Hospitality Industry Tourism Industry

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Manual on Module II Introduction to Hospitality

By

Authors Mr Murray Mackenzie School of Hotel & Tourism Management The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Dr Benny Chan Hong Kong Community College The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Consultant Mr Tony Tse School of Hotel & Tourism Management The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Introduction to Hospitality

Copyright

© The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region All rights reserved. The copyright of this manual belongs to the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Commercial use is strictly prohibited. Offenders will be liable to the legal responsibility. Schools need not apply for permission to copy this manual in whole or in part for non-profit making educational or research purposes. All other uses should gain prior permission in writing from the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Requests should be directed to the:

Education Bureau 13/F, Room 1319, Wu Chung House 213 Queen’s Road East, Wan Chai, Hong Kong

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Introduction to Hospitality

Acknowledgements

We would like to express our gratitude to the following organizations for giving us the permission to reprint some of the pictures and /or providing us with information for completing the curriculum support package: The Association of National Tourist Office Representatives in Hong Kong, ANTOR (HK) Centre for Food Safety, Food and Environmental Hygiene Department

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Introduction to Hospitality

Introduction A set of curriculum support package of tourism and hospitality learning and teaching materials is being developed by the Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section of Curriculum Development Institute, Education Bureau for the implementation of the senior secondary Tourism and Hospitality Studies curriculum in schools. The curriculum support package is comprised of eight manuals, and they are developed to broaden students’ knowledge of the eight different units of the Tourism and Hospitality Studies curriculum. The content of this manual – Introduction to Hospitality, should enhance students’ understanding of the dynamic nature of the tourism and hospitality industry. In addition, the manual includes activities to deepen students’ understanding and help them to apply theories and concepts. Furthermore, students should be able to develop enquiry, problem-solving and decision-making skills through these activities. All comments and suggestions related to this curriculum support package may be sent to: Chief Curriculum Development Officer (PSHE) Personal, Social and Humanities Education Curriculum Development Institute Education Bureau 13/F, Room 1319, Wu Chung House 213 Queen’s Road East, Wan Chai Hong Kong

April 2009

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Introduction to Hospitality

Table of Contents 1

Hospitality Industry ...........................................................................................1 1.1

2

Introduction to Hospitality Industry ..........................................................................1

1.1.1

The Nature of the Hospitality Industry ............................................................... 1

1.1.2

The Tangible and Intangible Nature of the Hospitality Industry ......................... 3

1.1.3

Relationship between the Hospitality Industry and Tourism .............................. 3

Accommodation Sector.....................................................................................6 2.1

Introduction to the Accommodation Sector..............................................................6

2.1.1 2.2

Introduction to the Hotel Operations......................................................................12

2.2.1

Hotel Ownership .............................................................................................. 12

2.2.2

The Functions and Departments of a Hotel ..................................................... 15

2.2.3

Introduction to the Rooms Division .................................................................. 17

2.2.4

Front Office Operations ................................................................................... 17

2.2.4.1

Guest Cycle ...............................................................................................18

2.2.4.2

Front Office Department ............................................................................22

2.2.4.3

Types of Hotel Guest .................................................................................36

2.2.4.4

The Accommodation Product ....................................................................37

2.2.5

3

Classification of Accommodation Establishment ............................................... 6

Housekeeping Operations ............................................................................... 41

2.2.5.1

Housekeeping Department ........................................................................41

2.2.5.2

In-room Guest Supplies and Amenities .....................................................49

2.2.5.3

Room Status Codes...................................................................................50

2.2.5.4

Types of Guest Requests ..........................................................................52

2.2.5.5

Security Procedures ..................................................................................55

Food and Beverage Sector .............................................................................57 3.1

Introduction to the Food and Beverage Sector......................................................57

3.1.1

Food and Beverage Operations (Hotel)........................................................... 57

3.1.2

Classification of Food Service Establishments ................................................ 78

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3.1.3 3.2 3.2.1

Types of Food and Beverage Services ........................................................... 82 Food and Beverage Service Principles ................................................................. 86 Basic Knowledge of Menus, Food and Beverage Services and Kitchen Operations....................................................................................................... 86

3.2.2

Ambience of an Establishment ........................................................................ 98

3.2.3

Menu Planning and Design ........................................................................... 110

3.3

4

Food Safety and Personal Hygiene..................................................................... 117

The Role of Technology in the Hospitality Industry ................................... 240 4.1

The Development of Technology in the Hospitality Industry ............................... 240

4.1.1

The Importance of Employing Up-to-date Information Technology ............... 240

4.1.2

The Ways Technological Changes Improve the Operational Efficiency of the Hospitality Industry for Customers, Tourists and Staff .................................. 242

4.1.3

The Property Management System (PMS) in Hotels..................................... 243

References …………………………………………………………………………….246

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1 Hospitality Industry 1.1 Introduction to Hospitality Industry 1.1.1 The Nature of the Hospitality Industry What is the meaning of HOSPITALITY? There have been different definitions of Hospitality. Broadly speaking, Hospitality is the act of kindness in welcoming and looking after the basic needs of guests or strangers, mainly in relation to food, drink and accommodation. A contemporary explanation of Hospitality refers to the relationship process between a guest and a host. When we talk about the “Hospitality Industry”, we are referring to the companies or organisations which provide food and/or drink and/or accommodation to people who are away from home. However, this definition of the “Hospitality Industry” only satisfies most situations. Can you think of any circumstances where the phrase “away from home” would not be accurate?

Resort hotel

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ACTIVITY 1 In groups, consider the hospitality industry in Hong Kong. Discuss the different sectors in the hospitality industry. (Hint: A sector of hospitality industry can be profit-making or non-profit-making.) You may also give the names of some companies in the hospitality industry. One example has been given in the table below. Work on the table to see which group in your class comes up with the most appropriate examples. Hospitality industry in Hong Kong Sector

Products/services provided

Example

Name of company/ organisation

Food and Beverage

Food and drink

Fast food

McDonald’s

ACTIVITY 2 Look at the table that your group has just completed and compare the answers with other groups. Have you been to any of the above companies or organisations? What services did you receive from them? Were you satisfied with the way you were treated by the company or its staff? Did they understand what services you wanted? Did they provide what you wanted quickly and accurately? Was the staff member friendly or rude? Based on the discussion above, suggest five qualities or traits that a successful staff member in the hospitality industry should possess. Do you or your group members possess any of these qualities or traits?

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1.1.2 The Tangible and Intangible Nature of the Hospitality Industry In Activity 1, we learned about different types of products and services provided by the hospitality industry. The physical products of hospitality, e.g. food and drink in a restaurant or the actual hotel room, are products that are sold at a price to the guests or customers (e.g. the price a guest paid for renting a hotel room, or the price a customer paid for buying a meal in a restaurant). These are often regarded as the TANGIBLE aspects of hospitality. However, our experience of the hospitality industry does not only rely on the tangibles. Think about your experience of being a customer in a restaurant or a guest in a hotel. What else, apart from the food in restaurants and the facilities in hotel rooms, do you think can make your hospitality experience more enjoyable and satisfied? A successful hospitality business does not only count on its products and services, but also how they are delivered. The qualities of staff and the way they deliver the service are often more important than the tangible products in making a hospitality experience satisfactory or unsatisfactory. We call these the INTANGIBLE aspects of hospitality. Can you think of any INTANGIBLE aspects of the hospitality industry?

1.1.3 Relationship between the Hospitality Industry and Tourism As we have seen, the hospitality industry includes hotels and restaurants, as well as many other types of organisations or institutions that offer food, drink, shelter and other related services. These products and services are offered not only to people away from home, but also to local guests. A manager in the hospitality industry, therefore, must keep in mind the following three objectives: 1. Making the guests feel welcome personally 2. Making things work for the guests 3. Making sure that the operation will continue to provide service and meet its budget Apart from local guests, can you think of any other guests who may need services and products provided by the hospitality industry?

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ACTIVITY 3 Now work in pairs and follow the instructions below:

Tourist A – You are an 18-year-old student from Beijing. You visit Hong Kong for the first time with your cousin who is also from Beijing this summer. As you are a student, you travel on a budget and are planning to come to Hong Kong round trip by train. You plan to stay in Hong Kong for 5 days/4 nights. Tourist B – You are a businessman from Sweden. Your company is a car manufacturer. You come to Hong Kong for an international automobile exhibition. You will fly to Hong Kong and stay for two nights before you fly to Singapore for another business meeting. You will stay in Singapore for two nights before going home. In two minutes, write down as many as possible of the products and services you would require from the different sectors of the tourism industry for your trip. Compare your answers with those of your partner. Do you have different or similar answers? How many of the points you jotted down are similar to those of your partner? Fill in the following table: A young student (Tourist A)

A business traveller (Tourist B)

In Activity 3 we learned there are different kinds of tourists. Regardless of what type of tourist they are, they all need shelter and food and drink – the basic hospitality services – at ALL points of the tourism cycle, not just at the destination. This is why hospitality can be referred to as one of the principal dimensions in tourism, along with transportation, specialist shops and leisure activities. Unlike tourism, hospitality, however, serves both tourist and non-tourist needs. To enhance your understanding of the relationship between the hospitality and tourism industry, complete Activity 4.

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ACTIVITY 4 The following diagram shows the relationship between the hospitality and tourism industry. Can you think of more services with examples to add to the diagram?

Hospitality Industry Tourism Industry

Institutional/ Welfare Catering e.g. Hospital Catering

Commercial Accommodation Services e.g. Hotels, Guest Houses

Transportation services e.g. Car Rental, Airlines

In Activity 4 we learned the hospitality industry is a part of a wider group of economic activities called tourism. In addition, not all hospitality businesses are profit-making business. In this Unit, we have learned that there are two main business sectors in the hospitality industry:  Accommodation – To provide accommodation (and usually food and drink) to people who for whatever reason are away from home  Food and beverage – To provide food and beverage to local, commuting, transient customers and tourists These two sectors will be covered in more detail in Units 2 and 3 respectively.

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2 Accommodation Sector 2.1 Introduction to the Accommodation Sector 2.1.1 Classification of Accommodation Establishment

Guestroom There is no generic rule for classifying accommodation establishments globally. One method is to divide accommodation into two main groups: 



Non-commercial

Commercial

Accommodation Non-commercial

Commercial

Hotels

Private e.g. Private Home Non-profit e.g. Shelter Institutional e.g. University

Figure 1: Accommodation structure

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The Hotel Proprietors Ordinance Chapter 158 provides a clear definition of a hotel: Hotel means an establishment held out by the proprietor as offering sleeping accommodation to any person presenting himself who appears able and willing to pay a reasonable sum for the services and facilities provided and who is in a fit state to be received. As Hotel is the predominant type of commercial accommodation in Hong Kong, we, therefore, will discuss in depth about how hotels can be classified.

Hotels can be classified by: 

Location: e.g. city centre hotels, suburban hotels, airport hotels and highway hotels/motels



Function: e.g. commercial hotels and convention hotels



Market segment: e.g. resorts, health spas, timeshares/vacation ownership and casino hotels



Distinctiveness of property: e.g. all-suite hotels, boutique hotels, extended-stay hotels, historic conversions and bed and breakfast inns



Price and staff/room ratio



Size: e.g. under 150 rooms, 151-300 rooms, 301-600 rooms, more than 600 rooms



Rating (grading) : e.g. one-star to five-star or one-diamond to five-diamond In 2008, the Mobil Travel Guide used its own rating system to give awards to some hotels in Hong Kong, Macau and Beijing. Below is an excerpt from the following web link: http://stars.mobilinternationalratings.com/stars “Mobil Travel Guide, now in its 51st year as one of the oldest and most respected inspection and ratings system in the world, is pleased to announce its 2009 Four- and Five-Star Winners. Representing a landmark in the company's history, 2009 is the first year that international cities have been rated and received Star Awards, and the winners from Beijing, Hong Kong, and Macau are included. In November, Hong Kong and Macau were awarded with the most Mobil Five-Star rated hotels and spas for a given city in the history of the company.”

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ACTIVITY 5 With the aid of the above web link, list the five-star hotels and spas in Hong Kong as awarded by the Mobil Travel Guide in November 2008. ACTIVITY 6 The Hong Kong Tourism Board (HKTB) has developed its own hotel classification system. Look up the information from the PartnerNet website (http://partnernet.hktb.com/pnweb/jsp/comm/index.jsp) and answer the following questions: a) How does HKTB define the hotels in Hong Kong? b) Does HKTB make public the listing of hotels by category? The following chart shows various types of accommodation used by travellers and their respective characteristics: Name(s) City centre hotels

Characteristics These hotels are located within the heart of a city. The type may vary greatly from business, suites, residential, economy, mid-scale to luxury. Local example: ____________________

Suburban hotels

Suburban hotels tend to be smaller properties which usually provide full-service, and locate in suburban area. Local example: ____________________ These hotels are designed especially to accommodate air travellers. They offer a mix of facilities and amenities. The majority offer guests transportation to and from the airport. Local example: ____________________

Airport hotels

They are designed for overnight stays for car travellers, often with very Highway hotels/Motels basic facilities. The rooms usually have direct access to an open parking lot. They are often smaller than most hotels. They are located on the outskirts of towns and cities. Local example: ____________________ Convention hotels

These hotels can have 2000 rooms or more. In addition to accommodation, they provide extensive meeting and function space for holding conventions. There are banquet areas within and around the hotel complex. Most of them provide an in-house laundry, a business centre, airport shuttle service, and 24-hour room service. They are often in close proximity to convention centres and other convention hotels. Local example: ____________________

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Commercial They are located in downtown areas. They tend to be smaller than convention hotels. Meeting and function space are smaller, and there hotels are fewer banquet areas. Local example: ____________________ Resort hotels These hotels are located in picturesque, sometimes remote settings. Guests travel long distance to resorts. Usually, they tend to stay longer. Resorts typically provide a comprehensive array of recreational amenities, as well as a variety of food & beverage outlets ranging from informal to fine-dining restaurants. Local example: ____________________ Spa hotels

They are located in resort-type settings or as part of city spa hotels. They provide accommodations, spa treatments, programs and cuisine. Programs offered vary widely. They may include relaxation/stress management, fitness, weight management, grief/life change and pilates/yoga. Spas have professional staff that often include dieticians, therapists, masseurs, exercise physiologists, and in some cases, physicians. Local example: ____________________

Timeshares/ This is a type of shared ownership where a buyer purchases the right to use the property for a portion of each year. In many cases, when the Vacation timeshare is purchased, the buyer receives a deed. This indicates that ownership the buyer can use the property each year at the time specified for the number of years based on the deed and the purchase can be handed down to the buyer’s heirs. Local example: ____________________ Casino hotels They have gambling operations which are the major revenue centres. They also provide live entertainment. A wide variety of luxury amenities, hotel services including fine and casual dining and shopping centres are typically available on site. Local example: ____________________ All-suite hotels

The guest rooms in these hotels are larger than normal hotel rooms, with separate areas for working, sleeping and relaxing. A living area or parlour is typically separated from the bedroom, and some properties offer a kitchen set-up in the rooms. The amenities and services can vary widely. They can be found in various locations such as urban, suburban, or residential. Local example: ____________________

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Boutique hotels

Boutique hotels differentiate themselves from traditional hotels and motels by providing personalized accommodation and services/facilities. They are sometimes known as "design hotels" or "lifestyle hotels". The price varies greatly. They are very different in their “look and feel” from traditional lodging properties. They are more intimate, and, perhaps, more luxurious, and stand out as an individual. The amenities vary greatly depending on what the hotel’s environment and theme chosen. For example, a boutique hotel may not offer Wi-Fi Internet, air conditioning, or cable/pay TV if it is focus on comfort and solitude. Local example: ____________________

Extendedstay hotels/ Serviced Apartments

These properties cater to guests who stay for an extended period. They usually offer full kitchen facilities, shopping services, business services and limited housekeeping services. Local example: ____________________

Historic conversion hotels

These properties have historic significance. They have been converted into lodging establishments with retention of their historic character. Local example: ____________________

They are usually family-owned. They are private homes whose owner Bed and lives on or near the premises and rents out rooms to overnight guests. breakfast inns (B&Bs) The paid accommodation typically includes breakfast. A popular term is “B&Bs” (i.e. bed and breakfast provided). The host often provides guests with assistance regarding directions, and information regarding the local area including sightseeing suggestions. It is usually located in rural areas and villages. Local example: ____________________ Guest houses Guest houses are similar to bed and breakfast inns. They range from low-budget rooms to luxury apartments. They tend to be like small hotels in bigger cities. Though the facilities are limited, most rooms are air-conditioned with en-suite shower and toilet. Local example: ____________________ Hostels

They are very cheap accommodation. The sleeping arrangements are usually in dormitory style and there may also be self-catering facilities on site. Local example: ____________________

They are bedrooms on a ship or train for passengers. Local example: ____________________ Villas/Chalet They are self-catering accommodation in a private bungalow, usually rented to prestigious or renowned guests. In many cases, it refers to a s (usually small cottage with an overhanging roof in a seaside resort, e.g. beach found in houses. skiing and Local example: ____________________ beach resorts) Cabins

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ACTIVITY 7 Based on the characteristics of various types of accommodation listed above, browse the website and fill in a local example. In Activity 7 we learned that a hotel may fall under more than one classification. For example, The Landmark Mandarin Oriental, Hong Kong is a luxury city centre and spa hotel. In addition, different types of hotel will offer different kinds of products and services for their guests and will be run differently to meet their guests’ needs. A luxury hotel may provide more personalised services and facilities that may not appear in a limited-service hotel. Examples include high-speed broadband Internet access, LCD televisions, DVD/CD home entertainment sound systems, 24-hour butler service and in-room dining, and 24-hour concierge and business services.

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2.2 Introduction to the Hotel Operations

Hotel swimming pool

Hotel fitness centre

2.2.1 Hotel Ownership Another way to classify hotels is by their ownership, which can be:  Private An independent hotel owned by a person/partnership/private company e.g. Shamrock Hotel 

Local group Several hotels owned by a local company e.g. Harbour Grand Hong Kong, The Kowloon Hotel, Harbour Plaza Hong Kong, Harbour Plaza Metropolis, Harbour Plaza North Point and Harbour Plaza Resort City are all owned by Harbour Plaza Hotels & Resorts



International group A hotel which is part of an international chain of hotels e.g. JW Marriott Hotel Hong Kong is part of the Marriott International, Inc. 12

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Hotel management Hotels can be operated in one of the following ways: 

Independently owned and operated These can be independent hotels, with no affiliation, that are being managed by the owners of the properties.



Management contract Management contracts are hotel management companies which operate properties owned by other entities. In some cases, the hotel owners may arrange to run their properties through a management contract with a company that specialises in managing hotels. The reason for this is that the owner may not: - Have the necessary expertise - Desire to become involved in the operation of the hotel Benefits for the hotel management company: - Little or no up-front financing or equity involved - Manage the property for the contract period such as five, ten or twenty years - Receive a management fee during the contract period



Franchising Some investors prefer to use the franchising concept in running the hotel. Franchising in the hospitality industry is a concept that: - Allows interested investors to use a company’s (the franchisor) name and business format - Is made up of properties where the franchisees agree to run the hotel in accordance with the strict guidelines set by the franchisor - Allows a company to expand more rapidly by using others’ capital Benefits for the franchisee: - Obtain from the franchisor the expertise in doing business such as site selection, planning, pre-opening training, operations manuals, information management, central reservation system, field support, quality control, purchasing, advertising, marketing, new products and concepts - The franchisee has complete control and responsibility over the daily operation of the property In return, the franchisor receives a joining fee and an ongoing fee from the franchisee.

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Referrals Referral associations, e.g. Leading Hotels of the World (LHW), offer to hotels similar benefits as franchising, but at a lower cost. Some hotels choose to become a referral property. This means that the property is being operated as an independent hotel in association with a certain chain. These hotels refer guests to one another’s properties and share a centralised reservation system, a common logo, image, or advertising slogan. Hotels pay an initial fee to join a referral association and further fees are based on services required. As the property has already been physically developed, the owner may want assistance only with marketing, advertising, management, or reservation referral. In addition, guests may find more variation among the referral properties as size and appearance standards are less stringent than those in a franchise agreement. However, every hotel is assessed and checked regularly to ensure that it maintains the highest standards.

ACTIVITY 8 State two drawbacks for a franchisee joining a franchise company. ACTIVITY 9 Browse the website and find out two international hotel chains that provide management contract and franchising services to the hotel owners.

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2.2.2 The Functions and Departments of a Hotel The day-to-day operations of a hotel are the key factors determining the success or failure of its service. It is necessary to understand the structure of hotels in order to get an overview of how the organisation fits together. General Manager

Resident Manager

Rooms Division

Engineering

Security

Human Resources

Food & Beverage

Sales & Marketing

Accounts

Figure 2: Major departments of a five-star hotel Regardless of the size of a hotel, the organisational structure will be basically the same. It is usually divided into several distinct departments, each responsible for a particular area of work. The larger the hotel is and the more facilities it offered, the more specialised the departments become. For example, the front office and housekeeping department are under the control of the director of rooms.

The duties of key executives 1. General Manager The main responsibilities of the general manager (GM) include:  Providing leadership to the management team  Coordinating the work of all departments  Participating in the formulation of hotel policies and strategies  Leading the hotel staff in meeting the financial, environmental and community responsibilities  Assuming full responsibilities for the overall performance of the hotel 2. Resident Manager The main responsibilities of the resident manager include:  Holding a major responsibility in developing and executing plans developed by the owner(s), the general manager and other members of the management team  Checking on operations, providing feedback and offering assistance when needed  Completing, reviewing and summarizing statistical reports and sharing them with the general manager  Assuming responsibilities for the daily operations and management of the hotel

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Functions of major hotel departments 1. Engineering The engineering department is responsible for maintaining the physical plant of the hotel such as electricity, plumbing, air conditioning, heating and elevator systems; and for overseeing all mechanical and technical conditions of the hotel. 2. Security Security is an important concern in every hotel. The security department is responsible for implementing procedures which aim at protecting the safety and security of hotel guests, visitors, hotel employees and the hotel itself. Examples include monitoring surveillance equipments, patrolling the hotel premises and maintaining security alarm systems. 3. Human Resources The human resources (personnel and training) department is responsible for hiring, orientation, training, wages and benefit administration, labour relations, employee relations, and staff development. 4. Food and Beverage The food and beverage (F&B) department provides food and beverage services to the hotel guests and visitors through a variety of outlets and facilities/services. Examples include lounge, bar, coffee shop, restaurants, banquet service, room service (also called in-room dining) and cake shop. 5. Sales and Marketing The main functions of the sales and marketing department involve generating new businesses for the hotel, coordinating advertising, as well as sales promotions and public relations activities aiming at enhancing the hotel’s image. 6. Accounts The accounts department is headed by the financial controller who, as a key member of the management team, can guide the hotel to an increasing profitability through better control and asset management. In addition, this department is responsible for monitoring all of the financial activities of a hotel. Examples include overseeing accounts receivable, accounts payable, payroll, and cost control systems of the hotel; keeping records of assets, liabilities and financial transaction of the hotel; preparing the monthly profit-and-loss statement, coordinating with purchasing department and information technology department, and handling guests’ inquiries about billing. The functions of Rooms Division will be covered in detail in Unit 2.2.3.

ACTIVITY 10 Browse the website and find a five-star hotel in Hong Kong/Macau that has a video in English and Chinese promoting its services and facilities to the guests.

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2.2.3 Introduction to the Rooms Division Rooms Division

Front Office Department

Housekeeping Department

Figure 3: Organisation of the rooms division The main source of income for most hotels comes from the rooms division and the food and beverage department. In general, the rooms division comprises two major departments, the front office and housekeeping, which are involved in the sales or services of rooms to guests. The director of rooms is responsible to the general manager for the effective leadership and smooth operation of all departments that make up the rooms division.

Front desk counter

2.2.4 Front Office Operations The front office is the nerve centre or hub of a hotel. It is the department that makes the first and last impression on the guests, and the place that guests approach for information and service throughout their stays.

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Front desk clerk The three main functions of the front office are as follows: 1. Selling rooms 2. Maintaining balanced guest accounts 3. Providing services and information to guests

2.2.4.1Guest Cycle The operation of the front office department is mainly determined by the type and number of guest transactions which take place during the four different phases of the guest cycle as shown in Figure 4 and listed below:  Pre-arrival The stage where the guest makes room reservation.  Arrival The point when the guest arrives at the hotel.  Occupancy The period during which the guest stays in the hotel.  Departure The point when the guest checks out and leaves the hotel.

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Figure 4:

The guest cycle

Complete Activity 11 to enhance your understanding of the various types of transactions and services which may occur between the guest and the hotel during different phases of the guest cycle.

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ACTIVITY 11 Determine at which stage(s) of the guest cycle the following guest transaction or service could occur. a) Fill in the Answer column below with the correct alphabet (A-D) which denotes the four different stages of the guest cycle. A – Pre-arrival B – Arrival C – Occupancy

D – Departure

The first one has been done as an example for you. No.

Guest Transaction or Service

Answer(s)

1.

Reservation

A

2.

Mail and information

3.

Transportation

4.

Telephone call and message

5.

Check-in and registration

6.

Flight confirmation

7.

Room assignment

8.

Safe deposit

9.

Issuing of key

10.

Baggage handling

11.

Maintaining guest account

12.

Bill settlement

13.

Issuing of breakfast coupon

14.

Currency exchange

15.

Wake-up call

16.

Check-out

17.

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b)

When you complete studying this section - 2.2.4 Front Office Operations, try this activity again by filling in your answers using the guest cycle provided below.

In Activity 11, we have learned that different types of guest transactions and services could occur in the four different phases of the guest cycle which are being handled mainly by the front office department. The following will explain how different sections of the front office department are being organised to handle these guest transactions.

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2.2.4.2 Front Office Department Front Office Manager

Assistant Front Office Manager Assistant Manager

Telephone Services Manager

Reservations Manager

Front Desk Manager

Guest Relations

Telephone Supervisor

Reservations Supervisor

Front Desk Supervisor

Telephone Operator

Reservations Clerk

Front Desk Clerk

Chief Concierge Baggage Supervisor

Baggage Porter

Executive Floor Manager

Senior Airport Representative

Executive Floor/Business Centre

Airport Representative

Door Attendant Parking Parking Attendant/Driver Attendant

Figure 5 Front office organisation chart of a large hotel Figure 5 shows an organizational chart for a front office. This illustrates the structure and lines of communication which operate within the front office. The front office department is headed by the front office manager (FOM) whose main duty is to enhance guest services by constantly developing services to meet guests’ needs. The FOM performs the following duties:  Monitoring reservation status  Looking over market mix and preparing occupancy forecasts  Determining rate structures and supervising implementation of rate policies  Reviewing previous night’s occupancy and average room rate  Reviewing arrivals and departures for the day and the next day  Making staffing adjustments needed for arrivals and departures  Reviewing the VIP list, checking VIP rooms, meeting VIPs and entertaining them

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(1) Telephone The telephone department is headed by the telephone services manager. The telephone supervisor and telephone operator process all incoming and outgoing calls through the hotel switchboard. Staff in this department generally possesses good language and communication skills. The members need to:  Provide general information regarding the hotel or local attractions to guests over the telephone  Place international calls, morning calls and wake-up calls as required by guests  Administer the paging system of the hotel, which provides a communication service between certain hotel staff and management staff who are not always in their offices  Administer the in-room movie system of the hotel  Stay familiar with the names of Very Important Persons (VIPs) in the hotel  Protect guest privacy by not disclosing room number, guest information and reporting suspicious person  Communicate weather emergency to management, engineering, security and guests  Perform the role of communications centre in the event of emergency In order to provide better service, some hotels have introduced the “one-stop service” with all guest requests being carried out through the telephone department. For example, if a guest called in and wanted to place a booking with the coffee shop, the line would be transferred by the telephone operator to the coffee shop in the past. With the “one stop service”, the telephone operator will take the booking for the guest. This can speed up the booking process and leave the guest a better impression. (2) Reservations The reservations manager takes charge of this section and makes decisions on whether room reservations/bookings should be accepted when the hotel is fully booked. That is, to stop taking room reservations or to allow overbooking of rooms. The reservations supervisor will monitor closely all the room reservations taken and report to the reservations manager when abnormal situations happen. For example, there is a larger number of room cancellations than usual. The reservations clerk will:  Handle reservation request and prepare reservation confirmation slips  Request guests to confirm or guarantee their room reservations  Keep records of the details of each reservation and the number of room reservation taken for each night  Provide the front desk with details of room reservation due to arrive the next day  Prepare VIP lists  Update guest history records Reservations may originate from different sources:  Direct reservation via telephone, fax, letter, e-mail or Internet  Reservation network systems such as Leading Hotels of the World (LHW)  Travel agents  Tour operators  Meeting planners  Walk-in

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Introduction to Hospitality

When a reservation request is accepted, the details of the room reservation such as guest name(s), staying period, room type and rate, method of payment, guest contact information and special requests will be recorded on a reservation form, as shown in figure 6, and in the computer. It is common practice for hotels to overbook during peak season in order to ensure full occupancy as some guests are likely not to show up. Overbooking refers to a situation when the hotel takes more reservations than the number of its rooms to accommodate. Therefore, reservations clerk will request guests to guarantee their booking during peak season. For guaranteed reservation, hotel will hold the room for the guest overnight or during the guaranteed period as the guest has prepaid for the room and no refund will be given if the guest does not show up. By contrast, a non-guaranteed reservation means that the hotel will hold the room until a stated cancellation time, normally up to 6 p.m. on the arrival date and then release the room for sale if the guest does not arrive.

24

Introduction to Hospitality

RESERVATION FORM ________

____________________

Title

___________________

Surname

First Name

__________________ Second Name

Arrival Date:

Departure Date:

Flight/Time:

Flight/Time:

No. of Persons:

No. of Rooms/Room Type:

Room Rate: _____________________________________

Corporate Discount

Travel Agent Airline Discount Discount

Courtesy

Package

Discount

Transportation Required:

Airport to Hotel Hotel to Airport Round Trip Billing Instruction:

Guest A/C

Room on Company

All Expenses on Company

Other: __________________

Guaranteed By:

Company letter/fax/e-mail

Fax

Deposit

Credit Card No.: ________________________________ Expiry Date: ____________ Company Name: Telephone/Fax no.:

Reserved by:

E-mail Address: Confirmation: Yes/No Remarks: Approved by:

Taken by: Date:

Figure 6:

Reservation form 25

Introduction to Hospitality

(3) Concierge The concierge comprises of a large group of uniformed staff, including:  Chief Concierge  Airport Representative  Driver  Parking Attendant  Door Attendant  Baggage Porter  Baggage Supervisor The chief concierge is the overall in charge of this section. He/she normally works at a desk in the main foyer. The following guest services are provided by the concierge:  Providing information/advice on hotel products/services, entertainment, attractions, sightseeing tours and local restaurants  Confirming airline passages and purchasing airline tickets  Reserving tables at restaurants and tickets to shows  Arranging the hire of hotel limousine and other transportation service such as a private jet  Handling guest requests and inquiries, e.g. shopping request and an inquiry concerning the direction to a local bank Airport Representative Duties include:  Greeting hotel guests at the airport  Arranging hotel transportation for guests from the airport to the hotel  Answering inquiries from guests about the different means of transportation available from the airport to the hotel such as airport express train, airport shuttle and bus  Taking hotel room bookings  Assisting departing guests at the airport  Liaising with airlines for special arrangements such as wheelchair for guests and the handling of guest baggage lost by the airlines Driver Duties include:  Taking guests to and from the airport  Acting as personal driver for guest upon request such as taking guest to his office or for sightseeing tour Parking Attendant Duties include:  Parking cars for guests patronising the hotel  Assisting the door attendant in ensuring that traffic at the main entrance is smooth

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Introduction to Hospitality

Door Attendant Duties include:  Greeting all new arrivals  Providing door service to guests  Summoning baggage porter to assist arriving guests  Calling taxis and providing the hotel address card for guests  Paying taxi fare on behalf of the hotel guests who do not have local currencies  Directing traffic and parking of vehicles at the main entrance In general, the door attendant works outside the hotel’s entrance.

Hotel entrance Baggage Porter (Bell Attendant) Duties include:  Handling guest baggage in and out of the hotel  Escorting check-in guests from the front desk to their rooms and introducing facilities in the room  Running errands for the executive office and hotel guests such as going to the post office buying stamps/sending parcels, doing grocery shopping and obtaining visa to China for guests  Delivering to guest room newspapers, mail, fax, message and parcel, etc  Handling storage of guest baggage/belongings for late check-out, next arrival or outsiders to pick up Baggage Supervisor (Bell Captain) Duties include:  Answering telephone calls from guests regarding luggage pick up from room  Assigning baggage porter to handle the guest baggage  Receiving guest article, such as a tailor-made shirt from outsider, and assigning a baggage porter to deliver it to the guest room  Handling guest requests for postal services such as collecting the postage fee of sending a parcel from the guest

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Introduction to Hospitality

(4) Front Desk (Reception) The front desk is headed by the front desk manager whose main duty is to ensure that the hotel achieves the highest possible level of room occupancy and the maximum revenue. Front Desk Supervisor (Reception Supervisor) Duties include:  Overseeing the smooth running of the front desk  Compiling duty roster  Greeting important guests (VIPs)  Assigning rooms to guests  Dealing with group arrivals  Handling guest requests such as room change and complaints not being able to be handled by subordinates Front Desk Clerk (Receptionist) Duties include:  Greeting the guest  Providing information and promoting hotel facilities and services to guests  Checking in the guest  Maintaining guest account  Checking out the guest  Administering the safe deposit system of the hotel  Providing foreign currency exchange service to guest Registration (Check-in) The purposes of registration include the following:  Recording the arrival of guest  Confirming the personal details of guest  Satisfying legal requirements Stages of registration  Preparing for guest arrival such as check for arrivals with special requests  Greeting the guest  Determining the room rate and assigning room  Assisting guest to complete the registration form  Checking guest’s method of payment  Handing over mail, message, article received before guest arrival and breakfast coupon (if applicable) to guest  Issuing room key to guest  Escorting guest to the room and introducing room facilities as required by individual hotel Figure 7 shows the sample of a completed registration form. During the process of registration, the front desk clerk will request to see the guest’s identity card or passport to check if the guest is an alien, for verification purpose. When all formalities are completed, the front desk clerk will issue the room key to the guest. The baggage porter will then take the guest’s baggage and escort the guest to the guest room.

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Introduction to Hospitality

Guests who arrive at the hotel without having made a reservation are known as walk-ins. It is common practice for hotel staff to obtain from the guest a substantial deposit or credit card imprint before checking the guest into the hotel. ACTIVITY 12 Mr Christie, a walk-in guest, will stay in your hotel for one night only and will be fully responsible for all charges incurred. As a front desk clerk, how would you explain to the guest that you have to collect one night room rate (HK$2,000.00) + 10% service charge + prevailing government room tax (e.g. 3%) + an extra HK$ 1,000.00 for hotel signing privileges from him as the deposit for check-in?

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Introduction to Hospitality

Registration Form Guest Name: Address:

Welcome to Parkside Hotel Mr. Brent David

Room

1718

Ritchie

Number :

8200 River Road

Date of Birth:

11 Oct 77

Nationality:

Canadian

Passport No.:

JP089556

Richmond BC Canada V6X 3P8 Tel/Fax No.: E-mail Address: Occupation:

[email protected]

Next

com

Destination:

Engineer

Arrival Date:

12 Sep 07

Flight/Time:

CX839/20:55

Company Name:

Canada

Departure

14 Sep 07

Date:

CX838/16:35

Flight/Time: Room Type:

Deluxe Suite

No. of Nights:

2

Room Rate:

$2300 (HKD)

No. of Guests:

1/0

Room rate is subject to 10%

(Adult/Child)

Service Charge & 3% Government Tax

Payment Method:

VISA

MASTER

CUP

CASH

AMEX

JCB

DINERS

OTHERS: ____________________

Guest Signature:

Brent D. Ritchie

I understand that the guest signature on the registration form is authorized for use of the credit card on the file for payment of my account for this and future stays. I agree that my liability for this bill is not waived, and agree to be held personally liable in the event that the indicated person, company, or other third party billed fails to pay part or all of these charges.

Express Check Out Service:

I hereby authorize Parkside Hotel to charge my credit card for all expenses pertaining to my stay. *Express

Signature of Credit Card Holder: ______________________

available

check for

out

credit

is card

paying guest.

I understand that Parkside Hotel is not responsible for money, jewels or other valuables that have been misplaced, stolen or left in the guest rooms, meeting rooms, public areas, and family and/or hotel vehicles. Safe deposit boxes are available at the Front Desk.

Figure 7 A completed registration form

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Introduction to Hospitality

ACTIVITY 13 Role play In groups of 2, one student will act as a front desk clerk helping a guest, i.e. another student, to check-in. Answer the following questions asked by the check-in guest: Question 1: Is it possible for me to check-out two hours later than the hotel’s standard check-out time with no additional charge? Question 2: Is there any show or concert that you could recommend to me? Question 3: Where could I find foreign currency exchange service? Question 4: Where would you recommend me to go for delicious Chinese cuisine?

During the guest’s stay, all transactions will be posted to the guest’s account/folio/bill. When checking out a departing guest, the front desk clerk should follow the following procedures: 1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

6. 7.

8. 9.

Check the name of guest and the room number against the guest’s account. Check the departure date. If the guest leaves earlier than expected, other departments will need to be informed. Check whether late check-out charges should be applied. This would occur if a non-frequent guest leaves after the hotel’s stated check-out time such as 12 noon; the relevant late check-out charge will have to be added to the guest account. In general, hotels will charge guests an extra 50% of the standard room rate if the guest leaves before 6p.m. and an extra 100% of the standard room rate if the guest leaves after 6p.m. Check for late charges such as mini-bar or laundry charges. Produce guest folio(s) for guest inspection and master folio(s) for tour escort’s inspection. Master account/ folio/ bill is the main account on which all charges to a company or travel agent have been recorded. For example, the master folio shows that the company or travel agent is only responsible for the room and breakfast charges. All other incidental charges are the guest’s own responsibility which could be found in the incidental account. Check the guest’s method of payment and help the guest to settle the account. Provide front office services such as handing over to guests any last minute message, fax, mail or parcel, helping guest to empty the safe deposit box opened at the front desk during their stays and offering the assistance of the baggage porter to collect the baggage. Check if the guest would like to make a future room reservation or an onward reservation in another hotel within the chain. Update the front office record to ensure that other departments can accurately know the guest and room status.

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Introduction to Hospitality

ACTIVITY 14 As a front desk clerk, you have been informed by Mr Schneider, a regular guest on own account, who receives daily newspaper and fruit basket that he has decided to leave now; one day earlier than expected. Fill in the reason(s) column below showing why the following departments need to be informed. The last one has been done for you as an example. Department(s)

Reason(s)

Housekeeping

Concierge

Room Service (In-room  Dining)

(5)

Stop delivering fruit basket the next day

The Assistant Manager and the Guest Relations Officer also serve the guests from a separate desk located in the lobby of the hotel.

Assistant Manager The Assistant Manager represents the management in handling the daily operations of the hotel and could directly report to the General Manager in some hotels. Duties include:  Welcoming VIPs upon check-in  Conducting guest relations role  Handling efficiently all inquiries and complaints of guests  Ensuring the smooth functioning of all departments in the hotel Guest Relations Officer The Guest Relations Officer reports to the Assistant Manager. Duties include:  Greeting all arriving individual guests, especially those under commercial accounts  Providing local information for guests  Promoting in-house functions, facilities and services  Assisting front desk staff when they are busy and assisting guest to check out

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Introduction to Hospitality

(6)

The executive floor manager oversees the smooth operation of the executive floors and business centre.

The Executive Floor Business travellers who require an environment conducive to business and privacy will choose to experience enhanced services in the executive floor for an additional fee. The executive floor(s) is usually the top floor(s) of a hotel. Guests of the executive floor will enjoy a range of complimentary exclusive privileges and benefits which vary from one hotel to another. Examples are as follows:  Express check-in and check-out services on the executive floor  Complimentary breakfast buffet, afternoon tea, cocktails, evening hors d’oeuvres and all-day refreshments in the executive floor’s lounge  Complimentary in-room local calls and high-speed Internet access  Garment ironing service  Complimentary use of the hotel’s fitness centre, swimming pool and private use of the boardroom for one-hour per stay  Personalised business and concierge services such as flight confirmation and hotel limousine arrangement Business Centre Many hotels provide a business centre to both their business and leisure guests. The range of services and facilities provided may include business equipments, presentation supplies, computers, meeting and function space with wired or wireless Internet access, secretarial and translation services. Economy properties typically offer limited business services with self-serve options.

Relationship between front office department and other departments in a hotel The front office is the centre of guest transactions in a hotel and so often acts as the centre for collection and distribution of guest information. Such information may help other departments providing the best service to guests throughout the different stages of the guest cycle. Housekeeping Department The housekeeping department requires the following information from the front desk:  Check-in, occupied and check-out rooms in order to organise room cleaning  Special requests from guests, such as baby cot or extra blanket, etc., so that extra amenities and services can be provided to guests In return, the housekeeping department will provide the actual room status to the front desk for comparison with the computer record which ensures that the front desk has the correct room status. Any discrepancy found will be double checked by the Assistant Manager. Engineering The engineering department is responsible for maintaining properly the hotel facilities under the care of the front office department such as the proper of functioning of the guest lift.

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Introduction to Hospitality

Security The front office needs to provide guest information to the security department in the event of emergency; such as fire alarm, power failure and so on. When guest reports loss of property to the front office, security department will be informed to handle the case together with front office’s assistant manager. Human Resources The human resources department provides staff training and recruitment service to the front office. It also sets up the staff grooming and discipline standard for staff to follow. Food and Beverage Department The front desk will provide the food and beverage department with a guestroom special amenities request form. The food & beverage department then arranges for item such as welcome fruit basket with fruits, chocolates and wine to be put in the guestroom. For groups, the food & beverage department will need the front desk to provide information on meal arrangements so as to reserve seats in the outlets or conference rooms for guests’ meals. Sales and Marketing Department The sales and marketing department needs to work closely with the front desk and reservations department for reservations of groups, tours and corporate bookings. The front desk will provide to the sales and marketing department an updated rooming list, see example on page 35, with guest room number upon the arrival of tours or groups. Accounts Department Information concerning advance deposits received by the reservations department and payments received by the front desk must be recorded and passed to the accounts department which is responsible for monitoring guest accounts, checking credit limits and seeking settlements of guest accounts. Accounts department is responsible for compiling a list of credit-approved companies, which is needed by reservations and front desk when receiving bookings.

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Introduction to Hospitality

Rooming List of Samson Trading Company Ltd. (May 1-12, 2009) Guest Name

Title

Nationality

Passport No.

Period of Stay

Ms Wong Mei Bo

Liaison Officer

Chinese

G45889246

May 1 - May 12

Mr Chen Wei Kit

Vice President

Chinese

G27205533

May 1 - May 10

Mr Peter Gibbs

Financial Controller

Australian

E2007201

May 1 - May 5

Ms Patricia Sand

Trading Manager

Australian

E6572458

May 4 - May 12

American

107225422

May 4 - May 12

Australian

E4470237

May 5 - May 10

Mr Bill Lewis Ms Devon Morton

Project Manager Marketing Manager

Mr Dan Morris

Marketing Manager

Australian

E4589632

May 5 - May 10

Mr Anthony Beer

Treasury Manager

American

197520409

May 5 - May 9

Mr Tey Wing Fatt

Sales Manager

Singaporean

S7127001H

May 5 - May 8

Ms Yetty Thomson

Sales Manager

Australian

E2477082

May 5 - May 8

Australian

E7142355

May 5 - May 8

Australian

E7568933

May 5 - May 8

Mr Jason Herrick Ms Jill Steward

Technical Support Manager Technical Support Manager

Figure 8:

Rooming list

35

Preference NonSmoking Room Smoking Room NonSmoking Room NonSmoking Room Smoking Room Non-Smoking Room NonSmoking Room NonSmoking Room NonSmoking Room NonSmoking Room NonSmoking Room NonSmoking Room

Room Type

Room No.

Standard Room

804

Harbour Suite

1811

Deluxe Room

1501

Deluxe Room

1503

Deluxe Room

1410

Deluxe Room

1504

Deluxe Room

1505

Deluxe Room

1506

Deluxe Room

1507

Deluxe Room

1508

Superior Room

1112

Superior Room

1113

Introduction to Hospitality

2.2.4.3 Types of Hotel Guest Hotel guests can be classified according to their:  Trip purpose – pleasure or business travellers  Numbers – independent or group travellers  Origin – local or overseas travellers Pleasure travellers They are individuals who travel to engage in leisure activities, outdoor recreation, relaxation, visiting friends and relatives or attending sports or cultural events. Corporate business travellers They are individuals whose frequent bookings are usually made by companies with reduced room rates. Business travellers travel to conduct business, attend business meetings or workshops, and engage in selling or purchasing products. Free independent travellers (FITs) They are sometimes referred to as "foreign independent travellers". FITs are international tourists who purchase their own accommodation and make their own travel arrangements. Group inclusive tours (GITs) Tourists who travel together on package tours with accommodation and sometimes meals which are booked through travel agencies. Group tourists tend to spend less and budget their spending allowance. Domestic tourists They are local residents who stay at a hotel for special occasions and functions. Conference participants Individuals who travel to attend conference and whose accommodation is usually reserved by himself/herself, his/her company or a conference organiser before their arrival. Very important persons (VIPs) Very important persons may include celebrities, frequent-stay guests, guests in expensive rooms, guests with security risks and top executives from companies. Incognito They are guests who stay in a hotel with concealing identities so as to avoid notice and formal attention.

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Introduction to Hospitality

2.2.4.4The Accommodation Product Accommodation is one of the largest sources of revenue for the operation of a hotel. It is the main product provided by a hotel. A guest who books accommodation receives more than just a room with a bed. It includes the facilities and services provided by the hotel staff. Since guests in general cannot examine the hotel product before purchase, front office staff must have a clear understanding of the accommodation product and describe it accurately and clearly to the guest. Examples include:  Room rates  Size of beds  Frequent-guest programme  Other services provided to the guest

Room rates Front desk personnel need to know how the room rates are derived. The following criteria will influence the room rate charged to the guests:  Type, size, décor and location of room  Meal plan  Season and seasonal events  Kind of guest  Length of stay and day of the week The room rate categories have variations in all hotels. Many hotels offer a number of different room rates to attract different guests who will provide repeat business and help ensure full occupancy. Examples of different room rates are as follows: Rack rate The standard rate charged for the room only. Corporate rate Room rate offered to executive personnel who are regular guests or employees of a corporation that has a contract rate with the hotel which reflects all businesses from that corporation. Commercial rate Room rate offered to executive personnel of a company who have infrequent visit. Airline rate The rate agreed between an individual airline and the hotel as determined by the volume of business the hotel obtains from the airline. Group rate Room rate given to bookings for a large group of people made through a travel agency or professional organisation. Children’s rate Each hotel has a specific age limit for the child to stay with their parents in the same room free of charge or at a nominal rate. 37

Introduction to Hospitality

Package rate Room rate, which includes goods and services and the rental of a room, is developed by the hotel to attract guests in during low sales periods. American Plan (AP) Room rate that includes room and three meals. Modified American Plan (MAP) Room rate that includes room and two meals; usually breakfast and dinner. European Plan (EP) Room rate that includes room only. Complimentary rate (Comp) Guest is assessed no charge for staying in a hotel. The management of the hotel may grant comp rooms for guests who are tour directors, local dignitaries, executives from the hotel’s head office and so on.

Hotel brochures and tariffs Hotel brochures and tariffs are sales and marketing tools used by the hotel to provide information on the room rate (rack rate) charged and the facilities and services provided to the guests. In general, the brochures contain pictures of guestrooms, restaurant outlets and other facilities. Tariffs are usually printed separately as an insert, as the price may change every season or year.

Types of room and bed A hotel has different types of guestroom and bed for the guests to choose from. Hotel staff should explain these clearly to customers, as they may not be familiar with the hotel terminology. Types of bed Twin Double Queen King Figure 9:

Sizes, e.g. 39” x 75” 54” x 75” 60” x 80” 78” x 80” Types and sizes of bed

38

Introduction to Hospitality

Types of room Single

Explanations A room that sleeps only one person and has been fitted with a single, double or queen-size bed. A room that can accommodate two persons with two twin beds. A room that can accommodate two persons with a double or queen-size bed. A room that can accommodate two to four persons with two twin, double or queen-size beds.

Twin Double Twin double (also double-double or queen double) Triple

A room that can accommodate three persons and has been fitted with three twin beds, one double bed and one twin bed or two double beds. A room that can accommodate two persons with two twin beds joined together by a common headboard. A room that is fitted with a murphy bed, i.e. a bed that folds out of a wall or closet. Room with one or more bedrooms and a living space. The bedrooms might be singles, doubles or twin doubles. Rooms close by or across the corridor, but are not side by side. Rooms that are side by side, but do not have a connecting door between them. Two rooms that are side by side and have a connecting door between them.

Hollywood twin Murphy Suite Adjacent Adjoining Connecting

Figure 10: Types of room

Twin bedroom

Double bedroom 39

Introduction to Hospitality

Frequent-guest program Hotels build guest profiles, often called the guest history, that keep track of preferences of guests and enable the hotels to provide customized guest services. Loyalty programs let the most valuable guests be recognized on-property and have been at the core of how chain hotel brands attract and retain their best customers. The loyalty program is a strong factor in persuading hotel owners to become franchisees or give a particular hotel brand the management contract to run their property. Some studies found that members wanted a streamlined reward redemption process, and points that did not expire. The most important features of a hotel program were room upgrades and airline miles, followed by free hotel stays, and a variety of on-property benefits and services. However, no amount of miles or points is ever going to replace a warm welcome and being recognized by the hotel as a loyal customer.

ACTIVITY 15 Give an example of how a chain hotel could customize a frequent guest’s hotel experience using the frequent-guest program.

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Introduction to Hospitality

2.2.5 Housekeeping Operations 2.2.5.1Housekeeping Department The housekeeping department is responsible for cleaning and maintaining the guestrooms, public areas, office spaces and back of the house areas in the hotel so that the property is as fresh and attractive as its first day of business. Although the roles that housekeeping performs vary from one hotel to another, the tasks performed by the housekeeping department are critical to the smooth daily operations of any hotel. ACTIVITY 16 Brainstorming – Using the information you learned in the previous sections, imagine yourself as a tourist or business traveller, what kind of a hotel would you like to stay in? In three minutes, brainstorm with your partner a list of the qualities of an ideal hotel. Use as many adjectives or phrases as possible to describe your ideal hotel. Here are examples of statements to use to start the brainstorming process: An ideal hotel should be ... An ideal hotel should have ... For both business and leisure travellers staying in a hotel, an essential requirement is that the guest room be clean. Surveys conducted by the hotel industry constantly indicate that cleanliness is a prime factor in a guest's selection of a hotel. It is clear that without clean rooms to rent, a hotel would have to close. The housekeeping department and its staff play a role that is critical to the profit and success of the hotel. In general, it maintains the cleanliness of guestrooms and public areas in such a way that reflects the hotel's commitment to standards of excellence. In many hotels, the housekeeping department is the largest department in the hotel.

ACTIVITY 17 Imagine yourself as the secretary to the Managing Director of ABC Company in Australia. Your boss needs to travel to Hong Kong and asks you to book a hotel having rooms with all the amenities required for a comfortable stay, but within a budget of around HK$2,000.00 per night. You have to compare the room features of different types of hotels by browsing through various hotel websites, and recommend to the Managing Director on the choice of hotel within the assigned budget.

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Introduction to Hospitality

Organisation of the Housekeeping Department The organisation of the housekeeping department will vary from one hotel to another depending on the number of rooms and the hotel management. This department is usually headed by an executive housekeeper, who is often assisted by an assistant and several supervisors. In the case of a small hotel, an executive housekeeper might have no assistant and is assisted by smaller number of supervisors. Increasingly hotel management are streamlining their organisational structures and employing casual employees. As a result many hotels have substantially reduced the number and role of housekeeping staff. This helps reduced the bottom line. However, set standards may be scarified and staff must assume a larger responsibility. The housekeeping department of a large-sized hotel, see figure 11, comprises of the following sections:  Laundry department  Uniform and linen room  Housekeeping office  Guest floors  Public areas  Health club  Floral and plant arrangement The laundry department provides laundry, dry cleaning and pressing services to guests. Some hotels maintain their own laundry, while others rely on commercial operators. In either case, close teamwork is necessary to assure a steady flow of linen back and forth for restaurants, banquet areas, floor pantry and recreational areas. Examples of linen follow:  Towels  Blankets  Sheets  Pillowcases  Mattress protector  Tablecloths  Napkins  Cleaning cloths

ACTIVITY 18 Imagine yourself as the executive housekeeper of a large-sized hotel. Due to the recent financial tsunami, your hotel decided to cut cost by streamlining the organisation structure. As the Executive Housekeeper, how would you redesign the organisational chart of your department, see figure 11 below, to suit the need of your hotel?

42

Introduction to Hospitality

Figure 11 Housekeeping Organisation Chart of a large-sized hotel 43

Introduction to Hospitality

Duties of Housekeeping Staff As mentioned, the housekeeping department is generally the largest department in hotel operations. A sizeable hotel in Hong Kong would typically employ more than 100 staff. Owing to its sometimes complex organisational structure, it is important for every housekeeping staff to clearly understand his own responsibilities in order to provide the most efficient service to guests. Study the following list of job descriptions for housekeeping staff. Do you think some of the responsibilities of one post can be taken up by another post in the housekeeping department? Why or why not? Executive Housekeeper  interviews, selects and engages staff in conjunction with human resources manager  training  deployment  prepares work schedules, work procedures and job descriptions  compiles duty rotas, holiday lists, etc.  personnel records  arranges supervision  staff welfare  orders and controls equipment, materials and linen  handles complaints  key control Assistant Executive Housekeeper  assists executive housekeeper in day-to-day operation  assumes responsibilities of executive housekeeper in his/her absence  revises daily work schedule depending on the occupancy  prepares master list for carpet spotting, curtains, etc.  inspects work to ensure prescribed standard of cleanliness  inspects rooms, lobbies and restaurants for cleanliness and also determines need for renovations and makes recommendations  coordinates with the front office  screens applicants, trains new employees and recommends disciplinary actions or dismissals Assistant Housekeeper  assists executive housekeeper in day-to-day operation  dispatches room attendants and floor supervisors to assigned floor  checks equipment and recommends new purchases  inspects guest rooms, lobbies and back stairs  keeps records of extra work performed by housekeeping department  takes inventory  prepares attendance records Floor supervisor  checks staff on duty  redeployment  supervision of staff

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Introduction to Hospitality

     

checks section/floor of rooms by filling in the room inspection list conducts induction and general training orders and issues cleaning materials linen checks maintenance checks liaises with reception on guest arrivals and departures

Room attendant  cleans rooms, bathrooms and suites  handle dirty and clean linen  provide turn-down service  reports faults, maintenance and peculiarities Public area supervisor  inspects public areas cleaned to see whether cleaning is adequate, supplies in public areas meet the standard and needs for immediate repair is reported  makes maintenance report for restaurant or item in need of repair and follows up to make sure work is completed satisfactorily  supervises cleaning of public areas, corridors and offices  trains cleaners, advises executive housekeeper if performance is not satisfactory  liaises with other departments such as food and beverage department regarding the cleaning schedule Cleaner  maintains the cleanliness and order of the hotel premises  spots rugs, carpets, upholstered furniture using vacuum cleaner, broom and shampooing machine  keeps corridors dust free  moves and arranges furniture  carries out special work assigned by the public area supervisor Tailor and seamstress  alters and repairs linens, uniforms, curtains and drapes  distributes and measures uniforms for new employees and keeps record  discards uniforms, room and table linen  keeps records of all discarded items  prepares inventory  repairs guest clothing

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Introduction to Hospitality

Uniform and linen room attendant  sorts and counts dirty linen and uniform  checks and counts clean linen and uniform  issues and receives linen and uniform  assists in inventory taking of all linen/uniform

The relationship between housekeeping department and other departments No matter what the type of hotel or the category of traveller, hotels are in the service industry and their goal is to meet the guest expectations. To help achieving this goal, all hotel staff must work as a team to provide consistently high quality service that promotes customer loyalty. An example would be when the housekeeping and front office departments work closely as a team to ensure that the guestrooms are cleaned and made ready for arriving guests. If housekeeping cannot provide cleaned rooms quickly enough to front office for sale, especially in peak season, the result is a loss of sales and customers. Apart from the front office, can you think of other departments which work closely with the housekeeping department? What is the result if communications breakdown between housekeeping and these departments? The following diagram shows the relationship between the housekeeping department and other departments:

Figure 12 Relationship of Housekeeping Department with Other Departments

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Introduction to Hospitality

The following are brief descriptions of the relationship of housekeeping department with other departments: Front Office – Rooms are the main concern of both departments. They must continually exchange information on room status so that check-out rooms can be returned as quickly as possible. In addition, renovations, repairs and maintenance can be scheduled during periods of low occupancy. The housekeeping department needs to report to the front office any unusual guest behaviours that may result in loss of revenue or bad publicity for the hotel. Engineering – It is the housekeeping staff’s responsibilities to request the engineering department for minor repairs in order to avoid a major breakdown. They must work closely as a team to do preventive maintenance and renovations with minimum disturbance to guests. The engineering department also expects housekeeping staff to contribute to the efforts of conserving heat, water and electricity. Security – Security’s responsibilities may include patrolling the property, monitoring surveillance equipment, and in general, ensuring that guests, visitors, and employees are safe and secure at the hotel. Since housekeeping personnel work in every area of the hotel, they are in a position to significantly contribute to the hotel’s security efforts. For example, when cleaning guestrooms, room attendants are usually responsible for locking and securing sliding glass doors, connecting doors, and windows. Human Resources – The relationship between human resources department and housekeeping department is similar to those mentioned earlier with the front office department. Food and Beverage – The relationship between the housekeeping department and food and beverage department involves the supply of table linen and uniform, and the cleaning of their outlets. The banquet department, in particular, must advise housekeeping of its anticipated needs since banquet business may fluctuate considerably, thus requiring special planning to assure the required quantity of linen is available and in good condition. The food and beverage department has a responsibility to separate stained or damaged linens that requiring special treatment. A good relationship should be maintained between housekeeping and room service to ensure provision of timely housekeeping services, e.g. removal of trays and tables from the corridors to service landings, VIP set-ups etc. In some hotels, housekeeping is also responsible for minibar replenishment, although the revenue goes to food and beverage department.

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Introduction to Hospitality

Sales and Marketing – The sales and marketing department relies heavily on the housekeeping department for prompt delivery of goods/services as promised to the guests. The major problem they face together, especially in large hotels, is back-to-back conventions and groups. Front office, sales and marketing and housekeeping share the responsibility to ensure that rooms are ready and cleaned for the arriving groups of guests. Purchasing – The Purchasing department buys all cleaning and guest supplies. Its relationship with the housekeeping department is self-evident. When it comes to deciding what brand, quality or size should be stocked - whether the item is cleaning powder or mattresses - the executive housekeeper and the purchasing agent must pool their knowledge to consider the characteristics, cost and availability of the products. Accounts – The hotel’s controller manages the accounting division which is responsible for monitoring the financial activities of the property. As the housekeeping department maintains inventories of cleaning supplies, equipment, linen, uniform, and other guest amenities, the executive housekeeper must often work closely with for example the storeroom manager, etc who reports to the hotel’s controller.

ACTIVITY 19 Fill in the right column with the correct hotel department(s)/staff involved so as to meet guest needs in the following scenarios. Scenario Department(s)/Staff Involved 1. A guest wants to get a bouquet and some chocolate for her girlfriend’s birthday. 2. A guest calls the housekeeping department to complain that there is no hot water in the bathroom. 3. A guest orders room service. 4. 5.

A business traveller discovers that his personal computer left in the guestroom has been stolen. An old lady feels sick in her room.

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2.2.5.2 In-room Guest Supplies and Amenities Hotels provide a variety of guest supplies and amenities for the guest’s needs and convenience. Guest supplies refer to items the guest requires as part of the hotel stay, e.g. toilet tissues, hangers etc. Guest amenities refer to the non-essentials that enhance the guest’s stay, e.g. in-room safe etc. The housekeeping department is responsible for storing, distributing, controlling and maintaining adequate inventory levels of both guest supplies and guest amenities.

ACTIVITY 20 Browse the website of Hong Kong hotels. Complete the table by filling the columns with three appropriate guest supplies and amenities. The first one has been done as an example for you.

Guest Supplies

Guest Amenities

Bath towels

Minibar

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

Note that some properties provide only the basic items of guest supplies to guests, while others pamper guests with extra items like fresh fruits and flowers etc.

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2.2.5.3 Room Status Codes Special codes and terminology are used between the housekeeping and other departments (e.g. the front office) for effective communication. One typical example of how these special codes and terminology are used is that when a guest check-out from the front desk and settles his account, the front desk computer system will automatically change the room status to ‘vacant dirty’ or ‘VD’. This permits housekeeping staff to make up the room promptly for arriving guests. As the ‘vacant dirty’ room is made ready for sale, housekeeping will notify the front desk through changing the room status to ‘vacant clean’ (‘VC’) or ‘Inspected Clean’. A sample Housekeeping Room Status Report is given as Fig. 13. The following is a set of commonly used Room Status Codes: DND : Do not disturb OOO : Out-of-order OOT : Out-of-town NB : No baggage LB : Light baggage SO : Sleep out CO : Check-out

OC : Occupied clean OD : Occupied dirty VC : Vacant clean VD : Vacant dirty ED: Expected departure NNS : No need service XB : Extra bed

Other special terminologies include: Terminology Skipper Sleeper Complimentary Stay-on Late check-out Lock-out Check-out

Description Room is vacant and guest has left without settling the bill Room is occupied by guest, but has not been checked into the computer The room is occupied, but the guest is assessed no charge for its use The guest will stay for the night The guest is allowed to check out later than the hotel’s standard check-out time The room has been locked so that guest cannot re-enter until he/she is cleared by a hotel official The guest has settled his/her account, returned the room keys, and left the hotel

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Introduction to Hospitality

Housekeeping Room Status Report Date Code : CO DND ED LB

NB NNS OC OD

Check-out Do Not Disturb Expected Departure Light Baggage

Floor

Room No

Floor

Room No

OOO OOT SO VC

No Baggage No Need Service Occupied Clean Occupied Dirty

Floor

Room No

Floor

Room No

Out-of-order Out-of-town Sleep Out

VD XB

Vacant Dirty Extra Bed

Vacant Clean

Floor

Room No

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Room No

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Checked By:

Figure 13 Housekeeping Room Status Report

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Introduction to Hospitality

2.2.5.4 Types of Guest Requests Housekeeping staff may be called upon to provide special amenities and stock guest loan items to meet requests. These items include everyday items that the guest may have forgotten to pack or items such as irons and ironing board (if they are not routinely provided in the guest room) and personal care items. Such items also vary from hotel to hotel, depending on the market segment the hotel attempts to reach and satisfy. Some examples of such items are: Adapter Additional furniture, e.g. table, chair Air-purifier Bed board Crib/Baby cot Dehumidifier Extension cord Extra bedding supplies, e.g. pillow, blanket *Stands for chargeable item

Fan Heater Humidifier Iron and ironing board Morning set (tooth brush & paste…) Rollaway bed* Transformer Vase Tapes

Stationery & Service Directory 52

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Iron & roning Board Most items mentioned above are free of charge upon request. However, some hotels may charge the guest if they request to add a rollaway bed in the guestroom. Apart from these items, guests may also request other services from the housekeeping department. If you were a hotel guest, what other services you would require or expect the hotel to provide to you? Guests with special needs  Wheelchair  Facilities for the disabled Business travellers  Broadband Internet service  International direct dialing (IDD) service  Local & international newspapers  Laundry/valet service  Shoes polishing service  Other business facilities, e.g. business centre, executive floor, fax machine, laptop computer, conference and meeting facilities

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Leisure travellers and holiday makers  Rollaway bed/ baby cot  Connecting rooms  In-room movies  Sports facilities, e.g. gymnasium, swimming pool  Spa facilities for beauty and health treatments, e.g. massage, hydrotherapy, facials and intensive foot and hand therapies  Baby sitting service Other requests  In-room dining (Room service)  Doctor service  Smoke-free guestroom  Room make-up service  Alteration & mending service  Repair and maintenance service  Food & beverage enquiries, e.g. hours and location of meals

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Introduction to Hospitality

2.2.5.5 Security Procedures In a hotel of any size, security is a major concern. The security division is responsible for maintaining systems and implementing procedures which protect the personal property of guests and employees and the hotel itself. Every hotel has its own procedures and guidelines for staff on how to handle guests’ valuables, keys and telephone calls. Any unauthorized disclosure of guest information to anyone by hotel staff will be regarded as misconduct. Hotel staff should never disclose guest’s information such as guest name and room number to anyone calling in. Handling Guests’ Valuables A room attendant must report to the housekeeping office any guests’ valuables found inside the guestroom during cleaning. It is important that the room attendant stays in the room until the assistant manager, floor supervisor and the security officer arrive at the scene. The case must then be recorded very clearly in the Housekeeping Log Book with the time, room number, item(s) found, the name of finder, and the name of whom the case is reported to and handled by for future reference. The guestroom will then be double locked until the guest returns. Key Control The room key is an important instrument that housekeeping staff use to access the guestroom and carry out their duties. All keys must be kept securely and distributed properly. Every room attendant is responsible for taking care of the keys under their charge and not allowing anyone else access to their keys. All keys are kept in the housekeeping office in a locked cabinet and are properly coded. The housekeeping co-ordinator is responsible for the distribution and control of keys. All keys issued must be properly signed for and cancelled after return. The room attendant must complete or sign “The sign in and out” log book listing the number of keys issued. The housekeeping co-ordinator takes inventory of the keys at the beginning of each shift and prior to the handover of keys to the subsequent shift in charge. The key cabinet must remain locked at all times. Keys issued to the employees must be kept under their own custody and never be left hanging on the trolley or in the door lock. All keys must always be returned to the housekeeping office. Keys must never be taken out of the hotel premises. The misplacing or loss of key is a very serious matter and should be reported to the executive housekeeper or assistant manager and security officer immediately. An immediate search must be made until the key can be located. Every member of staff in the housekeeping department is trained to handle the different keys and use the correct procedures when someone asks to open a guestroom.

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Introduction to Hospitality

Suspicious Person The housekeeping staff must report any suspicious person loitering on guest floors and public areas to the housekeeping office. The housekeeping coordinator will in turn inform the floor supervisor/assistant housekeeper, the assistant manager and the security officer. Lost and Found 'Lost and Found' refers to:  a place or an office that keeps any items found inside the hotel; or  a place or an office where reports of missing items, reported by either guests or staff, are kept and followed up. All staff should hand in items found inside the hotel premises, regardless of their value. Most hotels assign this duty to the housekeeping department, or the Security department. All information is recorded in the Lost and Found Logbook for prompt and easy reference in case of a guest enquires about a lost item. All items found by the guests and staff should be stored in a ventilated room and kept for three months before being releasing to the finder. Some items, such as perishable food or drink, may be kept for a shorter period. The storage area must be secure. ACTIVITY 21 Discuss the following scenario: A guest enquires about a missing item in his room, but the Lost and Found Log book has no record of it. How would you handle this situation if you were the assistant executive housekeeper?

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Introduction to Hospitality

3 Food and Beverage Sector 3.1 Introduction to the Food and Beverage Sector 3.1.1 Food and Beverage Operations (Hotel) Functions of the food and beverage department within a hotel FOOD & BEVERAGE is a term the hospitality industry uses to refer to all food and beverage needs for an event, dining experience or general catering. The food and beverage department within a hotel consists of many areas and personnel that cater to internal or external guests. Divisions Kitchens Restaurants Catering, internal and external Banqueting, internal and external Room service (In-room dining) Minibars Lounge bars Stewarding Food and beverage operation Kitchens A kitchen is a place for the storage and preparation of food for consumption. In some hotels, there may be a variety of kitchens catering to different needs from breakfast, luncheon and dinner to events such as gala dinners and conferences. The number of guests being catered for varies depending on the size of the dining facilities and kitchen, the number of staff employed and the equipment being used. The purpose of a kitchen is to produce the right quality of food of the highest standard for the required number of people, on time, by the most effective use of staff, equipment and materials. A kitchen can be divided into separate areas:  Production kitchen  Banqueting kitchen  À la carte kitchen  Grill room  Pastry kitchen  Food preparation area

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Introduction to Hospitality

Production kitchen Production kitchen The correct design and layout of food preparation and production areas can make a major contribution to good food hygiene. Staff respond better under good working conditions by taking more pride in their work, themselves and their environment. Adequate working space must be provided for each process in the kitchen and the separation of raw and cooked, clean and dirty must be followed to reduce the risks of food contamination.

Production kitchen

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Introduction to Hospitality

Production kitchen Production kitchens produce foods for separate service areas in the hotel. The amount of food produced can be as large as in the production for airlines or functions centre dealing with several hundred people, or as in the food production for a counter area where smaller numbers of customers are catered for. Features of a good production kitchen:  Designed so that it can be easily managed.  Management must have easy access to the areas under their control and have good visibility in the areas which have to be supervised.  Products – raw materials to finished product must have an easy flow  Personnel – how people work and move in the kitchen must have a good work flow, therefore good time management.  Containers/Equipment/Utensils – equipment should, where possible, be separated into specific process areas to increase efficiency, hygiene and work flow.  Storage areas should be kept clean and tidy, with temperatures monitored where necessary, and be close to the production areas for improved time management.

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Factors that influence the design of a kitchen Kitchens are designed for easier management. The market that the business is catering for and the style of food operation, which includes the menu structure, are all needed to be considered. Other important factors include:  Properly planned layouts, with adequate equipments, tools, materials and work space, are essential if practical work is to be carried out efficiently.  The movement, storage and handling of foods.  Working methods of staff employed.  Size of dining area if applicable.  Number of staff employed and their skill levels.  Type of operation, e.g. breakfast, luncheon and dinner.  Storage areas for chemicals and equipments, perishable and non-perishable foods.

Kitchen design

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Introduction to Hospitality

Kitchen design

Chinese kitchen

Western kitchen

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ACTIVITY 22 There are many factors that can influence the design of a kitchen. Take your kitchen at home as an example. Can you think of some factors that have influenced its design? Look at its size and shape. How have these two things had an effect on your kitchen? ACTIVITY 23 List four factors that you think could influence the design of a newly-built hotel’s kitchen in Central, Hong Kong. The main kitchen will be located four floors above ground level. Think of the hotel’s location and possible problems that they may have. Restaurants A restaurant is a retail establishment that serves prepared food to customers. Food is generally for eating on the premises, although ‘restaurant’ can also describe take-out establishments and food delivery services. The term covers many types of venue and a diversity of styles of cuisine and service. Restaurants can range from modest lunching or dining places catering to people working nearby, with simple food served in simple settings at low prices, to expensive establishments serving refined food and wines in a formal setting.

Hong Kong restaurant

Ritz-Carlton, Tokyo

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Dining room, Ritz-Carlton, Tokyo ACTIVITY 24 There are many different restaurants offering an array of foods and cultures in Hong Kong. Some specialise in foods from different countries. From the web sites eatdrinkhongkong.com and www.vibesasia.com/restaurants/search.htm, see how many different types of foods from different countries are offered in Hong Kong.

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Typically, customers sit at tables and their orders are taken by food service personnel who bring the food to them when it is ready. Then, the customers pay the bill before leaving. Restaurants often specialise in certain types of food or sometimes present a certain theme. For example, there are seafood restaurants, vegetarian restaurants or ethnic restaurants. Generally speaking, restaurants selling "local" food are simply called restaurants, while restaurants selling food of foreign origins are called accordingly, for example a Thai restaurant or a French restaurant. Hotels may have different restaurants to cater for different events and times of the day. For example, breakfast and luncheon may be served in the same restaurant whereas dinner may be in a more formal setting. Banqueting and catering (internal and external) A banquet, event or function can be described as the service of food and drink at a specific time and place, to a given number of guests at a known price. Banquet is a term used to describe a large formal occasion, e.g. Chinese wedding. Some examples of hospitality functions include: Business functions: Conferences, working breakfasts, luncheons and dinners, meetings Social functions: Gala dinners, anniversaries, weddings Some hotels can cater for functions/banquets outside their establishment. The use of refrigerated vans and trucks is necessary for the transportation of food items.

Conference in a hotel

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Special function at a Hong Kong hotel Stewarding Department The correct cleaning, drying and storage of all equipment used in the preparation and cooking of food is critical to prevent the spread of bacteria and cross-contamination. Responsibilities of the Chief Steward are:  Cleanliness of back-of-house  Washing of pots and pans and other kitchen equipments  Cleanliness of glassware, china and cutlery  Inventory of chemical stock  Maintenance of dishwashing machines  Pest control, where necessary ACTIVITY 25 From the list below, which can be described as a function, banquet or event? Service style

Function

Chinese wedding Hong Kong Hotels Association Gala Ball Premiere of a new film starring Tony Leung Chui Wai The launch of a new car for the Hong Kong market Conference dinner for the management of Hong Kong Tourism Board

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Banquet

Event

Introduction to Hospitality

ACTIVITY 26 Can you think of any outside catering opportunities here in Hong Kong, for example a hospitality tent or booth at the Annual Dragon Boat Racing at Stanley? Give three other opportunities that you consider would be profitable in Hong Kong. Browse through the following website: www.discoverhongkong.com for more examples.

Outside catering

Outside catering

Outside catering Room service This is the service provided in a hotel that allows guests to order food and drink to be delivered to their rooms. This service will depend upon several factors:  Typically found in larger city hotels, especially airport hotels  Level of service and menu vary  Challenges o Delivery of orders on time o Making it a profitable department within food and beverage o Avoiding complaints, e.g. food being cold or delivered late o Forecasting when the busy times will be during a day or week

Room service 66

Introduction to Hospitality

Bar management Bar management involves the functions of planning, organising, staffing, leading and controlling. Besides, a bar manager’s responsibilities often include coordinating, training and evaluating the staff. Bars are run by managers that have a sound knowledge in the making, brewing and distillation of wines, beers and spirits, and also the ability to make alcoholic and non-alcoholic cocktails. Other duties may include:  Supervising the ordering and storage of wines  Preparation of wine list  Overseeing staff, rotas and training  Scheduling of staff  Maintaining cost control  Assisting in wine selection by guests  Correctly serving wine  Knowledge of other beverages

Hotel bar

Restaurant bar in Hong Kong

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Lobby bar in a Hong Kong hotel Staff Duties Food and Beverage Manager The responsibilities of a Food and Beverage Manager will typically cover a number of areas. They will have the sole responsibility for the day-to-day running of the F&B department and ensuring budgetary controls while overseeing pricing and purchasing in all food and beverage areas. They will also be involved in the recruitment and supervision of a highly skilled F&B team and be responsible for the creation and implementation of seasonal F&B marketing strategies including input into menu planning. Their responsibilities can also include:  Dealing with all matters concerning spirits, wines and beers.  Ensuring that the profit margins are achieved for each food and beverage outlet.  Purchasing, receiving, storing and issuing liquor as well as controlling the overall inventory.  Interviewing and selecting staff.  Training of staff for supervisory level.  Promotion of the beverage department and marketing.  Co-ordinating requests from other departments within the hotel.  Complying with health and safety regulations.  Holding regular meetings with section heads to ensure that all departments are working efficiently.

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Introduction to Hospitality

ACTIVITY 27 You are employed as a Food and Beverage Manager with a major hotel in Hong Kong. Make a list of the duties that you think you would be responsible for during the course of one week’s work. ACTIVITY 28 You are employed as a Bar Manager in a major hotel in Hong Kong. Make a list of the duties that you think you would be responsible for during the course of one week’s work. Restaurant Manager A Restaurant Manager can also be referred to as the maitre d' (short for maitre d'hotel which literally means "master of the hall"). In a suitably staffed restaurant or hotel this person is in charge of assigning customers to tables in the establishment, and dividing the dining area into areas of responsibility for the various waiting staff on duty. He or she may also be the person who receives and records advance reservations for dining, as well as dealing with any customer complaint and making sure all servers are completing their tasks in an efficient manner. In some localities or traditions, particularly small organisations like a single restaurant, the post is also known as the headwaiter, host or restaurant manager. Their duties include daily operations, staffing and human resources, legal aspects of the business, accounting, finance, marketing, advertising and public relations. Their duties also extend to the followings:  Responsibilities to the guests  Responsibilities to the employer  Responsibilities for health and safety  Responsibilities for staff training  Interviewing and selecting new staff Assistant Restaurant Manager An Assistant Restaurant Manager will assist the Restaurant Manager in the organisation and running of the restaurant. They will assume full responsibility when the Restaurant Manager is unavailable, on leave or absent. Their duties will include daily operations and staffing and will also extend to:  Responsibilities to the guests  Responsibilities to the employer  Responsibilities for health and safety  Responsibilities for staff training  Helping and assisting the Restaurant Manager with interviewing and selecting new staff Station Head Waiter/Section Supervisor This person is responsible for a team of staff serving a set number of tables in the restaurant or function; this is known as a station.

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Station Waiter In larger hotels this position is sometimes called a chef de rang. This employee will work under the direction of the Station Head Waiter and serve guests. Waiter/Waitress This employee will work under the direction of the Station Waiter and is usually an apprentice or a person who is just beginning to learn the skills of serving guests. ACTIVITY 29 Describe the roles of the staff positions listed below: Responsible to:

Position Restaurant Manager Assistant Manager Section Supervisor/ Captain Station Waiter Waiter/Server

Manager

Assistant Manager(s)

Host and/or Cashier

Captain (A)

Captain (B)

Captain (C)

Bartender

Station Waiter

Station Waiter

Station Waiter

(A)

(B)

(C)

Waiter (A)

Figure 14 Restaurant Structure 70

Waiter (B)

Waiter (C)

Introduction to Hospitality

Waiting staff at work

Helping a guest

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ACTIVITY 30 You are employed as a maitre d’ in a restaurant that can seat 56 customers. Your task is to draw a restaurant plan for the seating for the night. There are: 4 tables for two customers 3 tables for four customers 3 round tables for six customers 3 oblong tables for six customers Divide the restaurant into three sections with a Station Supervisor for each. 3 Station Waiters in each section 2 Waiters/Waitresses in each section

Kitchen

BAR Reception Entrance

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Kitchen organisation Executive Chef To become a Head Chef or an Executive Chef takes many years of hard work with long hours standing on your feet, working unsociable hours at any time of the day or night. It takes years to learn the skills and knowledge necessary to become proficient in different cooking methods and styles.

Instructing kitchen staff

Chef at work

Head Chef (le chef de cuisine) In large establishments the duties of the Executive Chef, Head Chef or person in charge are mainly administrative; only in small establishments would it be necessary for the Head Chef to be engaged in handling the food. The functions of the Head Chef are to:  Organise the kitchen  Compile the menus  Order the food  Show the required profit  Engage the staff  Supervise the kitchen (particularly during service hours)  Advise on purchases of equipment  Be responsible, in many cases, either wholly or partially, for the stores, still room and the washing up of silver crockery etc.  Be responsible for guest satisfaction  Ensure food quality and consistency

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Head Chef giving instructions to staff An Executive/Head Chef also has to work in conjunction with: • Other chefs and cooks • Food and beverage staff • Function staff • Kitchen stewards In the late nineteenth Century, when labour in Europe was relatively cheap, skilled and plentiful, the public demand was for elaborate and extensive menus. In response to this, Auguste Escoffier, one of the most respected chefs of the era, devised what is known as the partie system. The number of parties required and the number of staff in each will depend on the size of the establishment. This system is still used to some extent in today's large hotel kitchens such as The Peninsula and The Marco Polo Hotels. Second Chef (le sous-chef) The Second Chef/sous chef relieves the Head Chef when they are off duty and is the Chef’s 'right hand'. Their main function is to supervise the work in the kitchen so that it runs smoothly and according to the Chef’s wishes. In large kitchens there may be several sous-chefs with specific responsibility for separate services such as banquets and grill room. Chef de Partie The Chefs de Partie are each in charge of a section of the work in the kitchen, such as sauces and soups, fish, vegetables, larder or meat. This is the job of the specialist. The Chefs de Partie organise their own sections, delegate the work to assistants and are in fact the 'backbone' of the kitchen.

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Kitchen staff at work Pastry Chef (le patissier) All the sweets and pastries are made by the Pastry Chefs, as well as items required by other parties, such as vol-au-vents, bouchees, noodles etc., and also the coverings for meat and poultry dishes when pastry is required. Ice cream and petits fours are also made here. Formerly, a glacier was employed to make all the ice creams, but now most of them are produced in factories. The bakery goods, such as croissants, brioche, breads etc. may be made by the Pastry Chef when there is no separate bakery. Assistant Cooks (les commis chefs) The Chefs de Partie are assisted by commis or assistants, the number varying with the amount of work done by the partie, e.g. the vegetable partie is larger than the fish partie due to the quantity of work to be prepared, so there are more assistants in that partie. The Assistant Cook is usually capable of taking over a great deal of responsibility, and in some cases will take charge of the partie when the Chef is off duty. Apprentice (l’apprenti) The apprentice is learning the trade and rotates among the parties to gain knowledge of all the sections in the kitchen. For those of you who still desire to become a Chef, the main element that is required is hands-on experience. This experience coupled with an education in the culinary arts has the potential to give you an opening in the culinary world. You should gain this experience as early as possible, perhaps by working in a restaurant while you are in high school. Even if you are not cooking food, you will still have the chance to observe and understand what is needed for the preparation of meals for a large number of people. From this starting point you can decide whether you want to become a chef. As an educational backdrop you should see if there are any first-class culinary schools that you can enrol in, e.g. Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Here you will be taught the fundamentals of cuisine and hotel management.

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Staff training in a Hong Kong kitchen

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Figure 15 Example of a traditional kitchen brigade in a large hotel

Head Chef

Sous Chef

Sauce Chef

Commis

Roast Chef

Commis

Apprentice

Fish Chef

Commis

Apprentice

Sous Chef

Vegetable Chef

Commis

Apprentice

Commis

Apprentice

77

Pastry Chef

Larder Chef

Commis

Apprentice

Apprentice

Relief Chef

Introduction to Hospitality

ACTIVITY 31 Explain the differences between a Sous Chef and a Chef de Partie. What are their roles within a kitchen? ACTIVITY 32 Describe the role that an Executive Chef would have in a large hotel in Hong Kong today. Use the criteria listed above and give six important functions that you think would be necessary for this position.

3.1.2 Classification of Food Service Establishments

Guestroom A hotel is classified as a commercial establishment providing lodging, meals and other guest services. Originally guests had two choices: • Luxury hotels • Budget hotels In some countries, hotels were built to serve middle-class families and, when the economy in general boomed and room supply increased; hoteliers then focused on setting themselves apart by offering specialised accommodation for: • Conventioneers • Business groups • Special weekend events and families As diversity flourished so did competition and brand loyalty. Anyone who can pay (within reason) can rent a room for a night in a hotel. Hotels vary greatly in style and services, from luxury, business, resort, townhouse to boutique and budget. A standard room will have a bed, bathroom facilities, shower, telephone, TV, lounge area and minibar. Housekeeping services available include laundry and dry-cleaning. Nowadays guests would usually have access to a wireless computer network and also to a business centre. Most major hotels will have restaurants and bars available for guests and if they are situated in a large city they are usually located near the business districts, tourist destinations and/or airports.

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Independent ownership Usually refers to small family-run restaurants where the owners have complete control. This was the only existing option before the emergence of chain restaurants. These restaurants do however have the highest failure rate. You often find that groups are made up of independently-run restaurants. Depending on the location of the restaurant the clientele may vary accordingly, however, business usually relies on local customers or its neighbourhood. Examples of independent ownership of food service establishments in Hong Kong would be family-owned and operated restaurants. Chain ownership There are many chain establishments in Hong Kong, mainland China, Asia and other parts of the world. Chain establishments can be grouped into single-concept chains and multiple-concept chains. The general public usually has no idea multiple-concept foodservices chains are owned by the same company. Single-concept chains include McDonald’s, MOSS Burgers, Subway, Burger King and KFC. Multiple-concept chains include Maxim’s Catering Limited, Lan Kwai Fong, King Parrott Group and Igor’s. Usually they have a centralised reservation system and some chains offer franchise opportunities. The opportunities for promotion are considerable as they usually have a strong local and international brand identity. Normally, a percentage of sales is automatically taken for advertising. Again, depending on the location of restaurants the clientele may vary accordingly. Many non-adventurous tourists prefer these international foodservices chains given their consistency in quality and service. Examples are: International foodservices chain – McDonald’s, Burger King, KFC, Moss Burgers, Pizza Hut, Subway, Tanyoto Hotpot, COVA, Haagen-Dazs and Outback Steakhouse, Starbucks Coffee, TGI Friday’s. Local foodservices chain – Maxim’s Catering Limited, Lan Kwai Fong, Igor’s, Caffe Habitu, King Parrott Group, Café de Coral.

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In-hotel restaurants Most hotels have at least one dining room that can be used for breakfast, luncheon and dinner meals. There are some hotels that do not have a restaurant; in this case guests will have their meals at a local establishment. Some larger and higher-grade hotels may have several restaurants and dining areas, with the number and type depending on the type and service of the hotel, e.g. breakfast and coffee shop restaurant, formal dining room, banqueting facilities. Typically these food and beverage areas are run by a Restaurant Manager. • A major chain hotel generally has at least two restaurants: a signature or upscale formal restaurant and a casual coffee-shop restaurant. • The restaurants cater for both the hotel guests and the general public. Hotels will promote their restaurants to hotel guests, or in some cases a hotel will allow a brand name restaurant to operate within their hotel as this helps to reduce the hotel’s food and beverage costs. Specialty Hospitals, Universities, Colleges, Prisons and the Military are all food service establishments whose focus is on minimising costs by optimising efficiency and in some cases they are non-profit-making. The other types of specialty food service establishments are those whose focus is on maximizing the uniqueness of food and beverage concepts. The concepts range from quick services to fine dining with an emphasis on unique features such as health-conscious market – salad bar, Non Genetic Modified (organic) food and beverage, and niche market – specialty coffee shops, pastry shops, ice cream bars.

ACTIVITY 33 • Explain the differences between an Independent and Chain Ownership Restaurant e.g. Café De Coral with an example. ACTIVITY 34 • Can you give three examples where a major restaurant brand name is operating inside a hotel in Hong Kong?

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Food Service Establishments

Independent

Chain

In hotel

Specialty

Hotels

Hotels

Own restaurants

Universities / Colleges

Restaurants

Restaurants

Brand name restaurants

Prisons

Cafés

Cafés

Coffee shops

Military

Fast food outlets

Fast food outlets

Themed restaurant

Niche market

Figure 16 Chart of typical food service establishment

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3.1.3 Types of Food and Beverage Services The different types of food and beverage services are the result of the formulation of restaurant concept. Concept is formulated to attract a certain group or groups of people, and it is integrated with atmosphere, menu, location, marketing, image, and ambience. Fast food outlets Customer demand has resulted in a rapid growth in fast food outlets here in Hong Kong. There are a variety of establishments offering a limited to very comprehensive choice of popular foods at reasonable prices. Some establishments may be small and suited to the local area offering local delicacies, whereas others may be part of a national or international chain employing a particular theme, e.g. the type of food and range of items available depends on the type and location of the establishment. • There is little or no waiting time • Food can be consumed either on the premises or taken away

Hong Kong fast food

Hong Kong fast food Traditional restaurants Food and restaurants are an important part of life in Hong Kong because of the type of society and culture here. We patronise restaurants several times a week to socialise, on family and celebratory occasions such as birthdays and Lunar New Year celebrations, and also to eat and drink for breakfast, luncheon or dinner. They offer a place to relax and enjoy the company of family, friends, school colleagues and associates. As a society we are spending an increasing amount of our money on food items away from home.

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Traditional restaurants: • Use local ingredients • Cook and serve a variety of traditional foods and beverages o Cater to dietary requirements o Alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages are available • Cater to a local clientele as well as international visitors

Formal dining Cafeteria A cafeteria is a type of food service establishment in which there is little or no table service. It is either a restaurant or within an institution such as a large office building or school. A school dining location is also often referred to as a canteen or dining hall. A cafeteria can also be a restaurant in which customers select their food at a counter and carry it on a tray to a table available after making payment, if necessary. It is also a dining area in an institution where customers may select meals at a counter which are then purchased. Alternatively meals may be brought in from elsewhere and consumed on the premises. Different methods of self-service for customers • Counter: Customers line up in a queue at a service counter and then choose their menu items. The chosen items are then placed on a tray and taken to the payment point. • Free flow: The selection is counter service. Customers move at will to random service points exiting via a payment point. • Supermarket: Island service points within a free flow area. The menu items available at cafeterias usually cover a variety of tastes, e.g. rice or noodles with a choice of vegetable, meat or fish. Soups, sweets and beverages are also available. Café A small social gathering place (shop) which sells food and drink. Customers order their food from a counter and serve themselves before paying. Cafés are also: • Somewhere you can go for afternoon/morning tea, light lunch or coffee. • Because of their popularity they are now often developed into more of a restaurant with a full range of food and beverage services. • There is a more casual atmosphere. • Hong Kong is gradually developing a "Cafė Culture". In Europe, the Americas and Australasia, cafés have developed widely over the last few years.

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Café in Hong Kong Activity 35 Explain the differences between a Cafeteria and a Café. Which would you prefer and why? What type of service style is used in each? Bars A bar can be part of a larger operation, like a restaurant, or it can be an individual business. The physical set-up of bars is critical to set the ambience and the theme of the establishment. A bar also allows guests to meet and socialise for both business and pleasure. There are many bars in Hong Kong, mostly in tourist areas and scenic locations, eg Lan Kwai Fong, SoHo, Tsim Sha Tsui, Wan Chai, along the harbour front and The Peak. Most bars will have a quick snack menu available for the guests to choose from. The profit percentage from beverages is higher than that from food and, unlike food, beverages can be held over if not sold. Themes of bars vary according to their location, eg Mexican cantina, African bar, British pub.

Lan Kwai Fong

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Bar in a Hong Kong restaurant ACTIVITY 36 There are many theme bars in Hong Kong. Search the following areas and list four different theme bars that you can find? Lan Kwai Fong SoHo Tsim Sha Tsui Wan Chai

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3.2 Food and Beverage Service Principles 3.2.1 Basic Knowledge of Menus, Food and Beverage Services and Kitchen Operations Menus were once used as a list of foods in a random order that the patron would choose from, including raw, prepared and cooked items. Not until the 19th Century did menus become more individual with different courses defined. With the formulation of menus, other things began to influence their structure such as the artistry and flair of different cookery methods and the creation of different styles or dishes named after famous people, e.g. Peach Melba, named after Dame Nellie Melba, a famous opera singer of her day. As more people moved and settled from country to country they brought with them different styles of food and service resulting in a broad variety of restaurants offering an assortment of ethnic dishes. There are many types of food, service styles and menus on offer in Hong Kong that satisfy different budgets and tastes. Establishing a menu format is helpful in ensuring that each of the five food groups is represented. This will make certain that healthy balanced items are available from the menu. There must be at least one food item from each category on the menu: 1. Starchy foods: Potatoes, pasta, rice, noodles 2. Fruit and Vegetables: Mango, melon, broccoli 3. Meat, fish and other non-dairy sources of protein: Meat e.g. pork, beef, chicken; fish e.g. grouper, sea bream; non-dairy e.g. tofu, red beans, soya products 4. Milk, eggs and dairy foods: Cream, cheese, yogurt, sour cream 5. Fat-containing Foods and sugar-containing foods: Cheese, bacon, eggs, fatty cuts of meat. Dried fruits, canned fruits, sauces and soups, sugar-containing ice cream

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The Five Main Food Groups There are many ways in which a person can stay healthy throughout their lifetime. One way to stay healthy is to eat a balanced diet. The food pyramid shows the five main food groups, and how much of each of them a person should eat to maintain a balanced diet. The five main food groups are listed below, with information of each provided. What is a Serving? An individual quantity of food or drink taken as part of a meal. An individual portion or helping of food or drink. Bread, Cereal, Rice and Pasta To maintain a balanced diet, a person should eat about 6-11 servings a day from this group. The food from this group gives your body energy. Milk, Yogurt and Cheese To maintain a balanced diet, a person should eat about 2-3 servings a day from this group. The food from this group provides you with calcium, which makes your bones and teeth hard. Fruit To maintain a balanced diet, a person should eat about 2-4 servings a day from this group. The food from this group helps keep your body healthy as fruit contains many vitamins. Meat, Poultry and Fish To maintain a balanced diet, a person should eat about 2-3 servings a day from this group. The food from this group provides your body with protein, which helps your body grow strong. Nuts and beans are also in this category as they also provide protein. Vegetables To maintain a balanced diet, a person should eat about 3-5 servings a day from this group. The food from this group provides your body with vitamins, just like the fruit group. Figure 17 The Five Main Food Groups For more information on the food pyramid and health, visit: http://www.drpbody.com/nutrition.html

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ACTIVITY 37 Name two menu items for each of the five food groups listed above that would be suitable when designing a well-balanced menu: Starchy foods Fruit Vegetables Meat Fish Non-dairy protein Milk Dairy foods Foods containing less fat Foods containing less sugar ACTIVITY 38 You have several friends coming to your house for a dinner this weekend. From the items that you have listed in activity 37, assemble a well-balanced menu for the evening, including one non-alcoholic cocktail.

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Types of menu

A table d’hote menu (non-selective menu)

A non-selective menu A table d’hote menu may only offer one food item from each category of the menu format and therefore offers little choice. Or it can be a menu at a set price, offering two or three courses with no choice. For example: Soup, main course and dessert.

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Table d’hote menus are a good example of a non-selective menu. The menu is at a fixed price with set items. It can also be a cyclical menu, e.g. changing every day and rotating through the month. The guest is seated and served at a table by the waiting staff. Banqueting menus can also be table d’hote menus (set menu at a set price) when a large number of people are served at their table at the same time, course by course. Sit-down wedding banquets are a good example. A non-selective menu would be used in establishments for the following reasons: • Additional staff are not required in the production • Simpler and easier to control purchasing • Less costly due to the limited items required • Better and easier portion control ACTIVITY 39 Give three good reasons why a restaurant in Hong Kong would choose to serve a table d’hote menu to its customers during the Lunar New Year. ACTIVITY 40 Among the restaurants that you know or have been to recently, which of them offer a table d’hote menu? Make a list and see how many you can name.

Selective menu

A table d’hote menu (non-selective menu)

A selective menu offers at least two choices from each of the food groups in each category. A good example of a selective menu would be: À la carte menu This is a menu with all the dishes individually priced. Items on the menu are prepared and cooked to order. All items on the menu are listed at a separate price and the guest is served at a table.

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ACTIVITY 41 Give three good reasons why a restaurant in Hong Kong would choose to serve an à la carte menu to its customers during the Lunar New Year. ACTIVITY 42 Among the restaurants that you know or have been to recently, which of them offer an à la carte menu? Make a list and see how many you can name. Carte du jour This menu is a list of dishes that are available from the restaurant on a particular day. Customers can choose from this list which may be given to them as a menu card, written on a blackboard or introduced verbally by the waiter/waitress. Cocktail menu (finger food) This menu consists of small items (no more than two bites). There is usually a selection of items – canapés, hors d’oeuves. Service staff will circulate with a tray of items which are offered to the standing guests. • Usually no menu card • Dishes can be hot or cold Visit this website to learn more about cocktail foods. http://entertaining.about.com/od/horsdoeuvres/Hors_DOeuvres_Canapes_and_ Finger_Foods.htm Children’s menu A children’s menu can be à la carte or table d’hote and offered in conjunction with an adults’ menu. Puzzles and pictures are often found on the menu. The dishes can be prepared very quickly with smaller portion size and lower pricing when compared to a normal menu. This kind of menu is usually available in theme restaurants. Visit these two web sites to look at some children’s menus. www.joetheismanns.com http://allears.net/menu/menus.htm The first decision to be made in developing a menu is to determine the frequency of change. A fixed menu is much simpler than a daily-change menu. Daily-change menus are required for many types of institutional food services. • Completely fixed menu • Fixed menu with seasonal changes • Fixed menu with changing specials • Complete daily changes • Cyclical daily changes • Daily changes with standard items A common arrangement is to have a fixed menu for breakfast and changing menus for lunch and dinner.

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Cyclical menu A cyclical menu is compiled to cover a given length of time, e.g. one, two, three month(s), and usually consists of a number of set menus for use in the business. These menus are usually available in industrial catering establishments, cafeterias, hospitals, prisons, colleges. The length of the cycle depends on: • Management policy • The time of year • Foods available • Cost of items to prepare ACTIVITY 43 There are several reasons why a restaurant or hotel may choose to use a cyclical menu. Can you give two good reasons? ACTIVITY 44 Among the restaurants that you know or have visited recently, can you name any of them that use a cyclical menu? Healthy menu You can plan your own menu so as to enjoy delicious food easily while providing your body with important nutrients that are most needed for specific health conditions. Spark your imagination in creative ways to mix and match the recipes and the foods to create deliciously satisfying meals. Use the five main food groups to balance the menu. A selective menu would be used in establishments for the following reasons: • Often less expensive as the menu can be balanced with less expensive items. • There is an increased level of food acceptance as customers can make their own choices. • Can also encourage correct eating habits from the five food groups. • Fewer leftovers as customers will eat what they have selected. • A large quantity of food is not required as you have more varieties to choose from. ACTIVITY 45 What are the differences between a selective and a non-selective menu? ACTIVITY 46 Match the description on the left with the appropriate menu on the right. 1. Menu items are restricted in number

a. À la carte

2. Of the day's menu

b. Table d'hote

3. Repeats menu after a predetermined period

c. Du jour

4. Offers separate food items at separate prices

d. Limited

5. Offers several food items at a single price

e. Cyclical

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Different styles of table service There are three main table service styles: American, French and Russian. American service is particularly suited to banquet service. It means all the glass and silver, plus napkin and perhaps a service plate, are on the table when guests arrive. Plate service means waiters serve only plates, which are plated (prepared) in the kitchen. This is the style of service used in hotels and restaurants today.

À la carte setting

À la carte setting

À la carte setting

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French service: All the food is presented to the guests seated at the table at the same time. In Service à la française ("Service in the French style"), all the food is brought out at once in an impressive display. The guests serve themselves, as often as each of them wants. When a guest places his knife and fork together on the plate it signals that he has finished his meal. The service keeps coming until guests indicate that they have finished. Essentially this service was appropriate for banquets in private homes of the aristocracy and rich. This style of service may also be called Family service (the main dish may be plated or silver served – see below). Restaurants have not found this service appropriate due to money, time and staffing constraints. Because of this, Russian service became the norm until the 1970s when the use of large dinner plates that were elaborately prepared for presentation by the kitchen became the trend. (American service)

Banquet setting

Modern restaurant setting Russian service is essentially derived from French service. Service à la russe ("Service in the Russian style") is a manner of dining that involves courses being brought to the table in succession. Its main feature is the preparation of a large platter in the kitchen which is served by the waiter to the guests, using usually a fork and a spoon in the right hand while holding the platter in the left hand. This is also called Full Silver Service. The presentation of the platter to the guests is part of the visual presentation of the food. This style also helps to control food costs – an innovative idea when it first appeared.

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In Service à la française, the dishes, at least in each course, are arranged spatially but presented to guests all at once. In Service à la russe, the dishes are arranged temporally, i.e. served in succession, one after another. Plus the dishes are all offered to the guests by waiters, not passed by the guests. Instead of offering each guest a different assortment of dishes, everyone is offered the same dishes throughout the meal. Also, with Service à la russe, roasts are carved in the kitchen or on a sideboard, making it easier for the guests to select the portion they desire.

Seating for a large booking at a Hong Kong restaurant ACTIVITY 47 Indicate the differences between American, French and Russian service styles. Tick the appropriate boxes. Service style

Waiter service

Silver service

Guests Plated food serve items themselves served

Serving utensils used

American French Russian

Buffet is a meal-serving system where patrons serve themselves. It is a popular method of feeding large numbers of people with minimal staff. Customers select food from a display, and it is consumed either seated at a table or standing. There are different types of buffets. One form is to have a line of food serving sections filled with fixed portions of food; customers take whatever food items they want as they walk along and pay at the end for each dish. A good example is a cafeteria. Well-known in Hong Kong is the all-you-can-eat buffet, where customers pay a fixed price and help themselves consume as much food as they wish in a single meal. This type of buffet can be either breakfast; luncheon or dinner and is found often in restaurants, especially in hotels here in Hong Kong.

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As a compromise between self-service and full table service, a staffed buffet may be offered. Here diners bring their own plate along the buffet line and are given a portion from a server at each station. This method helps reduce food wastage and is becoming more common in Hong Kong. Another style of buffet is the traditional buffet offered in Sweden, the smörgåsbord, which literally means table of sandwiches.

Buffet in Hong Kong

Buffet in Hong Kong

Dessert buffet in a Hong Kong restaurant

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ACTIVITY 48 Write about the last experience you attended a buffet, either in Hong Kong or abroad. How may different food items were offered? What was the service like? Was there sufficient food offered during the entire buffet? Counter, Cafeteria or Self-service Customers collect a tray or plate from the beginning of the service counter and move along selecting their meal and then pay and collect appropriate cutlery. Customers may stand or sit while dining, and may also take food away. Schools and work cafeterias are good examples. Tray line Queuing in a line past a service counter and choosing menu requirements. Kitchen layout for different food and beverage services The choice of service methods and kitchen layouts will depend upon: • The customer service specifications o Methods of service o Hours of opening – breakfast, lunch and dinner • Capability of the staff • Workers’ safety – layout should safeguard the workers by eliminating hazards • Movement – the layout should provide easy movement of materials and workers. Cross traffic should be minimized. • Capacity of the operation o Fast food o Fine dining for 150 guests o Banqueting for 500 guests o Family restaurant • Equipment available and efficient use of equipment • Extent and size of the menu • Methods of services – serviced or self-serviced: o Serviced facilities include - Table service - Counter service – Japanese sushi restaurants, salad specialty shops, ice-cream and pastry shops - Room service – primarily in hotels o Self-serviced facilities include - Takeaway - Cafeteria (used primarily in universities and hospitals) - Fast food - Vending machines (snacks and soft drinks) Before a kitchen is planned, the management must consider their goals and an objective in relation to the establishment’s marketing strategies. The menu will determine the type of equipment required, number of staff employed, positioning of the business and the type of customer.

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Hotel Kitchen Floor Plan

Figure 28 Hotel kitchen floor plan Figure 18: Hotel kitchen floor plan

3.2.2 Ambience of an Establishment Atmosphere refers to the overall feel within the restaurant, and it conveys an image as related to the guests, the menus, and the types of service. The special atmosphere or mood created by a particular restaurant environment is its ambience. An intimate ambience can be created by low-key lighting reflecting deep shadows, creating feelings of romance, or bright lighting which could convey a cheerful ambience of joyfulness and happiness. Besides, the colour of the lighting can also affect the atmosphere and customers’ feelings, so as the music being played in the restaurant which can have an emotional effect on people; sad or joyful songs, loud or soft music can set a subdued, formal or informal scene and atmosphere in a restaurant. Scent is another way to set an appealing ambience of a restaurant; freshly brewed coffee or the aroma of freshly baked bread, cakes or chocolate are always alluring to guests and in some cases conjure up happy memories from childhood.

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Other factors can also affect the ambience of a restaurant: Décor The décor of a hotel or restaurant is the style of interior furnishings. For a business in hospitality to survive it needs to measure up to every detail that ensures a comfortable and pleasurable stay for the guests as well as the food and service. Along with other factors, decoration is an integral part of the hotel and restaurant business. Interiors of many hotels are in line with the particular hotel design concept, and each hotel or restaurant can be decorated individually – conventional, classical or contemporary as the case may be.

Entrance to a Hong Kong restaurant

Lounge area in a Hong Kong restaurant Uniforms A uniform is a set of standard clothing worn by an employee of a hospitality organisation while participating in that organisation's activities. The use of uniforms by hospitality businesses is often an effort in branding and developing a standard image. It also has important effects on the employees required to wear the uniform. To maintain the high standard and ambience of a business, uniforms need to reflect image and brand identity through their colour, freshness and cleanliness. In some establishments a laundry department will launder the working uniforms or clothing for the employees. If this is not the case then laundering can be outsourced. Senses Sight – the perception of visual space depends on a combination of lighting, decoration and colour. It should provide both psychological and physical sense of freedom. 99

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Touch – the perception of comfort while a guest is sitting in the restaurant including physical contact with table, tableware, seat and floor coverings. Hearing – the perception of overall noise levels including guests’ conversation, in-house music, kitchen sounds, machinery and equipment (air conditioners, coffee makers, microwave ovens), servers’ conversation and outside noises (cars, shoppers, improvement works). Smell – the perception of cooking aromas, effectiveness of ventilation and air pollution in the neighbourhood. Temperature – the perception of air temperature in particular outdoor dining (poolside dining, alfresco dining), cooking heat and relative humidity.

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Table settings The table setting also portrays the image of the business and the ambience of the dining areas. The setting should have a centerpiece that performs a solely decorative function. Care should be taken not to make the centrepiece too large so that there will be sufficient room to place serving dishes. High standard hotels and restaurants usually have white linen table cloths and napkins. Napkins can be folded into many different designs and shapes to add a decorative atmosphere to the restaurant.

À la carte setting Figure 19

Table d’hote setting Figure 20

À la carte Menu with all the dishes individually priced. Cooked to order. List of dishes. Table setting: Large joint knife and fork

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Table d’hote Menu is at a set price, usually with two or three courses. Fixed price. Table setting:

Formal dinner setting

Formal dinner setting in a Hong Kong Restaurant Depending on the type of service, utensils are placed about one inch from the edge of the table, each one lining up at the base with the one next to it. The glasses are positioned about an inch from the knives, also in the order of use: white wine, red wine, dessert wine and water tumbler. A well-laid table can add atmosphere and ambience to any restaurant.

Formal dinner setting

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Lunch setting in a Hong Kong restaurant

Lunch setting Items of silverware and glassware used in hotels and independent restaurants follow:

White wine glass, water goblet, pepper mill, salt and pepper shakers, sugar bowl, red wine glass, flower vase, toothpick holder

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Table set for luncheon

Toothpick holder Butter dish Soup spoon Dessert spoon Butter knife Fish knife Salad/dessert knife Dinner knife

Salt and pepper shakers, escargot tongs, service fork and spoon, escargot fork, salad/dessert fork, dinner fork

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Entrée plate Soup Bowl Flower Vase Soup Cup & Saucer Bread and Butter Plate

Salad, Pasta, Dessert, Dinner

Demi-tasse cup and saucer, Coffee cup & Saucer Sugar bowl Milk jug

Hot water pot, tea pot, coffee pot

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Champagne flutefute Pilsner glass Margarita glass Special cocktail glass Martini glass

Irish Coffee Glassware Water goblet Wine glass Champagne flute Balloon glass Liqueur glass Port glass

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Cocktail shaker Measuring jug Ice bucket and tongs Boston shaker Jigger

Wine stopper, wine pourer, wine bottle opener, zester, Hawthorne strainer, ice scoopbar knife & spoon Bar equipment

Wine bucket and stand ACTIVITY 49 Describe the place setting for an à la carte dinner at an up-market restaurant. Describe the place setting for a table d’hote lunch at a local restaurant. ACTIVITY 50 Describe the differences between the ambience of a restaurant and the décor. Does each have an impact on customer expectations of service and quality?

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Theme restaurants Theme restaurants are those in which the concept of the restaurant takes priority over everything else, influencing the architecture, food, music and overall 'feel' of the restaurant. It is usually emphasing fun and fantasy, glamorizing or romanticizing an activity such as sports, travel, an era in time or almost anything (Walker, 2005). The food usually takes a back seat to the presentation of the theme, and these restaurants attract customers solely on the basis of the theme itself. According to Martin Pegler (Pegler,1997), theme restaurants are divided into six categories: • Hollywood and the movies • Sports and sporting events • Time – the good old days • Records, radio, and TV • Travel – trains, planes, and steamships • Ecology and the world around us Popular theme restaurants in Hong Kong (excluding ethnic cuisines) include: • Hard Rock Café – Records • Charlie Brown’s –TV /The good old days • TGI Friday’s – Theme of fun • Jumbo and Tai Pak Floating Restaurants – Travel • Modern Toilets –Theme of fun Some restaurants and hotels theme their business for a particular event or occasion. Many hotels are decorated for special occasions such as festivals, Christmas, Lunar New Year or Mid-Autumn Festival, or for different promotions. Food and wine festivals organised by different F&B outlets and special events like book and product launches or corporate events and private functions are also reasons for hotels, or certain parts of it, to dress for the occasion.

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Themed menu

Chinese New Year ACTIVITY 51 How many different theme restaurants are there in Hong Kong? Type “Hong Kong Restaurants” into your search engine and locate restaurants that fall into this category. ACTIVITY 52 Name three factors that will make a hospitality outlet into a good Theme Restaurant.

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3.2.3 Menu Planning and Design Everything starts with the menu. The menu dictates much about how your operation will be organised and managed, the extent to which it meets its goals, and even how the building itself – certainly the interior – should be designed and constructed. It is the foundation upon which the layout and other design functions are based. The menu influences every basic operating activity in a food service organization, it affects management decisions about: • menu items which reflect a balance between profitability and popularity and are some of the most important decisions that food service managers have to make • the usage and the space of and equipment requirements for the food service facility • the production methods • sources of food and staples suppliers The menu, or bill of fare, is a/an: • basic document in food and beverage operations • printed document which informs patrons of the products offered • integral part of all other functions of any food or beverage outlet We can therefore consider the menu to have two broad uses: • As a working document for the back of house (kitchen) • As a published announcement to patrons out front

Book menus

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Objectives of the menu • Menu items are selected which please the customer and are either profitable (for a commercial operation) or affordable (for a non-commercial operation) •

To establish standards on which to base other activities in the operation, eg either a large five-star hotel in Hong Kong or a small restaurant in Tsim Sha Tsui or Causeway Bay



To identify the food and drink to be offered, portions to be served, quantities and quality of food and beverage ingredients to be purchased



The menu and service style contribute in a big way to the business’s market image



Menus are effective marketing tools if they are designed with the needs of the target markets in mind

ACTIVITY 53 Consider: The factors which influence or constrain the choice of products to be offered on a menu, and how the resulting menu will affect other activities in a business. Imagine that you are having a dinner party with some friends. What are the factors you would take into account when deciding what to serve them for dinner? ACTIVITY 54 List five objectives that need to be considered when planning a menu for a new restaurant in either Happy Valley or Yau Ma Tei. Planning The menu is the plan used to achieve the organisation’s profit objectives and to satisfy customers’ desires. The main objective of Menu Planning is for the business to make a profit while catering to its customers needs, using all available ingredients, equipment, physical surroundings and skills of its employees at a reasonable cost. Important points to consider when planning a menu • The type of customer to be attracted • The cost and price of the menu, and food items • The supplies that are needed to deliver the menu requirements • The kitchen size and the staffing skills needed • The type of equipment that is available in the kitchen • The balance of the menu (light to heavy, and then back to light again) A well-planned menu must satisfy guest expectations: • Reflect your guests’ tastes • Reflect your guests’ food preferences • Ascertain your guests’ needs

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Besides, the planning of a menu must achieve its marketing objectives by taking into account the followings: • Location of the business, e.g. near an MTR station or other public transport services, located on Nathan Road or in Central or Causeway Bay • Times of opening and closing • Prices that cater to the market segment are identified • Quality of food and service, e.g. formal dining at first class hotels or restaurants • Specific food items available to the customers at certain theme restaurants, e.g. TGI Friday’s, Hard Rock Café • Socio-cultural elements, e.g. due to the many nationalities present in Hong Kong, each needs to be considered when planning a menu Planning a menu will also help to achieve the quality objectives of the business. Quality standards: • Flavour, texture, colour, shape and flair of the dishes offered • Consistency, palatability and visual appeal • Aromatic appeal and temperature of each item Nutritional concerns: A balanced diet is important in this fast-paced modern city of Hong Kong. When planning a menu, customers’ preferences for low-fat, high-fibre diets and vegetarian food items also need to be considered. ACTIVITY 55 Again, assuming you're planning a dinner party, write down a menu you feel would be suitable to serve your friends. Now, jot down how your proposed menu would affect the followings: • Purchasing the ingredients • Storing the ingredients • Production of menu items • Serving menu items ACTIVITY 56 Indicate which points need to be considered when planning the following menus? Tick the appropriate boxes.

Menu Planning

Customer

Price

Items offered

Buffet menu Themed menu A la carte menu Table d’hote menu

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Design Basic factors of menu design First impression is always important; the entire menu should complement the operation of the business. Some menus are built around the history of the establishment or the local area, the cultural setting, cuisine or theme of the restaurant. The menu cover should reflect the identity or the décor of the restaurant and should also pick up the theme, which is effective in creating the correct image. The paper or card chosen needs to be of good quality, heavy, durable, stain and grease resistant. Menu design should be unique, simple, highly recognisable, and should develop a relationship with customers. Recognisable designs and symbols can be carefully chosen to appeal to the target market identified. The style of print should be easily read and well spaced. Customers also recognise and interpret colour differently. Colours are often identified with elegance, wealth, sophistication and other symbols, e.g. navigation lights for shipping and aircraft – red port side, green starboard side. Through the use of colour, fast food outlets design menus to attract customers quickly.

Book-folded menus The task of the menu writer and designer is to direct the customers’ attention to the menu items that the restaurant wishes to sell. A well-identified pattern of customers’ eye movement can be followed: What the customer sees first after opening a window-folded menu is the centre inside panel, therefore it is important to use the centre panel to promote items you most wish to sell. With a book-folded menu the customers’ eyes move from the lower right-hand panel to the upper left-hand panel. Clip-on inserts in menus may be used to advertise daily specials and upcoming events.

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Menus that contain little information and no descriptions usually fail to inspire customers. A menu should be accurate and honest in its attempt to inform and describe and, above all, reach customers’ expectations.

A Window-folded menu

A window--folded menu ACTIVITY 57 From the information you have read above, list six factors that will make your menu design unique and therefore stand out from those of competitors. ACTIVITY 58 Again assuming you're planning a dinner party, think of a theme you like and design a menu you feel would be suitable to serve your friends involving this theme. Take into account the following aspects of menu design: • Book-folded or a single sheet • Colour • Type of card or paper used • Language used and the font size and type • Size of the menu • Cover design • Artwork used in the design Menus as a promotional tool A menu is anything you use to communicate with your potential customers by showing them what your restaurant has to offer. There are different types of menus including traditional hand-held menus, elaborately-printed menus, menu boards and even verbal menus. Not only does a menu play a major role in establishing market position and reaching customer expectations, it is probably the single biggest merchandising and marketing tool you have. Unfortunately many restaurateurs underestimate the role a menu plays in influencing guests’ selections and miss out on major sales and profit-building opportunities. 114

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Virtually everything that is undertaken in the restaurant and how the establishment is perceived in the identified market is linked to the food and menu. The menu in large part defines your restaurant’s image and elevates or lowers your guests’ expectations. Having a stained, dog-eared menu handed to you is not a great way to set the tone for a memorable dining experience. Periodic changes of menus allow restaurants to offer customers with new dining experience. Some common categories of frequency of change of menus are:

Type of menu

Features

Completely fixed menu

• •

Fixed menu with seasonal changes

• •

Fixed menu with changing specials

• •

Complete daily changes

• •

Cyclical daily changes

• •

Most fast food operations Items in the fixed menu are added or dropped for popularity or profitability consideration Most food operations Changes a few times a year for seasonal food items Most food operations Specials in the fixed menu may be changed daily Most food operations open for a limited period of time during the year such as summer camps or resorts Menu has a limited number of food items Universities, hospitals and institutions Fixed with a number of set menus

Source: Kazarian, E. (1989). Foodservice facilities planning (3rded.).

A book-folded menu In addition to the above basic factors of menu design, the frequency of change of menus could be another marketing tool a restaurateur should consider in communicating with potential customers. ACTIVITY 59 Can a menu be used as a marketing tool? List three changes you would like to make on the menu below to improve its marketing potential:

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A book-folded menu ACTIVITY 60 Visit several restaurants or hotels, either in person or through their web sites. Look at their menus and identify the areas that are good and not so good. What can be changed to improve its potential as a promotional tool for marketing the establishment? Comment on the followings: • Typeface • Page design • Colour • Language • Size • Cover • Paper • Shape and form • Artwork

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3.3 Food Safety and Personal Hygiene Information from the Centre for Food Safety, Food and Environmental Hygiene Department covering key points in food safety and personal hygiene. Acknowledgement: Reproduced with permission from Centre for Food Safety, Food and Environmental Hygiene Department.

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4 The Role of Technology in the Hospitality Industry 4.1 The Development of Technology in the Hospitality Industry 4.1.1 The Importance of Employing Up-to-date Information Technology Front Office The front office is always regarded as the "heart" of a hotel. Whether it is a small hotel or a large international one, property management systems (PMS) are needed for day-to-day operations. From reservations to revenue management, they help the hotel to yield its room sales and revenues. The computer systems provide the most up-to-date information to both front office staff and guests. When a potential guest calls the hotel to make a reservation, the hotel reservations clerk can accept or reject a booking immediately by searching through the computer. In addition, the staff can put the caller on the waiting list if a room is not available on certain dates. During a guest's stay in a hotel, any transaction can be input directly into the computer system. Once the guest has checked out, the room status can be updated at once and the reservations clerk can take new bookings. In addition, the front office can generate useful reports, such as arrival and departure lists, to relevant departments. Those reports can help departments plan and organise resources in advance.

Front Office

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Housekeeping The PMS can provide the housekeeping department with the most up-to-date information in order to help the department arranging the cleaning of guestrooms. The executive housekeeper can input the cleaning schedules of guestrooms in order to maintain the high standard of a hotel. Besides, the housekeeping department can make use of the system to block any room for general cleaning and maintenance. For example, the consumption of cleaning chemicals can be stored in the computer. It thus provides valuable information for the executive housekeeper to prepare the budget. In addition, the room inspection list can be retrieved from the computer whenever needed, especially in reviewing the performance of staff. The housekeeping coordinator in the housekeeping office can update the room status of guestrooms so that the front office can offer the room to new guests, provided it has been inspected by the floor supervisor. The PMS system can speed up the process and cut down on communication breakdowns between departments. Food and Beverage The most valuable commodity for any business is reliable and up-to-date information. Computers have given the food & beverage department the ability to provide information more effectively and efficiently to the management and general staff. Computerised systems can help monitor work as it is being carried out, thereby warning of possible errors before they happen. Data about storage of equipment and materials, distribution of these products throughout the food & beverage department and new products now available can be accessed. Once data has been input, a food & beverage management system can become an asset to the business. For instance, this type of system can store all the recipes used in the organisation's outlets. Using this information, kitchen staff can order goods from the stores using these recipes and the order will be automatically scaled to the correct quantities required and cost of the menu items, thereby giving staff the correct selling price to achieve the correct profit margin. Most catering businesses, hotels and restaurants use generic systems that provide the kitchen manager (head chef) and restaurant manager (maître d') with financial modelling and forecasting.

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4.1.2 The Ways Technological Changes Improve the Operational Efficiency of the Hospitality Industry for Customers, Tourists and Staff Electronic Point-of-Sale Systems (POS) take the place of traditional cash registers. They take the form of a single cash register with a processor, memory and printer, all incorporated into one unit. They have a greater capacity than traditional cash registers. Typical functions include the ability to store multiple totals which enables overall sales for a shift to be analysed as required. A touch screen with programmed prices of menu items makes the process faster and more efficient. Once the information has been input, a copy will be sent to the responsible outlet, e.g. kitchen, bar, room service. All orders will show the time it is processed which in turn eliminates the errors of hand-written chits. Management reports are very comprehensive, giving details such as the sales of each item on the menu. Information of this type can further assist the management to ensure that the business is operating at its maximum efficiency and profitability.

Electronic POS system

Electronic POS system in a Hong Kong restaurant

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Stock Control Systems Using it at its simplest, this system will allow stock to be entered when received and issued to different food & beverage units in an establishment. The system will ultimately calculate the value and quantity of the remaining stock. There are more sophisticated systems that, apart from providing the basic features, include a range of others such as suppliers, new products on the market and alerts when stocks fall below pre-determined levels, thus automatically making new orders. These stock-control systems are relatively easy to use for bar stock but become more complex when dealing with food items. This is because quantities and weights are not always standard. ACTIVITY 61 Can you think of any other departments within a hotel that may use technology to improve efficiency, reduce waiting time of guests and maintain a competitive advantage?

4.1.3 The Property Management System (PMS) in Hotels PMS is an integrated computer system that includes the computerisation of the front desk processes and, at most, the control of virtually all operations in the hotel, including telephones, in-room movies, the use of electricity and other mechanical devices. It can also control food and beverage operations and information, remote point-of-sale equipment, management information systems, and systems that link the hotel to worldwide information networks. Benefits of implementing PMS: - The operation of a hotel can be improved by reducing repetitive tasks. - The information needed by the management to make decisions is current and easily accessible. - The service provided to guests can be improved with regard to the timing and accuracy of pertinent information. - The internal operations of a hotel can be standardised in a way that is easy to control and will be almost impossible to duplicate in a manual system.

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Figure 21 Hotel property management system Certain functions of PMS Reservations  Individual reservations  Group reservations  Room blocking  Mails and messages  VIP guests  Deposits and refunds  Availability  Travel agents  Groups and plans  Reservation module reports  Arrivals and departures  Group reports  Departure list  Master list Front Desk and cashier systems  Registrations and changes  Selecting a room  Transferring a guest  Messages and mails  6pm hold reservations  Billing of groups  Locating a guest  Posting charges  Printing in the cashier area  Night audit  Room rate variance  Credit limit report  Daily report  Room revenue report  City ledger activities  Interfacing  Checklists  Housekeeping functions  Room status changes  Discrepancies  Telephone department 244

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Housekeeping systems  - Assigns room for cleaning at the beginning of the day  - Daily housekeeping report  - Daily reports on check-ins, check-outs, occupancies, vacancies and maintenance  - Change status from "dirty" to "clean"  - Change to "block" if room is undergoing maintenance  - Inventory  - General cleaning management

Reservation Module Availability/ Forecasting Reservation records Reservation Confirmations Room Pricing Revenue Management

General Management Module Revenue Analysis Operating Statistics Financial Analysis Guest History

Guest Accounting Module Folio Management Credit Monitoring Transaction Tracking

Rooms Management Module Room Status Registration Room Assignments Room Rate Information

Figure 22 Rooms Division computer applications

ACTIVITY 62 Do you think PMS can totally replace staff in hotel operations?

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References Baker, S & Bradley, P (1990). Front Office Operations. Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Polytechnic Chon, K. & Sparrowe, R T (2000). Welcome to Hospitality…an Introduction. United States: Thomson Learning Foskett, D., Ceseriani, V., & Kinton, R. (2004). The Theory of Catering (10th ed.). London: Hodder & Stoughton Katz., Jeff.B. (1997). Restaurant Planning, Design, and Construction: A survival manual for owners, operators, and developer. United States: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Kazarian, E. (1989). Foodservice facilities planning (3rd ed.). United States: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Kivela, J. (1994). Menu Planning for the Hospitality Industry. Melbourne: Hospitality Press Pty Ltd. Kotschevar, L. H., & Tanke, M. L. (1996). Managing Bar and Beverage Operations. Michigan: Educational Institute of the American Hotel & Lodging Association Lillicrap, D., & Cousins, J. (2006). Food and beverage service. (7th ed.). London: Hodder Marchiony, A. (2004). Food-Safe Kitchens. New Jersey: Pearson Education Ltd. McSwane, D., Rue, N. R., & Linton, R. (2003). Food Safety and Sanitation. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Ninemeier, J. D., & Hayes, D. K. (2006). Restaurant Operations Management Principles and Practice. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. Pegler, Martin. (1997). Theme Restaurant Design – Entertainment and Fun in Dining. New York: Reporting Corporation Walker, J R. (2006). Introduction to Hospitality. United States: Prentice Hall Walker, J R., & Lundberg, Donald. E. (2005). The restaurant: from concept to operation. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vallen, G K & Vallen, J J (2000). Check-In Check-Out. United States: Prentice Hall 246

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