Knowledge and Performance Tests (Drivers)

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National Safety Code for Motor Carriers

STANDARD 2 KNOWLEDGE AND PERFORMANCE TESTS (DRIVERS)

Although this Standard appears in the National Safety Code for Motor Carriers, it is important to note that it applies to all drivers, including commercial drivers.

Standard 2: Knowledge & Performance Tests

2-1

National Safety Code for Motor Carriers

TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE KNOWLEDGE TESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 PURPOSE AND GOAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 WRITTEN TESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 ORAL TESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 ROAD SIGN TESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 METHOD OF TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8 USE OF INTERPRETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8 SCORING – QUALIFICATION/DISQUALIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8 REGULATORY SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 WARNING SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10 PERFORMANCE TESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11 ADMINISTRATION OF ROAD TESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SCORING PRINCIPLES – UNIFORM ROAD TEST SHEET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEGREE OF ERROR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TEST PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INFORMATION PRIOR TO ROAD TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanically Deficient Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MARKING PROCEDURES FOR ROAD TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKING VEHICLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION – POINTS TO REMEMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONDUCTING ROAD TESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TERMINATION OF ROAD TEST – DRIVER FAILURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disqualifying Situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TERMINATION OF TEST – INCOMPLETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR DRIVER EXAMINERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R.C.C. (RESULTS – COMPLIMENT – CRITICISM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SCORING THE DRIVER’S MISTAKES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-11 2-12 2-12 2-14 2-15 2-15 2-16 2-16 2-17 2-17 2-17 2-18 2-18 2-19 2-19 2-20 2-21

THE START (Skill Test) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-21 2-21 2-21 2-21

SIGNALING INTENTION (General) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22 Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22 CLUTCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22 Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22 Standard 2: Knowledge & Performance Tests

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National Safety Code for Motor Carriers

Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22 POSTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23 Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23 Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23 THE QUICK STOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-23 2-23 2-23 2-24

BACKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-24 2-24 2-24 2-24

PARALLEL PARKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25 Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25 Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25 SPEED AND BRAKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25 Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25 Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25 POSITION IN ROAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26 Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26 Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26 STOP ON UPGRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26 Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26 Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26 START ON GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-27 2-27 2-27 2-27

TRAFFIC SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27 Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27 Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28 STOP SIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28 Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28 Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28

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National Safety Code for Motor Carriers

RIGHT TURNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Key points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-28 2-29 2-29 2-29

LEFT TURNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-29 2-29 2-30 2-30

ATTENTION AND DISTRACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-30 Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-30 Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-30 KEEPING LANE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31 Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31 Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31 FOLLOWING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31 Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31 Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32 OVERTAKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32 Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32 Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32 USE OF HORN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32 Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32 Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33 BEING OVERTAKEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33 Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33 Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33 APPROACH TO CORNER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33 Key points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33 Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33 RIGHT OF WAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-34 Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-34 Points to Watch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-34 APPENDIX - RE-EXAMINATIONS AND DRIVER IMPROVEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-35 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-35 INTERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-35 Standard 2: Knowledge & Performance Tests

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National Safety Code for Motor Carriers

PERSONAL INTERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTERVIEWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PREPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSING THE INTERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-6

2-35 2-36 2-37 2-38

Standard 2: Knowledge & Performance Tests

National Safety Code for Motor Carriers

KNOWLEDGE TESTS PURPOSE AND GOAL Knowledge tests are considered to be only a method by which a person’s technical knowledge can be measured. As applied to the process of driver examinations, knowledge tests generally include subjects pertaining to the vehicle, road rules and traffic laws. In recent years, attempts have been made to develop knowledge tests that assess the applicant’s ability to logically work out problems as well. Other tests have been designed to assess the applicant’s psychological make-up. Knowledge tests can come under various formats: written, oral, audio/visual, etc. A knowledge test is very clearly defined as a basic assessment to determine whether an applicant has met established standards of basic knowledge. WRITTEN TESTS The most popular method of testing an applicant’s knowledge is by utilizing a series of written questions. The questions are generally of a multiple-choice nature based upon the knowledge given in a driver’s handbook. Some jurisdictions use a format known as communigraphic. This format is comprised of a small diagram upon which a question is based. The communigraphic style, it is thought, tests the ability of the applicant to reason out problems based upon road rules and regulations. It must be remembered that a written test is only a basis for assessment of an applicant’s general knowledge and does not provide any lucid concept of his practical abilities. ORAL TESTS Oral tests are used generally to test applicants whose ability to read the English or French languages is impaired. Oral questions must be carefully phrased and must generally request a simple answer such as “yes or no” or “true or false”. In some situations oral questions could be utilized to confirm certain areas where the examiner feels the applicant is unsure. Such questions are of certain value in emphasizing some points and constitute an educational basis of questioning rather than an assessment. Again it must be a question clear in meaning and direct to the point. Oral questions must not allow or ask an answer of opinion as this could lead to argument. The preparation of oral questions is a must. Examiners should carefully select the points that require questioning and write them out on a piece of paper. This permits the examiner to take his time and present a sense of organization. To ensure equality, the same number of questions should be given as in the written test. ROAD SIGN TESTS The road sign test is considered to be particularly important as such indicators communicate an executive order to the driver of a vehicle in order to permit effective traffic flow. Therefore the examiner is required to test the applicant’s knowledge and understanding of the various road Standard 2: Knowledge & Performance Tests

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signs before any attempted road test. Various methods can be employed. Use of multiple-choice questions, charts, oral questioning are common methods. Other procedures could include use of electronic devices and photographic equipment. However the cost of these systems is high. The charts on the following pages show the major type and style of road signs presently in use. METHOD OF TESTING It is of the utmost importance to ensure that knowledge tests are controlled. The following rules should be adhered to: –

cheating, copying or consulting with any person other than an examiner during the test should not be allowed; and



the examining station should be so arranged the applicants will be under the examiner’s observation at all times while taking the test.

When the examiner corrects knowledge tests, he should ensure that a full and correct explanation of the incorrect answers is made. Since a knowledge test is considered to be an educational medium, each examiner should be fully conversant with the questions asked as related to the corresponding jurisdictional laws. USE OF INTERPRETERS In some cases where an applicant is totally impaired by a language barrier, it may be desirable to obtain an interpreter to assist the examiner. The interpreter must be a person certified by a competent authority. In all cases the applicant must be able to understand basic directions from the examiner, especially when completing the road test. SCORING – QUALIFICATION/DISQUALIFICATION This is at the discretion of the individual jurisdiction, with the proviso that a minimum of 80% is required to pass, which can be upgraded by any jurisdiction.

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Standard 2: Knowledge & Performance Tests

National Safety Code for Motor Carriers REGULATORY SIGNS:

Standard 2: Knowledge & Performance Tests

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WARNING SIGNS:

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Standard 2: Knowledge & Performance Tests

National Safety Code for Motor Carriers

PERFORMANCE TESTS ADMINISTRATION OF ROAD TESTS The question has often been asked, “What test is the most valid criteria for assessment of a driver’s knowledge and qualification to ensure the safe operation of a motor vehicle?” Most authorities agree that a road test is the best means to gauge a driver’s capability to operate a motor vehicle safely under varying road and traffic conditions, as well as a measure of his knowledge of the rules of the road. Without the necessary capabilities and knowledge, he has but a slim chance of succeeding to qualify for a licence on a road test. This has been amply demonstrated by the fact that there is a substantially higher failure rate on the road test among drivers who either fail on their first knowledge examination or barely pass. Similarly, the failure rate of drivers who have to have an oral examination is significantly higher than those who take the written examination. It is therefore not surprising that in recent years, the importance of the driver testing program as a means of improving the quality of the drivers who are continuously streaming on to our streets and highways has been given greater emphasis. There can be little doubt that the driver examination program, well administered, is the most effective means yet discovered to combat the rising accident rate. The role the driver examination assumes, in the light of past experience, is of far greater significance than it once was. The impressions that the driver takes away with him if he succeeds in obtaining his licence will largely depend on the capability and thoroughness with which the driver examiner conducted himself throughout the test. A driver examiner can consider himself successful to the degree that he impresses upon the public with whom he deals the need for constant improvement and creates in them an incentive and a desire to broaden their knowledge and improve their driving habits, even though they may have been successful in their examinations. A prospective driver may have the necessary physical qualifications for safe driving, full knowledge of the rules of the road and safe driving habits, but these alone will not ensure the safe operation of a motor vehicle. The driver must also be able to make the vehicle do those things which the contingencies of traffic require and satisfactorily solve actual driving situations. Driving tests, therefore, are the most important part of the examination to determine a person’s total ability as a driver. Another very important purpose of the driving test is to provide an incentive for drivers to develop those skills and confidences which are essential for the safe operation of a vehicle in present day traffic. An effective driving test will acquaint the driver with his own deficiencies. It will provide him with a basis for comparing his own driving performance with what may be considered as the ideal. A driver may commit hazardous errors or may have failed to learn some of the most important safety precautions in driving and still honestly believe that he is a good Standard 2: Knowledge & Performance Tests

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driver. Therefore, it becomes the objective of the driving test to convince the driver of his need for additional practice and constant retraining. The driving test should also help to mould safe driving attitudes. This should particularly be true when dealing with the young or beginning driver who has not yet acquired that rigidity of mind and attitude that often characterizes the seasoned driver. (Our greatest hope of improving the caliber of the average driver lies in this development, which is latent in every teen-age driver, but that unfortunately seldom develops to its maximum.) If the test is thorough, challenging and competently administered, the driver will be duly impressed with the value of the driving privileges. He will better understand traffic safety and the need for exercising day after day the skills that he displayed to pass the driving test. SCORING PRINCIPLES – UNIFORM ROAD TEST SHEET An important element in the effectiveness of the driving test is the method used for scoring. As most of us are aware when reviewing the road test paper item by item, there is considerable variation between some of the driver examiners as to how they would score an applicant on a given item. However, the road test scoring paper contains virtually all the driving errors that a driver is likely to commit, and which, if not corrected, will inevitably lead to trouble in the future. In order for a driver examiner to develop that degree of proficiency in administering and scoring the road test, which will make the job easier for him and obtain more uniform results, it is absolutely essential that he memorize the road test scoring sheet. He should be so familiar with it that he can spot any item missed by a driver without having to search for it. When testing an applicant, simply observing his driving technique is not sufficient. You, as the driver examiner, must make a record during the driving test of the problems that occurred along the test route. For each error committed by the driver, immediately check it against the appropriate item and when necessary make an appropriate mental note regarding the exact nature of the violation committed by the driver. This is particularly important where the description of the error does not completely fit the nature of the mistake committed by the applicant. DEGREE OF ERROR Answers to written examination questions are either right or wrong. Driving tests are not like this. The response may be partly right or partly wrong. Consider for example the signal for a left turn. If the signal were not given in a situation where another traffic unit would be affected, or if a right turn signal was given instead, the action would be definitely incorrect. Whereas if the signal were given one hundred feet in advance of the turn, clearly, correctly, and continuously through the turn, it would be entirely correct. But if it were 2 - 12

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given only fifty feet ahead of the turn, if it were discontinued before the turn was begun, and if it were such that it might be mistaken for a right turn signal where the driver is signaling by means of his hand, it would be partly right and partly wrong. An applicant may be a little late in getting into the proper lane, or alternatively he may not be entirely in the proper turning lane, but he may be close enough so as not to constitute a hazard to any other traffic. In such cases, the driver examiner must decide whether or not the degree of error was sufficient to warrant charging the driver. If the driver commits a similar type of error on more than one occasion, then it most certainly should be brought to his attention. If it is not serious enough to charge demerits, then at least the item should be checked and during the explanation of the road test results, the driver should be informed of the proper method of performing the maneuver and urged to continue practicing. The test consists of a series of problems and parts of problems. In effect, it is an attempt to sample the driver’s ability to perform certain maneuvers and to demonstrate that he has adequate and safe control of his vehicle. In the short time that the driver examiner has at his disposal to examine an applicant as to his fitness to hold a licence, it is of the utmost importance that nothing be missed. The order in which these problems occur depends upon the nature of the test route selected, its length and the traffic situation at the time of the test. You should score each mistake as rapidly as you can without respect to the order in which they appear on the scoring form. Do not stop scoring on one type of problem simply because you have observed performance on it two or three times previously. Continue scoring small problems until the driving test has been completed. If you neglected, for some reason, to score a particular error by the driver at the time it occurred, or reasonably close to that time, simply leave it un-scored. Similarly, do not make additions or erasures on the form at the completion of the test. Made after the test is over, they tend to make the applicant feel that the score is being manipulated in a way which might be unfavorable to him. Writing explanatory notes on a test paper should be done either at the time the error was committed, or after the applicant has been informed of the results of the examination. They should never be made while you are explaining the results of the road test to the applicant. Perhaps the best time for making such notes is during the parallel parking examination. Certain preparations will help to ensure that the driver will be given the best possible driving test. Perhaps the most important is recognition of more general principles in giving and scoring the driving test. –

A driving test is not intended to train or re-train the driver, its purpose is to evaluate his driving skill and knowledge. The time available is never sufficient to permit effective

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training. A thorough driving test with high standards will encourage the drivers to study carefully beforehand, resulting in much greater training benefits that could be accomplished in the driving test itself.



An error or omission by a driver should not be excused or overlooked because he promises to do better in the future. Give and score the driving test on the assumption that the applicant knows how to drive and that he is performing to the best of his ability.



Make a reasonable effort to calm an excessively nervous driver and to avoid unnecessary distractions, but do not disregard errors and omissions because he claims, or otherwise gives the impression, that he really knew the correct way but inadvertently made the error. This also applies to the driver who subsequently corrects an error made earlier in the test.



Positive and detailed standards of what constitutes correct or incorrect ways of performing all operations and maneuvers on the test, set forth in the section on procedures, must be followed. The number and kind of errors that result in failure on the test will be described later. Be familiar with standards so that the influence of your particular opinions, temperament and attitude will be minimized. A driver should not be expected to adjust to the incompetency of untrained examiners. The standard examination procedure will reduce the complaints of discriminations, unfairness and partiality.



In routine failures on the driving test, tell the applicant first that he has not qualified, second – encourage him to continue and third – advise him he may prepare for further tests, and when one can be given again. After three failures where there has been virtually no improvement, refer the driver to the supervisor. Also, where the applicant seems to be argumentative or refuses to admit his errors, do not argue with him. Advise him that you will take him to your supervisor, who will deal with his complaint. This procedure will reduce the likelihood of complaints from the public regarding driver examiner’s decisions, and the supervisor will be able to spend more time with the applicant, to answer questions fairly.

TEST PROCEDURES In addition to the above principles, the following reminder will be of assistance: – –

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Be sure you give the driving test on the official test route, which is selected to give the tests of the right kind in the best order; Be thoroughly familiar with the test route. Know exactly where you will score each item to be observed, and what you will mention as landmarks. The test route is a tool for examining; you cannot give a good test the first time you use it;

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Remember, you are observing mainly the driver’s safety of operation. When in doubt as to his driving – whether he should or should not qualify because he has committed so many minor errors – your first thoughts must be: how safe is his driving, for all users of our highways?

INFORMATION PRIOR TO ROAD TEST (Vehicle Check) General (Specific classes will be described later.) Check with applicant to see that he has a vehicle available at the office for the driving test. Question him as to its condition. If you determine that the vehicle is not safe at any time either before or during the driving test, do not continue the test. Before you get into the vehicle, take down the necessary particulars of the vehicle (i.e. make, type, year, licence number). Right-hand-drive vehicles must have approved mechanical or electrical signaling devices. Unless under unusual circumstances, the driver examiner and the examinee will be the only people permitted in the vehicle during the test. When checking a vehicle, if brake lights or signal lights are found not to be working, the applicant is notified and allowed to take the test provided hand signals can be given and observed. The road test sheet is marked “No Brake Lights” or “No Signal Lights” whichever is applicable and any further test refused regardless of vehicle if brake lights or signal lights are found not working when checked. Trucks or vehicles where the stop lights are not visible for any reason are to be treated the same as if no lights were working, but if hand signals are visible, treat as prescribed. In the case of a truck with a large box or if it is so constructed that it is impossible to see hand signals, then all tests must be refused until a vehicle to be used for the test has signal lights working properly. Any vehicle where signal indicators are not working and hand signals cannot be observed will be refused. If the vehicle is equipped with a faulty speedometer or no speedometer at all, there shall be no test unless the examinee agrees beforehand that a speed estimation by the examiner is acceptable. Check all dual control vehicles before test, i.e. brakes and brake lights, instructor’s mirror, cutoff switch, dual brake pedals, dual clutch if manual shift, safety belts. (If safety belts are installed, the driver examiner must wear his.)

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Mechanically Deficient Vehicles Cars or trucks with the following defects should not be taken out on road tests: –

Vehicle with faulty steering or any vehicle with three faults (brake or head lights, wipers, signal lights, etc.);



Vehicle with speedometer not working. (See instructions above.);



Vehicle with windows badly frosted or fogged over. (This applies whether the vehicle is equipped with frost shields or not.);



Vehicle with defective brakes, including parking brake. (Before starting a road test, have the applicant put his foot on the brake pedal and push hard to test the brakes.);



Vehicle with windshield wipers not in good working order (when raining);



Vehicle with brake lights not working, if the applicant has been previously warned;



Vehicle with right front door or door window that cannot be opened from inside, cause: defective door handle or window regulator handle.

MARKING PROCEDURES FOR ROAD TEST Before calling an applicant for the road test, check the following: –

Instructional driver’s licence or driver’s licence is valid and signed by the applicant;



Written tests have been completed and qualifications indicated for each class;



Vision test has been completed for the class applied for. If restricted in any way, it must be indicated in the restriction area both on the licence and exam result paper. Also indicate any other restrictions you deem necessary by our standards as prescribed herein;



In Traveling Unit, be sure to indicate Unit Number or area in which test is conducted;



When in vehicle for test, be sure the driver is going to drive in accordance with restrictions (i.e. corrective lenses, automatic transmissions, applicable mechanical devices, etc.).

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National Safety Code for Motor Carriers Check both papers (examination results and road tests) carefully and correct any errors that you can correct now before forwarding or giving copy of road test paper to examinee. You, as the last person to deal with the applicant, are responsible for its correctness. CHECKING VEHICLE –

Ask “Please depress your brakes a couple of times, so that I can check your brakes.”



Check brake lights, horn, steering, signal lights, handbrakes and wipers if raining.



On test route, check speedometer, muffler, and brakes.



For other mechanical defects, refer to “Information Prior to Road Test – General”.

INTRODUCTION – POINTS TO REMEMBER –

Always introduce yourself by name.



Try to relax the nervous applicant by a few friendly words.



Be specific in your introduction and explanations of the road test.



Tell examinee you will not try to trick him in any way.



Ask examinee if he has any questions concerning the examination before starting the test.

No two driver examiners’ introductions will be the same, and they do not have to be. What is important is that the main points in conducting the road test are covered and that the applicant clearly understands them. You could say something like this: “On this test, Mr. _____, Mrs. _____, Miss _____, I want you to drive safely as usual. I will tell you where to go and what I want you to do. I am not going to tell you to do anything wrong or try to trick you. Please observe all traffic laws and all traffic signs and signals. Do you have any questions?” CONDUCTING ROAD TESTS Give instructions well in advance of the place where the examinee must execute them. Allow plenty of time after you have given a direction for the examinee to think it over. If you are caught with very little time to direct him to make a turn, do not “jump” the instructions at him. Simply let him go straight ahead even though it does take you off the test route. Then direct him so as to bring him back on the route as quickly as possible. Tell where to do a maneuver first before you tell what to do. This will prevent the examinee from making a turn before you intended he should, or doing something else suddenly. Describe Standard 2: Knowledge & Performance Tests

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where to do a maneuver by using landmarks if possible. For example, say “At the intersection where you see the service station” or “At the intersection you are approaching, please turn right.” Give instructions clearly and explicitly. If you ask to turn right, also point or gesture toward the right with your hand or pencil to prevent the driver from confusing right with left as some may do. Speak clearly, do not mutter. If you do your part, the driver should rarely ask you to repeat your instructions or explain what you mean. Never instruct or coach while scoring. It is likely to distract the driver or make him nervous. If a good job of scoring is done, there will be no time for anything else. If information on performance is to be given, do it after the scoring is completed on the basis of notes made. There is a great difference between examining and teaching: you are first of all a driver examiner. Do not tell or show the driver how to drive, but always answer any questions necessary to explain what is expected of him. This usually takes less time than explaining afterward why you failed to clarify instruction. Remember, we are interested primarily in scoring the examinee’s driving test, and not his ability to understand instructions. Do not urge a driver to do anything that he does not wish to, and do not hurry him. To do so is dangerous and makes you partially responsible for potential accidents. Such drivers will probably fail, and in this case, simply encourage them to get more practice and to return for another test. TERMINATION OF ROAD TEST – DRIVER FAILURE At any point on a road test, a driver may do something which disqualifies him at once. There are four such situations. If one arises, discontinue the test and, if there is a hazard involved in returning to the starting point, leave the vehicle where it is pending arrangements for its safe removal. If no great hazard is involved, direct the driver by the easiest route back to the starting point. Do not tell the examinee he is disqualified until you are back, as some people get upset if you tell them at once, and can become confused enough to have an accident. Disqualifying Situations Clear violation of any traffic law Any act for which a driver might normally be arrested. Minor violations are not included here, such as improper lane use, or running amber traffic lights – these faults are noted in test scoring. Speeding, careless driving, crossing double lines are examples of disqualifying violations. (Any unlawful act jeopardizing the driver examiner.) Dangerous action When an accident is prevented only by defensive driving on the part of another or dodging by a 2 - 18

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pedestrian. When the driver examiner has to aid in controlling the vehicle. When the applicant drives one or more wheels over a curb or onto a sidewalk so as to endanger a person or property. Also, lack of vehicle control. While testing in dual control vehicles, the driver examiner must not touch the steering wheel or brake except in case of emergency. Accident Any accident, however slight, which the applicant could have prevented, regardless of who is responsible, including: any contact with another vehicle, except a slight bumper to bumper; any contact with a pedestrian, unless caused solely by a pedestrian’s action; any contact, except a slight bumper contact, with a fixed object; running over curb onto the boulevard during the parallel parking test. If the applicant’s vehicle is disabled in an accident which he could have prevented, his test report is marked “incomplete” with proper explanation in remarks. Lack of cooperation or refusal to perform Refusing to try any maneuver. Repeatedly failing to follow instructions. Offering bribes or “gratuity”. (Refer these to your supervisor.) Refer anyone who accuses you of discriminating against him to your supervisor. Traveling Units should refer accusations of discrimination to the Chief Examiner. Do not insist that a driver do a maneuver he says he cannot do. TERMINATION OF TEST – INCOMPLETE Examinations may be terminated and the record of examination marked “incomplete” for reasons other than the applicant’s lack of ability such as: –

vehicle runs out of gas, has puncture or otherwise fails to function during the driving test;



applicant becomes sick and is unable to continue safely;



weather conditions become so unfavorable as to require terminating the road test for safety.

SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR DRIVER EXAMINERS Say as little as possible during the test. Do not comment on the applicant’s mistakes or tell him how he should have done something. Answer, as briefly as possible, any question to clarify what is expected of him. If he asks whether something is right or wrong, simply say, “I’ll explain that when the test is completed.” Standard 2: Knowledge & Performance Tests

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This does not mean you should be rude or abrupt, but only that you should try to concentrate on marking his driving and keep from distracting or upsetting him by your remarks. If a driver insists on talking about everything that comes to mind, try to discourage it politely by saying something like “Let’s just concentrate on our driving now, shall we?” Watch everything the driver does. Score only what you see. Items on the road test that you do not observe (whether the reason was too little time, lack of facilities, or your failure to observe) should be left blank so that the extent of the test as well as the actual performance of the driver may be shown. Mark as you go along. Do not depend on memory to do so later. You will forget many points unless you mark them down right away as noted. Do not get in the habit of checking one or two “sample” or favorite points. These may not indicate the general ability of the driver or the score he should have on other parts of the test. Give a complete test. Never cut routes or create your own. Stick to the official routes. Do not cut the road tests short because you think the driver is good. Experienced drivers may do well at first while they put their minds to it, but may later forget and lapse into bad habits. Even more important, others hearing about the short test may infer that no special preparation is needed or bring charges of favoritism or prejudice. Carefully watch those drivers who have physical defects, poor eyesight or poor hearing, or who are small of stature: give them a chance to show whether these things seriously affect their driving. Stop the driving test if you think there is any risk. Under most circumstances, do not give road tests when streets are covered with ice, or it is foggy. (Rain or darkness are not considered special hazards.) Watch the traffic conditions that the applicant may not see and, in the interest of safety for all concerned, warn him of impending dangers if you think he does not see them. (This of course constitutes a “disqualifying” situation.) Be prepared to take control of the vehicle at any time. (Disqualifying situation as well.) R.C.C. (RESULTS – COMPLIMENT – CRITICISM) Always first advise the applicant whether or not he has qualified. Follow this with a compliment 2 - 20

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of some item about his driving that will make him feel good, and therefore ready to listen to your criticism. This is a tried and proven method of getting people to listen to your remarks. SCORING THE DRIVER’S MISTAKES The driver may show a number of bad habits, repeated mistakes, lack of experience, uncertainty, which in combination would point to the need for further training. When stopping a test because of an accumulation of errors, simply direct the driver by the easiest route back to the starting point. An accumulation of mistakes on the road test shows that a driver is not prepared to receive the privilege of driving. The following section will guide you in correct scoring of problems on the driving test. THE START (Skill Test) The purpose of this skill problem is to find out how familiar the driver is with his vehicle controls, whether he adjusts them before putting the vehicle into motion and whether he takes full precautions before getting out into the traffic. Instructions It may be necessary to chat for a moment about generalities in order to relax the applicant. Then say, “Please start your motor now and when it is safe, you may pull out (or back out as the case may be).” Key Points Carefully watch whether the driver checks all controls before setting the vehicle in motion (seat, mirrors, etc.). If the applicant checks traffic, then controls, then pulls out, he may be struck by a fast-moving vehicle that has come up while he was checking controls. Points to Watch for –

Does not depress clutch when starting engine.



Stays too long in 1st or 2nd gear before shifting.



Hand brake not released.



Starts in high or second except on slippery pavement.



Fails to check traffic in mirror and side window before starting.

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SIGNALING INTENTION (General) This is not really a separate problem. It is always scored in connection with: –

right turns and left turns into streets or driveways;



keeping in lane (score when changing lanes);



parallel parking, pulling out, slowing down;



starting, pulling away from the curb.

Points to Watch for: –

No signal given;



Signaling combined with other operations;



Signal changed or corrected.

CLUTCH (if applicable) Key Points Watch whether the driver constantly keeps foot on clutch pedal. Points to Watch for: –

Clutch released in stopping when speed is 10 MPH or over;



Foot on clutch when not shifting (riding clutch);



Engine stalls in stopping;



Coasts downhill or around corners;



Does not engage clutch smoothly;



Clashes gears.

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POSTURE (General) This element of driving is observed to see if the driver takes proper position so that he has full control of the vehicle at all times. Key Points The driver should have adjusted his seat before the start of the test. Check whether the seat is high enough and that the driver is able to reach the pedal controls adequately. Points to Watch for: –

Elbow out of window;



Holds steering wheel with less than one-third between hands;



Sits in half-turned position;



Seat too far back to permit good brake pedal pressure, or too close;



Unnecessary one-hand driving.

THE QUICK STOP (Skill Test) To be done only if you are in doubt, re: driver or brakes. Instructions “In the next block, I want to check your brakes and ability to stop in an emergency. The more quickly you stop, the better, I’ll watch behind to see that the way is clear, then when I say “stop” do so as suddenly as you can. Will you now drive at 10 MPH?” In giving the command, use only the word “stop”. Do not set up a make-believe situation (for example, a child running into the street). Be sure the driver understands what is expected of him before you give the command to stop. Key Points Look for following cars. Do not give the test where cars are parked on both sides of a narrow street. Applicant is liable to swerve or slide into parked vehicles. Do not give the test if the street is slippery or if the vehicle is loaded with loose objects, particularly on shelf at rear.

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Points to Watch for: –

Vehicle not stopped in 18 feet;



Vehicle swerves considerably;



Necessary to pump brakes;



Vehicle turns sideways.

BACKING (Skill Test) This is a skill problem in driving backwards in a straight line and is normally given immediately after the quick stop. Instructions “Please back straight down the street just as if you were backing down a driveway.” Key Points Give full credit for use of outside mirror on vehicles in which it is not practical to look back, if mirror is adjusted properly and vision not obscured. Make certain it is safe to back before you tell the driver to do so. Points to Watch for: –

Backing too fast;



Does not look back all the time while backing, but looks ahead and coasts last five feet;



Opens door and leans out of vehicle to look back while vehicle is in motion;



Uses mirror to back instead of turning head to look back through rear window;



Fails to check traffic to left before starting to back;



Backs into curb or across center of road.

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PARALLEL PARKING (Skill Test) This tests the driver’s judgment and ability to park parallel to the curb. Instructions “In the middle of the next block, I would like you to pull up beside that green vehicle and then park behind it as if you were parking in a space between two cars.” Points to Watch for: –

Uses rear-view mirror to back instead of looking out through window;



Bumps other cars sharply;



Leaves vehicle more than 18 inches from the curb;



Backs over curb;



When leaving space, fails to check traffic.

SPEED AND BRAKING (General) This is not really a separate problem, and it is scored in connection with almost any of the other problems. In general, fumbling and uncertainty resulting from lack of practice or training are observed here. Key Points Observe especially smoothness of operation. Hesitation and uncertainty are indications that habits have not been completely formed. Points to Watch for: –

Stops very abruptly and starts with a jerk. Score “jerky starts” under “clutch”;



Hesitates as though timid or uncertain of what to do. Good drivers should not have to think through simple operations;



Races engine before starting or vehicle standing;



Stops and starts while shifting or when not necessary;

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Hurries or seems to be trying to get through quickly;



Exceeds speed limit.

POSITION IN ROAD This is an observation made in connection with other problems. A feeling for position in the roadway is an important part of good driving. Key Points Score as part of turning or keeping lanes. Points to Watch for: –

Straddles lane lines on right half of road;.



Straddles center line (except when passing);



Bumps or scrapes the curb or runs off the pavement where there is no curb;



Swings wide or cuts corners when turning left or right;



Moves into wrong lane for left or right turn;



Blocks crosswalk when stopping for signal, sign or traffic.

STOP ON UPGRADE (Skill Test) This is to find out the driver’s ability to safely control his vehicle on a grade. Instructions “As you drive up this hill, pull over to the side and park your vehicle parallel to the curb near the telephone pole (or some other landmark) as if you were going to leave it there for a short time.” Points to Watch for: –

Hand brake not set;



Ignition not turned off;

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Front wheels not cramped properly;



Gears not properly set;



Vehicle rolls back;



Leaves vehicle more than 18 inches from curb.

START ON GRADE (Skill Test) This test is to find out the driver’s ability to control his vehicle and start without rolling back. Instructions The test can be combined with the parts on an upgrade by having the driver start again after parking. Key Points Watch the driver’s hand and foot work (if applicable). Watch carefully to see if he checks traffic before pulling out into the traffic lane. Points to Watch for: –

Rolls back;



Stalls engine;



Does not release hand brake before starting;



Looks back in mirror rather than out through window for traffic behind.

TRAFFIC SIGNALS (Traffic) This observation is to determine whether the driver understands and watches traffic lights. Key Points If no lights are available, question the driver as to the meaning and location of lights, but do not score.

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Points to Watch for: –

Stops across crosswalk;



Brakes suddenly because he failed to anticipate light changing;



Straddles lanes in stopping;



Stops in intersection;



Intersection is entered on amber or red light;



Fails to make full stop on right turn at red light where such turn is permitted.

STOP SIGN (Traffic) This observation is to find out whether the driver looks for traffic control devices and makes use of them. Key Points Be careful when directing applicant. You may have told him earlier to go “straight through” and he may interpret your remarks to mean to go straight through without stopping. Points to Watch for: –

Stops across marked crosswalk, or stops blocking waiting pedestrians;



Straddles lane at stop sign;



Neglects to look in all directions before starting;



Fails to come to complete stop;



Fails to notice stop sign.

RIGHT TURNS (Traffic) This test is to find out whether the driver can exercise the required skill and judgment to perform a right turn.

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Instructions “Now at this intersection, please turn right” or “At the corner where you see the red brick house, please turn right”. (Point with your pencil.) It is sometimes wise to repeat the instruction after you have passed one intersection and intend to turn at the next one. Key points Score off for turning from wrong lane only if the driver’s vehicle is far enough to the left to permit a vehicle to overtake on the right. Points to Watch for: –

Signal not given soon enough;



Signal indistinct or too brief;



Signal continued after turn is begun (manual);



Driver fails to get into proper lane in time;



Climbs curb when turning;



Goes into turn too fast and has to apply brakes in turn;



Turns into wrong lane;



Coasts with clutch disengaged on turn;



Has to shift to lower gear after starting turn;



Turns from wrong lane;



Crowds other cars to get into lane;



Swings wide on turn.

LEFT TURNS (Traffic) Instructions Similar to those for right turn. Standard 2: Knowledge & Performance Tests

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Key Points Score off for turning from wrong lane only if driver’s vehicle is far enough from the center to encourage overtaking on left or suggest that a right turn is to be made. Points to Watch for: –

Signal not given soon enough;



Signal indistinct or too brief;



Signal continued after turn is begun (manual);



Driver fails to get into proper lane in time;



Goes into turn too fast and has to apply brakes in the turn;



Turns into wrong lane;



Coasts with clutch disengaged on turn;



Has to shift to lower gear after starting turn;



Swings wide or cuts corners;



Turns from wrong lane;



Crowds other vehicles to get into lane.

ATTENTION AND DISTRACTION (Traffic) Key Points Do not score off for failure to follow instructions which are not clearly given or understood. Watch whether the driver “glues” his eyes to the road or whether he glances to the right and left occasionally. Points to Watch for: –

Doesn’t follow instructions on where to go or what to do;



Considerably irrelevant conversation;

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Takes eyes off the road to talk or make vehicle adjustments for more than one second at a time.

KEEPING LANE (Traffic) This observation is made for the purpose of finding out whether the driver keeps his vehicle where it belongs, and whether he respects other drivers. Key Points Do not score off for failure to drift over to the right lane in business and residential areas where there are parked vehicles. Be careful on scoring to observe whether the driver drives too closely to parked vehicles. Points to Watch for: –

Straddles lane when it is clearly marked;



Drives unnecessarily close to vehicles parked on the right;



Crosses center line when not overtaking;



At intersection, going straight ahead, straddles lanes and takes up space which could be used by another vehicle;



Shifts unnecessarily from one lane to another.

FOLLOWING (Traffic) This observation is made to determine how well the driver judges distance and speed, and whether he makes efficient use of street area. Key Points Pay careful attention to following when streets are wet or slippery. Note whether driver, in following, looks ahead to study traffic. Note also whether he follows so closely that he cannot see traffic signs on the right, or whether he “blindly” follows other vehicles.

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Points to Watch for –

Follows so closely that he would not be able to stop in time in an emergency.



Does not look ahead or around vehicle in front because he is too close.

OVERTAKING (Traffic) This observation is made, when possible, to find out whether the driver has his vehicle under control, whether he can estimate the speed of other vehicles, and whether he chooses the proper time and place to overtake. Key Points Watch driver’s confidence as to his ability to overtake, whether he hesitates and then speeds up or makes overtaking more in one steady operation. Points to Watch for –

Misjudges speed of oncoming traffic and has to pull back into lane.



Starts to overtake in wrong place, such as when a double-parked vehicle is nearby.



Cuts in too sharply after overtaking.



Does not check traffic behind before overtaking.



No arm or mechanical signal to following cars of intention to change lanes.



Overtakes on right in violation of law.

USE OF HORN (Traffic) This observation is made to find out if the driver makes use of horn as safety device or whether he uses it to demand right of way. Key Points Do not suggest use of horn but simply watch performance. Note difference between a “blast” and a “beep”.

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National Safety Code for Motor Carriers

Points to Watch for –

Fails to warn inattentive pedestrian, or in overtaking.



Blows horn in going through intersection.



Uses horn to hurry driver waiting at an intersection.

BEING OVERTAKEN (Traffic) This observation is made to determine whether the driver shares the street with other highway users. Key Points Observe, if possible, whether the driver slows down when the automobilist behind has signaled that he is about to overtake. Points to Watch for –

Fails to give way to right on signal from vehicle overtaking on left.



Speed is not decreased.

APPROACH TO CORNER (Traffic) This observation is made to see if the driver is one who anticipates danger in time to do what is necessary. Key points Watch whether the driver looks in both directions, and whether he takes an additional look at the left. Watch speed to see if the driver could stop in time if he had to. Points to Watch for –

Does not look sufficiently well in all directions to find out what traffic may be coming.



Stops before entering intersection although there is no stop signs and no traffic going through.

Standard 2: Knowledge & Performance Tests

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National Safety Code for Motor Carriers



Has to slow down by applying brakes after he has entered intersection.

RIGHT OF WAY (Traffic) This observation is made to find out whether the driver shares the road equally with other drivers. Key Points Try to find out whether the driver “bluffs” for the right of way even though he may be legally entitled to it. This applies to the right of way of both pedestrians and vehicles. Points to Watch for –

Edges too close to pedestrian in crosswalk and gives appearance of demanding the right of way.



Is overly aggressive in taking right of way even though legally within the law.



Other cars are forced to stop suddenly because of his failure to grant right of way.

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Standard 2: Knowledge & Performance Tests

National Safety Code for Motor Carriers

APPENDIX RE-EXAMINATIONS AND DRIVER IMPROVEMENT GENERAL The examining profession also assists those departments dealing with corrective measures when drivers are involved in a number of accidents and/or convictions. Driver improvement programs usually include an interview with the licensee and a driver’s examination. Under field conditions, the examiner is usually requested to complete the interview portion. INTERVIEW An interview is a conversation directed to a definite purpose other than satisfaction in the conversation itself. Function –

It may be used in securing information from people.



It may be used in giving information to them.



It may be used in influencing their behavior in certain ways.

PERSONAL INTERVIEW Within the context of this section, an interview is an informal meeting between a driver improvement representative and a driver for the purpose of evaluating the driver’s problem. It implies collecting and analyzing as much geographical information as possible to identify and interpret factors that might account for violations and accidents, and to supply appropriate techniques to enable the driver to solve his driving problem. The key to the driver’s problem may be found in his personal history as well as his driving record. The type, frequency, pattern and sequence of items in the driving record should be analyzed. Perhaps the driver’s poor record is due to his lack of knowledge of the law or an inability to keep pace with changing traffic patterns and complex driving conditions, which may be the case of a subject who has moved from a rural to an urban area. Inattention and reaction sometimes brought on by alcohol, fatigue, daze or preoccupation may be the root of the problem.

Standard 2: Knowledge & Performance Tests

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National Safety Code for Motor Carriers

Knowing the number of miles driven annually by the subject and the purpose for which he uses his vehicle, either for business or for pleasure, may assist the interviewer in his appraisal. The value of such information lies in establishing the violation and accident exposure rate, rather than in determining the need for the driving privileges. Personality and attitude are of paramount importance in determining the reasons for lack of driving conformity. Clues to emotional maladjustment may become apparent through casual interrogation. Lack of personal restraint, the tendency to act on impulse, take risks and perform aggressively, especially in the company of other persons, immaturity, juvenile delinquency, resentment of authority or similar personal difficulties are keys to driver behavior. Intolerance, timidity or insecurity of any kind may be manifested in driving negligence. Irregularity in job history, a broken home, poor health, illness in the family, marital problems or economic insecurity may also be the background for a poor driving record. INTERVIEWER An interviewer must be skillful, diplomatic and tactful in his relationship with the problem driver. He must be able to communicate well, understand as well as make himself understood. An interviewer must have sound, mature judgment. He must have a general knowledge of the total accidents and traffic safety picture, especially the relationship between accidents and traffic violations. He should have a clear understanding of the degree of seriousness of the accidents and violations contained in the record of the driver he is interviewing. The interviewer must have a thorough knowledge of the Motor Vehicle Act, the policies of the Department, and how his division operates. He must never lose sight of his ultimate goal to bring the problem driver back to a desirable status. The interviewer must be a good listener. Because of his experience, he might otherwise monopolize the conversation, thus discouraging the driver from contributing the solution of his own problems. Encouragement provided by the interviewer to the driver in solving his own dilemma must not be discounted. It is desirable for an interviewer to have some basic knowledge of elementary practical psychology. He should be able to recognize basic human behavior patterns and motivating factors to make a practical analysis of the driver’s problem. Success or failure of the Driver Improvement Program depends largely on the interviewer. He must have the ability to analyze the problems of the driver correctly and then aid him in solving them. Since interviews are not public hearings, they should be held in private. Interruptions and distractions should be kept to a minimum.

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Standard 2: Knowledge & Performance Tests

National Safety Code for Motor Carriers

PREPARATION The interviewer will do well to familiarize himself in advance with the driver’s record. He should be able to address the driver by name and he should check his name, age, address, etc., to assure that the record is correct. An interviewer should appear natural and pleased to meet the driver. He should stand up, greet his visitor cordially, try to make him feel at home, and ask him to be seated before sitting down himself. Since this procedure is repetitious for the interviewer, he must make a continual, conscientious effort in self-discipline and treat each subject as an individual, rather than just another case in a routine job. By engaging the driver in casual conversation, the interviewer can get to know the driver, his background, his employment, his family status, and whether he drives for business or pleasure. From such questions, a pleasant working relationship can be established. The success of the interview depends to a great extent upon the manner in which it is initiated, and the interviewer must create an atmosphere in which a driver feels he will be understood. Not only the questions, but the manner in which these questions are asked can demonstrate a friendly attitude and sympathetic interest. In attempting to obtain additional information, the interviewer should bear in mind that he may lose the chance of obtaining voluntary participation by the subject if he asks too many direct, pointed questions or assumes an air of superiority. The driver is not a criminal suspect, and the interview should not be carried on as an interrogation in a court of law. There are certain routine steps in interviewing: –

the driver should understand why he is there;



his record should be checked to ascertain that it is complete and accurate;



the interviewer and driver might profitably discuss how the accidents and convictions appearing on his record might have been avoided.

The interviewer should attempt to get the negligent driver to recognize and acknowledge his driving record, and to strive for a desirable change. If the driver does not understand his own difficulties, the interviewer should try to help him. Once the problem has been identified, the driver should be assisted in developing a workable plan to bring about a desirable change in his driving behaviour, but he should be stimulated to assume the responsibility for these changes himself.

Standard 2: Knowledge & Performance Tests

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National Safety Code for Motor Carriers

There are several techniques for conducting interviews. If the interviewer uses a non-directive approach, he will first give the driver a chance to discuss his record. The driver will usually try to rationalize his violations and accidents so as to shift the blame from himself. The driver’s response will give the interviewer an opportunity to formulate an opinion of his attitude and personality. Irrational beliefs or prejudices on the part of the driver may lead the interviewer to the source of his problem. Until the driver has the opportunity to tell his story, he cannot be expected to diagnose his own difficulties. The driver, however, should not be permitted to take over the interview in expressing his belligerence. The interviewer must look for the common alibi and not be deluded by false cooperation. CLOSING THE INTERVIEW At the conclusion of the interview, an understanding must be established. To achieve this, the interviewer must summarize exactly what took place during the interview. Each case must be judged on its own merits, not in similarity to others: each driver’s problems are unique to him. An explanation on the point system should then be given, mentioning when the driving record will be erased.

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Standard 2: Knowledge & Performance Tests

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Knowledge and Performance Tests (Drivers)

National Safety Code for Motor Carriers STANDARD 2 KNOWLEDGE AND PERFORMANCE TESTS (DRIVERS) Although this Standard appears in the National Safety C...

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