89 F 87 F 63 E 813

1 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 R1 RF 1 F2 E 19

676 631 743 656 709 687 663 714 R 678 E 683 E 686 E 7,524

201 142 136 121 103 97 110 101 R 124 E 121 E 145 E 1,400

338 265 290 267 263 254 274 232 R 249 RF 280 F 289 E 2,999

280 242 293 275 294 300 304 311 R 279 E 306 E 294 E 3,178

2 1 (s) 1 1 (s) (s) (s) R2 RF 2 F1 E 11

20 21 25 19 20 20 19 17 R 20 F 23 F 22 E 225

1,333 1,273 1,467 1,404 1,504 1,482 1,501 1,532 R 1,416 E 1,468 E 1,385 E 15,765

78 45 33 59 64 49 87 58 R 64 F 61 F 68 E 667

90 48 71 60 72 79 53 65 R 58 E 77 E 68 E 740

208 190 237 234 222 226 225 221 R 199 RE 189 E 198 E 2,348

3,066 2,761 3,215 3,039 3,225 3,194 3,218 3,264 R 3,056 E 3,178 E 3,073 E 34,289

2016 11-Month Total ..... 2015 11-Month Total .....

813 788

19 20

7,461 7,726

1,420 1,462

2,982 3,018

3,059 2,927

14 9

268 281

15,796 15,517

699 722

691 533

2,331 2,214

34,133 33,753

1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

a Hydrocarbon gas liquids. b Beginning in 2009, includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel)

blended into distillate fuel oil. c Propane and propylene. Through 1983, also includes 40% of "ButanePropane Mixtures" and 30% of "Ethane-Propane Mixtures." d Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, natural gasoline (pentanes plus), and refinery olefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene). Through 1983, also includes plant condensate and unfractionated stream. e Beginning in 1957, includes kerosene-type jet fuel. For 1952–2004, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. (Through 1951, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in the products from which it was blended—gasoline, kerosene, and distillate fuel oil. Beginning in 2005, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in "Other."). f Finished motor gasoline. Through 1963, also includes special naphthas. Beginning in 1993, also includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. g Petrochemical feedstocks, still gas (refinery gas), waxes, and miscellaneous products. Beginning in 1964, also includes special naphthas. Beginning in 1981,

also includes negative barrels per day of distillate and residual fuel oil reclassified as unfinished oils, and other products (from both primary and secondary supply) reclassified as gasoline blending components. Beginning in 1983, also includes crude oil burned as fuel. Beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. R=Revised. E=Estimate. F=Forecast. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu and greater than -0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: • Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the term "petroleum consumption" in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. See Note 1, "Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum Consumption," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

65

Figure 3.7

Petroleum Consumption by Sector

By Sector, 1949–2016

Million Barrels per Day

16

Transportation

12

8 Industriala 4 Residential and Commerciala Electric Power

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

By Sector, September 2017 16

Million Barrels per Day

13.985 12

8

4.628 4

0.456

0.417

0.095

0 Residential

Commercial

a

Industrial

a

Transportation

Electric Power

Sector Shares 1949 and 2016 1949

2016

80 70

Percent

60

54

40 28

24

20 10

6

3

3

2

0 Residential

Commercial

a Includes combined-heat-and-power plants and a small number of electricity-only plants.

66

Industrial

Transportation

1

Electric Power

Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum. Sources: Tables 3.7a–3.7c.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 3.7a Petroleum Consumption: Residential and Commercial Sectors (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commercial Sectora

Residential Sector HGLb Distillate Fuel Oil 1950 Average 1955 Average 1960 Average 1965 Average 1970 Average 1975 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

Propanec

HGLb Kerosene

Total

Distillate Fuel Oil

Propanec

Kerosene

Motor Petroleum Gasolined,e Coke

Residual Fuel Oil

Total

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

390 562 736 805 883 850 617 514 460 426 424 427 404 438 433 402 335 342 354 276 266 248 228 233 253

104 144 217 275 392 365 222 224 252 282 395 375 384 389 364 366 318 345 394 391 379 348 286 337 329

168 179 171 161 144 78 51 77 31 36 46 46 29 34 41 40 32 21 10 13 14 9 4 4 7

662 885 1,123 1,242 1,419 1,293 890 815 742 743 865 849 817 861 839 809 685 708 758 680 659 605 518 574 589

123 177 232 251 276 276 243 297 252 225 230 239 209 233 221 210 189 181 181 187 185 186 168 163 169

28 38 58 74 102 92 63 68 73 78 107 102 101 112 108 94 88 87 113 99 100 101 98 110 108

23 24 23 26 30 24 20 16 6 11 14 15 8 9 10 10 7 4 2 2 2 2 1 (s) 1

52 69 35 40 45 46 56 50 58 10 23 20 24 32 23 24 26 32 24 28 28 24 21 22 29

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0 (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

185 209 243 281 311 214 245 99 100 62 40 30 35 48 53 50 33 33 31 31 27 23 14 11 3

411 519 590 672 764 653 626 530 489 385 415 406 376 434 416 389 343 337 351 348 343 335 301 306 311

2015 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

424 405 290 181 175 106 118 147 144 353 391 412 262

350 344 295 276 276 286 293 282 271 294 311 336 301

2 7 9 1 16 (s) 1 1 (s) 2 1 19 5

776 757 594 457 467 393 412 430 415 649 704 766 568

277 265 190 118 114 69 77 96 94 230 256 269 171

116 114 98 92 92 95 97 94 90 98 103 112 100

(s) 1 1 (s) 2 (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 3 1

e 195

200 205 208 209 213 214 214 210 209 206 207 208

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 0 0 (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2

592 583 496 419 419 378 390 405 396 540 568 593 481

2016 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

378 395 261 237 208 147 151 118 185 253 282 442 254

355 343 312 288 289 267 287 278 290 298 300 326 303

1 2 8 3 6 8 8 1 11 15 2 16 7

735 739 581 527 503 422 447 396 485 566 583 785 564

247 258 170 155 136 96 99 77 121 165 184 289 166

118 114 104 96 96 89 95 92 96 99 100 108 101

(s) (s) 1 (s) 1 1 1 (s) 1 2 (s) 2 1

196 209 212 208 213 217 217 219 214 206 209 210 211

(s) (s) (s) (s) 0 (s) (s) 0 0 0 (s) (s) (s)

4 4 3 2 2 1 2 1 2 3 3 5 3

565 585 490 461 448 405 414 389 435 474 496 614 481

2017 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. 9-Month Average .....

423 348 295 244 169 210 129 168 170 239

362 317 309 295 283 296 300 254 276 299

10 5 1 5 2 2 (s) 1 11 4

795 670 606 544 454 508 429 422 456 542

276 227 193 159 110 137 84 110 111 156

120 105 103 98 94 98 100 84 92 99

1 1 (s) 1 (s) (s) (s) (s) 1 1

192 203 212 209 217 221 216 221 211 211

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

4 4 3 2 2 2 1 2 2 2

595 540 511 470 423 459 402 417 417 470

2016 9-Month Average ..... 2015 9-Month Average .....

230 220

301 297

5 4

536 521

150 144

100 99

1 1

212 208

(s) (s)

2 1

465 452

a Commercial sector fuel use, including that at commercial combined-heat-andpower (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. b Hydrocarbon gas liquids. c Propane and propylene. d Finished motor gasoline. Through 1963, also includes special naphthas. Beginning in 1993, also includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. e There is a discontinuity in this time series between 2014 and 2015 due to a change in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end-use sectors. Beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of motor gasoline consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector share is smaller. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 500 barrels per day and greater than -500

barrels per day. Notes: • Data are estimates. • For total petroleum consumption by all sectors, see petroleum products supplied data in Table 3.5. Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the term "petroleum consumption" in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. See Note 1, "Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum Consumption," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

67

Table 3.7b Petroleum Consumption: Industrial Sector (Thousand Barrels per Day) Industrial Sectora Asphalt and Road Oil 1950 Average 1955 Average 1960 Average 1965 Average 1970 Average 1975 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

HGLb Distillate Fuel Oil

Propanec

Totald

Motor Petroleum Kerosene Lubricants Gasolinee,f Coke

Residual Fuel Oil

Otherg

Total

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

180 254 302 368 447 419 396 425 483 486 525 519 512 503 537 546 521 494 417 360 362 355 340 323 327

328 466 476 541 577 630 621 526 541 532 563 611 566 551 570 594 594 595 637 509 547 586 602 601 648

NA NA NA NA 256 302 516 569 576 723 724 654 754 701 790 749 789 787 619 650 660 680 765 796 696

100 212 333 470 699 863 1,293 1,408 1,364 1,727 1,923 1,713 1,801 1,691 1,778 1,666 1,710 1,744 1,510 1,617 1,766 1,769 1,888 2,022 1,972

132 116 78 80 89 58 87 21 6 7 8 11 7 12 14 19 14 6 2 2 4 2 1 1 1

43 47 48 62 70 68 82 75 84 80 86 79 78 72 73 72 71 73 67 61 68 64 59 62 65

131 173 198 179 150 116 82 114 97 105 79 155 163 171 195 187 198 161 131 128 140 138 136 142 114

41 67 149 202 203 246 234 261 325 328 361 390 383 375 423 404 425 412 394 363 310 295 319 295 290

617 686 689 689 708 658 586 326 179 147 105 89 83 96 108 123 104 84 84 57 52 59 30 21 18

250 366 435 657 866 982 1,460 909 1,225 1,180 1,255 1,325 1,342 1,448 1,525 1,489 1,557 1,487 1,317 1,175 1,251 1,240 1,165 1,227 1,151

1,822 2,387 2,708 3,247 3,808 4,038 4,842 4,065 4,304 4,594 4,903 4,892 4,934 4,918 5,222 5,100 5,193 5,056 4,559 4,272 4,500 4,507 4,540 4,694 4,586

2015 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

200 215 222 303 343 472 480 510 469 400 287 212 343

714 826 658 650 466 543 515 486 662 444 328 396 555

1,080 1,080 807 573 496 644 612 640 584 664 725 905 733

2,422 2,401 2,127 1,973 1,928 2,021 2,050 2,052 1,897 2,121 2,141 2,347 2,122

(s) 1 1 (s) 3 (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 3 1

79 63 78 76 82 68 80 62 65 75 54 67 71

f 132

135 138 140 141 144 144 144 142 141 139 139 140

342 146 334 330 330 357 335 350 222 281 264 239 295

17 8 16 11 14 12 18 17 15 14 17 18 15

1,079 1,173 1,075 1,126 1,281 1,231 1,265 1,156 1,106 951 1,159 1,231 1,153

4,984 4,967 4,650 4,609 4,588 4,848 4,887 4,777 4,577 4,426 4,387 4,653 4,695

2016 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

195 230 254 301 394 482 472 524 439 417 310 195 351

R 602 R 655

1,068 1,054 748 540 554 450 542 555 616 612 715 932 698

2,451 2,309 2,168 1,992 1,970 1,889 2,011 1,912 2,016 2,131 2,092 2,310 2,104

(s) (s) 1 (s) 1 1 1 (s) 2 2 (s) 3 1

70 76 73 67 68 75 59 64 64 68 62 59 67

132 141 143 140 144 146 146 148 145 139 141 141 142

326 305 306 231 218 185 259 371 223 272 436 329 289

20

R 4,922 R 5,090

20 21 R 25 19 R 16 R 22 19 19 20

1,126 1,362 1,107 1,205 1,075 1,159 1,103 1,261 1,171 1,175 1,101 1,201 1,170

2017 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. 9-Month Average .....

192 241 265 318 365 477 441 542 447 366

R 522 R 602

741 R 488 R 624 525 428 R 550 593 563

1,171 869 701 631 460 419 493 490 683 656

2,532 2,232 2,193 2,089 2,012 2,016 2,084 1,783 1,953 2,099

2 1 (s) 1 (s) (s) (s) (s) 2 1

54 64 68 54 56 56 51 47 56 56

130 137 143 141 146 149 146 149 142 142

355 215 132 297 288 215 R 409 262 308 277

29 16 23 20 23 26 17 21 19 22

1,127 1,148 1,292 1,309 1,201 1,266 1,215 1,196 1,108 1,207

R 4,943 R 4,656 R 4,857 R 4,717 R 4,715

2016 9-Month Average ..... 2015 9-Month Average .....

366 358

534 611

680 722

2,080 2,095

1 1

68 73

143 140

270 307

21 14

1,173 1,166

4,655 4,764

654 500 443 517 R 337 530 575 562 R 584 R 521 R 539

a Industrial sector fuel use, including that at industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants. b Hydrocarbon gas liquids. c Propane and propylene. Through 1983, also includes 40% of "ButanePropane Mixtures" and 30% of "Ethane-Propane Mixtures." d Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, natural gasoline (pentanes plus), and refinery olefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene). Through 1983, also includes plant condensate and unfractionated stream. e Finished motor gasoline. Through 1963, also includes special naphthas. Beginning in 1993, also includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. f There is a discontinuity in this time series between 2014 and 2015 due to a change in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end-use sectors. Beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of motor gasoline consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector share is smaller. g Petrochemical feedstocks, still gas (refinery gas), waxes, and miscellaneous products. Beginning in 1964, also includes special naphthas. Beginning in 1981,

68

R 12 R 24 R 29

4,729 R 4,466 R 4,332 R 4,475

4,416 4,828 4,649 R 4,788 R 4,744 R 4,778 4,684

4,729 R 4,790 R 4,549

4,628 4,733

also includes negative barrels per day of distillate and residual fuel oil reclassified as unfinished oils, and other products (from both primary and secondary supply) reclassified as gasoline blending components. Beginning in 1983, also includes crude oil burned as fuel. Beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 500 barrels per day and greater than -500 barrels per day. Notes: • Data are estimates. • For total petroleum consumption by all sectors, see petroleum products supplied data in Table 3.5. Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the term "petroleum consumption" in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. See Note 1, "Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum Consumption," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 3.7c Petroleum Consumption: Transportation and Electric Power Sectors (Thousand Barrels per Day) Electric Power Sectora

Transportation Sector HGLb Aviation Gasoline 1950 Average 1955 Average 1960 Average 1965 Average 1970 Average 1975 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

Distillate Fuel Oilc

Propaned

Jet Fuele (e)

Lubricants

Motor Gasolinef,g

Residual Fuel Oil

Total

Distillate Fuel Oilh

Petroleum Coke

Residual Fuel Oili

Total

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

108 192 161 120 55 39 35 27 24 21 20 19 18 16 17 19 18 17 15 14 15 15 14 12 12

226 372 418 514 738 998 1,311 1,491 1,722 1,973 2,422 2,489 2,536 2,629 2,783 2,858 3,017 3,037 2,738 2,626 2,764 2,849 2,719 2,804 2,928

2 9 13 23 32 31 13 21 16 13 8 10 10 13 14 20 20 16 29 20 21 24 26 32 34

154 371 602 967 992 1,062 1,218 1,522 1,514 1,725 1,655 1,614 1,578 1,630 1,679 1,633 1,622 1,539 1,393 1,432 1,425 1,398 1,434 1,470

64 70 68 67 66 70 77 71 80 76 81 74 73 68 69 68 67 69 64 57 64 61 56 59 61

2,433 3,221 3,736 4,374 5,589 6,512 6,441 6,667 7,080 7,674 8,370 8,435 8,662 8,733 8,887 8,948 9,029 9,093 8,834 8,841 8,824 8,591 8,525 8,679 8,778

524 440 367 336 332 310 608 342 443 397 386 255 295 249 321 365 395 433 402 344 389 338 291 253 195

3,356 4,458 5,135 6,036 7,778 8,951 9,546 9,838 10,888 11,668 13,012 12,938 13,208 13,286 13,720 13,957 14,178 14,287 13,621 13,297 13,508 13,303 13,029 13,274 13,477

15 15 10 14 66 107 79 40 45 51 82 80 60 76 52 54 35 42 34 33 38 30 25 26 39

NA NA NA NA 9 1 2 3 14 37 45 47 80 79 101 111 97 78 70 63 65 66 41 59 57

192 191 231 302 853 1,280 1,069 435 507 247 378 437 287 379 382 382 157 173 104 79 67 41 33 34 41

207 206 241 316 928 1,388 1,151 478 566 334 505 564 427 534 535 547 289 293 209 175 170 137 99 119 137

2015 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

8 8 9 14 13 12 18 11 11 14 9 9 11

2,729 2,931 2,913 3,058 2,996 3,153 3,168 3,165 3,142 2,967 2,740 2,731 2,974

33 32 28 26 26 27 28 27 26 28 29 32 28

1,375 1,445 1,548 1,527 1,519 1,654 1,650 1,601 1,534 1,614 1,524 1,578 1,548

74 60 74 72 77 64 76 59 62 70 51 63 67

g 8,312

218 35 217 133 194 158 269 247 221 193 250 270 202

12,750 13,006 13,503 13,672 13,738 14,130 14,320 14,212 13,932 13,781 13,370 13,484 13,662

41 132 27 21 26 26 23 22 21 20 26 24 33

61 71 43 47 53 50 65 61 61 47 42 43 54

57 149 28 27 25 29 38 33 30 27 30 26 41

159 352 97 95 105 105 126 116 112 94 99 93 128

2016 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

7 11 10 14 11 12 12 14 11 10 12 10 11

R 2,583 R 2,658

33 32 29 27 27 25 27 26 27 28 28 31 29

1,449 1,534 1,547 1,566 1,578 1,723 1,720 1,722 1,635 1,610 1,632 1,653 1,614

66 72 69 64 64 71 56 60 61 64 59 56 63

8,326 8,872 9,018 8,828 9,060 9,244 9,215 9,320 9,125 8,749 8,884 8,932 8,964

R 128 R 313 R 394 R 277 R 287

249

R 12,714 R 13,307 R 13,826 R 13,780 R 13,938 R 14,431

R 40 R 31 R 22 R 21 R 26

34 39

354 256 207 R 286 R 259 R 253 R 272

14,368 14,530 R 14,076 R 13,733 R 13,735 R 13,695 R 13,846

23 26 R 24 R 21 R 20 R 27 R 30 R 26

53 55 58 63 57 61 63 66 62 39 49 53 57

R 127 R 126 R 102 R 107 R 107 R 114 R 132 R 131

2017 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. 9-Month Average .....

9 9 10 10 11 17 13 14 10 11

R 2,530 R 2,702

1,593 1,525 1,669 1,617 1,671 1,762 1,728 1,769 1,639 1,665

51 60 64 51 52 53 48 44 52 53

8,179 8,646 8,998 8,898 9,227 9,397 9,210 9,400 8,976 8,995

399 224

R 13,195

R 30 R 26

R 46

3,075 3,045 3,144 3,023 2,928

34 30 29 28 27 28 28 24 26 28

2016 9-Month Average ..... 2015 9-Month Average .....

11 12

2,899 3,028

28 28

1,608 1,540

65 69

9,001 8,834

2,840

R 2,886

2,920 3,070 2,984 3,131 3,011 2,987 R 2,861 2,761 2,892

2,898

R 2,878 R 3,041

a Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only; beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities and independent power producers. b Hydrocarbon gas liquids. c Beginning in 2009, includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel) blended into distillate fuel oil. d Propane and propylene. e Beginning in 1957, includes kerosene-type jet fuel. For 1952–2004, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. (Through 1951, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in the products from which it was blended—gasoline, kerosene, and distillate fuel oil. Beginning in 2005, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in "Other" on Table 3.7b.) f Finished motor gasoline. Through 1963, also includes special naphthas. Beginning in 1993, also includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. g There is a discontinuity in this time series between 2014 and 2015 due to a change in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end-use sectors. Beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of motor gasoline consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector share is smaller. h Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. Through 1979, data are for gas turbine and internal

8,494 8,714 8,842 8,912 9,061 9,112 9,102 8,937 8,895 8,767 8,801 8,831

R 312 R 272

12,796

13,982 13,754

26

R 22 R 25

316 R 359 227 R 282 259 295

R 14,344 R 14,690

13,985 13,976

22 22 21 25 24

275 190

13,887 13,701

26 37

14,299

R 14,677

R 22 R 23

24

R 29

43 41 29 30 R 25 R 29 R 31

111

R 89 R 101 R 112 R 113 R 115 R 99 R 92 R 71 R 103

52 45 43 46

28 26 24 24 27 30 R 26 30 28 27

60 57

32 45

117 139

57

43 25

R 50 R 55

108

R 100 R 95

95 98

combustion plant use of petroleum. Through 2000, electric utility data also include small amounts of kerosene and jet fuel. i Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. Through 1979, data are for steam plant use of petroleum. Through 2000, electric utility data also include a small amount of fuel oil no. 4. R=Revised. NA=Not available. Notes: • Transportation sector data are estimates. • For total petroleum consumption by all sectors, see petroleum products supplied data in Table 3.5. Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the term "petroleum consumption" in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. Other measurements of consumption by fuel type or sector may differ. For example, jet fuel product supplied may not equal jet fuel consumed by U.S-flagged aircraft. See Note 1, "Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum Consumption," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

69

Figure 3.8a Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption by End-Use Sector, 1949–2016 (Quadrillion Btu) Residential and Commerciala Sectors, Selected Products 3

2 Distillate Fuel Oil 1 Residual Fuel Oil

HGLb Kerosene

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Industriala Sector, Selected Products 3

HGLb 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 1 Asphalt and Road Oil 0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

2000

2005

2010

2015

Transportation Sector, Selected Products 20

Motor Gasolinec

15

10

5

Distillate Fuel Oild Jet Fuele

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

a Includes combined-heat-and-power plants and a small number of electricity-only plants. b Hydrocarbon gas liquids. c Beginning in 1993, includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. d Beginning in 2009, includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel) blended into distillate fuel oil. e Beginning in 2005, includes kerosene-type jet fuel only.

70

1985

1990

1995

Note: Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the term “petroleum consumption” in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. Other measurements of consumption by fuel type or sector may differ. For example, jet fuel product supplied may not equal jet fuel consumed by U.S.-flagged aircraft. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum. Sources: Tables 3.8a–3.8c.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Figure 3.8b Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption by End-Use Sector, Monthly (Quadrillion Btu) Residential and Commerciala Sectors, Selected Products 0.20

0.15 Distillate Fuel Oil 0.10

0.05

HGLb Residual Fuel Oil

0.00 J

F M A M J J A 2015

S O N D

J

F M A M J

J

A

S O N D

J

F M A M J J A 2017

S O N D

J

F M A M J

A

S O N D

F M A M J J A 2017

S O N D

2016

Industriala Sector, Selected Products 0.3

HGLb 0.2

Distillate Fuel Oil 0.1

Asphalt and Road Oil 0.0 J

F M A M J

J

A

S O N D

J

F M A M J

2015

J

A

S O N D

2016

J

2017

Transportation Sector, Selected Products 1.8 Motor Gasolinec 1.2

Distillate Fuel Oild

0.6

Jet Fuele 0.0 J

F M A M J J 2015

A

S O N D

J

F M A M J J A 2016

a Includes combined-heat-and-power plants and a small number of electricity-only plants. b Hydrocarbon gas liquids. c Includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. d Includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel) blended into distillate fuel oil. e Includes kerosene-type jet fuel only.

S O N D

J

Note: Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the term “petroleum consumption” in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. Other measurements of consumption by fuel type or sector may differ. For example, jet fuel product supplied may not equal jet fuel consumed by U.S.-flagged aircraft. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum. Sources: Tables 3.8a–3.8c.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

71

Table 3.8a Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption: Residential and Commercial Sectors (Trillion Btu) Commercial Sectora

Residential Sector HGLb Distillate Fuel Oil 1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Propanec

HGLb Kerosene

Total

Distillate Fuel Oil

Propanec

Kerosene

Motor Petroleum Gasolined,e Coke

Residual Fuel Oil

Total

...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ......................

829 1,194 1,568 1,713 1,878 1,807 1,316 1,092 978 904 904 907 859 931 923 853 709 721 750 582 562 523 482 491 533

146 202 305 385 549 512 311 314 352 395 555 526 537 544 512 513 446 484 553 547 530 487 401 472 461

347 371 354 334 298 161 107 159 64 74 95 95 60 70 85 84 66 44 21 28 29 19 8 8 14

1,322 1,767 2,227 2,432 2,725 2,479 1,734 1,565 1,394 1,373 1,553 1,528 1,456 1,546 1,519 1,450 1,221 1,249 1,324 1,157 1,121 1,028 891 971 1,008

262 377 494 534 587 587 518 631 536 478 490 508 444 496 470 447 400 381 384 395 391 391 355 344 357

39 54 81 103 143 129 88 95 102 109 150 143 141 157 152 131 123 121 158 139 140 141 137 154 151

47 51 48 54 61 49 41 33 12 22 30 31 16 19 20 22 15 9 4 4 5 3 1 1 2

100 133 67 77 86 89 107 96 111 18 45 37 45 60 45 46 48 60 45 52 52 44 39 40 54

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0 (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

424 480 559 645 714 492 565 228 230 141 92 70 80 111 122 116 75 75 71 71 62 54 31 24 8

872 1,095 1,248 1,413 1,592 1,346 1,318 1,083 991 769 807 789 726 842 810 762 662 648 663 662 650 633 564 563 572

2015 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

76 66 52 31 31 18 21 26 25 63 68 74 551

42 37 35 32 33 33 35 34 31 35 36 40 421

(s) 1 2 (s) 3 (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 3 10

118 104 89 63 67 51 56 60 56 98 104 117 983

50 43 34 20 20 12 14 17 16 41 44 48 360

14 12 12 11 11 11 12 11 10 12 12 13 140

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

e 31

28 32 32 33 32 34 34 32 33 31 32 383

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 0 0 (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

1 (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1 4

95 84 78 63 65 55 59 62 59 86 88 95 889

2016 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

68 66 47 41 37 25 27 21 32 45 49 79 538

42 38 37 33 34 31 34 33 33 35 34 39 425

(s) (s) 1 (s) 1 1 1 (s) 2 3 (s) 3 14

110 104 85 75 73 58 63 54 67 83 84 121 976

44 43 31 27 24 17 18 14 21 30 32 52 351

14 13 12 11 11 10 11 11 11 12 11 13 141

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 2

31 31 33 31 33 33 34 34 33 32 32 33 390

(s) (s) (s) (s) 0 (s) (s) 0 0 0 (s) (s) (s)

1 1 1 (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1 1 1 6

90 87 77 70 70 60 64 59 65 74 76 99 890

2017 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. 9-Month Total .......

76 56 53 42 30 36 23 30 29 376

43 34 37 34 34 34 36 30 32 313

2 1 (s) 1 (s) (s) (s) (s) 2 6

121 91 90 77 64 71 59 60 63 696

49 37 35 28 20 24 15 20 19 246

14 11 12 11 11 11 12 10 11 104

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

30 29 33 32 34 34 34 35 32 292

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

1 1 1 (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 4

95 78 81 71 65 69 61 65 62 647

2016 9-Month Total ....... 2015 9-Month Total .......

364 347

316 311

8 6

689 664

238 226

105 103

1 1

293 287

(s) (s)

4 2

642 620

a Commercial sector fuel use, including that at commercial combined-heat-andpower (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. b Hydrocarbon gas liquids. c Propane and propylene. d Finished motor gasoline. Through 1963, also includes special naphthas. Beginning in 1993, also includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. e There is a discontinuity in this time series between 2014 and 2015 due to a change in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end-use sectors. Beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of motor gasoline consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector share is smaller. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu and greater than -0.5 trillion Btu.

72

Notes: • Data are estimates. • For total heat content of petroleum consumption by all sectors, see data for heat content of petroleum products supplied in Table 3.6. Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the term "petroleum consumption" in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. See Note 1, "Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum Consumption," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 3.8b Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption: Industrial Sector (Trillion Btu) Industrial Sectora HGLb

Asphalt and Road Oil

Distillate Fuel Oil

Propanec

Totald

...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ......................

435 615 734 890 1,082 1,014 962 1,029 1,170 1,178 1,276 1,257 1,240 1,220 1,304 1,323 1,261 1,197 1,012 873 878 859 827 783 793

698 991 1,016 1,150 1,226 1,339 1,324 1,119 1,150 1,130 1,199 1,299 1,203 1,169 1,213 1,262 1,258 1,256 1,348 1,073 1,153 1,236 1,271 1,266 1,366

NA NA NA NA 359 422 725 797 807 1,013 1,016 916 1,055 981 1,109 1,049 1,105 1,102 870 910 924 952 1,074 1,115 975

156 323 507 712 953 1,161 1,763 1,871 1,832 2,328 2,571 2,278 2,383 2,249 2,364 2,205 2,244 2,285 1,976 2,077 2,276 2,237 2,416 2,597 2,513

274 241 161 165 185 119 181 44 12 15 16 23 14 24 28 39 30 13 4 4 7 4 2 1 3

94 103 107 137 155 149 182 166 186 178 190 174 172 159 161 160 156 161 150 135 149 142 130 138 144

251 332 381 342 288 223 158 218 185 200 150 295 309 324 371 355 374 302 246 238 260 255 252 263 210

2015 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

41 40 46 60 70 94 99 105 93 82 57 44 832

128 134 118 113 83 94 92 87 115 80 57 71 1,170

128 116 96 66 59 74 73 76 67 79 83 108 1,026

267 237 235 208 209 214 224 227 197 232 223 256 2,730

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1 2

15 11 15 14 15 12 15 12 12 14 10 13 157

f 21

2016 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

40 44 52 60 81 96 97 108 87 86 62 40 853

108 110 117 87 79 R 89 60 95 100 101 101 93 R 1,139

127 117 89 62 66 52 64 66 71 73 82 111 980

269 234 233 207 211 197 215 204 212 232 217 252 2,683

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 2

2017 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. 9-Month Total .......

39 45 54 63 75 95 91 112 89 663

93 97 133 84 112 91 77 98 103 888

139 93 83 73 55 48 59 58 79 687

276 216 237 218 215 205 223 189 204 1,984

2016 9-Month Total ....... 2015 9-Month Total .......

666 649

844 963

714 756

1,982 2,018

1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Motor Kerosene Lubricants Gasolinee,f

a Industrial sector fuel use, including that at industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants. b Hydrocarbon gas liquids. c Propane and propylene. Through 1983, also includes 40% of "ButanePropane Mixtures" and 30% of "Ethane-Propane Mixtures." d Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, natural gasoline (pentanes plus), and refinery olefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene). Through 1983, also includes plant condensate and unfractionated stream. e Finished motor gasoline. Through 1963, also includes special naphthas. Beginning in 1993, also includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. f There is a discontinuity in this time series between 2014 and 2015 due to a change in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end-use sectors. Beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of motor gasoline consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector share is smaller. g Petrochemical feedstocks, still gas (refinery gas), waxes, and miscellaneous products. Beginning in 1964, also includes special naphthas. Beginning in 1981,

Petroleum Coke

Residual Fuel Oil

Otherg

Total

90 147 328 444 446 540 516 575 714 721 796 858 842 825 937 894 938 910 870 805 694 663 717 663 653

1,416 1,573 1,584 1,582 1,624 1,509 1,349 748 411 337 241 203 190 220 249 281 239 193 194 130 120 135 70 48 41

546 798 947 1,390 1,817 2,071 3,073 1,945 2,589 2,499 2,636 2,793 2,816 3,043 3,205 3,122 3,276 3,134 2,788 2,483 2,645 2,621 2,474 2,583 2,430

3,960 5,123 5,766 6,813 7,776 8,127 9,509 7,714 8,251 8,587 9,075 9,179 9,170 9,233 9,832 9,641 9,777 9,452 8,588 7,819 8,183 8,151 8,160 8,343 8,152

19 22 21 22 22 23 23 21 22 21 22 258

65 26 63 61 63 66 64 67 41 54 49 46 663

3 1 3 2 3 2 4 3 3 3 3 4 34

192 190 193 196 231 215 228 207 192 170 201 221 2,435

732 657 694 675 697 718 748 730 674 657 620 675 8,280

13 13 14 12 13 14 11 12 12 13 11 11 149

21 21 22 21 23 22 23 23 22 22 21 22 263

62 55 59 43 42 35 50 71 42 52 80 63 653

4 2 4 4 5 4 3 4 4 4 R 47

208 235 205 215 199 208 205 233 210 217 197 222 2,553

725 713 707 651 651 665 667 750 687 726 694 707 8,343

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

10 11 13 10 10 10 10 9 10 93

20 19 22 21 23 23 23 23 22 197

55 55 40 78 50 57 466

6 3 4 4 R5 5 3 4 4 37

208 190 237 234 222 226 225 221 199 1,962

722 619 727 689 716 R 695 729 R 707 687 6,291

1 1

114 121

198 193

458 515

36 24

1,917 1,843

6,216 6,327

68 37 R 26

R5 R6

also includes negative barrels per day of distillate and residual fuel oil reclassified as unfinished oils, and other products (from both primary and secondary supply) reclassified as gasoline blending components. Beginning in 1983, also includes crude oil burned as fuel. Beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu and greater than -0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: • Data are estimates. • For total heat content of petroleum consumption by all sectors, see data for heat content of petroleum products supplied in Table 3.6. Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the term "petroleum consumption" in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. See Note 1, "Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum Consumption," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

73

Table 3.8c Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption: Transportation and Electric Power Sectors (Trillion Btu) Electric Power Sectora

Transportation Sector HGLb Aviation Gasoline

Distillate Fuel Oilc

Propaned

Jet Fuele

Lubricants

Residual Fuel Oil

Total

Distillate Fuel Oilh

Petroleum Coke

Residual Fuel Oili

Total

...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ......................

199 354 298 222 100 71 64 50 45 40 36 35 34 30 31 35 33 32 28 27 27 27 25 22 22

480 791 892 1,093 1,569 2,121 2,795 3,170 3,661 4,191 5,159 5,286 5,387 5,584 5,925 6,068 6,390 6,411 5,792 5,541 5,828 6,003 5,741 5,902 6,162

3 13 19 32 44 43 18 30 23 18 12 14 14 18 19 28 27 22 40 28 29 34 37 44 47

(e) 301 739 1,215 1,973 2,029 2,179 2,497 3,129 3,132 3,580 3,426 3,340 3,265 3,383 3,475 3,379 3,358 3,193 2,883 2,963 2,950 2,901 2,969 3,042

141 155 152 149 147 155 172 156 176 168 179 164 162 150 152 151 147 152 141 127 141 134 123 130 136

4,664 6,175 7,183 8,386 10,716 12,485 12,383 12,784 13,575 14,616 15,973 16,053 16,474 16,585 16,917 16,977 17,108 17,109 16,574 16,460 16,356 15,892 15,798 16,036 16,212

1,201 1,009 844 770 761 711 1,398 786 1,016 911 888 586 677 571 740 837 906 994 926 791 892 776 671 581 447

6,690 8,799 10,125 11,866 15,310 17,615 19,009 19,472 21,626 23,075 25,827 25,564 26,089 26,203 27,166 27,573 27,991 28,077 26,695 25,857 26,236 25,817 25,296 25,685 26,067

32 32 22 29 141 226 169 85 97 108 175 170 127 161 111 114 73 89 73 70 80 64 52 55 82

NA NA NA NA 19 2 5 7 30 81 99 103 175 175 211 231 203 163 146 132 137 138 85 123 118

440 439 530 693 1,958 2,937 2,459 998 1,163 566 871 1,003 659 869 879 876 361 397 240 181 154 93 77 77 95

472 471 553 722 2,117 3,166 2,634 1,090 1,289 755 1,144 1,276 961 1,205 1,201 1,222 637 648 459 382 370 295 214 255 295

2015 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

1 1 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 21

488 473 521 529 535 545 566 566 543 530 474 488 6,259

4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 40

242 229 272 260 267 281 290 281 261 284 259 277 3,204

14 10 14 13 15 12 14 11 11 13 9 12 148

g 1,304

42 6 42 25 38 30 52 48 42 38 47 53 463

2,095 1,927 2,221 2,174 2,258 2,249 2,358 2,339 2,218 2,265 2,125 2,216 26,445

7 21 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 70

11 11 8 8 9 9 11 11 10 8 7 8 112

11 26 5 5 5 6 7 6 6 5 6 5 94

29 59 18 17 19 19 23 21 20 17 18 17 276

2016 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 20

462

4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 40

255 252 272 266 277 293 302 303 278 283 278 291 3,350

12 13 13 12 12 13 10 11 11 12 11 11 141

1,306 1,302 1,414 1,340 1,421 1,403 1,445 1,462 1,385 1,372 1,348 1,401 16,598

R 48 R 23

R 2,039

2,088

508 499 522 531 533 R 560 521 534 495 493 R 6,101

61 R 74 54 54 69 50 39 56 49 R 49 R 627

2,273 2,197 2,291 R 2,298 2,365 2,390 R 2,238 R 2,261 R 2,185 2,250 R 26,877

7 5 4 R4 5 4 5 4 4 R4 R5 5 R 55

9 9 10 11 10 11 11 12 11 7 8 9 118

7 7 4 4 5 5 8 8 5 6 5 6 R 71

18 R 19 19 20 24 24 20 16 R 18 20 R 244

2017 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. 9-Month Total .......

1 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 16

452 436 518 498 543 532 544 562 523 4,608

4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 30

280 242 293 275 294 300 304 311 279 2,577

10 10 12 9 10 10 9 8 10 87

1,283 1,225 1,411 1,350 1,447 1,426 1,444 1,474 1,362 12,423

78 39 61 51 62 68 44 55 49 507

2,108 1,957 2,301 2,189 2,360 2,341 2,351 2,415 2,227 20,248

R5

10

4 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 38

R7

8 4 9 R9 9 8 7 72

5 5 5 5 5 6 5 6 5 47

21 16 17 13 19 19 18 R 17 17 157

2016 9-Month Total ....... 2015 9-Month Total .......

16 16

4,579 4,767

30 29

2,499 2,384

107 114

12,477 12,203

473 326

20,181 19,839

41 58

94 88

55 78

189 224

1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

R 444

a Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only; beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities and independent power producers. b Hydrocarbon gas liquids. c Beginning in 2009, includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel) blended into distillate fuel oil. d Propane and propylene. e Beginning in 1957, includes kerosene-type jet fuel. For 1952–2004, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. (Through 1951, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in the products from which it was blended—gasoline, kerosene, and distillate fuel oil. Beginning in 2005, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in "Other" on Table 3.8b.) f Finished motor gasoline. Through 1963, also includes special naphthas. Beginning in 1993, also includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. g There is a discontinuity in this time series between 2014 and 2015 due to a change in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end-use sectors. Beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of motor gasoline consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector share is smaller. h Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. Through 1979, data are for gas turbine and internal

74

Motor Gasolinef,g

1,203 1,367 1,342 1,398 1,375 1,429 1,428 1,357 1,395 1,331 1,381 16,310

23

R 22

combustion plant use of petroleum. Through 2000, electric utility data also include small amounts of kerosene and jet fuel. i Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. Through 1979, data are for steam plant use of petroleum. Through 2000, electric utility data also include a small amount of fuel oil no. 4. R=Revised. NA=Not available. Notes: • Transportation sector data are estimates. • For total heat content of petroleum consumption by all sectors, see data for heat content of petroleum products supplied in Table 3.6. Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the term "petroleum consumption" in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. Other measurements of consumption by fuel type or sector may differ. For example, jet fuel product supplied may not equal jet fuel consumed by U.S.-flagged aircraft. See Note 1, "Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum Consumption," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Petroleum Note 1. Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum Consumption. Total petroleum products supplied is the sum of the products supplied for each petroleum product, crude oil, unfinished oils, and gasoline blending components. This also includes petroleum products supplied for non-combustion use in the industrial and transportation sectors (see Tables 1.11a and 1.11b). In general, except for crude oil, product supplied of each product is computed as follows: field production, plus renewable fuels and oxygenate plant net production, plus refinery and blender net production, plus imports, plus net receipts, plus adjustments, minus stock change, minus refinery and blender net inputs, minus exports. Crude oil product supplied is the sum of crude oil burned on leases and at pipeline pump stations as reported on Form EIA-813, “Monthly Crude Oil Report.” Prior to 1983, crude oil burned on leases and used at pipeline pump stations was reported as either distillate or residual fuel oil and was included as product supplied for these products. Petroleum product supplied (see Tables 3.5 and 3.6) is an approximation of petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the term “Petroleum Consumption” in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. Note 2. Petroleum Survey Respondents. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) uses a number of sources and methods to maintain the survey respondent lists. On a regular basis, survey managers review such industry publications as the Oil & Gas Journal and Oil Daily for information on facilities or companies starting up or closing down operations. Those sources are augmented by articles in newspapers, communications from respondents indicating changes in status, and information received from survey systems. To supplement routine frames maintenance and to provide more thorough coverage, a comprehensive frames investigation is conducted every 3 years. This investigation results in the reassessment and recompilation of the complete frame for each survey. The effort also includes the evaluation of the impact of potential frame changes on the historical time series of data from these respondents. The results of this frame study are usually implemented in January to provide a full year under the same frame. Note 3. Historical Petroleum Data. Detailed information on petroleum data through 1993 can be found in Notes 1–6 on pages 60 and 61 in the July 2013 Monthly Energy Review (MER) at

finished motor gasoline product supplied data to more accurately account for fuel ethanol and motor gasoline blending components blended into finished motor gasoline. Note 3, “Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils”: In 1981, EIA eliminated the requirement to report crude oil in pipelines or burned on leases as either distillate or residual fuel oil. Note 4, “Petroleum New Stock Basis”: In 1975, 1979, 1981, and 1983, EIA added numerous respondents to bulk terminal and pipeline surveys; in 1984, EIA made changes in the reporting of natural gas liquids; and in 1993, EIA changed how it collected bulk terminal and pipeline stocks of oxygenates. These changes affected stocks reported and stock change calculations. Note 5, “Stocks of Alaskan Crude Oil”: In 1981, EIA began to include data for stocks of Alaskan crude oil in transit. Note 6, “Petroleum Data Discrepancies”: In 1976, 1978, and 1979, there are some small discrepancies between data in the MER and the Petroleum Supply Annual.

Table 3.1 Sources 1949–1975: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual reports. 1976–1980: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual reports. 1981–2001: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA), annual reports. 2002 forward: EIA, PSA, annual reports, and unpublished revisions; Petroleum Supply Monthly, monthly reports; revisions to crude oil production, total field production, and adjustments (based on crude oil production data from: Form EIA-914, “Monthly Crude Oil, Lease Condensate, and Natural Gas Production Report”; state government agencies; U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement, and predecessor agencies; and Form EIA-182, “Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report”); and, for the current two months, Weekly Petroleum Status Report data system and Monthly Energy Review data system calculations.

Table 3.6 Sources Asphalt and Road Oil Product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for asphalt and road oil are from Table 3.5, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the asphalt and road oil heat content factors in Table A1.

http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/archive/00351307.pdf.

The notes discuss: Note 1, “Petroleum Survey Respondents”: In 1993, EIA added numerous companies that produce, blend, store, or import oxygenates to the monthly surveys. Note 2, “Motor Gasoline”: In 1981, EIA expanded its universe to include nonrefinery blenders and separated blending components from finished motor gasoline as a reporting category. In 1993, EIA made adjustments to

Aviation Gasoline Product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for aviation gasoline are from Table 3.5, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the aviation gasoline (finished) heat content factor in Table A1.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

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Distillate Fuel Oil 1949–2008: Product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for distillate fuel oil are from Table 3.5, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the distillate fuel oil heat content factors in Table A3. 2009 forward: Data for refinery and blender net inputs of renewable diesel fuel are from U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA)/Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), Table 1 (for biomass-based diesel fuel, the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the biodiesel heat content factor in Table A1; for other renewable diesel fuel, the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the other renewable diesel fuel heat content factor in Table A1). Product supplied data for distillate fuel oil from Table 3.5, minus data for renewable diesel fuel from the PSA/PSM, are converted to Btu by multiplying by the distillate fuel oil heat content factors in Table A3. Total distillate fuel oil product supplied is the sum of distillate fuel oil (excluding renewable diesel fuel) and renewable diesel fuel. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL)—Propane (Including Propylene) Product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for propane (including propylene) are from Table 3.5, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the propane/propylene heat content factor in Table A1. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL)—Total Prior to the current two months, product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for the component products of HGL (ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, natural gasoline, and refinery olefins—ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene) are from the PSA, PSM, and earlier publications (see sources for Table 3.5). These data are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the appropriate heat content factors in Table A1. Total HGL product supplied is the sum of the data in trillion Btu for the HGL component products. For the current two months: Note that “liquefied petroleum gases” (“LPG”) below include ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, and refinery olefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene), but exclude natural gasoline. Product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for LPG are from EIA’s Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). (The STIFS model results are used in EIA’s Short-Term Energy Outlook, which is accessible on the Web at http://www.eia.gov/outlooks/steo/.) These data are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the previous year’s quantity-weighted LPG heat content factor (derived using LPG component heat content factors in Table A1). Product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for natural gasoline are from STIFS, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the natural gasoline heat content factor in Table A1. Total HGL product supplied is the sum of the data in trillion Btu for LPG and natural gasoline.

76

Jet Fuel Product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for kerosene-type jet fuel and, through 2004, naphtha-type jet fuel are from EIA’s PSA, PSM, and earlier publications (see sources for Table 3.5). These data are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the appropriate heat content factors in Table A1. Total jet fuel product supplied is the sum of the data in trillion Btu for kerosene-type and naphtha-type jet fuel. Kerosene Product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for kerosene are from Table 3.5, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the kerosene heat content factor in Table A1. Lubricants Product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for lubricants are from Table 3.5, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the lubricants heat content factor in Table A1. Motor Gasoline Product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for motor gasoline are from Table 3.5, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the motor gasoline heat content factors in Table A3. Other Petroleum Products Prior to the current two months, product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for “other” petroleum products are from the PSA, PSM, and earlier publications (see sources for Table 3.5). “Other” petroleum products include petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, still gas (refinery gas), waxes, and miscellaneous products; beginning in 1981, also includes negative barrels per day of distillate and residual fuel oil reclassified as unfinished oils, and other products (from both primary and secondary supply) reclassified as gasoline blending components; beginning in 1983, also includes crude oil burned as fuel; and beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. These data are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the appropriate heat content factors in MER Table A1. Total “Other” petroleum product supplied is the sum of the data in trillion Btu for the individual products. For the current two months, total “Other” petroleum products supplied is calculated by first estimating total petroleum products supplied (product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for total petroleum from Table 3.5 are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the total petroleum consumption heat content factor in Table A3), and then subtracting data in trillion Btu (from Table 3.6) for asphalt and road oil, aviation gasoline, distillate fuel oil, jet fuel, kerosene, total HGL, lubricants, motor gasoline, petroleum coke, and residual fuel oil. Petroleum Coke Product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for petroleum coke are from Table 3.5, and are converted to trillion

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Btu by multiplying by the petroleum coke heat content factors in Table A3. Residual Fuel Oil Product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for residual fuel oil are from Table 3.5, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the residual fuel oil heat content factor in Table A1. Total Petroleum Total petroleum products supplied is the sum of the data in trillion Btu for the products (except “Propane”) shown in Table 3.6.

Tables 3.7a–3.7c Sources Petroleum consumption data for 1949–1972 are from the following sources: 1949–1959: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual reports, and U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates. 1960–1972: EIA, State Energy Data System. Petroleum consumption data beginning in 1973 are derived from data for “petroleum products supplied” from the following sources: 1973–1975: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum Statement Annual, annual reports. 1976–1980: EIA, Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement Annual, annual reports. 1981–2016: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA), annual reports, and unpublished revisions. 2017: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), monthly reports. Beginning in 1973, energy-use allocation procedures by individual product are as follows: Asphalt and Road Oil All consumption of asphalt and road oil is assigned to the industrial sector. Aviation Gasoline All consumption of aviation gasoline is assigned to the transportation sector. Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate fuel oil consumption is assigned to the sectors as follows: Distillate Fuel Oil, Electric Power Sector See sources for Table 7.4b. For 1973–1979, electric utility consumption of distillate fuel oil is assumed to be the amount of petroleum (minus small amounts of kerosene and kerosene-type jet fuel deliveries) consumed in gas turbine and internal combustion plants. For 1980–2000,

electric utility consumption of distillate fuel oil is assumed to be the amount of light oil (fuel oil nos. 1 and 2, plus small amounts of kerosene and jet fuel) consumed. Distillate Fuel Oil, End-Use Sectors, Annual Data The aggregate end-use amount is total distillate fuel oil supplied minus the amount consumed by the electric power sector. The end-use total consumed annually is allocated to the individual end-use sectors (residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation) in proportion to each sector’s share of sales as reported in EIA's Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales (Sales) report series (DOE/EIA-0535), which is based primarily on data collected by Form EIA-821, “Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report” (previously Form EIA-172). Shares for the current year are based on the most recent Sales report. Following are notes on the individual sector groupings: Beginning in 1979, the residential sector sales total is directly from the Sales reports. Through 1978, each year's sales subtotal of the heating plus industrial category is split into residential, commercial, and industrial (including farm) in proportion to the 1979 shares. Beginning in 1979, the commercial sector sales total is directly from the Sales reports. Through 1978, each year's sales subtotal of the heating plus industrial category is split into residential, commercial, and industrial (including farm) in proportion to the 1979 shares. Beginning in 1979, the industrial sector sales total is the sum of the sales for industrial, farm, oil company, off-highway diesel, and all other uses. Through 1978, each year's sales subtotal of the heating plus industrial category is split into residential, commercial, and industrial (including farm) in proportion to the 1979 shares, and this estimated industrial portion is added to oil company, off-highway diesel, and all other uses. The transportation sector sales total is the sum of the sales for railroad, vessel bunkering, on-highway diesel, and military uses for all years. Distillate Fuel Oil, End-Use Sectors, Monthly Data Residential sector and commercial sector monthly consumption is estimated by allocating the annual estimates, which are described above, into the months in proportion to each month's share of the year's sales of No. 2 heating oil. (For each month of the current year, the residential and commercial consumption increase from the same month in the previous year is based on the percent increase in that month’s No. 2 heating oil sales from the same month in the previous year.) The years’ No. 2 heating oil sales totals are from the following sources: for 1973–1980, the Ethyl Corporation, Monthly Report of Heating Oil Sales; for 1981 and 1982, the American Petroleum Institute, Monthly Report of Heating Oil Sales; and for 1983 forward, EIA, Form EIA-782A,

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

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"Refiners'/Gas Plant Operators' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report," No. 2 Fuel Oil Sales to End Users and for Resale. The transportation highway use portion is allocated into the months in proportion to each month's share of the year's total sales for highway use as reported by the Federal Highway Administration's Table MF-25, "Private and Commercial Highway Use of Special Fuels by Months." Beginning in 1994, the sales-for-highwayuse data are no longer available as a monthly series; the 1993 data are used for allocating succeeding year's totals into months. A distillate fuel oil “balance” is calculated as total distillate fuel oil supplied minus the amount consumed by the electric power sector, residential sector, commercial sector, and for highway use. Industrial sector monthly consumption is estimated by multiplying each month’s distillate fuel oil “balance” by the annual industrial consumption share of the annual distillate fuel oil “balance.” Total transportation sector monthly consumption is estimated as total distillate fuel oil supplied minus the amount consumed by the residential, commercial, industrial, and electric power sectors. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL)—Propane (Including Propylene) and Total Note that “liquefied petroleum gases” (“LPG”) below include ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, and refinery olefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene), but exclude natural gasoline. The annual shares of LPG total consumption that are estimated to be used by each sector are applied to each month's total LPG consumption to create monthly sector consumption estimates. The annual sector shares are calculated as described below. Sales of propane to the residential and commercial sectors combined are converted from thousand gallons per year to thousand barrels per year and are assumed to be the annual consumption of LPG by the combined sectors. Beginning in 2003, residential sector LPG consumption is assumed to equal propane retail sales to the residential sector and sales to retailers, with the remainder of the combined residential and commercial LPG consumption being assigned to the commercial sector. Through 2002, residential sector LPG consumption is based on the average of the state residential shares for 2003–2008, with the remainder of the combined residential and commercial LPG consumption being assigned to the commercial sector. The quantity of propane sold each year for consumption in internal combustion engines is allocated between the 78

transportation and industrial sectors using data for special fuels used on highways provided by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Th e transportation portion is assumed to equal annual LPG consumption by the transportation sector. LPG consumed annually by the industrial sector is estimated as the difference between LPG total product supplied and the sum of the estimated LPG consumption by the residential, commercial, and transportation sectors. The industrial sector LPG consumption includes LPG used by chemical plants as raw materials or solvents and used in the production of synthetic rubber; refinery fuel use; use as synthetic natural gas feedstock and use in secondary recovery projects; all farm use; LPG sold to gas utility companies for distribution through the mains; and a portion of the use of LPG as an internal combustion engine fuel. Sources of the annual consumption estimates for creating annual sector shares are: 1973–1982: EIA's "Sales of Liquefied Petroleum Gases and Ethane" reports, based primarily on data collected by Form EIA-174, “Sales of Liquefied Petroleum Gases.” 1983: End-use consumption estimates for 1983 are based on 1982 end-use consumption because the collection of data under Form EIA-174 was discontinued after data year 1982. 1984–2007: American Petroleum Institute (API), "Sales of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases," table on sales of natural gas liquids and liquefied refinery gases by end use. EIA adjusts the data to remove quantities of natural gasoline and to estimate withheld values. 2008 forward: Propane consumption is from API, “Sales of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases,” table on sales of propane by end use. EIA adjusts the data to estimate withheld values. Other LPG consumption is from EIA, PSA, annual reports, and is allocated to the industrial sector. Residential sector propane (including propylene) consumption is equal to residential sector LPG consumption. Commercial sector propane (including propylene) consumption is equal to commercial sector LPG consumption. Transportation sector propane (including propylene) consumption is equal to transportation sector LPG consumption. Industrial sector propane (including propylene) consumption is equal to propane (including propylene) product supplied from the PSA, PSM, and earlier publications (see sources for Table 3.5), minus propane (including propylene) consumption in the residential, commercial, and transportation sectors. Industrial sector total HGL consumption: Product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for natural gasoline are

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

from the PSA, PSM, and earlier publications (see sources for Table 3.5). Industrial sector total HGL consumption is the sum of industrial sector LPG consumption and natural gasoline product supplied. Jet Fuel Through 1982, small amounts of kerosene-type jet fuel were consumed by the electric power sector. Kerosene-type jet fuel deliveries to the electric power sector as reported on Form FERC-423 (formerly Form FPC-423) were used as estimates of this consumption. Through 2004, all remaining jet fuel (kerosene-type and naphtha-type) is assigned to the transportation sector. Beginning in 2005, kerosenetype jet fuel is assigned to the transportation sector, while naphtha-type jet fuel is classified under “Other Petroleum Products,” which is assigned to the industrial sector. (Note: Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the term “petroleum consumption” in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. Other measurements of consumption by fuel type or sector may differ. For example, jet fuel product supplied may not equal jet fuel consumed by U.S.-flagged aircraft.) Kerosene Kerosene product supplied is allocated to the individual end-use sectors (residential, commercial, and industrial) in proportion to each sector’s share of sales as reported in EIA's Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales (Sales) report series (DOE/EIA-0535), which is based primarily on data collected by Form EIA-821, “Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report” (previously Form EIA-172). Beginning in 1979, the residential sector sales total is directly from the Sales reports. Through 1978, each year's sales category called "heating" is allocated to the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors in proportion to the 1979 shares. Beginning in 1979, the commercial sector sales total is directly from the Sales reports. Through 1978, each year's sales category called "heating" is allocated to the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors in proportion to the 1979 shares. Beginning in 1979, the industrial sector sales total is the sum of the sales for industrial, farm, and all other uses. Through 1978, each year's sales category called "heating" is allocated to the residential, commercial and industrial sectors in proportion to the 1979 shares, and the estimated industrial (including farm) portion is added to all other uses. Lubricants The consumption of lubricants is allocated to the industrial and transportation sectors for all months according to proportions developed from annual sales of lubricants to the two sectors from U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, Current Industrial Reports, "Sales of Lubricating and

Industrial Oils and Greases." The 1973 shares are applied to 1973 and 1974; the 1975 shares are applied to 1975 and 1976; and the 1977 shares are applied to 1977 forward. Motor Gasoline The total monthly consumption of motor gasoline is allocated to the sectors in proportion to aggregations of annual sales categories created on the basis of the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics, Tables MF-21, MF-24, and MF-25, as follows: Through 2014, commercial sales are the sum of sales for public non-highway use and miscellaneous use. Beginning in 2015, commercial sales are the sum of sales for public non-highway use, lawn and garden use, and miscellaneous use. For all years, industrial sales are the sum of sales for agriculture, construction, and “industrial and commercial” use (as classified in the Highway Statistics). Through 2014, transportation sales are the sum of sales for highway use (minus the sales of special fuels, which are primarily diesel fuel and are accounted for in the transportation sector of distillate fuel) and sales for marine use. Beginning in 2015, transportation sales are the sum of sales for highway use (minus the sales of special fuels, which are primarily diesel fuel and are accounted for in the transportation sector of distillate fuel) and sales for boating use and recreational vehicle use. Petroleum Coke Portions of petroleum coke are consumed by the electric power sector (see sources for Table 7.4b) and the commercial sector (see sources for Table 7.4c). The remaining petroleum coke is assigned to the industrial sector. Residual Fuel Oil Residual fuel oil consumption is assigned to the sectors as follows: Residual Fuel Oil, Electric Power Sector See sources for Table 7.4b. For 1973–1979, electric utility consumption of residual fuel oil is assumed to be the amount of petroleum consumed in steam-electric power plants. For 1980–2000, electric utility consumption of residual fuel oil is assumed to be the amount of heavy oil (fuel oil nos. 4, 5, and 6) consumed. Residual Fuel Oil, End-Use Sectors, Annual Data The aggregate end-use amount is total residual fuel oil supplied minus the amount consumed by the electric power sector. The end-use total consumed annually is allocated to the individual end-use sectors (commercial, industrial, and transportation) in proportion to each sector’s share of sales as reported in EIA’s Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales (Sales) report series (DOE/EIA-535), which is based primarily on data collected by Form

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

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EIA-821, “Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report” (previously Form EIA-172). Shares for the current year are based on the most recent Sales report. Following are notes on the individual sector groupings: Beginning in 1979, commercial sales data are directly from the Sales reports. Through 1978, each year's sales subtotal of the heating plus industrial category is allocated to the commercial and industrial sectors in proportion to the 1979 shares. Beginning in 1979, industrial sales data are the sum of sales for industrial, oil company, and all other uses. Through 1978, each year's sales subtotal of the heating plus industrial category is allocated to the commercial and industrial sectors in proportion to the 1979 shares, and the estimated industrial portion is added to oil company and all other uses. Transportation sales are the sum of sales for railroad, vessel bunkering, and military uses for all years. Residual Fuel Oil, End-Use Sectors, Monthly Data Commercial sector monthly consumption is estimated by allocating the annual estimates, which are described above, into the months in proportion to each month's share of the year's sales of No. 2 heating oil. (For each month of the current year, the consumption increase from the same month in the previous year is based on the percent increase in that month’s No. 2 heating oil sales from the same month in the previous year.) The years' No. 2 heating oil sales totals are from the following sources: for 1973–1980, the Ethyl Corporation, Monthly Report of Heating Oil Sales; for 1981 and 1982, the American Petroleum Institute, Monthly Report of Heating Oil Sales; and for 1983 forward, EIA, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners'/Gas Plant Operators' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report," No. 2 Fuel Oil Sales to End Users and for Resale. A residual fuel oil “balance” is calculated as total residual fuel oil supplied minus the amount consumed by the electric power sector, commercial sector, and by industrial combined-heat-and-power plants (see sources for Table 7.4c). Transportation sector monthly consumption is estimated by multiplying each month’s residual fuel oil “balance” by the annual transportation consumption share of the annual residual fuel oil “balance.” Total industrial sector monthly consumption is estimated as total residual fuel oil supplied minus the amount consumed by the commercial, transportation, and electric power sectors. Other Petroleum Products Consumption of all remaining petroleum products is assigned to the industrial sector. Other petroleum products include petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, still gas (refinery gas), waxes, and miscellaneous products. 80

Beginning in 1981, also includes negative barrels per day of distillate and residual fuel oil reclassified as unfinished oils, and other products (from both primary and secondary supply) reclassified as gasoline blending components. Beginning in 1983, also includes crude oil burned as fuel. Beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel.

Table 3.8a Sources Distillate Fuel Oil Residential and commercial sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for distillate fuel oil are from Table 3.7a, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the distillate fuel oil heat content factors in Table A3. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL)—Propane (Including Propylene) Residential and commercial sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for HGL are from Table 3.7a, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the propane/propylene heat content factor in Table A1. Kerosene Residential and commercial sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for kerosene are from Table 3.7a, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the kerosene heat content factor in Table A1. Motor Gasoline Commercial sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for motor gasoline are from Table 3.7a, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the motor gasoline heat content factors in Table A3. Petroleum Coke 1949–2003: Commercial sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for petroleum coke are from Table 3.7a, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the total petroleum coke heat content factor in Table A1. 2004 forward: Commercial sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for petroleum coke are from Table 3.7a, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the marketable petroleum coke heat content factor in Table A1. Residual Fuel Oil Commercial sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for residual fuel oil are from Table 3.7a, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the residual fuel oil heat content factor in Table A1. Total Petroleum Residential sector total petroleum consumption is the sum of the data in trillion Btu for the petroleum products shown under “Residential Sector” in Table 3.8a. Commercial sector total petroleum consumption is the sum of the data in trillion Btu for the petroleum products shown under “Commercial Sector” in Table 3.8a.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 3.8b Sources Asphalt and Road Oil Industrial sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for asphalt and road oil are from Table 3.7b, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the asphalt and road oil heat content factor in Table A1. Distillate Fuel Oil Industrial sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for distillate fuel oil are from Table 3.7b, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the distillate fuel oil heat content factors in Table A3. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL)—Propane (Including Propylene) Industrial sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for HGL are from Table 3.7b, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the propane/propylene heat content factor in Table A1. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL)—Total Industrial sector consumption data for HGL are calculated by subtracting HGL consumption data in trillion Btu for the residential (Table 3.8a), commercial (Table 3.8a), and transportation (Table 3.8c) sectors from total HGL consumption (Table 3.6). Kerosene Industrial sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for kerosene are from Table 3.7b, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the kerosene heat content factor in Table A1. Lubricants Industrial sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for lubricants are from Table 3.7b, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the lubricants heat content factor in Table A1. Motor Gasoline Industrial sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for motor gasoline are from Table 3.7b, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the motor gasoline heat content factors in Table A3. Other Petroleum Products Industrial sector “Other” petroleum data are equal to the “Other” petroleum data in Table 3.6. Petroleum Coke Industrial sector consumption data in 1949–2003: thousand barrels per day for petroleum coke are from Table 3.7b, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the total petroleum coke heat content factor in Table A1. 2004 forward: Industrial sector consumption data for petroleum coke are calculated by subtracting petroleum coke consumption data in trillion Btu for the commercial (Table 3.8a) and electric power (Table 3.8c) sectors from total petroleum coke consumption (Table 3.6).

Residual Fuel Oil Industrial sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for residual fuel oil are from Table 3.7b, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the residual fuel oil heat content factor in Table A1. Total Petroleum Industrial sector total petroleum consumption is the sum of the data in trillion Btu for the petroleum products shown in Table 3.8b.

Table 3.8c Sources Aviation Gasoline Transportation sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for aviation gasoline are from Table 3.7c, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the aviation gasoline (finished) heat content factor in Table A1. Distillate Fuel Oil, Electric Power Sector Electric power sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for distillate fuel oil are from Table 3.7c, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the distillate fuel oil heat content factors in Table A3. Distillate Fuel Oil, Transportation Sector 1949–2008: Transportation sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for distillate fuel oil are from Table 3.7c, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the distillate fuel oil heat content factors in Table A3. 2009 forward: Data for refinery and blender net inputs of renewable diesel fuel are from U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA)/Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), Table 1 (for biomass-based diesel fuel, the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the biodiesel heat content factor in Table A1; for other renewable diesel fuel, the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the other renewable diesel fuel heat content factor in Table A1). Transportation sector consumption data from Table 3.7c, minus data for renewable diesel fuel from the PSA/PSM, are converted to Btu by multiplying by the distillate fuel oil heat content factors in Table A3. Total transportation sector distillate fuel oil consumption is the sum of distillate fuel oil (excluding renewable diesel fuel) and renewable diesel fuel. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL)—Propane (Including Propylene) Transportation sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for HGL are from Table 3.7c, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the propane/propylene heat content factor in Table A1. Jet Fuel Transportation sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for kerosene-type jet fuel and, through 2004, naphtha-type jet fuel (see sources for Table 3.7c) are

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

81

converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the appropriate heat content factors in Table A1. Total transportation sector jet fuel consumption is the sum of the data in trillion Btu for kerosene-type and naphtha-type jet fuel. (Note: Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the term “petroleum consumption” in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. Other measurements of consumption by fuel type or sector may differ. For example, jet fuel product supplied may not equal jet fuel consumed by U.S.-flagged aircraft.) Lubricants Transportation sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for lubricants are from Table 3.7c, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the lubricants heat content factor in Table A1. Motor Gasoline Transportation sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for motor gasoline are from Table 3.7c, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the motor gasoline heat content factors in Table A3.

82

Petroleum Coke 1949–2003: Electric power sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for petroleum coke are from Table 3.7c, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the total petroleum coke heat content factor in Table A1. 2004 forward: Electric power sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for petroleum coke are from Table 3.7c, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the marketable petroleum coke heat content factor in Table A1. Residual Fuel Oil Transportation and electric power consumption data in thousand barrels per day for residual fuel oil are from Table 3.7c, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the residual fuel oil heat content factor in Table A1. Total Petroleum Transportation sector total petroleum consumption is the sum of the data in trillion Btu for the petroleum products shown under “Transportation Sector” in Table 3.8c. Electric power sector total petroleum consumption is the sum of the data in trillion Btu for the petroleum products shown under “Electric Power Sector” in Table 3.8c.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

4. Natural Gas

Figure 4.1 Natural Gas (Trillion Cubic Feet) Overview, 1949–2016 30 25

Consumption

20 Dry Production

15 10

Net Imports

5 0 -5 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Consumption by Sector, 1949–2016 12 10 Industrial 8 Electric Power

6

Residential

4 Commercial

2 Transportation 0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

Overview, Monthly

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Consumption by Sector, Monthly

3.5

1.2 Consumption

3.0 2.5

Electric Power Dry Production

0.9

Residential

2.0

Industrial 0.6

1.5 1.0 0.3 0.5

Transportation

Net Imports 0.0 J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 2015 2016 2017

0.0 J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 2015 2016 2017

Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#naturalgas. Sources: Tables 4.1 and 4.3.

84

Commercial

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 4.1 Natural Gas Overview (Billion Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawalsa

Marketed Production (Wet)b

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

8,480 11,720 15,088 17,963 23,786 21,104 21,870 19,607 21,523 23,744 24,174 24,501 23,941 24,119 23,970 23,457 23,535 24,664 25,636 26,057 26,816 28,479 29,542 29,523 31,405

i 6,282 i 9,405 i 12,771 i 16,040 i 21,921 i 20,109

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

NGPL Dry Gas Productionc Productiond

Supplemental Gaseous Fuelse

Trade

Net Storage Withdrawalsf

Imports

Exports

Net Imports

Balancing ConsumpItemg tionh

0 11 156 456 821 953 985 950 1,532 2,841 3,782 3,977 4,015 3,944 4,259 4,341 4,186 4,608 3,984 3,751 3,741 3,469 3,138 2,883 2,695

26 31 11 26 70 73 49 55 86 154 244 373 516 680 854 729 724 822 963 1,072 1,137 1,506 1,619 1,572 1,514

-26 -20 144 430 751 880 936 894 1,447 2,687 3,538 3,604 3,499 3,264 3,404 3,612 3,462 3,785 3,021 2,679 2,604 1,963 1,519 1,311 1,181

-54 -68 -132 -118 -398 -344 23 235 -513 415 829 -1,166 467 -197 -114 52 -436 192 34 -355 -13 -354 -9 546 -254

-175 -247 -274 -319 -228 -235 -640 -428 307 396 -306 99 65 44 461 236 103 -203 2 -103 115 -94 -66 38 -283

5,767 8,694 11,967 15,280 21,139 19,538 19,877 17,281 j 19,174 22,207 23,333 22,239 23,027 22,277 22,403 22,014 21,699 23,104 23,277 22,910 24,087 24,477 25,538 26,155 26,593

i 6,022 i 9,029 i 12,228 i 15,286 i 21,014 i 19,236

20,180 17,270 18,594 19,506 20,198 20,570 19,885 19,974 19,517 18,927 19,410 20,196 21,112 21,648 22,382 24,036 25,283 25,562 27,498

260 377 543 753 906 872 777 816 784 908 1,016 954 957 876 927 876 906 930 953 1,024 1,066 1,134 1,250 1,357 1,608

19,403 16,454 17,810 18,599 19,182 19,616 18,928 19,099 18,591 18,051 18,504 19,266 20,159 20,624 21,316 22,902 24,033 24,206 25,890

NA NA NA NA NA NA 155 126 123 110 90 86 68 68 60 64 66 63 61 65 65 60 61 55 60

2,790 2,521 2,828 2,759 2,791 2,660 2,756 2,745 2,721 2,806 2,726 2,812 32,915

2,420 2,197 2,443 2,398 2,443 2,358 2,445 2,448 2,384 2,445 2,356 2,435 28,772

144 130 145 142 145 140 145 145 141 145 140 144 1,707

2,277 2,067 2,298 2,256 2,298 2,219 2,300 2,302 2,242 2,300 2,216 2,290 27,065

5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 59

279 254 257 205 204 206 217 214 209 226 218 227 2,718

145 145 164 130 134 138 144 145 163 159 156 162 1,784

135 109 93 75 70 68 73 69 46 68 63 66 935

741 757 201 -329 -507 -370 -292 -317 -381 -339 16 272 -547

-42 -12 -6 1 -8 -21 -19 -7 -11 -47 -51 -45 -268

3,115 2,925 2,591 2,008 1,858 1,900 2,068 2,053 1,901 1,987 2,249 2,588 27,244

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

2,828 2,656 2,828 2,681 2,787 2,636 2,730 2,726 2,630 2,718 2,673 2,742 32,636

2,443 2,315 2,449 2,366 2,433 2,323 2,421 2,395 2,304 2,365 2,310 2,356 28,479

156 148 156 151 155 148 154 153 147 151 147 150 1,817

2,287 2,167 2,293 2,215 2,278 2,175 2,266 2,242 2,157 2,214 2,162 2,206 26,663

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 57

274 252 241 241 248 242 265 262 238 231 231 281 3,006

169 163 195 178 188 183 189 214 202 176 228 251 2,335

105 89 46 63 60 59 76 48 37 55 3 30 671

741 411 53 -171 -337 -229 -139 -130 -270 -317 39 688 339

R -43 R -17 R -37 R -26 R -36 R -5 R -17 R 48 R 24 R -28 R -46 R -59

R 3,095 R 2,655 R 2,359 R 2,087 R 1,970 R 2,004 R 2,191 R 2,213 R 1,952 R 1,929 R 2,163 R 2,869

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

RE 2,727 RE 2,504 RE 2,778 RE 2,682 RE 2,770 RE 2,682 RE 2,750 RE 2,762 RE 2,756 E 24,410

RE 2,339 RE 2,148 RE 2,381 RE 2,308 RE 2,391 RE 2,341 RE 2,443 RE 2,442 RE 2,407 E 21,200

149 143 161 156 164 160 166 R 163 157 1,420

RE 2,191 RE 2,005 RE 2,220 RE 2,153 RE 2,227 RE 2,180 RE 2,277 RE 2,279 RE 2,250 E 19,781

5 5 5 5 3 4 5 5 5 41

292 255 281 238 244 240 251 248 230 2,277

272 255 272 247 254 253 248 247 248 2,297

20 -1 9 -9 -10 -14 2 1 -19 -20

675 285 275 -230 -341 -281 -150 R -196 -317 -279

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

24,502 24,570

21,448 21,536

1,368 1,277

20,080 20,258

43 44

2,263 2,046

1,680 1,308

583 739

-71 -497

1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

a Gases withdrawn from natural gas, crude oil, coalbed, and shale gas wells. Includes natural gas, natural gas plant liquids, and nonhydrocarbon gases; but excludes lease condensate. b Gross withdrawals minus repressuring, nonhydrocarbon gases removed, and vented and flared. See Note 1, "Natural Gas Production," at end of section. c Natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) production, gaseous equivalent. This data series was previously called "Extraction Loss." See Note 2, "Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production," at end of section. d Marketed production (wet) minus NGPL production. e See Note 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of section. f Net withdrawals from underground storage. For 1980–2014, also includes net withdrawals of liquefied natural gas in above-ground tanks. See Note 4, "Natural Gas Storage," at end of section. g See Note 5, "Natural Gas Balancing Item," at end of section. Beginning in 1980, excludes transit shipments that cross the U.S.-Canada border (i.e., natural gas delivered to its destination via the other country). h See Note 6, "Natural Gas Consumption," at end of section. i Through 1979, may include unknown quantities of nonhydrocarbon gases. j For 1989–1992, a small amount of consumption at independent power

R -242

R 27,487

R9

R 33 R 63 R8 R 19 R 23 R9 R 51

R 2,899 R 2,326 R 2,572 R 1,927 R 1,898 R 1,913 R 2,143 R 2,140

10 226

1,930 19,748

-109 -125

20,526 20,419

producers may be counted in both "Other Industrial" and "Electric Power Sector" on Table 4.3. See Note 7, "Natural Gas Consumption, 1989–1992," at end of section. R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. Notes: • See Note 8, "Natural Gas Data Adjustments, 1993–2000," at end of section. • Through 1964, all volumes are shown on a pressure base of 14.65 psia (pounds per square inch absolute) at 60° Fahrenheit; beginning in 1965, the pressure base is 14.73 psia at 60° Fahrenheit. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia (except Alaska, for which underground storage is excluded from "Net Storage Withdrawals" through 2012). Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#naturalgas (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • Imports and Exports: Table 4.2. • Consumption: Table 4.3. • Balancing Item: Calculated as consumption minus dry gas production, supplemental gaseous fuels, net imports, and net storage withdrawals. • All Other Data: 1949–2014—U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Natural Gas Annual, annual reports. 2015 forward—EIA, Natural Gas Monthly, November 2017, Table 1.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

85

Table 4.2 Natural Gas Trade by Country (Billion Cubic Feet) Exportsa

Imports

Algeriab Canadac 1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Egyptb

Mexicoc Nigeriab

Qatarb

Trinidad and Tobagob Otherb,d

Total

Canadac

Japanb

Mexicoc Otherb,e

Total

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

0 0 0 0 1 5 86 24 84 18 47 65 27 53 120 97 17 77 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 11 109 405 779 948 797 926 1,448 2,816 3,544 3,729 3,785 3,437 3,607 3,700 3,590 3,783 3,589 3,271 3,280 3,117 2,963 2,786 2,635

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 73 120 115 55 160 73 35 3 0 0

0 (s) 47 52 (s) 0 102 0 0 7 12 10 2 0 0 9 13 54 43 28 30 3 (s) 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 38 8 50 12 8 57 95 12 13 42 2 0 3 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 46 23 35 14 12 3 0 18 3 13 46 91 34 7 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 99 98 151 378 462 439 389 448 267 236 190 129 112 70 43

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 14 8 11 46 11 0 18 15 29 81 92 26 17 16

0 11 156 456 821 953 985 950 1,532 2,841 3,782 3,977 4,015 3,944 4,259 4,341 4,186 4,608 3,984 3,751 3,741 3,469 3,138 2,883 2,695

3 11 6 18 11 10 (s) (s) 17 28 73 167 189 271 395 358 341 482 559 701 739 937 971 911 770

0 0 0 0 44 53 45 53 53 65 66 66 63 66 62 65 61 47 39 31 33 18 14 0 13

23 20 6 8 15 9 4 2 16 61 106 141 263 343 397 305 322 292 365 338 333 499 620 661 729

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 32 52 14 0 3

26 31 11 26 70 73 49 55 86 154 244 373 516 680 854 729 724 822 963 1,072 1,137 1,506 1,619 1,572 1,514

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

268 242 243 202 203 204 210 203 203 218 211 222 2,626

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

9 10 12 3 2 3 7 11 6 3 4 2 71

2 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 3 3 20

279 254 257 205 204 206 217 214 209 226 218 227 2,718

73 78 90 53 45 45 40 41 60 57 61 59 701

0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 3 0 0 8

69 65 74 77 87 91 101 101 100 98 92 100 1,054

3 3 0 0 3 3 0 0 3 0 3 3 20

145 145 164 130 134 138 144 145 163 159 156 162 1,784

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

262 242 232 237 243 234 259 254 236 226 222 272 2,918

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

12 10 9 5 5 8 6 8 3 6 6 9 84

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3

274 252 241 241 248 242 265 262 238 231 231 281 3,006

70 62 81 63 63 51 50 55 61 43 75 97 771

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 11

99 97 103 105 116 116 123 136 127 130 134 119 1,405

0 3 10 10 10 16 16 23 13 3 20 23 148

169 163 195 178 188 183 189 214 202 176 228 251 2,335

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

279 246 276 233 239 234 245 240 227 2,219

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

10 8 5 5 5 5 5 8 3 54

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

292 255 281 238 244 240 251 248 230 2,277

99 88 100 81 64 67 60 66 70 693

11 4 0 7 4 4 0 4 0 33

136 130 140 130 139 159 150 142 134 1,259

27 34 33 29 47 24 39 35 44 312

272 255 272 247 254 253 248 247 248 2,297

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

0 0

2,199 1,976

0 0

1 1

0 0

0 0

64 62

0 7

2,263 2,046

556 524

0 6

1,022 765

102 14

1,680 1,308

a b c

Includes re-exports. As liquefied natural gas. By pipeline, except for small amounts of: liquefied natural gas (LNG) imported from Canada in 1973, 1977, 1981, and 2013 forward; LNG exported to Canada in 2007 and 2012 forward; compressed natural gas (CNG) imported from Canada in 2014 forward; CNG exported to Canada in 2013 forward; and LNG exported to Mexico beginning in 1998. See Note 9, "Natural Gas Imports and Exports," at end of section. d Australia in 1997–2001 and 2004; Brunei in 2002; Equatorial Guinea in 2007; Indonesia in 1986 and 2000; Malaysia in 1999 and 2002–2005; Norway in 2008–2016; Oman in 2000–2005; Peru in 2010 and 2011; United Arab Emirates in 1996–2000; Yemen in 2010–2015; and Other (unassigned) in 2004–2015. e Argentina in 2016 and 2017; Barbados in 2016 and 2017; Brazil in 2010–2012, and 2014–2017; Chile in 2011, 2016, and 2017; China in 2011, 2016, and 2017; Dominican Republic in 2016 and 2017; Egypt in 2015–2017; India in 2010–2012, 2016, and 2017; Italy in 2016 and 2017; Jordan in 2016 and 2017; Kuwait in 2016 and 2017; Lithuania in 2017; Malta in 2017; Netherlands in 2017; Pakistan in 2017; Poland in 2017; Portugal in 2012, 2016, and 2017; Russia in 2007; South Korea in 2009–2011, 2016, and 2017; Spain in 2010–2011, 2016, and 2017; Taiwan in 2015

86

and 2017; Thailand in 2017; Turkey in 2015–2017; United Arab Emirates in 2016 and 2017; and United Kingdom in 2010 and 2011 and 2017. (s)=Less than 500 million cubic feet. Notes: • See Note 9, "Natural Gas Imports and Exports," at end of section. • Through 1964, all volumes are shown on a pressure base of 14.65 psia (pounds per square inch absolute) at 60° Fahrenheit; beginning in 1965, the pressure base is 14.73 psia at 60° Fahrenheit. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • U.S. geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#naturalgas (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • 1949–1954: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates based on Bureau of Mines, Minerals Yearbook, "Natural Gas" chapter. • 1955–1971: Federal Power Commission data. • 1972–1987: EIA, Form FPC-14, "Annual Report for Importers and Exporters of Natural Gas." • 1988–2014: EIA, Natural Gas Annual, annual reports. • 2015 forward: EIA, Natural Gas Monthly, November 2017, Tables 4 and 5; and U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, "Natural Gas Imports and Exports."

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 4.3 Natural Gas Consumption by Sector (Billion Cubic Feet) End-Use Sectors Industrial

Transportation

Other Industrial

Pipelinesd and Distributione

Commerciala

Lease and Plant Fuel

CHPb

Non-CHPc

Total

Total

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

1,198 2,124 3,103 3,903 4,837 4,924 4,752 4,433 4,391 4,850 4,996 4,771 4,889 5,079 4,869 4,827 4,368 4,722 4,892 4,779 4,782 4,714 4,150 4,897 5,087

388 629 1,020 1,444 2,399 2,508 2,611 2,432 2,623 3,031 3,182 3,023 3,144 3,179 3,129 2,999 2,832 3,013 3,153 3,119 3,103 3,155 2,895 3,295 3,466

928 1,131 1,237 1,156 1,399 1,396 1,026 966 1,236 1,220 1,151 1,119 1,113 1,122 1,098 1,112 1,142 1,226 1,220 1,275 1,286 1,323 1,396 1,483 1,512

(h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) 1,055 1,258 1,386 1,310 1,240 1,144 1,191 1,084 1,115 1,050 955 990 1,029 1,063 1,149 1,170 1,145

2,498 3,411 4,535 5,955 7,851 6,968 7,172 5,901 i 5,963 6,906 6,757 6,035 6,287 6,007 6,066 5,518 5,412 5,604 5,715 5,178 5,797 5,931 6,077 6,255 6,501

2,498 3,411 4,535 5,955 7,851 6,968 7,172 5,901 i 7,018 8,164 8,142 7,344 7,527 7,150 7,256 6,601 6,527 6,655 6,670 6,167 6,826 6,994 7,226 7,425 7,646

3,426 4,542 5,771 7,112 9,249 8,365 8,198 6,867 8,255 9,384 9,293 8,463 8,640 8,273 8,354 7,713 7,669 7,881 7,890 7,443 8,112 8,317 8,622 8,909 9,158

126 245 347 501 722 583 635 504 660 700 642 625 667 591 566 584 584 621 648 670 674 688 731 833 700

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) 5 13 15 15 18 21 23 24 25 26 27 29 30 30 30 35

126 245 347 501 722 583 635 504 660 705 655 640 682 610 587 607 608 646 674 697 703 718 761 863 735

629 1,153 1,725 2,321 3,932 3,158 3,682 3,044 i 3,245 4,237 5,206 5,342 5,672 5,135 5,464 5,869 6,222 6,841 6,668 6,873 7,387 7,574 9,111 8,191 8,146

5,767 8,694 11,967 15,280 21,139 19,538 19,877 17,281 i 19,174 22,207 23,333 22,239 23,027 22,277 22,403 22,014 21,699 23,104 23,277 22,910 24,087 24,477 25,538 26,155 26,593

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

938 902 633 319 178 124 108 103 108 202 407 591 4,613

533 517 386 232 161 135 134 135 138 195 283 353 3,202

133 120 134 131 134 129 134 134 131 134 129 133 1,576

103 92 99 93 95 101 109 110 102 102 103 110 1,222

615 567 563 515 508 474 482 489 477 511 535 564 6,300

718 660 662 608 603 575 592 600 579 613 639 675 7,522

851 780 795 739 737 704 726 734 710 747 768 808 9,098

79 74 65 50 46 47 51 51 47 49 56 65 678

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 39

82 77 68 53 49 50 54 54 50 52 59 68 718

711 648 709 664 734 886 1,046 1,027 895 792 732 769 9,613

3,115 2,925 2,591 2,008 1,858 1,900 2,068 2,053 1,901 1,987 2,249 2,588 27,244

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

879 690 455 328 194 123 106 100 110 187 380 794 4,345

503 413 298 233 171 138 134 140 142 191 280 462 3,105

136 129 137 132 136 130 135 134 129 132 129 132 1,590

R 103 R 95 R 99 R 95 R 98 R 101 R 107 R 108 R 101 R 99 R 99 R 104

R 6,513

720 662 662 620 612 590 616 627 604 622 654 733 7,722

857 791 799 752 748 720 751 761 732 754 782 865 9,312

80 68 60 53 49 51 55 56 49 48 55 74 697

3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 42

83 71 63 56 53 54 59 60 53 52 58 77 739

R 774 R 690 R 745 R 719 R 804 R 970

R 1,209

R 617 R 567 R 563 R 525 R 515 R 489 R 509 R 519 R 502 R 523 R 555 R 629

R 3,095 R 2,655 R 2,359 R 2,087 R 1,970 R 2,004 R 2,191 R 2,213 R 1,952 R 1,929 R 2,163 R 2,869

R 106 R 97 R 103 R 98 R 99 R 100 R 107 R 103

R 624 R 548 R 588 R 527 R 526 R 511 R 516 R 532

98 911

515 4,887

731 644 691 625 625 611 623 635 613 5,798

R 861 R 764

824 754 758 742 759 771 748 6,981

RE 74 E 59 RE 65 E 49 E 48 RE 49 E 54 RE 54 E 49 E 501

E4 E3 E4 E4 E4 E4 E4 E4 E4

E 32

E 77 E 62 RE 69 E 52 E 52 E 52 RE 58 RE 58 E 53 E 534

908 906

4,806 4,690

5,713 5,596

6,910 6,776

521 508

31 29

552 538

1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

832 582 582 281 R 200 124 R 107 R 104 115 2,928

481 361 373 213 179 R 138 134 R 139 146 2,167

E 131 E 120 E 133 E 129 RE 133 E 131 RE 136 E 136 E 134 E 1,184

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

2,984 3,414

2,172 2,371

1,197 1,180

a All commercial sector fuel use, including that at commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. See Table 7.4c for CHP fuel use. b Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and a small number of industrial electricity-only plants. c All industrial sector fuel use other than that in "Lease and Plant Fuel" and "CHP." d Natural gas consumed in the operation of pipelines, primarily in compressors. Beginning in 2009, includes line loss, which is known volumes of natural gas that are the result of leaks, damage, accidents, migration, and/or blow down. e Natural gas used as fuel in the delivery of natural gas to consumers. Beginning in 2009, includes line loss, which is known volumes of natural gas that are the result of leaks, damage, accidents, migration, and/or blow down. f The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. g Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities and independent power producers. h Included in "Non-CHP." i For 1989–1992, a small amount of consumption at independent power producers may be counted in both "Other Industrial" and "Electric Power Sector." See Note 7, "Natural Gas Consumption, 1989–1992," at end of section. R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 500 million cubic feet. Notes: • Data are for natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. See Note 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of section. • See Note 8, "Natural Gas Data Adjustments, 1993–2000," at end of section.

Vehicle Fuel

Electric Power Sectorf,g

Residential

Total

R 1,140 R 1,151

915

R 744 R 662 R 671

Total

R 9,985

R 27,487

R 648 R 556 R 724 R 626 R 709 R 856

R 1,084 R 1,067

R 2,899 R 2,326 R 2,572 R 1,927 R 1,898 R 1,913 R 2,143 R 2,140

869 7,139

1,930 19,748

7,909 7,321

20,526 20,419

• See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. • Through 1964, all volumes are shown on a pressure base of 14.65 psia (pounds per square inch absolute) at 60° Fahrenheit; beginning in 1965, the pressure base is 14.73 psia at 60° Fahrenheit. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#naturalgas (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • Residential, Commercial, Lease and Plant Fuel, Other Industrial Total and Pipelines and Distribution: 1949–2014—U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Natural Gas Annual (NGA), annual reports and unpublished revisions. 2015 forward—EIA, Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), November 2017, Table 2. • Other Industrial CHP: Table 7.4c. • Other Industrial Non-CHP: Calculated as other industrial total minus other industrial CHP. • Industrial Total: Calculated as lease and plant fuel plus other industrial total. • Vehicle Fuel: 1990 and 1991—EIA, NGA 2000, (November 2001), Table 95. 1992–1998—EIA, "Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1999" (October 1999), Table 10, and "Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 2003" (February 2004), Table 10. Data for compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas in gasoline-equivalent gallons were converted to cubic feet by multiplying by the motor gasoline conversion factor (see Table A3) and dividing by the natural gas end-use sectors conversion factor (see Table A4). 1999–2014—EIA, NGA, annual reports. 2015 forward—EIA, NGM, November 2017, Table 2. • Transportation Total: Calculated as pipelines and distribution plus vehicle fuel. • Electric Power Sector: Table 7.4b. • Total Consumption: Calculated as the sum of residential, commercial, industrial total, transportation total, and electric power sector.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

87

Table 4.4 Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Volumes in Billion Cubic Feet) Natural Gas in Underground Storage, End of Period

Change in Working Gas From Same Period Previous Year

Storage Activity

Base Gas

Working Gas

Totala

Volume

Percent

Withdrawals

Injections

Netb,c

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

NA 863 NA 1,848 2,326 3,162 3,642 3,842 3,868 4,349 4,352 4,301 4,340 4,303 4,201 4,200 4,211 4,234 4,232 4,277 4,301 4,302 4,372 4,365 4,365

NA 505 NA 1,242 1,678 2,212 2,655 2,607 3,068 2,153 1,719 2,904 2,375 2,563 2,696 2,635 3,070 2,879 2,840 3,130 3,111 3,462 3,413 2,890 3,141

NA 1,368 2,184 3,090 4,004 5,374 6,297 6,448 6,936 6,503 6,071 7,204 6,715 6,866 6,897 6,835 7,281 7,113 7,073 7,407 7,412 7,764 7,785 7,255 7,506

NA 40 NA 83 257 162 -99 -270 555 -453 -806 1,185 -528 187 133 -61 435 -191 -39 290 -19 351 -49 -523 251

NA 8.7 NA 7.2 18.1 7.9 -3.6 -9.4 22.1 -17.4 -31.9 68.9 -18.2 7.9 5.2 -2.3 16.5 -6.2 -1.4 10.2 -.6 11.3 -1.4 -15.3 8.7

175 437 713 960 1,459 1,760 1,910 2,359 1,934 2,974 3,498 2,309 3,138 3,099 3,037 3,057 2,493 3,325 3,374 2,966 3,274 3,074 2,818 3,702 3,586

230 505 844 1,078 1,857 2,104 1,896 2,128 2,433 2,566 2,684 3,464 2,670 3,292 3,150 3,002 2,924 3,133 3,340 3,315 3,291 3,422 2,825 3,156 3,839

-54 -68 -132 -118 -398 -344 14 231 -499 408 814 -1,156 468 -193 -113 55 -431 192 34 -349 -17 -348 -7 546 -253

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

4,368 4,368 4,369 4,369 4,371 4,375 4,380 4,372 4,373 4,374 4,376 4,372 4,372

2,407 1,666 1,471 1,793 2,287 2,647 2,924 3,242 3,614 3,942 3,927 3,667 3,667

6,776 6,034 5,841 6,162 6,658 7,022 7,305 7,614 7,987 8,316 8,303 8,038 8,038

482 466 614 727 739 641 524 473 427 355 500 525 525

25.1 38.8 71.6 68.1 47.8 32.0 21.9 17.1 13.4 9.9 14.6 16.7 16.7

795 803 376 84 44 68 95 85 63 70 214 403 3,100

70 62 182 405 541 430 379 394 435 401 201 138 3,638

725 742 193 -321 -496 -362 -284 -309 -372 -331 12 264 -539

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

4,369 4,369 4,360 4,364 4,366 4,369 4,369 4,369 4,369 4,371 4,372 4,380 4,380

2,938 2,534 2,486 2,646 2,966 3,186 3,318 3,441 3,705 4,013 3,977 3,297 3,297

7,307 6,904 6,847 7,009 7,332 7,555 7,687 7,811 8,074 8,384 8,349 7,677 7,677

531 869 1,015 852 679 539 394 200 91 70 50 -370 -370

22.1 52.2 69.0 47.5 29.7 20.4 13.5 6.2 2.5 1.8 1.3 -10.1 -10.1

795 515 264 130 74 94 150 162 88 78 213 762 3,325

66 111 215 294 402 316 283 285 351 387 178 87 2,977

729 403 49 -164 -329 -222 -133 -124 -262 -308 35 676 348

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

4,379 4,378 4,379 4,380 4,386 4,355 4,357 R 4,356 4,356 ––

2,623 2,338 2,063 2,292 2,627 2,908 3,055 3,250 3,568 ––

7,002 6,716 6,442 6,672 7,013 7,263 7,412 R 7,606 7,924 ––

-315 -196 -423 -353 -339 -278 -263 -191 -137 ––

-10.7 -7.7 -17.0 -13.4 -11.4 -8.7 -7.9 -5.6 -3.7 ––

776 416 443 111 82 106 160 160 107 2,361

101 131 167 341 423 387 310 355 423 2,640

675 285 275 -230 -341 -281 -150 R -196 -317 -279

–– ––

–– ––

2,271 2,413

2,326 2,898

-54 -484

1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

–– ––

–– ––

–– ––

a For total underground storage capacity at the end of each calendar year, see Note 4, "Natural Gas Storage," at end of section. b For 1980–2015, data differ from those shown on Table 4.1, which includes liquefied natural gas storage for that period. c Positive numbers indicate that withdrawals are greater than injections. Negative numbers indicate that injections are greater than withdrawals. Net withdrawals or injections may not equal the difference between applicable ending stocks. See Note 4, "Natural Gas Storage," at end of section. R=Revised. – – =Not applicable. NA=Not available. Notes: • Through 1964, all volumes are shown on a pressure base of 14.65 psia (pounds per square inch absolute) at 60° Fahrenheit; beginning in 1965, the pressure base is 14.73 psia at 60° Fahrenheit. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia (except Alaska, which is excluded through 2012). Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#naturalgas (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data

88

beginning in 1973. Sources: • Storage Activity: 1949–1975—U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Natural Gas Annual 1994, Volume 2, Table 9. 1976–1979—EIA, Natural Gas Production and Consumption 1979, Table 1. 1980–1995—EIA, Historical Natural Gas Annual 1930 Through 2000, Table 11. 1996–2014—EIA, Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), monthly issues. 2015 forward—EIA, NGM, November 2017, Table 8. • All Other Data: 1954–1974—American Gas Association, Gas Facts, annual issues. 1975 and 1976—Federal Energy Administration (FEA), Form FEA-G318-M-0, "Underground Gas Storage Report," and Federal Power Commission (FPC), Form FPC-8, "Underground Gas Storage Report." 1977 and 1978—EIA, Form FEA-G318-M-0, "Underground Gas Storage Report," and Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Form FERC-8, "Underground Gas Storage Report." 1979–1995—EIA, Form EIA-191, "Underground Gas Storage Report," and FERC, Form FERC-8, "Underground Gas Storage Report." 1996–2014—EIA, NGA, annual reports. 2015 forward—EIA, NGM, November 2017, Table 8.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Natural Gas Note 1. Natural Gas Production. Final annual data are from the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) Natural Gas Annual (NGA). Data for the two most recent months presented are estimated. Some of the data for earlier months are also estimated or computed. For a discussion of computation and estimation procedures, see EIA’s Natural Gas Monthly (NGM). Monthly data are considered preliminary until after publication of the NGA. Preliminary monthly data are gathered from reports to the Interstate Oil Compact Commission and the U.S. Minerals Management Service. Volumetric data are converted, as necessary, to a standard pressure base of 14.73 psia (pounds per square inch absolute) at 60° Fahrenheit. Unless there are major changes, data are not revised until after publication of the NGA. Differences between annual data in the NGA and the sum of preliminary monthly data (January–December) are allocated proportionally to the months to create final monthly data. Note 2. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production. Natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) production is the reduction in volume of natural gas resulting from the removal of natural gas liquid constituents at natural gas processing plants—these natural gas plant liquids are transferred to petroleum supply. Annual data are from EIA’s Natural Gas Annual (NGA), where they are estimated on the basis of the type and quantity of liquid products extracted from the gas stream and the calculated volume of such products at standard conditions. For a detailed explanation of the calculations used to derive estimated NGPL production, see the NGA. Through 2006, preliminary monthly data are estimated on the basis of NGPL production as an annual percentage of marketed production. Beginning in 2007, preliminary monthly data are estimated on the basis of NGPL production reported on Form EIA-816, “Monthly Natural Gas Liquids Report.” Monthly data are revised and considered final after publication of the NGA. Final monthly data are estimated by allocating annual NGPL production data to the months on the basis of total natural gas marketed production data from the NGA. Note 3. Supplemental Gaseous Fuels. Supplemental gaseous fuels are any substances that, introduced into or commingled with natural gas, increase the volume available for disposition. Such substances include, but are not limited to, propane-air, refinery gas, coke oven gas, still gas, manufactured gas, biomass gas, and air or inert gases added for Btu stabilization. Annual data beginning with 1980 are from EIA’s Natural Gas Annual (NGA). Unknown quantities of supplemental gaseous fuels are included in consumption data for 1979 and earlier years. Monthly data are considered preliminary until after publication of the NGA. Monthly estimates are based on

the annual ratio of supplemental gaseous fuels to the sum of dry gas production, net imports, and net withdrawals from storage. The ratio is applied to the monthly sum of the three elements to compute a monthly supplemental gaseous fuels figure. Although the total amount of supplemental gaseous fuels consumed is known for 1980 forward, the amount consumed by each energy-use sector is estimated by EIA. These estimates are used to create natural gas (without supplemental gaseous fuels) data for Tables 1.3, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, and 2.6 (note: to avoid double-counting in these tables, supplemental gaseous fuels are accounted for in their primary energy category: “Coal,” “Petroleum,” or “Biomass”). It is assumed that supplemental gaseous fuels are commingled with natural gas consumed by the residential, commercial, other industrial, and electric power sectors, but are not commingled with natural gas used for lease and plant fuel, pipelines and distribution, or vehicle fuel. The estimated consumption of supplemental gaseous fuels by each sector (residential, commercial, other industrial, and electric power) is calculated as that sector’s natural gas consumption (see Table 4.3) divided by the sum of natural gas consumption by the residential, commercial, other industrial, and electric power sectors (see Table 4.3), and then multiplied by total supplemental gaseous fuels consumption (see Table 4.1). For estimated sectoral consumption of supplemental gaseous fuels in Btu, the residential, commercial, and other industrial values in cubic feet are multiplied by the “End-Use Sectors” conversion factors (see Table A4), and the electric power values in cubic feet are multiplied by the “Electric Power Sector” conversion factors (see Table A4). Total supplemental gaseous fuels consumption in Btu is calculated as the sum of the Btu values for the sectors. Note 4. Natural Gas Storage. Natural gas in storage at the end of a reporting period may not equal the quantity derived by adding or subtracting net injections or withdrawals from the quantity in storage at the end of the previous period. Injection and withdrawal data from the FERC-8/EIA-191 survey may be adjusted to correspond to data from Form EIA-176 for publication of EIA’s Natural Gas Annual (NGA). Total underground storage capacity, which includes both active and inactive fields, at the end of each calendar year since 1975 (first year data were available), in billion cubic feet, was: 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

6,280 6,544 6,678 6,890 6,929 7,434 7,805 7,915 7,985 8,043 8,087 8,145 8,124 8,124

1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

8,120 7,794 7,993 7,932 7,989 8,043 7,953 7,980 8,332 8,179 8,229 8,241 8,182 8,207

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

8,206 8,255 8,268 8,330 8,402 8,499 8,656 8,764 8,849 8,991 9,173 9,233 9,231 9,239

89

Through 1990, monthly underground storage data are collected from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Form FERC-8 (interstate data) and EIA Form EIA-191 (intrastate data). Beginning in 1991, all data are collected on the revised Form EIA-191. Injection and withdrawal data from the EIA-191 survey may be adjusted to correspond to data from Form EIA-176 following publication of EIA’s NGA. The final monthly and annual storage and withdrawal data for 1980–2015 include both underground and liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage. Annual data on LNG additions and withdrawals are from Form EIA-176. Monthly data are estimated by computing the ratio of each month’s underground storage additions and withdrawals to annual underground storage additions and withdrawals and applying the ratio to the annual LNG data. Note 5. Natural Gas Balancing Item. The balancing item for natural gas represents the difference between the sum of the components of natural gas supply and the sum of components of natural gas disposition. The differences may be due to quantities lost or to the effects of data reporting problems. Reporting problems include differences due to the net result of conversions of flow data metered at varying temperature and pressure bases and converted to a standard temperature and pressure base; the effect of variations in company accounting and billing practices; differences between billing cycle and calendar period time frames; and imbalances resulting from the merger of data reporting systems that vary in scope, format, definitions, and type of respondents. Note 6. Natural Gas Consumption. Natural gas consumption statistics include data for the following: “Residential Sector”: residential deliveries; “Commercial Sector”: commercial deliveries, including to commercial combined-heat-andpower (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants; “Industrial Sector”: lease and plant fuel use, and other industrial deliveries, including to industrial CHP and industrial electricity-only plants also includes the relatively small amount of natural gas consumption for non-combustion use (see Tables 1.11a and 1.11b); “Transportation Sector”: pipelines and distribution use, and vehicle fuel use; and “Electric Power Sector”: electric utility and independent power producer use. Final data for series other than “Other Industrial CHP” and “Electric Power Sector” are from EIA’s Natural Gas Annual (NGA). Monthly data are considered preliminary until after publication of the NGA. For more detailed information on the methods of estimating preliminary and final monthly data, see EIA’s Natural Gas Monthly. Note 7. Natural Gas Consumption, 1989–1992. Prior to 1993, deliveries to nonutility generators were not separately collected from natural gas companies on Form EIA176, “Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition.” As a result, for 1989–1992, those volumes are probably included in both the industrial and electric power sectors and double-counted in total consumption. In 1993, 0.28 trillion cubic feet was reported as delivered to nonutility generators. 90

Note 8. Natural Gas Data Adjustments, 1993–2000. For 1993–2000, the original data for natural gas delivered to industrial consumers (now “Other Industrial” in Table 4.3) included deliveries to both industrial users and independent power producers (IPPs). These data were adjusted to remove the estimated consumption at IPPs from “Other Industrial” and include it with electric utilities under “Electric Power Sector.” (To estimate the monthly IPP consumption, the monthly pattern for Other Industrial CHP in Table 4.3 was used.) For 1996–2000, monthly data for several natural gas series shown in EIA’s Natural Gas Navigator (see http://www.eia.gov/dnav/ng/ng_cons_sum_dcu_nus_m.htm) were not reconciled and updated to be consistent with the final annual data in EIA’s Natural Gas Annual. In the Monthly Energy Review, monthly data for these series were adjusted so that the monthly data sum to the final annual values. The Table 4.1 data series (and years) that were adjusted are: Gross Withdrawals (1996, 1997), Marketed Production (1997), NGPL Production (1997, 1998, 2000), Dry Gas Production (1996, 1997), Supplemental Gaseous Fuels (1997–2000), Balancing Item (1997–2000), and Total Consumption (1997–2000). The Table 4.3 data series (and years) that were adjusted are: Lease and Plant Fuel (1997–2000), Total Industrial (1997–2000), Pipelines and Distribution (2000), Total Transportation (2000), and Total Consumption (1997–2000). Note 9. Natural Gas Imports and Exports. The United States imports natural gas via pipeline from Canada and Mexico; and imports liquefied natural gas (LNG) via tanker from Algeria, Australia, Brunei, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Peru, Qatar, Trinidad and Tobago, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. In addition, small amounts of LNG arrived from Canada in 1973 (667 million cubic feet), 1977 (572 million cubic feet), 1981 (6 million cubic feet), 2013 (555 million cubic feet), 2014 (132 million cubic feet), 2015 (437 million cubic feet), 2016 (924 million cubic feet), and 2017 (1,276 million cubic feet). Also, small amounts of compressed natural gas (CNG) were imported from Canada in 2014 forward. The United States exports natural gas via pipeline to Canada and Mexico; and exports LNG via tanker to Argentina, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, China, Dominican Republic, Egypt, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Malta, Pakistan, Portugal, Russia, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and United Kingdom. Also, small amounts of LNG have gone to Mexico since 1998 and to Canada in 2007 and 2012 forward. Small amounts of CNG have been exported to Canada since 2013. Annual and final monthly data are from the annual EIA Form FPC-14, “Annual Report for Importers and Exporters of Natural Gas,” which requires data to be reported by month for the calendar year. Preliminary monthly data are EIA estimates. For a discussion of estimation procedures, see EIA’s Natural Gas Monthly. Preliminary data are revised after publication of EIA’s U.S. Imports and Exports of Natural Gas.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

5. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource Development

Figure 5.1

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource Development Indicators

Rotary Rigs in Operation by Type, 1949–2016 4

Thousand Rigs

3

2

Total

1

Natural Gas Crude Oil

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

Rotary Rigs in Operation by Type, Monthly

1985

2000

2005

2010

2015

2.0

1.5 Thousand Rigs

1995

Active Well Service Rig Count, Monthly

2.0

1.5 Thousand Rigs

Total

1.0

0.5

1990

Crude Oil

1.0

0.5 2015

2016

2017

Natural Gas

0.0

0.0

J FMAMJ J A SOND J FMAMJ J A SOND J FMAMJ J A SOND

2015

2016

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

20 17

Total Wells Drilled by Type, 1949–2010 50

Crude Oil Wells

Thousand Wells

40

Natural Gas Wells

30 20 10 Dry Wells

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#crude. Sources: Tables 5.1 and 5.2.

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U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

2005

2010

.

Table 5.1 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Activity Measurements (Number of Rigs) Rotary Rigs in Operationa By Site Onshore 1950 Average 1955 Average 1960 Average 1965 Average 1970 Average 1975 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

By Type Offshore

Crude Oil

Natural Gas

Totalb

Active Well Service Rig Countc

........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................

NA NA NA NA NA 1,554 2,678 1,774 902 622 778 1,003 717 924 1,095 1,287 1,559 1,695 1,814 1,046 1,514 1,846 1,871 1,705 1,804

NA NA NA NA NA 106 231 206 108 101 140 153 113 108 97 94 90 72 65 44 31 32 48 56 57

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 532 323 197 217 137 157 165 194 274 297 379 278 591 984 1,357 1,373 1,527

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 464 385 720 939 691 872 1,025 1,184 1,372 1,466 1,491 801 943 887 558 383 333

2,154 2,686 1,748 1,388 1,028 1,660 2,909 1,980 1,010 723 918 1,156 830 1,032 1,192 1,381 1,649 1,768 1,879 1,089 1,546 1,879 1,919 1,761 1,862

NA NA NA NA NA 2,486 4,089 4,716 3,658 3,041 2,692 2,267 1,830 1,967 2,064 2,222 2,364 2,388 2,515 1,722 1,854 2,075 2,113 2,064 2,024

2015 January .......................... February ........................ March ............................. April ............................... May ................................ June ............................... July ................................ August ........................... September ..................... October .......................... November ...................... December ...................... Average ........................

1,629 1,296 1,066 943 857 833 835 849 816 758 729 686 943

53 52 43 33 32 28 31 34 32 33 31 24 35

1,362 1,050 857 750 662 634 649 673 650 597 566 537 750

320 296 250 222 223 224 216 209 198 193 194 174 226

1,683 1,348 1,109 976 889 861 866 883 848 791 760 711 978

1,826 1,659 1,566 1,512 1,460 1,481 1,485 1,456 1,399 1,345 1,303 1,283 1,481

2016 January .......................... February ........................ March ............................. April ............................... May ................................ June ............................... July ................................ August ........................... September ..................... October .......................... November ...................... December ...................... Average ........................

615 506 451 411 384 396 429 464 491 521 558 611 486

28 26 27 26 24 21 20 17 18 23 22 23 23

510 430 384 348 320 330 359 397 416 436 462 507 408

133 102 93 88 86 86 88 82 91 105 117 126 100

643 532 477 437 407 417 449 481 509 543 580 634 509

1,170 1,058 1,023 1,000 989 1,009 1,053 967 1,117 1,102 1,111 1,131 1,061

2017 January .......................... February ........................ March ............................. April ............................... May ................................ June ............................... July ................................ August ........................... September ..................... October .......................... November ...................... 11-Month Average .......

659 724 770 833 871 909 931 930 922 901 891 850

24 20 19 20 22 22 22 17 18 21 20 20

542 593 634 685 714 747 765 764 752 741 738 699

140 150 154 166 178 184 189 183 187 180 173 171

683 744 789 853 893 931 953 947 940 922 911 871

1,099 1,125 1,159 1,176 1,219 1,235 1,215 1,192 1,212 R 1,207 NA NA

2016 11-Month Average ....... 2015 11-Month Average .......

473 969

23 37

398 772

97 232

496 1,006

1,054 1,499

a Rotary rigs in operation are reported weekly on Fridays. Monthly data are averages of 4- or 5-week reporting periods. Multi-month data are averages of the reported weekly data over the covered months. Annual data are averages of 52- or 53-week reporting periods. Published data are rounded to the nearest whole number. b Sum of rigs drilling for crude oil, rigs drilling for natural gas, and other rigs (not shown) drilling for miscellaneous purposes, such as service wells, injection wells, and stratigraphic tests. Therefore, "Total" values may not equal the sum of "Crude Oil" and "Natural Gas." "Total" values may not equal the sum of "Onshore" and "Offshore" due to independent rounding. c The number of rigs doing true workovers (where tubing is pulled from the well), or doing rod string and pump repair operations, and that are, on average, crewed and working every day of the month.

R=Revised. NA=Not available. Note: Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#crude (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • Rotary Rigs in Operation: Baker Hughes, Inc., Houston, TX, "North America Rig Count," used with permission. See http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=79687&p=irol-reportsother. • Active Well Service Rig Count: Assoc. of Energy Service Companies, Friendswood, TX. See http://www.aesc.net/AESC/Industry_Resources/Rig_Counts/AESC/ Industry_Resources/Well_Service_Rig_Count.aspx?hkey=0f7d99877819-421e-9c4c-7e7d9323ab3c.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

93

Table 5.2 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory and Development Wells Wells Drilled Exploratory Crude Oil

Natural Gas

Dry

Development Total

Crude Oil

Natural Gas

Dry

Total Total

Crude Oil

Natural Gas

Dry

Total

Thousand Feet

Number 1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total

Total Footage Drilled

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

1,583 2,236 1,321 946 757 982 1,777 1,680 778 570 288 357 258 350 383 539 646 808

431 874 868 515 477 1,248 2,099 1,200 811 558 657 1,052 844 997 1,671 2,141 2,456 2,794

8,292 11,832 9,515 8,005 6,162 7,129 9,081 8,954 3,652 2,024 1,341 1,733 1,282 1,297 1,350 1,462 1,547 1,582

10,306 14,942 11,704 9,466 7,396 9,359 12,957 11,834 5,241 3,152 2,286 3,142 2,384 2,644 3,404 4,142 4,649 5,184

22,229 28,196 20,937 17,119 12,211 15,966 31,182 33,581 12,061 7,678 7,802 8,531 6,517 7,779 8,406 10,240 12,739 12,563

3,008 3,392 4,281 3,967 3,534 6,879 15,362 13,124 10,435 7,524 16,394 21,020 16,498 19,725 22,515 26,449 30,382 29,925

6,507 8,620 8,697 8,221 4,869 6,517 11,704 12,257 4,593 2,790 2,805 2,865 2,472 2,685 2,732 3,191 3,659 3,399

31,744 40,208 33,915 29,307 20,614 29,362 58,248 58,962 27,089 17,992 27,001 32,416 25,487 30,189 33,653 39,880 46,780 45,887

23,812 30,432 22,258 18,065 12,968 16,948 32,959 35,261 12,839 8,248 8,090 8,888 6,775 8,129 8,789 10,779 13,385 13,371

3,439 4,266 5,149 4,482 4,011 8,127 17,461 14,324 11,246 8,082 17,051 22,072 17,342 20,722 24,186 28,590 32,838 32,719

14,799 20,452 18,212 16,226 11,031 13,646 20,785 21,211 8,245 4,814 4,146 4,598 3,754 3,982 4,082 4,653 5,206 4,981

42,050 55,150 45,619 38,773 28,010 38,721 71,205 70,796 32,330 21,144 29,287 35,558 27,871 32,833 37,057 44,022 51,429 51,071

157,358 226,182 192,176 174,882 138,556 180,494 316,943 314,409 156,044 117,156 144,425 180,141 145,159 177,239 204,279 240,307 282,675 301,515

2008 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

88 82 66 68 88 63 79 67 52 80 97 67 897

208 230 216 189 206 195 163 165 166 243 192 172 2,345

144 107 127 130 124 139 171 144 164 173 160 132 1,715

440 419 409 387 418 397 413 376 382 496 449 371 4,957

1,111 1,080 1,132 1,177 1,317 1,428 1,439 1,448 1,488 1,549 1,361 1,206 15,736

2,321 2,261 2,363 2,415 2,449 2,540 2,695 2,735 2,667 2,841 2,418 2,196 29,901

272 247 271 281 240 299 344 379 355 373 334 313 3,708

3,704 3,588 3,766 3,873 4,006 4,267 4,478 4,562 4,510 4,763 4,113 3,715 49,345

1,199 1,162 1,198 1,245 1,405 1,491 1,518 1,515 1,540 1,629 1,458 1,273 16,633

2,529 2,491 2,579 2,604 2,655 2,735 2,858 2,900 2,833 3,084 2,610 2,368 32,246

416 354 398 411 364 438 515 523 519 546 494 445 5,423

4,144 4,007 4,175 4,260 4,424 4,664 4,891 4,938 4,892 5,259 4,562 4,086 54,302

25,306 24,958 26,226 26,920 27,947 28,739 29,140 28,942 28,960 31,505 29,276 26,222 334,141

2009 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

80 62 59 36 47 44 40 49 61 55 38 34 605

171 125 146 68 90 91 100 84 71 79 83 98 1,206

99 88 88 93 80 75 101 88 96 78 85 84 1,055

350 275 293 197 217 210 241 221 228 212 206 216 2,866

1,192 991 867 755 584 804 789 867 945 966 931 894 10,585

2,253 1,925 1,771 1,396 1,136 1,297 1,188 1,372 1,170 1,167 1,133 1,074 16,882

250 195 210 205 156 189 217 207 207 222 199 213 2,470

3,695 3,111 2,848 2,356 1,876 2,290 2,194 2,446 2,322 2,355 2,263 2,181 29,937

1,272 1,053 926 791 631 848 829 916 1,006 1,021 969 928 11,190

2,424 2,050 1,917 1,464 1,226 1,388 1,288 1,456 1,241 1,246 1,216 1,172 18,088

349 283 298 298 236 264 318 295 303 300 284 297 3,525

4,045 3,386 3,141 2,553 2,093 2,500 2,435 2,667 2,550 2,567 2,469 2,397 32,803

28,077 25,440 25,304 21,406 20,055 16,301 13,543 15,970 15,547 17,261 16,236 16,424 231,562

2010 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

55 44 59 49 48 61 46 56 57 75 62 57 669

91 71 85 78 107 100 103 104 73 87 114 92 1,105

81 67 88 77 86 90 105 94 88 117 103 70 1,066

227 182 232 204 241 251 254 254 218 279 279 219 2,840

898 871 1,062 1,173 1,282 1,385 1,386 1,434 1,374 1,502 1,400 1,317 15,084

1,264 1,096 1,224 1,152 1,208 1,250 1,443 1,402 1,358 1,463 1,352 1,379 15,591

169 144 216 249 255 302 390 314 268 283 263 243 3,096

2,331 2,111 2,502 2,574 2,745 2,937 3,219 3,150 3,000 3,248 3,015 2,939 33,771

953 915 1,121 1,222 1,330 1,446 1,432 1,490 1,431 1,577 1,462 1,374 15,753

1,355 1,167 1,309 1,230 1,315 1,350 1,546 1,506 1,431 1,550 1,466 1,471 16,696

250 211 304 326 341 392 495 408 356 400 366 313 4,162

2,558 2,293 2,734 2,778 2,986 3,188 3,473 3,404 3,218 3,527 3,294 3,158 36,611

15,304 16,862 15,102 17,904 17,987 19,408 20,847 22,923 23,037 22,123 24,561 23,189 239,247

Notes: • Data are estimates. • For 1960–1969, data are for well completion reports received by the American Petroleum Institute during the reporting year; for all other years, data are for well completions in a given year. • Through 1989, these well counts include only the original drilling of a hole intended to discover or further develop already discovered crude oil or natural gas resources. Other drilling activities, such as drilling an old well deeper, drilling of laterals from the original well, drilling of service and injection wells, and drilling for resources other than crude oil or natural gas are excluded. Beginning in 1990, a new well is defined as the first hole in the ground whether it is lateral or not. Due to the methodology used to estimate ultimate well counts from the available partially reported data, the counts shown on this page are frequently revised. See Note, "Crude Oil and

Natural Gas Exploratory and Development Wells," at end of section. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#crude (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • 1949–1965: Gulf Publishing Company, World Oil, "Forecast-Review" issue. • 1966–1969: American Petroleum Institute (API), Quarterly Review of Drilling Statistics for the United States, annual summaries and monthly reports. • 1970–1989: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) computations based on well reports submitted to the API. • 1990 forward: EIA computations based on well reports submitted to IHS, Inc., Denver, CO.

Data for 2011 forward in this table have been removed while EIA evaluates the quality of the data and the estimation methodology.

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Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource Development Note. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory and Development Wells. Three well types are considered in the Monthly Energy Review (MER) drilling statistics: “completed for crude oil,” “completed for natural gas,” and “dry hole.” Wells that productively encounter both crude oil and natural gas are categorized as “completed for crude oil.” Both development wells and exploratory wells (new field wildcats, new pool tests, and extension tests) are included in the statistics. All other classes of wells drilled in connection with the search for producible hydrocarbons are excluded. If a lateral is drilled at the same time as the original hole it is not counted separately, but its footage is included. Prior to the March 1985 MER, drilling statistics consisted of

completion data for the above types and classes of wells as reported to the American Petroleum Institute (API) during a given month. Due to time lags between the date of well completion and the date of completion reporting to the API, as-reported well completions proved to be an inaccurate indicator of drilling activity. During 1982, for example, as-reported well completions rose, while the number of actual completions fell. Consequently, the drilling statistics published since the March 1985 MER are U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates produced by statistically imputing well counts and footage based on the partial data available from the API. These estimates are subject to continuous revision as new data, some of which pertain to earlier months and years, become available. Additional information about the EIA estimation methodology may be found in “Estimating Well Completions,” a feature article published in the March 1985 MER.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

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6. Coal

Figure 6.1

Coal (Million Short Tons)

Overview, 1949–2016 Production

1,200 1,000

Consumption

800 600 400 200

Net Exports

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Consumption by Sector, 1949–2016 1,200 Electric Power

1,000 800 600 400 Residential, Commercial,a and Transportationb

200

Industriala

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

Overview, Monthly

Electric Power Sector Consumption, Monthly

100

120

80

Production

2015

100 80

60

60 40

Consumption

40 20

20

2015

Net Exports

0

2017

0 J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 2015 20 16 2017

a Includes combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants and a small number of electricity-only-plants. b For 1978 forward, small amounts of transportation sector use are included in “Industrial.”

98

2016

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#coal. Sources: Tables 6.1–6.2.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

N

D

Table 6.1 Coal Overview (Thousand Short Tons) Productiona 1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Waste Coal Suppliedb

Imports

Exports

Trade Net Importsc

Stock Changed,e

Losses and Unaccounted fore,f

Consumption

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

560,388 490,838 434,329 526,954 612,661 654,641 829,700 883,638 1,029,076 1,032,974 1,073,612 1,127,689 1,094,283 1,071,753 1,112,099 1,131,498 1,162,750 1,146,635 1,171,809 1,074,923 1,084,368 1,095,628 1,016,458 984,842 1,000,049

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3,339 8,561 9,089 10,085 9,052 10,016 11,299 13,352 14,409 14,076 14,146 13,666 13,651 13,209 11,196 11,279 12,090

365 337 262 184 36 940 1,194 1,952 2,699 9,473 12,513 19,787 16,875 25,044 27,280 30,460 36,246 36,347 34,208 22,639 19,353 13,088 9,159 8,906 11,350

29,360 54,429 37,981 51,032 71,733 66,309 91,742 92,680 105,804 88,547 58,489 48,666 39,601 43,014 47,998 49,942 49,647 59,163 81,519 59,097 81,716 107,259 125,746 117,659 97,257

-28,995 -54,092 -37,719 -50,848 -71,697 -65,369 -90,548 -90,727 -103,104 -79,074 -45,976 -28,879 -22,726 -17,970 -20,718 -19,482 -13,401 -22,816 -47,311 -36,458 -62,363 -94,171 -116,586 -108,753 -85,907

27,829 -3,974 -3,194 1,897 11,100 32,154 25,595 -27,934 26,542 -275 -48,309 41,630 10,215 -26,659 -11,462 -9,702 42,642 5,812 12,354 39,668 -13,039 211 6,902 -38,525 -2,601

9,462 -6,292 1,722 2,244 6,633 -5,522 10,827 2,796 -1,730 632 938 7,120 4,040 -4,403 6,887 9,092 8,824 4,085 5,740 14,985 182 11,506 14,980 1,451 11,101

494,102 447,012 398,081 471,965 523,231 562,640 702,730 818,049 904,498 962,104 1,084,095 1,060,146 1,066,355 1,094,861 1,107,255 1,125,978 1,112,292 1,127,998 1,120,548 997,478 1,048,514 1,002,948 889,185 924,442 917,731

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

86,597 72,251 81,476 75,209 70,415 66,933 76,476 82,623 77,724 75,662 68,574 63,001 896,941

1,065 1,001 755 580 756 872 883 954 885 544 840 834 9,969

1,293 866 850 879 919 842 1,091 970 904 854 882 969 11,318

7,871 6,496 7,612 7,216 6,761 5,789 5,117 6,409 5,388 5,744 4,709 4,846 73,958

-6,579 -5,630 -6,762 -6,337 -5,842 -4,947 -4,026 -5,439 -4,485 -4,889 -3,827 -3,877 -62,640

2,390 -4,929 4,930 13,571 5,575 -6,552 -8,638 -3,360 5,283 13,278 13,061 6,094 40,704

1,799 233 6,979 2,673 -2,169 -4,434 523 2,924 -529 -366 -1,114 -1,067 5,452

76,895 72,318 63,560 53,207 61,923 73,845 81,449 78,574 69,369 58,405 53,640 54,930 798,115

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

R 60,569 R 57,329 R 55,328 R 48,216 R 53,123 R 59,513 R 61,784 R 68,247 R 65,070 R 68,725 R 67,150 R 63,311

693 819 1,186 740 910 641 990 943 800 768 706 652 9,850

4,433 4,511 5,208 4,583 4,209 5,432 3,276 5,003 4,273 4,863 6,554 7,926 60,271

-3,740 -3,693 -4,023 -3,843 -3,298 -4,790 -2,286 -4,060 -3,473 -4,095 -5,847 -7,274 -50,421

R -9,259 R -396 R 4,160 R 1,366 R -1,797

R 728,364

938 822 719 543 609 747 861 851 685 483 584 886 8,727

R 368 R -356 R 3,294 R 179 R 2,900 R -540 R -2,614 R -1,573 R -58 R 2,706 R 839 R -3,915 R 1,229

R 66,657 R 55,210 R 44,571 R 43,371 R 49,330 R 67,533 R 78,555 R 78,162 R 66,601 R 58,922 R 52,506 R 69,465

R 730,882

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ 11-Month Total ...

68,378 64,354 64,301 60,077 63,066 67,040 66,829 73,834 65,796 65,754 63,750 723,179

875 751 777 481 574 688 F 835 F 835 RF 835 NA NA NA

743 612 560 493 1,053 651 956 839 513 R 582 NA NA

7,385 6,908 8,013 7,236 7,243 7,317 7,177 8,573 8,894 R 9,159 NA NA

-6,642 -6,296 -7,453 -6,744 -6,190 -6,666 -6,221 -7,734 -8,381 R -8,577 NA NA

R -6,412 R 4,226 R 1,020 R 2,125 R -2,053 R -5,503

R 1,097 R 2,315 R 3,413 R 3,166 R 4,459 R 3,421 R -1,594 R 1,349 R 3,143

R 67,925 R 52,269 R 53,191 R 48,524 R 55,044 R 63,143 R 74,005 R 70,378 R 58,988

2016 11-Month Total ... 2015 11-Month Total ...

665,053 833,940

7,841 9,136

9,197 10,349

52,345 69,112

-43,148 -58,763

a Beginning in 2001, includes a small amount of refuse recovery (coal recaptured from a refuse mine and cleaned to reduce the concentration of noncombustible materials). b Waste coal (including fine coal, coal obtained from a refuse bank or slurry dam, anthracite culm, bituminous gob, and lignite waste) consumed by the electric power and industrial sectors. Beginning in 1989, waste coal supplied is counted as a supply-side item to balance the same amount of waste coal included in "Consumption." c Net imports equal imports minus exports. A minus sign indicates exports are greater than imports. d A negative value indicates a decrease in stocks and a positive value indicates an increase. See Table 6.3 for stocks data coverage. e In 1949, stock change is included in "Losses and Unaccounted for." f The difference between calculated coal supply and disposition, due to coal

R -11,522 R -15,582 R -11,552 R -4,260 R 3,486 R 8,542 R -8,626 R -45,442

R -10,969 R -4,792 R -3,882

NA NA NA -36,816 34,610

NA NA NA 5,145 6,518

NA NA NA 661,418 743,185

quantities lost or to data reporting problems. R=Revised. NA=Not available. F=Forecast. Notes: • For methodology used to calculate production, consumption, and stocks, see Note 1, "Coal Production," Note 2, "Coal Consumption," and Note 3, "Coal Stocks," at end of section. • Data values preceded by "F" are derived from the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System. See Note 4, "Coal Forecast Values," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#coal (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

99

Table 6.2 Coal Consumption by Sector (Thousand Short Tons) End-Use Sectors Commercial

Industrial Other Industrial

Residential 1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

CHPa

51,562 35,590 24,159 14,635 9,024 2,823 1,355 1,711 1,345 755 454 481 533 551 512 378 290 353 (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Otherb

Total

Coke Plants

CHPc

Non-CHPd

Total

Total

(g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) 1,191 1,419 1,547 1,448 1,405 1,816 1,917 1,922 1,886 1,927 2,021 1,798 1,720 1,668 1,450 1,356 1,063

63,021 32,852 16,789 11,041 7,090 6,587 5,097 6,068 4,189 3,633 2,126 2,441 2,506 1,869 2,693 2,420 1,050 1,247 1,485 1,412 1,361 1,125 595 595 824

63,021 32,852 16,789 11,041 7,090 6,587 5,097 6,068 5,379 5,052 3,673 3,888 3,912 3,685 4,610 4,342 2,936 3,173 3,506 3,210 3,081 2,793 2,045 1,951 1,887

104,014 107,743 81,385 95,286 96,481 83,598 66,657 41,056 38,877 33,011 28,939 26,075 23,656 24,248 23,670 23,434 22,957 22,715 22,070 15,326 21,092 21,434 20,751 21,474 21,297

(h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) 27,781 29,363 28,031 25,755 26,232 24,846 26,613 25,875 25,262 22,537 21,902 19,766 24,638 22,319 20,065 19,761 19,076

120,623 110,096 96,017 105,560 90,156 63,646 60,347 75,372 48,549 43,693 37,177 39,514 34,515 36,415 35,582 34,465 34,210 34,078 32,491 25,549 24,650 23,919 22,773 23,294 23,870

120,623 110,096 96,017 105,560 90,156 63,646 60,347 75,372 76,330 73,055 65,208 65,268 60,747 61,261 62,195 60,340 59,472 56,615 54,393 45,314 49,289 46,238 42,838 43,055 42,946

224,637 217,839 177,402 200,846 186,637 147,244 127,004 116,429 115,207 106,067 94,147 91,344 84,403 85,509 85,865 83,774 82,429 79,331 76,463 60,641 70,381 67,671 63,589 64,529 64,243

Transportation

Electric Power Sectore,f

Total

63,011 16,972 3,046 655 298 24 (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h)

91,871 143,759 176,685 244,788 320,182 405,962 569,274 693,841 f 782,567 850,230 985,821 964,433 977,507 1,005,116 1,016,268 1,037,485 1,026,636 1,045,141 1,040,580 933,627 975,052 932,484 823,551 857,962 851,602

494,102 447,012 398,081 471,965 523,231 562,640 702,730 818,049 904,498 962,104 1,084,095 1,060,146 1,066,355 1,094,861 1,107,255 1,125,978 1,112,292 1,127,998 1,120,548 997,478 1,048,514 1,002,948 889,185 924,442 917,731

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

97 97 83 54 50 61 64 58 51 52 59 72 798

101 101 87 45 41 50 39 35 31 49 56 69 706

198 198 171 99 92 111 104 93 82 101 115 141 1,503

1,908 1,598 1,649 1,543 1,677 1,766 1,801 1,711 1,519 1,586 1,479 1,469 19,708

1,613 1,483 1,506 1,336 1,378 1,381 1,505 1,420 1,391 1,296 1,325 1,350 16,984

1,852 1,977 1,962 1,780 1,717 1,720 1,588 1,673 1,696 1,865 1,841 1,805 21,475

3,465 3,460 3,468 3,116 3,095 3,101 3,093 3,093 3,087 3,161 3,166 3,155 38,459

5,373 5,058 5,117 4,659 4,772 4,867 4,894 4,804 4,606 4,747 4,645 4,624 58,167

(h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h)

71,323 67,061 58,272 48,449 57,060 68,867 76,452 73,678 64,682 53,557 48,879 50,165 738,444

76,895 72,318 63,560 53,207 61,923 73,845 81,449 78,574 69,369 58,405 53,640 54,930 798,115

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

R 75 R 75 R 74 R 46 R 37

R 78 R 73 R 31 R 25

73

R 683

R 499

148 153 147 76 62 71 63 69 67 89 109 127 1,182

1,328 1,361 1,434 1,324 1,367 1,405 1,433 1,395 1,336 1,335 1,326 1,442 16,485

R 1,397 R 1,282 R 1,275 R 1,076 R 1,178 R 1,243 R 1,321 R 1,292 R 1,157 R 1,126 R 1,093 R 1,280

R 14,720

R 1,648 R 1,752 R 1,767 R 1,736 R 1,642 R 1,563 R 1,501 R 1,516 R 1,655 R 1,752 R 1,799 R 1,609

R 19,941

3,046 3,034 3,042 2,812 2,820 2,806 2,822 2,808 2,812 2,878 2,892 2,889 34,661

4,374 4,395 4,475 4,136 4,187 4,211 4,255 4,203 4,148 4,213 4,218 4,331 51,146

(h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h)

R 62,135 R 50,661 R 39,948 R 39,159 R 45,082 R 63,250 R 74,237 R 73,890 R 62,385 R 54,621 R 48,179 R 65,006

R 678,554

R 66,657 R 55,210 R 44,571 R 43,371 R 49,330 R 67,533 R 78,555 R 78,162 R 66,601 R 58,922 R 52,506 R 69,465

R 730,882

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

R 66 R 54 R 58 R 40 R 40 R 46 R 53 R 49

1,431 1,368 1,438 1,441 1,482 1,402 F 1,468 F 1,721 F 1,523 E 13,273

E 14,420

2,813 2,824 2,806 2,701 2,706 2,714 F 2,556 F 2,600 F 2,646 E 24,366

4,244 4,191 4,244 4,141 4,189 4,116 F 4,024 F 4,321 F 4,169 E 37,640

(h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h)

R 67,925 R 52,269 R 53,191 R 48,524 R 55,044 R 63,143 R 74,005 R 70,378

1,030 9,947

R 1,528 R 1,736 R 1,634 R 1,633 R 1,608 R 1,620 F 1,509 F 1,535 F 1,616

R 63,542 R 47,965 R 48,825 R 44,318 R 50,793 R 58,954 R 69,929 R 66,008

E 264

138 112 122 64 62 72 F 52 F 49 F 44 E 717

R 1,285 R 1,087 R 1,172 R 1,068 R 1,098 R 1,094 R 1,047 R 1,065

47 453

R 72 R 58 R 64 R 24 R 22 R 27 F -1 F1 F -3

54,775 505,109

58,988 543,466

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

(i) (i)

498 615

359 532

857 1,147

12,382 15,174

11,221 13,013

14,781 15,964

26,002 28,977

38,384 44,151

(h) (h)

510,747 585,843

549,989 631,141

46 46

R 49 R 50

50

R 60 R 75

25 17

R 20

18 39

R 49 R 52

a Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and a small number of commercial electricity-only plants, such as those at hospitals and universities. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. b All commercial sector fuel use other than that in "Commercial CHP." c Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and a small number of industrial electricity-only plants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. d All industrial sector fuel use other than that in "Coke Plants" and "Industrial CHP." e The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heatand-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. f Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities and independent power producers. g Included in "Commercial Other."

100

h Included in "Industrial Non-CHP." i Beginning in 2008, residential coal consumption data are no longer collected by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). R=Revised. E=Estimate. F=Forecast. Notes: • CHP monthly values are from Table 7.4c; electric power sector monthly values are from Table 7.4b; all other monthly values are estimates derived from collected quarterly and annual data. See Note 2, "Coal Consumption," at end of section. • Data values preceded by "F" are derived from EIA’s Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System. See Note 4, "Coal Forecast Values," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#coal (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 6.3 Coal Stocks by Sector (Thousand Short Tons) End-Use Sectors Producers and Distributors

Residentiala and Commercial

Coke Plants

Otherb

Total

Total

Electric Power Sectorc,d

Total

..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... .....................

NA NA NA NA NA 12,108 24,379 33,133 33,418 34,444 31,905 35,900 43,257 38,277 41,151 34,971 36,548 33,977 34,688 47,718 49,820 51,897 46,157 45,652 38,894

2,462 998 666 353 300 233 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 498 529 552 603 583 495 449

16,809 13,422 11,122 10,640 9,045 8,797 9,067 3,420 3,329 2,632 1,494 1,510 1,364 905 1,344 2,615 2,928 1,936 2,331 1,957 1,925 2,610 2,522 2,200 2,640

26,182 15,880 11,637 13,122 11,781 8,529 11,951 10,438 8,716 5,702 4,587 6,006 5,792 4,718 4,842 5,582 6,506 5,624 6,007 5,109 4,525 4,455 4,475 4,097 4,196

42,991 29,302 22,759 23,762 20,826 17,326 21,018 13,857 12,044 8,334 6,081 7,516 7,156 5,623 6,186 8,196 9,434 7,560 8,338 7,066 6,451 7,065 6,997 6,297 6,836

45,453 30,300 23,425 24,115 21,126 17,559 21,018 13,857 12,044 8,334 6,081 7,516 7,156 5,623 6,186 8,196 9,434 7,560 8,836 7,595 7,003 7,668 7,581 6,792 7,285

31,842 41,391 51,735 54,525 71,908 110,724 183,010 156,376 156,166 126,304 102,296 138,496 141,714 121,567 106,669 101,137 140,964 151,221 161,589 189,467 174,917 172,387 185,116 147,884 151,548

77,295 71,691 75,160 78,640 93,034 140,391 228,407 203,367 201,629 169,083 140,282 181,912 192,127 165,468 154,006 144,304 186,946 192,758 205,112 244,780 231,740 231,951 238,853 200,328 197,727

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ...........

38,817 39,581 39,610 40,226 39,817 39,399 38,993 37,353 36,213 36,233 36,509 35,871

429 408 388 387 386 386 388 390 392 393 394 394

2,471 2,303 2,135 2,299 2,463 2,627 2,756 2,884 3,013 2,754 2,495 2,236

4,010 3,825 3,639 3,714 3,789 3,864 3,999 4,135 4,271 4,308 4,345 4,382

6,482 6,128 5,775 6,013 6,252 6,491 6,755 7,019 7,284 7,062 6,840 6,618

6,911 6,536 6,162 6,400 6,639 6,877 7,143 7,410 7,676 7,455 7,233 7,012

154,390 149,071 154,347 167,063 172,809 166,437 157,938 155,952 162,109 175,588 188,595 195,548

200,117 195,189 200,119 213,690 219,265 212,713 204,074 200,714 205,997 219,276 232,337 238,431

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ...........

RF 35,236 RF 35,258 RF 35,207 RF 35,011 RF 34,053 RF 32,932 RF 31,393 RF 29,126 RF 27,282 RF 26,425 RF 25,645 RF 25,309

373 353 332 334 336 337 348 359 370 367 364 361

2,129 2,022 1,914 1,877 1,839 1,802 1,755 1,707 1,660 1,665 1,670 1,675

4,231 4,080 3,930 3,895 3,860 3,825 3,786 3,747 3,708 3,684 3,659 3,635

6,360 6,102 5,844 5,772 5,699 5,626 5,540 5,454 5,368 5,349 5,329 5,310

6,733 6,455 6,176 6,105 6,035 5,964 5,889 5,814 5,739 5,716 5,694 5,671

R 187,203 R 187,064 R 191,553 R 193,185 R 192,417 R 182,086 R 168,119 R 158,908 R 156,567 R 160,932 R 170,277 R 162,009

R 229,172 R 228,776 R 232,936 R 234,302 R 232,505 R 220,982 R 205,400 R 193,848 R 189,588 R 193,074 R 201,615 R 192,989

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ...........

RF 24,974 RF 25,170 RF 25,190 RF 25,169 RF 24,350 RF 23,430 RF 24,983 RF 23,262 F 21,984

352 344 335 332 330 328 F 306 F 283 F 262

1,579 1,483 1,388 1,467 1,547 1,626 F 1,656 F 1,693 F 1,718

3,497 3,358 3,220 3,254 3,272 3,291 F 2,961 F 3,721 F 3,254

5,076 4,842 4,607 4,721 4,819 4,917 F 4,617 F 5,414 F 4,973

5,428 5,185 4,942 5,052 5,149 5,245 F 4,922 F 5,697 F 5,234

R 156,175 R 160,447 R 161,691 R 163,726 R 162,396 R 157,717 R 145,518 R 141,672

R 186,577 R 190,803 R 191,823 R 193,948 R 191,895 R 186,392 R 175,424 R 170,631

139,531

166,750

1950 Year 1955 Year 1960 Year 1965 Year 1970 Year 1975 Year 1980 Year 1985 Year 1990 Year 1995 Year 2000 Year 2001 Year 2002 Year 2003 Year 2004 Year 2005 Year 2006 Year 2007 Year 2008 Year 2009 Year 2010 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year

Industrial

a Through 1979, data are for the residential and commercial sectors. Beginning in 2008, data are for the commercial sector only. b Through 1979, data are for manufacturing plants and the transportation sector. For 1980–2007, data are for manufacturing plants only. Beginning in 2008, data are for manufacturing plants and coal transformation/processing plants. c The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-andpower (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. d Excludes waste coal. Through 1998, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1999, data are for electric utilities and independent power producers. R=Revised. NA=Not available. F=Forecast. Notes: • Stocks are at end of period. • Electric power sector monthly values

are from Table 7.5; producers and distributors monthly values are estimates derived from collected annual data; all other monthly values are estimates derived from collected quarterly values. • Data values preceded by "F" are derived from the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System. See Note 4, "Coal Forecast Values," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#coal (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

101

Coal Note 1. Coal Production. Preliminary monthly estimates of national coal production are the sum of weekly estimates developed by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) and published in the Weekly Coal Production report. When a week extends into a new month, production is allocated on a daily basis and added to the appropriate month. Weekly estimates are based on Association of American Railroads (AAR) data showing the number of railcars loaded with coal during the week by Class I and certain other railroads. Through 2001, the weekly coal production model converted AAR data into short tons of coal by using the average number of short tons of coal per railcar loaded reported in the “Quarterly Freight Commodity Statistics” from the Surface Transportation Board. If an average coal tonnage per railcar loaded was not available for a specific railroad, the national average was used. To derive the estimate of total weekly production, the total rail tonnage for the week was divided by the ratio of quarterly production shipped by rail and total quarterly production. Data for the corresponding quarter of previous years were used to derive this ratio. This method ensured that the seasonal variations were preserved in the production estimates. From 2002 through 2014, the weekly coal production model used statistical auto regressive methods to estimate national coal production as a function of railcar loadings of coal, heating degree-days, and cooling degree-days. On Thursday of each week, EIA received from the AAR data for the previous week. The latest weekly national data for heating degree-days and cooling degree-days were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Climate Prediction Center. Beginning in 2015, the revised weekly coal production model uses statistical auto regressive methods to estimate national coal production as a function of railcar loadings of coal. EIA receives AAR data on Thursday of each week for prior week car loadings. The weekly coal model is run and a national level coal production estimate is obtained. From there, state-level estimates are calculated using historical state production share. The state estimates are then aggregated to various regional-level estimates. The weekly coal model is refit every quarter after preliminary coal data are available. When preliminary quarterly data become available, the monthly and weekly estimates are adjusted to conform to the quarterly figures. The adjustment procedure uses historical state-level production data, the methodology for which can be seen in the documentation located at http://www.eia.gov/coal/production/weekly/. Initial estimates of annual production published in January of the following year are based on preliminary production data covering the first nine months (three quarters) and weekly/monthly estimates for the fourth quarter. All 102

quarterly, monthly, and weekly production figures are adjusted to conform to the final annual production data published in the Monthly Energy Review in the fall of the following year. Note 2. Coal Consumption. Forecast data (designated by an “F”) are derived from forecasted values shown in EIA’s Short-Term Energy Outlook (DOE/EIA-0202) table titled “U.S. Coal Supply, Consumption, and Inventories.” The monthly estimates are based on the quarterly values, which are released in March, June, September, and December. The estimates are revised quarterly as collected data become available from the data sources. Sector-specific information follows. Residential and Commercial—Through 2007, coal consumption by the residential and commercial sectors is reported to EIA for the two sectors combined; EIA estimates the amount consumed by the sectors individually. To create the estimates, it is first assumed that an occupied coal-heated housing unit consumes fuel at the same Btu rate as an oilheated housing unit. Then, for the years in which data are available on the number of occupied housing units by heating source (1973–1981 and subsequent odd-numbered years), residential consumption of coal is estimated using the following steps: a ratio is created of the number of occupied housing units heated by coal to the number of occupied housing units heated by oil; that ratio is then multiplied by the Btu quantity of oil consumed by the residential sector to derive an estimate of the Btu quantity of coal consumed by the residential sector; and, finally, the amount estimated as the residential sector consumption is subtracted from the residential and commercial sectors’ combined consumption to derive the commercial sector’s estimated consumption. Beginning in 2008, residential coal consumption data are not collected by EIA, and commercial coal consumption data are taken directly from reported data. Industrial Coke Plants—Through 1979, monthly coke plant consumption data were taken directly from reported data. For 1980–1987, coke plant consumption estimates were derived by proportioning reported quarterly data by using the ratios of monthly-to-quarterly consumption data in 1979, the last year in which monthly data were reported. Beginning in 1988, monthly coke plant consumption estimates are derived from the reported quarterly data by using monthly ratios of raw steel production data from the American Iron and Steel Institute. The ratios are the monthly raw steel production from open hearth and basic oxygen process furnaces as a proportion of the quarterly production from those kinds of furnaces. Coal coke consumption values also include the relativity small amount consumed for noncombustion use (See Tables 1.11a and 1.11b). Industrial Other—Through 1977, monthly consumption data for the other industrial sector (all industrial users minus coke plants) were derived by using reported data to modify baseline consumption figures from the most recent U.S. Census Bureau Annual Survey of Manufactures or Census

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

of Manufactures. For 1978 and 1979, monthly estimates were derived from data reported on Forms EIA-3 and EIA-6. For 1980–1987, monthly figures were estimated by proportioning quarterly data by using the ratios of monthly-to-quarterly consumption data in 1979, the last year in which monthly data were reported on Form EIA-3. Beginning in 1988, monthly consumption for the other industrial sector is estimated from reported quarterly data by using ratios derived from industrial production indices published by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Indices for six major industry groups are used as the basis for calculating the ratios: food manufacturing, which is North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 311; paper manufacturing, NAICS 322; chemical manufacturing, NAICS 325; petroleum and coal products, NAICS 324; nonmetallic mineral products manufacturing, NAICS 327; and primary metal manufacturing, NAICS 331. The monthly ratios are computed as the monthly sum of the weighted indices as a proportion of the quarterly sum of the weighted indices by using the 1977 proportion as the weights. Through 2007, quarterly consumption data for the other industrial sector were derived by adding beginning stocks at manufacturing plants to current receipts and subtracting ending stocks at manufacturing plants. In this calculation, current receipts are the greater of either reported receipts from manufacturing plants (Form EIA-3) or reported shipments to the other industrial sector (Form EIA-6), thereby ensuring that agriculture, forestry, fishing, and construction consumption data were included where appropriate. Beginning in 2008, quarterly consumption totals for other industrial coal include data for manufacturing and mining only. Over time, surveyed coal consumption data for agriculture, forestry, fishing, and construction dwindled to about 20–30 thousand short tons annually. Therefore, in 2008, EIA consolidated its programs by eliminating agriculture, forestry, fishing, and construction as surveyed sectors. Electric Power Sector—Monthly consumption data for electric power plants are taken directly from reported data. Note 3. Coal Stocks. Coal stocks data are reported by major end-use sector. Forecast data (designated by an “F”) are derived from forecasted values shown in EIA’s Short-Term Energy Outlook (DOE/EIA-0202) table titled “U.S. Coal Supply, Consumption, and Inventories.” The monthly estimates are based on the quarterly values (released in March, June, September, and December) or annual values. The estimates are revised as collected data become available from the data sources. Sectorspecific information follows. Producers and Distributors—Through 1997, quarterly stocks at producers and distributors were taken directly from reported data. Monthly data were estimated by using one-third of the current quarterly change to indicate

the monthly change in stocks. Beginning in 1998, endof-year stocks are taken from reported data. Monthly stocks are estimated by a model. Residential and Commercial—Through 1979, stock estimates for the residential and commercial sector were taken directly from reported data. For 1980–2007, stock estimates were not collected. Beginning in 2008, quarterly commercial (excluding residential) stocks data are collected on Form EIA-3 (data for “Commercial and Institutional Coal Users”). Industrial Coke Plants—Through 1979, monthly stocks at coke plants were taken directly from reported data. Beginning in 1980, coke plant stocks are estimated by using onethird of the current quarterly change to indicate the monthly change in stocks. Quarterly stocks are taken directly from data reported on Form EIA-5. Industrial Other—Through 1977, stocks for the other industrial sector were derived by using reported data to modify baseline figures from a one-time Bureau of Mines survey of consumers. For 1978–1982, monthly estimates were derived by judgmentally proportioning reported quarterly data based on representative seasonal patterns of supply and demand. Beginning in 1983, other industrial coal stocks are estimated as indicated above for coke plants. Quarterly stocks are taken directly from data reported on Form EIA-3 and therefore include only manufacturing industries; data for agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and construction stocks are not available. Electric Power Sector—Monthly stocks data at electric power plants are taken directly from reported data. Note 4. Coal Forecast Values. Data values preceded by “F” in this section are forecast values. They are derived from EIA’s Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The model is driven primarily by data and assumptions about key macroeconomic variables, the world oil price, and weather. The coal forecast relies on other variables as well, such as alternative fuel prices (natural gas and oil) and power generation by sources other than fossil fuels, including nuclear and hydroelectric power. Each month, EIA staff review the model output and make adjustments, if appropriate, based on their knowledge of developments in the coal industry. The STIFS model results are published monthly in EIA’s Short-Term Energy Outlook, which is accessible on the Web at http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/steo/.

Table 6.1 Sources Production 1949–September 1977: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Minerals Yearbook and Minerals Industry Surveys. October 1977 forward: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Weekly Coal Production.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

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Waste Coal Supplied 1989–1997: EIA, Form EIA-867, “Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report.” 1998–2000: EIA, Form EIA-860B, “Annual Electric Generator Report—Nonutility.” 2001–2003: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report,” and Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Manufacturing Plants,” and predecessor forms. 2004–2007: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report,” Form EIA-920, “Combined Heat and Power Plant Report,” and Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Manufacturing Plants,” and predecessor forms. 2008 forward: EIA, Form EIA-923, “Power Plant Operations Report,” and Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Survey of Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Coal Users” (formerly called, “Quarterly Survey of Non-Electric Sector Coal Data”); and, for forecast values, EIA, Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System. Imports and Exports 1949 forward: U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, Monthly Reports IM 145 (Imports) and EM 545 (Exports). Stock Change 1950 forward: Calculated from data in Table 6.3. Losses and Unaccounted for 1949 forward: Calculated as the sum of production, imports, and waste coal supplied, minus exports, stock change, and consumption. Consumption 1949 forward: Table 6.2.

Table 6.2 Sources Residential and Commercial Total Through 2007, coal consumption by the residential and commercial sectors combined is reported to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). EIA estimates the sectors individually using the method described in Note 2, “Consumption,” at the end of Section 6. Data for the residential and commercial sectors combined are from: 1949–1976: U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), Bureau of Mines (BOM), Minerals Yearbook. January–September 1977: DOI, BOM, Form 6-1400, “Monthly Coal Report, Retail Dealers—Upper Lake Docks.” October 1977–1979: EIA, Form EIA-2, “Monthly Coal Report, Retail Dealers—Upper Lake Docks.” 1980–1997: EIA, Form EIA-6, “Coal Distribution Report,” quarterly. 1998–2007: DOI, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Form 7000-2, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Coke Plants.”

Commercial Total Beginning in 2008, coal consumption by the commercial (excluding residential) sector is reported to EIA. Data for total commercial consumption are from: 2008 forward: EIA, Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Survey of Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Coal Users” (formerly called, “Quarterly Survey of Non-Electric Sector Coal Data”); and, for forecast values, EIA, Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). Commercial CHP 1989 forward: Table 7.4c. Commercial Other 1949 forward: Calculated as “Commercial Total” minus “Commercial CHP.” Industrial Coke Plants 1949–September 1977: DOI, BOM, Minerals Yearbook and Minerals Industry Surveys. October 1977–1980: EIA, Form EIA-5/5A, “Coke and Coal Chemicals—Monthly/Annual Supplement.” 1981–1984: EIA, Form EIA-5/5A, “Coke Plant Report—Quarterly/Annual Supplement.” 1985 forward: EIA, Form EIA–5, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Coke Plants”; and, for forecast values, EIA, STIFS. Other Industrial Total 1949–September 1977: DOI, BOM, Minerals Yearbook and Minerals Industry Surveys. October 1977–1979: EIA, Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Manufacturing Plants,” and predecessor forms. 1980–1997: EIA, Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Manufacturing Plants,” and predecessor forms and Form EIA-6, “Coal Distribution Report,” quarterly. 1998–2007: EIA, Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Manufacturing Plants,” and predecessor forms, Form EIA-6A, “Coal Distribution Report,” annual, and Form EIA-7A, “Coal Production Report,” annual. 2008 forward: EIA, Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Survey of Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Coal Users” (formerly called, “Quarterly Survey of Non-Electric Sector Coal Data”) and Form EIA-7A, “Coal Production Report,” annual; and, for forecast values, EIA, STIFS. Other Industrial CHP 1989 forward: Table 7.4c. Other Industrial Non-CHP 1949 forward: Calculated as “Other Industrial Total” minus “Other Industrial CHP.”

Transportation 1949–1976: DOI, BOM, Minerals Yearbook. 104

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

January–September 1977: DOI, BOM, Form 6-1400, “Monthly Coal Report, Retail Dealers—Upper Lake Docks.” October–December 1977: EIA, Form EIA-6, “Coal Distribution Report,” quarterly.

2008 forward: EIA, Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Survey of Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Coal Users” (formely called “Quarterly Survey of Non-Electric Coal Data); and, for forecast values, EIA, STIFS.

Electric Power 1949 forward: Table 7.4b.

Industrial Coke Plants 1949–September 1977: DOI, BOM, Minerals Yearbook and Minerals Industry Surveys. October 1977–1980: EIA, Form EIA-5/5A, “Coke and Coal Chemicals—Monthly/Annual.” 1981–1984: EIA, Form EIA-5/5A, “Coke Plant Report—Quarterly/Annual Supplement.” 1985 forward: EIA, Form EIA-5, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Coke Plants” and, for forecast values, EIA, STIFS.

Table 6.3 Sources Producers and Distributors 1973–1979: U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), Bureau of Mines (BOM), Form 6-1419Q, “Distribution of Bituminous Coal and Lignite Shipments.” 1980–1997: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-6, “Coal Distribution Report,” quarterly. 1998–2007: EIA, Form EIA-6A, “Coal Distribution Report,” annual. 2008 forward: EIA, Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Survey of Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Coal Users” (formerly called, “Quarterly Survey of Non-Electric Sector Coal Data”); (data for “Commercial and Institutional Coal Users”); and, for forecast values, EIA. Residential and Commercial 1949–1976: DOI, BOM, Minerals Yearbook. January–September 1977: DOI, BOM, Form 6-1400, “Monthly Coal Report, Retail Dealers—Upper Lake Docks.” October 1977–1979: EIA, Form EIA-2, “Monthly Coal Report, Retail Dealers—Upper Lake Docks.”

Industrial Other 1949–September 1977: DOI, BOM, Minerals Yearbook and Minerals Industry Surveys. October 1977–2007: EIA, Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Manufacturing Plants,” and predecessor forms. 2008 forward: EIA, Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Survey of Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Coal Users” (formerly called, “Quarterly Survey of Non-Electric Sector Coal Data”); and, for forecast values, EIA, STIFS. Electric Power 1949 forward: Table 7.5.

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7. Electricity

Figure 7.1

Electricity Overview (Billion Kilowatthours)

Overview, 2016 5,000 3,918

4,000

3,762

3,000 2,000 1,000 13

146

70

9

Commercial

Industrial

Imports

Exports

0 Electric Power

Net Generationa

140 Retail Salesb

Trade

Net Generationa by Sector, 1989–2016

Direct Usec End Use

Net Generationa by Sector, Monthly 500

5,000

Totald 4,000

400

Totald Electric Power

3,000

300 Electric Power

2,000

200

1,000

100 Industrial

Industrial

0

0 1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

J FMAM J J A SOND J FMAMJ J A SOND J FMAM J J A SOND

2015

2015

2016

2017

Trade, 1949–2016 100

80

Imports

60

40 Exports

20

0 1950

a

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

Data are for utility-scale facilities. Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities and other energy service providers. c See “Direct Use” in Glossary. b

108

1985

1990

1995

2000

d

2005

2010

2015

Includes commercial sector. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity. Source: Table 7.1.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 7.1 Electricity Overview (Billion Kilowatthours) Net Generationa Electric Power Sectorb 1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Commercial Sectorc

Trade

Industrial Sectord

Total

Importse

Exportse

Net Importse

T&D Lossesf and Unaccounted forg

End Use Retail Salesh

Direct Usei

Total

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

329 547 756 1,055 1,532 1,918 2,286 2,470 2,901 3,194 3,638 3,580 3,698 3,721 3,808 3,902 3,908 4,005 3,974 3,810 3,972 3,948 3,890 3,904 3,937

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 6 8 8 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 10 11 12 13

5 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 c 131 151 157 149 153 155 154 145 148 143 137 132 144 142 146 150 144

334 550 759 1,058 1,535 1,921 2,290 2,473 3,038 3,353 3,802 3,737 3,858 3,883 3,971 4,055 4,065 4,157 4,119 3,950 4,125 4,100 4,048 4,066 4,094

2 5 5 4 6 11 25 46 18 43 49 39 37 30 34 44 43 51 57 52 45 52 59 69 67

(s) (s) 1 4 4 5 4 5 16 4 15 16 16 24 23 19 24 20 24 18 19 15 12 11 13

2 4 5 (s) 2 6 21 41 2 39 34 22 21 6 11 25 18 31 33 34 26 37 47 58 53

44 58 76 104 145 180 216 190 203 229 244 202 248 228 266 269 266 298 286 261 264 255 263 256 244

291 497 688 954 1,392 1,747 2,094 2,324 2,713 3,013 3,421 3,394 3,465 3,494 3,547 3,661 3,670 3,765 3,734 3,597 3,755 3,750 3,695 3,725 3,765

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 125 151 171 163 166 168 168 150 147 126 132 127 132 133 138 143 139

291 497 688 954 1,392 1,747 2,094 2,324 2,837 3,164 3,592 3,557 3,632 3,662 3,716 3,811 3,817 3,890 3,866 3,724 3,887 3,883 3,832 3,868 3,903

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

347 322 312 282 310 349 386 378 337 299 288 310 3,919

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13

13 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 12 12 12 13 146

360 334 324 294 322 362 400 392 350 312 301 324 4,078

6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5 6 6 76

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9

5 4 6 6 6 6 6 7 6 5 5 5 67

24 21 13 14 29 30 31 24 11 9 18 20 244

330 307 305 275 288 326 363 362 333 296 276 297 3,759

E 12 E 11 E 11 E 11 E 11 E 12 E 13 E 13 E 12 E 12 E 12 E 12

342 317 316 286 299 338 376 375 345 308 288 310 3,900

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

339 301 291 R 281 304 R 354 398 R 395 R 338 300 284 332 R 3,918

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13

R 12

12 12 R 11 12 12 13 13 12 12 12 12 R 146

353 314 304 293 317 368 412 410 R 351 313 297 345 R 4,077

R6 R5

6 R4 R5 7 R7 R7 R5 R5 R6 R5 R 70

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R9

6 5 5 4 5 R6 R6 R6 R4 5 R5 R4 R 60

R 26 R 10 R 12 R 16 R 25 R 32 R 34 R 22 R7 R 10 R 14 R 27

R 235

R 321 R 297 R 286 R 270 R 285 R 330 R 372 R 381 R 337 R 297 R 277 R 311

R 3,762

E 12 E 11 E 12 E 11 E 11 E 12 E 13 E 13 E 12 E 11 RE 11 E 12 R 140

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

328 R 278 R 307 281 R 308 R 344 R 388 R 369 322 2,925

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9

12 11 12 R 12 12 12 13 13 11 108

341 R 290 R 320 294 321 R 357 R 402 R 382 334 3,042

6 4 5 5 5 6 F7 F7 F6 E 51

1 1 1 1 1 1 F1 F1 F1 E9

5 3 4 4 4 5 F6 F6 F5 E 42

R 20 R 10 R 24

18 25 R 27 R 34 R 21 10 189

314 273 288 269 289 R 323 362 356 318 2,792

E 12 E 11 E 12 E 11 E 11 E 12 RE 12 E 12 E 11 E 104

300 335 374 368 329 2,895

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

3,002 3,022

10 10

110 109

3,121 3,140

53 59

7 7

46 52

184 197

2,878 2,890

E 105 E 105

2,983 2,995

a Electricity net generation at utility-scale facilities. Does not include distributed (small-scale) solar photovoltaic (PV) generation shown on Table 10.6. See Note 1, “Coverage of Electricity Statistics,” at end of section. b Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only; beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities and independent power producers. c Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. d Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants. Through 1988, data are for industrial hydroelectric power only. e Electricity transmitted across U.S. borders. Net imports equal imports minus exports. f Transmission and distribution losses (electricity losses that occur between the point of generation and delivery to the customer). See Note 1, "Electrical System Energy Losses," at end of Section 2. g Data collection frame differences and nonsampling error. h Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers by electric utilities and, beginning

141

R 333 R 308 R 297 R 280 R 296 R 342 R 385 R 394 R 348 R 308 R 289 R 322

R 3,902

R 326

284

R 300 R 280

in 1996, other energy service providers. i Use of electricity that is 1) self-generated, 2) produced by either the same entity that consumes the power or an affiliate, and 3) used in direct support of a service or industrial process located within the same facility or group of facilities that house the generating equipment. Direct use is exclusive of station use. R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. F=Forecast. (s)=Less than 0.5 billion kilowatthours. Notes: • See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity Statistics," and Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of section. • Data values preceded by "F" are derived from the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System. See Note 3, "Electricity Forecast Values," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

109

Figure 7.2

Electricity Net Generation (Billion Kilowatthours)

Total (All Sectors), Major Sources, 1949–2016 2,500 Coal

2,000

1,500 Natural Gas 1,000 Nuclear Electric Power

Renewable Energya 500

Petroleum

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

Total (All Sectors), Major Sources, Monthly

Electric Power Sector, Major Sources, 2016

200

1,500 Nuclear Electric Power

150

1,279

2015

1,230

Natural Gas 1,000 806

100

Coal 576 500

50 Renewable Energya Petroleum

0

23 0

J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 2015 2016 2017

Commercial Sector, Major Sources, 2016

Natural Gas

Coal

Nuclear Electric Power

Renewable Energya

Petroleum

Industrial Sector, Major Sources, 2016

10

100 91.2

8

7.7

80

6

60

4

40 27.5

2.5 2

20 0.4

0

9.1

1.4 0

Natural Gas

Waste

Coal

Petroleum

a Conventional hydroelectric power, wood, waste, geothermal, solar, and wind. b Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels.

110

8.9

0.1 Natural Gas

Wood

Coal

1.3

Other Petroleum HydroGasesb electric Power c

c

Conventional hydroelectric power. Note: Data are for utility-scale facilities. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity. Sources: Tables 7.2a–7.2c.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 7.2a Electricity Net Generation: Total (All Sectors) (Sum of Tables 7.2b and 7.2c; Million Kilowatthours) Fossil Fuels

Coala

Petroleumb

Natural Gasc

Renewable Energy

Other Gasesd

Nuclear Electric Power

Conventional HydroHydroelectric Pumped electric Storagee Powerf

Biomass

Woodg

Wasteh

Geothermal

Solari

Wind

Totalj

1950 Total .............. 1955 Total .............. 1960 Total .............. 1965 Total .............. 1970 Total .............. 1975 Total .............. 1980 Total .............. 1985 Total .............. 1990 Totalk ............ 1995 Total .............. 2000 Total .............. 2001 Total .............. 2002 Total .............. 2003 Total .............. 2004 Total .............. 2005 Total .............. 2006 Total .............. 2007 Total .............. 2008 Total .............. 2009 Total .............. 2010 Total .............. 2011 Total .............. 2012 Total .............. 2013 Total .............. 2014 Total ..............

154,520 301,363 403,067 570,926 704,394 852,786 1,161,562 1,402,128 1,594,011 1,709,426 1,966,265 1,903,956 1,933,130 1,973,737 1,978,301 2,012,873 1,990,511 2,016,456 1,985,801 1,755,904 1,847,290 1,733,430 1,514,043 1,581,115 1,581,710

33,734 37,138 47,987 64,801 184,183 289,095 245,994 100,202 126,460 74,554 111,221 124,880 94,567 119,406 121,145 122,225 64,166 65,739 46,243 38,937 37,061 30,182 23,190 27,164 30,232

44,559 95,285 157,970 221,559 372,890 299,778 346,240 291,946 372,765 496,058 601,038 639,129 691,006 649,908 710,100 760,960 816,441 896,590 882,981 920,979 987,697 1,013,689 1,225,894 1,124,836 1,126,609

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 10,383 13,870 13,955 9,039 11,463 15,600 15,252 13,464 14,177 13,453 11,707 10,632 11,313 11,566 11,898 12,853 12,022

0 0 518 3,657 21,804 172,505 251,116 383,691 576,862 673,402 753,893 768,826 780,064 763,733 788,528 781,986 787,219 806,425 806,208 798,855 806,968 790,204 769,331 789,016 797,166

(f) (f) (f) (f) (f) (f) (f) (f) -3,508 -2,725 -5,539 -8,823 -8,743 -8,535 -8,488 -6,558 -6,558 -6,896 -6,288 -4,627 -5,501 -6,421 -4,950 -4,681 -6,174

100,885 116,236 149,440 196,984 250,957 303,153 279,182 284,311 292,866 310,833 275,573 216,961 264,329 275,806 268,417 270,321 289,246 247,510 254,831 273,445 260,203 319,355 276,240 268,565 259,367

390 276 140 269 136 18 275 743 32,522 36,521 37,595 35,200 38,665 37,529 38,117 38,856 38,762 39,014 37,300 36,050 37,172 37,449 37,799 40,028 42,340

NA NA NA NA 220 174 158 640 13,260 20,405 23,131 14,548 15,044 15,812 15,421 15,420 16,099 16,525 17,734 18,443 18,917 19,222 19,823 20,830 21,650

NA NA 33 189 525 3,246 5,073 9,325 15,434 13,378 14,093 13,741 14,491 14,424 14,811 14,692 14,568 14,637 14,840 15,009 15,219 15,316 15,562 15,775 15,877

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 11 367 497 493 543 555 534 575 550 508 612 864 891 1,212 1,818 4,327 9,036 17,691

6 2,789 3,164 5,593 6,737 10,354 11,187 14,144 17,811 26,589 34,450 55,363 73,886 94,652 120,177 140,822 167,840 181,655

334,088 550,299 759,156 1,058,386 1,535,111 1,920,755 2,289,600 2,473,002 3,037,827 3,353,487 3,802,105 3,736,644 3,858,452 3,883,185 3,970,555 4,055,423 4,064,702 4,156,745 4,119,388 3,950,331 4,125,060 4,100,141 4,047,765 4,065,964 4,093,606

2015 January .......... February ........ March ............. April ............... May ................ June ............... July ................ August ........... September ..... October .......... November ...... December ...... Total ..............

132,451 126,977 108,488 88,989 104,585 125,673 139,100 134,670 117,986 96,759 87,227 89,495 1,352,398

2,973 6,321 1,778 1,728 1,939 1,860 2,304 2,133 2,034 1,771 1,710 1,697 28,249

101,687 91,315 99,423 92,806 101,516 121,478 141,119 139,084 123,036 110,005 102,236 109,777 1,333,482

1,246 1,025 1,091 979 1,099 1,118 1,235 1,196 1,210 906 902 1,110 13,117

74,270 63,461 64,547 59,784 65,827 68,516 71,412 72,415 66,476 60,571 60,264 69,634 797,178

-551 -456 -409 -214 -370 -398 -513 -626 -544 -443 -285 -281 -5,091

24,138 22,286 24,281 22,471 20,125 20,414 21,014 19,122 16,094 16,630 19,338 23,166 249,080

3,717 3,372 3,457 3,246 3,338 3,496 3,806 3,788 3,450 3,252 3,418 3,587 41,929

1,725 1,524 1,712 1,729 1,799 1,784 1,989 1,921 1,805 1,843 1,902 1,969 21,703

1,362 1,260 1,394 1,272 1,390 1,302 1,357 1,344 1,203 1,323 1,334 1,377 15,918

1,155 1,484 2,072 2,379 2,504 2,558 2,627 2,688 2,217 1,910 1,730 1,570 24,893

15,162 14,922 15,308 17,867 17,151 13,421 13,675 13,080 13,972 16,380 19,682 20,098 190,719

360,455 334,476 324,192 294,133 322,087 362,409 400,419 392,116 350,122 312,112 300,653 324,427 4,077,601

2016 January .......... February ........ March ............. April ............... May ................ June ............... July ................ August ........... September ..... October .......... November ...... December ...... Total ..............

R 113,459 R 92,705 R 72,173 R 72,113 R 81,695 R 116,034 R 136,316 R 135,635 R 114,138 R 99,194 R 86,940 R 118,747

R 2,361 R 2,209 R 1,801 R 1,839 R 1,958 R 1,977 R 2,322 R 2,335 R 1,926 R 1,571 R 1,869 R 2,035

R 110,044 R 98,552 R 103,890 R 98,876 R 110,430 R 131,395 R 151,554 R 154,760 R 125,603 R 102,898 R 93,942 R 96,364

R 1,195 R 1,062 R 1,197 R 1,132 R 1,053 R 1,043 R 1,077 R 1,064 R 1,020 R 913 R 1,013 R 1,037

72,525 65,638 66,149 R 62,732 66,576 67,175 70,349 71,526 65,448 60,733 65,179 71,662 R 12,807 R 805,694

-312 -399 -384 -452 -321 -497 -784 -902 -715 -561 -607 -753 -6,686

R 25,615 R 24,139 R 27,390 R 25,878 R 25,486 R 23,237 R 21,455 R 19,570 R 16,368 R 17,339 R 18,808 R 22,528

R 3,600 R 3,406 R 3,403 R 2,967 R 3,187

R 1,795 R 1,708 R 1,809 R 1,811 R 1,909 R 1,794 R 1,840 R 1,860 R 1,757 R 1,693 R 1,891 R 1,944

R 1,332 R 1,243 R 1,315 R 1,209 R 1,342 R 1,251 R 1,311 R 1,324 R 1,327 R 1,353 R 1,364 R 1,454

R 1,486 R 2,242 R 2,617 R 2,880 R 3,425 R 3,473 R 3,945 R 3,969 R 3,635 R 3,191 R 2,767 R 2,424

R 18,466 R 20,138 R 21,939 R 20,799 R 18,848 R 16,303 R 17,618 R 13,589 R 16,404 R 20,335 R 19,406 R 23,146

R 352,719 R 313,699 R 304,403 R 292,908 R 316,800 R 367,796 R 411,901 R 409,715 R 351,498 R 312,958 R 297,075 R 345,355

R 27,858 R 24,543 R 30,221 R 29,322 R 32,181 R 30,423 R 25,741 R 21,239

R 3,589 R 3,405 R 3,662 R 3,373 R 3,431 R 3,625 R 3,922 R 3,880

R 1,863 R 1,646 R 1,753 R 1,663 R 1,735 R 1,688 R 1,752 R 1,768

R 1,399 R 1,241 R 1,380 R 1,357 R 1,295 R 1,265 R 1,368 R 1,357

R 2,147 R 2,491 R 4,421 R 4,759 R 5,747 R 6,230 R 5,482 R 5,379

R 20,607 R 22,088 R 26,030 R 25,722 R 22,606 R 19,642 R 15,846 R 13,147

R 341,389 R 290,166 R 320,413 R 293,840 R 321,159 R 357,286 R 401,572 R 382,255

18,963 240,491

3,417 32,303

1,643 15,513

1,325 11,988

5,145 41,801

17,291 182,980

334,152 3,042,231

209,137 189,946

30,764 31,671

16,284 15,989

11,655 11,884

27,672 19,684

164,106 134,558

3,121,439 3,140,409

R 1,239,149

R 24,205 R 1,378,307

2017 January .......... February ........ March ............. April ............... May ................ June ............... July ................ August ........... September ..... 9-Month Total

R 115,501 R 86,873 R 89,426 R 81,532 R 92,464 R 107,729 R 127,984 R 119,880

R 2,124 R 1,643 R 1,688 R 1,288 R 1,772 R 1,880 R 1,747 R 1,725

R 91,410 R 80,510 R 94,956 R 86,326 R 96,782

R 116,062 R 144,716 R 139,603

R 1,119 R 1,189 R 1,255 R 1,154 R 1,182 R 1,208 R 1,259 R 1,320

98,416 919,805

1,665 15,531

116,671 967,036

2016 9-Month Total 2015 9-Month Total

934,267 1,078,917

18,729 23,071

1,085,104 1,011,464

R -435 R -508 R -521 R -439

1,120 10,804

73,121 64,053 65,093 56,743 61,309 67,011 71,314 72,384 68,073 599,102

-423 -568 -759 -638 -606 -4,898

9,843 10,199

608,119 606,709

-4,766 -4,082

a Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal synfuel. b Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, jet fuel, kerosene, other petroleum, waste oil, and, beginning in 2011, propane. c Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. d Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. e Pumped storage facility production minus energy used for pumping. f Through 1989, hydroelectric pumped storage is included in "Conventional Hydroelectric Power." g Wood and wood-derived fuels. h Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). i Electricity net generation from solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) energy at utility-scale facilities. Does not include distributed (small-scale) solar photovoltaic

3,414

R 3,658 R 3,722 R 3,407 R 3,176 R 3,391 R 3,615

R 267,812 R 40,947

R 21,813

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

R 15,826 R 36,054 R 226,993 R 4,076,827

generation. See Table 10.6. j Includes batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). k Through 1988, all data except hydroelectric are for electric utilities only; hydroelectric data through 1988 include industrial plants as well as electric utilities. Beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities, independent power producers, commercial plants, and industrial plants. R=Revised. NA=Not available. Notes: • Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity Statistics," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section, “Table 7.2b Sources” and “Table 7.2c Sources.”

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

111

Table 7.2b Electricity Net Generation: Electric Power Sector (Subset of Table 7.2a; Million Kilowatthours) Fossil Fuels

Coala

Petroleumb

Natural Gasc

Renewable Energy

Other Gasesd

Nuclear Electric Power

Conventional HydroHydroelectric Pumped electric Storagee Powerf

Biomass

Woodg

Wasteh

Geothermal

Solari

Wind

Totalj

1950 Total .............. 1955 Total .............. 1960 Total .............. 1965 Total .............. 1970 Total .............. 1975 Total .............. 1980 Total .............. 1985 Total .............. 1990 Totalk ............ 1995 Total .............. 2000 Total .............. 2001 Total .............. 2002 Total .............. 2003 Total .............. 2004 Total .............. 2005 Total .............. 2006 Total .............. 2007 Total .............. 2008 Total .............. 2009 Total .............. 2010 Total .............. 2011 Total .............. 2012 Total .............. 2013 Total .............. 2014 Total ..............

154,520 301,363 403,067 570,926 704,394 852,786 1,161,562 1,402,128 1,572,109 1,686,056 1,943,111 1,882,826 1,910,613 1,952,714 1,957,188 1,992,054 1,969,737 1,998,390 1,968,838 1,741,123 1,827,738 1,717,891 1,500,557 1,567,722 1,568,774

33,734 37,138 47,987 64,801 184,183 289,095 245,994 100,202 118,864 68,146 105,192 119,149 89,733 113,697 114,678 116,482 59,708 61,306 42,881 35,811 34,679 28,202 20,072 24,510 28,043

44,559 95,285 157,970 221,559 372,890 299,778 346,240 291,946 309,486 419,179 517,978 554,940 607,683 567,303 627,172 683,829 734,417 814,752 802,372 841,006 901,389 926,290 1,132,791 1,028,949 1,033,172

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 621 1,927 2,028 586 1,970 2,647 3,568 3,777 4,254 4,042 3,200 3,058 2,967 2,939 2,984 4,322 3,358

0 0 518 3,657 21,804 172,505 251,116 383,691 576,862 673,402 753,893 768,826 780,064 763,733 788,528 781,986 787,219 806,425 806,208 798,855 806,968 790,204 769,331 789,016 797,166

(f) (f) (f) (f) (f) (f) (f) (f) -3,508 -2,725 -5,539 -8,823 -8,743 -8,535 -8,488 -6,558 -6,558 -6,896 -6,288 -4,627 -5,501 -6,421 -4,950 -4,681 -6,174

95,938 112,975 145,833 193,851 247,714 300,047 276,021 281,149 289,753 305,410 271,338 213,749 260,491 271,512 265,064 267,040 286,254 245,843 253,096 271,506 258,455 317,531 273,859 265,058 258,046

390 276 140 269 136 18 275 743 7,032 7,597 8,916 8,294 9,009 9,528 9,736 10,570 10,341 10,711 10,638 10,738 11,446 10,733 11,050 12,302 15,027

NA NA NA NA 220 174 158 640 11,500 17,986 20,307 12,944 13,145 13,808 13,062 13,031 13,927 14,294 15,379 15,954 16,376 15,989 16,555 16,918 17,602

NA NA 33 189 525 3,246 5,073 9,325 15,434 13,378 14,093 13,741 14,491 14,424 14,811 14,692 14,568 14,637 14,840 15,009 15,219 15,316 15,562 15,775 15,877

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 11 367 497 493 543 555 534 575 550 508 612 864 891 1,206 1,727 4,164 8,724 17,304

6 2,789 3,164 5,593 6,737 10,354 11,187 14,144 17,811 26,589 34,450 55,363 73,886 94,636 120,121 140,749 167,742 181,496

329,141 547,038 755,549 1,055,252 1,531,868 1,917,649 2,286,439 2,469,841 2,901,322 3,194,230 3,637,529 3,580,053 3,698,458 3,721,159 3,808,360 3,902,192 3,908,077 4,005,343 3,974,349 3,809,837 3,972,386 3,948,186 3,890,358 3,903,715 3,937,003

2015 January .......... February ........ March ............. April ............... May ................ June ............... July ................ August ........... September ..... October .......... November ...... December ...... Total ..............

131,431 126,024 107,471 88,147 103,672 124,677 138,060 133,651 117,005 95,872 86,362 88,622 1,340,993

2,789 6,074 1,644 1,570 1,794 1,723 2,185 2,013 1,899 1,657 1,583 1,575 26,505

93,450 84,207 92,110 85,828 94,124 113,390 132,266 130,314 114,792 102,022 94,132 101,022 1,237,656

394 329 327 290 338 299 311 331 331 229 234 304 3,715

74,270 63,461 64,547 59,784 65,827 68,516 71,412 72,415 66,476 60,571 60,264 69,634 797,178

-551 -456 -409 -214 -370 -398 -513 -626 -544 -443 -285 -281 -5,091

24,014 22,179 24,148 22,331 19,995 20,297 20,896 19,030 16,015 16,513 19,202 23,017 247,636

1,307 1,234 1,227 1,025 1,093 1,244 1,365 1,410 1,201 1,047 1,157 1,254 14,563

1,411 1,261 1,393 1,402 1,483 1,473 1,639 1,587 1,481 1,509 1,565 1,620 17,823

1,362 1,260 1,394 1,272 1,390 1,302 1,357 1,344 1,203 1,323 1,334 1,377 15,918

1,134 1,459 2,037 2,338 2,456 2,512 2,579 2,639 2,178 1,875 1,702 1,545 24,456

15,146 14,908 15,293 17,850 17,136 13,410 13,666 13,070 13,961 16,364 19,663 20,080 190,547

346,758 322,473 311,741 282,197 309,552 349,067 385,889 377,856 336,618 299,168 287,551 310,423 3,919,294

2016 January .......... February ........ March ............. April ............... May ................ June ............... July ................ August ........... September ..... October .......... November ...... December ...... Total ..............

R 112,624 R 91,909 R 71,346 R 71,419 R 80,935 R 115,197 R 135,420 R 134,762 R 113,347 R 98,474 R 86,275 R 117,955

R 2,217 R 2,079 R 1,695 R 1,745 R 1,814 R 1,847 R 2,186 R 2,210 R 1,822 R 1,450 R 1,737 R 1,908

R 101,786 R 90,849 R 95,849 R 91,257 R 102,482 R 123,043 R 142,558 R 145,610 R 117,197 R 94,754 R 85,907 R 88,088

R 344 R 299 R 360 R 317 R 313 R 351 R 346 R 332 R 346 R 234 R 351 R 318

72,525 65,638 66,149 R 62,732 66,576 67,175 70,349 71,526 65,448 60,733 65,179 71,662 R 3,912 R 805,694

-312 -399 -384 -452 -321 -497 -784 -902 -715 -561 -607 -753 -6,686

R 25,464 R 24,006 R 27,226 R 25,735 R 25,355 R 23,125 R 21,337 R 19,458 R 16,279 R 17,229 R 18,721 R 22,390

R 1,202 R 1,183 R 1,135 R 883 R 947 R 1,094 R 1,242 R 1,313 R 1,168 R 952 R 1,066 R 1,234

R 1,490 R 1,424 R 1,491

R 1,332 R 1,243 R 1,315 R 1,209 R 1,342 R 1,251 R 1,311 R 1,324 R 1,327 R 1,353 R 1,364 R 1,454

R 1,458 R 2,201 R 2,571 R 2,831 R 3,375 R 3,418 R 3,886 R 3,908 R 3,584 R 3,147 R 2,729 R 2,389

R 18,447 R 20,118 R 21,920 R 20,781 R 18,832 R 16,290 R 17,605 R 13,579 R 16,391 R 20,318 R 19,388 R 23,122

R 339,200 R 301,135 R 291,276 R 280,562 R 303,895 R 354,459 R 397,649 R 395,343 R 338,273 R 300,086 R 284,296 R 332,057

R 82,878 R 72,990 R 86,947 R 78,622 R 88,948

R 27,712 R 24,411 R 30,069 R 29,173 R 32,019 R 30,274 R 25,600 R 21,113

R 1,209 R 1,143 R 1,311 R 1,107 R 1,191 R 1,288 R 1,391 R 1,358

R 1,569 R 1,380 R 1,464 R 1,392 R 1,455 R 1,478 R 1,490

R 1,399 R 1,241 R 1,380 R 1,357 R 1,295 R 1,265 R 1,368 R 1,357

R 2,123 R 2,463 R 4,370 R 4,706 R 5,678 R 6,152 R 5,412 R 5,312

R 20,592 R 22,073 R 26,008 R 25,702 R 22,587 R 19,627 R 15,834 R 13,137

R 327,851 R 277,852 R 307,335 R 281,328 R 308,449 R 344,101 R 387,542 R 368,544

18,850 239,221

1,191 11,190

1,386 13,045

1,325 11,988

5,080 41,295

17,278 182,837

321,794 2,924,795

207,985 188,904

10,168 11,106

13,572 13,128

11,655 11,884

27,232 19,333

163,963 134,440

3,001,792 3,022,151

R 1,229,663

R 22,710 R 1,279,380

2017 January .......... February ........ March ............. April ............... May ................ June ............... July ................ August ........... September ..... 9-Month Total

R 114,703 R 86,179 R 88,725 R 80,921 R 91,808 R 106,999 R 127,250 R 119,146

R 2,011 R 1,544 R 1,563 R 1,199 R 1,654 R 1,763 R 1,618 R 1,608

R 107,929 R 136,043 R 131,279

R 351 R 336 R 372 R 299 R 347 R 343 R 376 R 370

97,731 913,462

1,568 14,528

109,034 894,669

2016 9-Month Total 2015 9-Month Total

926,959 1,070,138

17,616 21,691

1,010,631 940,480

333 3,127

-423 -568 -759 -638 -606 -4,898

3,009 2,949

608,119 606,709

-4,766 -4,082

a Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal synfuel. b Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, jet fuel, kerosene, other petroleum, waste oil, and, beginning in 2011, propane. c Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. d Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. e Pumped storage facility production minus energy used for pumping. f Through 1989, hydroelectric pumped storage is included in "Conventional Hydroelectric Power." g Wood and wood-derived fuels. h Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). i Electricity net generation from solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) energy at utility-scale facilities. Does not include distributed (small-scale) solar photovoltaic

112

R -435 R -508 R -521 R -439

73,121 64,053 65,093 56,743 61,309 67,011 71,314 72,384 68,073 599,102

R 266,326 R 13,420

1,501

R 1,585 R 1,516 R 1,534 R 1,557 R 1,474 R 1,406 R 1,577 R 1,628

R 18,183

1,430

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

R 15,826 R 35,497 R 226,790 R 3,918,231

generation. See Table 10.6. j Includes batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). k Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilites and independent power producers. R=Revised. NA=Not available. Notes: • Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity Statistics," at end of section. • The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 7.2c Electricity Net Generation: Commercial and Industrial Sectors (Subset of Table 7.2a; Million Kilowatthours) Commercial Sectora

Industrial Sectorb

Biomass Coalc 1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Petroleumd

Natural Gase

Wastef

Totalg

Coalc

Petroleumd

Natural Gase

Other Gasesh

Hydroelectric Poweri

Biomass Woodj

Wastef

Totalk

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 796 998 1,097 995 992 1,206 1,340 1,353 1,310 1,371 1,261 1,096 1,111 1,049 883 839 595

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 589 379 432 438 431 423 499 375 235 189 142 163 124 89 196 124 255

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3,272 5,162 4,262 4,434 4,310 3,899 3,969 4,249 4,355 4,257 4,188 4,225 4,725 5,487 6,603 7,154 7,227

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 812 1,519 1,985 1,007 1,053 1,289 1,562 1,657 1,599 1,599 1,534 1,748 1,672 2,315 2,319 2,567 2,681

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 5,837 8,232 7,903 7,416 7,415 7,496 8,270 8,492 8,371 8,273 7,926 8,165 8,592 10,080 11,301 12,234 12,520

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 21,107 22,372 22,056 20,135 21,525 19,817 19,773 19,466 19,464 16,694 15,703 13,686 18,441 14,490 12,603 12,554 12,341

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 7,008 6,030 5,597 5,293 4,403 5,285 5,967 5,368 4,223 4,243 3,219 2,963 2,258 1,891 2,922 2,531 1,934

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 60,007 71,717 78,798 79,755 79,013 78,705 78,959 72,882 77,669 77,580 76,421 75,748 81,583 81,911 86,500 88,733 86,209

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 9,641 11,943 11,927 8,454 9,493 12,953 11,684 9,687 9,923 9,411 8,507 7,574 8,343 8,624 8,913 8,531 8,664

4,946 3,261 3,607 3,134 3,244 3,106 3,161 3,161 2,975 5,304 4,135 3,145 3,825 4,222 3,248 3,195 2,899 1,590 1,676 1,868 1,668 1,799 2,353 3,463 1,282

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 25,379 28,868 28,652 26,888 29,643 27,988 28,367 28,271 28,400 28,287 26,641 25,292 25,706 26,691 26,725 27,691 27,239

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 949 900 839 596 846 715 797 733 572 631 821 740 869 917 948 1,346 1,367

4,946 3,261 3,607 3,134 3,244 3,106 3,161 3,161 130,830 151,025 156,673 149,175 152,580 154,530 153,925 144,739 148,254 143,128 137,113 132,329 144,082 141,875 146,107 150,015 144,083

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

56 59 52 38 32 45 44 39 33 34 35 41 509

24 73 12 9 11 10 12 12 8 7 6 7 191

564 499 560 513 583 662 769 760 716 643 583 617 7,471

209 183 213 216 221 222 242 234 230 218 222 226 2,637

981 932 977 931 1,013 1,098 1,238 1,206 1,145 1,049 992 1,033 12,595

964 894 965 804 881 951 995 980 947 853 830 832 10,896

161 174 123 149 135 128 107 108 127 107 121 115 1,552

7,674 6,609 6,753 6,465 6,809 7,426 8,084 8,010 7,528 7,340 7,521 8,137 88,355

852 696 764 690 761 819 925 864 879 678 668 806 9,401

121 105 130 138 127 114 115 90 77 114 133 145 1,410

2,404 2,132 2,226 2,218 2,239 2,251 2,434 2,377 2,245 2,201 2,259 2,331 27,318

105 80 106 112 95 89 108 101 94 116 115 122 1,243

12,717 11,071 11,475 11,005 11,522 12,244 13,292 13,054 12,359 11,894 12,110 12,970 145,712

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

R 45 R 46 R 24 R 20 R 23 R 24 R 26 R 29 R 27 R 35 R 42

43

R9 R9 R4 R6 R6 R5 R9 R7 R4 R5

R 605 R 570 R 579 R 551 R 607 R 692 R 831 R 859 R 700 R 617 R 521 R 598

R 212 R 192 R 210 R 205 R 218 R 202 R 216 R 215 R 206 R 202 R 210 R 208

R 1,022 R 967 R 1,011 R 961 R 1,019 R 1,089 R 1,263 R 1,298 R 1,114 R 1,021 R 927 R 1,015

R 793 R 750 R 781 R 670 R 740 R 814 R 873 R 847 R 762 R 693 R 630 R 750

R 135 R 121 R 102 R 87

R 7,653 R 7,133 R 7,462 R 7,067 R 7,341 R 7,661 R 8,165 R 8,291 R 7,706 R 7,527 R 7,514 R 7,678

R 851 R 763 R 837 R 815 R 740 R 692 R 731 R 732 R 674 R 679 R 662 R 720

R 130 R 115 R 142 R 128 R 119 R 99 R 104 R 92 R 65 R 88 R 69 R 117

R 2,392 R 2,217 R 2,266 R 2,079 R 2,238 R 2,310 R 2,408 R 2,398 R 2,231 R 2,220 R 2,323 R 2,375

R 93 R 92 R 108 R 106 R 106 R 76 R 90 R 89 R 76 R 86 R 104 R 108

R 12,497 R 11,597 R 12,117 R 11,386 R 11,886 R 12,248 R 12,989 R 13,075 R 12,111 R 11,851 R 11,852 R 12,283

R 383

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

R 41 R 32 R 32 R 19 R 19 R 23

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

8

R9 R 82

R 7,730

R 2,496

R 12,706

R 9,103

R 1,412

R 91,197

R 8,895

R 1,269

R 27,458

R 1,134

R 145,890

R 648 R 566

R 205 R 185 R 199 R 187 R 205 R 191 R 204 R 204

R 1,057 R 935 R 1,053 R 920 R 1,022 R 1,062 R 1,137 R 1,124

R 757 R 662 R 669 R 593 R 637 R 706 R 705 R 706

R 98 R 90

R 114 R 82 R 111 R 110 R 120 R 106

R 7,884 R 6,954 R 7,371 R 7,171 R 7,251 R 7,488 R 7,969 R 7,627

R 768 R 853 R 882 R 854 R 835 R 864 R 883 R 951

R 123 R 112 R 127 R 124 R 135 R 124 R 121 R 109

R 2,372 R 2,254 R 2,349 R 2,261 R 2,233 R 2,330 R 2,524 R 2,514

R 89 R 81 R 90 R 84 R 75 R 67 R 71 R 74

R 12,481 R 11,380 R 12,025 R 11,593 R 11,687 R 12,123 R 12,893 R 12,587

189 1,770

1,046 9,355

658 6,094

88 920

6,986 66,702

787 7,677

98 1,072

2,223 21,060

67 698

11,312 108,081

1,876 1,970

9,743 9,520

7,029 8,381

1,054 1,210

68,478 65,357

6,835 7,250

995 1,017

20,539 20,526

836 891

109,904 108,737

R 28

R 15 R8 R 11 R6 R8 R7 R8 R 10

27 250

9 83

638 R 533 R 583 R 645 R 704 R 698 652 5,665

279 398

59 171

5,994 5,627

29

138

R 125 R 127 R 118 R 101 R 117 R 124 R 118

a Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. b Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants. c Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal synfuel. d Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, jet fuel, kerosene, other petroleum, waste oil, and, beginning in 2011, propane. e Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. f Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). g Includes a small amount of conventional hydroelectric power, other gases, solar photovoltaic (PV) energy, wind, wood, and other, which are not separately displayed. Does not include distributed (small-scale) solar photovoltaic generation. shown on Table 10.6. h Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from

fossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. i Conventional hydroelectric power. j Wood and wood-derived fuels. k Includes photovoltaic (PV) energy, wind, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). Does not include distributed (small-scale) solar photovoltaic generation shown on Table 10.6. R=Revised. NA=Not available. Notes: • Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity Statistics," at end of section. • See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

113

Figure 7.3

Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation

Coal by Sector, 1989–2016

Petroleum by Sector, 1989–2016 300

1.2 Totala

Totala Million Barrels

0.9 Billion Short Tons

250

Electric Power

0.6

200 150 Electric Power

100

0.3 50 Industrial

Industrial

0.0 1990

1995

2000

0

2005

2010

1990

2015

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Other Gasesb by Sector, 1989–2016

Natural Gas by Sector, 1989–2016

200

12 10

Totala

Total

a

Trillion Btu

Trillion Cubic Feet

150 8 6 Electric Power

100 Industrial

4 50 Electric Power

2 Industrial 0

0 1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Wood by Sector, 1989–2016

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Waste by Sector, 1989–2016 400

750

Total 300 Trillion Btu

Trillion Btu

500 Totala

Electric Power 200

250 Industrial

100 Industrial

Commercial

Electric Power 0

0 1990 a

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Includes commercial sector. Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas . b

114

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Note: Data are for utility-scale facilities. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity. Sources: Tables 7.3a–7.3c.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 7.3a Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation: Total (All Sectors) (Sum of Tables 7.3b and 7.3c) Petroleum Coala Thousand Short Tons

Distillate Fuel Oilb

Residual Fuel Oilc

Other Liquidsd

Thousand Barrels

Biomass Petroleum Cokee

Totale

Natural Gasf

Thousand Short Tons

Thousand Barrels

Billion Cubic Feet

Other Gasesg

Woodh

Wastei

Otherj

Trillion Btu

1950 Total .................... 1955 Total .................... 1960 Total .................... 1965 Total .................... 1970 Total .................... 1975 Total .................... 1980 Total .................... 1985 Total .................... 1990 Totalk .................. 1995 Total .................... 2000 Total .................... 2001 Total .................... 2002 Total .................... 2003 Total .................... 2004 Total .................... 2005 Total .................... 2006 Total .................... 2007 Total .................... 2008 Total .................... 2009 Total .................... 2010 Total .................... 2011 Total .................... 2012 Total .................... 2013 Total .................... 2014 Total ....................

91,871 143,759 176,685 244,788 320,182 405,962 569,274 693,841 792,457 860,594 994,933 972,691 987,583 1,014,058 1,020,523 1,041,448 1,030,556 1,046,795 1,042,335 934,683 979,684 934,938 825,734 860,729 853,634

5,423 5,412 3,824 4,928 24,123 38,907 29,051 14,635 18,143 19,615 31,675 31,150 23,286 29,672 20,163 20,651 13,174 15,683 12,832 12,658 14,050 11,231 9,285 9,784 14,465

69,998 69,862 84,371 110,274 311,381 467,221 391,163 158,779 190,652 95,507 143,381 165,312 109,235 142,518 142,088 141,518 58,473 63,833 38,191 28,576 23,997 14,251 11,755 11,766 14,704

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 437 680 1,450 855 1,894 2,947 2,856 2,968 2,174 2,917 2,822 2,328 2,056 1,844 1,565 1,681 2,363

NA NA NA NA 636 70 179 231 1,914 3,355 3,744 3,871 6,836 6,303 7,677 8,330 7,363 6,036 5,417 4,821 4,994 5,012 3,675 4,852 4,412

75,421 75,274 88,195 115,203 338,686 506,479 421,110 174,571 218,800 132,578 195,228 216,672 168,597 206,653 203,494 206,785 110,634 112,615 80,932 67,668 65,071 52,387 40,977 47,492 53,593

629 1,153 1,725 2,321 3,932 3,158 3,682 3,044 3,692 4,738 5,691 5,832 6,126 5,616 5,675 6,036 6,462 7,089 6,896 7,121 7,680 7,884 9,485 8,596 8,544

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 112 133 126 97 131 156 135 110 115 115 97 84 90 91 103 115 110

5 3 2 3 1 (s) 3 8 442 480 496 486 605 519 344 355 350 353 339 320 350 348 390 398 431

NA NA NA NA 2 2 2 7 211 316 330 228 257 249 230 230 241 245 267 272 281 279 290 298 314

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 36 42 46 160 191 193 183 173 172 168 172 170 184 205 204 200 200

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

71,384 67,136 58,367 48,543 57,153 68,982 76,570 73,810 64,823 53,659 48,943 50,224 739,594

1,294 3,732 851 638 841 785 741 706 643 636 804 768 12,438

1,718 4,102 805 762 714 823 1,091 961 830 759 840 718 14,124

281 755 129 122 143 137 163 134 183 146 76 94 2,363

402 413 275 300 339 306 409 388 376 300 260 276 4,044

5,301 10,655 3,160 3,020 3,394 3,277 4,039 3,740 3,538 3,041 3,019 2,961 49,145

745 676 736 692 766 922 1,084 1,065 930 825 767 807 10,017

10 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 9 7 7 9 106

36 33 34 31 32 34 37 37 34 31 33 35 407

25 22 25 25 26 26 29 28 26 26 27 28 313

17 15 16 16 17 17 19 18 17 17 17 18 204

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

R 61,983 R 50,516 R 39,864 R 39,065 R 45,032 R 63,186 R 74,132 R 73,798 R 62,335 R 54,537 R 48,076 R 64,847

R 1,049 R 1,131 R 678 R 687 R 752 R 864 R 1,348 R 1,274 R 856 R 929 R 734 R 893

R 4,253

R 4,179 R 3,877 R 3,306 R 3,330 R 3,514 R 3,594 R 4,289 R 4,325 R 3,500 R 2,879 R 3,204 R 3,672

R 43,671

R 10,170

R7 R6 R6 R6 R6 R6 R6 R6 R6 R5 R6 R6

R 74

R 32 R 31 R 30 R 25 R 27 R 30 R 32 R 34 R 31 R 28 R 29 R 32

R 17 R 15 R 16

R 1,548

R 342 R 330 R 362 R 382 R 370 R 380 R 400 R 419 R 376 R 250 R 307 R 336

R 25 R 24 R 25 R 26 R 26 R 25 R 26 R 26

R 11,195

R 165 R 178 R 119 R 90 R 102 R 123 R 129 R 187 R 124 R 64 R 107 R 159

R 786 R 702 R 758 R 735 R 819 R 986

R 677,371

R 1,258 R 920 R 698 R 644 R 808 R 707 R 810 R 769 R 640 R 636 R 830 R 943 R 9,662

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

R 63,391 R 47,879 R 48,699 R 44,210 R 50,710 R 58,886 R 69,807 R 65,877

R 959 R 734 R 817 R 679 R 800 R 676 R 691 R 666

R 853 R 735 R 750 R 735 R 846 R 914 R 814 R 931

R 166 R 100 R 107 R 106 R 105 R 149 R 348 R 127

R 355 R 263 R 272 R 153 R 320 R 341

R 3,753 R 2,886

R 664 R 571 R 739 R 643 R 726 R 873

54,700 504,158

760 6,781

827 7,405

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

509,911 586,768

7,253 10,230

8,639 11,807

R 1,158 R 1,168 R 932 R 761 R 679 R 686

R 283

R 2,283 R 3,351 R 3,445 R 3,517 R 3,141

R 1,102 R 1,082

R6 R7 R7 R7 R7 R7 R7 R7

137 1,344

261 2,582

3,031 28,441

883 7,283

1,218 2,047

3,361 3,208

33,915 40,124

8,044 7,617

a Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal synfuel. b Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. For 1949–1979, data are for gas turbine and internal combustion plant use of petroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include small amounts of kerosene and jet fuel. c Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. For 1949–1979, data are for steam plant use of petroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include a small amount of fuel oil no. 4. d Jet fuel, kerosene, other petroleum liquids, waste oil, and, beginning in 2011, propane. e Petroleum coke is converted from short tons to barrels by multiplying by 5. f Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. g Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. h Wood and wood-derived fuels. i Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and

333

3,033

25

R 24 R 26

27

R 360

R 305

32

R 26 R 23 R 25 R 23 R 24

R 30

16 17 17 R 18 R 18 R 17 16 16 R 17 R 199 R 15

R 34

R 25

6 61

30 284

24 220

14 15 15 R 15 16 17 17 15 137

57 82

271 308

228 231

150 151

33

R 29 R 30 R 32

34

25 25

tire-derived fuels). j Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). k Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities, independent power producers, commercial plants, and industrial plants. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: • Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity Statistics," at end of section. • Data are for fuels consumed to produce electricity. Data also include fuels consumed to produce useful thermal output at a small number of electric utility combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See “Table 7.3b Sources” at end of section and sources for Table 7.3c.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

115

Table 7.3b Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation: Electric Power Sector (Subset of Table 7.3a) Petroleum Coala Thousand Short Tons

Distillate Fuel Oilb

Residual Fuel Oilc

Other Liquidsd

Thousand Barrels

Biomass Petroleum Cokee

Totale

Natural Gasf

Thousand Short Tons

Thousand Barrels

Billion Cubic Feet

Other Gasesg

Woodh

Wastei

Otherj

Trillion Btu

1950 Total .................... 1955 Total .................... 1960 Total .................... 1965 Total .................... 1970 Total .................... 1975 Total .................... 1980 Total .................... 1985 Total .................... 1990 Totalk .................. 1995 Total .................... 2000 Total .................... 2001 Total .................... 2002 Total .................... 2003 Total .................... 2004 Total .................... 2005 Total .................... 2006 Total .................... 2007 Total .................... 2008 Total .................... 2009 Total .................... 2010 Total .................... 2011 Total .................... 2012 Total .................... 2013 Total .................... 2014 Total ....................

91,871 143,759 176,685 244,788 320,182 405,962 569,274 693,841 781,301 847,854 982,713 961,523 975,251 1,003,036 1,012,459 1,033,567 1,022,802 1,041,346 1,036,891 929,692 971,245 928,857 820,762 855,546 848,803

5,423 5,412 3,824 4,928 24,123 38,907 29,051 14,635 16,394 18,066 29,722 29,056 21,810 27,441 18,793 19,450 12,578 15,135 12,318 11,848 13,677 10,961 9,000 9,511 14,052

69,998 69,862 84,371 110,274 311,381 467,221 391,163 158,779 183,285 88,895 138,047 159,150 104,577 137,361 138,831 138,337 56,347 62,072 37,222 27,768 23,560 13,861 11,292 11,322 14,132

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 25 441 403 374 1,243 1,937 2,511 2,591 1,783 2,496 2,608 2,110 1,848 1,655 1,339 1,488 2,157

NA NA NA NA 636 70 179 231 1,008 2,452 3,155 3,308 5,705 5,719 7,135 7,877 6,905 5,523 5,000 4,485 4,679 4,726 2,861 4,189 4,039

75,421 75,274 88,195 115,203 338,686 506,479 421,110 174,571 204,745 119,663 183,946 205,119 156,154 195,336 195,809 199,760 105,235 107,316 77,149 64,151 62,477 50,105 35,937 43,265 50,537

629 1,153 1,725 2,321 3,932 3,158 3,682 3,044 3,147 4,094 5,014 5,142 5,408 4,909 5,075 5,485 5,891 6,502 6,342 6,567 7,085 7,265 8,788 7,888 7,849

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 6 18 19 9 25 30 27 24 28 27 23 21 20 18 19 41 29

5 3 2 3 1 (s) 3 8 106 106 126 116 141 156 150 166 163 165 159 160 177 166 171 187 220

NA NA NA NA 2 2 2 7 180 282 294 205 224 216 206 205 216 221 242 244 249 241 250 251 266

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) 2 1 109 137 136 131 116 117 117 122 115 116 133 132 130 127

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

71,028 66,799 57,999 48,230 56,820 68,609 76,179 73,431 64,452 53,331 48,636 49,919 735,433

1,253 3,610 824 615 818 763 715 682 624 616 787 749 12,056

1,685 4,052 778 742 699 807 1,077 947 822 749 829 706 13,893

258 730 113 96 110 106 142 112 162 123 57 76 2,086

369 388 255 271 320 288 392 369 355 284 240 258 3,789

5,040 10,333 2,988 2,811 3,225 3,115 3,894 3,589 3,383 2,907 2,872 2,821 46,978

686 625 684 642 712 863 1,019 1,001 870 768 709 744 9,322

3 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 29

19 18 18 16 17 18 20 20 17 15 17 19 215

21 19 21 21 22 22 25 24 22 23 23 24 268

10 10 10 10 11 11 12 11 11 11 11 11 127

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

R 61,714 R 50,255 R 39,599 R 38,852 R 44,777 R 62,912 R 73,840 R 73,508 R 62,072 R 54,293 R 47,848 R 64,570

R 1,032 R 1,115 R 665 R 674 R 743 R 855 R 1,337 R 1,265 R 848 R 917 R 723 R 881

R 148 R 162

R 318 R 310 R 345 R 368

R 4,001 R 3,722 R 3,176 R 3,216 R 3,336 R 3,437 R 4,124 R 4,172 R 3,368 R 2,738 R 3,047 R 3,517

R 738 R 657 R 711 R 690 R 772 R 937

R2 R1 R2

R 17 R 17 R 16

R 22

R 674,239

R 1,232 R 895 R 682 R 627 R 790 R 691 R 792 R 749 R 622 R 617 R 807 R 917 R 9,421

11 10 10 R 10 11 11 11 11 10 10 10 11 R 126

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

R 63,115 R 47,634 R 48,455 R 44,003 R 50,486 R 58,653 R 69,561 R 65,634

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

R 11,056

103 R 74 R 65 R 93 R 96 R 168 R 99 R 44 R 90 R 142 R 1,284

348 360 R 380 R 398 R 360 R 232 R 285 R 315 R 4,018

R 928 R 714 R 792 R 658 R 775 R 652 R 663 R 635

R 840 R 726 R 738 R 723 R 836 R 904 R 807 R 923

R 145 R 79 R 90 R 92 R 87 R 131 R 331 R 110

R 341 R 250 R 254 R 139 R 302 R 322 R 310 R 265

R 3,620 R 2,888 R 2,170 R 3,207 R 3,296 R 3,351 R 2,990

R 1,051 R 1,034

54,465 502,005

729 6,545

821 7,316

121 1,186

245 2,428

2,897 27,187

507,529 583,546

7,080 9,904

8,534 11,610

1,007 1,830

3,186 3,007

32,552 38,378

a Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal synfuel. b Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. For 1949–1979, data are for gas turbine and internal combustion plant use of petroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include small amounts of kerosene and jet fuel. c Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. For 1949–1979, data are for steam plant use of petroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include a small amount of fuel oil no. 4. d Jet fuel, kerosene, other petroleum liquids, waste oil, and, beginning in 2011, propane. e Petroleum coke is converted from short tons to barrels by multiplying by 5. f Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. g Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. h Wood and wood-derived fuels. i Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels).

116

R 41,853

2,768

R 1,104 R 1,114 R 883 R 714 R 632 R 638 R 9,590 R 613 R 527 R 692 R 597 R 680 R 825

2 2

R2 R2 R2 R2 R1

2 2

R 20 R2 R2 R2

13

R 13 R 16 R 17

19 17 14 R 15 R 17 R 191 R 17

838 6,856

2 R2 R2 R2 R2 2 16

16 18 15 R 17 R 18 R 19 R 19 16 156

7,606 7,101

16 23

145 164

21 21 R 22 R 22 R 22 R 22 R 23 R 21 R 20 22 R 23 R 261 R 22 R 20

22

R 20 R 21 R 21

22 22 20 191 196 198

R 10

9 10

R9

10

R 10 R 10

11 9 89 94 95

j Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). k Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities and independent power producers. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: • Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity Statistics," at end of section. • Data are for fuels consumed to produce electricity. Data also include fuels consumed to produce useful thermal output at a small number of electric utility combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants. • The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 7.3c Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation: Commercial and Industrial Sectors (Subset of Table 7.3a) Commercial Sectora

Industrial Sectorb Biomass

1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Biomass

Coalc

Petroleumd

Natural Gase

Wastef

Coalc

Petroleumd

Natural Gase

Thousand Short Tons

Thousand Barrels

Billion Cubic Feet

Trillion Btu

Thousand Short Tons

Thousand Barrels

Billion Cubic Feet

Other Gasesg

Woodh

Wastef

Otheri

Trillion Btu

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

417 569 514 532 477 582 377 377 347 361 369 317 314 347 307 513 202

953 649 823 1,023 834 894 766 585 333 258 166 190 172 137 279 335 462

28 43 37 36 33 38 33 34 35 34 33 34 39 47 63 67 72

15 21 26 15 18 19 19 20 21 19 20 23 24 31 33 36 36

10,740 12,171 11,706 10,636 11,855 10,440 7,687 7,504 7,408 5,089 5,075 4,674 8,125 5,735 4,665 4,670 4,629

13,103 12,265 10,459 10,530 11,608 10,424 6,919 6,440 5,066 5,041 3,617 3,328 2,422 2,145 4,761 3,892 2,594

517 601 640 654 685 668 566 518 536 554 520 520 555 572 633 642 623

104 114 107 88 106 127 108 85 87 88 73 62 70 74 84 74 81

335 373 369 370 464 362 194 189 187 188 179 160 172 182 219 210 210

16 13 10 7 15 13 5 5 3 4 5 4 8 7 8 11 11

36 40 45 44 43 46 41 46 45 41 39 42 55 57 54 50 54

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

18 19 17 12 10 14 14 12 10 11 12 14 163

34 95 19 15 15 14 16 18 9 8 8 9 260

5 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 6 5 6 70

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 35

338 318 351 302 323 359 376 368 360 317 295 292 3,999

227 228 153 194 154 148 129 133 146 127 139 131 1,907

54 46 48 45 49 53 57 57 54 51 53 57 625

7 6 6 6 6 7 8 7 7 5 5 6 77

17 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 16 16 16 16 191

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10

5 4 4 4 5 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 58

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

R 12 R 13 R 13 R7 R6 R7 R7 R8 R8 R8 R 10 R 12

14

R 258 R 248 R 252 R 206 R 249 R 266 R 285 R 282 R 254 R 237 R 218 R 266

R 164 R 142 R 124 R 106 R 170 R 151 R 154 R 143 R 125 R 135 R 146 R 142

R 44 R 42 R 44 R 42 R 43 R 45 R 48 R 49 R 45 R 43 R 44 R 45

R 14 R 14 R 14 R 13 R 14 R 14 R 15 R 15 R 14 R 14 R 14 R 15

R 111

R 116

R 46

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 R 34

R5 R5 R5 R5

R 13

R3 R3 R3 R3 R4 R4 R5 R5 R4 R4 R3 R4

R 3,021

R 1,701

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

R 12 R 10 R9 R5 R6 R7 R8 R8

R 22 R 14 R 17 R 11 R 17

R 22

R4 R3 R4 R3 R3 R4 R4 R4

R 111 R 104 R 128 R 102 R 128 R 134 R 148 R 129

8 73

17 151

4 34

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 24

R 265 R 235 R 235 R 202 R 219 R 226 R 237 R 235

227 2,081

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

81 126

85 235

36 53

26 26

2,300 3,095

R 13 R6 R8 R8 R7

11 R 10 R7 R7

11

15 18

a Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. b Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants. c Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal synfuel. d Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, jet fuel, kerosene, other petroleum, waste oil, and, beginning in 2011, propane. e Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. f Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). g Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. h Wood and wood-derived fuels. i Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous

R 534

5 R4 R4 R4 R4 R4 R4 R4 R 53

R 169

R 47 R 41 R 43 R 43 R 43 R 44 R 47 R 45

R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5

R 14 R 14 R 14 R 14 R 14 R 14 R 15 R 15

118 1,102

41 393

4 45

1,278 1,511

402 463

41 59

4 R4

4 4 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5

4 4 4 R 53 R3

13 127

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6

126 143

7 7

40 43

3 4 4 4 4 R4 R4 4 34

technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). R=Revised. Notes: • Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity Statistics," at end of section. • See Note 2, “Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors,” at end of section. • Data are for fuels consumed to produce electricity. Through 1988, data are not available. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1989. Sources: • 1989–1997: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-867, "Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report." • 1998–2000: EIA, Form EIA-860B, "Annual Electric Generator Report—Nonutility." • 2001–2003: EIA, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report." • 2004–2007: EIA, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report." • 2008 forward: EIA, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report."

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

117

Figure 7.4

Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output

Coal by Sector, 1989–2016

Petroleum by Sector, 1989–2016 360

1.2 Totala

270

Electric Power

Totala Million Barrels

Billion Short Tons

0.9

0.6

180 Electric Power 90

0.3

Industrial Industrial

0

0.0 1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

1990

2015

2000

2005

2010

2015

Other Gasesb by Sector, 1989–2016

Natural Gas by Sector, 1989–2016

400

12 Total

a

Totala

300

Electric Power

6

Trillion Btu

9 Trillion Cubic Feet

1995

200

Industrial

100

3

Electric Power

Industrial 0

0 1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

1990

2015

Wood by Sector, 1989–2016

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Waste by Sector, 1989–2016

1.6

500 Total

a

400 Total Industrial

Trillion Btu

Quadrillion Btu

1.2

0.8

300 Electric Power 200

0.4 100

0.0

0 1990

a

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Includes commercial sector. Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas . b

118

Industrial

Commercial

Electric Power

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Note: Data are for utility-scale facilities. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity. Sources: Tables 7.4a–7.4c.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 7.4a Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output: Total (All Sectors) (Sum of Tables 7.4b and 7.4c) Petroleum Distillate Fuel Oilb

Coala Thousand Short Tons

Residual Fuel Oilc

Other Liquidsd

Thousand Barrels

Biomass Petroleum Cokee

Totale

Natural Gasf

Thousand Short Tons

Thousand Barrels

Billion Cubic Feet

Other Gasesg

Woodh

Wastei

Otherj

Trillion Btu

1950 Total .................... 1955 Total .................... 1960 Total .................... 1965 Total .................... 1970 Total .................... 1975 Total .................... 1980 Total .................... 1985 Total .................... 1990 Totalk .................. 1995 Total .................... 2000 Total .................... 2001 Total .................... 2002 Total .................... 2003 Total .................... 2004 Total .................... 2005 Total .................... 2006 Total .................... 2007 Total .................... 2008 Total .................... 2009 Total .................... 2010 Total .................... 2011 Total .................... 2012 Total .................... 2013 Total .................... 2014 Total ....................

91,871 143,759 176,685 244,788 320,182 405,962 569,274 693,841 811,538 881,012 1,015,398 991,635 1,005,144 1,031,778 1,044,798 1,065,281 1,053,783 1,069,606 1,064,503 955,190 1,001,411 956,470 845,066 879,078 871,741

5,423 5,412 3,824 4,928 24,123 38,907 29,051 14,635 20,194 21,697 34,572 33,724 24,749 31,825 23,520 24,446 14,655 17,042 14,137 14,800 15,247 11,735 9,945 10,277 15,107

69,998 69,862 84,371 110,274 311,381 467,221 391,163 158,779 209,081 112,168 156,673 177,137 118,637 152,859 157,478 156,915 69,846 74,616 43,477 33,672 26,944 16,877 13,571 14,199 16,615

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1,332 1,322 2,904 1,418 3,257 4,576 4,764 4,270 3,396 4,237 3,765 3,218 2,777 2,540 2,185 2,212 2,908

NA NA NA NA 636 70 179 231 2,832 4,590 4,669 4,532 7,353 7,067 8,721 9,113 8,622 7,299 6,314 5,828 6,053 6,092 5,021 6,338 5,695

75,421 75,274 88,195 115,203 338,686 506,479 421,110 174,571 244,765 158,140 217,494 234,940 183,409 224,593 229,364 231,193 131,005 132,389 92,948 80,830 75,231 61,610 50,805 58,378 63,106

629 1,153 1,725 2,321 3,932 3,158 3,682 3,044 4,346 5,572 6,677 6,731 6,986 6,337 6,727 7,021 7,404 7,962 7,689 7,938 8,502 8,724 10,371 9,479 9,410

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 288 313 356 263 278 294 353 348 341 329 300 259 262 282 302 305 304

5 3 2 3 1 (s) 3 8 1,256 1,382 1,380 1,182 1,287 1,266 1,360 1,353 1,399 1,336 1,263 1,137 1,226 1,241 1,273 1,318 1,378

NA NA NA NA 2 2 2 7 257 374 401 263 289 293 282 289 300 304 328 333 346 340 355 376 395

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 86 97 109 229 252 262 254 237 247 239 212 228 237 261 252 236 236

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

73,033 68,640 59,861 49,840 58,488 70,309 78,021 75,156 66,124 54,904 50,264 51,587 756,226

1,354 3,892 889 665 863 807 780 727 663 660 829 796 12,924

1,913 4,468 981 912 866 964 1,241 1,101 959 903 973 855 16,136

350 824 176 184 201 193 206 176 234 203 121 140 3,008

510 513 376 406 435 398 490 475 475 384 365 362 5,188

6,169 11,747 3,926 3,790 4,107 3,952 4,674 4,379 4,229 3,684 3,750 3,603 58,009

824 749 817 765 839 997 1,166 1,148 1,008 904 845 889 10,952

28 23 24 23 24 25 26 26 25 22 21 24 290

121 109 111 109 112 111 117 118 111 106 110 116 1,351

33 29 33 32 32 32 35 34 32 34 35 37 398

19 17 19 19 20 20 22 21 20 20 20 21 237

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

R 63,607 R 52,019 R 41,297 R 40,280 R 46,297 R 64,539 R 75,604 R 75,232 R 63,592 R 55,798 R 49,331 R 66,362

R 1,303 R 1,045 R 736 R 681 R 876 R 768 R 860 R 803 R 674 R 674 R 877 R 982

R 1,185 R 1,263 R 762 R 783 R 818 R 928 R 1,426 R 1,350 R 915 R 1,017 R 808 R 977

R 215 R 238 R 175 R 131 R 166 R 179 R 186 R 230 R 174 R 112 R 153 R 214

R 427 R 425 R 447 R 455 R 466 R 480 R 502 R 520 R 451 R 342 R 406 R 431

R 4,840 R 4,669 R 3,910 R 3,871 R 4,190 R 4,274 R 4,981 R 4,983 R 4,016 R 3,514 R 3,867 R 4,327

R 888 R 794 R 854 R 823 R 912

R 26

25 23

R 116 R 110 R 110

25

100 105 109 R 113 R 115 R 106 R 104 R 110 R 132 R 1,330

R 32 R 31 R 33 R 33

R 20 R 18 R 19 R 20 R 20 R 20 R 21 R 22 R 20 R 19 R 19 R 20

R 1,082 R 1,260 R 1,273 R 1,027 R 853 R 769 R 785

R 25

R 693,958

R 10,278

R 12,231

R 2,173

R 5,352

R 51,441

R 11,322

25 25 R 25 R 24 R 23 R 24 R 26 R 296

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

R 64,894 R 49,106 R 50,055 R 45,426 R 51,931 R 60,094 R 71,029 R 67,121

R 1,009 R 762 R 849 R 705 R 839 R 704 R 719 R 697

R 949 R 799 R 819 R 805 R 920 R 994 R 871 R 998

R 226 R 144 R 143 R 146 R 152 R 189 R 389 R 167

R 429 R 326 R 356 R 224 R 397 R 433 R 412 R 368

R 4,328 R 3,336 R 3,593 R 2,774 R 3,893 R 4,051 R 4,038 R 3,703

R 766

R 26

R 1,201 R 1,180

55,852 515,509

789 7,072

885 8,041

170 1,727

335 3,280

3,522 33,239

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

522,467 599,471

7,745 10,639

9,430 13,405

1,693 2,544

4,173 4,077

39,733 46,972

a Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal synfuel. b Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. For 1949–1979, data are for gas turbine and internal combustion plant use of petroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include small amounts of kerosene and jet fuel. c Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. For 1949–1979, data are for steam plant use of petroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include a small amount of fuel oil no. 4. d Jet fuel, kerosene, other petroleum liquids, waste oil, and, beginning in 2011, propane. e Petroleum coke is converted from short tons to barrels by multiplying by 5. f Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. g Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. h Wood and wood-derived fuels. i Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes

33

R 30 R 31 R 32 R 29 R 31

33

R 34 R 383

R 238

R 34 R 30 R 32 R 29 R 29

977 8,140

27 27 25 233

R 117 R 109 R 114 R 107 R 109 R 113 R 118 R 120

107 1,014

27 270

19 17 18 R 17 18 R 18 R 19 20 17 163

8,915 8,314

224 223

984 1,018

284 292

180 176

663

R 837 R 733 R 817 R 967

25

R 27

24 26

R 26

29 30

R 30

non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). j Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). k Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities, independent power producers, commercial plants, and industrial plants. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: • Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity Statistics," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See “Table 7.4b Sources” at end of section and sources for Table 7.4c.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

119

Table 7.4b Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output: Electric Power Sector (Subset of Table 7.4a) Petroleum Distillate Fuel Oilb

Coala Thousand Short Tons

Residual Fuel Oilc

Other Liquidsd

Thousand Barrels

Biomass Petroleum Cokee

Totale

Natural Gasf

Thousand Short Tons

Thousand Barrels

Billion Cubic Feet

Other Gasesg

Woodh

Wastei

Otherj

Trillion Btu

1950 Total .................... 1955 Total .................... 1960 Total .................... 1965 Total .................... 1970 Total .................... 1975 Total .................... 1980 Total .................... 1985 Total .................... 1990 Totalk .................. 1995 Total .................... 2000 Total .................... 2001 Total .................... 2002 Total .................... 2003 Total .................... 2004 Total .................... 2005 Total .................... 2006 Total .................... 2007 Total .................... 2008 Total .................... 2009 Total .................... 2010 Total .................... 2011 Total .................... 2012 Total .................... 2013 Total .................... 2014 Total ....................

91,871 143,759 176,685 244,788 320,182 405,962 569,274 693,841 782,567 850,230 985,821 964,433 977,507 1,005,116 1,016,268 1,037,485 1,026,636 1,045,141 1,040,580 933,627 975,052 932,484 823,551 857,962 851,602

5,423 5,412 3,824 4,928 24,123 38,907 29,051 14,635 16,567 18,553 30,016 29,274 21,876 27,632 19,107 19,675 12,646 15,327 12,547 12,035 13,790 11,021 9,080 9,598 14,235

69,998 69,862 84,371 110,274 311,381 467,221 391,163 158,779 184,915 90,023 138,513 159,504 104,773 138,279 139,816 139,409 57,345 63,086 38,241 28,782 24,503 14,803 12,203 12,283 15,132

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 26 499 454 377 1,267 2,026 2,713 2,685 1,870 2,594 2,670 2,210 1,877 1,658 1,339 1,489 2,208

NA NA NA NA 636 70 179 231 1,008 2,674 3,275 3,427 5,816 5,799 7,372 8,083 7,101 5,685 5,119 4,611 4,777 4,837 2,974 4,285 4,132

75,421 75,274 88,195 115,203 338,686 506,479 421,110 174,571 206,550 122,447 185,358 206,291 156,996 196,932 198,498 202,184 107,365 109,431 79,056 66,081 64,055 51,667 37,495 44,794 52,235

629 1,153 1,725 2,321 3,932 3,158 3,682 3,044 3,245 4,237 5,206 5,342 5,672 5,135 5,464 5,869 6,222 6,841 6,668 6,873 7,387 7,574 9,111 8,191 8,146

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 11 24 25 15 33 41 58 84 65 61 61 55 52 50 54 60 44

5 3 2 3 1 (s) 3 8 129 125 134 126 150 167 165 185 182 186 177 180 196 182 190 207 251

NA NA NA NA 2 2 2 7 188 296 318 211 230 230 223 221 231 237 258 261 264 255 262 262 279

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) 2 1 113 143 140 138 123 125 124 131 124 124 143 143 139 137

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

71,323 67,061 58,272 48,449 57,060 68,867 76,452 73,678 64,682 53,557 48,879 50,165 738,444

1,272 3,683 831 619 821 766 727 685 626 618 790 753 12,193

1,754 4,182 857 819 777 883 1,167 1,033 910 845 911 792 14,929

276 748 117 97 111 106 142 113 162 124 57 77 2,131

379 397 264 281 330 298 402 378 363 292 252 268 3,907

5,198 10,599 3,126 2,941 3,360 3,248 4,044 3,723 3,516 3,049 3,020 2,964 48,787

711 648 709 664 734 886 1,046 1,027 895 792 732 769 9,613

4 4 3 3 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 44

22 21 21 18 18 21 22 23 20 17 19 21 244

23 20 22 22 23 23 26 25 23 24 25 25 281

11 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 11 11 11 12 136

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

R 62,135 R 50,661 R 39,948 R 39,159 R 45,082 R 63,250 R 74,237 R 73,890 R 62,385 R 54,621 R 48,179 R 65,006

R 1,058 R 1,143 R 680 R 688 R 757 R 866 R 1,345 R 1,277 R 859 R 932 R 735 R 901

R 4,093 R 3,832 R 3,265 R 3,272 R 3,391 R 3,499 R 4,186 R 4,241 R 3,436 R 2,818 R 3,116 R 3,614

R 42,763

4 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 R 45

R 23 R 22 R 24 R 24

R 1,322

329 321 357 376 354 368 389 408 370 244 295 326 R 4,138

21

R 11,242

R 149 R 176 R 111 R 75 R 65 R 94 R 97 R 169 R 100 R 45 R 92 R 151

R 774 R 690 R 745 R 719 R 804 R 970

R 678,554

R 1,240 R 910 R 691 R 631 R 796 R 697 R 797 R 754 R 627 R 623 R 813 R 930 R 9,510

R 281

12 11 11 R 11 12 12 12 12 11 11 11 12 R 139

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

R 63,542 R 47,965 R 48,825 R 44,318 R 50,793 R 58,954 R 69,929 R 66,008

R 939 R 719 R 798 R 662 R 782 R 658 R 668 R 640

R 864 R 741 R 745 R 731 R 846 R 914 R 818 R 932

R 160 R 84 R 91 R 93 R 88 R 134 R 332 R 111

R 351 R 260 R 265 R 150 R 313 R 332 R 321 R 276

R 3,719 R 2,844 R 2,957 R 2,234 R 3,280 R 3,368 R 3,422 R 3,063

R 24

R 11

R 1,084 R 1,067

54,775 505,109

735 6,603

831 7,423

122 1,215

256 2,522

2,966 27,853

10 11 10 11 11 12 12 10 98

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

510,747 585,843

7,144 10,031

8,674 12,381

1,034 1,873

3,273 3,094

33,215 39,754

105 101

a Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal synfuel. b Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. For 1949–1979, data are for gas turbine and internal combustion plant use of petroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include small amounts of kerosene and jet fuel. c Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. For 1949–1979, data are for steam plant use of petroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include a small amount of fuel oil no. 4. d Jet fuel, kerosene, other petroleum liquids, waste oil, and, beginning in 2011, propane. e Petroleum coke is converted from short tons to barrels by multiplying by 5. f Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. g Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. h Wood and wood-derived fuels. i Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and

120

R 1,140 R 1,151

915 R 744 R 662 R 671 R 9,985 R 648 R 556 R 724 R 626 R 709 R 856

R 20 R 19

15 16

R 18

20 21 R 19 R 16 R 18 R 21 R 224

24

R 23

24

R 24 R 22 R 22 R 24

25

R 21 R 19 R 22

869 7,139

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 35

18 R 20 R 21 R 22 R 22 19 184

22 24 R 21 R 22 23 23 23 21 204

7,909 7,321

34 33

170 186

210 207

tire-derived fuels). j Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). k Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities and independent power producers. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: • Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity Statistics," at end of section. • The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 7.4c Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output: Commercial and Industrial Sectors (Subset of Table 7.4a) Commercial Sectora

Industrial Sectorb Biomass

Biomass

Coalc

Petroleumd

Natural Gase

Wastef

Coalc

Petroleumd

Natural Gase

Thousand Short Tons

Thousand Barrels

Billion Cubic Feet

Trillion Btu

Thousand Short Tons

Thousand Barrels

Billion Cubic Feet

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

1,191 1,419 1,547 1,448 1,405 1,816 1,917 1,922 1,886 1,927 2,021 1,798 1,720 1,668 1,450 1,356 1,063

2,056 1,245 1,615 1,832 1,250 1,449 2,009 1,630 935 752 671 521 437 333 457 887 758

46 78 85 79 74 58 72 68 68 70 66 76 86 87 111 118 119

28 40 47 25 26 29 34 34 36 31 34 36 36 43 45 47 47

27,781 29,363 28,031 25,755 26,232 24,846 26,613 25,875 25,262 22,537 21,902 19,766 24,638 22,319 20,065 19,761 19,076

36,159 34,448 30,520 26,817 25,163 26,212 28,857 27,380 22,706 22,207 13,222 14,228 10,740 9,610 12,853 12,697 10,112

1,055 1,258 1,386 1,310 1,240 1,144 1,191 1,084 1,115 1,050 955 990 1,029 1,063 1,149 1,170 1,145

275 290 331 248 245 253 295 264 277 268 239 204 210 232 249 246 260

1,125 1,255 1,244 1,054 1,136 1,097 1,193 1,166 1,216 1,148 1,084 955 1,029 1,057 1,082 1,109 1,122

41 38 35 27 34 34 24 34 33 36 35 35 47 43 47 67 70

86 95 108 101 92 103 94 94 102 98 60 82 91 94 81 69 72

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

97 97 83 54 50 61 64 58 51 52 59 72 798

88 221 53 39 34 28 32 42 22 20 23 20 622

10 9 9 8 9 10 11 11 11 10 9 10 116

4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 47

1,613 1,483 1,506 1,336 1,378 1,381 1,505 1,420 1,391 1,296 1,325 1,350 16,984

884 926 746 810 713 676 599 614 691 616 707 618 8,600

103 92 99 93 95 101 109 110 102 102 103 110 1,222

23 20 21 20 20 21 22 22 21 18 18 20 246

98 87 90 90 93 90 95 95 90 88 91 94 1,103

6 5 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 7 7 7 70

6 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 6 6 6 6 73

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

R 75 R 75 R 74 R 46 R 37

R 68 R 49 R 21 R 26 R 22 R 21 R 45 R 28 R 16 R 16 R 47 R 46

R 11 R 10

4 4

R 1,397 R 1,282 R 1,275 R 1,076 R 1,178 R 1,243 R 1,321 R 1,292 R 1,157 R 1,126 R 1,093 R 1,280

R 679 R 788 R 624 R 573 R 776 R 754 R 749 R 714 R 564 R 680 R 704 R 667

R 103 R 95 R 99 R 95 R 98 R 101 R 107 R 108 R 101 R 99 R 99 R 104

R 22 R 20 R 22

R 89 R 90

95

5 5 6 R5 5 R3 R3 R4 R3 R5 5 R5 R 54

R6 R5

1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

R4

Other Gasesg

R 683

R 404

R 14,720

R 8,273

R 1,209

R 251

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

R 66 R 54 R 58 R 40 R 40 R 46 R 53 R 49

11 10 10 9 9 10 R 11 R 11 10 90

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 34

R 1,285 R 1,087 R 1,172 R 1,068 R 1,098 R 1,094 R 1,047 R 1,065

R 537 R 444 R 581 R 511 R 574 R 651 R 580 R 589

R 106 R 97 R 103 R 98 R 99 R 100 R 107 R 103

R 22

47 453

71 R 48 56 29 R 40 R 32 36 51 41 405

1,030 9,947

514 4,981

98 911

21 23 20 22 R 22 23 23 21 197

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

498 615

296 559

98 88

36 35

11,221 13,013

6,222 6,659

908 906

190 190

46 46

R 49 R 50

50

R 60 R 75

a Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. b Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants. c Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal synfuel. d Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, jet fuel, kerosene, other petroleum, waste oil, and, beginning in 2011, propane. e Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. f Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). g Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. h Wood and wood-derived fuels. i Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous

Wastef

Otheri

Trillion Btu

10 9 R 10 R 11 R 13 R 14 R 11 R 10 9 10 R 127

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 R 48

Woodh

22

R 22

21 21

R 21 R 20 R 20 R 20 R 22

85 89 R 91 92 R 93 86 R 88 R 91 R 111 R 1,100 R 96 R 89

5

R6 R6 R6 R6 R7 R6 R6 R6 R5

R 70

R 88 R 89 R 91 R 96 R 98

R5 R5 R5 R4 R3 R2 R2 R3

87 826

2 32

5 5 5 5 6 6 5 44

810 829

38 50

53 54

92

5

R4

technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). R=Revised. Notes: • Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity Statistics," at end of section. • See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1989. Sources: • 1989–1997: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-867, "Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report." • 1998–2000: EIA, Form EIA-860B, "Annual Electric Generator Report—Nonutility." • 2001–2003: EIA, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report." • 2004–2007: EIA, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report." • 2008 forward: EIA, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report."

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

121

Figure 7.5

Stocks of Coal and Petroleum: Electric Power Sector

Coal, 1949–2016 250

Million Short Tons

200

150

100

50

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Total Petroleum, 1949–2016

Million Barrels

150

100

50

0 1950

1955

1960

Coal, Monthly

Total Petroleum, Monthly

200

50

40 Million Barrels

Million Short Tons

150

100

30

20

50 10 2015

2016

2017

0 J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

2015

2017

0 J

F

M

A

M

J

J

Note: Data are for utility-scale facilities. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity. Source: Table 7.5.

122

2016

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

A

S

O

N

D

Table 7.5 Stocks of Coal and Petroleum: Electric Power Sector Petroleum Coala

Distillate Fuel Oilb

Thousand Short Tons

Residual Fuel Oilc

Other Liquidsd

Thousand Barrels

Petroleum Cokee

Totale,f

Thousand Short Tons

Thousand Barrels

1950 Year ............................. 1955 Year ............................. 1960 Year ............................. 1965 Year ............................. 1970 Year ............................. 1975 Year ............................. 1980 Year ............................. 1985 Year ............................. 1990 Year ............................. 1995 Year ............................. 2000 Yearg ........................... 2001 Year ............................. 2002 Year ............................. 2003 Year ............................. 2004 Year ............................. 2005 Year ............................. 2006 Year ............................. 2007 Year ............................. 2008 Year ............................. 2009 Year ............................. 2010 Year ............................. 2011 Year ............................. 2012 Year ............................. 2013 Year ............................. 2014 Year .............................

31,842 41,391 51,735 54,525 71,908 110,724 183,010 156,376 156,166 126,304 102,296 138,496 141,714 121,567 106,669 101,137 140,964 151,221 161,589 189,467 174,917 172,387 185,116 147,884 151,548

NA NA NA NA NA 16,432 30,023 16,386 16,471 15,392 15,127 20,486 17,413 19,153 19,275 18,778 18,013 18,395 17,761 17,886 16,758 16,649 16,433 16,068 18,309

NA NA NA NA NA 108,825 105,351 57,304 67,030 35,102 24,748 34,594 25,723 25,820 26,596 27,624 28,823 24,136 21,088 19,068 16,629 15,491 12,999 12,926 12,764

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 800 779 879 1,012 1,380 1,902 1,955 2,257 2,319 2,707 2,792 2,679 2,432

NA NA NA NA 239 31 52 49 94 65 211 390 1,711 1,484 937 530 674 554 739 1,394 1,019 508 495 390 827

10,201 13,671 19,572 25,647 39,151 125,413 135,635 73,933 83,970 50,821 40,932 57,031 52,490 53,170 51,434 50,062 51,583 47,203 44,498 46,181 40,800 37,387 34,698 33,622 37,643

2015 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... October ........................ November .................... December ...................

154,390 149,071 154,347 167,063 172,809 166,437 157,938 155,952 162,109 175,588 188,595 195,548

18,216 16,459 16,996 17,167 17,357 17,513 17,519 17,712 18,286 18,596 18,738 17,955

12,207 9,798 10,251 10,152 10,518 10,570 10,263 10,087 10,766 11,492 12,310 12,566

2,473 2,188 2,289 2,294 2,309 2,358 2,337 2,345 2,339 2,375 2,440 2,363

892 850 818 912 999 1,031 1,064 1,029 1,102 1,151 1,290 1,340

37,355 32,697 33,626 34,173 35,180 35,598 35,442 35,286 36,898 38,217 39,937 39,586

2016 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... October ........................ November .................... December ...................

R 187,203 R 187,064 R 191,553 R 193,185 R 192,417 R 182,086 R 168,119 R 158,908 R 156,567 R 160,932 R 170,277 R 162,009

R 17,930 R 17,662 R 17,501 R 17,637 R 17,856 R 17,859 R 17,726 R 21,736 R 21,770 R 21,940 R 17,819 R 17,750

R 12,020 R 11,645 R 11,733 R 11,982 R 12,094 R 11,936 R 11,696 R 11,595 R 11,640 R 11,630 R 11,939 R 11,786

R 2,357 R 2,337 R 2,335 R 2,169 R 2,189 R 2,197 R 2,183 R 2,150 R 2,145 R 2,184 R 2,162 R 2,165

1,320 1,323 1,240 1,181 1,071 905 858 780 768 R 813 833 R 845

R 38,907 R 38,262 R 37,768 R 37,693 R 37,495 R 36,519 R 35,897 R 39,381 R 39,394 R 39,817 R 36,085 R 35,926

2017 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ...................

R 156,175 R 160,447 R 161,691 R 163,726 R 162,396 R 157,717 R 145,518 R 141,672

R 17,496 R 17,287 R 17,006 R 16,948 R 16,828 R 16,642 R 16,802 R 16,642

R 11,847 R 11,710 R 12,542 R 12,306 R 12,036 R 11,888 R 11,689 R 11,499

R 2,097 R 2,075 R 2,071 R 2,027 R 2,015 R 1,974 R 1,928

2,125

R 794 R 821 R 855 R 933 R 881 R 867 R 875 R 918

R 35,440 R 35,201 R 35,897 R 35,991 R 35,297 R 34,882 R 34,838 R 34,656

139,531

16,352

11,377

1,914

987

34,580

a Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite; excludes waste

coal.

b Fuel oil nos. 1, 2 and 4. For 1973–1979, data are for gas turbine and internal

combustion plant stocks of petroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include small amounts of kerosene and jet fuel. c Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. For 1973–1979, data are for steam plant stocks of petroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include a small amount of fuel oil no. 4. d Jet fuel and kerosene. Through 2003, data also include a small amount of waste oil. e Petroleum coke is converted from short tons to barrels by multiplying by 5. f Distillate fuel oil and residual fuel oil. Beginning in 1970, also includes petroleum coke. Beginning in 2002, also includes other liquids. g Through 1998, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1999, data are for electric utilities and independent power producers. R=Revised. NA=Not available. Notes: • Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity Statistics," at end of section. • The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose

primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. • Stocks are at end of period. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • 1949–September 1977: Federal Power Commission, Form FPC-4, "Monthly Power Plant Report." • October 1977–1981: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Form FPC-4, "Monthly Power Plant Report." • 1982–1988: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-759, "Monthly Power Plant Report." • 1989–1997: EIA, Form EIA-759, "Monthly Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-867, "Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report." • 1998–2000: EIA, Form EIA-759, "Monthly Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-860B, "Annual Electric Generator Report—Nonutility." • 2001–2003: EIA, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report." • 2004–2007: EIA, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report." • 2008 forward: EIA, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report."

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

123

Figure 7.6

Electricity End Use (Billion Kilowatthours) Retail Salesa by Sector, September 2017

Electricity End Use Overview, 1989–2016

160

5,000

4,000

118.8

120

Total

118.3

Retail Salesa

3,000

80.2

80 2,000 40 1,000 Direct Useb

0.6

0 Residential

0 1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

Commercial

c

Industrial Transportationd

2015

Retail Salesa by Sector, 1949–2016 1,500

Residential Commercialc

Industrial

1,000

500

Transportation d

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

Retail Salesa by Sector, Monthly 175 150

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Retail Salesa Total, January–September 3,600

Residential

Commercialc

3,000

2,890

2,878

2015

2016

2,792

125 2,400 100 75

1,800 Industrial 1,200

50 25

600 Transportation d

0 J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 2015 2016 2017 a Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by utilities and other energy service providers. b See “Direct Use” in Glossary. c Commercial sector, including public street and highway lighting, inte r-

124

0 2017

departmental sales, and other sales to public authorites. d Transportation sector, including sales to railroads and railways. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity. Source: Table 7.6.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 7.6 Electricity End Use (Million Kilowatthours) Retail Salesa Transportationd

Residential

Commercialb

Industrialc

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

72,200 128,401 201,463 291,013 466,291 588,140 717,495 793,934 924,019 1,042,501 1,192,446 1,201,607 1,265,180 1,275,824 1,291,982 1,359,227 1,351,520 1,392,241 1,380,662 1,364,758 1,445,708 1,422,801 1,374,515 1,394,812 1,407,208

E 65,971 E 102,547 E 159,144 E 231,126 E 352,041 E 468,296

E 6,793 E 5,826 E 3,066 E 2,923 E 3,115 E 2,974

558,643 689,121 838,263 953,117 1,159,347 1,190,518 1,204,531 1,198,728 1,230,425 1,275,079 1,299,744 1,336,315 1,336,133 1,306,853 1,330,199 1,328,057 1,327,101 1,337,079 1,352,158

146,479 259,974 324,402 428,727 570,854 687,680 815,067 836,772 945,522 1,012,693 1,064,239 996,609 990,238 1,012,373 1,017,850 1,019,156 1,011,298 1,027,832 1,009,516 917,416 971,221 991,316 985,714 985,352 997,576

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

137,765 123,838 117,167 90,199 95,161 120,300 146,038 144,515 125,417 99,349 92,678 111,670 1,404,096

111,620 105,482 107,796 104,168 109,406 119,270 128,504 128,519 122,195 112,821 104,140 106,829 1,360,752

79,609 76,749 79,709 80,489 82,916 86,218 87,747 88,373 84,730 83,249 78,495 78,224 986,508

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

R 130,972 R 115,959 R 100,227 R 88,244 R 94,198 R 125,211 R 154,409 R 156,442 R 129,363 R 101,508 R 93,244 R 121,281

R 110,410 R 103,452 R 105,739 R 102,045 R 108,437 R 120,363 R 130,038 R 135,019 R 123,493 R 112,963 R 105,060 R 110,172

R 78,848 R 76,748 R 79,237 R 78,647 R 81,491 R 83,672 R 87,076 R 89,101 R 83,259 R 81,597 R 78,421 R 78,616

R 1,411,058

R 1,367,191

R 976,715

R 128,998 R 101,149 R 103,205 R 90,781

R 108,928 R 99,207 R 106,683 R 101,372 R 109,456 R 118,815 R 127,902 R 127,573

R 75,783 R 71,933 R 77,550 R 75,851 R 80,072 R 82,147 R 84,213 R 85,814

1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

141,745 118,803 1,054,110

118,293 1,018,230

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

1,095,025 1,100,399

1,038,997 1,036,960

98,757 R 121,782 R 148,890

Direct Usef

Total End Useg

3,244 4,147 4,751 4,975 5,382 5,724 5,517 6,810 7,224 7,506 7,358 8,173 7,653 7,768 7,712 7,672 7,320 7,625 7,758

291,443 496,748 688,075 953,789 1,392,300 1,747,091 2,094,449 2,323,974 2,712,555 3,013,287 3,421,414 3,394,458 3,465,466 3,493,734 3,547,479 3,660,969 3,669,919 3,764,561 3,733,965 3,596,795 3,754,841 3,749,846 3,694,650 3,724,868 3,764,700

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 124,529 150,677 170,943 162,649 166,184 168,295 168,470 150,016 146,927 125,670 132,197 126,938 131,910 132,754 137,657 143,462 138,574

291,443 496,748 688,075 953,789 1,392,300 1,747,091 2,094,449 2,323,974 2,837,084 3,163,963 3,592,357 3,557,107 3,631,650 3,662,029 3,715,949 3,810,984 3,816,845 3,890,231 3,866,161 3,723,733 3,886,752 3,882,600 3,832,306 3,868,330 3,903,274

673 699 679 620 609 609 648 625 615 636 604 619 7,637

329,666 306,768 305,352 275,475 288,091 326,397 362,938 362,032 332,958 296,055 275,917 297,344 3,758,992

E 12,214 E 10,703 E 11,103 E 10,644 E 11,178 E 11,897 E 12,956 E 12,716 E 12,042 E 11,542 E 11,684 E 12,488

341,881 317,472 316,455 286,119 299,268 338,294 375,894 374,748 345,000 307,598 287,600 309,831 3,900,160

660

R 320,890 R 296,806 R 285,812 R 269,531 R 284,708 R 329,878 R 372,172 R 381,192 R 336,752 R 296,681 R 277,317 R 310,722

RE 11,919 RE 11,077 RE 11,574 RE 10,885 RE 11,378 RE 11,758 RE 12,566 RE 12,672 RE 11,660 RE 11,349 RE 11,267 RE 11,725 R 139,830

R 646 R 609

595 R 581 R 631

648 R 631

637 613 592 R 653 R 7,497

80,163 713,525

666 636 644 590 583 R 629 630 641 619 5,638

738,080 746,540

5,640 5,777

a Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities and, beginning in 1996, other energy service providers. b Commercial sector, including public street and highway lighting, interdepartmental sales, and other sales to public authorities. c Industrial sector. Through 2002, excludes agriculture and irrigation; beginning in 2003, includes agriculture and irrigation. d Transportation sector, including sales to railroads and railways. e The sum of "Residential," "Commercial," "Industrial," and "Transportation." f Use of electricity that is 1) self-generated, 2) produced by either the same entity that consumes the power or an affiliate, and 3) used in direct support of a service or industrial process located within the same facility or group of facilities

Total Retail Salese

R 3,762,462 R 314,375 R 272,925 R 288,082 R 268,593 R 288,868 R 323,373 R 361,635 R 355,773

141,168

R 332,809 R 307,883 R 297,387 R 280,416 R 296,086 R 341,636 R 384,738 R 393,864 R 348,412 R 308,029 R 288,584 R 322,447 R 3,902,292

317,879 2,791,503

RE 11,936 RE 10,857 RE 11,530 RE 11,032 RE 11,206 RE 11,625 RE 12,370 RE 12,089 E 10,895 E 103,540

R 326,312 R 283,783 R 299,612 R 279,625 R 300,073 R 334,997 R 374,005 R 367,861

328,774 2,895,043

2,877,742 2,889,677

E 105,490 E 105,454

2,983,231 2,995,131

that house the generating equipment. Direct use is exclusive of station use. g The sum of "Total Retail Sales" and "Direct Use." R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. Notes: • See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity Statistics," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

125

Table 7.1 Sources

Electricity

Net Generation, Electric Power Sector Note 1. Coverage of Electricity Statistics.    Data in

1949 forward: Table 7.2b.

Section 7 cover the following: Through 1984, data for electric utilities also include institutions (such as universities) and military facilities that generated electricity primarily for their own use; beginning in 1985, data for electric utilities exclude institutions and military facilities. Beginning in 1989, data for the commercial sector include institutions and military facilities.

Net Generation, Commercial and Industrial Sectors 1949 forward: Table 7.2c.

Trade

(EIA) classifies power plants (both electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power plants) into energy-use sectors based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), which replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system in 1997. Plants with a NAICS code of 22 are assigned to the Electric Power Sector. Those with NAICS codes beginning with 11 (agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting); 21 (mining, including oil and gas extraction); 23 (construction); 31–33 (manufacturing); 2212 (natural gas distribution); and 22131 (water supply and irrigation systems) are assigned to the Industrial Sector. Those with all other codes are assigned to the Commercial Sector. Form EIA-860, “Annual Electric Generator Report,” asks respondents to indicate the primary purpose of the facility by assigning a NAICS code from the list at http://www.eia.gov/survey/form/eia_860/instructions.pdf.

1949–September 1977: Unpublished Federal Power Commission data. October 1977–1980: Unpublished Economic Regulatory Administration (ERA) data. 1981: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Emergency Operations, “Report on Electric Energy Exchanges with Canada and Mexico for Calendar Year 1981,” April 1982 (revised June 1982). 1982 and 1983: DOE, ERA, Electricity Exchanges Across International Borders. 1984–1986: DOE, ERA, Electricity Transactions Across International Borders. 1987 and 1988: DOE, ERA, Form ERA-781R, “Annual Report of International Electrical Export/Import Data.” 1989: DOE, Fossil Energy, Form FE-781R, “Annual Report of International Electrical Export/Import Data.” 1990–2000: National Energy Board of Canada; and DOE, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Form FE-781R, “Annual Report of International Electrical Export/Import Data.” 2001–May 2011: National Energy Board of Canada; DOE, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Form OE-781R, “Monthly Electricity Imports and Exports Report,” and predecessor form; and California Independent System Operator. June 2011–2016: National Energy Board of Canada; California Independent System Operator; and EIA estimates for Texas transfers. 2017: EIA, Form EIA-111, “Quarterly Electricity Imports and Exports Report” as of December 1, 2017.

Note 3. Electricity Forecast Values. Data values

T&D Losses and Unaccounted for

The generation, consumption, and stocks data in Section 7 are for utility-scale facilities—those with a combined generation nameplate capacity of 1 megawatt or more. Data exclude distributed (small-scale) facilities—those with a combined generator nameplate capacity of less than 1 megawatt. For data on distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) generation in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors, see Table 10.6.

Note 2. Classification of Power Plants Into EnergyUse Sectors. The U.S. Energy Information Administration

preceded by “F” in this section are forecast values. They are derived from EIA’s Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). STIFS is driven primarily by data and assumptions about key macroeconomic variables, energy prices, and weather. The electricity forecast relies on additional variables such as alternative fuel prices (natural gas and oil) and power generation by sources other than fossil fuels, including nuclear, renewables, and hydroelectric power. Each month, EIA staff review the model output and make adjustments, if appropriate, based on their knowledge of developments in the electricity industry. The STIFS model results are published monthly in EIA’s Short-Term Energy Outlook, which is accessible on the Web at http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/steo/.

126

1949 forward: Calculated as the sum of total net generation and imports minus end use and exports.

End Use 1949 forward: Table 7.6.

Table 7.2b Sources 1949–September 1977: Federal Power Commission, Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report.” October 1977–1981: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report.” 1982–1988: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant Report.”

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

1989–1997: EIA, Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant Report,” and Form EIA-867, “Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report.” 1998–2000: EIA, Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant Report,” and Form EIA-860B, “Annual Electric Generator Report—Nonutility.” 2001–2003: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report.” 2004–2007: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report,” and Form EIA-920, “Combined Heat and Power Plant Report.” 2008 forward: EIA, Form EIA-923, “Power Plant Operations Report” as of December 1, 2017.

Table 7.2c Sources Industrial Sector, Hydroelectric Power, 1949–1988 1949–September 1977: Federal Power Commission (FPC), Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report,” for plants with generating capacity exceeding 10 megawatts, and FPC, Form FPC-12C, “Industrial Electric Generating Capacity,” for all other plants. October 1977–1978: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report,” for plants with generating capacity exceeding 10 megawatts, and FERC, Form FPC-12C, “Industrial Electric Generating Capacity,” for all other plants. 1979: FERC, Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report,” for plants with generating capacity exceeding 10 megawatts, and U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates for all other plants. 1980–1988: Estimated by EIA as the average generation over the 6-year period of 1974–1979.

Report—Nonutility.” 2001–2003: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report.” 2004–2007: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report,” and Form EIA-920, “Combined Heat and Power Plant Report.” 2008 forward: EIA, Form EIA-923, “Power Plant Operations Report” as of December 1, 2017.

Table 7.4b Sources 1949–September 1977: Federal Power Commission, Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report.” October 1977–1981: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report.” 1982–1988: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant Report.” 1989–1997: EIA, Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant Report,” and Form EIA-867, “Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report.” 1998–2000: EIA, Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant Report,” and Form EIA-860B, “Annual Electric Generator Report—Nonutility.” 2001–2003: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report.” 2004–2007: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report,” and Form EIA-920, “Combined Heat and Power Plant Report.” 2008 forward: EIA, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report” as of December 1, 2017.

Table 7.6 Sources Retail Sales, Residential and Industrial

All Data, 1989 Forward 1989–1997: EIA, Form EIA-867, “Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report.” 1998–2000: EIA, Form EIA-860B, “Annual Electric Generator Report—Nonutility.” 2001–2003: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report.” 2004–2007: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report,” and Form EIA-920, “Combined Heat and Power Plant Report.” 2008 forward: EIA, Form EIA-923, “Power Plant Operations Report” as of December 1, 2017.

Table 7.3b Sources 1949–September 1977: Federal Power Commission, Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report.” October 1977–1981: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report.” 1982–1988: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant Report.” 1989–1997: EIA, Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant Report,” and Form EIA-867, “Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report.” 1998–2000: EIA, Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant Report,” and Form EIA-860B, “Annual Electric Generator

1949–September 1977: Federal Power Commission, Form FPC-5, “Monthly Statement of Electric Operating Revenue and Income.” October 1977–February 1980: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Form FPC-5, “Monthly Statement of Electric Operating Revenue and Income.” March 1980–1982: FERC, Form FPC-5, "Electric Utility Company Monthly Statement." 1983: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-826, "Electric Utility Company Monthly Statement.” 1984–2003: EIA, Form EIA-861, “Annual Electric Utility Report.” 2004 forward: EIA, Electric Power Monthly (EPM), November 2017, Table 5.1.

Retail Sales, Commercial 1949–2002: Data are estimates. See estimation methodology at http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/sep_use/notes/use_elec.pdf. 2003: EIA, Form EIA-861, “Annual Electric Utility Report.” 2004 forward: EIA, EPM, November 2017, Table 5.1.

Retail Sales, Transportation 1949–2002: Data are estimates. See estimation methodology at http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/sep_use/notes/use_elec.pdf. 2003: EIA, Form EIA-861, “Annual Electric Utility Report.” 2004 forward: EIA, EPM, November 2017, Table 5.1.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

127

Direct Use, Annual

Direct Use, Monthly

1989–1997: EIA, Form EIA-867, “Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report.” 1998–2000: EIA, Form EIA-860B, “Annual Electric Generator Report—Nonutility.” 2001–2016: EIA, Electric Power Annual 2016, December 2017, Table 2.2. 2017: Sum of monthly estimates.

1989 forward: Annual shares are calculated as annual direct use divided by annual commercial and industrial net generation (on Table 7.1). Then monthly direct use estimates are calculated as the annual share multiplied by the monthly commercial and industrial net generation values. For 2017, the 2016 annual share is used.

128

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

8. Nuclear Energy

Figure 8.1

Nuclear Energy Overview

Electricity Net Generation, 1957–2016 5 Total Trillion Kilowatthours

4

3

2

Nuclear Electric Power

1

0 1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Nuclear Share of Electricity Net Generation, 1957–2016 25

Percent

20

15

10

5

0 1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

Nuclear Electricity Net Generation

1985

1990

Capacity Factor, Monthly

80

120 65.448

68.073 100

60 80 Percent

Billion Kilowatthours

66.476

40

60 40

20 20 0

2015

2017

0 September 2015

September 2016

September 2017

J

F

M

A

M

J

Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#nuclear. Sources: Tables 7.2a and 8.1.

130

2016

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

J

A

S

O

N

D

Table 8.1 Nuclear Energy Overview

1957 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Total Operable Unitsa,b

Net Summer Capacity of Operable Unitsb,c

Nuclear Electricity Net Generation

Number

Million Kilowatts

Million Kilowatthours

Nuclear Share of Electricity Net Generation

Capacity Factord Percent

.......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... ..........................

1 3 13 20 57 71 96 112 109 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 100 99

0.055 .411 .793 7.004 37.267 51.810 79.397 99.624 99.515 97.860 98.159 98.657 99.209 99.628 99.988 100.334 100.266 100.755 101.004 101.167 c 101.419 101.885 99.240 98.569

10 518 3,657 21,804 172,505 251,116 383,691 576,862 673,402 753,893 768,826 780,064 763,733 788,528 781,986 787,219 806,425 806,208 798,855 806,968 790,204 769,331 789,016 797,166

(s) .1 .3 1.4 9.0 11.0 15.5 19.0 20.1 19.8 20.6 20.2 19.7 19.9 19.3 19.4 19.4 19.6 20.2 19.6 19.3 19.0 19.4 19.5

NA NA NA NA 55.9 56.3 58.0 66.0 77.4 88.1 89.4 90.3 87.9 90.1 89.3 89.6 91.8 d 91.1 90.3 91.1 89.1 86.1 89.9 91.7

2015 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Total ..........................

99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99

98.533 98.533 98.533 98.533 98.533 98.672 98.672 98.672 98.672 98.672 98.672 98.672 98.672

74,270 63,461 64,547 59,784 65,827 68,516 71,412 72,415 66,476 60,571 60,264 69,634 797,178

20.6 19.0 19.9 20.3 20.4 18.9 17.8 18.5 19.0 19.4 20.0 21.5 19.6

101.3 95.8 88.0 84.3 89.8 96.4 97.3 98.6 93.6 82.5 84.8 94.9 92.3

2016 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Total ..........................

99 99 99 99 99 99 100 100 100 99 99 99 99

R 98.921 R 98.921 R 98.921 R 98.921 R 98.921 R 100.043 R 100.043 R 100.043 R 100.043 R 99.565 R 99.565 R 99.565 R 99.565

72,525 65,638 66,149 R 62,732 66,576 67,175 70,349 71,526 65,448 60,733 65,179 71,662 R 805,694

20.6 20.9 21.7 R 21.4 21.0 R 18.3 17.1 R 17.5 18.6 19.4 21.9 20.8 R 19.8

R 98.5 R 95.3 R 89.9 R 88.1 R 90.5 R 94.2 R 94.5 R 96.1 R 90.9 R 81.7 R 90.9 R 96.7 R 92.5

2017 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. 9-Month Total ...........

99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99

RE 99.565 RE 99.565 RE 99.565 RE 99.565 RE 99.565 RE 99.563 RE 99.582 RE 99.582 E 99.582 E 99.582

73,121 64,053 65,093 56,743 61,309 67,011 71,314 72,384 68,073 599,102

21.4 19.3 19.1 18.8 17.8 R 18.9 20.4 19.7

RE 98.7 RE 95.7 RE 87.9 E 79.2 RE 82.8 RE 93.5 E 96.3 E 97.7 E 94.9 E 91.8

2016 9-Month Total ........... 2015 9-Month Total ...........

100 99

100.043 98.672

608,119 606,709

19.5 19.3

93.1 93.9

a Total of nuclear generating units holding full-power licenses, or equivalent permission to operate, at end of period. See Note 1, "Operable Nuclear Reactors," at end of section. b At end of period. c For the definition of "Net Summer Capacity," see Note 2, "Nuclear Capacity," at end of section. Beginning in 2011, monthly capacity values are estimated in two steps: 1) uprates and derates reported on Form EIA-860M are added to specific months; and 2) the difference between the resulting year-end capacity (from data reported on Form EIA-860M) and final capacity (reported on Form EIA-860) is allocated to the month of January. d Beginning in 2008, capacity factor data are calculated using a new

R 22.1 R 20.3

methodology. For an explanation of the method of calculating the capacity factor, see Note 2, "Nuclear Capacity," at end of section. R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.05%. Notes: • For a discussion of nuclear reactor unit coverage, see Note 1, "Operable Nuclear Reactors," at end of section. • Nuclear electricity net generation totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#nuclear (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1957 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U .S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

131

(b) Net Design Capacity or Net Design Electrical Rating (DER)—The nominal net electrical output of a unit, specified by the utility and used for plant design.

Nuclear Energy Note 1. Operable Nuclear Reactors. A reactor is defined as operable when it possesses a full-power license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or its predecessor, the Atomic Energy Commission, or equivalent permission to operate, at the end of the year or month shown. The definition includes units retaining full-power licenses during long, non-routine shutdowns that for a time rendered them unable to generate electricity.

Year

Retirements

Browns Ferry 1a (AL)

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Openings and Restarts

Table 8.1 Sources

Kewaunee (WI); San Onofre 2 and 3 (CA); Crystal River 3b (FL) Vermont Yankee (VT) Fort Calhoun (NE)

Watts Bar 2 (TN)

a

Restarted after long-term shutdown from 1986 to 2006, but counted as operable for those years. b Official 2013 retirement for reactor closed in 2009. Note: “Opening” refers to the plant’s commercial operations date. Source: International Atomic Energy Agency, Power Reactor Information System database. See http://www.iaea.org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/CountryDetails .aspx?current=US.

Note 2. Nuclear Capacity. Nuclear generating units may have more than one type of net capacity rating, including the following: (a) Net Summer Capacity—The steady hourly output that generating equipment is expected to supply to system load, exclusive of auxiliary power, as demonstrated by test at the time of summer peak demand. Auxiliary power of a typical nuclear power plant is about 5% of gross generation.

132

Through 2007, the monthly capacity factors are calculated as the monthly nuclear electricity net generation divided by the maximum possible nuclear electricity net generation for that month. The maximum possible nuclear electricity net generation is the number of hours in the month (assuming 24-hour days, with no adjustment for changes to or from Daylight Savings Time) multiplied by the net summer capacity of operable nuclear generating units at the end of the month. That fraction is then multiplied by 100 to obtain a percentage. Annual capacity factors are calculated as the annual nuclear electricity net generation divided by the annual maximum possible nuclear electricity net generation (the sum of the monthly values for maximum possible nuclear electricity net generation). For the methodology used to calculate capacity factors beginning in 2008, see U.S. Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Monthly, Appendix C notes on “Average Capacity Factors.”

Total Operable Units and Net Summer Capacity of Operable Units 1957–1982: Compiled from various sources, primarily U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs, “U.S. Central Station Nuclear Electric Generating Units: Significant Milestones.” 1983 forward: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-860, “Annual Electric Generator Report,” and predecessor forms; Form EIA-860M, “Monthly Update to the Annual Electric Generator Report”; and monthly updates as appropriate. See http://www.eia.gov/nuclear/generation/index.html for a list of operable units. Nuclear Electricity Net Generation and Nuclear Share of Electricity Net Generation 1957 forward: Table 7.2a. Capacity Factor 1973–2007: Calculated by EIA using the method described above in Note 2. 2008 forward: EIA, Form EIA-860, “Annual Electric Generator Report”; Form EIA-860M, “Monthly Update to the Annual Electric Generator Report”; and Form EIA-923, “Power Plant Operations Report.”

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

9. Energy Prices

Figure 9.1 Petroleum Prices Crude Oil Prices, 1949–2016 120

Dollarsaper perBarrel Barrel Dollars

100 80 60 Composite Refiner Acquisition Cost

40 20

Domestic First Purchase Price

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Composite Refiner Acquisition Cost, Monthly

Dollarsa per Barrel

100

75

50

25

0 J

F M A M J J A S O N D 2015

J

F M A M J J 2016

A S O N D

J

F M A M J J A S O N D 2017

Dollarsa per Gallon (Excluding Taxes)

Refiner Prices to End Users: Selected Products, September 2017 2.5

2.0

2.154

2.044

1.959 1.795

1.5 1.314 1.0 0.895 0.5

0.0 Finished Motor Gasoline a

No.2 Fuel Oil

No.2 Diesel Oil

Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See “Nominal Dollars” in Glossary.

134

Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

Residual Fuel Oil

Propane (Consumer Grade)

Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices. Sources: Tables 9.1, 9.5, and 9.7.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 9.1 Crude Oil Price Summary (Dollarsa per Barrel) Refiner Acquisition Costb Domestic First Purchase Pricec

F.O.B. Cost of Importsd

Landed Cost of Importse

Domestic

Imported

Composite

.................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. ..................

2.51 2.77 2.88 2.86 3.18 7.67 21.59 24.09 20.03 14.62 26.72 21.84 22.51 27.56 36.77 50.28 59.69 66.52 94.04 56.35 74.71 95.73 94.52 95.99 87.39

NA NA NA NA NA 11.18 32.37 25.84 20.37 15.69 26.27 20.46 22.63 25.86 33.75 47.60 57.03 66.36 90.32 57.78 74.19 101.66 99.78 96.56 85.65

NA NA NA NA NA 12.70 33.67 26.67 21.13 16.78 27.53 21.82 23.91 27.69 36.07 49.29 59.11 67.97 93.33 60.23 76.50 102.92 101.00 96.99 88.16

NA NA NA NA E 3.46 8.39 24.23 26.66 22.59 17.33 29.11 24.33 24.65 29.82 38.97 52.94 62.62 69.65 98.47 59.49 78.01 100.71 100.72 102.91 94.05

NA NA NA NA E 2.96 13.93 33.89 26.99 21.76 17.14 27.70 22.00 23.71 27.71 35.90 48.86 59.02 67.04 92.77 59.17 75.86 102.63 101.09 98.11 89.56

NA NA NA NA E 3.40 10.38 28.07 26.75 22.22 17.23 28.26 22.95 24.10 28.53 36.98 50.24 60.24 67.94 94.74 59.29 76.69 101.87 100.93 100.49 92.02

2015 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October .................... November ................ December ................ Average ..................

43.06 44.35 42.66 49.30 54.38 55.88 47.70 39.98 41.60 42.34 38.19 32.26 44.39

40.16 43.94 43.64 48.42 54.05 53.83 45.88 37.17 36.90 37.21 33.56 28.23 41.91

44.42 47.32 47.25 52.00 57.17 56.73 49.79 41.39 40.02 40.38 37.13 31.56 45.38

48.90 50.23 48.60 54.86 59.48 61.06 54.15 46.30 46.68 47.02 43.30 37.76 49.94

44.74 47.18 47.22 51.62 57.51 58.89 52.42 43.23 41.12 42.03 39.05 33.16 46.38

47.00 48.92 47.99 53.51 58.65 60.12 53.40 44.97 44.38 44.77 41.43 35.63 48.39

2016 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October .................... November ................ December ................ Average ..................

27.02 25.52 31.87 35.59 41.02 43.96 40.71 40.46 40.55 45.00 41.65 47.12 38.29

23.67 24.68 29.74 32.73 38.31 41.92 38.76 38.26 38.28 42.36 40.12 44.52 36.37

27.36 27.04 32.06 35.43 40.73 43.55 41.05 40.40 40.81 43.97 42.59 46.74 38.56

32.17 30.28 35.29 39.30 44.77 47.57 44.88 44.18 44.47 48.66 46.10 50.45 42.41

27.48 26.66 32.24 35.90 40.88 44.13 41.48 41.21 40.86 44.76 41.80 46.72 38.75

29.99 28.53 33.82 37.71 42.88 45.96 43.26 42.70 42.73 46.85 44.06 48.66 40.66

2017 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October ....................

48.19 49.41 46.39 47.23 45.19 42.19 43.42 44.96 R 47.17 NA

44.63 45.88 44.08 43.58 43.74 41.35 R 42.09 R 44.05 R 46.40 NA

47.05 48.10 46.22 46.00 46.13 43.82 R 44.70 R 46.60 R 48.91 NA

51.81 53.15 50.60 51.34 49.58 46.17 47.44 48.71 R 51.14 E 52.98

48.12 49.38 46.53 47.47 46.94 43.93 45.02 47.61 R 50.33 E 52.34

49.99 51.24 48.65 49.47 48.34 45.17 46.32 48.19 R 50.77 E 52.68

1950 Average 1955 Average 1960 Average 1965 Average 1970 Average 1975 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

a b c d e

Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. See Note 1, "Crude Oil Refinery Acquisition Costs," at end of section. See Note 2, "Crude Oil Domestic First Purchase Prices," at end of section. See Note 3, "Crude Oil F.O.B. Costs," at end of section. See Note 4, "Crude Oil Landed Costs," at end of section. R=Revised. NA=Not available. E=Estimate. Notes: • Domestic first purchase prices and refinery acquisition costs for the current two months are preliminary. F.O.B. and landed costs for the current three months are preliminary. • Through 1980, F.O.B. and landed costs reflect the

period of reporting; beginning in 1981, they reflect the period of loading. • Annual averages are the averages of the monthly prices, weighted by volume. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and all U.S. Territories and Possessions. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

135

Table 9.2 F.O.B. Costs of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries (Dollarsa per Barrel) Selected Countries Angola

Colombia

Mexico

Nigeria

Saudi Arabia

United Kingdom

Venezuela

Persian Gulf Nationsb

Total OPECc

Total Non-OPECc

1973 Averaged ................. 1975 Average .................. 1980 Average .................. 1985 Average .................. 1990 Average .................. 1995 Average .................. 2000 Average .................. 2001 Average .................. 2002 Average .................. 2003 Average .................. 2004 Average .................. 2005 Average .................. 2006 Average .................. 2007 Average .................. 2008 Average .................. 2009 Average .................. 2010 Average .................. 2011 Average .................. 2012 Average .................. 2013 Average .................. 2014 Average ..................

W 10.97 33.45 26.30 20.23 16.58 27.90 23.25 24.09 28.22 37.26 52.48 62.23 67.80 95.66 57.07 78.18 111.82 111.23 107.71 W

W – W – 20.75 16.73 29.04 24.25 24.64 28.89 37.73 51.89 59.77 67.93 91.17 57.90 72.56 100.21 106.43 101.24 80.75

– 11.44 31.06 25.33 19.26 15.64 25.39 18.89 21.60 24.83 31.55 43.00 52.91 61.35 84.61 56.47 72.46 100.90 101.84 98.40 86.55

7.81 11.82 35.93 28.04 22.46 17.40 28.70 24.85 25.38 29.40 38.71 55.95 65.69 76.64 102.06 64.61 80.83 115.35 114.51 110.06 W

3.25 10.87 28.17 22.04 20.36 W 24.62 18.98 23.92 25.03 34.08 47.96 56.09 W 93.03 57.87 76.44 107.08 106.65 101.16 95.60

– – 34.36 27.64 23.43 16.94 27.21 23.30 24.50 28.76 37.30 54.48 66.03 69.96 96.33 65.63 W – – W –

5.39 11.04 24.81 23.64 19.55 13.86 24.45 18.01 20.13 23.81 31.78 46.39 55.80 64.10 88.06 55.58 70.30 97.23 100.15 97.52 84.51

3.68 10.88 28.92 23.31 18.54 W 24.72 18.89 23.38 25.17 33.08 47.21 56.02 69.93 91.44 59.53 75.65 106.47 105.45 100.62 94.03

5.43 11.34 32.21 25.67 20.40 15.36 25.56 19.73 22.18 25.36 33.95 49.60 59.18 69.58 93.15 58.53 75.23 105.34 104.39 100.57 89.76

4.80 10.62 32.85 25.96 20.32 16.02 26.77 21.04 22.93 26.21 33.58 45.79 55.35 62.69 87.15 57.16 73.24 98.49 95.71 93.67 82.95

2015 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October .................... November ................ December ................ Average ..................

– W W W W W W W W W – W W

42.49 50.79 47.25 54.95 56.30 56.42 46.62 42.35 W 41.56 W 28.98 47.52

41.19 48.12 46.89 50.49 56.80 56.78 50.71 40.40 40.50 40.18 36.16 30.12 44.90

– W – – – – – – – – – W W

48.14 47.92 50.64 58.95 61.80 58.31 W 43.38 44.50 42.51 39.87 34.75 47.53

– – – – – – – – – – – – –

37.99 45.85 43.51 49.03 51.99 50.34 44.44 35.47 36.23 37.77 31.68 24.91 40.73

52.21 47.70 49.75 53.33 59.55 58.57 50.42 43.01 43.87 40.68 38.17 33.79 46.95

42.64 47.31 45.54 50.55 54.95 54.06 46.61 38.21 39.81 39.33 33.98 29.35 43.25

38.89 42.43 42.63 47.41 53.59 53.70 45.55 36.62 35.06 36.02 33.30 27.57 41.19

2016 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October .................... November ................ December ................ Average ..................

W W 35.33 W W 49.56 45.00 W W W W W 42.68

W 24.91 30.47 33.57 39.00 41.64 36.91 36.80 40.36 40.59 39.80 45.27 35.28

24.12 24.50 29.01 30.79 39.04 42.27 39.99 38.73 38.44 42.91 39.55 45.34 36.22

W 37.83 W W W 48.79 W W W W W W 46.20

26.24 27.46 34.14 37.13 42.44 45.16 42.11 42.48 42.31 47.10 42.50 48.79 39.30

– – – – W – – – – – W W W

20.73 22.57 27.31 29.07 36.65 39.33 35.69 37.56 36.95 40.38 38.39 44.75 34.71

25.73 26.58 32.32 35.67 40.55 43.77 40.91 40.44 40.37 45.17 41.40 47.95 38.76

25.05 27.01 31.37 34.08 40.51 43.73 39.61 40.44 40.01 44.66 42.31 47.44 38.51

22.66 23.35 28.35 31.92 37.04 40.22 38.09 36.78 37.18 40.37 38.33 42.34 34.81

2017 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ...............

– W W W W W W W –

47.92 46.97 46.05 46.76 44.70 41.30 44.44 47.16 W

45.50 45.91 42.10 44.32 44.85 41.86 44.33 R 46.36 47.67

W W W W W 48.88 50.26 R 52.13 W

W 51.21 48.54 50.00 47.95 45.41 R 46.94 R 49.00 52.43

– – – W – – – – –

45.94 45.69 42.47 43.59 41.08 39.16 41.72 R 45.41 48.78

47.61 50.06 47.83 48.93 47.14 44.41 R 45.95 R 47.56 50.80

47.30 49.11 46.85 47.09 45.58 43.52 R 45.40 R 48.06 50.77

43.27 43.63 41.73 41.47 42.66 40.28 R 40.39 R 41.40 44.09

a Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. b Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and

the Neutral Zone (between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia). c See "Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)" in Glossary for exact years of each country’s membership. On this table, "Total OPEC" for all years includes Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela; Angola is included in "Total OPEC" 2007 forward; Gabon is included in "Total OPEC" 1974–1995 and July 2016 forward; Ecuador is included in "Total OPEC" 1973–1992 and 2008 forward; Indonesia is included in "Total OPEC" 1973–2008 and 2016. d Based on October, November, and December data only. R=Revised. – =No data reported. W=Value withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: • The Free on Board (F.O.B.) cost at the country of origin excludes all

136

costs related to insurance and transportation. See "F.O.B. (Free on Board)" in Glossary, and Note 3, "Crude Oil F.O.B. Costs," at end of section. • Values for the current two months are preliminary. • Through 1980, prices reflect the period of reporting; beginning in 1981, prices reflect the period of loading. • Annual averages are averages of the monthly prices, including prices not published, weighted by volume. • Cargoes that are purchased on a "netback" basis, or under similar contractual arrangements whereby the actual purchase price is not established at the time the crude oil is acquired for importation into the United States, are not included in the published data until the actual prices have been determined and reported. • U.S. geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 9.3 Landed Costs of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries (Dollarsa per Barrel) Selected Countries Angola

Canada

Colombia

Mexico

Nigeria

Saudi Arabia

United Kingdom

Venezuela

Persian Gulf Nationsb

Total OPECc

Total Non-OPECc

1973 Averaged ............... 1975 Average ................ 1980 Average ................ 1985 Average ................ 1990 Average ................ 1995 Average ................ 2000 Average ................ 2001 Average ................ 2002 Average ................ 2003 Average ................ 2004 Average ................ 2005 Average ................ 2006 Average ................ 2007 Average ................ 2008 Average ................ 2009 Average ................ 2010 Average ................ 2011 Average ................ 2012 Average ................ 2013 Average ................ 2014 Average ................

W 11.81 34.76 27.39 21.51 17.66 29.57 25.13 25.43 30.14 39.62 54.31 64.85 71.27 98.18 61.32 80.61 114.05 114.95 110.81 99.25

5.33 12.84 30.11 25.71 20.48 16.65 26.69 20.72 22.98 26.76 34.51 44.73 53.90 60.38 90.00 57.60 72.80 89.92 84.24 84.41 81.30

W – W – 22.34 17.45 29.68 25.88 25.28 30.55 39.03 53.42 62.13 70.91 93.43 58.50 74.25 102.57 107.07 103.00 88.29

– 12.61 31.77 25.63 19.64 16.19 26.03 19.37 22.09 25.48 32.25 43.47 53.76 62.31 85.97 57.35 72.86 101.21 102.45 99.06 87.48

9.08 12.70 37.15 28.96 23.33 18.25 30.04 26.55 26.45 31.07 40.95 57.55 68.26 78.01 104.83 68.01 83.14 116.43 116.88 112.87 102.16

5.37 12.50 29.80 24.72 21.82 16.84 26.58 20.98 24.77 27.50 37.11 50.31 59.19 70.78 94.75 62.14 79.29 108.83 108.15 102.60 94.91

– – 35.68 28.36 22.65 17.91 29.26 25.32 26.35 30.62 39.28 55.28 67.44 72.47 96.95 63.87 80.29 118.45 W 111.23 W

5.99 12.36 25.92 24.43 20.31 14.81 26.05 19.81 21.93 25.70 33.79 47.87 57.37 66.13 90.76 57.78 72.43 100.14 101.58 99.34 86.88

5.91 12.64 30.59 25.50 20.55 16.78 26.77 20.73 24.13 27.54 36.53 49.68 58.92 69.83 93.59 62.15 78.60 108.01 107.74 102.53 95.30

6.85 12.70 33.56 26.86 21.23 16.61 27.29 21.52 23.83 27.70 36.84 51.36 61.21 71.14 95.49 61.90 78.28 107.84 107.56 102.98 93.10

5.64 12.70 33.99 26.53 20.98 16.95 27.80 22.17 23.97 27.68 35.29 47.31 57.14 63.96 90.59 58.58 74.68 98.64 95.05 91.99 84.67

2015 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Average ................

W W W W 60.84 61.45 53.22 54.02 53.46 47.49 47.56 38.54 51.73

40.45 42.39 41.71 46.67 54.06 55.42 47.98 38.29 35.29 37.64 35.67 30.25 41.99

45.47 53.40 51.25 57.48 59.92 58.21 51.58 43.87 42.87 42.37 39.70 32.50 49.53

41.68 48.29 47.62 52.13 57.32 57.46 51.25 41.94 40.71 40.67 36.73 30.54 45.51

W W W – W W W – W W W W 54.70

50.12 52.44 55.23 59.92 62.06 58.40 51.62 45.24 44.89 42.09 39.62 34.13 49.78

– – W W W – – W – W – W W

40.08 47.93 45.90 52.17 53.78 52.43 46.74 38.75 37.91 39.55 33.79 26.73 42.87

53.01 52.20 54.30 56.99 60.92 58.17 51.93 45.70 44.94 41.81 39.43 34.33 49.43

48.17 51.44 51.13 55.39 59.11 56.79 50.45 43.17 43.31 41.57 37.86 32.60 47.44

42.31 44.86 44.82 49.79 55.97 56.69 49.42 40.41 37.82 39.41 36.68 30.91 44.09

2016 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Average ................

34.83 33.04 36.68 40.91 49.14 49.06 47.04 49.43 46.15 48.88 49.08 53.63 44.65

26.32 24.62 29.31 34.19 38.43 41.97 39.41 37.84 38.62 41.79 39.81 43.34 36.27

26.23 26.32 33.38 36.71 42.28 43.88 40.90 40.78 43.43 43.44 42.97 48.83 38.86

24.82 25.19 29.65 31.91 39.67 42.50 40.30 39.34 38.86 43.44 40.20 45.84 36.64

W 39.44 42.86 W W 51.05 48.46 50.20 49.91 W 52.80 55.62 48.11

30.96 31.86 36.19 39.75 43.46 45.90 43.80 43.67 44.22 46.95 47.04 50.38 42.14

– W W – W – W W – – W W W

21.64 23.49 28.83 31.20 38.14 40.04 37.00 38.66 38.11 41.61 39.53 45.69 35.50

30.85 30.91 34.84 38.00 42.56 44.70 42.77 42.74 43.31 45.50 45.68 49.38 41.20

28.94 29.63 34.02 36.80 42.48 44.70 41.78 42.46 42.62 45.65 44.98 49.07 40.54

26.33 25.43 30.35 34.42 39.55 42.65 40.48 39.01 39.60 42.64 40.52 44.83 37.09

2017 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September .............

– W W W W 50.74 50.20 R 52.23 W

44.70 44.97 43.00 43.05 44.26 41.75 R 41.59 R 43.20 45.63

49.17 49.66 48.29 48.38 45.86 44.89 46.72 R 48.51 52.26

46.35 46.57 42.97 44.65 45.51 42.36 R 45.17 R 46.93 49.05

54.74 54.42 W W 51.83 50.36 R 50.89 R 52.93 56.95

50.40 52.34 50.36 50.18 49.06 47.88 R 47.79 R 49.86 53.16

W – W W W W – RW W

47.53 46.28 43.91 44.55 43.50 40.88 R 42.25 R 46.16 50.56

49.35 51.09 49.61 49.04 47.26 46.76 R 46.99 R 48.20 50.94

49.22 50.57 48.93 48.47 47.30 45.71 R 46.65 R 48.87 51.77

45.77 46.26 43.96 44.31 45.25 42.67 R 43.38 R 45.41 47.34

a Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. b Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and

the Neutral Zone (between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia). c See "Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)" in Glossary for exact years of each country’s membership. On this table, "Total OPEC" for all years includes Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela; Angola is included in "Total OPEC" 2007 forward; Gabon is included in "Total OPEC" 1974–1995 and July 2016 forward; Ecuador is included in "Total OPEC" 1973–1992 and 2008 forward; Indonesia is included in "Total OPEC" 1973–2008 and 2016. d Based on October, November, and December data only. R=Revised. – =No data reported. W=Value withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: • See "Landed Costs" in Glossary, and Note 4, "Crude Oil Landed Costs," at end of section. • Values for the current two months are preliminary. • Through 1980, prices reflect the period of reporting; beginning in 1981, prices

reflect the period of loading. • Annual averages are averages of the monthly prices, including prices not published, weighted by volume. • Cargoes that are purchased on a "netback" basis, or under similar contractual arrangements whereby the actual purchase price is not established at the time the crude oil is acquired for importation into the United States, are not included in the published data until the actual prices have been determined and reported. • U.S. geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • October 1973–September 1977: Federal Energy Administration, Form FEA-F701-M-0, "Transfer Pricing Report." • October 1977–December 1977: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form FEA-F701-M-0, "Transfer Pricing Report." • 1978–2007: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Annual 2008, Table 22. • 2008 forward: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, December 2017, Table 22.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

137

Table 9.4 Retail Motor Gasoline and On-Highway Diesel Fuel Prices (Dollarsa per Gallon, Including Taxes) Platt’s / Bureau of Labor Statistics Data

U.S. Energy Information Administration Data

Motor Gasoline by Grade

Regular Motor Gasoline by Area Type

Leaded Regular

Unleaded Regular

Unleaded Premiumb

All Gradesc

Conventional Gasoline Areasd

Reformulated Gasoline Arease

All Areas

On-Highway Diesel Fuel

0.268 .291 .311 .312 .357 .567 1.191 1.115 1.149 –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– ––

NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.245 1.202 1.164 1.147 1.510 1.461 1.358 1.591 1.880 2.295 2.589 2.801 3.266 2.350 2.788 3.527 3.644 3.526 3.367

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.340 1.349 1.336 1.693 1.657 1.556 1.777 2.068 2.491 2.805 3.033 3.519 2.607 3.047 3.792 3.922 3.843 3.713

NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.221 1.196 1.217 1.205 1.563 1.531 1.441 1.638 1.923 2.338 2.635 2.849 3.317 2.401 2.836 3.577 3.695 3.584 3.425

–– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– NA 1.103 1.462 1.384 1.313 1.516 1.812 2.240 2.533 2.767 3.213 2.315 2.742 3.476 3.552 3.443 3.299

–– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– NA 1.163 1.543 1.498 1.408 1.655 1.937 2.335 2.654 2.857 3.314 2.433 2.864 3.616 3.757 3.635 3.481

–– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– NA 1.111 1.484 1.420 1.345 1.561 1.852 2.270 2.572 2.796 3.246 2.353 2.782 3.521 3.618 3.505 3.358

–– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– NA 1.109 1.491 1.401 1.319 1.509 1.810 2.402 2.705 2.885 3.803 2.467 2.992 3.840 3.968 3.922 3.825

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Average ..............

–– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– ––

2.110 2.249 2.483 2.485 2.775 2.832 2.832 2.679 2.394 2.289 2.185 2.060 2.448

2.497 2.621 2.867 2.868 3.166 3.218 3.252 3.120 2.860 2.749 2.640 2.532 2.866

2.170 2.308 2.544 2.545 2.832 2.889 2.893 2.745 2.463 2.357 2.249 2.125 2.510

2.046 2.152 2.352 2.369 2.578 2.700 2.666 2.522 2.275 2.230 2.088 1.946 2.334

2.262 2.351 2.697 2.679 3.014 3.014 3.061 2.876 2.555 2.414 2.304 2.230 2.629

2.116 2.216 2.464 2.469 2.718 2.802 2.794 2.636 2.365 2.290 2.158 2.038 2.429

2.997 2.858 2.897 2.782 2.888 2.873 2.788 2.595 2.505 2.519 2.467 2.310 2.707

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Average ..............

–– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– ––

1.967 1.767 1.958 2.134 2.264 2.363 2.225 2.155 2.208 2.243 2.187 2.230 2.142

2.455 2.248 2.411 2.585 2.710 2.807 2.702 2.629 2.682 2.719 2.675 2.698 2.610

2.034 1.833 2.021 2.196 2.324 2.422 2.287 2.218 2.269 2.304 2.246 2.289 2.204

1.843 1.681 1.895 2.027 2.199 2.303 2.157 2.119 2.161 2.186 2.105 2.192 2.070

2.170 1.936 2.124 2.293 2.413 2.497 2.411 2.300 2.339 2.382 2.343 2.385 2.296

1.949 1.764 1.969 2.113 2.268 2.366 2.239 2.178 2.219 2.249 2.182 2.254 2.143

2.143 1.998 2.090 2.152 2.315 2.423 2.405 2.351 2.394 2.454 2.439 2.510 2.304

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............

–– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– ––

2.351 2.299 2.323 2.418 2.386 2.337 2.281 2.374 2.630 2.484 2.548

2.815 2.793 2.827 2.909 2.894 2.859 2.800 2.883 3.120 2.996 3.056

2.409 2.360 2.386 2.479 2.448 2.400 2.344 2.436 2.688 2.545 2.608

2.285 2.227 2.243 2.340 2.303 2.257 2.211 2.297 2.570 2.430 2.474

2.482 2.467 2.498 2.579 2.577 2.536 2.486 2.557 2.802 2.663 2.751

2.349 2.304 2.325 2.417 2.391 2.347 2.300 2.380 2.645 2.505 2.564

2.580 2.568 2.554 2.583 2.560 2.511 2.496 2.595 2.785 2.794 2.909

1950 Average 1955 Average 1960 Average 1965 Average 1970 Average 1975 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ..............

a Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. b The 1981 average (available in Web file) is based on September through

December data only. c Also includes grades of motor gasoline not shown separately. d Any area that does not require the sale of reformulated gasoline. e "Reformulated Gasoline Areas" are ozone nonattainment areas designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that require the use of reformulated gasoline (RFG). Areas are reclassified each time a shift in or out of an RFG program occurs due to federal or state regulations. NA=Not available. – – =Not applicable. Notes: • See Note 5, "Motor Gasoline Prices," at end of section. • See "Motor Gasoline Grades," "Motor Gasoline, Conventional," "Motor Gasoline, Oxygenated," and "Motor Gasoline, Reformulated" in Glossary. • Geographic coverage: for columns 1–4, current coverage is 85 urban areas; for columns 5–7, coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia; for column 8, coverage is the 48 contiguous

138

states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • Motor Gasoline by Grade, Monthly Data: October 1973 forward—U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), U.S. City Average Gasoline Prices. • Motor Gasoline by Grade, Annual Data: 1949–1973—Platt’s Oil Price Handbook and Oilmanac, 1974, 51st Edition. 1974 forward—calculated by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) as simple averages of the BLS monthly data. • Regular Motor Gasoline by Area Type: EIA, calculated as simple averages of weighted weekly estimates from "Weekly U.S. Retail Gasoline Prices, Regular Grade." • On-Highway Diesel Fuel: EIA, calculated as simple averages of weighted weekly estimates from "Weekly Retail On-Highway Diesel Prices."

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 9.5 Refiner Prices of Residual Fuel Oil (Dollarsa per Gallon, Excluding Taxes) Residual Fuel Oil Sulfur Content Less Than or Equal to 1%

Residual Fuel Oil Sulfur Content Greater Than 1%

Average

Sales for Resale

Sales to End Users

Sales for Resale

Sales to End Users

Sales for Resale

Sales to End Users

...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ......................

0.293 .608 .610 .472 .383 .627 .523 .546 .728 .764 1.115 1.202 1.406 1.918 1.337 1.756 2.389 2.548 2.363 2.153

0.314 .675 .644 .505 .436 .708 .642 .640 .804 .835 1.168 1.342 1.436 2.144 1.413 1.920 2.736 3.025 2.883 2.694

0.245 .479 .560 .372 .338 .512 .428 .508 .588 .601 .842 1.085 1.314 1.843 1.344 1.679 2.316 2.429 2.249 1.996

0.275 .523 .582 .400 .377 .566 .492 .544 .651 .692 .974 1.173 1.350 1.889 1.306 1.619 2.257 2.433 2.353 2.221

0.263 .528 .577 .413 .363 .566 .476 .530 .661 .681 .971 1.136 1.350 1.866 1.342 1.697 2.336 2.457 2.278 2.044

0.298 .607 .610 .444 .392 .602 .531 .569 .698 .739 1.048 1.218 1.374 1.964 1.341 1.713 2.401 2.592 2.482 2.325

2015 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... October ........................ November .................... December .................... Average ......................

.936 1.150 1.093 1.124 1.198 1.175 1.080 .797 .819 .812 .766 .552 .971

NA NA NA 1.704 NA W W W W NA W W 1.529

1.038 1.124 1.131 1.114 1.242 1.239 1.130 .928 .856 .840 .791 .639 .999

1.192 1.342 1.436 1.465 1.443 1.474 1.245 1.150 1.063 1.041 1.001 .861 1.227

1.023 1.126 1.126 1.114 1.234 1.233 1.122 .918 .852 .836 .787 .633 .996

1.264 1.376 1.465 1.516 1.543 1.549 1.363 1.207 1.107 1.094 1.043 .919 1.285

2016 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... October ........................ November .................... December .................... Average ......................

.477 .475 .582 .633 .729 .850 .876 .842 .846 .961 .920 1.024 .736

W NA NA W W W W W W W NA W 1.138

.502 .508 .555 .614 .722 .823 .834 .811 .855 .935 .907 1.031 .746

.641 .606 .672 .734 .868 .911 .948 .924 1.059 1.091 1.040 1.206 .897

.499 .504 .558 .616 .723 .825 .835 .815 .854 .938 .908 1.030 .745

.710 .632 .693 .782 .922 .983 1.030 .990 1.076 1.115 1.106 1.230 .945

2017 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ...................

1.099 1.174 1.103 1.038 .986 .937 1.026 1.042 1.150

W W W W W W W W W

1.121 1.115 1.075 1.039 1.047 .995 1.040 1.081 1.136

1.249 1.243 1.186 1.147 1.153 1.129 1.154 1.142 1.295

1.119 1.121 1.077 1.039 1.043 .991 1.039 1.079 1.137

1.309 1.291 1.239 1.201 1.213 1.195 1.211 1.204 1.314

1978 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

a Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. NA=Not available. W=Value withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: • Sales for resale are those made to purchasers other than ultimate consumers. Sales to end users are those made directly to ultimate consumers, including bulk consumers (such as agriculture, industry, and electric utilities) and commercial consumers. • Values for the current month are preliminary. • Through 1982, prices are U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

estimates. See Note 6, "Historical Petroleum Prices," at end of section. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1978 and monthly data beginning in 1982. Sources: • 1978–2007: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Annual 2007, Table 17. • 2008 forward: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, December 2017, Table 16.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

139

Table 9.6 Refiner Prices of Petroleum Products for Resale (Dollarsa per Gallon, Excluding Taxes) Finished Motor Gasolineb

Finished Aviation Gasoline

KeroseneType Jet Fuel

...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ......................

0.434 .941 .835 .786 .626 .963 .886 .828 1.002 1.288 1.670 1.969 2.182 2.586 1.767 2.165 2.867 2.929 2.812 2.618

0.537 1.128 1.130 1.063 .975 1.330 1.256 1.146 1.288 1.627 2.076 2.490 2.758 3.342 2.480 2.874 3.739 3.919 3.869 3.687

2015 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... October ........................ November .................... December .................... Average ......................

1.366 1.637 1.770 1.835 2.080 2.121 2.072 1.838 1.609 1.558 1.426 1.356 1.726

2016 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... October ........................ November .................... December .................... Average ...................... 2017 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ...................

1978 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

Kerosene

No. 2 Fuel Oil

No. 2 Diesel Fuel

Propane (Consumer Grade)

0.386 .868 .794 .773 .539 .880 .763 .716 .871 1.208 1.723 1.961 2.171 3.020 1.719 2.185 3.014 3.080 2.953 2.763

0.404 .864 .874 .839 .580 .969 .821 .752 .955 1.271 1.757 2.007 2.249 2.851 1.844 2.299 3.065 3.163 3.084 2.882

0.369 .803 .776 .697 .511 .886 .756 .694 .881 1.125 1.623 1.834 2.072 2.745 1.657 2.147 2.907 3.031 2.966 2.741

0.365 .801 .772 .694 .538 .898 .784 .724 .883 1.187 1.737 2.012 2.203 2.994 1.713 2.214 3.034 3.109 3.028 2.812

0.237 .415 .398 .386 .344 .595 .540 .431 .607 .751 .933 1.031 1.194 1.437 .921 1.212 1.467 1.033 1.048 1.165

2.324 2.529 2.801 2.827 3.050 3.259 3.217 2.980 2.586 2.475 2.385 2.252 2.764

1.612 1.722 1.731 1.709 1.933 1.813 1.655 1.479 1.443 1.451 1.400 1.207 1.592

1.900 2.233 2.098 1.800 1.929 1.871 1.701 1.494 1.509 1.555 1.554 1.275 1.735

1.669 1.850 1.847 1.740 1.852 1.813 1.654 1.461 1.438 1.411 1.356 1.126 1.565

1.616 1.861 1.815 1.805 1.973 1.881 1.729 1.562 1.551 1.572 1.456 1.176 1.667

.713 .748 .689 .566 .475 .404 .405 .402 .469 .524 .505 .499 .555

1.187 1.046 1.335 1.476 1.613 1.643 1.490 1.508 1.514 1.568 1.427 1.585 1.454

2.122 1.908 2.230 2.457 2.528 2.591 2.505 2.405 2.506 2.551 2.433 2.462 2.404

1.022 1.017 1.100 1.155 1.311 1.428 1.354 1.313 1.366 1.471 1.406 1.511 1.295

1.183 1.155 1.208 1.193 1.327 1.445 1.297 1.408 1.402 1.580 1.485 1.685 1.383

.976 .948 1.070 1.113 1.291 1.404 1.305 1.307 1.341 1.443 1.386 1.507 1.239

1.015 1.043 1.189 1.251 1.432 1.531 1.426 1.440 1.471 1.592 1.469 1.606 1.378

.460 .470 .497 .458 .511 .497 .476 .453 .494 .608 .588 .703 .523

1.627 1.625 1.634 1.723 1.668 1.574 1.621 1.711 1.826

2.614 2.592 2.618 2.724 2.620 2.552 2.608 2.710 2.898

1.561 1.592 1.520 1.545 1.459 1.378 1.436 R 1.587 1.771

1.761 1.657 1.580 1.572 1.481 1.360 1.468 1.630 1.809

1.560 1.553 1.495 1.499 1.447 1.375 1.392 1.522 1.669

1.636 1.641 1.581 1.627 1.552 1.465 1.533 R 1.681 1.847

.788 .792 .671 .641 .631 .585 .634 .742 .864

a Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. b See Note 5, "Motor Gasoline Prices," at end of section.

R=Revised. Notes: • Sales for resale are those made to purchasers other than ultimate consumers. Sales to end users are shown in Table 9.7; they are sales made directly to ultimate consumers, including bulk consumers (such as agriculture, industry, and electric utilities) and residential and commercial consumers. • Values for the current month are preliminary. • Through 1982, prices are U.S. Energy

140

Information Administration (EIA) estimates. See Note 6, "Historical Petroleum Prices," at end of section. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1978 and monthly data beginning in 1982. Sources: • 1978–2007: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Annual 2007, Table 4. • 2008 forward: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, December 2017, Table 4.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 9.7 Refiner Prices of Petroleum Products to End Users (Dollarsa per Gallon, Excluding Taxes) Finished Motor Gasolineb

Finished Aviation Gasoline

KeroseneType Jet Fuel

...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ......................

0.484 1.035 .912 .883 .765 1.106 1.032 .947 1.156 1.435 1.829 2.128 2.345 2.775 1.888 2.301 3.050 3.154 3.049 2.855

0.516 1.084 1.201 1.120 1.005 1.306 1.323 1.288 1.493 1.819 2.231 2.682 2.849 3.273 2.442 3.028 3.803 3.971 3.932 3.986

2015 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... October ........................ November .................... December .................... Average ......................

1.673 1.858 2.054 2.058 2.322 2.374 2.338 2.218 1.920 1.849 1.711 1.604 2.003

2016 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... October ........................ November .................... December .................... Average ...................... 2017 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ...................

1978 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

Kerosene

No. 2 Fuel Oil

No. 2 Diesel Fuel

Propane (Consumer Grade)

0.387 .868 .796 .766 .540 .899 .775 .721 .872 1.207 1.735 1.998 2.165 3.052 1.704 2.201 3.054 3.104 2.979 2.772

0.421 .902 1.030 .923 .589 1.123 1.045 .990 1.224 1.160 1.957 2.244 2.263 3.283 2.675 3.063 3.616 3.843 3.842 W

0.400 .788 .849 .734 .562 .927 .829 .737 .933 1.173 1.705 1.982 2.241 2.986 1.962 2.462 3.193 3.358 3.335 3.329

0.377 .818 .789 .725 .560 .935 .842 .762 .944 1.243 1.786 2.096 2.267 3.150 1.834 2.314 3.117 3.202 3.122 2.923

0.335 .482 .717 .745 .492 .603 .506 .419 .577 .839 1.089 1.358 1.489 1.892 1.220 1.481 1.709 1.139 1.028 1.097

W W W W W W W W W W W W W

1.633 1.747 1.766 1.739 1.979 1.855 1.694 1.516 1.465 1.473 1.424 1.232 1.629

W W W W W W W W 2.996 W W W W

NA 2.204 2.141 NA 2.308 2.321 2.207 2.046 1.949 NA 1.814 1.695 2.016

1.819 1.979 1.962 1.939 2.090 2.021 1.913 1.737 1.693 1.702 1.603 1.365 1.819

.566 .671 .619 .575 .465 .393 .405 .387 .468 .479 .447 .422 .481

1.505 1.332 1.552 1.725 1.869 1.961 1.804 1.754 1.788 1.819 1.759 1.849 1.730

W W W W W W W W W W W W W

1.038 1.032 1.133 1.187 1.342 1.464 1.393 1.330 1.394 1.506 1.426 1.539 1.319

W W W W W W W W W W W W W

1.450 1.407 1.555 1.631 1.733 1.861 1.814 NA 1.805 1.941 1.787 1.997 1.716

1.198 1.185 1.317 1.386 1.555 1.661 1.577 1.577 1.601 1.706 1.599 1.718 1.511

.377 .409 .481 .472 .533 .514 .491 .460 .507 .599 .557 .666 .498

1.900 1.862 1.904 1.997 1.963 1.906 1.871 R 1.952 2.154

W W W W W W W W W

1.584 1.615 1.554 1.595 1.492 1.434 1.478 1.613 1.795

W W W W 2.637 2.600 2.621 2.579 2.703

NA 2.033 1.909 2.081 NA 1.739 1.728 R 1.904 2.044

1.747 1.755 1.699 1.747 1.693 1.618 1.665 1.792 1.959

.774 .814 .657 .652 .650 .611 .667 .768 .895

a Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. b See Note 5, "Motor Gasoline Prices," at end of section.

R=Revised. NA=Not available. W=Value withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: • Sales to end users are those made directly to ultimate consumers, including bulk consumers (such as agriculture, industry, and electric utilities) and residential and commercial consumers. Sales for resale are shown in Table 9.6; they are sales made to purchasers other than ultimate consumers. • Values for the current month are preliminary. • Through 1982, prices are U.S. Energy

Information Administration (EIA) estimates. See Note 6, "Historical Petroleum Prices," at end of section. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1978 and monthly data beginning in 1982. Sources: • 1978–2007: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Annual 2007, Table 2. • 2008 forward: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, December 2017, Table 2.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

141

Figure 9.2 Average Retail Prices of Electricity (Centsa per Kilowatthour) By Sector, 1960–2016 14 Residential

12 Commercial 10 8

Transportation Otherb

6

Industrial

4 2 0 1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

By Sector, Monthly 14

Residential

12

Commercial

10 Transportation 8 Industrial

6 4 2 0 J

F M A M

J J A 2015

S O N D

J

F M A M

Total, January–September

J J A 2016

S O N D

J

F M A M

J J 2017

A

S O N D

By Sector, September 2017

12

15 10.50

10.32

10.59

13.30 12

11.06

9

10.01 9 7.21

6 6 3 3

0

0 2015

a

2016

2017

Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See “Nominal Price” in Glossary. Public street and highway lighting, interdepartmental sales, other sales to public authorities, agricultural and irrigation, and transportation including railroads and railways. b

142

Residential

Commercial

Industrial

Transportation

Note: Includes taxes. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices. Source: Table 9.8.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 9.8 Average Retail Prices of Electricity (Centsa per Kilowatthour, Including Taxes) Residential

Commercialb

Industrialc

Transportationd

Othere

Total

...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ......................

2.60 2.40 2.20 3.50 5.40 7.39 7.83 8.40 8.24 8.58 8.44 8.72 8.95 9.45 10.40 10.65 11.26 11.51 11.54 11.72 11.88 12.13 12.52

2.40 2.20 2.10 3.50 5.50 7.27 7.34 7.69 7.43 7.92 7.89 8.03 8.17 8.67 9.46 9.65 10.26 10.16 10.19 10.24 10.09 10.26 10.74

1.10 1.00 1.00 2.10 3.70 4.97 4.74 4.66 4.64 5.05 4.88 5.11 5.25 5.73 6.16 6.39 6.96 6.83 6.77 6.82 6.67 6.89 7.10

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 7.54 7.18 8.57 9.54 9.70 10.71 10.66 10.56 10.46 10.21 10.55 10.45

1.90 1.80 1.80 3.10 4.80 6.09 6.40 6.88 6.56 7.20 6.75 –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– ––

1.80 1.70 1.70 2.90 4.70 6.44 6.57 6.89 6.81 7.29 7.20 7.44 7.61 8.14 8.90 9.13 9.74 9.82 9.83 9.90 9.84 10.07 10.44

2015 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... October ........................ November .................... December .................... Average ......................

12.10 12.29 12.33 12.62 12.93 12.92 12.94 12.91 13.03 12.72 12.71 12.32 12.65

10.31 10.62 10.63 10.37 10.47 10.89 11.07 10.94 10.98 10.73 10.30 10.13 10.64

6.67 6.88 6.83 6.61 6.74 7.11 7.45 7.35 7.21 6.88 6.61 6.45 6.91

10.45 10.49 10.12 9.76 9.87 10.15 10.34 10.14 10.29 9.91 9.63 9.81 10.09

–– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– ––

10.18 10.36 10.29 10.01 10.21 10.64 10.95 10.85 10.79 10.31 10.05 9.98 10.41

2016 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... October ........................ November .................... December .................... Average ......................

R 11.99

12.43 12.79 R 12.73 12.68 R 12.88 12.87 12.46 12.75 R 12.23 12.55

R 10.08 R 10.25 R 10.23 R 10.19 R 10.31 R 10.66 R 10.68 R 10.76 R 10.77 R 10.55 R 10.32 R 10.17 R 10.43

R 6.44 R 6.42 R 6.46 R 6.44 R 6.57

R 9.52 R 9.61 R 9.56 R 9.53 R 9.28 R 9.75 R 9.84

–– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– ––

R 6.58 R 6.62 R 6.73 R 6.61

1960 Average 1965 Average 1970 Average 1975 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

2017 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... 9-Month Average ....... 2016 9-Month Average ....... 2015 9-Month Average .......

12.14

R 12.56

7.03 7.23 7.23 R 7.14 R 6.73 6.66 R 6.67 R 6.76

12.22

R 10.23

12.90 R 12.69 13.02 13.22 13.12 13.19 13.30 12.95

R 10.47

10.99 11.00 11.04 11.06 10.72

R 7.21 R 7.34 R 7.24

7.21 6.94

12.58 12.67

10.46 10.72

6.79 6.99

R 12.78

10.48 10.40

R 10.59

a Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Price" in Glossary. b Commercial sector. For 1960–2002, prices exclude public street and highway

lighting, interdepartmental sales, and other sales to public authorities. c Industrial sector. For 1960–2002, prices exclude agriculture and irrigation. d Transportation sector, including railroads and railways. e Public street and highway lighting, interdepartmental sales, other sales to public authorities, agriculture and irrigation, and transportation including railroads and railways. R=Revised. NA=Not available. – – =Not applicable. Notes: • Beginning in 2003, the category "Other" has been replaced by "Transportation," and the categories "Commercial" and "Industrial" have been redefined. • Prices are calculated by dividing revenue by sales. Revenue may not correspond to sales for a particular month because of energy service provider billing and accounting procedures. That lack of correspondence could result in uncharacteristic increases or decreases in the monthly prices. • Prices include state and local taxes, energy or demand charges, customer service charges, environmental surcharges, franchise fees, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges applied to end-use customers during normal billing operations. Prices do not include deferred charges, credits, or other adjustments, such as fuel or revenue from purchased power, from previous reporting periods. • Through 1979, data are for Classes A and B privately owned electric utilities only.

6.81

R 10.04 R 10.00 R 9.62 R 9.22 R 9.49 R 9.63 R 9.38

R 9.97

10.00

R 10.00

9.83

R 10.06 R 10.52 R 10.70 R 10.81 R 10.68

10.15

R 10.10 R 10.09 R 10.27 R 10.16 R 10.31 R 10.33

10.07 10.01 9.74

–– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– ––

9.69 10.19

–– ––

10.32 10.50

9.47

R 9.47

9.44 9.58

R 10.14 R 10.13

10.10 10.37 10.87 11.02 10.98 10.93 10.59

(Class A utilities are those with operating revenues of $2.5 million or more; Class B utilities are those with operating revenues between $1 million and $2.5 million.) For 1980–1982, data are for selected Class A utilities whose electric operating revenues were $100 million or more during the previous year. For 1983, data are for a selected sample of electric utilities. Beginning in 1984, data are for a census of electric utilities. Beginning in 1996, data also include energy service providers selling to retail customers. • See Note 7, "Electricity Retail Prices," at end of section for plant coverage, and for information on preliminary and final values. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1960 and monthly data beginning in 1976. Sources: • 1960–September 1977: Federal Power Commission, Form FPC-5, "Monthly Statement of Electric Operating Revenues and Income." • October 1977–February 1980: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Form FPC-5, "Monthly Statement of Electric Operating Revenues and Income." • March 1980–1982: FERC, Form FERC-5, "Electric Utility Company Monthly Statement." • 1983: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-826, "Electric Utility Company Monthly Statement." • 1984–2010: EIA, Form EIA-861, "Annual Electric Power Industry Report." • 2011 forward: EIA, Electric Power Monthly, November 2017, Table 5.3.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

143

Figure 9.3 Cost of Fossil-Fuel Receipts at Electric Generating Plants (Dollarsa per Million Btu, Including Taxes) Costs, 1973–2016 25 Residual Fuel Oil 20

15

10 Natural Gas

5

Coal

0 1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Costs, Monthly 15 Residual Fuel Oil 10

5 Natural Gas Coal 0 J

F M A M

J J 2015

A

S O N D

J

F M A M

J J A 2016

S O N D

J

F M A M

J J 2017

A

S O N D

By Fuel Type 20

September 2015

September 2016

September 2017

14.51

15 12.02

11.29 10.06

10 8.44

8.42

5 3.06

3.07

3.20 2.22

2.12

2.03

Distillate Fuel Oil

Residual Fuel Oil

Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See “Nominal Dollars” in Glossary. W=Value withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

144

2.07

W

0 a

1.74

Natural Gas

Coal

Petroleum Coke

Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices. Source: Table 9.9.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

W

Table 9.9 Cost of Fossil-Fuel Receipts at Electric Generating Plants (Dollarsa per Million Btu, Including Taxes) Petroleum Coal

Residual Fuel Oilb

Distillate Fuel Oilc

Petroleum Coke

Totald

Natural Gase

All Fossil Fuelsf

1973 Average .................... 1975 Average .................... 1980 Average .................... 1985 Average .................... 1990 Average .................... 1995 Average .................... 2000 Average .................... 2001 Average .................... 2002 Averageg ................... 2003 Average .................... 2004 Average .................... 2005 Average .................... 2006 Average .................... 2007 Average .................... 2008 Average .................... 2009 Average .................... 2010 Average .................... 2011 Average .................... 2012 Average .................... 2013 Average .................... 2014 Average ....................

0.41 .81 1.35 1.65 1.45 1.32 1.20 1.23 1.25 1.28 1.36 1.54 1.69 1.77 2.07 2.21 2.27 2.39 2.38 2.34 2.37

0.79 2.01 4.27 4.24 3.32 2.59 4.29 3.73 3.73 4.66 4.73 7.06 7.85 8.64 13.62 8.98 12.57 18.35 21.03 19.26 18.30

NA NA NA NA 5.38 3.99 6.65 6.30 5.34 6.82 8.02 11.72 13.28 14.85 21.46 13.22 16.61 22.46 23.49 23.03 21.88

NA NA NA NA .80 .65 .58 .78 .78 .72 .83 1.11 1.33 1.51 2.11 1.61 2.28 3.03 2.24 2.18 1.98

0.80 2.02 4.35 4.32 3.35 2.57 4.18 3.69 3.34 4.33 4.29 6.44 6.23 7.17 10.87 7.02 9.54 12.48 12.48 11.57 11.60

0.34 .75 2.20 3.44 2.32 1.98 4.30 4.49 3.56 5.39 5.96 8.21 6.94 7.11 9.01 4.74 5.09 4.72 3.42 4.33 5.00

0.48 1.04 1.93 2.09 1.69 1.45 1.74 1.73 1.86 2.28 2.48 3.25 3.02 3.23 4.12 3.04 3.26 3.29 2.83 3.09 3.31

2015 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

2.29 2.26 2.26 2.23 2.26 2.25 2.21 2.23 2.22 2.15 2.15 2.16 2.22

12.28 10.30 10.37 11.83 10.83 12.20 11.34 11.25 8.44 7.74 7.77 7.81 9.89

13.37 16.46 15.60 14.82 15.34 15.29 14.37 13.05 12.02 12.44 12.38 10.57 14.06

2.00 1.76 2.00 1.96 2.02 1.87 1.90 1.82 1.74 1.83 1.59 1.57 1.84

7.07 8.97 8.20 6.85 7.17 7.78 6.03 6.38 5.68 5.75 5.55 4.97 6.74

4.11 4.70 3.55 3.10 3.14 3.12 3.11 3.11 3.06 2.92 2.65 2.59 3.23

2.92 3.19 2.78 2.58 2.64 2.66 2.63 2.62 2.57 2.47 2.38 2.36 2.65

2.12 2.11

R 7.08 R 5.77 R 5.63 R 7.53 R 9.07 R 8.93

1.38 1.30 1.41 1.35 1.32 1.41 1.47 1.75 R 2.07 1.98 2.26 2.07 1.65

R 4.56 R 3.66 R 3.62 R 4.53 R 5.70 R 6.13 R 6.38 R 5.24 R 5.23 R 5.85 R 6.30 R 5.93 R 5.25

R 3.02

2.52

2.70 2.23 2.42 R 2.39 2.67 2.97 R 2.95 R 3.07 3.13 3.02 3.96 R 2.87

R 2.36 R 2.21

R 2.82

2016 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

2.16 2.16 2.10 2.11 2.11 2.12 R 2.07 R 2.08 2.08 R 2.11

R 11.72 R 8.55 R 8.42 R 8.75 R 9.03 R 9.65 R 8.45

8.90 8.78 9.46 9.97 R 10.76 12.22 12.08 11.41 R 11.29 R 12.04 R 12.30 R 12.22 R 10.93

2017 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. 9-Month Average .....

2.09 2.07 2.08 2.11 2.13 2.11 2.09 2.08 2.03 2.09

11.25 10.77 11.43 10.63 10.70 10.47 9.99 10.03 10.06 10.72

12.95 12.92 12.34 12.99 12.21 11.48 11.79 12.95 14.51 12.63

2.14 2.00 2.06 2.00 2.05 W W W W W

7.68 6.29 7.62 6.95 6.63 6.08 R 5.88 6.24 6.36 6.68

R 4.13

3.22 3.16 3.20 3.39

W W W W W W

2016 9-Month Average ..... 2015 9-Month Average .....

2.13 2.25

8.22 10.77

10.48 14.62

1.50 1.90

4.99 7.17

2.74 3.39

2.43 2.72

R 2.17

a Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. b For 1973–2001, electric utility data are for heavy oil (fuel oil nos. 5 and 6, and

small amounts of fuel oil no. 4). c For 1973–2001, electric utility data are for light oil (fuel oil nos. 1 and 2). d For all years, includes residual fuel oil and distillate fuel oil. For 1990 forward, also includes petroleum coke. For 1973–2012, also includes jet fuel, kerosene, and waste oil. For 1983–2012, also includes other petroleum, such as propane and refined motor oil. e Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. For 1973–2000, data also include a small amount of blast furnace gas and other gases derived from fossil fuels. f Weighted average of costs shown under "Coal," "Petroleum," and "Natural Gas." g Through 2001, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 2002, data also include independent power producers, and electric generating plants in the

2.31 2.31 R 2.39 R 2.55 R 2.52 R 2.55

2.51 2.47 R 2.82

2.47

3.58 3.36

2.60 2.62

R 3.38

R 2.62

3.49 R 3.30

commercial and industrial sectors. R=Revised. NA=Not available. W=Value withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: • Receipts are purchases of fuel. • Yearly costs are averages of monthly values, weighted by quantities in Btu. • For this table, there are several breaks in the data series related to what plants and fuels are covered. Beginning in 2013, data cover all regulated generating plants; plus unregulated plants whose total fossil-fueled nameplate generating capacity is 50 megawatts or more for coal, and 200 megawatts or more for natural gas, residual fuel oil, distillate fuel oil, and petroleum coke. For data coverage before 2013, see EIA, Electric Power Monthly, Appendix C, Form EIA-923 notes, “Receipts and cost and quality of fossil fuels” section. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

145

Figure 9.4

Natural Gas Prices (Dollarsa per Thousand Cubic Feet)

Wellhead and Citygate, 1949–2016 10

Citygate

8 6 4 Wellhead

2 0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Consuming Sectors, 1967–2016 14 12 Residentialb

10 8 Commercialb

6 4 2

Industrialb

Electric Powerb

Transportation

0 1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Consuming Sectors, Monthly 20 Residentialb

15

10

Commercialb

5

Industrialb Electric Powerb

0 J

F M A M

J

J

A

S O N D

J

F M A M

2015 a b

Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See “Nominal Dollars” in Glossary. Includes taxes.

146

J

J

A

S O N D

J

F M A M

2016

J

J

A

S O N D

2017

Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices. Source: Table 9.10.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 9.10 Natural Gas Prices (Dollarsa per Thousand Cubic Feet) Consuming Sectorsb Commercialc

Residential Wellhead Pricef

Citygate Priceg

0.07 .10 .14 .16 .17 .44 1.59 2.51 1.71 1.55 3.68 4.00 2.95 4.88 5.46 7.33 6.39 6.25 7.97 3.67 4.48 3.95 E 2.66 NA NA

2015 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

Electric Powere

Priceh

Priceh

Percentage of Sectori,k

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 86.6 76.7 63.9 66.0 77.4 78.2 78.0 82.1 80.8 80.4 79.7 77.8 77.5 67.3 65.2 65.8 65.8

NA NA NA NA .37 .96 2.56 3.95 2.93 2.71 4.45 5.24 4.02 5.89 6.53 8.56 7.87 7.68 9.65 5.33 5.49 5.13 3.88 4.64 5.62

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 68.8 35.2 24.5 19.8 20.8 22.7 22.1 23.6 24.0 23.4 22.2 20.4 18.8 18.0 16.3 16.2 16.6 15.9

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.39 3.98 5.54 6.60 5.10 6.19 7.16 9.14 8.72 8.50 11.75 8.13 6.25 7.48 8.04 9.76 NA

NA NA NA NA .29 .77 2.27 3.55 2.38 2.02 4.38 4.61 e 3.68 5.57 6.11 8.47 7.11 7.31 9.26 4.93 5.27 4.89 3.54 4.49 5.19

NA NA NA NA NA 96.1 96.9 94.0 76.8 71.4 50.5 40.2 83.9 91.2 89.8 91.3 93.4 92.2 101.1 101.1 100.8 101.2 95.5 94.9 94.6

8.15 7.81 7.85 8.03 8.13 8.52 8.49 8.46 8.43 7.79 7.39 7.23 7.91

70.8 71.0 69.9 64.8 61.2 57.9 56.9 55.6 55.8 59.5 63.8 67.6 65.7

4.90 4.74 4.46 3.96 3.58 3.76 3.74 3.79 3.65 3.54 3.28 3.48 3.93

14.8 15.2 15.4 14.6 15.1 14.6 14.6 14.3 14.5 14.7 14.8 14.9 14.8

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

4.31 5.02 3.71 3.24 3.28 3.25 3.23 3.23 3.20 3.04 2.78 2.72 3.38

93.6 93.7 94.4 95.6 95.5 94.9 94.9 94.7 94.4 94.6 94.8 94.2 94.6

96.0 95.8 95.6 95.6 95.4 95.7 95.9 95.8 96.0 95.9 96.0 96.0 95.8

6.75 6.86 7.08 6.98 7.32 7.72 8.14 8.30 8.27 7.96 7.67 7.27 7.28

70.4 69.4 66.7 65.0 60.2 58.0 56.9 54.7 56.2 59.9 63.5 68.2 64.8

3.62 3.64 3.05 3.01 2.90 2.89 3.58 3.59 3.74 3.88 3.87 4.32 3.52

15.2 15.3 15.3 14.5 14.6 14.6 14.2 14.6 14.6 14.4 14.5 14.7 14.7

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

R 3.18

R 95.1 R 95.2

9.38 10.06 9.90 11.35 13.18 15.96 R 17.74 18.09 17.01 11.28

96.0 95.9 95.7 95.3 95.6 94.5 95.8 95.7 96.1 95.7

7.59 7.90 7.68 8.08 8.30 8.76 8.90 8.73 8.48 8.02

70.5 69.1 67.9 65.1 61.0 58.1 56.9 55.6 56.2 64.9

R 4.90 R 4.60 R 3.98

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

R 4.33

4.17 4.08 4.10 3.96 3.83 3.89 4.19

15.0 15.0 14.9 14.5 13.8 14.4 14.5 14.2 13.6 14.4

10.00 10.48

95.8 95.6

7.19 8.07

64.7 66.1

3.34 4.10

14.8 14.8

NA NA

2.85 3.54

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.75 3.03 2.78 4.62 5.72 4.12 5.85 6.65 8.67 8.61 8.16 9.18 6.48 6.18 5.63 4.73 4.88 5.71

NA NA NA NA 1.09 1.71 3.68 6.12 5.80 6.06 7.76 9.63 7.89 9.63 10.75 12.70 13.73 13.08 13.89 12.14 11.39 11.03 10.65 10.32 10.97

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

4.48 4.57 4.35 3.93 4.25 4.44 4.65 4.59 4.56 4.00 3.69 3.75 4.26

2016 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

2017 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. 9-Month Average ..... 2016 9-Month Average ..... 2015 9-Month Average .....

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

Transportation Vehicle Fuelj Priceh

Priceh

1950 Average 1955 Average 1960 Average 1965 Average 1970 Average 1975 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

Industriald Percentage of Sectori

Percentage of Sectori

Priceh

Percentage of Sectori

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 99.2 99.0 92.6 92.4 97.9 97.5 97.7 98.1 98.1 98.0 97.5 97.4 97.4 96.3 95.8 95.7 95.5

NA NA NA NA .77 1.35 3.39 5.50 4.83 5.05 6.59 8.43 6.63 8.40 9.43 11.34 12.00 11.34 12.23 10.06 9.47 8.91 8.10 8.08 8.90

9.50 9.08 9.28 10.43 12.73 15.07 16.28 16.88 16.40 12.60 10.02 9.27 10.38

95.7 95.6 95.4 95.4 95.4 95.5 95.7 95.4 95.8 95.5 96.0 96.0 95.6

3.39 3.48 3.49 3.22 3.44 3.84 4.42 4.33 4.60 4.19 3.90 3.96 3.71

8.28 8.36 9.19 9.65 11.62 14.43 16.55 17.60 16.78 13.74 10.77 9.06 10.05

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

4.21 4.13 3.83 4.17 4.39 4.78 4.67 R 4.57 4.55 4.22

NA NA

3.59 4.43

a Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. b See Note 8, "Natural Gas Prices," at end of section. c Commercial sector, including commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP)

and commercial electricity-only plants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. d Industrial sector, including industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. e The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. Through 2001, data are for electric utilities only; beginning in 2002, data also include independent power producers. f See "Natural Gas Wellhead Price" in Glossary. g See "Citygate" in Glossary. h Includes taxes. i The percentage of the sector’s consumption in Table 4.3 for which price data are available. For details on how the percentages are derived, see Table 9.10 sources at end of section.

2.83 2.33 2.52 2.49 2.77 3.07 3.07 R 3.18 R 3.23 3.14 R 4.15 2.99 3.74 3.52 R 3.50 R 3.61 3.41 3.32 3.27 3.31 3.52

95.7

R 95.9 R 96.0 R 95.7 R 95.4 R 95.6 R 95.7 R 95.4 R 95.5 R 95.4 R 95.6 R 81.7 R 83.2 R 75.0 R 80.8 R 81.1 R 80.0 R 77.6 R 76.6

78.4 79.0 95.6 94.6

j Much of the natural gas delivered for vehicle fuel represents deliveries to fueling stations that are used primarily or exclusively by fleet vehicles. Thus, the prices are often those associated with the cost of gas in the operation of fleet vehicles. k Percentages exceed 100% when reported natural gas receipts are greater than reported natural gas consumption—this can occur when combined-heat-and-power plants report fuel receipts related to non-electric generating activities. R=Revised. NA=Not available. E=Estimate. Notes: • Prices are for natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. • Prices are intended to include all taxes. See Note 8, "Natural Gas Prices," at end of section. • Wellhead annual and year-to-date prices are simple averages of the monthly prices; all other annual and year-to-date prices are volume-weighted averages of the monthly prices. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1976. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

147

Energy Prices Note 1. Crude Oil Refinery Acquisition Costs. Beginning with January 1981, refiner acquisition costs of crude oil are from data collected on U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Form EIA-14, “Refiners’ Monthly Cost Report.” Those costs were previously published from data collected on Economic Regulatory Administration (ERA) Form ERA-49, “Domestic Crude Oil Entitlements Program Refiners Monthly Report.” Form ERA-49 was discontinued with the decontrol of crude oil on January 28, 1981. Crude oil purchases and costs are defined for Form EIA-14 in accordance with conventions used for Form ERA-49. The respondents for the two forms are also essentially the same. However, due to possible different interpretations of the filing requirements and a different method for handling prior period adjustments, care must be taken when comparing the data collected on the two forms. The refiner acquisition cost of crude oil is the average price paid by refiners for crude oil booked into their refineries in accordance with accounting procedures generally accepted and consistently and historically applied by the refiners concerned. Domestic crude oil is that oil produced in the United States or from the outer continental shelf as defined in 43 USC Section 1331. Imported crude oil is either that oil reported on Form ERA-51, “Transfer Pricing Report,” or any crude oil that is not domestic oil. The composite cost is the weighted average of domestic and imported crude oil costs. Crude oil costs and volumes reported on Form ERA-49 excluded unfinished oils but included the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Crude oil costs and volumes reported on Federal Energy Administration (FEA) Form FEA-P110M-1, “Refiners’ Monthly Cost Allocation Report,” included unfinished oils but excluded SPR. Imported averages derived from Form ERA-49 exclude oil purchased for SPR, whereas the composite averages derived from Form ERA-49 include SPR. None of the prices derived from Form EIA-14 include either unfinished oils or SPR.

Note 4. Crude Oil Landed Costs. The landed cost of imported crude oil from selected countries does not represent the total cost of all imported crude. Prior to April 1975, imported crude costs to U.S. company-owned refineries in the Caribbean were not included in the landed cost, and costs of crude oil from countries that export only small amounts to the United States were also excluded. Beginning in April 1975, however, coverage was expanded to include U.S. company-owned refineries in the Caribbean. Landed costs do not include supplemental fees. Note 5. Motor Gasoline Prices. Several different series of motor gasoline prices are published in this section. U.S. city average retail prices of motor gasoline by grade are calculated monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics during the development of the Consumer Price Index (CPI). These prices include all federal, state, and local taxes paid at the time of sale. Prior to 1977, prices were collected in 56 urban areas. From 1978 forward, prices are collected from a new sample of service stations in 85 urban areas selected to represent all urban consumers—about 80 percent of the total U.S. population. The service stations are selected initially, and on a replacement basis, in such a way that they represent the purchasing habits of the CPI population. Service stations in the current sample include those providing all types of service (i.e., full-, mini-, and self-serve). Regular motor gasoline prices by area type are determined by EIA in a weekly survey of retail motor gasoline outlets (Form EIA-878, “Motor Gasoline Price Survey”). Prices include all federal, state, and local taxes paid at the time of sale. A representative sample of outlets by geographic area and size is randomly selected from a sampling frame of approximately 115,000 retail motor gasoline outlets. Monthly and annual prices are simple averages of weighted weekly estimates from "Weekly U.S. Retail Gasoline Prices, Regular Grade." For more information on the survey methodology, see EIA, Weekly Petroleum Status Report, Appendix B, “Weekly Petroleum Price Surveys” section.

Note 2. Crude Oil Domestic First Purchase Prices. The average domestic first purchase price represents the average price at which all domestic crude oil is purchased. Crude oil domestic first purchase prices were derived as follows: for 1949–1973, weighted average domestic first purchase values as reported by state agencies and calculated by the Bureau of Mines; for 1974 and 1975, weighted averages of a sample survey of major first purchasers’ purchases; for 1976 forward, weighted averages of all first purchasers’ purchases. The data series was previously called “Actual Domestic Wellhead Price.”

Refiner prices of finished motor gasoline for resale and to end users are determined by EIA in a monthly survey of refiners and gas plant operators (Form EIA-782A). The prices do not include any federal, state, or local taxes paid at the time of sale. Estimates of prices prior to January 1983 are based on Form FEA-P302-M-1/EIA-460, “Petroleum Industry Monthly Report for Product Prices,” and also exclude all federal, state, or local taxes paid at the time of sale. Sales for resale are those made to purchasers who are other-than-ultimate consumers. Sales to end users are sales made directly to the consumer of the product, including bulk consumers (such as agriculture, industry, and utilities) and residential and commercial consumers.

Note 3. Crude Oil F.O.B. Costs. F.O.B. literally means “Free on Board.” It denotes a transaction whereby the seller makes the product available with an agreement on a given port at a given price; it is the responsibility of the buyer to arrange for the transportation and insurance.

Note 6. Historical Petroleum Prices. Starting in January 1983, Form EIA-782, “Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report,” replaced 10 previous surveys. Every attempt was made to continue the most important price series. However, prices published through December 1982 and those

148

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

published since January 1983 do not necessarily form continuous data series due to changes in survey forms, definitions, instructions, populations, samples, processing systems, and statistical procedures. To provide historical data, continuous series were generated for annual data 1978–1982 and for monthly data 1981 and 1982 by estimating the prices that would have been published had Form EIA-782 survey and system been in operation at that time. This form of estimation was performed after detailed adjustment was made for product and sales type matching and for discontinuity due to other factors. An important difference between the previous and present prices is the distinction between wholesale and resale and between retail and end user. The resale category continues to include sales among resellers. However, sales to bulk consumers, such as utility, industrial, and commercial accounts previously included in the wholesale category, are now counted as made to end users. The end-user category continues to include retail sales through company-owned and operated outlets but also includes sales to the bulk consumers such as agriculture, industry, and electric utilities. Additional information may be found in “Estimated Historic Time Series for the EIA-782,” a feature article by Paula Weir, printed in the December 1983 [3] Petroleum Marketing Monthly, published by EIA. Note 7. Electricity Retail Prices. Average annual retail prices of electricity have the following plant coverage: Through 1979, annual data are for Classes A and B privately owned electric utilities only. For 1980–1982, annual data are for selected Class A utilities whose electric operating revenues were $100 million or more during the previous year. For 1983, annual data are for a selected sample of electric utilities. Beginning in 1984, data are for a census of electric utilities. Beginning in 1996, annual data also include energy service providers selling to retail customers. Average monthly retail prices of electricity have the following plant coverage: Through 1985, monthly data are derived from selected privately owned electric utilities and, therefore, are not national averages. Beginning in 1986, monthly data are based on a sample of publicly and privately owned electric utilities. Beginning in 1996, monthly data also include energy service providers selling to retail customers. Preliminary monthly data are from Form EIA-861M (formerly Form EIA-826), "Monthly Electric Power Industry Report," which is a monthly collection of data from approximately 450 of the largest publicly and privately owned electric utilities as well as a census of energy service providers with retail sales in deregulated states; a model is then applied to the collected data to estimate for the entire universe of U.S. electric utilities. Preliminary annual data are the sum of the monthly revenues divided by the sum of the monthly sales. When final annual data become available each year from Form EIA-861, "Annual Electric Power Industry Report," their ratios to the

preliminary Form EIA-861M values are used to derive adjusted final monthly values. Note 8. Natural Gas Prices. Natural gas prices are intended to include all taxes. Instructions on the data collection forms specifically direct that all federal, state, and local taxes, surcharges, and/or adjustments billed to consumers are to be included. However, sales and other taxes itemized on more than 3,000 consumers’ bills are sometimes excluded by the reporting utilities. Deliveredto-consumers prices for 1987 forward represent natural gas delivered and sold to residential, commercial, industrial, vehicle fuel, and electric power consumers. They do not include the price of natural gas delivered on behalf of third parties to residential, commercial, industrial, and vehicle fuel customers except for certain states in the residential and commercial sectors for 2002 forward. Volumes of natural gas delivered on behalf of third parties are included in the consumption data shown in Table 4.3. Additional information is available in EIA, Natural Gas Monthly, Appendix C.

Table 9.1 Sources Domestic First Purchase Price 1949–1976: U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), Bureau of Mines (BOM), Minerals Yearbook, “Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products” chapter. 1977: Federal Energy Administration, based on Form FEAP124, “Domestic Crude Oil Purchaser’s Monthly Report.” 1978–2009: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Petroleum Marketing Annual 2009, Table 1. 2010 forward: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, December 2017, Table 1. F.O.B. and Landed Cost of Imports October 1973–September 1977: Federal Energy Administration, Form FEA-F701-M-0, “Transfer Pricing Report.” October–December 1977: EIA, Form FEA-F701-M-0, “Transfer Pricing Report.” 1978–2009: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Annual 2009, Table 1. 2010 forward: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, December 2017, Table 1. Refiner Acquisition Cost 1968–1973: EIA estimates. The cost of domestic crude oil was derived by adding estimated transportation costs to the reported average domestic first purchase price. The cost of imported crude oil was derived by adding an estimated ocean transport cost based on the published "Average Freight Rate Assessment" to the average "Free Alongside Ship" value published by the U.S.Census Bureau. 1974–1976: DOI, BOM, Minerals Yearbook, “Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products” chapter. 1977: January–September, FEA, based on Form FEA-P110M-1, “Refiners’ Monthly Cost Allocation Report.” 1977: October–December, EIA, based on Form FEA-P110M-1, “Refiners’ Monthly Cost Allocation Report.”

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

149

1978–2009: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Annual 2009, Table 1. 2010 forward: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, December 2017, Table 1.

Table 9.2 Sources October 1973–September 1977: Federal Energy Administration, Form FEA-F701-M-0, “Transfer Pricing Report.” October 1977–December 1977: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form FEA-F701-M-0, “Transfer Pricing Report.” 1978–2009: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Annual 2009, Table 21. 2010 forward: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, December 2017, Table 21.

Table 9.9 Sources 1973–September 1977: Federal Power Commission, Form FPC-423, “Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants.” October 1977–December 1977: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Form FERC-423, “Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants.” 1978 and 1979: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form FERC-423, “Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants.” 1980–1989: EIA, Electric Power Monthly, May issues. 1990–2000: EIA, Electric Power Monthly, March 2003, Table 26. 2001–2007: EIA, Electric Power Monthly, October 2008, Table 4.1; Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Form FERC-423, “Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants”; and EIA, Form EIA-423, “Monthly Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants Report.” 2008 forward: EIA, Electric Power Monthly, November 2017, Table 4.1; and Form EIA-923, ”Power Plant Operations Report.”

Table 9.10 Sources All Prices Except Vehicle Fuel and Electric Power 1949–2014: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Natural Gas Annual (NGA), annual reports and unpublished revisions. 2015 forward: EIA, Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), November 2017, Table 3. Vehicle Fuel Price 1989–2015: EIA, NGA, annual reports. Electric Power Sector Price 1967–1972: EIA, NGA, annual reports.

150

1973–1998: EIA, NGA 2000, Table 96. 1999–2002: EIA, NGM, October 2004, Table 4.  2003–2007: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Form FERC-423, “Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants,” and EIA, Form EIA-423 “Monthly Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants Report.” 2008 forward: Form EIA-923, ”Power Plant Operations Report.” Percentage of Residential Sector 1989–2013: EIA, Form EIA-176, “Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition.” Calculated as the total amount of natural gas delivered to residential consumers minus the amount delivered for the account of others, and then divided by the total amount delivered to residential consumers. 2014 forward: EIA, Form EIA-857, “Monthly Report of Natural Gas Purchases and Deliveries to Consumers.” Percentage of Commercial Sector 1987–2014: EIA, NGA, annual reports. Calculated as the total amount of natural gas delivered to commercial consumers minus the amount delivered for the account of others, and then divided by the total amount delivered to commercial consumers. 2015 forward: EIA, NGM, November 2017, Table 3. Percentage of Industrial Sector 1982–2014: EIA, NGA, annual reports. Calculated as the total amount of natural gas delivered to industrial consumers minus the amount delivered for the account of others, and then divided by the total amount delivered to industrial consumers. 2015 forward: EIA, NGM, November 2017, Table 3. Percentage of Electric Power Sector 1973–2001: Calculated by EIA as the quantity of natural gas receipts by electric utilities reported on Form FERC-423, "Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants" (and predecessor forms) divided by the quantity of natural gas consumed by the electric power sector (for 1973 –1988, see Monthly Energy Review (MER), Table 7.3b; for 1989–2001, see MER, Table 7.4b). 2002–2007: Calculated by EIA as the quantity of natural gas receipts by electric utilities and independent power producers reported on Form FERC-423, "Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants," and EIA-423, “Monthly Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants Report,” divided by the quantity of natural gas consumed by the electric power sector (see MER, Table 7.4b). 2008 forward: Calculated by EIA as the quantity of natural gas receipts by electric utilities and independent power producers reported on Form EIA-923, “Power Plant Operations Report,” divided by the quantity of natural gas consumed by the electric power sector (see MER, Table 7.4b).

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

10. Renewable Energy

Figure 10.1 Renewable Energy Consumption (Quadrillion Btu) Major Sources, 1949–2016 6 Biomassa

4

2

Hydroelectric Powerb Winda Solara

0 1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

By Source, 2016

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

By Sector, 2016 6

3

5.5

2.5 2.3 2.1

2.0

2

4

2.3

2

1

1.4

0.6

0.5 0.6

0.2

0.2

0

0 Hydroelectric Powerb

Biofuelsa

Wind a Wood a Solara Waste a Geo- a thermal

Residential Commercial

Industrial Transportation

Electric Power

Compared With Other Resources, 1949–2016 100 80

Fossil Fuels

60 40 20 Nuclear Electric Power

Renewable Energy

0 1950 a b

152

1955

1960

See Table 10.1 for definition. Conventional hydroelectric power.

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#renewable. Sources: Tables 1.3 and 10.1–10.2c.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 10.1 Renewable Energy Production and Consumption by Source (Trillion Btu) Productiona Biomass

Consumption

Biofuelsb

Totalc

Total Renewable Energyd

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 93 111 198 233 254 308 401 486 561 716 970 1,374 1,570 1,868 2,029 1,929 1,981 2,103

1,562 1,424 1,320 1,335 1,431 1,499 2,475 3,016 2,735 3,099 3,006 2,624 2,705 2,805 2,996 3,101 3,212 3,472 3,868 3,953 4,316 4,501 4,406 4,647 4,861

2,978 2,784 2,928 3,396 4,070 4,687 5,428 6,084 6,040 6,557 6,102 5,162 5,731 5,942 6,063 6,221 6,586 6,510 7,191 7,620 8,077 9,095 8,743 9,250 9,607

1,415 1,360 1,608 2,059 2,634 3,155 2,900 2,970 3,046 3,205 2,811 2,242 2,689 2,793 2,688 2,703 2,869 2,446 2,511 2,669 2,539 3,103 2,629 2,562 2,467

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

178 162 180 172 183 184 187 185 175 183 182 190 2,161

403 364 395 381 398 397 411 408 387 395 396 414 4,751

808 753 817 814 807 773 798 772 723 755 807 862 9,487

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

185 176 190 175 189 189 196 198 187 194 192 203 2,275

R 404 R 385 R 405 R 376

R 855 R 845 R 921 R 871 R 881 R 838 R 850 R 801 R 768 R 815 R 815 R 920

1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

399

R 400 R 410 R 416 R 393

400

R 403 R 443

Biomass Solarg

Windh

Woodi

Wastej

Biofuelsk

Total

Total Renewable Energy

NA NA (s) 2 6 34 53 97 171 152 164 164 171 173 178 181 181 186 192 200 208 212 212 214 214

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) 59 68 63 62 60 58 58 58 61 65 74 78 90 111 157 225 337

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) 29 33 57 70 105 113 142 178 264 341 546 721 923 1,168 1,340 1,601 1,728

1,562 1,424 1,320 1,335 1,429 1,497 2,474 2,687 2,216 2,370 2,262 2,006 1,995 2,002 2,121 2,137 2,099 2,089 2,059 1,931 1,981 2,010 2,010 2,170 2,242

NA NA NA NA 2 2 2 236 408 531 511 364 402 401 389 403 397 413 435 452 468 462 467 496 516

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 93 111 200 236 253 303 403 498 574 766 983 1,357 1,553 1,821 1,933 1,892 2,007 2,067

1,562 1,424 1,320 1,335 1,431 1,499 2,475 3,016 2,735 3,101 3,008 2,622 2,701 2,806 3,008 3,114 3,262 3,485 3,851 3,936 4,270 4,405 4,369 4,673 4,825

2,978 2,784 2,928 3,396 4,070 4,687 5,428 6,084 6,040 6,559 6,104 5,160 5,726 5,944 6,075 6,233 6,637 6,523 7,174 7,604 8,030 8,999 8,706 9,276 9,570

225 208 226 209 188 190 196 178 150 155 180 216 2,321

18 17 18 17 18 17 18 18 16 18 18 18 212

21 25 35 40 43 43 45 45 39 34 30 27 426

141 139 143 167 160 125 127 122 130 153 183 187 1,777

182 164 172 168 173 171 179 179 170 167 170 177 2,071

43 38 43 42 42 42 46 44 42 45 45 47 518

163 158 176 170 185 186 189 189 182 184 179 185 2,145

388 360 391 380 400 399 413 413 394 396 393 408 4,734

793 748 813 812 808 775 799 776 730 755 804 857 9,471

R 236 R 223 R 253 R 239 R 235 R 215

R 18 R 17 R 18 R 16 R 18 R 17 R 17 R 18 R 17 R 18 R 18 R 19

R 26 R 35 R 43 R 48 R 55 R 56 R 62 R 61 R 55 R 49 R 41

R 170 R 186 R 203 R 192 R 174 R 151 R 163 R 125 R 151 R 188 R 179

172

R 42 R 40

R 385 R 376 R 396 R 370

214 R 2,096

171 173 187 173 192 192 201 204 194 195 195 202 2,279

R 836 R 836 R 912 R 865 R 878 R 833 R 850 R 801 R 768 R 809 R 813 R 912

Hydroelectric Powere

Geothermalf

198 R 181 R 151 R 160 R 174 R 208 R 2,472

R 210

37 R 570

R 18 R 16 R 18 R 18 R 17 R 17 R 18 R 18

R 35 R 40 R 64 R 70 R 82 R 87 R 81 R 79

R 4,833

R 10,181

R 419 R 380 R 416 R 389 R 406 R 403 R 415 R 425

R 920 R 866

R 1,018 R 985 R 1,011 R 969 R 898 R 840

R 257 R 227 R 279 R 271 R 297 R 281 R 238 R 196

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

195 176 196 182 196 191 195 202 191 1,725

396 3,649

822 8,328

175 2,220

17 158

74 612

181 146 R 121 160 1,689

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

1,686 1,607

3,587 3,545

7,631 7,063

1,931 1,770

155 158

442 335

1,515 1,254

a For hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, wind, and biomass waste, production equals consumption. For biofuels, production equals total biomass inputs to the production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel. For wood, through 2015, production equals consumption; beginning in 2016, production equals consumption plus densified biomass exports. b Total biomass inputs to the production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel. c Wood and wood-derived fuels, biomass waste, and total biomass inputs to the production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel. d Hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, wind, and biomass. e Conventional hydroelectricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). f Geothermal electricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6), and geothermal heat pump and direct use energy. g Solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal electricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6), and solar thermal direct use energy. h Wind electricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6).

190

R 204 R 240

237

R 209

R 162 R 165

154

R 161

163 168 R 170 159 R 159 R 163 R 188 R 1,983

44 R 43 43 R 40 R 41 R 42 R 39 R 41 43 45 R 503

R 173 R 160 R 171 R 161 R 165 R 167 R 174 R 177

R 44 R 39 R 43 R 39 R 39 R 38

161 1,509 1,473 1,557

396

R 394 R 410 R 416 R 392

395

R 401 R 434

R 4,765

R 10,112

R 395 R 364 R 403 R 404 R 404 R 412 R 419

R 895 R 851 R 1,005 R 979 R 1,009 R 970 R 895 R 834

37 360

177 166 190 183 200 198 198 202 191 1,705

389 3,573

815 8,253

375 382

1,687 1,598

3,535 3,537

7,578 7,054

40

R 40

383

i Wood and wood-derived fuels. j Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). k Fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) and biodiesel consumption, plus losses and co-products from the production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: • Most data for the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors are estimates. See notes and sources for Tables 10.2a and 10.2b. • See Note, "Renewable Energy Production and Consumption," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#renewable (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • Production: Tables 10.2a–10.4 and U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63C, "Densified Biomass Fuel Report." • Consumption: Tables 10.2a–10.2c.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

153

Table 10.2a Renewable Energy Consumption: Residential and Commercial Sectors (Trillion Btu) Commercial Sectora

Residential Sector Biomass Geothermalb 1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Solarc

Biomass

Woodd

Total

Hydroelectric Powere

Geothermalb

Solarf

Windg

Woodd

Wasteh

Fuel Ethanoli,j

Total

Total

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 6 7 9 9 10 13 14 16 18 22 26 33 37 40 40 40 40

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 55 63 58 55 53 52 51 50 53 55 58 60 65 71 79 92 109

1,006 775 627 468 401 425 850 1,010 580 520 420 370 380 400 410 430 380 420 470 500 440 450 420 580 590

1,006 775 627 468 401 425 850 1,010 640 589 486 435 444 465 475 496 451 497 555 593 541 560 539 711 739

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1 1 1 1 (s) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (s) (s) (s) (s)

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3 5 8 8 9 11 12 14 14 14 15 17 19 20 20 20 20

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) (s) 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 6 7 11 19 32 41 52

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA – – – – – – – – – – – (s) (s) (s) 1 1 1

19 15 12 9 8 8 21 24 66 72 71 67 69 71 70 70 65 70 73 73 72 69 61 70 75

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 28 40 47 25 26 29 34 34 36 31 34 36 36 43 45 47 47

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4

19 15 12 9 8 8 21 24 94 113 119 92 95 101 105 105 103 103 109 112 111 115 108 120 126

19 15 12 9 8 8 21 24 98 119 128 101 105 114 120 121 120 121 130 137 142 154 161 182 199

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 40

6 7 10 11 12 13 13 13 12 11 9 8 128

37 34 37 36 37 36 37 37 36 37 36 37 440

47 44 51 51 53 52 54 54 52 52 49 49 607

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 20

3 4 5 5 6 6 6 6 5 5 4 3 57

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

7 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 81

4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 47

j2

13 12 13 13 13 13 14 13 13 13 13 13 154

18 17 20 20 21 20 21 21 20 19 18 18 232

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 40

8 10 13 R 15 16 17 17 17 15 13 11 10 161

32 30 32 31 32 31 32 32 31 32 31 32 373

43 42 48 48 51 50 52 52 49 48 45 45 573

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) R2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 20

R3 R4 R5 R6 R6 R6 R6 R6 R6 R5 R4

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 82

13 12

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 R 48

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 27

R 18 R 18 R 20 R 20 R 21 R 21 R 22

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 30

10 11 16 18 19 20 20 20 18 151

32 29 32 31 32 31 32 32 31 285

46 43 51 52 55 54 56 56 52 466

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 15

R4 R4 R6 R7

7 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 61

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 34

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 20

R 13

8 7 60

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

30 30

127 99

279 329

435 458

1 (s)

15 15

49 45

1 1

61 61

36 35

20 20

118 116

a Commercial sector, including commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. b Geothermal heat pump and direct use energy. c Distributed (small-scale) solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation in the residential sector (converted to Btu by multiplying by the fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6) and distributed solar thermal energy in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. See Table 10.5. d Wood and wood-derived fuels. e Conventional hydroelectricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). f Solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity net generation in the commercial sector (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6), both utility-scale and distributed (small-scale). See Table 10.5. g Wind electricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). h Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes

154

4

R 62

8 8

R8

4 4

R4

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 26

R 13

13 13 13 R 14 R 14 13 13 13 R 13 157 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 12 115

22

R 20 R 20

19

R 19 R 242 R 19 R 18 R 21 R 21

23 23

R 23 R 23

21 193 184 177

non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). i The fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) portion of motor fuels, such as E10, consumed by the commercial sector. j There is a discontinuity in this time series between 2014 and 2015 due to a change in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end-use sectors. Beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of fuel ethanol consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector share is smaller. R=Revised. NA=Not available. – =No data reported. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: • Data are estimates, except for commercial sector hydroelectric power, wind, and waste. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#renewable (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 10.2b Renewable Energy Consumption: Industrial and Transportation Sectors (Trillion Btu) Industrial Sectora

Transportation Sector Biomass

Hydroelectric Powerb 1950 Total 1955 Total 1960 Total 1965 Total 1970 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Geothermalc

Solard

Winde

Woodf

Wasteg

Fuel Ethanolh,i

Biomass Losses and Coproductsj

Total

Total

Fuel Ethanoli,k

Biodiesell

Totalm

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

69 38 39 33 34 32 33 33 31 55 42 33 39 43 33 32 29 16 17 18 16 17 22 33 12

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2 3 4 5 5 3 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1 1 1 2 3 4 7 9 11

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA – – – – – – – – – – – – – (s) (s) (s) 1

532 631 680 855 1,019 1,063 1,600 1,645 1,442 1,652 1,636 1,443 1,396 1,363 1,476 1,452 1,472 1,413 1,339 1,178 1,273 1,309 1,339 1,312 1,325

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 230 192 195 145 129 146 142 132 148 130 145 143 154 168 165 159 187 190

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1 1 2 1 3 3 4 6 7 10 10 12 13 17 17 17 18 14

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 42 49 86 99 108 130 168 201 227 280 369 519 603 727 756 711 709 757

532 631 680 855 1,019 1,063 1,600 1,918 1,684 1,934 1,881 1,681 1,676 1,678 1,815 1,834 1,892 1,937 2,012 1,948 2,185 2,246 2,226 2,226 2,286

602 669 719 888 1,053 1,096 1,633 1,951 1,717 1,992 1,928 1,719 1,720 1,725 1,852 1,871 1,926 1,958 2,035 1,972 2,208 2,272 2,259 2,272 2,314

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 50 60 112 135 141 168 228 286 327 442 557 786 894 1,041 1,045 1,045 1,072 1,093

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1 2 2 3 12 33 45 39 41 33 113 115 182 181

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 50 60 112 135 142 170 230 290 339 475 602 825 935 1,075 1,158 1,162 1,278 1,292

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 4

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

115 103 107 107 110 107 112 112 107 106 108 111 1,306

17 15 17 16 15 15 16 15 15 17 16 17 190

i1

65 59 65 61 65 65 67 66 63 66 65 68 776

199 178 190 186 192 189 196 195 186 190 191 198 2,290

201 180 193 189 195 192 199 197 189 193 193 201 2,321

i 88

1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 18

83 92 88 97 94 97 98 94 94 92 93 1,109

6 11 13 15 18 21 18 20 20 17 14 17 191

94 95 107 105 116 117 118 120 116 114 110 113 1,325

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 4

1 1

R 112 R 105 R 107 R 101

R 15

2 2 2 2 2 2 R2 1 1 R 19

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 18

66 63 67 61 66 66 69 70 66 68 67 71 801

R 195 R 184 R 192 R 179 R 189 R 188 R 194

88 90 96 89 97 97 99 101 94 96 95 100 1,142

13 15 17 18 23 21 27 28 26 25 26 26 266

102 107 116 108 122 121 128 131 124 123 124 127 1,433

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 3

1 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 19

70 63 70 64 69 66 68 70 66 606

188 R 195 R 200 184 1,719

188 1,751

89 85 95 93 99 100 98 101 95 854

13 13 19 21 25 25 26 25 22 189

104 100 117 115 127 128 126 128 121 1,066

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

9 9

3 3

15 11

595 577

1,699 1,711

1,727 1,734

852 830

189 143

1,059 989

R2

R 129 R 1,304

15 16 R 15 R 15 R 13 R 14 R 14 R 13 R 15 15 16 R 174

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

R 113 R 105 R 109 R 105 R 106 R 108 R 113 R 115

R 15 R 14 R 15 R 14 R 13 R 12 R 13 R 13

104 978

12 122

1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 14

(s) (s)

962 981

129 140

13 13

106 107

R 110 R 110

103

R 105

108

a Industrial sector, including industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. b Conventional hydroelectricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). c Geothermal heat pump and direct use energy. d Solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity net generation in the industrial sector (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6), both utility-scale and distributed (small-scale). See Table 10.5. e Wind electricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). f Wood and wood-derived fuels. g Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). h The fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) portion of motor fuels, such as E10, consumed by the industrial sector. i There is a discontinuity in this time series between 2014 and 2015 due to a change in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end-use sectors. Beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of fuel ethanol consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector share

195

R 183 R 189

192

198

R 186 R 195 R 182

193

R 191 R 197

198

R 186 R 192

194

R 217 R 2,297

R 220 R 2,333

R 201 R 183 R 195

R 186 R 199

184

R 190

203

188

R 194

192

R 199 R 203

is smaller. j Losses and co-products from the production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel. Does not include natural gas, electricity, and other non-biomass energy used in the production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel—these are included in the industrial sector consumption statistics for the appropriate energy source. k The fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) portion of motor fuels, such as E10 and E85, consumed by the transportation sector. l Although there is biodiesel use in other sectors, all biodiesel consumption is assigned to the transportation sector. m Beginning in 2009, includes imports minus stock change of other renewable diesel fuel and other renewable fuels. See "Renewable Diesel Fuel (Other)" and "Renewable Fuels (Other)" in Glossary. R=Revised. NA=Not available. – =No data reported. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: • Data are estimates, except for industrial sector hydroelectric power in 1949–1978 and 1989 forward, and wind. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#renewable (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

155

Table 10.2c Renewable Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector (Trillion Btu) Hydroelectric Powera

Biomass Geothermalb

Solarc

Windd

Woode

Wastef

Total

Total

1950 Total .................... 1955 Total .................... 1960 Total .................... 1965 Total .................... 1970 Total .................... 1975 Total .................... 1980 Total .................... 1985 Total .................... 1990 Totalg .................. 1995 Total .................... 2000 Total .................... 2001 Total .................... 2002 Total .................... 2003 Total .................... 2004 Total .................... 2005 Total .................... 2006 Total .................... 2007 Total .................... 2008 Total .................... 2009 Total .................... 2010 Total .................... 2011 Total .................... 2012 Total .................... 2013 Total .................... 2014 Total ....................

1,346 1,322 1,569 2,026 2,600 3,122 2,867 2,937 3,014 3,149 2,768 2,209 2,650 2,749 2,655 2,670 2,839 2,430 2,494 2,650 2,521 3,085 2,606 2,529 2,454

NA NA (s) 2 6 34 53 97 161 138 144 142 147 146 148 147 145 145 146 146 148 149 148 151 151

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) 4 5 5 6 6 5 6 6 5 6 9 9 12 17 40 83 165

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) 29 33 57 70 105 113 142 178 264 341 546 721 923 1,167 1,339 1,600 1,726

5 3 2 3 1 (s) 3 8 129 125 134 126 150 167 165 185 182 186 177 180 196 182 190 207 251

NA NA NA NA 2 2 2 7 188 296 318 211 230 230 223 221 231 237 258 261 264 255 262 262 279

5 3 2 3 4 2 4 14 317 422 453 337 380 397 388 406 412 423 435 441 459 437 453 470 530

1,351 1,325 1,571 2,031 2,609 3,158 2,925 3,049 3,524 3,747 3,427 2,763 3,288 3,411 3,339 3,406 3,665 3,345 3,630 3,967 4,064 4,855 4,586 4,833 5,026

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

224 207 225 208 186 189 195 177 149 154 179 214 2,308

13 12 13 12 13 12 13 13 11 12 12 13 148

11 14 19 22 23 23 24 25 20 17 16 14 228

141 139 143 166 160 125 127 122 130 152 183 187 1,776

22 21 21 18 18 21 22 23 20 17 19 21 244

23 20 22 22 23 23 26 25 23 24 25 25 281

45 41 43 40 41 44 48 48 43 41 44 47 525

433 412 443 448 423 393 407 384 354 378 434 476 4,985

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

R 235 R 222 R 251 R 238 R 234 R 213

R 12 R 11 R 12 R 11 R 12 R 12 R 12 R 12 R 12 R 12 R 13 R 13

R 13 R 20 R 24 R 26 R 31 R 32 R 36

R 170 R 186 R 202 R 192 R 174 R 150 R 163 R 125 R 151 R 188 R 179 R 213

21

R 23 R 22 R 24 R 24

R 44

R 475 R 482 R 533 R 506 R 491 R 448 R 451 R 399 R 388 R 426 R 432 R 501

15 16

R 18

197 180 R 150 R 159 R 173 R 207 R 2,459

R 146

R 328

R 2,094

20 21 R 19 R 16 R 18 R 21 R 224

20

R 190 R 204 R 240

R 21 R 19 R 22

36

R 33

29 25

R 22

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

R 256 R 225 R 278 R 269 R 296 R 279 R 236 R 195

R 13 R 11 R 13 R 13 R 12 R 12 R 13 R 13

R 23 R 40 R 43 R 52 R 57 R 50 R 49

174 2,208

12 111

47 381

181 146 R 121 160 1,688

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

1,920 1,760

108 111

251 180

1,514 1,253

a Conventional hydroelectricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). b Geothermal electricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). c Solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal electricity net generation in the electric power sector (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). See Table 10.5. d Wind electricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). e Wood and wood-derived fuels. f Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and

156

R 20 R 19

237

R 209

R 281

43 43 R 39 40 R 41 R 44 R 45 41 R 37 R 42 46 R 505

R 24

R 45

24

R 23

24

R 24 R 22 R 22 R 24

25

19 184

22 24 R 21 R 22 23 23 23 21 204

170 186

210 207

18

R 20 R 21 R 22 R 22

R 5,531

R 43 R 46 R 46

R 523 R 504 R 616 R 602 R 610 R 573 R 491 R 423

41 388

433 4,777

380 393

4,173 3,697

41

R 46 R 40

42

tire-derived fuels). g Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities and independent power producers. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: • The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#renewable (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: Tables 7.2b, 7.4b, and A6.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 10.3 Fuel Ethanol Overview Traded

1981 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Feedstocka

Losses and Coproductsb

Denaturantc

TBtu

TBtu

Mbbl

Net Stock Importse Stocksd,f Changed,g

Productiond Mbbl

MMgal

TBtu

Mbbl

Mbbl

Mbbl

Consumption Minus Denaturanth

Consumptiond Mbbl

MMgal

TBtu

TBtu

.................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. ..................

13 93 111 198 233 253 307 400 482 550 683 907 1,286 1,503 1,823 1,904 1,801 1,805 1,938

6 42 49 86 99 108 130 168 201 227 280 368 518 602 726 754 709 707 755

40 294 356 647 773 841 1,019 1,335 1,621 1,859 2,326 3,105 4,433 5,688 6,506 6,649 6,264 6,181 6,476

1,978 14,693 17,802 32,325 38,627 42,028 50,956 66,772 81,058 92,961 116,294 155,263 221,637 260,424 316,617 331,646 314,714 316,493 340,781

83 617 748 1,358 1,622 1,765 2,140 2,804 3,404 3,904 4,884 6,521 9,309 10,938 13,298 13,929 13,218 13,293 14,313

7 52 63 115 138 150 182 238 289 331 414 553 790 928 1,127 1,181 1,120 1,126 1,212

NA NA NA 387 116 315 306 292 3,542 3,234 17,408 10,457 12,610 4,720 -9,115 -24,365 -5,891 -5,761 -18,371

NA NA NA 2,186 3,400 4,298 6,200 5,978 6,002 5,563 8,760 10,535 14,226 16,594 17,941 18,238 20,350 16,424 18,739

NA NA NA -207 -624 898 1,902 -222 24 -439 3,197 1,775 3,691 2,368 1,347 297 2,112 -3,926 2,315

1,978 14,693 17,802 32,919 39,367 41,445 49,360 67,286 84,576 96,634 130,505 163,945 230,556 262,776 306,155 306,984 306,711 314,658 320,095

83 617 748 1,383 1,653 1,741 2,073 2,826 3,552 4,059 5,481 6,886 9,683 11,037 12,858 12,893 12,882 13,216 13,444

7 52 63 117 140 148 176 240 301 344 465 584 821 936 1,090 1,093 1,092 1,120 1,139

7 51 62 114 137 144 171 233 293 335 453 569 800 910 1,061 1,065 1,064 1,092 1,111

2015 January .............. February ............ March ................. April ................... May .................... June ................... July .................... August ............... September ......... October .............. November .......... December .......... Total ..................

169 152 167 158 168 168 172 169 162 169 168 176 1,998

65 59 65 61 65 65 66 65 63 66 65 68 774

589 534 567 527 545 528 539 524 519 560 580 624 6,636

29,770 26,814 29,485 27,910 29,666 29,684 30,249 29,762 28,571 29,886 29,675 31,081 352,553

1,250 1,126 1,238 1,172 1,246 1,247 1,270 1,250 1,200 1,255 1,246 1,305 14,807

106 95 105 99 106 106 108 106 102 106 106 111 1,254

-1,633 -1,623 -2,050 -1,504 -1,489 -1,490 -1,675 -905 -987 -1,579 -929 -1,767 -17,632

20,647 21,057 20,878 20,854 20,154 20,128 19,701 19,390 18,944 18,984 20,099 21,596 21,596

1,908 410 -179 -24 -700 -26 -427 -311 -446 40 1,115 1,497 2,857

26,229 24,781 27,614 26,430 28,877 28,220 29,001 29,168 28,030 28,267 27,631 27,817 332,064

1,102 1,041 1,160 1,110 1,213 1,185 1,218 1,225 1,177 1,187 1,161 1,168 13,947

93 88 98 94 103 100 103 104 100 101 98 99 1,181

91 86 96 92 100 98 101 101 97 98 96 96 1,153

2016 January .............. February ............ March ................. April ................... May .................... June ................... July .................... August ............... September ......... October .............. November .......... December .......... Total ..................

172 162 175 159 171 172 178 180 170 175 173 185 2,072

66 63 67 61 66 66 68 69 65 67 67 71 798

617 586 601 557 586 567 570 564 544 563 559 606 6,920

30,452 28,810 30,957 28,208 30,346 30,443 31,469 31,856 30,048 31,006 30,706 32,680 366,981

1,279 1,210 1,300 1,185 1,275 1,279 1,322 1,338 1,262 1,302 1,290 1,373 15,413

108 103 110 100 108 108 112 113 107 110 109 116 1,306

-2,294 -2,024 -2,612 -2,919 -1,627 -1,045 -1,641 -1,924 -2,315 -2,946 -3,074 -2,583 -27,002

23,347 23,171 22,730 21,336 20,962 21,284 21,381 21,198 20,713 20,113 19,463 19,758 19,758

1,751 -176 -441 -1,394 -374 322 97 -183 -485 -600 -650 295 -1,838

26,407 26,962 28,786 26,683 29,093 29,076 29,731 30,115 28,218 28,660 28,282 29,802 341,817

1,109 1,132 1,209 1,121 1,222 1,221 1,249 1,265 1,185 1,204 1,188 1,252 14,356

94 96 102 95 104 103 106 107 100 102 101 106 1,216

92 93 100 93 101 101 103 105 98 100 98 104 1,187

2017 January .............. February ............ March ................. April ................... May .................... June ................... July .................... August ............... September ......... 9-Month Total ...

183 164 181 166 179 173 176 183 172 1,576

70 63 69 64 68 66 67 70 66 604

593 541 597 540 558 539 551 569 531 5,019

32,577 29,052 32,161 29,500 31,700 30,667 31,221 32,447 30,581 279,906

1,368 1,220 1,351 1,239 1,331 1,288 1,311 1,363 1,284 11,756

116 103 114 105 113 109 111 115 109 996

-2,901 -3,349 -3,044 -1,981 -2,809 -1,958 -2,512 -2,199 -1,809 -22,564

22,624 23,015 23,759 23,593 22,909 21,763 21,147 21,197 21,485 21,485

i 3,093

391 744 -166 -684 -1,146 -616 50 288 1,954

26,583 25,312 28,373 27,685 29,575 29,855 29,325 30,198 28,484 255,388

1,116 1,063 1,192 1,163 1,242 1,254 1,232 1,268 1,196 10,726

95 90 101 99 105 106 104 107 101 909

92 88 99 96 103 104 102 105 99 888

2016 9-Month Total ... 2015 9-Month Total ...

1,539 1,485

593 575

5,192 4,872

272,589 261,911

11,449 11,000

970 932

-18,398 -13,357

20,713 18,944

-883 205

255,074 248,349

10,713 10,431

908 884

886 863

a Total corn and other biomass inputs to the production of undenatured ethanol used for fuel ethanol. b Losses and co-products from the production of fuel ethanol. Does not include natural gas, electricity, and other non-biomass energy used in the production of fuel ethanol—these are included in the industrial sector consumption statistics for the appropriate energy source. c The amount of denaturant in fuel ethanol produced. d Includes denaturant. e Through 2009, data are for fuel ethanol imports only; data for fuel ethanol exports are not available. Beginning in 2010, data are for fuel ethanol imports minus fuel ethanol (including industrial alcohol) exports. f Stocks are at end of period. g A negative value indicates a decrease in stocks and a positive value indicates an increase. h Consumption of fuel ethanol minus denaturant. Data for fuel ethanol minus denaturant are used to develop data for "Renewable Energy/Biomass" in Tables 10.1–10.2b, as well as in Sections 1 and 2.

i Derived from the preliminary 2016 stocks value (19,531 thousand barrels), not the final 2016 value (19,758 thousand barrels) that is shown under "Stocks." NA=Not available. Notes: • Mbbl = thousand barrels. MMgal = million U.S. gallons. TBtu = trillion Btu. • Fuel ethanol data in thousand barrels are converted to million gallons by multiplying by 0.042, and are converted to Btu by multiplying by the approximate heat content of fuel ethanol—see Table A3. • Through 1980, data are not available. For 1981–1992, data are estimates. For 1993–2008, only data for feedstock, losses and co-products, and denaturant are estimates. Beginning in 2009, only data for feedstock, and losses and co-products, are estimates. • See "Denaturant," "Ethanol," "Fuel Ethanol," and "Fuel Ethanol Minus Denaturant" in Glossary. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#renewable (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1981. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

157

Table 10.4 Biodiesel and Other Renewable Fuels Overview Biodiesel

2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Feedstocka

Losses and Coproductsb

TBtu

TBtu

Trade Production Mbbl

MMgal

TBtu

Net Stock Importsc Stocksd Changee

Imports

Exports

Mbbl

Mbbl

Mbbl

Mbbl

Other Renewable Fuelsf

Consumption

Mbbl

Mbbl

MMgal

TBtu

TBtu

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

1 1 2 4 12 32 63 88 67 44 125 128 176 165

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2

204 250 338 666 2,162 5,963 11,662 16,145 12,281 8,177 23,035 23,588 32,368 30,452

9 10 14 28 91 250 490 678 516 343 967 991 1,359 1,279

1 1 2 4 12 32 62 87 66 44 123 126 173 163

81 197 97 101 214 1,105 3,455 7,755 1,906 564 890 853 8,152 4,578

41 57 113 128 213 856 6,696 16,673 6,546 2,588 1,799 3,056 4,675 1,974

40 140 -17 -27 1 250 -3,241 -8,918 -4,640 -2,024 -908 -2,203 3,477 2,604

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 711 672 2,005 1,984 3,810 3,131

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 711 -39 h 1,028 -20 1,825 -679

244 390 322 639 2,163 6,213 8,422 7,228 g 7,663 6,192 21,099 21,406 34,020 33,735

10 16 14 27 91 261 354 304 322 260 886 899 1,429 1,417

1 2 2 3 12 33 45 39 41 33 113 115 182 181

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) (s) (s) 3 24 18

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

9 10 13 14 15 16 16 16 13 14 14 14 163

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 2

1,727 1,851 2,326 2,568 2,784 2,901 2,883 2,933 2,479 2,535 2,521 2,573 30,080

73 78 98 108 117 122 121 123 104 106 106 108 1,263

9 10 12 14 15 16 15 16 13 14 14 14 161

372 526 340 330 336 673 1,157 961 1,062 863 701 1,078 8,399

22 23 191 240 255 260 255 275 200 161 76 133 2,091

350 503 149 90 81 413 902 686 862 702 625 945 6,308

4,032 4,245 4,244 4,071 3,599 3,063 3,404 3,333 3,021 3,070 3,600 3,943 3,943

902 212 (s) -173 -471 -536 341 -71 -312 48 530 343 813

1,176 2,141 2,475 2,831 3,337 3,850 3,444 3,690 3,652 3,189 2,616 3,174 35,575

49 90 104 119 140 162 145 155 153 134 110 133 1,494

6 11 13 15 18 21 18 20 20 17 14 17 191

(s) 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 25

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

14 14 16 16 18 17 18 18 17 19 19 19 203

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 3

2,490 2,504 2,861 2,856 3,222 3,205 3,331 3,385 3,206 3,433 3,408 3,425 37,327

105 105 120 120 135 135 140 142 135 144 143 144 1,568

13 13 15 15 17 17 18 18 17 18 18 18 200

248 287 565 969 1,117 1,630 1,681 1,873 1,835 1,822 2,184 2,668 16,879

42 49 234 246 335 220 250 235 150 114 143 80 2,098

206 238 331 723 782 1,410 1,431 1,638 1,685 1,708 2,041 2,588 14,781

4,222 4,133 4,167 4,358 4,091 4,726 4,443 4,265 4,227 4,690 5,314 6,398 6,398

279 -89 34 192 -268 635 -283 -177 -38 463 624 1,083 2,455

2,416 2,831 3,159 3,388 4,272 3,980 5,045 5,201 4,929 4,678 4,825 4,929 49,653

101 119 133 142 179 167 212 218 207 196 203 207 2,085

13 15 17 18 23 21 27 28 26 25 26 26 266

1 2 3 1 2 3 2 2 4 2 3 1 25

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

12 12 15 16 18 18 19 19 19 149

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 2

2,204 2,232 2,757 3,014 3,237 3,336 3,552 3,551 3,507 27,391

93 94 116 127 136 140 149 149 147 1,150

12 12 15 16 17 18 19 19 19 147

241 549 650 681 948 1,736 1,670 1,582 205 8,262

43 57 136 283 239 226 455 387 100 1,927

198 492 514 398 709 1,510 1,215 1,195 105 6,335

6,259 6,466 6,194 5,713 4,926 5,072 5,076 5,172 4,655 4,655

i 41 207 -272 -481 -787 147 3 96 -517 -1,562

2,361 2,516 3,542 3,893 4,734 4,700 4,764 4,650 4,129 35,288

99 106 149 163 199 197 200 195 173 1,482

13 13 19 21 25 25 26 25 22 189

2 1 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 22

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

147 122

2 2

27,060 22,451

1,137 943

145 120

10,205 5,757

1,761 1,721

8,444 4,036

4,227 3,021

284 -109

35,221 26,596

1,479 1,117

189 143

19 16

a Total vegetable oil and other biomass inputs to the production of biodiesel—calculated by multiplying biodiesel production by 5.433 million Btu per barrel. See "Biodiesel Feedstock" entry in the "Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation" at the end of Appendix A. b Losses and co-products from the production of biodiesel. Does not include natural gas, electricity, and other non-biomass energy used in the production of biodiesel—these are included in the industrial sector consumption statistics for the appropriate energy source. c Net imports equal imports minus exports. d Stocks are at end of period. Includes biodiesel stocks at (or in) refineries, pipelines, and bulk terminals. Beginning in 2011, also includes stocks at biodiesel production plants. e A negative value indicates a decrease in stocks and a positive value indicates an increase. f Imports minus stock change of other renewable diesel fuel and other renewable fuels. See "Renewable Diesel Fuel (Other)" and "Renewable Fuels (Other)" in Glossary. g In 2009, because of incomplete data coverage and differing data sources, a "Balancing Item" amount of 733 thousand barrels (653 thousand barrels in January

158

2009; 80 thousand barrels in February 2009) is used to balance biodiesel supply and disposition. h Derived from the final 2010 stocks value for bulk terminals and biodiesel production plants (977 thousand barrels), not the final 2010 value for bulk terminals only (672 thousand barrels) that is shown under “Stocks.” i Derived from the preliminary 2016 stocks value (6,217 thousand barrels), not the final 2016 value (6,398 thousand barrels) that is shown under “Stocks.” NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu and greater than -0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: • Mbbl = thousand barrels. MMgal = million U.S. gallons. TBtu = trillion Btu. • Biodiesel data in thousand barrels are converted to million gallons by multiplying by 0.042, and are converted to Btu by multiplying by 5.359 million Btu per barrel (the approximate heat content of biodiesel—see Table A1). • Through 2000, data are not available. Beginning in 2001, data not from U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) surveys are estimates. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#renewable (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 2001. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 10.5 Solar Energy Consumption (Trillion Btu)

Heatf 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Residential Sector

Distributeda Solar Energyb

Utility-Scalec Solar Energyb

Electricityd

Electricitye

Commercial Sector

Industrial Sector

Total

Totalg

Commercial Sectorh

Industrial Sectori

Electric Power Sectorj

Total

Totalk

...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ......................

NA 55 63 57 55 53 51 50 49 51 53 54 55 56 58 59 61 62

NA (s) (s) (s) (s) 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 5 9 13 20 31 47

NA (s) (s) 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 6 7 11 19 30 38 49

NA (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1 1 1 2 3 4 7 9 11

NA (s) 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 5 7 11 14 23 36 57 78 107

NA 55 63 58 56 54 53 53 52 56 59 65 69 79 93 116 139 169

NA – – – – – – – – – – (s) (s) (s) 1 1 3 4

NA – – – – – – – – – – – – (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

(s) 4 5 5 6 6 5 6 6 5 6 9 9 12 17 40 83 165

(s) 4 5 5 6 6 5 6 6 5 6 9 9 12 18 41 86 168

(s) 59 68 63 62 60 58 58 58 61 65 74 78 90 111 157 225 337

2015 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

3 4 5 6 6 6 7 7 6 5 4 4 63

3 3 5 6 6 6 7 7 6 6 5 4 65

3 3 4 5 5 5 6 5 5 4 3 3 53

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14

7 8 11 12 13 13 14 14 12 11 9 9 132

10 11 16 17 19 19 20 20 18 16 14 13 194

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 4

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

11 14 19 22 23 23 24 25 20 17 16 14 228

11 14 19 22 23 24 24 25 21 18 16 15 232

21 25 35 40 43 43 45 45 39 34 30 27 426

2016 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

3 4 5 6 6 6 7 7 6 5 4 4 63

5 6 8 9 10 10 11 10 9 8 7 6 98

R3

R9

R 12 R 14 R 19 R 21

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1 1 (s) (s) (s) (s) 5

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

R 13 R 20 R 24 R 26 R 31 R 32 R 36

14

R 26 R 35 R 43 R 48 R 55 R 56 R 62 R 61 R 55 R 49 R 41

2017 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. 9-Month Total .......

3 4 5 6 6 6 7 7 6 50

6 7 11 12 13 14 14 13 12 102

(s) (s) (s) (s) 1 1 1 1 1 4

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

2016 9-Month Total ....... 2015 9-Month Total .......

50 49

77 50

4 3

(s) (s)

4

R5 R5 R6 R6 R6 R6 R5

1 1

R2

2 2 2 2 2 2 R2 1 1 R 19

11

R 14

16

24

R R

R

R 174

22 20 16 15 R 237

R 11 R 13 R 18 R 20

R 23 R 26

8 R7 7 56

1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 18

21 176

30 27 226

45 42

15 11

137 103

187 152

5 4 4 R 57 4

R4 R6 R6 R7 R7

a Data are estimates for distributed (small-scale) facilities (combined generator nameplate capacity less than 1 megawatt). b See "Photovoltaic Energy" and "Solar Thermal Energy" in Glossary. c Data are for utility-scale facilities (combined generator nameplate capacity of 1 megawatt or more). d Solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation at distributed (small-scale) facilities connected to the electric power grid (converted to Btu by multiplying by the fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). e Solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal electricity net generation at utility-scale facilities (converted to Btu by multiplying by the fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). f Solar thermal direct use energy in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors for all end uses, such as pool heating, hot water heating, and space heating. g Data are the sum of "Distributed Solar Energy Heat" and "Distributed Solar Energy Electricity." h Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7.

R 17 R 18 R 18 R 18 R 16 R 14

12 11

23

R 23 R 24 R 23

R 24 R 25 R 24

15 17 29

R 29 R 30

36

R 33

29 25 R 22 R 328

R 21 R 24

27

R 32 R 32 R 36

37 34

R 29 R 26 R 22

37

R 333

R 570

R 20 R 23 R 41 R 44 R 53 R 51 R 50

R 35 R 40 R 64 R 70 R 82 R 87 R 81 R 79

47 381

47 386

74 612

251 180

255 183

442 335

20

R 23 R 40 R 43 R 52 R 57 R 50 R 49

58

i Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. j Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only; beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities and independent power producers. k Data are the sum of "Distributed Solar Energy Total" and "Utility-Scale Solar Energy Total." R=Revised. NA=Not available. – =No data reported. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: • Distributed (small-scale) solar energy data for all years, and utility-scale solar energy data for the current two years, are estimates. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#renewable (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1984. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

159

Table 10.6 Solar Electricity Net Generation (Million Kilowatthours) Distributeda Solar Generationb

Utility-Scalec Solar Generationb Electric Power Sectorf

Total

Total

NA – – – – – – – – – – – – 2 7 14 17 16

11 367 497 493 543 555 534 575 550 508 612 864 891 1,206 1,727 4,164 8,724 17,304

11 367 497 493 543 555 534 575 550 508 612 864 891 1,212 1,818 4,327 9,036 17,691

11 399 553 600 672 708 713 797 883 993 1,297 1,965 2,371 3,540 5,485 10,274 17,221 28,924

20 23 33 39 46 43 45 46 37 32 27 24 416

1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 21

1,134 1,459 2,037 2,338 2,456 2,512 2,579 2,639 2,178 1,875 1,702 1,545 24,456

1,155 1,484 2,072 2,379 2,504 2,558 2,627 2,688 2,217 1,910 1,730 1,570 24,893

1,902 2,299 3,206 3,643 3,898 3,966 4,114 4,156 3,547 3,107 2,712 2,484 39,032

R 26 R 39 R 44 R 46 R 48 R 53 R 55 R 58 R 48 R 42 R 36 R 33

R1 R2 R2 R2 R3 R3 R3 R3 R2 R2

R 1,458 R 2,201 R 2,571 R 2,831 R 3,375 R 3,418 R 3,886 R 3,908 R 3,584 R 3,147 R 2,729 R 2,389

R 1,486 R 2,242 R 2,617 R 2,880 R 3,425 R 3,473 R 3,945 R 3,969 R 3,635 R 3,191 R 2,767 R 2,424

R 2,465 R 3,386 R 4,143 R 4,583 R 5,304 R 5,401 R 5,945 R 5,911 R 5,370 R 4,743 R 4,024 R 3,591

Residential Sector

Commercial Sector

Industrial Sector

Total

...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ......................

NA 12 20 39 47 56 66 81 122 178 251 404 543 897 1,330 2,071 3,264 4,947

NA 17 29 55 67 79 93 115 172 252 355 571 767 1,172 1,913 3,173 4,029 5,146

NA 4 6 12 15 18 21 25 38 56 79 126 170 259 424 703 892 1,139

NA 32 56 107 129 153 179 222 333 485 685 1,101 1,480 2,328 3,667 5,947 8,185 11,233

NA – – – – – – – – – – (s) (s) 5 84 148 294 371

2015 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

340 375 536 609 676 693 741 746 679 618 515 471 6,999

327 356 479 525 574 571 596 575 515 455 367 349 5,689

80 85 119 129 144 144 150 147 135 125 100 93 1,451

746 816 1,134 1,264 1,394 1,408 1,487 1,468 1,330 1,198 982 914 14,139

2016 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

R 520 R 622 R 835 R 951

R 346 R 398 R 520 R 566 R 616 R 623 R 640 R 620 R 556 R 493 R 393 R 387

R 113 R 124 R 171 R 186 R 206 R 206 R 214 R 209 R 190 R 174 R 139 R 128

R 980 R 1,145 R 1,525 R 1,703 R 1,879 R 1,928 R 2,000 R 1,942 R 1,735 R 1,552 R 1,257 R 1,167

1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

R 1,058 R 1,099 R 1,146 R 1,113 R 989 R 884 R 726 R 653

R 10,595

R 6,158

R 2,060

R 18,812

R 529

R 690 R 791

R 135 R 146 R 209

R 1,230 R 1,397 R 1,986 R 2,211 R 2,441 R 2,503 R 2,578 R 2,501

R 22 R 26 R 49

2,239 19,086 14,836 11,046

2017 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. 9-Month Total .......

R 1,148 R 1,285 R 1,416 R 1,468 R 1,495 R 1,446

R 406 R 460 R 630 R 701 R 774 R 781 R 819 R 797

1,291 11,030

713 6,080

254 264 258 235 1,976

2016 9-Month Total ....... 2015 9-Month Total .......

8,332 5,395

4,885 4,518

1,619 1,133

226

R 251

a Data are estimates for solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation at small-scale facilities (combined generator nameplate capacity less than 1 megawatt) connected to the electric power grid. b See "Photovoltaic Energy" and "Solar Thermal Energy" in Glossary. c Solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal electricity net generation at utility-scale facilities (combined generator nameplate capacity of 1 megawatt or more). d Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. e Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. f Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only; beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities and independent power producers. R=Revised. NA=Not available. NM=Not meaningful due to large standard error. – =No data reported. (s)=Less than 0.5 million kilowatthours.

160

Commercial Sectord

Industrial Sectore

2

R1 R 27

R 35,497

R 36,054

R 54,866

R 2,123 R 2,463 R 4,370 R 4,706 R 5,678 R 6,152 R 5,412 R 5,312

R 2,147 R 2,491 R 4,421 R 4,759 R 5,747 R 6,230 R 5,482 R 5,379

R 3,377 R 3,887 R 6,408 R 6,970 R 8,188 R 8,733 R 8,061 R 7,879

59 465

NM NM NM NM 4 8 7 7 6 41

5,080 41,295

5,145 41,801

7,384 60,887

418 333

22 17

27,232 19,333

27,672 19,684

42,509 30,729

50

R 65 R 71 R 63 R 60

Notes: • Distributed (small-scale) solar generation data for all years, and utility-scale solar energy data for the current two years, are estimates. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#renewable (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1984. Sources: • Distributed Solar Generation: 1989–2013—Calculated as distributed solar energy consumption (see Table 10.5) divided by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors (see Table A6). 2014 forward—U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electric Power Monthly, monthly reports, Tables 1.1, 1.2.C, 1.2.D, and 1.2.E. • Utility-Scale Solar Generation: 1984–1988—EIA, Form EIA-759, "Monthly Power Plant Report." 1989–1997: EIA, Form EIA-759, "Monthly Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-867, "Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report." 1998–2000: EIA, Form EIA-759, "Monthly Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-860B, "Annual Electric Generator Report—Nonutility." 2001–2003: EIA, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report." 2004–2007: EIA, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report." 2008 forward: EIA, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." • Total: Calculated as distributed solar generation plus utility-scale solar generation.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Renewable Energy Note. Renewable Energy Production and Consumption. In Tables 1.1, 1.3, and 10.1, renewable energy consumption consists of: conventional hydroelectricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6); geothermal electricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6), and geothermal heat pump and geothermal direct use energy; solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6), and solar thermal direct use energy; wind electricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6); wood and wood-derived fuels consumption; biomass waste (municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass) consumption; fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) and biodiesel consumption; and losses and co-products from the production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel. In Tables 1.1, 1.2, and 10.1, renewable energy production is assumed to equal consumption for all renewable energy sources except biofuels and wood. Biofuels production comprises biomass inputs to the production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel. Wood production is the sum of wood consumption and densified biomass exports.

Table 10.2a Sources Residential Sector, Geothermal 1989–2011: Annual estimates by the U.S Energy Information Administration (EIA) based on data from Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center. 2012 forward: Annual estimates assumed by EIA to be equal to that of 2011. (For 1989 forward, monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month.)

Residential Sector, Solar 1989 forward: Residential sector solar consumption is the sum of the values for “Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Heat” (which includes solar thermal direct use energy in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors) from Table 10.5 and “Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Residential Sector” from Table 10.5.

Residential Sector, Wood 1949–1979: Annual estimates are from EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption from 1949 to 1981, Table A2. 1980–2013: Annual estimates are based on EIA, Form EIA-457, “Residential Energy Consumption Survey”; and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration regional heating degree-day data. 2014 forward: Annual estimates based on residential wood consumption growth rates from EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook data system.

(For 1973 forward, monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month.)

Residential Sector, Total Renewable Energy 1949–1988: Residential sector total renewable energy consumption is equal to residential sector wood consumption. 1989 forward: Residential sector total renewable energy consumption is the sum of the residential sector consumption values for geothermal, solar, and wood.

Commercial Sector, Hydroelectric Power 1989 forward: Commercial sector conventional hydroelectricity net generation data from EIA, Form EIA-923, “Power Plant Operations Report,” and predecessor forms, are converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6.

Commercial Sector, Geothermal 1989–2011: Annual estimates by EIA based on data from Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center. 2012 forward: Annual estimates assumed by EIA to be equal to that of 2011. (For 1989 forward, monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month.)

Commercial Sector, Solar 1989 forward: Commercial sector solar consumption is the sum of the values for “Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Commercial Sector” from Table 10.5 and “Utility-Scale Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Commercial Sector” from Table 10.5.

Commercial Sector, Wind 2009 forward: Commercial sector wind electricity net generation data from EIA, Form EIA-923, “Power Plant Operations Report,” are converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6.

Commercial Sector, Wood 1949–1979: Annual estimates are from EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption from 1949 to 1981, Table A2. 1980–1983: Annual estimates are from EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption 1980 –1983, Table ES1. 1984: Annual estimate assumed by EIA to be equal to that of 1983. 1985–1988: Annual estimates interpolated by EIA. (For 1973–1988, monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month.) 1989 forward: Monthly/annual commercial sector combinedheat-and-power (CHP) wood consumption data are from EIA, Form EIA-923, “Power Plant Operations Report,” and predecessor forms. Annual estimates for commercial sector non-CHP wood consumption are based on EIA, Form

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EIA-871, “Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey” (for 2014 forward, the annual estimates are based on commercial sector wood consumption growth rates from EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook data system). For 1989 forward, monthly estimates for commercial sector non-CHP wood consumption are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month. Commercial sector total wood consumption is the sum of commercial sector CHP and non-CHP wood consumption.

Commercial Sector, Biomass Waste 1989 forward: Table 7.4c.

Commercial Sector, Fuel Ethanol (Minus Denaturant) 1981 forward: The commercial sector share of motor gasoline consumption is equal to commercial sector motor gasoline consumption from Table 3.7a divided by motor gasoline product supplied from Table 3.5. Commercial sector fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption is equal to fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption from Table 10.3 multplied by the commercial sector share of motor gasoline consumption. Note that there is a discontinuity in this time series between 2014 and 2015 due to a change in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end-use sectors; beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of fuel ethanol consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector share is smaller.

Commercial Sector, Total Biomass 1949–1980: Commercial sector total biomass consumption is equal to commercial sector wood consumption. 1981–1988: Commercial sector total biomass consumption is the sum of the commercial sector consumption values for wood and fuel ethanol (minus denaturant). 1989 forward: Commercial sector total biomass consumption is the sum of the commercial sector consumption values for wood, waste, and fuel ethanol (minus denaturant).

Commercial Sector, Total Renewable Energy 1949–1988: Commercial sector total renewable energy consumption is equal to commercial sector total biomass consumption. 1989–2007: Commercial sector total renewable energy consumption is the sum of the commercial sector consumption values for conventional hydroelectric power, geothermal, and total biomass. 2008: Commercial sector total renewable energy consumption is the sum of the commercial sector consumption values for conventional hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and total biomass. 2009 forward: Commercial sector total renewable energy is the sum of the commercial sector consumption values for conventional hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, wind, and total biomass.

162

Table 10.2b Sources Industrial Sector, Hydroelectric Power 1949 forward: Industrial sector conventional hydroelectricity net generation data from Table 7.2c are converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6.

Industrial Sector, Geothermal 1989–2009: Annual estimates by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) based on data from Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center. 2010 forward: Annual estimates assumed by EIA to be equal to that of 2009. (For 1989 forward, monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month.)

Industrial Sector, Solar 1989 forward: Industrial sector solar consumption is the sum of the values for “Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Industrial Sector” from Table 10.5 and “Utility-Scale Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Industrial Sector” from Table 10.6.

Industrial Sector, Wind 2011 forward: Industrial sector wind electricity net generation data from EIA, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report," are converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6.

Industrial Sector, Wood 1949–1979: Annual estimates are from EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption from 1949 to 1981, Table A2. 1980–1983: Annual estimates are from EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption 1980 –1983, Table ES1. 1984: Annual estimate is from EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 1. 1985 and 1986: Annual estimates interpolated by EIA. 1987: Annual estimate is from EIA, Estimates of Biofuels Consumption in the United States During 1987, Table 2. 1988: Annual estimate interpolated by EIA. (For 1973–1988, monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month.) 1989 forward: Monthly/annual industrial sector combinedheat-and-power (CHP) wood consumption data are from EIA, Form EIA-923, “Power Plant Operations Report,” and predecessor forms. Annual estimates for industrial sector non-CHP wood consumption are based on EIA, Form EIA-846, “Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey” (for 2014 forward, the annual estimates are assumed by EIA to be equal to that of 2013). For 1989 forward, monthly estimates for industrial sector non-CHP wood consumption are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month. Industrial sector total wood consumption

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

is the sum of industrial sector CHP and non-CHP wood consumption.

Industrial Sector, Biomass Waste 1981: Annual estimate is calculated as total waste consumption (from EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 8) minus electric power sector waste consumption (from MER Table 10.2c). 1982 and 1983: Annual estimates are calculated as total waste consumption (based on Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 8) minus electric power sector waste consumption (from MER, Table 10.2c). 1984: Annual estimate is calculated as total waste consumption (from EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 8) minus electric power sector waste consumption (from MER, Table 10.2c). 1985 and 1986: Annual estimates interpolated by EIA. 1987: Annual estimate is calculated as total waste consumption (from EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 8) minus electric power sector waste consumption (from MER, Table 10.2c). 1988: Annual estimate interpolated by EIA. (For 1973–1988, monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month.) 1989 forward: Monthly/annual industrial sector combinedheat-and-power (CHP) consumption data are from Table 7.4c. Annual estimates for industrial sector non-CHP waste consumption are based on information presented in Government Advisory Associates, Resource Recovery Yearbook and Methane Recovery Yearbook, and information provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Landfill Methane Outreach Program (for 2014 forward, the annual estimates are assumed by EIA to be equal to that of 2013). For 1989 forward, monthly estimates for industrial sector non-CHP waste consumption are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month. Industrial sector total waste consumption is the sum of industrial sector CHP and non-CHP waste consumption.

Industrial Sector, Fuel Ethanol (Minus Denaturant) 1981 forward: The industrial sector share of motor gasoline consumption is equal to industrial sector motor gasoline consumption from Table 3.7b divided by motor gasoline product supplied from Table 3.5. Industrial sector fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption is equal to fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption from Table 10.3 multiplied by the industrial sector share of motor gasoline consumption. Note that there is a discontinuity in this time series between 2014 and 2015 due to a change in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end-use sectors; beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of fuel ethanol consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector share is smaller.

Industrial Sector, Biomass Losses and Co-products 1981 forward: Calculated as fuel ethanol losses and co-products from Table 10.3 plus biodiesel losses and co-products from Table 10.4.

Industrial Sector, Total Biomass 1949–1980: Industrial sector total biomass consumption is equal to industrial sector wood consumption. 1981 forward: Industrial sector total biomass consumption is the sum of the industrial sector consumption values for wood, waste, fuel ethanol (minus denaturant), and biomass losses and co-products.

Industrial Sector, Total Renewable Energy 1949–1988: Industrial sector total renewable energy consumption is the sum of the industrial sector consumption values for conventional hydroelectric power and total biomass. 1989–2009: Industrial sector total renewable energy consumption is the sum of the industrial sector consumption values for conventional hydroelectric power, geothermal, and total biomass. 2010: Industrial sector total renewable energy consumption is the sum of the industrial sector consumption values for conventional hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and total biomass. 2011 forward: Industrial sector total renewable energy consumption is the sum of the industrial sector consumption values for conventional hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, wind, and total biomass.

Transportation Sector, Fuel Ethanol (Minus Denaturant) 1981 forward: The transportation sector share of motor gasoline consumption is equal to transportation sector motor gasoline consumption from Table 3.7c divided by motor gasoline product supplied from Table 3.5. Transportation sector fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption is equal to fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption from Table 10.3 multiplied by the transportation sector share of motor gasoline consumption. Note that there is a discontinuity in this time series between 2014 and 2015 due to a change in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end-use sectors; beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of fuel ethanol consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector share is smaller.

Transportation Sector, Biodiesel 2001 forward: Table 10.4. Transportation sector biodiesel consumption is assumed to equal total biodiesel consumption.

Transportation Sector, Other Renewable Fuels 2009 forward: Table 10.4.

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Transportation Sector, Total Renewable Energy 1981–2000: Transportation sector total renewable energy consumption is equal to transportation sector fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption. 2001–2008: Transportation sector total renewable energy consumption is the sum of the transportation sector consumption values for fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) and biodiesel. 2009 forward: Transportation sector total renewable energy consumption is the sum of the transportation sector consumption values for fuel ethanol (minus denaturant), biodiesel, and other renewable fuels.

tional motor gasoline, and motor gasoline blending components.

Production

1981 forward: Calculated as fuel ethanol production (in thousand barrels) minus denaturant, and then multiplied by the fuel ethanol feedstock factor—see Table A3.

1981–1992: Fuel ethanol production is assumed to equal fuel ethanol consumption—see sources for "Consumption." 1993–2004: Calculated as fuel ethanol consumption plus fuel ethanol stock change minus fuel ethanol net imports. These data differ slightly from the original production data from EIA, Form EIA-819, "Monthly Oxygenate Report," and predecessor form, which were not reconciled and updated to be consistent with the final balance. 2005–2008: EIA, Form EIA-819, "Monthly Oxygenate Report." 2009–2016: EIA, PSA, annual reports, Table 1, data for net production of fuel ethanol at renewable fuels and oxygenate plants. 2017: EIA, PSM, monthly reports, Table 1, data for net production of fuel ethanol at renewable fuels and oxygenate plants.

Losses and Co-products

Trade, Stocks, and Stock Change

Table 10.3 Sources Feedstock

1981 forward: Calculated as fuel ethanol feedstock plus denaturant minus fuel ethanol production.

Denaturant 1981–2008: Data in thousand barrels for petroleum denaturant in fuel ethanol produced are estimated as 2% of fuel ethanol production; these data are converted to Btu by multiplying by 4.645 million Btu per barrel (the estimated quantity-weighted factor of natural gasoline and conventional motor gasoline used as denaturant). 2009–2016: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA), annual reports, Table 1. Data in thousand barrels for net production of natural gasoline at renewable fuels and oxygenate plants are multiplied by -1; these data are converted to Btu by multiplying by 4.620 million Btu per barrel (the approximate heat content of natural gasoline). Data in thousand barrels for net production of conventional motor gasoline and motor gasoline blending components at renewable fuels and oxygenate plants are multiplied by -1; these data are converted to Btu by multiplying by 5.253 million Btu per barrel (the approximate heat content of conventional motor gasoline). Total denaturant is the sum of the values for natural gasoline, conventional motor gasoline, and motor gasoline blending components. 2017: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), monthly reports, Table 1. Data in thousand barrels for net production of natural gasoline at renewable fuels and oxygenate plants are multiplied by -1; these data are converted to Btu by multiplying by 4.620 million Btu per barrel (the approximate heat content of natural gasoline). Data in thousand barrels for net production of conventional motor gasoline and motor gasoline blending components at renewable fuels and oxygenate plants are multiplied by -1; these data are converted to Btu by multiplying by 5.253 million Btu per barrel (the approximate heat content of conventional motor gasoline). Total denaturant is the sum of the values for natural gasoline, conven164

1992–2016: EIA, PSA, annual reports, Table 1. 2017: EIA, PSM, monthly reports, Table 1.

Consumption 1981–1989: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 10; and interpolated values for 1982, 1983, 1985, 1986, and 1988. 1990–1992: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biomass Energy Consumption 1992, Table D2; and interpolated value for 1991. 1993–2004: EIA, PSA, annual reports, Tables 2 and 16. Calculated as 10% of oxygenated finished motor gasoline field production (Table 2), plus fuel ethanol refinery input (Table 16). 2005–2008: EIA, PSA, annual reports, Tables 1 and 15. Calculated as motor gasoline blending components adjustments (Table 1), plus finished motor gasoline adjustments (Table 1), plus fuel ethanol refinery and blender net inputs (Table 15). 2009–2016: EIA, PSA, annual reports, Table 1. Calculated as fuel ethanol refinery and blender net inputs minus fuel ethanol adjustments. 2017: EIA, PSM, monthly reports, Table 1. Calculated as fuel ethanol refinery and blender net inputs minus fuel ethanol adjustments.

Consumption Minus Denaturant 1981 forward: Calculated as fuel ethanol consumption minus the amount of denaturant in fuel ethanol consumed. Denaturant in fuel ethanol consumed is estimated by multiplying denaturant in fuel ethanol produced by the fuel ethanol consumption-to-production ratio.

Table 10.4 Sources Biodiesel Feedstock 2001 forward: Calculated as biodiesel production in thousand barrels multiplied by 5.433 million Btu per barrel

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

(the biodiesel feedstock factor—see “Biodiesel Feedstock” entry in the “Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation” at the end of Appendix A).

2012–2016: EIA, PSA, annual reports, Tables 25 and 31, data for biomass-based diesel fuel. 2017: EIA, PSM, monthly reports, Tables 37 and 49, data for biomass-based diesel fuel.

Biodiesel Losses and Co-products 2001 forward: Calculated as biodiesel feedstock minus biodiesel production.

Biodiesel Production 2001–2005: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Commodity Credit Corporation, Bioenergy Program records. Annual data are derived from quarterly data. Monthly data are estimated by dividing the annual data by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month. 2006: U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, “M311K—Fats and Oils: Production, Consumption, and Stocks,” data for soybean oil consumed in methyl esters (biodiesel). In addition, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that 14.4 million gallons of yellow grease were consumed in methyl esters (biodiesel). 2007: U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, “M311K—Fats and Oils: Production, Consumption, and Stocks,” data for all fats and oils consumed in methyl esters (biodiesel). 2008: EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, December 2009 (release date October 2010), Table 11. Monthly data for 2008 are estimated based on U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, M311K data, multiplied by the EIA 2008 annual value’s share of the M311K 2008 annual value. 2009 and 2010: EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, monthly reports, Table 1. 2011–2016: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA), annual reports, Table 1, data for renewable fuels except fuel ethanol. 2017: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), monthly reports, Table 1, data for renewable fuels except fuel ethanol.

Biodiesel Stocks and Stock Change 2009 forward: EIA, biodiesel data from EIA-22M, “Monthly Biodiesel Production Survey”; and biomass-based diesel fuel data from EIA-810, “Monthly Refinery Report,” EIA-812, “Monthly Product Pipeline Report,” and EIA-815, “Monthly Bulk Terminal and Blender Report.”

Biodiesel Consumption 2001–2008: Calculated as biodiesel production plus biodiesel net imports. January and February 2009: EIA, PSA, Table 1, data for refinery and blender net inputs of renewable fuels except fuel ethanol. March 2009 forward: Calculated as biodiesel production plus biodiesel net imports minus biodiesel stock change.

Other Renewable Fuels 2009 forward: Imports data for “Other Renewable Diesel Fuel” are from EIA, PSA Table 25 and PSM Table 37 (data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the other renewable diesel fuel heat content factor in Table A1). Imports data for “Other Renewable Fuels” are from EIA, PSA Table 25 and PSM Table 37 (data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the biodiesel heat content factor in Table A1). Stock change data for “Other Renewable Diesel Fuel” are from EIA, EIA-810, “Monthly Refinery Report,” EIA-812, “Monthly Product Pipeline Report,” and EIA-815, “Monthly Bulk Terminal and Blender Report” (data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the other renewable diesel heat content factor in Table A1). “Other Renewable Fuels” in Table 10.4 is calculated as other renewable diesel fuel imports plus other renewable fuels imports minus other renewable diesel fuel stock change.

Table 10.5 Sources

Biodiesel Trade 2001–2011: For imports, U.S. Department of Agriculture, data for the following Harmonized Tariff Schedule codes: 3824.90.40.20, “Fatty Esters Animal/Vegetable Mixture” (data through June 2010); and 3824.90.40.30, “Biodiesel/Mixes” (data for July 2010–2011). For exports, U.S. Department of Agriculture, data for the following Schedule B codes: 3824.90.40.00, “Fatty Substances Animal/Vegetable/Mixture” (data through 2010); and 3824.90.40.30, “Biodiesel <70%” (data for 2011). (The data above are converted from pounds to gallons by dividing by 7.4.) Although these categories include products other than biodiesel (such as biodiesel coprocessed with petroleum feedstocks; and products destined for soaps, cosmetics, and other items), biodiesel is the largest component. In the absence of other reliable data for biodiesel trade, EIA sees these data as good substitutes.

Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Heat Annual Data 1989–2009: Annual estimates by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) based on EIA, Form EIA-63A, “Annual Solar Thermal Collector/Reflector Shipments Report.” Solar energy consumption by solar thermal non-electric applications (mainly in the residential sector, but with some in the commercial and industrial sectors) is based on assumptions about the stock of equipment in place and other factors. 2010 forward: Annual estimates based on commercial sector solar thermal growth rates from EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) data system. (Annual estimates are subject to revision when a new AEO is released.)

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Monthly Data 1989–2013: Monthly estimates for each year are obtained by allocating a given year’s annual value to the months in that year. Each month’s allocator is the average of that month’s “Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Total” values in 2014 and 2015. The allocators, when rounded, are as follows: January—5%; February—6%; March—8%; April—9%; May—10%; June—10%; July—10%; August—10%; September—9%; October—9%; November—7%; and December—7%. 2014 forward: Initial monthly estimates for each year are obtained as described above. Once all 12 months of “Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Total” data are available for a given year, they are used as allocators and applied to the annual estimate in order to revise the initial monthly estimates.

Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Residential Sector Beginning in 2014, monthly and annual data for residential sector distributed (small-scale) solar photovoltaic generation are from EIA, Electric Power Monthly, Table 1.2.E. Those data are converted to consumption data in Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in MER Table A6. Backcasts for earlier periods are developed as follows: Annual Data 1989–2003: Annual growth rates are calculated based on distributed (small-scale) solar electricity consumption in all sectors. Consumption is estimated using information on shipments of solar panels from EIA, Form EIA-63B, “Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report,” and assumptions about the stock of equipment in place and other factors. The growth rates are applied to more recent data to create historical annual estimates. 2004–2008: Annual growth rates based on commercial sector solar photovoltaic growth rates from EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) data system are applied to more recent data to create historical annual estimates. (Annual estimates are subject to revision when a new AEO is released.) 2009–2013: Annual growth rates based on residential sector solar photovoltaic growth rates from EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) data system are applied to more recent data to create historical annual estimates. (Annual estimates are subject to revision when a new AEO is released.) Monthly Data 1989–2013: See “Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Heat, Monthly Data.”

Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Commercial Sector Beginning in 2014, monthly and annual data for commercial sector distributed (small-scale) solar photovoltaic generation are from EIA, Electric Power Monthly, Table 1.2.C. Those data are converted to consumption data in Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in MER Table A6. Backcasts for earlier periods are developed as follows: 166

Annual Data 1989–2003: Annual growth rates based on EIA, Form EIA-63B, “Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report,” are applied to more recent data to create historical annual estimates. (See “Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Residential Sector” sources above for details.) 2004–2013: Annual growth rates based on commercial sector solar photovoltaic growth rates from EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) data system are applied to more recent data to create historical annual estimates. (Annual estimates are subject to revision when a new AEO is released.) Monthly Data 1989–2013: See “Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Heat, Monthly Data.”

Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Industrial Sector Beginning in 2014, monthly and annual data for industrial sector distributed (small-scale) solar photovoltaic generation are from EIA, Electric Power Monthly, Table 1.2.D. Those data are converted to consumption data in Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in MER Table A6. Backcasts for earlier periods are developed as follows: Annual Data 1989–2003: Annual growth rates based on EIA, Form EIA-63B, “Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report,” are applied to more recent data to create historical annual estimates. (See “Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Residential Sector” sources above for details.) 2004–2013: Annual growth rates based on commercial sector solar photovoltaic growth rates from EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) data system are applied to more recent data to create historical annual estimates. (Annual estimates are subject to revision when a new AEO is released.) Monthly Data 1989–2013: See “Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Heat, Monthly Data.”

Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Total 1989 forward: Distributed (small-scale) solar energy consumption for total electricity is the sum of the distributed solar energy consumption (for electricity) values for the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors.

Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Total 1989 forward: Distributed (small-scale) solar energy consumption total is the sum of distributed solar energy consumption values for heat and total electricity.

Utility-Scale Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Commercial Sector 2008 forward: Commercial sector solar photovoltaic and solar thermal electricity net generation data from EIA, Form

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

EIA-923, “Power Plant Operations Report,” are converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6.

Utility-Scale Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Industrial Sector 2010 forward: Industrial sector solar photovoltaic and solar thermal electricity net generation data from EIA, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report," are converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6.

Utility-Scale Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Electric Power Sector 1984 forward: Electric power sector solar photovoltaic and solar thermal electricity net generation data from Table 7.2b

are converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6.

Utility-Scale Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Total 1984 forward: Utility-scale solar energy consumption for total electricity is the sum of the utility-scale solar energy consumption (for electricity) values for the commercial, industrial, and electric power sectors.

Solar Energy Consumption: Total 1984 forward: Total solar energy consumption is the sum of the values for total distributed solar energy consumption and total utility-scale solar energy consumption.

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11. International Petroleum

Figure 11.1a World Crude Oil Production Overview (Million Barrels per Day) World Production, 1973–2016

World Production, Monthly

90

100 World World

80

60

60 Non-OPEC

Non-OPEC

OPEC

40

OPEC

30

Persian Gulf Nations

20

0

Persian Gulf Nations

0 1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Selected Producers, 1973–2016

J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 2015 2016 2017

Selected Producers, Monthly

12

12 Russia Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia

9

9 United States

United States

6

6

Russia China Iran 3

3

China

0

0 1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Notes: • OPEC is the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. • The Persian Gulf Nations are Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Production from the Neutral Zone between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia is included in “Per-

170

Iran

J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 2015 2016 2017

sian Gulf Nations.” Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#international. Sources: Tables 11.1a and 11.1b.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Selected Non-OPEC Countries

Figure 11.1b World Crude Oil Production by Selected Countries (Million Barrels per Day)

Canada

3.849 3.960

China

3.887 3.779

September 2016 September 2017

0.493 0.472

Egypt

2.146 1.761

Mexico

1.430 1.460

Norway

10.729 10.503

Russia 0.826 0.884

United Kingdom

8.553

United States

9.481 1.350 1.306

Algeria

1.768 1.670

Angola 0.560 0.529

Ecuador

0.210 0.200

Selected OPEC Countries

Gabon

4.190 4.374

Iran

4.480 4.567

Iraq 2.960 2.785

Kuwait 0.310 0.925

Libya

1.726 2.095

Nigeria

1.477 1.537

Qatar

10.600 10.233

Saudi Arabia 3.216 3.049

United Arab Emirates 2.200 2.010

Venezuela

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Note: OPEC is the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting C ountries. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#international. Sources: Tables 11.1a and 11.1b.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

171

Table 11.1a World Crude Oil Production: Selected OPEC Members (Thousand Barrels per Day)

Iran

Iraq

Kuwaita

Libya

Nigeria

Qatar

Saudi Arabiaa

United Arab Emirates

Venezuela

Total OPECb

150 223 175 172 270 365 368 370 352 331 315 270 251 241 239 266 237 244 248 242 246 241 230 220 220

5,861 5,350 1,662 2,250 3,088 3,643 3,686 3,664 3,634 3,557 3,696 3,724 3,444 3,743 4,001 4,139 4,028 3,912 4,050 4,037 4,080 4,054 3,387 3,113 3,239

2,018 2,262 2,514 1,433 2,040 560 579 1,155 2,150 2,508 2,571 2,390 2,023 1,308 2,011 1,878 1,996 2,086 2,375 2,391 2,399 2,626 2,983 3,054 3,368

3,020 2,084 1,656 1,023 1,175 2,057 2,062 2,007 2,085 1,898 2,079 1,998 1,894 2,136 2,376 2,529 2,535 2,464 2,586 2,350 2,300 2,530 2,635 2,650 2,642

2,175 1,480 1,787 1,059 1,375 1,390 1,401 1,446 1,390 1,319 1,410 1,367 1,319 1,421 1,515 1,633 1,681 1,702 1,736 1,650 1,650 465 1,367 918 471

2,054 1,783 2,055 1,495 1,810 1,993 2,001 2,132 2,153 2,130 2,165 2,256 2,118 2,275 2,329 2,627 2,440 2,350 2,165 2,208 2,408 2,474 2,457 2,307 2,347

570 438 472 301 406 442 510 550 696 665 742 730 709 807 901 978 996 1,083 1,198 1,279 1,459 1,571 1,551 1,553 1,540

7,596 7,075 9,900 3,388 6,410 8,231 8,218 8,362 8,389 7,833 8,404 8,031 7,634 8,775 9,101 9,550 9,152 8,722 9,261 8,250 8,900 9,458 9,832 9,693 9,735

1,533 1,664 1,709 1,193 2,117 2,233 2,278 2,316 2,345 2,169 2,368 2,205 2,082 2,348 2,478 2,535 2,636 2,603 2,681 2,413 2,415 2,679 2,804 2,820 2,894

3,366 2,346 2,168 1,677 2,137 2,750 2,938 3,280 3,167 2,826 3,155 3,010 2,604 2,335 2,557 2,565 2,511 2,490 2,510 2,520 2,410 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

29,811 26,013 25,558 15,539 22,768 25,870 26,389 27,697 28,781 27,632 29,427 28,581 26,929 28,425 31,036 32,526 32,187 31,944 33,308 31,609 32,500 32,672 33,859 32,890 32,935

558 553 553 548 543 541 538 537 539 538 537 533 543

215 215 215 205 205 215 215 215 215 215 215 215 213

3,300 3,300 3,300 3,300 3,300 3,300 3,300 3,300 3,300 3,300 3,300 3,300 3,300

3,475 3,325 3,725 3,775 3,925 4,275 4,325 4,225 4,425 4,275 4,425 4,425 4,054

2,750 2,750 2,750 2,770 2,780 2,780 2,810 2,850 2,850 2,800 2,850 2,900 2,804

370 360 475 505 430 410 400 360 375 415 375 370 404

2,294 2,269 2,152 2,165 2,139 2,025 2,122 2,088 2,225 2,198 2,226 2,159 2,171

1,514 1,520 1,525 1,531 1,532 1,537 1,537 1,537 1,537 1,537 1,537 1,537 1,532

9,640 9,740 10,140 10,140 10,340 10,490 10,400 10,290 10,290 10,240 10,140 10,140 10,168

2,960 2,970 2,980 3,010 3,020 3,030 3,030 3,040 3,040 3,050 3,040 3,060 3,019

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

33,075 32,951 33,714 33,918 34,163 34,602 34,706 34,491 34,775 34,517 34,644 34,638 34,190

1,798 1,793 1,798 1,793 1,818 1,823 1,829 1,833 1,768 1,618 1,698 1,668 1,770

534 540 552 555 556 550 545 549 560 552 544 544 548

210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 200 220 220 211

3,550 3,700 4,000 4,090 4,120 4,130 4,150 4,170 4,190 4,200 4,220 4,280 4,068

4,475 4,225 4,225 4,475 4,355 4,405 4,415 4,460 4,480 4,565 4,645 4,685 4,452

2,950 2,910 2,930 2,700 2,910 2,910 2,950 2,960 2,960 2,960 2,970 2,970 2,924

370 360 320 330 285 330 310 250 310 550 580 620 385

2,159 2,120 1,993 2,010 1,673 1,811 1,764 1,694 1,726 1,854 1,984 1,684 1,871

1,497 1,517 1,537 1,537 1,537 1,537 1,537 1,537 1,477 1,507 1,527 1,527 1,523

10,240 10,240 10,240 10,240 10,340 10,540 10,670 10,640 10,600 10,590 10,640 10,540 10,461

3,105 2,885 2,910 2,920 3,100 3,135 3,156 3,186 3,216 3,196 3,226 3,226 3,106

2,400 2,400 2,400 2,400 2,300 2,280 2,220 2,210 2,200 2,190 2,180 2,150 2,277

34,865 34,477 34,692 34,837 34,781 35,218 35,333 35,276 35,274 35,559 36,011 35,691 35,170

1,340 1,340 1,316 1,306 1,306 1,306 1,306 1,306 1,306 1,314

1,658 1,688 1,630 1,700 1,660 1,690 1,670 1,690 1,670 1,673

536 535 531 528 533 540 541 R 536 529 534

200 185 190 210 200 200 210 200 200 200

4,300 4,300 4,544 4,544 4,554 4,574 4,482 4,462 4,374 4,461

4,565 4,445 4,431 4,426 4,476 4,491 4,501 4,527 4,567 4,493

2,830 2,770 2,763 2,763 2,763 2,774 2,764 2,765 2,785 2,775

680 690 590 535 780 850 1,005 890 925 773

1,849 1,869 1,730 1,780 1,900 1,945 2,032 2,070 2,095 1,919

1,487 1,467 1,507 1,512 1,517 1,522 1,527 1,532 1,537 1,512

10,020 10,040 9,992 10,022 10,093 10,293 10,243 10,183 10,233 10,125

3,067 3,047 3,028 3,008 3,028 3,048 3,048 3,049 3,049 3,041

2,100 2,090 2,090 2,080 2,080 2,030 2,030 2,030 2,010 2,060

34,834 34,668 34,544 34,600 35,076 35,449 35,545 R 35,421 35,461 35,070

1,348 1,429

1,806 1,801

549 545

210 213

4,012 3,300

4,391 3,946

2,909 2,788

318 410

1,882 2,163

1,524 1,530

10,417 10,166

3,069 3,009

2,312 2,500

34,975 34,052

Algeria

Angola

................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................

1,097 983 1,106 1,036 1,180 1,162 1,227 1,259 1,226 1,177 1,214 1,265 1,349 1,516 1,582 1,692 1,699 1,708 1,705 1,585 1,540 1,540 1,532 1,462 1,420

162 165 150 231 475 646 709 714 735 745 746 742 896 903 1,052 1,239 1,398 1,724 1,951 1,877 1,909 1,756 1,787 1,803 1,742

209 161 204 281 285 392 396 388 375 373 395 412 393 411 528 532 536 511 505 486 486 500 504 526 556

2015 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Average ................

1,429 1,429 1,429 1,429 1,429 1,429 1,429 1,429 1,429 1,429 1,429 1,429 1,429

1,820 1,770 1,720 1,790 1,770 1,820 1,850 1,870 1,800 1,770 1,820 1,820 1,802

2016 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Average ................

1,350 1,350 1,350 1,350 1,350 1,330 1,350 1,350 1,350 1,350 1,350 1,350 1,348

2017 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. 9-Month Average 2016 9-Month Average 2015 9-Month Average

1973 Average 1975 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 1996 Average 1997 Average 1998 Average 1999 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

Ecuador

Gabon

a Except for the period from August 1990 through May 1991, includes about one-half of the production in the Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone. Kuwaiti Neutral Zone output was discontinued following Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, but was resumed in June 1991. As of July 2015 all Neutral Zone production is offline. Data for Saudi Arabia include approximately 150 thousand barrels per day from the Abu Safah field produced on behalf of Bahrain. b See “Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)” in Glossary. On Tables 11.1a and 11.1b, countries are classified as "OPEC" or "Non-OPEC" in all years based on their status in the most current year. For example, Equatorial Guinea joined OPEC in May 2017 and is thus included in "Total OPEC" for all

172

years. R=Revised. Notes: • Data are for crude oil and lease condensate; they exclude natural gas plant liquids. • Monthly data are often preliminary figures and may not average to the annual totals because of rounding or because updates to the preliminary monthly data are not available. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#international (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 11.1b World Crude Oil Production: Persian Gulf Nations, Non-OPEC, and World (Thousand Barrels per Day) Selected Non-OPECa Producers Persian Gulf Nationsb

Canada

China

Egypt

Mexico

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

20,668 18,934 17,961 9,630 15,278 17,208 17,367 18,095 19,337 18,667 19,897 19,114 17,824 19,154 20,906 21,644 21,377 20,904 22,186 20,754 21,589 22,953 23,233 22,932 23,469

1,798 1,430 1,435 1,471 1,553 1,805 1,837 1,922 1,981 1,907 1,977 2,029 2,171 2,306 2,398 2,369 2,525 2,628 2,579 2,579 2,741 2,901 3,138 3,325 3,613

1,090 1,490 2,114 2,505 2,774 2,990 3,131 3,200 3,198 3,195 3,249 3,300 3,390 3,409 3,485 3,609 3,673 3,736 3,790 3,796 4,078 4,052 4,074 4,164 4,208

165 235 595 887 873 920 922 856 834 852 768 720 715 713 673 623 535 530 566 587 568 551 539 524 517

2015 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

23,689 23,655 24,470 24,576 24,947 25,462 25,452 25,292 25,492 25,252 25,342 25,412 24,927

3,885 3,906 3,775 3,463 3,212 3,457 3,821 3,922 3,422 3,582 3,819 3,866 3,677

4,232 4,218 4,256 4,258 4,271 4,408 4,263 4,278 4,317 4,259 4,297 4,275 4,278

2016 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

25,867 25,527 25,892 26,012 26,412 26,707 26,928 27,003 26,973 27,068 27,278 27,278 26,583

3,877 3,797 3,767 3,429 2,811 3,112 3,657 3,855 3,849 3,893 4,135 3,968 3,679

2017 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. 9-Month Average .....

26,312 26,111 26,306 26,316 26,472 26,743 26,606 26,559 26,586 26,448

2016 9-Month Average ..... 2015 9-Month Average .....

26,373 24,790

1973 Average 1975 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 1996 Average 1997 Average 1998 Average 1999 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

Russia

United Kingdom

United States

Total NonOPECa

World

8,324 9,523 11,706 11,585 10,975 –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– ––

NA NA NA NA NA 5,995 5,850 5,920 5,854 6,079 6,479 6,917 7,408 8,132 8,805 9,043 9,247 9,437 9,357 9,495 9,694 9,774 9,922 10,054 10,107

2 12 1,622 2,530 1,820 2,489 2,568 2,518 2,616 2,684 2,275 2,282 2,292 2,093 1,845 1,649 1,490 1,498 1,391 1,328 1,233 1,026 888 801 787

9,208 8,375 8,597 8,971 7,355 6,560 6,465 6,452 6,252 5,881 5,822 5,801 5,744 5,649 5,441 5,184 5,086 5,074 4,998 5,349 5,475 5,643 6,497 7,466 8,753

25,868 26,816 34,000 38,426 37,729 36,564 37,429 38,109 38,250 38,335 39,100 39,551 40,361 41,035 41,559 R 41,325 R 41,299 R 41,224 R 40,742 R 41,259 42,074 41,972 42,196 43,294 45,136

55,679 52,828 59,558 53,965 60,497 62,434 63,818 65,806 67,032 65,967 68,527 68,132 67,290 69,460 72,595 R 73,851 R 73,485 R 73,168 R 74,050 R 72,868 74,573 74,644 76,055 76,184 78,071

1,579 1,589 1,586 1,614 1,555 1,596 1,611 1,599 1,581 1,685 1,644 1,682 1,610

–– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– ––

10,231 10,181 10,264 10,111 10,270 10,166 10,213 10,268 10,209 10,341 10,361 10,407 10,253

872 812 867 925 1,016 870 839 788 862 912 972 979 893

9,358 9,537 9,561 9,626 9,428 9,329 9,402 9,379 9,417 9,339 9,307 9,229 9,408

R 46,552 R 46,624 R 46,717 R 46,111 R 45,813 R 45,796 R 46,218 R 46,272 R 45,784 R 46,047 R 46,497 R 46,693 R 46,260

R 79,626 R 79,575 R 80,431 R 80,029 R 79,976 R 80,398 R 80,924 R 80,763 R 80,559 R 80,564 R 81,141 R 81,331 R 80,449

2,294 2,247 2,249 2,210 2,207 2,213 2,192 2,179 2,146 2,135 2,105 2,067 2,187

1,657 1,675 1,632 1,666 1,608 1,480 1,762 1,603 1,430 1,766 1,785 1,706 1,648

–– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– ––

10,485 10,485 10,522 10,450 10,440 10,453 10,254 10,316 10,729 10,826 10,832 10,830 10,551

1,003 1,014 987 989 991 897 980 841 826 760 948 961 933

9,186 9,107 9,134 8,906 8,859 8,703 8,682 8,716 8,553 8,791 8,876 8,771 8,857

R 46,466 R 46,098 R 45,854 R 44,917 R 44,208 R 44,486

R 81,331 R 80,575 R 80,546 R 79,754 R 78,989 R 79,704

45,038

80,371

R 44,580 R 44,954 R 45,705 R 46,283 R 46,035 R 45,384

R 79,856 R 80,228 R 81,264 R 82,294 R 81,726 R 80,554

2,054 2,051

–– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– –– ––

10,733 10,713 10,654 10,603 10,543 10,543 10,546 10,507 10,503 10,593

970 944 945 915 930 R 936 R 912 832 884 918

RE 8,825 RE 9,045 RE 9,107 RE 9,093 RE 9,134 RE 9,068 RE 9,209 RE 9,191 E 9,481 E 9,128

R 45,929 R 46,274 R 45,869 R 45,292 R 45,346 R 45,794 R 45,699 R 45,368

R 80,763 R 80,942 R 80,413 R 79,892 R 80,422 R 81,243 R 81,244 R 80,789

1,761 2,005

1,660 1,709 1,750 1,730 1,651 1,587 1,626 1,602 1,460 1,641

45,535 45,673

80,996 80,743

2,215 2,300

1,613 1,590

–– ––

10,458 10,213

948 873

8,872 9,448

45,175 46,208

80,150 80,260

Norway

Former U.S.S.R.

465 705 1,936 2,745 2,553 2,711 2,944 3,104 3,160 2,998 3,104 3,218 3,263 3,459 3,476 3,423 3,345 3,143 2,839 2,646 2,621 2,600 2,593 2,562 2,469

32 189 486 773 1,630 2,766 3,091 3,142 3,011 3,019 3,222 3,226 3,131 3,042 2,954 2,698 2,491 2,270 2,182 2,067 1,871 1,760 1,612 1,533 1,562

508 516 525 503 512 504 524 523 501 517 494 509 511

2,290 2,370 2,356 2,235 2,263 2,283 2,308 2,291 2,306 2,314 2,310 2,308 2,302

4,166 4,133 4,091 4,036 3,973 4,034 3,938 3,874 3,887 3,780 3,915 3,949 3,981

498 497 497 496 495 495 494 493 493 492 491 491 494

4,097 4,137 3,927 R 3,577 R 3,690 R 4,069 R 3,970 R 4,154 3,960 3,952

3,855 3,929 3,903 3,891 3,829 3,944 3,827 3,758 3,779 3,856

490 489 489 487 486 485 485 472 472 484

3,572 3,651

4,014 4,278

495 513

R 2,053 R 2,046

2,053 R 2,042 R 2,020 R 1,962

a See "Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)" in Glossary. On Tables 11.1a and 11.1b, countries are classified as "OPEC" or "Non-OPEC" in all years based on their status in the most current year. For example, Equatorial Guinea joined OPEC in May 2017 and is thus included in "Total OPEC" for all years. b Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and the Neutral Zone (between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia). R=Revised. NA=Not available. – – =Not applicable. E=Estimate. Notes: • Data are for crude oil and lease condensate; they exclude natural gas

plant liquids. • Monthly data are often preliminary figures and may not average to the annual totals because of rounding or because updates to the preliminary monthly data are not available. • Data for countries may not sum to World totals due to independent rounding. • U.S. geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#international (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

173

Figure 11.2 Petroleum Consumption in OECD Countries (Million Barrels per Day) Overview, 1973–2016

OECD Total, September 60

100

80

46.648

47.099

47.350

2015

2016

2017

World 40 60 OECD

40 20 United States

20

OECD Europe Japan

0 1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

0 2005

2010

2015

By Selected OECD Countries

1.738

France

September 2016 September 2017

1.848 2.426

Germany

2.414 1.319

Italy

1.330 1.646

United Kingdom

1.647 2.455

Canada

2.464 3.723

Japan

3.679 2.642

South Korea

2.682 19.757

United States

19.581

0

4

8

12

16

20

24

Note: OECD is the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#international. Development. Source: Table 11.2.

174

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 11.2 Petroleum Consumption in OECD Countries (Thousand Barrels per Day) France

Germanya

Italy

United Kingdom

OECD Europeb

Canada

Japan

South Korea

United States

Other OECDc

OECDd

World

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

2,601 2,252 2,256 1,753 1,827 1,915 1,943 1,962 2,040 2,034 2,001 2,054 1,991 2,001 2,008 1,990 1,991 1,978 1,940 1,863 1,821 1,779 1,739 1,714 1,691

3,324 2,957 3,082 2,651 2,682 2,882 2,922 2,917 2,923 2,836 2,767 2,807 2,710 2,679 2,648 2,624 2,636 2,407 2,533 2,434 2,467 2,392 2,389 2,435 2,374

2,068 1,855 1,934 1,705 1,868 1,942 1,920 1,934 1,943 1,891 1,854 1,835 1,870 1,860 1,829 1,781 1,777 1,729 1,667 1,544 1,544 1,494 1,370 1,260 1,266

2,341 1,911 1,725 1,617 1,776 1,816 1,852 1,810 1,792 1,811 1,765 1,747 1,739 1,759 1,789 1,819 1,805 1,751 1,729 1,649 1,626 1,582 1,535 1,508 1,509

15,879 14,314 14,995 12,769 13,759 14,835 15,148 15,291 15,591 15,500 15,349 15,529 15,488 15,612 15,714 15,792 15,838 15,570 15,427 14,704 14,685 14,208 13,737 13,549 13,474

1,729 1,779 1,873 1,514 1,722 1,799 1,853 1,940 1,931 2,016 2,008 2,029 2,040 2,155 2,233 2,338 2,346 2,434 2,344 2,283 2,382 2,429 2,480 2,457 2,375

4,949 4,621 4,960 4,436 5,217 5,546 5,591 5,549 5,348 5,486 5,357 5,265 5,187 5,298 5,163 5,164 5,032 4,899 4,664 4,257 4,328 4,345 4,630 4,504 4,248

281 311 537 552 1,048 2,008 2,101 2,255 1,917 2,084 2,135 2,132 2,149 2,175 2,155 2,191 2,180 2,240 2,142 2,188 2,269 2,259 2,322 2,328 2,348

17,308 16,322 17,056 15,726 16,988 17,725 18,309 18,620 18,917 19,519 19,701 19,649 19,761 20,034 20,731 20,802 20,687 20,680 19,498 18,771 19,180 18,887 18,487 18,967 19,100

1,768 1,885 2,449 2,699 3,030 3,517 3,554 3,640 3,774 3,808 3,899 3,905 3,857 3,930 4,035 4,101 R 4,116 R 4,259 R 4,200 R 4,082 R 4,114 R 4,181 R 4,227 R 4,148 R 4,040

41,913 39,232 41,870 37,696 41,764 45,430 46,556 47,296 47,478 48,414 48,449 48,508 48,482 49,203 50,032 50,389 R 50,199 R 50,083 R 48,274 R 46,287 R 46,957 R 46,308 R 45,883 R 45,953 R 45,585

57,237 56,198 63,113 60,082 66,539 70,077 71,654 73,378 74,028 75,700 76,982 77,670 78,361 80,015 83,156 R 84,597 R 85,661 R 86,512 R 85,484 R 85,540 R 89,096 R 89,833 R 91,013 R 92,170 R 93,563

2015 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

1,643 1,783 1,692 1,721 1,542 1,774 1,811 1,676 1,793 1,665 1,499 1,718 1,692

2,287 2,426 2,383 2,355 2,184 2,312 2,385 2,410 2,525 2,426 2,388 2,341 2,368

1,131 1,236 1,227 1,315 1,232 1,301 1,398 1,248 1,336 1,293 1,258 1,310 1,274

1,434 1,657 1,480 1,572 1,488 1,561 1,497 1,581 1,625 1,531 1,582 1,572 1,547

13,019 13,914 13,515 13,717 13,095 14,010 14,205 13,987 14,445 13,919 13,511 13,885 13,766

2,410 2,492 2,306 2,248 2,289 2,359 2,408 2,424 2,426 2,409 2,371 2,335 2,372

4,522 5,034 4,505 4,163 3,598 3,677 3,800 3,918 3,859 3,836 3,978 4,616 4,120

2,531 2,578 2,468 2,445 2,266 2,371 2,355 2,507 2,422 2,472 2,589 2,683 2,473

19,261 19,664 19,340 19,251 19,316 19,853 20,134 19,939 19,433 19,491 19,127 19,589 19,534

R 3,832 R 4,103 R 3,995 R 3,942 R 3,960 R 4,039 R 4,165 R 4,015 R 4,063 R 3,988 R 3,999 R 4,061 R 4,013

R 45,575 R 47,785 R 46,130 R 45,765 R 44,523 R 46,309 R 47,067 R 46,790 R 46,648 R 46,114 R 45,576 R 47,170 R 46,278

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA R 95,335

2016 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Average ....................

1,569 1,682 1,718 1,663 1,661 1,580 1,681 1,702 1,738 1,667 1,565 1,659 1,657

2,300 2,468 2,475 2,478 2,285 2,313 2,398 2,451 2,426 2,457 2,502 2,373 2,410

1,108 1,243 1,251 1,281 1,246 1,302 1,305 1,250 1,319 1,236 1,206 1,287 1,253

1,492 1,641 1,538 1,611 1,549 1,654 1,551 1,608 1,646 1,594 1,596 1,564 1,586

R 12,878 R 13,851 R 13,896 R 13,985 R 13,599 R 14,010 R 14,023 R 14,549 R 14,524 R 14,267 R 14,055 R 14,041 R 13,972

2,371 2,328 2,304 2,258 2,304 2,389 2,401 2,532 2,455 2,347 2,386 2,467 2,379

4,345 4,629 4,356 3,973 3,579 3,561 3,779 3,860 3,723 3,777 4,158 4,596 4,026

2,695 2,752 2,533 2,519 2,574 2,544 2,472 2,684 2,642 2,532 2,780 2,843 2,630

19,063 19,847 19,728 19,340 19,328 19,846 19,776 20,275 19,757 19,650 19,659 19,984 19,687

R 4,007 R 4,177 R 4,078 R 4,001 R 3,925 R 4,056 R 3,988 R 4,084 R 3,999 R 3,902 R 4,047 R 4,107 R 4,030

R 45,358 R 47,584 R 46,895 R 46,075 R 45,309 R 46,407 R 46,439 R 47,984 R 47,099 R 46,475 R 47,085 R 48,038 R 46,725

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA R 96,929

2017 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. 9-Month Average .....

1,738 1,706 1,709 1,625 1,670 1,747 1,729 1,713 1,848 1,721

R 2,431 R 2,489 R 2,649 R 2,514 R 2,506 R 2,494 R 2,556 R 2,528

1,445 1,652 1,492 1,630 1,515 1,629 1,587 R 1,560 1,647 1,571

R 13,539 R 13,924 R 14,134 R 13,872 R 14,179 R 14,686 R 14,625 R 14,499

4,176 4,565 4,279 3,841 3,553 3,524 3,636 3,747 3,679 3,884

2,665 2,739 2,668 2,522 2,590 2,563 2,634 2,616 2,682 2,630

19,244 19,159 20,047 19,556 20,039 20,494 20,020 20,161 19,581 19,818

R 45,741 R 46,774 R 47,632 R 46,032 R 46,995 R 47,901 R 47,393 R 47,763

14,874 14,260

2,350 2,325 2,376 2,159 2,413 2,446 R 2,465 R 2,561 2,464 2,396

R 3,766 R 4,063 R 4,128 R 4,081 R 4,221 R 4,189 R 4,013 R 4,179

2,414 2,509

1,178 1,234 1,280 1,196 1,279 1,371 1,348 1,278 1,330 1,277

4,071 4,079

47,350 47,067

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

2016 9-Month Average ..... 2015 9-Month Average .....

1,666 1,714

2,399 2,362

1,256 1,269

1,587 1,542

13,922 13,763

2,372 2,373

3,976 4,112

2,601 2,437

19,661 19,577

4,034 4,012

46,565 46,272

NA NA

1973 Average 1975 Average 1980 Average 1985 Average 1990 Average 1995 Average 1996 Average 1997 Average 1998 Average 1999 Average 2000 Average 2001 Average 2002 Average 2003 Average 2004 Average 2005 Average 2006 Average 2007 Average 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Average 2011 Average 2012 Average 2013 Average 2014 Average

a Data are for unified Germany, i.e., the former East Germany and West Germany. b "OECD Europe" consists of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom; for 1984 forward, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia; and, for 2000 forward, Slovenia. c "Other OECD" consists of Australia, New Zealand, and the U.S. Territories; for 1984 forward, Mexico; for 2000 forward, Chile, Estonia, and Israel; and, for 2016 forward, Latvia. d The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) consists of "OECD Europe," Canada, Japan, South Korea, the United States, and "Other OECD." R=Revised. NA=Not available.

Notes: • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • U.S. geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#international (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • United States: Table 3.1. • Chile, East Germany, Former Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Mexico, Poland, South Korea, Non-OECD Countries, U.S. Territories, and World: 1973–1979—U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Database. • Countries Other Than United States: 1980–2008—EIA, International Energy Statistics (IES). • OECD Countries, and U.S. Territories: 2009 forward—EIA, IES. • World: 2009 forward—EIA, International Energy Statistics Database. • All Other Data:—International Energy Agency (IEA), Quarterly Oil Statistics and Energy Balances in OECD Countries, various issues.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

175

Figure 11.3 Petroleum Stocks in OECD Countries (Billion Barrels) Overview, End of Year, 1973–2016

OECD Stocks, End of Month, September

5

5 4.648

4.514 OECD

4

4.541

4

3

3

2

2

United States

OECD Europe

1

1

Japan 0

0 1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

2015

2016

2017

Selected OECD Countries, End of Month

0.167

France

0.165

September 2016 September 2017

0.285

Germany

0.275 0.127

Italy

0.128 0.078

United Kingdom

0.078 0.185

Canada

0.194 0.587

Japan

0.571 0.239

South Korea

0.244 2.051

United States

1.978

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

Note: OECD is the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#international. Source: Table 11.3.

176

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

1.8

2.0

2.2

Table 11.3 Petroleum Stocks in OECD Countries (Million Barrels) France 1973 Year 1975 Year 1980 Year 1985 Year 1990 Year 1995 Year 1996 Year 1997 Year 1998 Year 1999 Year 2000 Year 2001 Year 2002 Year 2003 Year 2004 Year 2005 Year 2006 Year 2007 Year 2008 Year 2009 Year 2010 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year

Germanya

Italy

United Kingdom

OECD Europeb

Canada

Japan

South Korea

United States

Other OECDc

OECDd

......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... .........................

201 225 243 139 143 155 154 161 169 160 170 165 170 179 177 185 182 180 179 175 168 165 162 167 168

181 187 319 277 280 302 303 299 323 290 272 273 253 273 267 283 283 275 279 284 287 281 288 290 284

152 143 170 156 171 162 152 147 153 148 157 151 156 153 154 151 153 152 148 146 143 135 126 125 119

156 165 168 131 103 101 103 100 104 101 100 113 104 100 101 95 103 92 93 89 83 80 80 78 78

1,070 1,154 1,464 1,154 1,222 1,257 1,261 1,274 1,358 1,261 1,324 1,315 1,282 1,325 1,328 1,380 1,413 1,398 1,441 1,432 1,393 1,338 1,347 1,350 1,354

140 174 164 112 143 132 127 144 139 141 143 154 155 165 154 168 169 163 162 157 184 178 174 170 193

303 375 495 500 572 631 651 685 649 629 634 634 615 636 635 612 631 621 629 591 590 592 594 580 581

NA NA NA 13 64 92 123 124 129 132 140 143 140 155 149 135 152 143 135 155 165 167 181 185 197

1,008 1,133 1,392 1,519 1,621 1,563 1,507 1,560 1,647 1,493 1,468 1,586 1,548 1,568 1,645 1,682 1,703 1,648 1,719 1,758 1,772 1,725 1,779 1,728 1,825

67 67 72 119 126 125 131 126 123 115 127 122 113 106 109 114 115 123 125 119 120 119 109 116 118

2,588 2,903 3,587 3,417 3,749 3,799 3,800 3,913 4,045 3,771 3,836 3,954 3,854 3,956 4,020 4,090 4,182 4,096 4,211 4,213 4,224 4,119 4,184 4,127 4,268

2015 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October .................... November ................ December ...............

170 170 173 170 175 170 168 167 167 165 164 168

284 286 284 284 288 286 281 283 281 280 281 285

116 113 121 124 122 117 116 123 117 118 117 117

73 75 76 85 78 77 74 77 79 80 83 81

1,371 1,383 1,407 1,411 1,419 1,409 1,400 1,429 1,433 1,436 1,446 1,462

192 184 183 185 181 176 184 185 182 183 187 188

574 568 568 558 582 578 589 594 590 588 582 582

197 198 201 210 224 225 223 227 226 223 222 228

1,847 1,848 1,881 1,907 1,928 1,939 1,936 1,958 1,968 1,975 1,989 1,982

119 117 115 115 112 118 118 116 115 111 109 114

4,300 4,297 4,355 4,385 4,446 4,445 4,450 4,509 4,514 4,516 4,535 4,556

2016 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October .................... November ................ December ...............

171 169 166 171 167 167 169 167 167 163 166 162

287 289 289 286 289 288 290 287 285 287 283 285

120 123 120 126 123 121 125 130 127 128 126 124

83 81 77 77 81 82 75 80 78 77 80 82

1,487 1,494 1,480 1,480 1,488 1,479 1,499 1,485 1,468 1,450 1,455 1,449

187 183 184 180 169 175 186 186 185 190 190 183

580 564 560 566 574 573 577 585 587 587 573 562

219 233 236 230 235 238 238 233 239 238 238 230

2,014 2,018 2,024 2,035 2,051 2,049 2,066 2,066 2,051 2,053 2,056 2,030

116 113 115 116 118 121 123 118 118 117 110 115

4,603 4,605 4,598 4,608 4,633 4,635 4,688 4,674 4,648 4,635 4,622 4,570

2017 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ...............

166 166 168 165 167 165 170 170 165

285 285 281 283 280 277 279 279 275

129 131 134 131 132 134 131 131 128

82 82 81 84 81 81 80 R 80 78

1,504 1,507 1,500 1,507 1,485 1,475 1,480 1,466 1,443

185 187 185 181 180 183 R 191 R 193 194

562 556 546 558 572 566 577 582 571

238 236 238 240 238 236 240 240 244

2,049 2,046 2,029 2,029 2,034 2,009 1,998 1,986 1,978

117 113 116 120 124 120 115 114 111

4,654 4,645 4,614 4,636 4,633 R 4,589 4,600 R 4,581 4,541

a Through December 1983, the data for Germany are for the former West Germany only. Beginning with January 1984, the data for Germany are for the unified Germany, i.e., the former East Germany and West Germany. b "OECD Europe" consists of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom; for 1984 forward, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia; and, for 2000 forward, Slovenia. c "Other OECD" consists of Australia, New Zealand, and the U.S. Territories; for 1984 forward, Mexico; for 2000 forward, Chile, Estonia, and Israel; and, for 2016 forward, Latvia. d The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) consists of "OECD Europe," Canada, Japan, South Korea, the United States, and "Other OECD." R=Revised. NA=Not available. Notes: • Stocks are at end of period. • Petroleum stocks include crude

oil (including strategic reserves), unfinished oils, natural gas liquids, and refined products. • In the United States in January 1975, 1981, and 1983, numerous respondents were added to bulk terminal and pipeline surveys, thereby affecting subsequent stocks reported. New-basis end-of-year U.S. stocks, in million barrels, would have been 1,121 in 1974, 1,425 in 1980, and 1,461 in 1982. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • U.S. geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#international (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: • United States: Table 3.4. • U.S. Territories: 1983 forward—U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Database. • All Other Data: 1973–1982—International Energy Agency (IEA), Quarterly Oil Statistics and Energy Balances, various issues. 1983—IEA, Monthly Oil and Gas Statistics Database. 1984 forward—IEA, Monthly Oil Data Service, December 14, 2017.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

177

International Petroleum Tables 11.1a and 11.1b Sources United States Table 3.1. All Other Countries and World, Annual Data 1973–1979: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Annual 1981, Table 8. 1980 forward: EIA, International Energy Statistics Database, December 2017. All Other Countries and World, Monthly Data 1973–1980: Petroleum Intelligence Weekly (PIW), Oil & Gas Journal (OGJ), and EIA adjustments. 1981–1993: PIW, OGJ, and other industry sources. 1994 forward: EIA, International Energy Statistics Database, December 2017.

178

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

12. Environment .

Figure 12.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide) a

Total,a Monthly

Total, 1973–2016

800 8,000

600 6,000

400

4,000

200

2,000

0

0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015

By Major Source, 1973–2016

J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 2015 2016 2017

By Major Source, Monthly 300

3,000 Petroleum

Petroleum

200

2,000 Coalb

1,000

Coalb

100

Natural Gas

0

Natural Gas

0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015

a

Total, January–September

J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 2015 2016 2017

By Major Source, September 2017

5,000

4,000

4,017

3,882

3,835

Petroleum

191

3,000 b

Coal

109

2,000

1,000

Natural Gas

105

0 2015 a b

180

2016

2017

Excludes emissions from biomass energy consumption. Includes coal coke net imports.

0

50

100

150

200

250

Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#environment. Source: Table 12.1.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 12.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxidea) Petroleum Coalb 1973 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 1996 Total 1997 Total 1998 Total 1999 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Natural Aviation Distillate Gasc Gasoline Fuel Oild

HGLe

Jet Fuel

Kerosene

Lubricants

Motor Petroleum Residual Gasolinef Coke Fuel Oil

Otherg

Total

Totalh,i

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

1,207 1,181 1,436 1,638 1,821 1,913 1,995 2,040 2,064 2,062 2,156 2,088 2,095 2,136 2,160 2,182 2,147 2,172 2,140 1,876 1,986 1,876 1,657 1,718 1,714

1,179 1,046 1,061 929 1,027 1,186 1,207 1,214 1,193 1,198 1,246 1,193 1,231 1,196 1,201 1,183 1,170 1,246 1,255 1,233 1,292 1,311 1,372 1,409 1,440

6 5 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

480 442 446 445 470 498 524 534 537 555 579 597 586 610 632 639 645 647 610 559 585 599 574 581 614

76 70 80 83 76 91 97 95 91 100 104 94 96 93 95 90 85 89 85 83 86 80 84 92 87

155 146 156 178 223 222 232 234 238 245 254 243 237 231 240 246 240 238 226 204 210 209 206 210 216

32 24 24 17 6 8 9 10 12 11 10 11 6 8 10 10 8 5 2 3 3 2 1 1 1

13 11 13 12 13 13 12 13 14 14 14 13 12 11 12 12 11 12 11 10 11 10 9 10 10

911 911 900 930 988 1,045 1,063 1,075 1,107 1,128 1,136 1,152 1,183 1,187 1,210 1,209 1,217 1,211 1,143 1,129 1,112 1,078 1,071 1,087 1,095

54 51 49 55 70 76 R 80 80 93 R 97 R 87 R 90 R 97 96 R 107 R 106 106 R 100 R 93 R 87 82 79 R 79 77 76

506 442 452 216 221 152 152 143 158 148 162 145 125 138 155 164 122 129 111 91 96 82 66 57 46

97 93 129 86 114 107 125 131 116 119 106 125 121 134 136 135 147 143 126 107 115 114 110 116 108

2,330 2,195 2,253 2,025 2,184 2,215 2,298 2,319 2,369 2,419 2,454 2,470 2,466 2,511 R 2,598 R 2,615 2,583 R 2,576 R 2,409 2,275 2,302 R 2,255 2,202 2,233 2,255

4,715 4,421 4,750 R 4,593 5,039 5,324 5,511 R 5,584 5,637 R 5,690 R 5,867 5,762 5,805 5,855 R 5,971 R 5,992 5,912 6,005 5,815 R 5,396 5,591 R 5,454 R 5,243 5,372 5,419

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

143 134 118 99 115 137 151 145 129 108 100 102 1,480

170 160 141 109 101 103 112 112 103 108 122 141 1,483

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

54 53 53 50 49 49 50 50 51 52 47 49 607

9 8 8 7 7 7 7 8 6 8 7 9 91

17 16 19 18 19 20 21 20 18 20 18 20 227

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11

90 83 94 93 96 95 99 99 94 96 92 95 1,126

7 4 7 7 7 7 7 8 5 6 5 5 76

4 3 4 3 4 3 5 5 4 4 4 5 47

8 9 9 9 11 11 11 9 9 7 9 10 112

192 177 196 188 194 192 201 199 187 194 184 195 2,299

506 472 456 397 411 433 466 457 420 411 407 439 5,274

123

R 169 R 145

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

50 48 51 47 48 48 46 50 49 51 49 52 589

9 8 8 6 7 6 7 6 7 7 7 9 88

18 18 19 19 20 21 21 21 20 20 20 21 237

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11

90 90 98 93 98 97 100 101 96 95 93 96 1,145

7 6 7 5 5 4 6 8 5 6 9 7 76

5 3

190 186 198 189 192 192 197 204 191 196 192 201 2,327

R 483

7 5 5 6 5 4 5 5 5 59

10 12 9 10 9 10 9 11 10 11 9 10 120

49 45 54 47 51 49 48 51 49 443

10 7 8 7 7 6 7 6 7 64

20 17 21 19 21 21 22 22 20 183

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7

88 84 98 93 100 98 100 102 94 857

8 4 3 6 6 5 9 6 6 53

7 4 6 5 6 6 4 5 5 46

10 9 11 11 10 10 10 10 9 91

192 172 201 190 201 197 200 203 191 1,746

406 3,835

437 459

65 67

177 169

1 1

8 9

861 842

54 59

44 34

90 86

1,738 1,727

3,882 4,017

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

83 81 92 125 145 144 123 109 97 128 1,354

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

126 97 99 R 90 R 102 117 137 130 109 1,007

105 1,073

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

1,019 1,170

1,116 1,112

1 1

R 103

128

R 113

107 109 119 120 106 105 118 156 1,495 R 158 R 127 R 140 R 105 R 103 R 104 R 116 R 116

a Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon equivalent by multiplying by 12/44. b Includes coal coke net imports. c Natural gas, excluding supplemental gaseous fuels. d Distillate fuel oil, excluding biodiesel. e Hydrocarbon gas liquids. f Finished motor gasoline, excluding fuel ethanol. g Aviation gasoline blending components, crude oil, motor gasoline blending components, petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, still gas, unfinished oils, waxes, and miscellaneous petroleum products. h Includes electric power sector use of geothermal energy and non-biomass waste. See Table 12.6. i Excludes emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7.

R5

434

R 411

384 392 427 462 469 421 411 407 487 5,187 R 477 R 396 R 440

385 407

R 419 R 454 R 450

R=Revised. (s)=Less than 0.5 million metric tons. Notes: • Data are estimates for carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption, plus the relatively small amount of emissions from the non-combustion use of fossil fuels. See "Section 12 Methodology and Sources" at end of section. • See "Carbon Dioxide" in Glossary. • See Note 1, "Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases," at end of section. • Data exclude emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7 and Note 2, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#environment (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

Historical revisions are due to revised data for non-combustion use of fossil fuels in Table 1.11b.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

181

Figure 12.2 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Sector (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide) Totala by End-Use Sector,b 1973–2016 2,500

Residential Sector by Major Source, 1973–2016 1,000

2,000 750

Industrial 1,500

Retail Electricityb

Transportation 500

1,000

Residential Natural Gas Commercial

250

500

Petroleum 0

0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015

Commercial Sector by Major Source, 1973–2016 1,000

750

1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015

Industrial Sector by Major Source, 1973–2016 1,000

Retail Electricityb

750

Retail Electricityb Natural Gas

500

500 Petroleum

250

Natural Gas

250 Coal

Petroleum 0

0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015

Transportation Sector by Major Source, 1973–2016

1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015

Electric Power Sector by Major Source, 1973–2016

2,500

2,500

2,000

2,000 Coal

Petroleum 1,500

1,500

1,000

1,000

500

500

Base Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas

0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 a

Excludes emissions from biomass energy consumption. Emissions from energy consumption in the electric power sector are allocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to each sector’s share of b

182

Petroleum 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 total electricity retail sales. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#environment. Sources: Tables 12.2–12.6.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 12.2 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Residential Sector (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxidea) Petroleum Coal 1973 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 1996 Total 1997 Total 1998 Total 1999 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Natural Gasb

Distillate Fuel Oilc

HGLd

Kerosene

Total

Retail Electricitye

Totalf

.......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................... ..........................

9 6 3 4 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

264 266 256 241 238 263 284 270 247 257 271 259 265 276 264 262 237 257 266 259 259 255 225 267 278

147 132 96 80 72 66 68 64 56 60 66 66 63 68 67 62 52 53 55 43 41 38 35 36 39

36 32 20 20 22 25 30 29 27 33 35 33 34 34 32 32 28 31 35 35 33 31 25 30 29

16 12 8 11 5 5 6 7 8 8 7 7 4 5 6 6 5 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1

199 176 124 111 98 96 104 99 91 102 108 106 101 108 106 101 85 86 91 79 77 70 61 66 69

435 419 529 553 624 678 710 719 759 762 805 805 835 847 856 897 869 897 877 819 874 823 757 768 766

907 867 911 909 963 1,039 1,099 1,090 1,097 1,122 1,185 1,171 1,203 1,232 1,227 1,261 1,191 1,241 1,234 1,157 1,210 1,148 1,043 1,100 1,113

2015 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Total ..........................

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

52 50 35 18 10 7 6 6 6 11 22 32 253

6 5 4 2 2 1 2 2 2 5 5 5 40

3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 27

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

8 7 6 4 5 3 4 4 4 7 7 8 68

72 66 57 42 49 65 81 77 64 48 44 51 714

132 123 98 64 63 76 90 87 74 66 74 92 1,035

2016 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. October ...................... November .................. December .................. Total ..........................

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

48 38 25 18 11 7 6 6 6 10 21 44 239

5 5 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 4 6 39

3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 27

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

8 7 6 5 5 4 4 4 5 6 6 8 67

65 52 41 R 37 43 R 65 84 R 83 R 64 R 49 43 62 R 683

2017 January ...................... February .................... March ......................... April ........................... May ............................ June ........................... July ............................ August ....................... September ................. 9-Month Total ...........

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

46 32 32 15 11 7 6 6 6 161

6 4 4 3 2 3 2 2 2 28

3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 20

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

8 6 6 5 4 5 4 4 4 48

2016 9-Month Total ........... 2015 9-Month Total ...........

NA NA

164 188

27 25

20 20

1 (s)

47 45

a Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon equivalent by multiplying by 12/44. b Natural gas, excluding supplemental gaseous fuels. c Distillate fuel oil, excluding biodiesel. d Hydrocarbon gas liquids. e Emissions from energy consumption (for electricity and a small amount of useful thermal output) in the electric power sector are allocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total electricity retail sales. See Tables 7.6 and 12.6. f Excludes emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 million metric tons.

63 45

121

R 97

72

R 60 R 58 R 76 R 94 R 92

75

R 65 R 69

114

R 989

117 83

R 47

R 85

40 46 59 78 R 72 56 507

60 61 71 R 88 R 82 67 715

533 573

744 806

Notes: • Data are estimates for carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption. See "Section 12 Methodology and Sources" at end of section. • See "Carbon Dioxide" in Glossary. • See Note 1, "Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases," at end of section. • Data exclude emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7 and Note 2, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#environment (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

183

Table 12.3 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Commercial Sector (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxidea) Petroleum Coal 1973 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 1996 Total 1997 Total 1998 Total 1999 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Natural Gasb

Distillate Fuel Oilc

HGLd

Motor Kerosene Gasolinee

Petroleum Coke

Residual Fuel Oil

Total

Retail Electricityf

Totalg

........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................

15 14 11 13 12 11 12 12 9 10 9 9 9 8 10 9 6 7 8 7 7 6 4 4 4

141 136 141 132 142 164 171 174 164 165 173 164 170 173 170 163 154 164 171 169 168 171 157 179 190

47 43 38 46 39 35 35 32 31 32 36 37 32 36 34 33 29 28 28 29 29 29 26 25 26

9 8 6 6 6 7 8 8 7 9 9 9 9 10 10 8 8 8 10 9 9 9 9 10 10

5 4 3 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

6 6 8 7 8 1 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 4

NA NA NA NA 0 (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

52 39 44 18 18 11 11 9 7 6 7 6 6 9 10 9 6 6 6 6 5 4 2 2 1

120 100 98 79 73 56 57 54 50 51 58 57 52 60 58 55 47 46 47 47 46 45 40 40 40

334 333 412 480 566 620 643 686 724 735 783 797 795 796 815 841 835 861 849 784 804 768 731 736 736

609 583 662 704 793 851 883 926 947 960 1,022 1,027 1,026 1,037 1,053 1,069 1,043 1,078 1,075 1,007 1,025 990 932 959 970

2015 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October .................... November ................ December ................ Total ........................

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 3

29 28 21 13 9 7 7 7 8 11 16 19 176

4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 4 26

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 25

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 0 0 (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

7 6 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 7 61

59 56 52 48 56 65 71 69 62 55 50 49 692

95 91 79 65 69 76 82 81 74 72 72 75 932

2016 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October .................... November ................ December ................ Total ........................

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 2

28 23 16 13 9 8 7 8 8 10 15 25 170

3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 26

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 26

(s) (s) (s) (s) 0 (s) (s) 0 0 0 (s) (s) (s)

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

6 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 7 61

2017 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... 9-Month Total .........

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

26 20 20 12 10 8 7 8 8 119

4 3 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 18

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 19

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

7 5 6 5 4 5 4 4 4 44

2016 9-Month Total ......... 2015 9-Month Total .........

2 2

119 130

17 17

7 7

(s) (s)

19 19

(s) (s)

(s) (s)

44 42

a Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon equivalent by multiplying by 12/44. b Natural gas, excluding supplemental gaseous fuels. c Distillate fuel oil, excluding biodiesel. d Hydrocarbon gas liquids. e Finished motor gasoline, excluding fuel ethanol. f Emissions from energy consumption (for electricity and a small amount of useful thermal output) in the electric power sector are allocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total electricity retail sales. See Tables 7.6 and 12.6. g Excludes emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 million metric tons.

184

55

89

R 46

R 75

43 43 R 49 63 R 70 R 71 R 61 R 54 R 48 R 56 R 662

65 61 R 63 R 74 R 82 R 83 74 R 70 69 89 R 896

54 44

87 69

R 49

R 75

44 51 58 67 R 65 56 487

61 65 70 R 79 R 77 68 652

502 538

667 713

Notes: • Data are estimates for carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption. See "Section 12 Methodology and Sources" at end of section. • See "Carbon Dioxide" in Glossary. • See Note 1, "Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases," at end of section. • Data exclude emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7 and Note 2, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#environment (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 12.4 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxidea) Coal Coke Natural Distillate Net Imports Gasb Fuel Oilc

Coal

Petroleum HGLd

Kerosene

Lubricants

Motor Petroleum Residual Gasolinee Coke Fuel Oil

.................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

371 336 289 256 258 233 227 224 219 208 211 204 188 190 190 183 179 175 168 131 153 146 141 145 143

-1 2 -4 -2 1 7 3 5 8 7 7 3 7 6 16 5 7 3 5 -3 -1 1 (s) -2 -2

536 440 430 363 435 492 508 509 500 480 486 444 453 435 438 406 408 418 419 395 427 438 455 472 488

106 97 96 81 84 82 86 88 88 86 87 94 88 85 88 92 91 91 98 78 84 90 93 92 100

28 27 54 55 46 58 59 58 56 57 58 51 52 48 52 48 47 50 38 38 42 38 48 50 45

11 9 13 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 2 1 (s) (s) 1 (s) (s) (s) (s)

7 6 7 6 7 7 6 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 6 5 5 5 5

18 16 11 15 13 14 14 15 14 11 11 21 22 23 26 25 26 21 17 16 17 17 17 17 14

R 53

2015 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

12 11 11 10 11 11 11 11 10 11 10 10 129

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) -2

46 42 43 40 39 38 39 39 38 40 41 43 487

9 10 9 8 6 7 7 6 8 6 4 5 85

6 5 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 4 5 53

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

1 (s) 1 1 1 (s) 1 (s) (s) 1 (s) (s) 6

2016 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... October ................ November ............ December ............ Total ....................

10 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 112

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) -1 (s) -2

46 42 43 40 40 39 40 41 39 40 42 46 498

8 8 9 6 6 7 4 7 7 7 7 7 83

6 5 4 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 5 50

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

2017 January ................ February .............. March ................... April ..................... May ...................... June ..................... July ...................... August ................. September ........... 9-Month Total .....

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 9 83

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) -2

46 41 44 40 41 40 41 41 40 374

7 7 10 6 8 7 6 7 7 65

6 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 36

2016 9-Month Total ..... 2015 9-Month Total .....

84 98

-1 -2

370 363

62 70

36 39

1973 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 1996 Total 1997 Total 1998 Total 1999 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Otherf

Total

Retail Electricityg

Totalh

97 93 129 86 114 107 125 131 116 119 106 125 121 134 136 135 147 143 126 107 115 114 110 116 108

R 463

70 80 85 R 77 79 79 78 85 82 85 83 R 78 73 68 R 65 70 65 64

142 115 103 57 32 25 25 22 16 14 17 14 13 15 17 20 16 13 13 9 8 9 5 3 3

413 461 358 363 362 R 389 R 392 379 R 381 364 392 R 383 391 R 413 410 R 421 408 375 327 341 339 R 348 349 R 340

515 490 601 583 638 659 678 694 706 704 719 667 654 672 674 672 650 662 642 550 587 574 543 542 543

1,884 1,680 1,776 1,558 1,695 1,752 1,804 R 1,824 1,811 R 1,780 1,787 R 1,712 1,684 1,694 R 1,732 R 1,677 1,664 1,666 1,608 R 1,400 R 1,508 1,498 R 1,488 1,506 1,511

1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 17

6 2 6 6 6 6 6 R7 4 5 5 4 65

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 2

8 9 9 9 11 11 11 9 9 7 9 10 112

32 28 31 29 30 30 30 29 27 25 24 27 341

42 41 39 37 42 47 48 47 43 40 38 36 502

131 122 123 116 122 125 129 126 118 115 113 R 117 1,457

(s) (s) 1 (s) (s) 1 (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 6

1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 17

6 5 6 4 4 3 5 7 4 5 8 6 R 64

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 3

10 12 9 10 9 10 9 11 10 11 9 10 120

31 32 30 27 25 25 24 31 27 R 30 30 31 343

R 39 R 34 R 32 R 33 R 37 R 44 R 47 R 47 R 41 R 39 R 36 R 40

R 126 R 119 R 115 R 109 R 111 R 117 R 121 R 128 R 117 R 118 R 117 R 126

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 3

1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 13

7 4 2 5 5 4 8 5 6 45

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 3

10 9 11 11 10 10 10 10 9 91

(s) (s)

4 4

13 13

45 50

2 2

90 86

a Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon equivalent by multiplying by 12/44. b Natural gas, excluding supplemental gaseous fuels. c Distillate fuel oil, excluding biodiesel. d Hydrocarbon gas liquids. e Finished motor gasoline, excluding fuel ethanol. f Aviation gasoline blending components, crude oil, motor gasoline blending components, petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, still gas, unfinished oils, waxes, and miscellaneous petroleum products. g Emissions from energy consumption (for electricity and a small amount of useful thermal output) in the electric power sector are allocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total electricity retail sales. See Tables 7.6 and 12.6. h Excludes emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7.

51

R 49

54 67

R 68 R 72

31

R 26

R 473

R 1,424

37 32

R 124

107

30 29 29 26 29 28 29 257

R 35

33 37 40 44 R 44 38 341

R 119

115 1,052

252 265

355 387

1,060 1,111

111 116

R 115

123

R 122

R=Revised. (s)=Less than 0.5 million metric tons and greater than -0.5 million metric tons. Notes: • Data are estimates for carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption, plus the relatively small amount of emissions from the non-combustion use of fossil fuels. See "Section 12 Methodology and Sources" at end of section. • See "Carbon Dioxide" in Glossary. • See Note 1, "Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases," at end of section. • Data exclude emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7 and Note 2, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#environment (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

Historical revisions are due to revised data for non-combustion use of fossil fuels in Table 1.11b.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

185

Table 12.5 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxidea) Petroleum

2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4

1,315 1,292 1,400 1,421 1,588 1,681 1,725 1,744 1,782 1,828 1,873 1,852 1,892 1,892 1,959 1,986 2,014 2,021 1,898 1,832 1,849 1,818 1,780 1,807 1,825

3 (s) 3 2 3 2 4 4 3 3 4 4 37

143 131 152 148 154 153 161 160 151 155 145 151 1,806

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 4

148 136 156 152 157 157 165 163 154 158 149 155 1,849

87 86 94 89 94 93 96 97 92 91 89 93 1,101

4 2 5 6 4 4 5 4 3 4 4 4 R 49

143 139 155 150 156 157 162 163 153 154 149 153 1,835

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 4

R 147

143 159 154 160 160 165 167 156 157 152 158 1,879

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 3

85 81 94 90 96 95 96 98 90 824

6 3 5 4 5 5 3 4 4 40

144 133 157 149 161 160 161 165 152 1,383

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 3

149 137 161 153 164 163 164 169 155 1,415

4 4

828 811

37 26

1,378 1,355

3 3

1,411 1,387

6 5 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

163 155 204 232 268 307 327 341 352 365 377 387 394 408 433 444 467 469 424 405 426 437 416 424 443

3 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 3 3

152 145 155 178 223 222 232 234 238 245 254 243 237 231 240 246 240 238 226 204 210 209 206 210 216

6 6 6 6 7 6 6 6 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

886 889 881 908 967 1,029 1,047 1,057 1,090 1,115 1,122 1,128 1,158 1,161 1,181 1,182 1,188 1,186 1,124 1,109 1,091 1,058 1,051 1,066 1,077

57 56 110 62 80 72 67 56 53 52 70 46 53 45 58 66 71 78 73 62 70 61 53 46 35

2015 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October .................... November ................ December ................ Total ........................

(h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h)

5 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 40

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

35 34 37 38 38 39 41 41 39 38 34 35 449

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 3

17 16 19 18 19 20 21 20 18 20 18 20 227

1 (s) 1 (s) 1 (s) 1 (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 5

87 80 91 89 93 91 95 95 90 93 88 92 1,083

2016 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... October .................... November ................ December ................ Total ........................

(h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h)

5 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 41

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

33 32 36 36 37 38 38 40 37 38 35 35 437

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 3

18 18 19 19 20 21 21 21 20 20 20 21 237

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 5

2017 January .................... February .................. March ....................... April ......................... May .......................... June ......................... July .......................... August ..................... September ............... 9-Month Total .........

(h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h)

4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 29

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 1

32 31 37 36 39 38 39 40 37 330

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 2

20 17 21 19 21 21 22 22 20 183

2016 9-Month Total ......... 2015 9-Month Total .........

(h) (h)

30 30

1 1

328 342

2 2

177 169

HGLd

a Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon equivalent by multiplying by 12/44. b Natural gas, excluding supplemental gaseous fuels. c Distillate fuel oil, excluding biodiesel. d Hydrocarbon gas liquids. e Finished motor gasoline, excluding fuel ethanol. f Emissions from energy consumption (for electricity and a small amount of useful thermal output) in the electric power sector are allocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total electricity retail sales. See Tables 7.6 and 12.6. g Excludes emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7. h Beginning in 1978, the small amounts of coal consumed for transportation are reported as industrial sector consumption.

186

Jet Fuel

1,273 1,258 1,363 1,391 1,548 1,640 1,683 1,700 1,743 1,789 1,833 1,813 1,852 1,854 1,922 1,948 1,976 1,980 1,856 1,789 1,806 1,774 1,735 1,756 1,781

39 32 34 28 36 38 39 41 35 36 36 35 37 33 32 33 33 35 37 38 38 39 41 47 40

........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................ ........................

Distillate Fuel Oilc

Totalg

(s) (s) (h) h ( ) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h)

1973 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 1996 Total 1997 Total 1998 Total 1999 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Aviation Gasoline

Retail Electricityf

Coal

Natural Gasb

Lubricants

Motor Gasolinee

Residual Fuel Oil

Total

R=Revised. (s)=Less than 0.5 million metric tons. Notes: • Data are estimates for carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption, plus the relatively small amount of emissions from the non-combustion use of fossil fuels. See "Section 12 Methodology and Sources" at end of section. • See "Carbon Dioxide" in Glossary. • See Note 1, "Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases," at end of section. • Data exclude emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7 and Note 2, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#environment (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Table 12.6 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxidea) Petroleum Coal 1973 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 1996 Total 1997 Total 1998 Total 1999 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Natural Gasb

Distillate Fuel Oilc

Petroleum Coke

Residual Fuel Oil

Total

Geothermal

NonBiomass Wasted

Totale

............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................ ............................

812 824 1,137 1,367 1,548 1,661 1,752 1,797 1,828 1,836 1,927 1,870 1,890 1,931 1,943 1,984 1,954 1,987 1,959 1,741 1,828 1,723 1,511 1,571 1,569

199 172 200 166 176 228 205 219 248 260 281 290 306 278 297 319 338 372 362 373 399 409 493 444 444

20 17 12 6 7 8 8 8 10 10 13 12 9 12 8 8 5 6 5 5 6 5 4 4 6

2 (s) 1 1 3 8 8 10 13 11 10 11 18 18 22 24 21 17 15 13 14 14 9 13 12

254 231 194 79 92 45 50 56 82 76 69 79 52 69 69 69 28 31 19 14 12 7 6 6 7

276 248 207 86 102 61 66 75 105 97 91 102 79 98 99 101 55 54 39 33 32 26 19 23 26

NA NA NA NA (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

NA NA NA NA 6 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 13 11 11 11 12 11 12 11 11 11 11 11 11

1,286 1,244 1,544 1,619 1,831 1,960 2,033 2,101 2,192 2,204 2,310 2,273 2,288 2,319 2,350 2,416 2,358 2,425 2,373 2,158 2,270 2,170 2,034 2,050 2,050

2015 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... October ........................ November .................... December .................... Total ............................

130 123 107 89 104 126 140 135 118 98 89 92 1,350

39 36 39 36 40 49 57 56 49 43 40 42 527

1 2 (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 5

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11

1 2 (s) (s) (s) (s) 1 1 (s) (s) (s) (s) 7

3 5 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 24

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11

173 164 148 127 147 177 200 194 170 144 132 136 1,913

2016 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... October ........................ November .................... December .................... Total ............................

114 93 73 R 72 82 116 136 135 114 100 88 119 1,241

42 38 41 39 44 53 R 62 63 50 41 36 37 R 547

R1 (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 4

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12

1 1 (s) (s) (s) (s) 1 1 (s) (s) (s) (s) R6

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 R 22

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11

159 133 116 114 129 172 201 201 167 143 127 158 1,821

35 30

1 1 1 (s) 1 1 1 1 1 7

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 4

2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 14

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8

R 155

117 134 157 R 190 R 182 150 1,337

10 9

4 6

17 19

(s) (s)

8 8

1,393 1,500

2017 January ........................ February ...................... March ........................... April ............................. May .............................. June ............................. July .............................. August ......................... September ................... 9-Month Total ............. 2016 9-Month Total ............. 2015 9-Month Total .............

R 89

116 88

R 40

81 R 93 108 128 121 100 924

34 R 39 R 47 R 59 R 58 48 391

(s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) 3

934 1,071

433 401

3 4

a Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon equivalent by multiplying by 12/44. b Natural gas, excluding supplemental gaseous fuels. c Distillate fuel oil, excluding biodiesel. d Municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels. Through 1994, also includes blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. e Excludes emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 million metric tons. Notes: • Data are estimates for carbon dioxide emissions from energy

121

R 131

consumption. See "Section 12 Methodology and Sources" at end of section. • See "Carbon Dioxide" in Glossary. • See Note 1, "Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases," at end of section. • Data exclude emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7 and Note 2, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#environment (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

187

Table 12.7 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Consumption (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxidea) By Source Woodb 1973 Total 1975 Total 1980 Total 1985 Total 1990 Total 1995 Total 1996 Total 1997 Total 1998 Total 1999 Total 2000 Total 2001 Total 2002 Total 2003 Total 2004 Total 2005 Total 2006 Total 2007 Total 2008 Total 2009 Total 2010 Total 2011 Total 2012 Total 2013 Total 2014 Total

Biomass Wastec

Fuel Ethanold

By Sector Biodiesel

Total

Residential

Commerciale

Industrialf

Transportation

Electric Powerg

Total

...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ......................

143 140 232 252 208 222 229 222 205 208 212 188 187 188 199 200 197 196 193 181 186 189 189 204 210

(s) (s) (s) 14 24 30 32 30 30 29 27 33 36 36 35 37 36 37 39 41 42 42 42 45 47

NA NA NA 3 4 8 6 7 8 8 9 10 12 16 20 23 31 39 55 62 73 73 73 75 76

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA (s) (s) (s) (s) 1 2 3 3 3 2 8 8 13 13

143 141 232 270 237 260 266 259 242 245 248 231 235 240 255 261 266 276 290 287 303 312 312 337 346

33 40 80 95 54 49 51 40 36 37 39 35 36 38 38 40 36 39 44 47 41 42 39 54 55

1 1 2 2 8 9 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 9 9 10 10 10 11 10 11 12

109 100 150 168 147 166 170 172 160 161 161 147 144 141 151 150 151 146 139 125 136 139 141 141 142

NA NA NA 3 4 8 6 7 8 8 9 10 12 16 20 23 33 41 57 64 74 80 80 87 88

(s) (s) (s) 1 23 28 30 30 30 30 29 31 35 37 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 40 42 43 49

143 141 232 270 237 260 266 259 242 245 248 231 235 240 255 261 266 276 290 287 303 312 312 337 346

2015 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

17 15 16 16 16 16 17 17 16 16 16 17 194

4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 47

6 6 7 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 79

(s) 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 14

28 26 28 27 28 28 29 29 28 28 28 29 334

4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 4 41

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14

12 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 11 12 12 12 141

6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 8 90

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 48

28 26 28 27 28 28 29 29 28 28 28 29 334

2016 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. October .................. November .............. December .............. Total ......................

16 15 15 14 15 15 16 16 15 15 15 R 18 R 186

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 R 46

6 6 7 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 81

1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 20

27 26

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 35

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14

12 11

12 12 11 11 12 R 14 R 139

7 7 8 7 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 9 98

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 R3 4 4 47

2017 January .................. February ................ March ..................... April ....................... May ........................ June ....................... July ........................ August ................... September ............. 9-Month Total .......

16 15 16 15 15 R 16 16 R 17 15 142

4 4 4 4 4 R3 4 4 3 33

6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 61

1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 14

R 28 R 26

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10

12 11 12 11 11 11 12 12 11 104

7 7 8 8 9 9 9 9 8 72

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 36

R 28 R 26

28 27 28 28 29 29 27 249

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 27

2016 9-Month Total ....... 2015 9-Month Total .......

138 146

34 35

61 59

14 11

247 250

26 31

10 10

103 106

72 67

35 36

247 250

R 28

26 28

R 27

29 29 27 27 28 R 31 R 333

a Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon equivalent by multiplying by 12/44. b Wood and wood-derived fuels. c Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass. d Fuel ethanol minus denaturant. e Commercial sector, including commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. f Industrial sector, including industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants. g The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public.

188

R 12

11 11

R 11

27 26

R 28

26 28

R 27

29 29 27 27 28 R 31 R 333

28 27 28 28 29 29 27 249

R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 million metric tons. Notes: • Carbon dioxide emissions from biomass energy consumption are excluded from the energy-related carbon dioxide emissions reported in Tables 12.1–12.6. See Note 2, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section. • Data are estimates. See "Section 12 Methodology and Sources" at end of section. • See "Carbon Dioxide" in Glossary. • See Note 1, "Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#environment (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section.

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2017

Environment Note 1. Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases. Greenhouse gases are those gases—such as water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride—that are transparent to solar (shortwave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus preventing long-wave radiant energy from leaving Earth's atmosphere. The net effect is a trapping of absorbed radiation and a tendency to warm the planet's surface. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions account for about 98% of U.S. CO2 emissions. The vast majority of CO2 emissions come from fossil fuel combustion, with smaller amounts from the non-combustion use of fossil fuels, as well as from electricity generation using geothermal energy and non-biomass waste. Other sources of CO2 emissions include industrial processes, such as cement and limestone production. Data in the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) Monthly Energy Review (MER) Tables 12.1–12.6 are estimates for U.S. CO2 emissions from energy consumption, plus the non-combustion use of fossil fuels (excluded are estimates for CO2 emissions from biomass energy consumption, which appear in MER Table 12.7). For annual U.S. estimates for emissions of CO2 from all sources, as well as for emissions of other greenhouse gases, see EIA’s Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Report at http://www.eia.gov/environment/emissions/ghg_report/. Note 2. Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in MER Tables 12.1–12.6, but appear in MER Table 12.7. According to current international convention (see the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s “2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inv