History of India and Indian National Movement - ForumIAS



History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/


Ancient Indian History Indian Prehistory

History of India and Indian National Movement [A complete book for competitors]

The fossils of the early human being have not been found in India. A hint of the earliest human presence in India is indicated by stone tools of about 250,000 BC obtained from the deposits.

However, recent reported artifacts from Bori in Maharashtra suggest the appearance of human beings in India around 1.4 million years ago.

From their first appearance to around 3000 BC humans used only stone tools for different purposes.

This period is, therefore, known as the Stone Age, which has been divided into Paleolithic (early or Old Stone) Age, Mesolithic (Middle Stone) Age, and Neolithic (New Stone) Age.

The Paleolithic Age in India (500,000 BC – 8000 BC): •

In India it developed in the Pleistocene period or the Ice Age.b.

The earliest traces of human existence in India go back to 500,000 BC.

The Paleolithic sites are spread in practically all parts of India except the alluvial plains of Indus and Ganga.

The people of this age were food gathering people who lived on hunting and gathering wild fruits and vegetables.

Man during this period used tools of unpolished, undressed rough stones and lived in cave and rock shelters. They had no knowledge of agriculture, fire or pottery of any material.

They mainly used hand axes, cleavers, choppers, blades, scrapers and burin. Their tools were made of hard rock called ‘quartzite’. Hence Paleolithic men are also called ‘Quartzite Men’.

Homo sapiens first appeared in the last of this phase.

It has been pointed out that Paleolithic men belonged to the Negrito race.

The Paleolithic Age in India has been divided into three phases according to the nature of stone tools used by the people and also according to the nature of change in the climate – Early or lower Paleolithic, Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic.

The Early Paleolithic Age covers the greater part of the Ice Age. Its characteristic tools are hand axes, cleavers and choppers. Such tools have been found in Soan and Sohan river valley (now in Pakistan) and in the Belan Valley in the Mirzapur district of UP In this period climate became less humid.

Middle Paleolithic Phase is characterized by the use of stone tools made of flakes mainly scrapers, borers and blade like tools. The sites are found in the valleys of Soan, Narmada and Tungabhadra rivers.

In the Upper Paleolithic Phase, the climate became warm and less humid. This stage is marked by burins and scrapers. Such tools have been found in APKarnataka, Maharashtra, Bhopal and Chhota Nagpur plateau.

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By – D.S. Rajput

{This book is very usefull for those competitors who appearing in the Civil Services, State PSCs, Bank PO, SSC Exams, NDA, CDS, Railway, and others oneday exams.}



History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ The Mesolithic Era History (8000 BC – 6000 BC) :


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Apart from stone tools, hand axes and other objects made of copperware also used.

In this age, climate became warm and dry. Climate changes brought about changes in fauna and flora and made it possible for human beings to move to new areas. Since then, there haven’t been major changes in the climate.

The Chalcolithic people used different types of pottery of which black and red pottery was most popular. It was wheel made and painted with white line design.

The characteristic tools of the Mesolithic Age are known as Microliths-pointed, cresconic blades, scrapers, etc, all made of stone.

These people were not acquainted with burnt bricks. They generally lived in thatched houses. It was a village economy.

The people lived on hunting, fishing and food gathering; at a later stage they also domesticated animals.

They venerated the mother goddess and worshiped the bull.

The last phase of this age saw the beginning of plane cultivation.

Important sites of this phase are spread in Rajasthan, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Bihar, MP, etc.

Various Mesolithic sites are found in the Chhotanagpur region, Central India and also south of the Krishna River.

In the Belan valley of Vindhyas, all the three phases of the Paleolithic followed by the Mesolithic and then by the Neolithic have been found in sequence. Similar is the case with the middle part of the Narmada valley.

Indus Valley Civilization in India Ancient Civilizations in India

The History of Neolithic Era (6000 BC – 1000 BC) : •

The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River in what is now Pakistan and north-western India. Among other names for this civilization is the Harappan Civilization, in reference to its first excavated city of Harappa.

During this phase people were again depending on stone implements. But now they used stones other than quartzite for making tools, which were more lethal, more finished and more polished.

An alternative term for the culture is Saraswati-Sindhu Civilization, based on the fact that most of the Indus Valley sites have been found at the Halkra-Ghaggar River.

Neolithic men cultivated land and grew fruits and corn like ragi and horse gram. They domesticated cattle, sheep and goat.

R.B. Dayaram Sahni first discovered Harappa (on Ravi) in 1921. R.D. Banerjee discovered Mohenjodaro or ‘Mound of the Dead’ (on Indus) in 1922. Sir John Marshal played a crucial role in both these.

They knew about making fire and making pottery, first by hand and then by potters wheel. They also painted and decorated their pottery.

Harappan Civilization forms part of the proto history of India and belongs to the Bronze Age.

• •

They lived in caves and decorated their walls with hunting and dancing scenes. They also knew the art of making boats. They could also weave cotton and wool to make cloth.

Mediterranean, Proto-Australoid, Mongoloids and Alpines formed the bulk of the population, though the first two were more numerous.

More than 100 sites belonging to this civilization have been excavated.

In the later phase of Neolithic phase people led a more settled life and lived in circular and rectangular houses made of mud and reed.

According to radio-carbon dating, it spread from the year 2500 – 1750 BC.

Copper, bronze, silver, gold were known but not iron.

In India Neolithic Age is not earlier than 6000 BC and at some places in South and Eastern India; it is as late as 1000 BC.

Important sites of this age are Burzahom and Gufkral in J&K (famous for pit dwelling, stone tools and graveyard in house), Maski, Brahmagiri, Tekkalakota in Karnataka, Paiyampatti in Tamil Nadu, Piklihal and Hallur in AP, Garo hils in Meghalaya, Chirand and Senuwar in Bihar (known for remarkable bone tools), Amri, Kotdiji, etc. Koldihawa in UP revealed a three fold cultural sequence: Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Iron Age.

Geographical Extent : •

Covered parts of Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Gujarat, Rajasthan and some parts of Western UP. It extended from Manda in Jammu in the north to Daimabad in the south and from Alamgirpur in W. UP to Sutkagendor in Baluchistan in the west.

Major sites in Pakistan are Harappa (on Ravi in W Punjab), Mohenjodaro (on Indus), Chanhu-Daro (Sindh), etc. In India, major sites are Lothal, Rangpur and Surkotda (Gujarat), Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Banwali (Hissar), and Alamgirpur (Western UP).

Chalcolithic Period : •

The end of the Neolithic Period saw the use of metals of which copper was the first. A culture based on the use of stone and copper arrived. Such a culture is called Chalcolithic which means the stone-copper phase.




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Largest and the latest site in India is Dholavira in Gujarat. Dr. J.R Joshi and Dr. R.S. Bisht were involved in it.


History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ •

Grew wheat, barley, rai, peas, sesamum, mustard, rice (in Lothal), cotton, dates, melon, etc. The Indus people were the first to produce cotton.

In Kalibangan, fields were ploughed with wooden ploughs.

Domesticated animals on large scale. Besides the cattle, cats and dogs were domesticated. Horse wasn’t in regular use but elephant was. Remains of horse at Surkotda and dogs with men in grave at Ropar have been discovered.

Produced sufficient to feed themselves.

Food grains were stored in granaries.

Indus Valley Civilization Town Planning : •

Elaborate town-planning. It followed the Grid System. Roads were well cut, dividing the town into large rectangular or square blocks. Lamp posts at intervals indicate the existence of street lightning. Flanking the streets, lanes and by-lanes were well-planned houses. Used burnt bricks of good quality as the building material. Elsewhere in the contemporary world, mud-bricks were used.

Houses, often of two or more storey, varied in size, but were quite monotonous a square courtyard, around which were a number of rooms. No window faced the streets. The houses had tiled bathrooms.

Good drainage system. Drains were made of mortar, lime and gypsum and covered with large brick slabs for easy cleaning. Shows developed sense of health and sanitation.

Trade and Commerce in Ancient India :

The towns were divided into 2 parts: Upper part or Citadel and Lower Part. The Citadel was an oblong artificial platform some 30-50 feet high and about 400-200 yards in area It was enclosed by a thick (13 m at Harappa) crenelated mud-brick wall. In Citadel public buildings, granaries, important workshops and religious buildings were there. In lower part people used to live. In Mohanjodaro, a big public bath (Great Bath) measuring 12 m by 7 m and 2.4 m deep, has been found. Steps led from either end to the surface, with changing rooms alongside. It was probably used for ritual bathing.

Well-knit external and internal trade. There was no metallic money in circulation and trade was carried through Barter System.

Weights and measures of accuracy existed in Harappan culture (found at Lothal). The weights were made of limestone, steatite, etc and were generally cubical in shape.

16 was the unit of measurement (16, 64,160, 320).

Flint tool-work, shell-work, bangle making, pottery making, etc were practiced. Raw material for these came from different sources: gold from N.Karnataka, silver and lapis lazuli from Afghanistan and Iran, copper from Khetri and Baluchistan, etc.

Bead making factory existed in Chanhudaro and Lothal. They were items of export.

A dockyard has been discovered at Lothal. Rangpur, Somnath and Balakot functioned as seaports. Sutkagendor and Sutkakoh functioned as outlets.

The inland transport was done with bullock carts.

Every merchant or mercantile family probably had a seal bearing an emblem, often of a religious character, and a name or brief description, on one side. The standard Harappa seal was a square or oblong plaque made of steatite stone. The primary purpose of the seal was probably to mark the ownership of property, but they may have also served as amulets.

The Mesopotamian records from about 2350 BC onwards refer to trade relations with Meluha, the ancient name of the Indus region. Harappan seals and other material has been found at Mesopotamia. Also traded with Sumer.

Excavations & Excavators : Chanhudaro


M.G Majumdar

Sutkogendor (on Dasak)

(on Indus)


Sir Aurel Stein


(on Indus)


Fazl Ahmed Khan


(on Satluj)


Y.D. Sharma


(on Saraswati) 1973



(on Bhogwa)




(on Mahar)

1931-53 M.S.Vats, B.B. Lal, S.R. Rao


(on Indus)


N.G. Majumdar


(on Ghaggar)






J. Joshi


(on Hindon)


Y.D. Sharma

Indus Valley Civilization Economic Life

Indus Valley Civilization Art and Craft :

Indus Valley Civilization Agriculture : •

The Indus people sowed seeds in the flood plains in November, when the flood water receded, and reaped their harvests of wheat and barley in Apr, before the advent of the next flood.


The Harappan culture belongs to the Bronze Age.

Bronze was made by mixing tin and copper. Tools were mostly made of copper and bronze. For making bronze, copper was obtained from Khetri in Rajasthan and from Baluchistan, and tin from Afghanistan.



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Cotton fabrics quite common. Woolen in winter.

Very fond of ornaments (of gold, silver, ivory, copper, bronze, precious stones) and dressing up. Ornaments were worn by both men and women. Women wore heavy bangles in profusion, large necklaces, ear-rings, bracelets, fingure-rings, girdles, nose studs and anklets. The Harappans were also an expert bead makers.

Potter’s wheel was in use. Their pottery was red or black pottery. Played dice games. Their favourite pastime was Gambling.

The Harappans most notable artistic achievement was their seal gravings, esp. those of animals. The red sandstone torso of a man is particularly impressive for its realism. However, the most impressive of the figurines is perhaps the bronze image of the famous dancing girl (identified as devadasi), found at Mohenjodaro.

History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Indus Valley Civilization Political Organization :

For their children, they made cattle-toys with movable heads, model monkeys which could slide down a string, little toy-carts, and whistles shaped like birds, all of terracotta.

The Indus Valley Civilization Religious Life : •


There is no clear idea of the political organization of the Indus Valley people. Perhaps they were more concerned with commerce and they were possibly ruled by a class of merchants.

Also, there was an organization like a municipal corporation to look after the civic amenities of the people.

Vedic Period in India The Aryans History : • • • •

Main object of worship was the Mother Goddess. But the upper classes preferred a god, nude with two horns, much similar to Pasupati Siva. Represented on the seal is a figure with three horned heads in a yogic posture. He is surrounded by an elephant, a tiger and a rhinoceros, and below his throne is a buffalo. Near his feet are two deer. Pashupatinath represented male deity.

Phallus (lingam) and yoni worship was also prevalent.

Many trees (pipal), animals (bull), birds (dove, pigeon) and stones were worshipped. Unicorn was also worshipped. However, no temple has been found, though idolatry was practiced.

Many historians have given various theories regarding the original place of the Aryans. However, the Central Asian theory, given by Max Muller, is the most accepted one. It states that the Aryans were semi-nomadic pastoral people and originated from area around the Caspian Sea in Central Asia. Entered India probably through Khyber Pass (in Hindukush Mountains) around 1500 BC. The holy book of Iran ‘Zend Avesta’ indicates entry of Aryans to India via Iran.

Early Vedic Or Rigvedic Period Region : The early Aryans settled in Eastern Afghanistan, modern Pakistan, Punjab and parts of western UP The whole region in which the Aryans first settled in India is called the ‘Land of Seven Rivers or Sapta Sindhava’ (The Indus and its five tributaries and the Saraswati). Political Organisation :

At Kalibangan and Lothal fire altars have been found.

Although no definite proof is available with regard to the disposal of the dead, a broad view is that probably there were three methods of disposing the dead – complete burial, burial after exposure of the body to birds and beasts, and cremation followed by burial of the ashes.

The discovery of cinerary urns and jars, goblets or vessels with ashes, bones and charcoal may, however, suggest that during the flourishing period of the Indus Valley culture the third method was generally practiced. In Harappa, there is one place where evidence of coffin burial is there. The people probably believed in ghosts and evil spirits, as amulets were worn.

• •

• •

Dead bodies were placed in the north-south orientation.

Monarchial form, tribe was known as Jan and its king as RaJan He was the leader in battle and protector of tribe. His office was not hereditary and was selected among the clan’s men. The rajan was not an absolute monarch, for the government of the tribe was in part the responsibility of the tribal councils like sabha, samiti, gana and vidhata. Even women attended sabha and vidhata. Many clans (Vish) formed a tribe. The basic social unit was the Kula or the family and Kulapa was the head of the family. The king was assisted by a number of officers of which purohita was the most important. Next important functionary was the Senani (leader of the army), although there was no regular or standing army. The military technique of the early Aryans was much advanced. The Aryans succeeded everywhere because they possessed chariots driven by horses. There was no regular revenue system and the kingdom was maintained by the voluntary tribute (Bali) of his subjects and the booty won in battle. Villages were headed by Gramini who used to represent village in sabha and samiti. Later, Gramini was handed over the charge of Vrajapati also (an officer who enjoyed authority over the pasture ground).

Social Life :

Indus Valley Civilization Script : •

The script is not alphabetical but pictographic (about 600 undeciphered pictographs).

The script has not been deciphered so far, but overlaps of letters show that it was written from right to left in the first line and left to right in the second line. This style is called ‘Boustrophedon’.

• •


When the Aryans entered India there was already a class division in their tribal structure. As they settled among the dark aboriginals, the Aryans seem to have laid greater stress than before on purity of blood, and class divisions hardened, to exclude those dasas who had found a place in the Aryan society, and those Aryans who had intermarried with the dasas and adopted their ways. Gradually, the tribal society got divided into three groups warriors, priests and commoners. Later, the fourth dasas or shudra was also added.



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• • •

The term varna was used for color, the Aryans being fair, the dasas dark. Family was the basic unit of society. The family was patriarchal in nature. But women enjoyed equal power with men. Marriage was usually monogamous and indissoluble, but there are few instances of polyandry, levirate and widow-marriage. There are no examples of child-marriage. The marriageable age seems to have been 16 to 17. The word ‘Arya’ came to refer to any person who was respected. Aryans were fond of soma, sura, food and dresses. Soma was drunk at sacrifices and its use was sanctified by religion. Sura was purely secular and more potent, and was diapproved by the priestly poets. The Aryans loved music, and played the flute, lute and harp. There are references to singing and dancing, and to dancing girls. People also delighted in gambling. They enjoyed chariot racing. Both men and women wore ornaments.

Rivers in Rigveda :

• •

• • • • •

• •

Soma was considered to be the god of plants. Maruts personified the storms. Some female deities are also mentioned, like Aditi and Usha, who represented the appearance of dawn. Didn’t believe in erecting temples or idol worship. Worshipped in open air through yajnas.

The Mahajanpadas The Mahajanpadas S.No.






Around Varanasi

Present Day Location




Eastern UP




Bhagal and Munger distts of Bihar

Rigvedic Names



Girivraj or Rajgriha

Patna and Gaya distt






Vaishali distt of Bihar





Kushinagar and Pavapuri

South of Vaishali distt






Eastern parts of modern Bundelkhand






Around modern Allahabad





Hastinapur, Indraprastha and Isukara Around the Delhi-Meerut region





Ahichhatra and Kampilya







Jaipur-Bharatpur-Alwar distts






Mathura region






Near Paithan in Maharashtra




Ujjain distt




Between Kabul and Rawalpindi




Punchh area in Kashmir

Their bronze smiths were highly skilled, and produced tools and weapons much superior to those of Harappan culture. There were artisans like carpenters, weavers, cobblers, potters, etc. Aryans followed a mixed economy – pastoral and agricultural – in which cattle played a predominant part. Most of their wars were foughtfor cow (most important form of wealth). Cattle were in fact a sort of currency, and values were reckoned in heads of cattle (man’s life was equivalent to that of 100 cows), but they were not held sacred at this time. The horse was almost as important as the cow. Standard unit of exchange was cow. At the same time coins were also there (gold coins like Nishkq, Krishnal and Satmana). Gavyuti was used as a measure of distance and Godhuli as a measure of time. Lived in fortified mud settlements. Physicians were there called ‘Bhishakas’. The staple crop was ‘yava’, which meant barley.

Buddhism in India Ancient Buddhism in India Buddhism stands for 3 pillars : • • •

Buddha : Its Founder. Dhamma : His Teachings. Sangha : Order of Buddhist monks and nuns.

The Buddha History :

Vedic Period Religion : • •

Modern Names

Early Vedic Period Economy : •

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The Aryans personified the natural forces and looked upon them as living beings. The most important divinity was Indra who played the role of warlord (breaker of forts – Purandar, also associated with storm and thunder). The second position was held by Agni (fire-god). He is considered as an intermediary between gods and men. Varuna occupied the third position. He personified water and was supposed to uphold the natural order. He was ethnically the highest of all Rigvedic gods.


Also known as Sakyamuni or Tathagata.

Born in 563 BC on the Vaishakha Poornima Day at Lumbini (near Kapilavastu) in Nepal.

His father Suddhodana was the Saka ruler.



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His mother (Mahamaya, of Kosala dynasty) died after 7 days of his birth. Brought up by stepmother Gautami.

4. Belief in Ahimsa : One should not cause injury to any living being, animal or man.

Married at 16 to Yoshodhara. Enjoyed the married life for 13 years and had a son named Rahula.

5. Law of Karma : Man reaps the fruits of his past deeds.

After seeing an old man, a sick man, a corpse and an ascetic, he decided to become a wanderer.

The Sangha History :

Left his palace at 29 (with Channa, the charioteer and his favourite horse, Kanthaka) in search of truth (also called ‘Mahabhinishkramana’ or The Great Renunciation) and wandered for 6 years.

He first meditated with Alara Kalama. But he was not convinced that man could obtain liberation from sorrow by mental discipline and knowledge. His next teacher was Udraka Ramputra. He then joined forces with five ascetics- Kondana, Vappa, Bhadiya, Mahanama and Assagi, who were practicing the most rigorous selfmortification in the hope of wearing away their karma and obtaining final bliss.

For six years he tortured himself until he was nothing but a walking skeleton. But after six years, he felt that his fasts and penance had been useless. So he abandoned these things. The five disciples also left him.

Attained ‘Nirvana’ or ‘Enlightenment’ at 35 at Gaya in Magadha (Bihar) under the Pipal tree.

Delivered the first sermon at Sarnath where his five disciples had settled. His first sermon is called ‘Dharmachakrapravartan’ or ‘Turning of the Wheel of Law’.

Attained Mahaparinirvana at Kushinagar (identical with village Kasia in Deoria district of UP) in 483 BC at the age of 80 in the Malla republic.

• • •

Consists of monks (Bhikshus or Shramanas) and nuns. Bhikshus acted as a torch bearer of the dhamma. Apart from Sangha, the worshippers were called Upasakas.

Buddhist Councils : The monks gathered 4 times after the death of Buddha and the effect of these events had their effect on Buddhism. First Council : At Rajgriha, in 483 BC under the chairman ship of Mehakassaapa (King was Ajatshatru). Divided the teachings of Buddha into two Pitakas – Vihaya Pitaka and Sutta Pitaka. Upali recited the Vinaya Pitaka and Ananda recited the Sutta Pitaka. Second Council : At Vaishali, in 383 BC under Sabakami (King was Kalasoka). Followers divided into Sthavirmadins and Mahasanghikas. Third Council : At Pataliputra, in 250 BC under Mogaliputta Tissa (King was Ashoka). In this, the third part of the Tripitaka was coded in the Pali language. Fourth Council : At Kashmir (Kundalvan), in 72 AD under Vasumitra (King was Kanishka). Vice-Chairman was Ashwaghosha). Divided Buddhism into Mahayana and Hinayana sects. Note: In Mahayana, idol worship is there. It became popular in China, Japan, Korea, Afghanistan, Turkey and other SE countries.

The Dhamma Indian History : Hinayana became popular in Magadha and SriLanka. It believed in individual salvation and not in idol-worship. 1. The Four Great Truths : • • • •

Apart from these 2, there is a third vehicle, called ‘Vajrayana’, which appeared in 8th century and grew rapidly in Bihar and Bengal. They did not treat meat, fish, wine, etc, as a taboo in dietary habit and freely consumed them.

The world is full of sorrow and misery. The cause of all pain and misery is desire. Pain and misery can be ended by killing or controlling desire. Desire can be controlled by following the Eight Fold Path.

Buddist Literature :

2. The Eight Fold Path : It consists of Right Faith, Right Thought, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Efforts, Right Speech, Right Remembrance and Right Concentration.

• •

In Pali language. Buddhist scriptures in Pali are commonly referred to as Tripitakas, ie ‘Threefold Basket’.

Vinaya Pitaka : Rules of discipline in Buddhist monasteries. 3. Belief in Nirvana : Sutta Pitaka : Largest, contains collection of Buddha’s sermons. •

When desire ceases, rebirth ceases and nirvana is attained i.e. freedom from the cycle of birth, death and rebirth is gained by following the 8-fold path.

Abhidhamma Pitaka : Explanation of the philosophical principles of the Buddhist religion.

According to Buddha, soul is a myth.

Note: 1. Mahavansh and Deepvansh are the other Buddhist texts. They provide information about the then SriLanka.




History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 2. Jataks are the fables about the different births of Buddha.


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Growth of Buddhism :

• •

Causes of New Movement : • 1. 2. 3. 4.

The Vedic rituals were expensive & the sacrifices prescribed were very complicated & had lost their meaning. The caste system had become rigid. Supremacy of Brahmins created unrest. All the religious text was in Sanskrit, which was not understandable to the masses.

• •

Causes of decline of buddhism : 1. It succumbed to the Brahmanic rituals and ceremonies, such as idol worship, etc, which Buddhism had earlier denounced. 2. Revival of reformed Hinduism with the preaching of Shankaracharya from ninth century onwards. 3. Use of Sanskrit, the language of intellectuals, in place of Pali, the language of the common people. 4. Deterioration in the moral standards among the monks living in Buddhist monasteries. 5. Entry of women into Buddhist monasteries. 6. Attacks of Huna king Mihirkula in the sixth century and the Turkish invaders in the twelfth century AD.

Jainism in India

• •

Founded by Rishabhanath. There were 24 tirthankaras (Prophetsor Gurus), all Kshatriyas.First was Rishabhanath (Emblem: Bull). His reference is also 4n Rigveda. But there is no historical basis for the first 22 Tirthankaras. Only the last two Tirthankaras are historical personalities. The 23rd Tirthankar Parshwanath (Emblem: Snake) was the son of King Ashvasena of Banaras. His main teachings were: Non-injury, Non-lying, Non-stealing, Non-possession. The 24th and the last Tirthankar was Vardhman Mahavira (Emblem: Lion).

• • • •

1. Rejected the authority of the Vedas and do not attach any importance to the performance of sacrifices. 2. He believed that every object, even the smallest particle, possesses a soul and is endowed with consciousness. That is why they observe strict non-violence. 3. The Jains reject the concept of a Universal Soul or a Supreme Power as the creator or Sustainer of the universe. 4. Jainism does not deny the existence of gods but refuses to give gods any important part in die universe scheme. Gods are placed lower than the Jina. 5. Attainment of salvation (moksha) by believing in penance and dying of starvation (Main difference between Jainism and Buddhism). 6. Universal brotherhood (non-belief in caste system).

History of Jain Councils : First Council : Held at Pataliputra by Sthulabhadra in the beginning of third century BC. It resulted in the compilation of 12 Angas to replace 14 Purvas. Second Council : It was held at Vallabhi (Gujarat) in the fifth century AD under the leadership of Devridhigani. It resulted in final compilation of 12 Angas and 12 Upangas. Growth of Jainism in India :

Vardhman Mahavira History : • •

Teachings of Mahavira :

Note: In Jainism, three Ratnas (Triratnas) are given and they are called the way to Nirvana. They are Right Faith, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct.

History of Jainism Religion • •

From now on he was called Jaina or Jitendriya and Mahavira, and his followers were named Jains. He also got the title of Arihant, i.e., worthy. At the age of 72, he attained death at Pava, near Patna, in 527 BC. Mahavira preached almost the same message as Parshvanath and added one more, Brahmcharya (celibacy) to it. After the death of Mahavira, during the reign of King Chandragupta Maurya, a severe famine led to a great exodus of Jain monks from the Ganga valley to the Deccan, where they established important centers of their faith. This migration led to a great schism in Jainism. Bhadrabahu, who led the emigrants, insisted on the retention of the rule of nudity which Mahavira had established. Sthulabhadra, the leader of the monks who remained in the north, allowed his followers to wear white garments, owing to the hardships and confusions of the famine. Hence arose the two sects of the Jains, the Digambaras (sky-clad, i.e., naked) and the Svetambaras (white-clad).

He was born in Kundagram (Distt Muzafffarpur, Bihar) in 599 BC. His father Siddhartha was the head of Jnatrika clan. His mother was Trishla, sister of Lichchavi Prince Chetak of Vaishali. Mahavira was related to Bimbisara. Married to Yashoda, had a daughter named Priyadarsena, whose husband Jamali became his first disciple. At 30, after the death of his parents, he became an ascetic. In the 13th year of his asceticism (on the 10th of Vaishakha), outside the town of Jrimbhikgrama, he attained supreme knowledge (Kaivalya).


Causes of New Movement : • • • •

The Vedic rituals were expensive & the sacrifices prescribed were very complicated & had lost their meaning. The caste system had become rigid. Supremacy of Brahmins created unrest. All the religious text was in Sanskrit, which was not understandable to the masses.

Other Points:



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Jainism reached the highest point in Chandragupta Maurya’s time. In Kalinga, it was greatly patronized by Kharavela in the first century AD. Various factors were responsible for the decline of Jainism in India. They took the concept of Ahimsa too far. They advised that one should not take medicine when one fell sick because the medicine killed germs. They believed that there was life in trees and vegetables and so refrained from harming them. Such practices could not become popular with common man. There was moreover no patronage from the later kings. Jain literature is in Ardh-Magadhi and Prakrit dialects. Due to the influence of Jainism, many regional languages emerged out, like Sauraseni, out of which grew the Marathi, Gujarati, Rajasthani and Kannada.

The Magadha Empire Period of Magadha Empire : 6th Century – 4th Century BC. Extent of Magadha Empire : Magadha embraced the former districts of Patna, Gaya & parts of Shahabad & grew to be the leading state of the time.


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It is considered first of the non-Kshatriya dynasties. Founder was Mahapadma Nanda. He added Kalinga to his empire. He claimed to be the ekarat, the sole sovereign who destroyed all the other ruling princes. Alexander attacked India in their reign. Dhana Nanda was there at that time. Nandas were fabulously rich & enormously powerful. Maintained 200,000 infantry, 60,000 cavalry & 6,000 war elephants. This is supposed to have checked Alexander’s army from advancing towards Magadha.

Causes of Magadha’s Success : • • • •

Enjoyed advantageous geographical position, i.e., near richest iron deposits (thus effective weapons). The 2 capitals of Magadha, Rajgir and Patliputra, were situated at very strategic points. Fertile soil of the lower Ganga regions. First used elephants in wars.

Note: Archaeologically, 6th century BC marks the beginning of NBPW phase (Northern Black Polished Ware) which was very glossy, shinning type of pottery. This marked the beginning of Second Urbanization in India.

Haryanka Dynasty : Originally founded in 566 BC by the grand father of Bimbisara, but actual foundation by Bimbisara.

Alexander’s Invasion of India King Bimbisara of Magadha (544 BC – 492 BC): Invasion of Alexander in India • • • •

Contemporary of Buddha. He conquered Anga (E.Bihar) to gain control over trade route with the southern states. His capital was Rajgir (Girivraja). He strengthened his position by matrimonial alliance with the ruling families of Kosala, Vaishali, and Madra (3 wives). His capital was surrounded by 5 hills, the openings in which were closed by stone walls on all sides. This made Rajgir impregnable.

Alexander (356 BC – 323 BC) was the son of Philip of Macedonia (Greece) who invaded India in 326 BC. At that time NW India was split up into a number of small independent states like Taxila, Punjab (kingdom of Porus), Gandhara etc.

Except Porus who fought the famous battle of Hydaspes (on banks of Jhelum) with Alexander, all other kings submitted meekly.

Ajatshatru History (492 BC – 460 BC): • • •

Son of Bimbisara killed his father & seized the throne. Annexed Vaishali and Kosala (annexed Vaishali with the help of a war engine, which was used to throw stones like catapults. Also possessed a chariot to which a mace was attached, thus facilitating mass killings). Kosala was ruled by Prasenajit at that time. Buddha died during his reign; arranged the first Buddhist Council.

History of Udayin (460 – 444 BC): He founded the new capital at Pataliputra, situated at the confluence of the Ganga & Son.

To mark the farthest point of his advance, he erected 12 huge stones altars on the northern bank of Beas. Remained in India for 19 months and died in 323 BC at Babylon. The effects of Alexander’s invasion were indirect : 1. It exposed India to Europe, by opening up four distinct lines of communication, three by land and one by sea. 2. Due to cultural contact, a cosmopolitan school of art came up in Gandhara. 3. Paved the way for the unification of north India under Chandragupta Maurya by weakening small states.

The Mauryan Dynasty

Shishunaga Dynasty : • •

When Alexander reached Beas, his soldiers refused to go further, so he was forced to retreat.

Founded by a minister Shishunaga. He was succeeded by Kalasoka (II Buddhist council). Dynasty lasted for two generations only. Greatest achievement was the destruction of power of Avanti.

Chandragupta Maurya History (322 – 297 BC): •

With the help of Chanakya, known as Kautilya or Vishnugupta, he overthrew the Nandas & established the rule of the Maurya dynasty.

Chandragupta is called Sandrocottus by the Greek scholars.

Nanda Dynasty :




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Seleucus Necater was one of the generals of Alexander and after his death, had succeeded in gaining control of most of the Asiatic provinces.

The Kalinga War History : (261 BC, mentioned in XIII rock edict). It changed his attitude towards life. Ashoka became a Buddhist after that.

Chandragupta defeated him in 305 BC and was compelled to yield parts of Afghanistan to Chandragupta. There was also a marriage alliance between the two families.

Aspects of Ashoks’s Reign :

Built a vast empire, which included not only good portions of Bihar and Bengal, but also western and north western India and the Deccan.

This account is given by Megasthenes (A Greek ambassador sent by Seleucus to the court of Chandragupta Maurya) in his book Indica. We also get the details from the Arthashastra of Kautilya.

Chandragupta adopted Jainism and went to Sravanabelagola (near Mysore) with Bhadrabahu, where he died by slow starvation.

Vishakhadatta wrote a drama Mudrarakshasa (describing Chandragupta’s enemy) & Debi Chandraguptam in sixth century AD.

Ashok’s empire was divided into provinces with a viceroy in each province. He established Dhramshalas, hospitals and Sarais throughout his kingdom.

He appointed Dharma Mahapatras to propagate dharma among various social groups including women.

He organized a network of missionaries to preach the doctrine both in his kingdom and beyond. He sent them to Ceylon, Burma (sent his son Mahindra & daughter Sanghamitra to Ceylon) and other south-east Asian regions, notably Thailand.

Ashoka is called ‘Buddhashakya & Ashok’ in Maski edict and ‘Dharmasoka’ in Sarnath inscription. He was also known as ‘Devanampiya’- beloved of the gods, and ‘Piyadassi’- of pleasing appearance.

Significance of Mauryan Rule : •

The emblem of the Indian Republic has been adopted from the 4 – lion capital of the Ashokan pillar at Sarnath.

Gurukuls & Buddhist monasteries developed with royal patronage. Universities of Taxila & Banaras are the gifts of this era.

Kautilya’s Arthashastra, Bhadrabahu’s Kalpa Sutra, Buddhist texts like the Katha Vatthu & Jain texts such as Bhagwati Sutra, Acharanga Sutra and Dasavakalik comprise some of the important literature of this era.

History of Bindusara (297 – 273 BC): •

Called Amitraghat by Greek writers.

Chandragupta was succeeded by his son Bindusara in 297 BC. He is said to have conquered ‘the land between the 2 seas’, i.e., the Arabian Sea & Bay of Bengal. At the time of his death, almost the entire subcontinent came under the Mauryan rule. Greek Ambassador, Deimachos visited his court.

History of Ashoka (269 – 232 BC):

Ashoka was appointed the Viceroy of Taxila and Ujjain by his father, Bindusara. He was at Ujjain when Bindusara, died. His formal coronation was delayed for four years, suggesting a disputed succession. A Buddhist literature says that he came to throne after killing his 99 brothers.

Causes of the fall of Mauryan Empire :

Regarded as one of the greatest kings of all times. He was the first ruler to maintain direct contact with people through his inscription.

In his inscriptions following languages have been used:

Brahmi, Kharoshthi, Armaic and Greek. (James Princep first deciphered the inscriptions).

Ashoka became the Buddhist under Upagupta.

Ashoka’s patronage of Buddhism and his anti-sacrificial attitude is said to have affected the income of the Brahmins. So they developed antipathy against Ashoka.

Revenue from agrarian areas was not sufficient to maintain such a vast empire as booty from war was negligible.

Successors of Ashoka were too weak to keep together such a large centralized empire.

Note: The last Mauryan king Brihadratha was killed by Pushyamitra Shunga (Commander in Chief) in 185 BC, who started the Shunga dynasty in Magadha.

Extent of Empire : His empire covered the whole territory from Hindukush to Bengal & extended over Afghanistan, Baluchistan & whole of India with the exception of a small area in the farthest south. Kashmir and Valleys of Nepal were also included, first empire to do so.


Central Asian Contact In Eastern India, Central India & the Deccan, the Mauryas were succeeded by a number of native rulers such as the Shungas, the Kanvas & the Satavahanas. In N.W. India, they were succeeded by a no. of ruling dynasties from central Asia. 1. The Indo-Greeks History :



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• • • • • •

A number of invasions took place around 200 BC. The first to invade India were the Greeks, who were also called the Indo – Greeks or Bactrian Greeks (because they ruled Bactria). It is said that they pushed forward as far as Ayodhya and Pataliputra. The most famous Indo Greek ruler was Menander (165 – 145 BC), also known as Milinda. He had his capital at Sakala (modern Sialkot) in Punjab. He was converted into Buddhism by Nagasena. The conversation between the two has been described in the Pali text, Milinda panho or ‘The Questions of Milinda’. Greeks were the first to issue coins which can be definitely attributed to the kings, and also the first to issue gold coins in India. They also introduced the practice of military governorship. The governors were called ‘Strategos’. The Greek rule introduced features of Hellenistic art in the north-west frontier of India. Gandhara art was its best example. The term ‘Horshastra’, used for astrology in Sanskrit is derived from the Greek term ‘Horoscope’.

2. The Shakas Or Scythians History (90 BC): • • •


History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 1. He started an era in AD 78, which is now known as Saka era and is used by the Govt, of India. 2. He extended his whole-hearted patronage to Buddhism (Held the fourth Buddhist Council in Kashmir). • •

Some of the successors of Kanishka bore typical Indian names as Vasudeva. The Gandhara School of art received royal patronage of the Kushans.

Impacts of Central Asian Contacts : • • • • • •

Introduced the use of burnt bricks for flooring and that of tiles for both flooring and roofing. Introduced the use of riding horse on a large scale. The Shakas and Kushans introduced turban, tunic, trousers, and heavy long coats. They also brought in cap, helmet and boots which were used by warriors. In the religious field, the Greek ambassador Heliodorus set up a pillar in honour of Vasudeva near Vidisa in M.R. The Kushan Empire gave rise to several schools of art – Central Asian, Gandhara & Mathura. Mathura produced beautiful images of Buddha, but it is also famous for the headless erect statue of Kanishka. Vatsyayana wrote Kamasutra.

The Greeks were followed by the Shakas, who controlled a larger part of India than the Greek did. There were 5 branches of the Shakas with their seats of power in different parts of India and Afghanistan. A king of Ujjain, who called himself Vikramaditya, defeated Shakas. An era called the Vikram Samrat is reckoned from the event of his victory over the Shakas in 57 BC. (From this time onward, Vikramaditya became a coveted title). The most famous Shaka ruler in India was Rudradaman I (AD 130 – 150). His achievements are highlighted in his Junagarh inscription. This inscription records in details the repairs of Sudrashana Lake in Kathiarwar. It is the first major inscription to be written in Sanskrit.

Kingdoms after the Mauryans The Sunga Dynasty History :

3. The Parthians History : • • •

Originally they lived in Iran, invaded at the beginning of Christian era, from where they moved to India. In comparison to Greeks and Shakas, they occupied only a small portion in N.W. India in the first century. The most famous Parthian King was Gondophernes (AD 19 – 45), in whose reign St. Thomas is said to have come to India for the propagation of Christianity.

4. The Kushans in India (45 AD):

Came from north central Asia near China. Their empire included a good part of central Asia, a portion of Iran, a portion of Afghanistan, Pakistan & almost the whole of north India. Kanishka (AD 78-144) was their most famous king. He had two capitals- first at Purushpur, near modern Peshawar and second at Mathura. He patronized the following persons:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Ashwaghosha (wrote ‘Buddhacharita’, which is the biography of Buddha and ‘Sutralankar’) Nagarjuna (wrote ‘Madhyamik Sutra’) Vasumitra (Chairman of fourth Buddhist Council) Charak (a physician, wrote ‘Sasruta’.

Kanishka controlled the famous silk route in Central Asia, which started from China and passed through his empire in Central Asia and Afghanistan to Iran and Western Asia which formed part of Roman Empire. Kanishka is known in history for two reasons:

• •

• • • •

Pushyamitra founded this dynasty. His dominions extended to South as far as the Narmada River & included cities of Pataliputra, Ayodhya & Vidisha. He performed two Ashwamedha sacrifices. He also defeated the Bactrian king, Dematrius. The fifth king was Bhagabhadra, to whose court Heliodoros, the Greek ambassador visited. A Shunga king, Agnimitra was the hero of Kalidasa’s Malavikagnimitram. They were basically Brahmins. This period saw the revival of Bhagvatism. Patanjali’s classic Mahabhashya was written at this time.

The Kanva Dynasty : • •

The founder of this short-lived dynasty was Vasudeva, who killed the last Sunga king, Devabhuti. They were swept away by Satavahanas of the Deccan.

The Chetis of Kalinga : • • •

The Satavahanas Or The Andhras : •


The Hathigumpha inscription (near Bhubhaneshwar, Orissa) of Kharavela, the third ruler of the dynasty, gives information about the Chetis. Kharavela pushed his kingdom beyond the Godavari in the South. He was a follower of Jainism and patronized it to a great extent.

They were the successors of the Mauryans in the Deccan & the central India.



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Simuka is regarded as the founder of this dynasty. The most important king was Gautamiputra Satakarni (AD 106 – 130) who raised the power and prestige of Satavahanas to greater heights. He set up his capital at Paithan on the Godavari in Aurangabad distt.

Important aspects of Satavahanas : • • • • • • • •


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Mostly issued lead coins (apart from copper and bronze). Acted as a bridge between North and South India. Satavahanas rulers called themselves Brahmans. Performed Vedic rituals and worshipped gods like Krishna, Vasudeva and others. However, they also promoted Buddhism by granting land to the monks. The two common religious constructions were the Buddhist temple that was called ‘Chaitya’ & the monasteries, which was called ‘Vihara’. The most famous Chaitya is that of Karle in W. Deccan. Their distt was called Ahara’, as it was in Ashoka’s time. Their officials were known as ‘amatyas’ and ‘mahamatras’, as they were known in Mauryan times. Started the practice of granting tax free villages to brahmanas & Buddhist monks. The official language was Prakrit & the script was Brahmi, as in Ashokan times. One Prakrit text called Gathasattasai is attributed to a Satavahana king called Hala.

• • • • • •

Three Sangamas were held. The first Sangam was held at Madurai but its work has not survived. Its chairman was Agastya. The second Sangam was held at Kapatpuram. Its chairman was Tolkappiyar (author of Tolkappium). The third Sangam was held at Madurai. Its chairman was Nakkirar. It was the third Sangam from which covers the entire corpus of Sangam literature. Silappadikaram by llano Adigal (story of a married couple) and Manimekalai by Sattanar are the famous epics of this time. Other books are Tolkappium by Tolkappiyar, Jivikachintamani by Tirutakkdewar and Kural (called the ‘fifth veda’ or ‘the Bible of the Tamil Land’) by Tiruvalluvar. The chief local god was Murugan, who was also called Subramaniya. ‘Pariyars’ – agricultural laborers who used to work in animal skin. Civil and military offices held by vellalas (rich peasants). The ruling class was called “Arasar”. Captains of the army were given the title ENADI in formal functions.

Sangam Age in India History of Pandyas : • • •

Gupta Empire Golden Age of India

Their capital was Madurai. First mentioned by Megasthenes, who says that their kingdom was famous for pearls and was ruled by a woman. The Pandya kings profited from trade with the Roman Empire and sent embassies to the Roman emperor Augus.

• • •

The kingdom was called Cholamandalam or Coromondal. The chief centre was Uraiyur, a place famous for cotton trade. Capital was Kaveripattanam/Puhar. A Chola king named Elara conquered SriLanka & ruled it over for 50 years. Karikala was their famous king. Main source of wealth was trade in cotton cloth. They also maintained an efficient navy.

History of Cheras : • • • •

On the ruins of the Kushan empire arose a new empire, which established its way over a good part of the former dominions of both Kushans and Satavahanas. The first two kings of the dynasty were Srigupta and Ghatotkacha. Chandragupta I (AD 319 – 335):

History of Cholas : •

The Gupta Dynasty

Their capital was Vanji (also called Kerala country). It owed its importance to trade with the Romans. The Romans set up two regiments there to protect their interests. Fought against the Cholas about 150 AD. Greatest king was Senguttuvan, the Red Chera.

First important king of Gupta Dynasty.

Started the Gupta era in 319-320 AD.

He enhanced his power & prestige by marrying Kumara Devi, princes of the Lichchavi clan of Nepal.

He acquired the title of Maharajadhiraj.

Struck coins in the joint names of himself, his queen and the Lachchavi nation, thereby acknowledging his marriage alliance.

History of Samudragupta (AD 335 – 375): •

The Gupta kingdom was enlarged enormously by Chandragupta’s son & successor Samudragupta.

His court poet Harisena wrote a glowing account of the military exploits of his patron. In a long inscription at the Prayag Prashasti pillar (at Allahabad), the poet enumerated the people & countries that were conquered by Samudragupta.

Other aspects of the 2 kingdoms : • •

All the gathered information is based on Sangam literature. Sangam was a college or assembly of Tamil poets held probably under Royal Patronage (esp. Pandyas) Sangam age corresponds to the post-Maurya and the pre-Gupta period.




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Samudragupta believed in the policy of war and conquest and because of his bravery and generalship he is called the ‘Napoleon’ of India (by the historian V.A. Smith).

Samudragupta is said to have composed numerous poems of high merit. Some of his coins represent him playing vina. He also performed Asvamedha sacrifice.

He assumed the titles of Kaviraj and Vikramanka.

Vasubandhu, a celebrated Buddhist scholar was his minister.

Though a follower of the brahmanical religion, he was tolerant of other faiths; Received a missionary from Meghavarman, the ruler of SriLanka, seeking his permission to build a Buddhist temple at Gaya, which he granted.


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Restored Sudarshana Lake.

After his death, the great days of the Guptas were over. The empire continued but central control weakened, and local governors became feudatory kings with hereditary rights.

Fall of Gupta Empire :

History of Chandragupta – II (AD 380 – 413): •

Samudragupta was succeeded by Ramgupta but Chandragupta II killed him and married his queen Dhruvadevi.

He entered into matrimonial alliance with the Nagas (of upper and the Central Provinces) by marrying princess Kubernaga whose daughter Prabhavati was married to Rudrasena-II of the Vakataka family.

Took the title of Vikramaditya by defeating Rudrasimha III, a Kshatrap king of Ujjain. He also took the title of Simhavikrama.

He was the first ruler to issue silver coins. Also issued copper coins.

The iron pillar inscription, fixed near Qutabminar in Delhi mentions a king Chandra (considered by many as Chandragupta II only).

His court was adorned by celebrated nine gems (navratnas) including Kalidasa, Amarsimha, Varahmihir, and Dhanvantri.

Chinese pilgrim Fahien visited India at this time.

The weak successors of Skandagupta could not check the growing Huna power.

Feudatories rose in Bihar, Bengal, MP, Vallabhi, etc.

Note: Mihirkula was the most famous Huna king. Hjuen Tsang mentions him as a fierce per secutor of Buddhism. He was defeated by Yashodharman (one of the feudatories of Guptas in Malwa).

Contributions of Gupta Rulers

Gupta Administration : •

Kings were called Parameshwara /Maharajadhiraja /Paramabhattaraka.

The most important officers were Kumaramatyas.

Their military organization was feudal in character (though the emperor had the standing army).

They issued the largest number of gold coins in Ancient India, which were called Dinars. Silver coins were called rupyakas.

Social Development of Guptas Empire : •

The castes were further divided into sub-castes.

Vishti (forced labour) was there.

Position of women declined further. First instance of Sati took place at Eran, MP. The position of shudras improved substantially. The practice of untouchability intensed. (Especially hatred for Chandalas). Fa-hien mentions that the Chandalas lived outside the village and were distanced by the upper class. Nalanda (a university) was established as a Buddhist monastery during the reign of Kumara Gupta.

History of Kumaragupta – I (AD 413 – 455): •

He adopted the title of Mahendraditya.

• •

Founded Nalanda University (a renowned university of ancient India).

He was the worshipper of Lord Kartikeya (son of Lord Shiva).

In the last years of his reign, the peace and prosperity of the empire was disturbed due to the invasion of TurkoMongol tribe, Hunas. During the war with the Hunas, Kumaragupta died.

Gupta Religion : •

Bhagavad-Gita was written during this time only. Buddhism declined.

Bhagavatism centered around worshipping Vishnu or Bhagvat.

History was presented as a cycle of 10 incarnations of Vishnu.

History of Skandagupta (AD 455 – 467): •

Kumaragupta-I was followed by Skandagupta. He faced Hunas effectively.




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Idol worship became a common feature.

Vishnu temple at Deogarh (near Jhansi), a small temple near Sanchi and a brick temple at Bhitragaon (near Kanpur) belong to the Gupta architecture.

Gupta Art : •

Samudragupta is represented on his coins playing the lute (vina).

2 mt high bronze image of Buddha belonging to the Mathura school (The Gandhara Buddha represents mask-like coldness, while the Buddha from the Mathura school imparts a feeling of warmth and vitality.

The Buddha sitting in his Dharma Chakra mudra belongs to Sarnath.

Buddha images of Bamiyan belonged to Gupta period.

Ajanta Paintings and paintings at Bagh, near Gwalior in MP, are of this time. They belong to the Buddhist art.

Images of Vishnu, Shiva & some other Hindu Gods feature I time in this period.


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In Suryasiddhanta, he proved that the earth revolves round the sun and rotates on its axis. In this way he discovered the cause of the solar and lunar eclipses and the methods for calculating the timings of their occurrence. He also said that the heavenly bodies, like the moon, were spherical and they shone by reflecting the light.

Varahamihira wrote Panchasi- dhantika and Brihatsamhita. He said that the moon moves round the earth and the earth, together with the moon, move round the sun.

Brahmagupta was a great mathematician. He wrote Brahma-sphutic Siddhanta in which he hinted at the Law of Gravitation.

In the field of astronomy, Romakasidhanta was compiled.

Vagbhatta was the most distinguished physician of the Ayurvedic system of medicine.

Palakapya wrote Hastyagarveda, a treatise on the disease of elephants.

Court language was Sanskrit.

Dhanvantri – famous for Ayurveda knowledge.

Gupta Literature in India :

Other Dynasties and Rulers •

Kalidas, the great Sanskrit dramatist, belonged to this period. His books are: Abhigyanashakuntalam, (considered as one of the best literary works in the world & one of the earliest Indian work to be translated into European language, the other work being the Bhagavadgita), Ritusamhara, Meghadutam, Kumarasambhavam, Malavikagnimitram, Raghuvansha, Vikramurvashi etc. Out of these, Ritusamhara, Meghadutam, Raghuvansha were epics and the rest were plays. Apart from Kalidas, others were Sudraka (author of Mrichchakatikam), Bharavi (Kiratarjuniya), Dandin (Kavyadarshana and Dasakumaracharita). To this period belongs 13 plays written by Bhasa. Most famous of these was Charudatta.

Vishakhadatta wrote Mudrarakshasa and Devichandraguptam.

Vishnu Sharma wrote Panchtantra and Hitopdesh.

The Gupta period also saw the development of Sanskrit grammar based on Panini and Patanjali. This period is particularly memorable for the compilation of Amarakosha by Amarasimha.

Ramayana & Mahabharata were almost completed by the 4th century AD.

(7th Century – 12th Century AD) History of Harshavardhana (AD 606 – 647) : • • • • •

• •

• •

Science and Technology of Gupta Period : •

Gupta period is unparalleled for its achievements in the field of mathematics and astronomy.

Aryabhatta, the great mathematician wrote Aryabhatiya and Suryasiddhanta. In Aryabhatiya, he described the place value of the first nine nos. & the use of zero. He also calculated the value of pie and invented Algebra.


Belonged to Pushyabhuti family & son of Prabhakar Vardhan. Originally belonged to Thaneshwar, but shifted to Kannauj (after Harsha’s death Kannauj was won from Harsha’s successors by the Pratiharas). Brought ’5 Indies’ under his control (Punjab, Kannauj, Bengal, Bihar and Orissa). Defeated by Pulakesin – II, the great Chalukya king, on the banks of Narmada in 620. Pulakesin – II bestowed the title of ‘Sakalottara – patha – natha’ – ‘the lord of the entire north’ – on him. Chinese pilgrim, Hieun Tsang (Prince of Travelers) visited during his reign. He spent about eight years (635 – 643) in the dominions of Harsha and earned his friendship. Hieun Tsang has left a detailed account of a grand assembly held at Kannauj in 643 attended by representatives of Hinduism and Jainism. Harsha used to celebrate a solemn festival at Prayag (Allahabad), at the end of every five years. Harsha was a great patron of learning. He established a large monastery at Nalanda. Banabhatta, who adorned his court, wrote Harshacharita and Kadambari. Harsha himself wrote 3 plays – Priyadarshika, Ratnavali and Nagananda. After the death of Harsha in 647, the empire once again broke up into petty States. I – tsing, another Chinese pilgrim, visited in 670 AD.

The Vakatakas History : • • •

The Vakatakas came to control parts of the Deccan and Central India till the rise of the Chalukyas. The founder of this Brahmin dynasty was Vindhyasakti. Most important king was Pravarsen – I who performed 4 Ashwamedha yagyas.



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Medieval Indian History

Chandragupta – II married his daughter Prabhawati to the Vakataka king, Rudrasena – II.

Chalukyas of Vatapi (Badami) : • • • • •

History of Ghazni Mahumud

Founder : Pulakesin – I. Established their kingdom at Vatapi (modern Badami, Karnataka). Pulakesin – II Was their most famous king, who was a contemporary of Harsha. He sent an embassy to the Persian king, Khusro – II. His court poet, Ravikirti, wrote Aihole inscription. Hiuen Tsang visited his kingdom. They were the maritime powers of their time. Much of the paintings and sculptures of the Ajanta and Ellora caves were completed during the Chalukyan reign. They builr several magnificent temples in Aihole and other places. Aihole is called the cradle of Indian temple architecture.

1. There were two more Chalukya dynasties which were separate entities. They were Eastern Chalukvas of Vensi and Western Chalukvas of Kaivani. 2. Vengi dynasty was founded by Pulakesin ll’s brother, Kubja – Vishnu-Vardhana. The power of Eastern Chalukyas was weakened in the tenth century and they became the allies of Cholas. 3. The greatest ruler of Kalyani Chalukyas was Vikramaditya II Tribhuvanamalla. He was the hero of Bilhana’s Vikramankadeva Gharita. He introduced the Chalukya – Vikrama era (1076 A.D).

• •

Founder : Dantidurga. Originally district officers under Chalukyas of Badami. Their king, Krishna – I is remembered for constructing the famous rock – cut Kailasha temple at Ellora. It was constructed in the Dravidian style and elaborately carved with fine sculptures. Their king, Amoghvarsha, is compared to Vikramaditya in giving patronage to men of letters. He wrote the first Kannada poetry named Kaviraj marg and Prashnottar Mallika. He built the city of Manyakheta as his capital. Their king, Krishna – III set up a pillar of victory and a temple at Rameshwaram. Rashtrakutas are credited with the building of cave shrine of Elephanta. It was dedicated to Shiva, whose image as Mahesh (popularly known as Trimurti), counts among the most magnificent art creations of India. The three faces represent Shiva as creator, Preserver and Destroyer.

The Gangas Dynasty : • • • •

Until the rise of the west, India was possibly the richest country in the world. Such a country presented an irresistible target for the ravening Mongols and their descendents who settled in present day Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan, all within comparatively easy reach of north-western India. The northwest was, at this time, a mish-mash of warring kingdoms, more interested in sending scores with their neighbours than in unifying against the Mongols. It is then unsurprising that Mahmud Ghaznavi’s armies so handily defeated those of the Indian kings. Born in 971 AD, Mahmud Ghaznavi was the eldest son of Subuktagin, the king of Ghazni (in present day Afghanistan). When Subuktagin attacked King Jaipala of Punjab, Mahmud fought for his father in the battlefield.

Though Mahmud was the eldest son of his father, it is said that in his last days, Subuktagin was not happy with Mahmud. So, when Subuktagin died in 997 AD, his younger son Ismail became the king of Ghazni. Ismail reigned only for a little time. Very soon, Mahmud defeated him and became the king. • • •

The Rashtrakutas Dynasty :

Note :

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Invasion of Ghazni Mohammed :

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Mahmud began a series of seventeen raids into northwestern India at the end of the 10th century. Nonetheless, he did not attempt to rule Indian Territory except for Punjab, which was his gateway to India. His first expedition was directed against the frontier towns in 1000 AD. His second expedition was against Jaipala, the Hindushahi king of Punjab whom he defeated in the First Battle of Waihind. Jaipala could not survive the shock of humiliation and he burnt himself to death. He was succeeded by his son, Anandpala in 1002 AD. In his sixth expedition, Mahmud defeated Anandpala in the II Battle of Waihind (1008). Anandpala had organized a confederacy of rulers of Ujjain, Gwalior, Kalinjar, Kannauj, Delhi and Ajmer, but the alliance was defeated. In his other expeditions, Mahmud plundered Nagarkot, Thaneshwar, Kannauj, Mathura and Somnath. His sixteenth expedition was the plunder of Somnath temple (dedicated to Shiva) in 1025 AD, situated on the sea coast of Kathiarwar. After looting the Somnath temple, when Mahmud was going back to Ghazni, the Jats had attacked his army. So, to punish the Jats, he returned and defeated them in 1026. The objective of Mahmud’s expeditions was to plunder the riches of temples and palaces and was not interested in expanding his empire to India. However, he later annexed Punjab and made it a part of his kingdom, just to have easy access.

He patronized 3 persons :

Also called Chedagangas of Orissa. Their king Narsimhadeva constructed the Sun Temple at Konark. Their king Anantvarman Ganga built the famous Jagannath temple at Puri. Kesaris, who used to rule Orissa before Gangas built the Lingaraja temple at Bhubhaneshwar.

1. Firdausi (Persian poet, known as Homer of the east) who wrote Shahnama. 2. Alberuni (a brilliant scholar from Central Asia) who wrote Tahqiq-I-Hind. 3. Utbi (court historian), who wrote Kitab-ud-Yamni.

The Pallavas History : • •

Founder : Simhavishnu. They set up their capital at Kanchi (south of Chennai). Narsimhavarman was their greatest king. He founded the town of Mamalapuram (Mahabalipuram) which he adorned with beautiful rock – cut Raths or Seven Pagoras. Hieun Tsang visited Kanchi during his reign.


History of Somnath Temple Gujarat:



History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ The Somnath Temple located in the Kathiarwar region of Gujarat, is one of the twelve Jyotiriings (golden lingas) symbols of the God Shiva. It is mentioned in the Rig Veda. Somnath mean “The Protector of Moon God”. It is known as ‘the Shrine Eternal’, as although the temple has been destroyed six times it has been rebuilt every single time. The first temple of Somnath is said to have existed before the beginning of the Christian era. The second temple, built by the Maitraka kings of Vallabhi in Gujarat, replaced the first one on the same site around 649 AD. In 725 Junayad, the Arab governor of Sind sent his armies to destroy the second temple. The Pratihara king Nagabhata II constructed the third temple in 815 AD, a large structure of red sandstone. Mahmud of Ghazni attacked this temple in 1025 AD, and looted it of gems and precious stones. He then massacred the worshippers and had the temple burnt. It was then that the famous Shiva lingam of the temple was entirely destroyed. The temple and citadel were sacked, and most of its defenders massacred; Mahmud personally hammered the temple’s gilded lingam to pieces and the stone fragments were carted back to Ghazni, where they were incorporated into the steps of the city’s new Jamiah Masjid. The fourth temple was built by the Paramara King Bhoj of Malwa and the Solanki king Bhima of Gujarat between 1026 AD and 1042 AD. The wooden structure was replaced by Kumarpal who built the temple of stone. The temple was razed in 1297 when the Sultanate of Delhi conquered Gujarat, and again in 1394 AD. The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb destroyed the temple again in 1706 AD. The present temple is the seventh temple built on the original site. It was completed on December 1, 1995 and the then President of India, Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma dedicated it in the service of the nation. The present temple was built by the Shree Somnath Trust which looks after the entire complex of Shree Somnath and its environs.


History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Prithviraj III (1179-1192), also called Rai Pithaura by Muslim historians, was a king of the Rajput Chauhan (Chahamana) dynasty, who ruled a kingdom in northern India during the latter half of the 12th century. He was born to king Someshwara Chauhan and his wife Karpuravalli. He succeeded to the throne while still a minor, and ruled from the twin capitals of Ajmer and Delhi. His elopement with Samyukta, the daughter of Jai Chandra, the Gahadvala king of Kannauj, is a popular romantic taleand is one of the subjects of the Prithviraj Raso, an epic poem composed by Prithviraj's court poet, Chand Bardai. His kingdom included much of the present-day Indian states of Rajasthan and Haryana, and parts of Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. In Prithviraj Raso, Chand Bardai depicts Prithviraj as a romantic, chivalrous and an jextremely fearless king. His fast rise aroused the envy of the then powerful ruler of Kannauj, Jaichand Gahadwala, and caused ill-feeling between the two. Samyogita also known as Samyukta in folklore, daughter of Jaichand, fell secretly in love with Prithviraj and began a secret correspondence with him. Her father got wind of this and resolved to have her safely wed at an early date. He arranged a Swayamwara, a ceremony where a maiden date. He arranged a Swayamwara, a ceremony where a maiden selects her husband from a number of suitors who assemble at the invitation of her guardian. Jaichand invited many princes of acceptable rank and heritage, but deliberately failed to invite Prithviraj. To add insult to injury, Jaichand had a statue of Prithviraj made and placed at the door of the venue, thus parodying Prithviraj as a doorman. Prithviraj came to hear of this. He made his plans and confided the same to his lover, Samyukta. On the day of the ceremony, Samyukta emerged from an inner chamber, entered the venue of the, swayamwara, walked straight down the hall past the assembled suitors, bypassing them all. She reached the door and garlanded the statue of Prithviraj. The assemblage was stunned at this brash act, but more was to follow:

History of Muhammad Ghori Prithviraj, who had been hiding behind the statue in the garb of a doorman, emerged, put Samyukta upon his steed, and made a fast getaway. Jaichandra and his army gave earnest chase, to no avail. This incident resulted in a string of battles between the two kingdoms and both of them suffered heavily. The Chauhan-Gahadvala feud led to the weakening of both Rajput kingdoms.

Muhammad Ghori History

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The real founder of the Muslim Empire in India was Shihab – ud – Din Muhammad Ghori or Muhammad of Ghur. It is true that Muhammad bin Qasim was the first Muslim invader of India but he failed to carve out a Muslim empire in India on account of his premature death. Mahmud also failed to set a Muslim empire in India and the only permanent effect of his invasions was the annexation of Punjab. It was left to Muhammad Ghori to build up a Muslim Empire in India on a secure footing. He was also a ruler of a small kingdom in Afghanistan. But he was interested in conquering northern India and adding it to his kingdom, and not merely in getting gold and jewellery like Mahmud. His first invasion was directed against Multan in 1175 AD, which was successful. By 1182, Sindh was also captured. Punjab was captured by 1186 AD. Prithviraj Chauhan, who was the king of Delhi at that time, received contingents from other Rajput kings and defeated him in the First Battle of Tarain (1191). But he defeated Prithviraj in the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192. Captured Delhi and Ajmer and thus laid the foundation of Muslim Rule in India. Also defeated Jaichandra (Gahadval Rajput, ruler of Kannauj) at the Battle of Chandweri in 1194 AD. Ikhtiyar – ud – din Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, one of Ghori’s commanders, annexed Bihar and Bengal and destroyed Nalanda and Vikramshila University. Died in 1206 AD, leaving Qutab – ud – Din Aibak the charge.

After the Second Battle of Tarain, Prithviraj was taken as a prisoner in Ghor and was brought in chains before Mahmud. He haughtily looked Ghori straight into the eye. Ghori ordered him to lower his eyes, whereupon a defiant Prithviraj declared that the eyelids of a Rajput are lowered only in death. On hearing this, Ghori flew into a rage and ordered that Prithviraj's eyes be burnt with red hot iron rods. This heinous deed was committed. The blind Prithviraj was then regularly brought to the presence of the barbaric warlord to be taunted by Ghori and his courtiers. Chand Bardai came to Ghor to be near Prithviraj in his misery. Chand Bardai came in disguise and secured himself a place in Mahmud's court by purveying his skills as a composer of poems. The two got the revenge opportunity when Ghori announced an archery competition. Chand Bardai told Ghori that Prithviraj was so skilled an archer, that he could take aim based only on sound, and did not even need to look, at his target. The blind and hapless Prithviraj was brought out to the field and given a bow and arrows. In the a spirit of the occasion, Mahmud Ghori personally gave Prithviraj the order to shoot. Thus, Chand Bardai provided Prithviraj with an aural indication of where Ghori was seated. He gave Prithviraj one further indication of the same, by composing a couplet on the spot and reciting the same in Prithviraj's hearing.

Rajput King Prithviraj Chauhan




History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ The couplet, composed in a language understood only by Prithviraj went thus:


History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Iltumish (1210 – 36) :

Char bans, chaubis gaj, angul ashta praman,

Ete pal hai Sultan, (Taa Upar hat Sultan),

ab mat chuko hey Chauhan.

(Ten measures ahead of you and twenty four feet away, is seated the Sultan. Do not miss him now Chauhan).

Ghori then ordered Prithviraj to shoot, Prithviraj turned in the direction from where he heard Ghori speak, and, taking aim based only on the voice and on Chand Bardai's couplet, he sent an arrow racing to Ghori's throat. Ghori was thus stuck dead by Prithviraj.

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Naturally, after this deed, Prithviraj was killed by Mahmud's courtiers. But the brave Rajput had avenged the betrayals and humiliations suffered by him. Selects her husband from a number of suitors who assemble at the invitation of her guardian. Jaichand invited many princes of acceptable rank and heritage, but deliberately failed to invite Prithviraj.

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To add insult to injury. Jaichand had a statue of Prithviraj made and placed at the door of the venue, thus parodying Prithviraj as a doorman. Prithviraj came to hear of this. He made his plans and confided the same to his lover, Samyukta.

The Ilbari Dynasty The Ilbari Dynasty or Slave Dynasty of India • • •

Out of all the kings belonging to the so – called Slave Dynasty, only three, viz., Qutab – ud – din Aibak, Iltutmish and Balban were slaves and even they were manumitted by their masters. The dynasty is called Ilbari dynasty because all rulers of this dynasty, except Aibak, belonged to the Ilbari tribe of Turks.

Md. Ghori left his Indian possessions in his hands. He ruled on the death of his master and founded this dynasty. Lahore and later Delhi were his capitals. Famous for his generosity and earned the sobriquet of lakh – baksh (giver of Lakhs). Laid the foundation of Qutab Minar after the name of famous Sufi saint, Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki. Died of a horse fall at Lahore, while playing Chaugan (polo). The Turks only introduced polo in India. Built the first mosque in India – Quwwat – ul – Islam (at Delhi) and Adhai Din Ka Jhonpara (at Ajmer). He was a great patron of learning and patronized writers like Hasan Nizami, who wrote Taj – ul – Massir, and Fakhr – ud – din, writer of Tarikh – i – Mubarakshahi.

History of Aram Shah (1210) : • •

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Qutab – ud – din Aibak History (1206 – 1210) : • • • • • • •

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When Qutab – ud – din Aibak died all of a sudden at Lahore, the Amirs and Maliks of Lahore put Aram Shah on the throne. Some texts say that he was the son of Aibak while others deny so. He was a weak and worthless young man and was rejected by the people of Delhi. Iltutmish, who was the Governor of Badaun at that time, defeated him and acquired the throne.

History of Qutub Minar Delhi : Qutub Minar in Delhi is the tallest brick minaret in the world. It is 72.5 metres (239ft) high. The diameter of the base is 14.3 metres wide while the top floor measures 2.7 metres in diameter. Inspired by the Minaret of Jam in Afghanistan and wishing to surpass it, Aibak commenced construction of the Qutub Minar in 1193; but could only complete its basement. His successor, Iltutmish, added three more stories and, in 1368, Firuz Shah Tughluq constructed the fifth and the last story. The development of architectural styles from Aibak to Tughlak are quite evident in the minaret. The minaret is made of fluted red sandstone covered with intricate carvings and verses from the Quran. The purpose for building this beautiful monument has been speculated upon, apart from the usual role of a minaret that of calling people for prayer in a mosque – in this case the Quwwat – ul – Islam mosque. Other reasons ascribed to its construction are as a tower of victory, a monument signifying the might of Islam, or a watch tower for defence. Controversy also surrounds the origins for the name of the tower. Later, Ala ud din Khilji started building another minaret near Qutab Minar, the Alai Minar, which was conceived to be two times higher than Qutub Minar. The construction was abandoned, however, after the completion of the 24.5 meter high first storey; soon after death of Ala – ud – din. The Qutab Minar complex also houses Quwwat – ul – Islam mosque, built by Aibak. The mosque is said to be built by the parts taken by destruction of twenty – seven Hindu and Jain temples. To the west of the Quwwat – ul – Islam mosque is the tomb of Iltutmish which was built by the monarch in 1235. The Ala – i – Darwaza is a magnificent gateway to the complex. It was built by Ala ud din Khilji. The iron pillar, situated behind Qutab Minar is one of the world’s foremost metallurgical curiosities. Made up of 98% wrought iron of pure quality, it is 23 feet 8 inches (7.21 m) high and has a diameter of 16 inches (0.41 m). It was erected by Chandragupta II Vikramaditya of the Gupta dynasty. It has attracted the attention of archaeologists and metallurgists as it has withstood corrosion for the last 1600 Years, despite harsh weather. A fence was erected around the pillar due to the popularity of a tradition that considered good luck if you could stand with your back to the pillar and make your hands meet behind it.

History of Ruknuddin Firuz Shah (1236) : •


Shams – ud – din Iltutmish was the son – in – law of Aibak. He is considered the greatest of the slave kings and the real consolidator of the Turkish conquest in India. He suppressea the revolts of ambitious nobles and sent expeditions against the Rajputs in Ranthambor, Jalor, Gwalior, Aimer, Malwa. Prevented Chengiz Khan attack by refusing to give refuge to an enemy of Khan, Jalaluddin Mangabarani (a ruler from Iran). Thus, due to his diplomatic skill he prevented Mongol attack. He got his authority (Sultanate of Delhi) recognized by the Caliph of Baghdad (Khalifa), as a member of world fraternity of Islamic states. He formed Turkan – i – Chahalgani or Chalisa (a group of 40 powerful Turkish nobles to suppress nobles). Divided his empire into IQTAS, an assignment of land in lieu of salary, which he distributed to his officers. Every Iqtadar had to maintain law and order and collect revenue. After deducting his salary and the expenses of the government, he sent the surplus revenue to the Central Government. Iqtadars were transferable. He introduced the silver tanka and the copper jital – 2 basic coins of the Sultanate. He patronized Minhaj – ul – Siraj, the author of Tabaqat – i – Nasiri. He is called the Father of Tomb Building (built Sultan Garhi in Delhi). As his successor, declared Razia, thus deviating from the normal practice.

Iltutmish had many sons but as all of them were incompetent, he appointed his daughter Raziya as his successor.



History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ •

In spite of this, the nobles of the court who considered themselves too proud to bow their heads before a woman put on the throne Ruknuddin Firuz Shah who was the eldest son of Iltutmish. But he was an utterly worthless person. He took pleasure in riding through the streets of Delhi on an elephant and scattering gold among the people. He left the works of the government in the hands of his ambitious mother, Shah Turkan. She was originally a Turkish handmaid. She had her revenge against all those who had offended her in her youth. The result of all this was that rebellions occurred on all sides. Finally Ruknuddin and her mother were put to death and throne was given to Raziya.

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History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Coming of Khaljis marked the end of monopolization of power by the Turkish nobility and racial dictatorship. Jallaluddin Firuz Khalji History (1290 - 1296):

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Raziya History (1236 – 1240) : •


She was the first and the last Muslim woman ruler of medieval India. She succeeded her brother in 1236 and ruled for 31 / 2 Years. She disregarded purdah, began to adorn male attire and rode out in public on elephant back. She promoted Jamaluddin Yaqut, an Abyssinian, to the important office of superintendent of the stables. It provoked the Turkish nobles. There were simultaneous revolts in the various parts of the kingdom. The Governor of Lahore was the first to create trouble but he was defeated. There was a serious rebellion in Bhatinda. Malik Ikhtiyaruddin Altunia, Governor of Bhatinda, refused to acknowledge the suzerainty of Raziya. Raziya, accompanied by Yaqut Mared against Altunia. On the way, the Turkish followers of Altunia murdered Yaqut and imprisoned Raziya. She had to marry Altunia to get out of the situation. But she was killed, along with her husband, by Bahram Shah, a son of Iltutmish, on their way back to Delhi. Raziya was an excellent horsewoman who led the army herself. Her only problem was that she was a lady.

Note : After Razia, the battle of succession continued in which the following rulers ruled insignificantly : 1. Muizuddin Bahram Shah (1240 – 1242). 2. Alauddin Masud Shah (1242 – 1246). 3. NasiruddJn Mehmud (1246 – 1265).

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Administration of Alauddin Khilji :

• Balban History (1266 – 1286) : • •

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He was the first ruler to put forward the view that since a large majority of people in India are Hindus, the state in India could not be a total Islam state. The most important event of his reign was the invasion of Devagiri in 1294 by his nephew and son-in-law, Ali Gurshap or Ala-ud-din Khalji. Devagiri was the capital of the Yadava kingdom in the Deccan and Ala-ud-din plundered the vast treasury. Married his daughter to Ulugh Khan, a descendent of Chengiz Khan, to win their goodwill. He assassinated his uncle and proclaimed himself Sultan winning over the nobles and soldiers to his side by a lavish use of gold (accumulated from Devagiri). After coming to power, he massacred the old Balbani and Jalali nobles and the Mongols who had settled in Delhi, and some of his own family members. His first conquest was of the rich kingdom Gujarat, (ruled by the Vaghela king, Rai Kama Dev II). This conquest is notable.for two reasons - first, he married the Raja's wife, Kamla Devi; and secondly, there only he acquired Malik Kafur, a eunuch, who later on rose to become a great military general. Then he captured Ranthambhor, Chittor and Malwa. Chittor was ruled by a Gahlot king, Ratna Singh whose queen Padmini committed jauhar when his husband was defeated. Alauddin named Chittor as Khizrabad, after his son. After his conquest of north India, he sent Malik Kafur towards South. Malik defeated Yadavas of Devagiri (king was Ram Chandra Deva), Kakatiya king Pratap Rudra Deva I of Warangal, Hoysalas of Dwarsamudra (king was Vira Ballala III) and Pandyas of Madurai (king was Maravarman Kulasekhara). He is said to have reached as far as Rameshwaram where he built a mosque. Thus, the whole of Deccan was subjugated. He strengthened the North West Frontier under his trusted commander Ghazi Malik. He adopted Balban's policy of 'Blood and Iron' in tackling the Mongol menace. Added an entrance door to Qutab Minar, Alai Darwaza and built his capital at Siri. Also built Hauz Khas, Mahal Hazaar Satoon and Jamait Khana Mosque in Delhi. Adopted the title Sikandar-i-Sani.

He himself was a member of Chalisa. To guard himself, he got every member of Iltutmish family killed and gave a death blow to the Turkish nobility (Chalisa). He ordered the separation of military department from the finance department (diwan – i – wizarai), and the former was placed under a ministry for military affairs (diwan – i – ariz). The declared the Sultan as the representative of God on earth. He impressed upon the People that king was the deputy of God (niyabat – i – khudai) and the shadow of God (zil – i – ilahi). Introduced Sijdah or Paibos practice, in which the people were required to kneel and touch the ground with their head to greet the Sultan. He also instructed to the ulemas to confine themselves to religious affairs and not to engage in political activities. He also started the festival of Nauroz. In order to win the confidence of the public, he administered justice with extreme impartiality. He employed an efficient spy system. He was a liberal patron of Persian literature and showed special favour to the poet, Amir Khusro. He was deeply racist and excluded non – Turks from the administration. He strengthened the frontiers against Mongols. But his son, Muhammad’s death was a smashing blow to Balban and the death – knell to his dynasty. After Balban’s death, Kaiqubad (1287 – 1290) sat on throne but he was an inefficient and fun – loving person.

Khalji Dynasty in India


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First Sultan to have permanent army- paid soldiers in cash, imported horses, detailed description of each soldier (Chehra) and each horse (Dagh) was kept (first time). He took radical preventive measure to prevent rebellion. a. Confiscation of the religious endowments and free grants of lands. b. An efficient espionage system was built. c. Sale of liquor and intoxicants prohibited. d. Restrictions and strong checks on social gatherings, marriages between the families of nobles etc. Revenue Reforms : a. Measured the cultivable land and fixed land revenue accordingly; Biswa was declared to be the standard unit of measurement. b. The state demand was half of the produce / Biswa. c. House tax (ghari) and pasture tax (chari) were imposed. d. A special post Mustakhraj was created for the purpose of collection of revenue. Market control / Economic regulations: a. The price was fixed by the state of commodities. b. Four separate markets were established for various commodities-Central grain market, market for manufactured goods, market for general items and market for horses, cattle and slaves. c. The Sultan received daily reports of these from independent sources (spies). d. Strict punishment for cheating and underweightment. First Turkish Sultan of Delhi who separated religion from politics. He proclaimed - "Kingship knows no kinship". Though Alauddin was illiterate, he was a patron of learning and art. There were many great poets in his court. Both Amir Khusro and Mir Hasan Dehlvi enjoyed his patronage.



History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah History (1316 - 1320): • • •

History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320 – 25) :

He was one of the sons of Alauddin who, somehow, escaped the preying eyes of Malik Kafur. After the death of Kafur he became the king. After seating himself on the throne, he tried to win over the goodwill of the people. He cancelled all harsh regulations started by his father. During his reign, many revolts took place across the country. Although he was able to crush them, he wasn't able to run the administration smoothly.

History of Nasiruddin Khusro Shah (1320): • •


He killed Mubarak Shah and usurped the throne. But like his mentor, he too was an incapable ruler. He was defeated and killed by Ghazi Malik. With him, the thirty year rule of Khalji dynasty also came to an end.

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History of Malik Kafur :

He was an Indian eunuch and slave who became a general in the army of Alauddin Khilji. In 1297, he was purchased for 1,000 Dinars by Nusrat Khan. That is the reason why Malik Kafur is sometimes called HazarDinari. It is reported that Alauddin fell in love with his effeminate handsomeness and named him senior commander in his army after he agreed to convert to Islam. Perhaps due to the favor of the sultan, Kafur rose quickly in the army; He led the sultan's army against the Yadava kingdom of Devagiri, the Kakatiya kingdom and eventually into the Pandyan kingdom in far southern India, winning immense riches for the sultanate. Kafur's invasion of Pandya was the farthest south that any Muslim invasion would ever reach in India; Kafur's success in the Deccan made him so powerful that Alauddin became merely a puppet in his hands. This "evil genius of the Sultan" told Alauddin that his wife and sons were conspiring against him and got them imprisoned. After the death of Alauddin he placed, Kafur was responsible for the execution of all those princes of royal blood who had any claim to the throne. Thirty six days after the death of Alauddin, Kafur and his associates were killed.

History of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1325 – 1351) : • •

Ab'ul Hasan Yamin al-Din Khusro, better known as Amir Khusro Dehlavi, is one of the iconic figures in the cultural history of India. A Sufi mystic and a spiritual disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya of Delhi, Amir Khusro was not only one of India's greatest poets, he is also credited with being the founder of both Hindustani classical music and Qawwali (the devotional music of the Sufis). He was born of a Turkish father, Saif Ad-din and an Indian mother, in India. He was associated with royal courts of more than seven rulers of Delhi Sultanate. He created the fusion of Indian Arabic and Persian music. He is credited to have invented tabla and sitar and modified veena. He was given the title Tuti-i-Hind (parrot of India). One of his famous Persian couplet goes like this:

A vast amount of the population died during the moves due to the inadequate travel arrangements. It was said that Delhi was a ghost town for years after the move back. 3. He also had the idea of introducing token currency for the first time in India, modelled after the Chinese example, using copper coins, backed by silver and gold kept in the treasury. However, very few people exchanged their gold/silver coins for the new copper ones and the tokens were easy to forge, which led to heavy losses. Later, the Sultan repealed his verdict and all the copper coins were redeemed in silver or gold from the treasury, making it empty. 4. Muhammad Tughlaq planned an expedition for the conquest of Khurasan and Iraq. But the scheme was abandoned as conditions in Iraq improved (paid the extra army for one full year). 5. The plan for the conquest of Karajal (Kumaon hills) also met with a disastrous end.

"Agar firdaus bar roo-e zameen ast, Hameen ast-o hameen ast-o hameen ast." If there is paradise on face of the earth, It is this, it is this, it is this (India) •

His famous works include Tuhfa-tus-Sighr (his first divan), Wastul-Hayat (his second divan), Ghurratul-Kamaal, Baqia-Naqia, Nihayatul-Kamaal, Qiran-us- Sa'dain, Miftah-ul-Futooh (in praise of the victories of Jalauddin Khalji), Ishqia / Mathnavi Duval Rani-Khizr Khan (a tragic love poem about Gujarat's princess Duval and Alauddin's son Khizr Khan), Mathnaui Noh Sepehr (Khusrau's perceptions of India and its culture), Tughlaq Nama (Book of the Tughlaqs), Khamsa-e-Nizami (five classical romances: Hasht-Bahisht, MatlaulAnwai, Sheerin-Khusrau, MajnunLaila and Aaina-Sikandari, Ejaaz-e-Khusrovi, Khazain-ut-Futooh, Afzal-ul-Fawaid (utterances of Nizamuddin Auliya), Khaliq-e-Bari, Jawahar-e- Khusrovi.

The Tughlaq Dynasty


Real name was Jauna Khan. Regarded as the most controversial figure in Indian history, because of his five ambitious projects. 1. Increase in the land revenue in the Doab, between Ganga and Yamuna in north India. The measure proved to be ill – timed, as Doab was passing through famine which was followed by plague. 2. He was committed to maintaining the Sultanate’s expansion into the newly – conquered provinces of peninsular India. To have better administration of these southern parts of the Empire, Muhammad moved the capital from Delhi to Devagiri in the Deccan, renaming that city Devagiri as Daulatabad. Instead of moving just his government offices there, he forcibly moved the entire population of Delhi to the new capital. The plan failed due to inadequate water supply arrangements in Devagiri; the capital had to be shifted back again to Delhi after two years.

Amir Khusro (1253 - 1325):

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq or Ghazi Malik was the founder of the Tughlaq Dynasty. This dynasty is also known as the dynasty of the Qaraunah Turks as the father of Ghiasuddin Tughlaq was a Qaraunah Turk. He was the first Sultan of Delhi who took up the title of Ghazi or slayer of the infidels. He liberalized Alauddin’s administrative policies and took keen interest in the construction of canals and formulated a famine policy. The judicial and police arrangements were made efficient. The Chehra and Dagh system introduced by the Alauddin was continued. Efficient postal services were restored. Built the fortified city of Tughlaqabad and made it his capital. Dispatched his son, Jauna Khan to re-establish the authority in Warangal (Kakatiyas) and Madurai (Pandyas). Had troublesome relationship with the sufi saint, Shaikh Nizamuddin Aulia. Died in 1325, after a fall from a high-raised pavilion. Ibn Batuta, the Moroccon traveller, who was in Delhi at that time, opined that his death was due to sabotage arranged by his son, Jauna Khan.

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During his last days, the whole of S.India became independent and three major independent states – The Empire of Vijaynagar, The Bahmani kingdom and Sultanate of Madura were founded. A new department for agriculture Dewan – i – Kohi was setup. He knew Arabic and Persian languages. He was also an expert in philosophy, astronomy, logic and mathematics. He was also a good calligrapher. He built the fortress of Adilabad and the city of Jahanpanah. The famous traveller, Ibn Batuta came to Delhi during 1334. He acted as the Quazi of the capital for 8 years. He has recorded the contemporary Indian scene in his ‘Safarnamah’ (called Rehla).



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Sayyid Dynasty

History of Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351 – 1388) : • •

He was Muhammad’s cousin. He was chosen the Sultan by the nobles. He tried to appease everybody. He cancelled the loans of peasants which had been advanced by his predecessor. He did not give any harsh punishment and banned the inhuman practices like cutting hands, nose, etc. Agriculture was developed by the reclamation of wastelands and by providing irrigation facilities. He constructed four canals for irrigation.

He made iqtadary system hereditary. The principle of heredity was recognised not only in civil offices, but also in army. Soldiers were given land assignments instead of cash payment.

Imposed some new taxes : 1. Kharaj : a land tax equal to 1/10 of the produce of the land (by Hindus only). 2. Jaziya : a tax by non – muslims (even by brahmins). 3. Zakat : Tax on property (@ 2.5%) (by Muslims only). 4. Khams : 1 / 5th of booty captured in war.

• • • • • • • • • • •

Took steps to translate Hindu religious texts & Sanskrit books on music into Persian. Built new towns : Hissar, Firozpur, Fatehabad, Firozabad (the present day Firoz Shah Kotla in Delhi) and Jaunpur. Set up hospitals, dug a number of canals, dams, mosques. Repaired Qutab Minar when it was struck by lightening. Built his capital Firozabad and to beautify it, brought 2 Ashoka Pillars, one from Topara in Ambala & the other from Meerut. Was fond of slaves (had around 1,80,000 slaves). Wrote a book ‘Fatuhat Firozshahi’. Gained notoriety for temple breaking and Mathura was destroyed during his period. Barani, the historian was in his court. He wrote two well known works of history: Tarikh – i – Firozshahi and Fatwa – i – Jahandari. Khwaja Abdul Malik Isami wrote Futuh – us – Sulatin. He formed Diwan – i – Khairat and built Dar – ul – Shafa or a charitable hospital at Delhi. Also introduced 2 new coins – Adha (50% jital) and bikh (25% jital).

• • •

Firoz Tughlaq was succeeded by his grand son who took up the title of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq Shah II. He was a pleasure – loving king who tried to strengthen his position by merely disposing of all possible rivals. Ghiyasuddin was replaced by Abu Bakr Shah in 1389. Abu Bakr was replaced by Nasiruddin Muhammad in 1390, who ruled till 1394. His son Alauddin Sikandar Shah ascended the throne briefly in 1394. But he fell sick almost immediately after his accession and died in 1394 only. The vacant throne now fell to Nasiruddin Mahmud Tughlaq. In his reign, Timur invaded India.

Timur’s Invasion : •

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• • • • • • • •

Khizr Khan (1414 – 1421) founded the dynasty and claimed to have descended from the prophet of Islam. He helped Timur in his invasion, so he was given the governorship of Lahore, Multan & Dipalpur. When Khizr Khan got possession of Delhi, his position was very weak and he didn’t take up the title of king and contended himself with that of Rayat – i – Ala. The coins were struck and Khutba was read in the name of Timur and after his death in the name of his successor, Shah Rukh. Khizr Khan’s 3 successors – Mubarak Shah (1421 – 33), Muhammad Shah (1434 – 43) and Alauddin Alam Shah (1443 – 51) were incapable leaders. Sayyid dynasty’s 37 Years remained troubled with external invasions, internal chaos, etc. Provided opportunity to Bahlul Lodhi. Yahya – bin – Ahmed – bin – Abdullah – Sirhindi wrote Tarikh – i – Mubarakshahi (history from Mahmud to Muhammad Shah of Sayyid Dynasty).

The Lodhi Dynasty Lodhi Empire • •

They were Afghans by race (considered the first Afghan dynasty of India). They were ruling over Sirhind when Sayyids were in India.

History of Bahlul Lodhi (1451 – 1489): • •

Conquested Jaunpur by ousting Sharqui dynasty. Revived Sultanate to quite an extent.

History of Sikandar Lodhi (1489 – 1517):

The Later Tughlaqs History : •

History of Sayyid Dynasty

He was a great Mongol leader of Central Asia. He became the head of the Chaghtai Turks at the age of 33. Before reaching India, he had already conquered Mesopotamia and Afghanistan. He reached Delhi in December 1398. At that time, Nasiruddin Mahmud was the ruler. Timur ordered general massacre in Delhi and robbed people mercilessly. He is said to have inflicted on India more misery than had ever before been inflicted by any conqueror in a single invasion. The Tughlaq Empire could never recover from such a terrible blow and came to an end.


• • •

Real name was Nizam Khan. Noblest of the three Lodhi rulers. Introduced the Gaz-i-Sikandari (Sikandar’s yard) of 32 digits for measuring cultivated fields. In 1504, he founded the city of Agra and made it his capital.

• • • •

Set up an efficient espionage system and introduced the system of auditing of accounts. Took care of department of Justice and department of agriculture. Was a poet himself and wrote verses in Persian under the pen-name of Gulrukhi.

Repaired Qutab Minar.

Ibrahim Lodhi (1517 – 1526): • • •

Repressive ruler. Was defeated and killed by Babur in the I Battle of Panipat in 1526. With this the Sultanate of Delhi ended.

Administration, Society and Economy Under the Delhi Sultanate :



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• • • • • •

The country was divided into iqtas which was distributed among the nobles, officers and soldiers for the purpose of administration and revenue collection. Iqtadars could also be transferred. Iqtadars maintained the iqtas, kept a certain sum for the cost of administration and their personal expenses, and sent the rest to the Sultan. Civil administration was headed by Wazir (Chief Minister) who supervised the collection of revenue, the checking of the accounts and the regulation of expenditure. His office was known as Diwan-i-wizarat. The next important department was diwan-i-arz headed by ariz-i-mumalik, who was responsible for the recruitment, payment and inspection of troops. Diwan-i-Insha headed by dahir-i-mumalik managed the royal correspondence. Religious matters and endowments were dealt with by the diwan-i-rasalat headed by sadr-us-sadur. Barid-i-mumalik was the head of the state news agency. The provinces were divided into shiqs under the control of shiqdars. The next unit was parganas, groups of hundred villages, headed by cbaudhary. The village was the smallest unit of administration.


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Gujarat Province India : • • • •

• • Art and Architecture India : •

• •

The use of arch and the dome is the special feature of the Muslim architecture. As the arch and dome needed strong cement finer quality of mortar became wide-spread in north India. For decoration, the Turks used geometrical and floral designs (instead of human and animal figures in Hindu temples), with verses from Quran. They also used some Hindu motifs like bel motifs, lotus, swastik, etc. The Tughlaq built sloping walls called battar combining the principles of arch and the lintel and beam.

New musical modes and instruments like rabab and sarangi were introduced. Amir Khusro introduced many Persian Arabic ragas. Also invented the sitar.

Malwa was annexed by Alauddin Khalji in 1305 and remained a part of Sultanate until its Governor; Dihawan Khan Ghuri asserted his independence in 1435. It became powerful under the reign of Hushang Shah. He beautified the city Mandu with Jama Masjid, Hindol Mahal and Jahaz Mahal. Next ruler, Mahmud Khalji was defeated by Rana Kumbha. Malwa became a part of Gujarat in 1531, and was finally annexed by the Mughals in 1562.

History of Kashmiris : • •

Music : • •

Broke away from Delhi in 1397, under Zafar Khan who assumed the title of Sultan Muzaffar Shah. His grandson Ahmed Shah-I, built a new city, Ahmedabad. He built Jama Masjid of Ahmedabad and Tin Darwaza. The next prominent ruler was Mahmud Begarha. In his reign, Portuguese set up a factory at Diu. His court poet was the Sanskrit scholar, Udayaraja. In 1573, Akbar annexed Gujarat to his empire.

History of Malwa :

Lodhi Dynasty Cultural Development (13th – 15th Century)

The province was occupied by Sher Shah Suri in 1538.

• •

Kashmir continued to be under its Hindu rulers up to 1339. Its first Muslim ruler was Shamsuddin Shah. The greatest Muslim ruler was Zainul Abidin (1420-70). Accepted the policy of broad tolerance, introduced the art of shawl-making in Kashmir, built Zaina Lanka and artificial island in the Wular Lake. Called the “Badshah” (the great Sultan) and “Akbar of Kashmir” by the Kashmiris. Later ruled by Chak dynasty, which later submitted to Akbar in 1586. It is said that women played a leading role in their history.

History of Mewar : Painting in India : Paper was introduced by the Arabs in the 15th century and this patronized painting. • •

Literature India : • • • •

Udayaraja wrote Raja Vinoda on Mahmud Begarha. Merutanga’s Prabandha Chintamani A no. of Sanskrit works – Rajatarangani, Mahabharata, Koka Shastra – were translated into Persian. Zai Nakshabi’s TutiNama (a translation of Sanskrit stories into Persian) was very popular.

• •

Alauddin Khalji captured its capital Chittor in 1303. But Rajput rule was soon restored by Rana Hamir (1326-64). The greatest ruler of this house was the famous Rana Kumbha Karan (1538-68). Rana Kumbha built the famous victory tower or ‘Vijaya Stambh’ at Chittor to commemorate his victory over Mahmud Khalji of Malwa. His court was adorned by Mandan who wrote many books on architecture (Parsad Mandan, Rupa Mandan). Another important king was Rana Sangram Singh (1509-28), who defeated Mahmud-II of Malwa and Ibrahim Lodhi. But he was defeated by Babur at Khanua in 1527.

Religious Movements in History Provincial Kingdoms History of Sufis : Bengal Province : • • • • •

Broke away from Delhi under the reign of Muhammad bin Tughlaq. In 1342, Ilyas Khan founded a new dynasty. Famous sultan was Ghiyas-ud-din Azam who established friendly relations withChina and encouraged trade and commerce. The celebrated poet, Maladhar Basu, compiler of Sri-Krishna Vijay, was patronized by the Sultans and was given the title of ‘Gunaraja Khan’. Shankaradeva and Chaitanya belonged to this time.


• •

There were 3 chief orders of Sufis in India : The Chishti, The Suharawadi and the Silsilah of Firdausi. The link between the teacher or pir and his disciple or Murid was a vital part of Sufi system. Every pir nominated a successor or Wali to carry out work. Khanqah was the place where Sufi mystics lived.

1. The Chishti History : •

The Chisti order was established by Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti (Ajmer). His two main disciples were Bakhtiyar Kaki and Shaikh Hamiduddin Sufi.



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Others were Nizamuddin Auliya, Nasiruddin Chiragh – i – Dehlvi, the historian Barani and the poet Amir Khusro. It was popular in Delhi and the Doab region.

It was popular in Punjab and Sindh. Popular saints were Shaikh Shihabuddin Suhrawardi and Hamid – ud – din Nagory. Saints of this order had big jagirs and had close contact with the state.

3. The Firdausi Order : It was a branch of the Suhrawardi order and its activities were confined to Bihar. It was popularized by Shaikh Sharfuddin Yahya who was a disciple of Khwaja Nizamuddin Firdausi. 4. The Qadiri Order : • •

It was founded by Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani of Baghdad. It was popularized in India by Shah Niamatullah and Makhdum Muhammad Jilani. Dara Shikoh, the eldest son of Shah Jahan, was a follower of this order.

Nimbarkara History : The next leader of the bhakti movement was Nimbarkara, a younger contemporary of Ramanuja. He was a worshipper of Krishna and Radha.

Ramanand (15th century) : First great Bhakti saint of north India. Worshipper of Lord Ram. He put emphasis on Bhakti and avoided both Cyan marg and Karma marg. His followers were Ravidas, Kabir, Dhanna, Sena, etc. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Namadeva – Tailor. Ravidas – Cobbler (His 30 hymns are in Guru Granth Sahib). Kabir – Weaver. Sena – Barber. Sadhana – Butcher.

Baba Guru Nanak History : Histoey of Guru Nanak (1469 – 1539) was born in the village of Talwandi (now called Nankana in present day Pakistan). He undertook wide tours all over India and then to Sri Lanka, Mecca and Medina. He laid great emphasis on the purity of character and conduct as the first condition of approaching God and the need of a gurufor guidance.

5. Nakshabandi Sufi Order : •

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Madhavacharya (1238 – 1317) : He ranks with Ramanuja in the Vedanta system. He said that release from transmigration can be secured only by means of knowledge and devotion. His successor was Jayatirtha.

2. The Suhrawardi Sufi Order : • • •


It was founded in India by the followers of Khwaja Pir Muhammad. It was popularized in India by Khwaja Baqi Billah who came to India from Kabul in the last years of the reign of Akbar. Of all the Sufi orders, it was nearest to orthodoxy and it tried to counteract the liberal policies of Akbar who was considered by them as heretic.

He laid emphasis on the oneness or unity of God. His concept of God was Nirguna (attributeless) and Nirankar (formless). He used the name of Hari, Ram, Allah and Khuda for God. He didn’t believe in the Vedas and the Quran. History of Kabir : History of Kabir (1440 – 1518) was not only concerned with religious reform but also wished to change the society. He emphasized the unity of God and expressed his ideas in dohas or couplets. He composed Bijak, Sabads, Sakhis, Mangal, Basant, Holi, Rekhtal, etc. He did not make any distinction betwee Hinduism and Islam.

6. Shattari Sufi Order : Note : The followers of Kabir and Nanak founded independent religious communities, the Kabirpanthis and the Sikhs. • •

Shah Abdullah brought the Shattari order to India during the Lodhi Dynasty. Muhammad Ghhauth of Gwalior was the most important saint of this order. Tansen was the follower of this order.

Chaitanya : (1485 – 1534) of Bengal traveled throughout India and popularized Krishna cult. ‘Kirtan system’ was given by Chaitanya only.

Bhakti Movements in India : • •

Vaishnavism : Popular in north India. They can be distinguished from other Ehakti saints as their teachings were not influenced by Islamic ideas.

Among the Hindus, the Bhakti movement preached religion which was non – ritualistic and open to all without any distinction of caste or creed. The real development of Bhakti took place in south India between 7th and 12th century. The bhakti saints came usually from lower castes. They disregarded castes, encouraged women to join in the gatherings and taught in the local vernacular language.

Ramanuja (12th century) : Earliest exponent of Bhakti Movement. According to him, the way of Moksha lies through Karma, Gyan and Bhakti. The performance of duty without any selfish motive purifies the mind. He gave the concept of Vishishtadvaita.

Meerabai History : (1498 – 1546) of Rajasthan was the follower of Lord Krishna. She was married to Rana Sanga’s eldest son and heir-apparent Bhojraj. But Bhojraj died in the lifetime of his father leaving Mira a widow in her youth. After the death of her husband, she devoted herself completely to religious pursuits. She wrote some poetic stanzas on Lord Krishna. Surdas History : (1479 – 1584) of western UP wrote lyrical poems on Radha and Krishna. Wrote Sur – Sarawali, the Sahitya Lahari and the Sur – Sagar. Vallabhacharya : (1479 – 1531), a Tailanga brahmana, advocated the worship of Krishna and dedication of everything to Him alone.




History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Tulsidas History (1532 – 1623) was born in a Brahmin family in Varanasi. On account of a taunt of his wife, he is said to have to the life of a religious hermit. Wrote Ram Charit Manas, Gitawali, Kauitawali, Vinay Patrika, etc. He also used Arabic and Persian words in his writings. Narsingh Mehta : was a saint from Gujarat who wrote songs in Gujarati depicting the love of Radha – Krishna. He is the author of Mahatma Gandhi’s favourite bhajan ‘vishnaoajan ko’.

Vijaynagar Kingdom


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Caesor Fredrick (1567 – 68 AD) visited Vijaynagar after the Battle of Talikota. Vina (musical instrument) acquired a prominent place in the Vijayanagar Empire.

The Nayakar and Ayagar Systems : The Nayakar and Ayagar systems were the backbones of the Vijayanagar administration. The Nayakar System : Under this system, military chiefs were assigned certain pieces of land called amaram. These chiefs, known as nayaks, had revenue and administrative rights on their lands. They were required I to maintain elephants, horses and soldiers in certain numbers which were included in the royal I army during wars.

History of Vijaynagar Kingdom Founded in 1336 as a result of the political and cultural movement against the Tughluq authority in the south. The Sangama History (1336 – 1485) : • • • • • • • • • • • •

The empire of Vijaynagar was founded by Harihara – I and Bukka, two of the five sons of Sangama. They were originally feudatories of Kakatiyas. Harihara – I was the first ruler. A Bhakti saint Vidyaranya motivated them. The next ruler was Deva Raya – I. He constructed a dam across the river Tungabhadra to bring die canals into die city to relieve die shortage of water. Italian traveler Nicolo Conti visited during his reign (Also a Russian merchant, Nikitin). His court was adorned by the gifted Telegu poet Srinatha, the author of Haravilasam. There was a ‘Pearl Hall’ in the palace where he honored men of eminence. Devaraya – II (1423 – 46) was the greatest Sangama ruler. During his time, Vijaynagar became the most wealthy and powerful state. The commoners believed that he was the in carnation of Indra. The inscriptions speak of his tide ‘Gajabetekara’ i.e., die elephant hunter. He wrote ‘Mahanataka Sudhanidhi’ and a commentary on die Brahma Sutras of Badaryana (Both in Sanskrit). Persian ambassador Abdur Razzaq visited his court. Sangama dynasty was replaced by Saluva dynasty, which lasted for 2 decades. Ultimately, a new dynasty called the Tuluva dynasty (1503 – 69) was founded by Vira Narsimha.

They also had to pay a sum of money to the central exchequer. In course of time, nayaks began to assert their military, administrative and economic powers which later became a major cause of the decline of the Vijayanagar empire. The Ayagar System : It involved the constitution of a 12 – member officials group by the Centre to maintain administration at the village level. These officials, called the ayagars, were village functionaries and constituted of groups of families. They were given, for their service, a portion, of or plot in the village, which were tax – free. The ayagars were hereditary officials and there was to be no sale or purchase of land without their permission.

Bahmani Kingdom History of Bahmani Kingdom • • • •

The History of Tuluvas : • • • • • • • • • • • •

Krishnadeva Raya (1509 – 29) was their greatest ruler. Portuguese traveller, Domingo! Paes writes high about him. Berbosa also came as a traveler. He was a warrior, an administrator and a patron of art and literature. His political ideas are contained in his Telegu work ‘Amuktamalyada’ (also Jambavati Kalyanam in Sanskrit). As a great patron of literature, he was known as Abhinava Bhoja, Andhra Pitamaha and Andhra Bhoja. Eight great poets of Telegu, known as ‘Ashta Diggaja’ adorned his court. Pedanna wrote Manucharitam, while Tenalirama was the author of Panduranga Mahamatyam. Built a new city ‘Nagalapuram’ and decorated it with Hazura temple and Vithalswamy temple. The successors of Krishnadeva Raya were weak and incompetent rulers. Achyuta Raya followed him. A Portuguese traveler Fernoa Nuniz came during his reign. Sadasiva, the last ruler of the dynasty, was a puppet in the hands of his PM, Rama Raya, who was an able but arrogant man. In 1565, Battle of Talikota was fought between an alliance of Ahmednagar, Bijapur, Golkonda and Bidar on one side and Sadasiva on the other side. Sadashiv was defeated. After that, Aravidu dynasty was found by Rama Raya’s brother, Thirumala. Aravidu dynasty lingered on for almost 100 Years, but no political influence.


• • • • • • • • • •

The Bahmani Kingdom of the Deccan was the most powerful of all the independent Muslim kingdoms that arose on account of the disintegration of the Delhi Sultanate. Alauddin Hasan, who took the title of Abul Muzaffar Alauddin Bahman Shah, was the first king of Bahmani Kingdom in 1347. Bahman Shah selected Gulbarga as his capital and gave it the name of Ahsanabad. At the time of his death, his dominions had four provinces, namely Gulbarga, Daulatabad, Berar and Bidar. Bahman Shah (1347 – 58) was succeeded by his elder son, Muhammad Shah I (1358 – 75). He had troubled relationship with Vijaynagar Empire. Mujahid Shah (1375 – 78) succeeded Muhammad Shah. During his rule, Raichur Doab was the bone of contention between Vijaynagar and Bahmani kingdom. The next ruler was Muhammad Shah II (1378 – 97). A man of peace, he set up monastries and public schools. Muhammad Shah II was followed by his two sons, namely Ghiyasuddin and Shamsuddin. However, their rule lasted for a few months only. The throne was finally captured by Tajuddin Firoz Shah (1397 – 1422). During his term, Bahmani Kingdom and Vijaynagar Empire were mostly in war. The next ruler was Tajuddin’s brother, Ahmad Shah (1422 – 36), who again had a fight with Vijaynagar Empire. Ahmad Shah was succeeded by his son Alauddin II (1336 – 58). Humayun (1458 – 61) succeeded his father Alauddin II. He was so cruel that he got the title of “Zalim” or the tyrant. Humayun was succeeded by his son Nizam Shah (1461 – 63). He was succeeded by his brother Muhammad Shah III (1463 – 82). During his reign, his minister Mahmud Gawan was practically the king. Mahmud won Konkan, Goa, Orissa, Kanchi, etc. Nikitin, a Russian merchant, visited Bidar during his reign. Muhammad Shah III was succeeded by his son Mahmud Shah (1482 – 1518). The last ruler of the Bahmani Kingdom was Kalim Ullah Shah (1524 – 27).



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After the break up of the Bahmani Kingdom, five separate States of the Muslims came into existence :


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1. Adilshahi Kingdom of Bijapur : Founded by Yusuf Adil Shah. It was annexed by Aurangzeb in 1686.

2. Nizam Shahi Kingdom of Ahmednagar : Founded by Malik Ahmad. It was annexed by the Mughals in 1636.

3. Imadshahi Kingdom of Berar : Founded by Fateh Ullah Imad Shah. It was annexed by Ahmednagar in 1574.

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4. Qutub shahi Kingdom of Golconda : Founded by Qutub Shah. It was annexed by Aurangzeb in 1687. 5. Baridshahi Kingdom of Bidar : Founded by Amir AH Barid. It was annexed by Bijapur in 1618 – 19.

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Mughal Emperors of India

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The Mughal era is the historic period of the Mughal Empire in India, it ran from the early sixteenth century, to a point in the early eighteenth century when the Mughal Emperors power had dwindled. It ended in several generations of conflicts between rival warlords. During the Mughal period, art and architecture flourished and many beautiful monuments were constructed. The rulers were skillful warriors and admirers of art as well. The Mughal Empire lasted for more than three centuries. The Mughal Empire was one of the largest centralized states in premodern history and was the precursor to the British Indian Empire. More information about the famous Mogul rulers in our related sections.

Babur (1526 – 1530) Humayun (1530 – 40 & 1555 – 1556) Akbar (1556 – 1605) Jahangir (1605 – 1627) Shahjahan (1628 – 1658) Aurangzeb Alamgir Later Mughal or Fall of Mughal

Humayun (1530 – 40 and 1555 – 56) : • •

Sher Shah Suri History(1540 – 1545) : • • • •

Mughal Administration in India Mughal Buildings in India Mughal Paintings in India Mughal Literature

Real name was Farid. Given the title Sher Khan by Babar Khan Lohani (Governor of Bihar) who appointed him Vakil (deputy). Became the master of Delhi after the exit of Humayun. Crushed the Rajput forces of Marwar at Samel in 1544. Died in 1545 while campaigning against Kalinjar Fort.

Shershah’s Administration :

Babar Emperor (1526 – 1530) : •

He was born to Mahim Begam and Babur. The throne inherited by Humayun was not a bed of roses. Babar had practically got no time to consolidate his position and authority. Before he could put the whole country on a stable basis, he was gone. He did a blunder by dividing his empire among his three brothers – Kamran, Hindal and Askari. Built Dinpanah at Delhi as his second capital. Defeated the Afghan forces at Daurah in 1532.

The Afghan Interlude

Salient Features of Mughal Dynasty in India : • • • •

His victories led to rapid popularization of gunpowder and artillery in India. Died in 1530. Buried at Aram Bagh in Agra; later his body was taken to Aram Bagh, Kabul. His memoir, the Tazuk – i – Baburi in Turki language is a classic of world literature. It shows his humane outlook and sensitivity to the beauty of nature. Also wrote ‘Masnavf.

This helped in promoting trade since these towns were the starting points of caravans meant for China in the east and Mediterranean in the west.

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The Mughal Emperors : • • • • • • •

Defeated the Afghan chiefs under Mahmud Lodi brother of Ibrahim Lodi) in the Battle of Ghagra in 1529.

Note : After the Kushans, Babur was the first to bring Kabul and Kandahar into the Indian Empire, which provided stability since it was the staging post of invasions of India.

The Mughal Empire of India: •

He was invited to attack India by Daulat Khan Lodhi (Subedar of Punjab), Alam Khan (uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi) and Rana Sanga. Defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526. In this Babar used the Rumi (Ottoman) device of lashing a large number of carts to form a defending wall with breastwork in between to rest guns (Tulghama system of warfare). His artillery was led by Ustad Ali and Mustafa. Defeated Sangram Singh (Rana Sanga) of Mewar in the Battle of Khanua in 1527. This weakened the Rajput confederacy and strengthened Babar’s position. Babar took the tide of “Ghazi” after that. Defeated another Rajput ruler, Medini Rai (of Chanderi) in the Battle of Chanderi in 1528.

Was a descended of Timur on his father’s side and Chengiz Khan on his mother’s side. His family belonged to the Chaghtai section of the Turkish race and were commonly known as Mughals. Originally ruledover Ferghana (Afghanistan). He became the Sultan at the early age of 12, when his father Sultan Umar Shaikh Mirza died.


For administrative convenience, Shershah divided his whole empire into 47 divisions called sarkars, and sarkars into smaller parganas. In the field of central administration, Shershah followed the Sultanate pattern. There were – four main central departments, viz, Diwan – i – wizarat, Diwan – i – arz, Diwan – i – insha and Diwan – i – rasalat. His Land Revenue System is noteworthy as he classified his land under 3 heads – good, middle and bad, and claimed 1 / 3rd of the produce. Land was measured by using the Sikandari – gaz (32 points). Todarmal contributed greatly in the development of revenue policy of Shershah. Akbar also adopted the same revenue policy, albeit with some amendments.



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Shershah personally supervised the recruitment of the soldiers and paid them directly, He revived Alauddin’s system of branding the horses (daag) and keeping a descriptive roll of soldiers (chehra). Shershah introduced a regular postal service. He also attempted to fix standard weights and measures. Introduced the silver ‘Rupaya’ and the copper ‘Dam’ and abolished all old and mixed metal currency. He promoted the cause of trade and commerce by reducing the number of the customs duty collection points to just two :


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1. Goods produced in Bengal or imported from outside had to pay customs duty at Sikrigali (at the border of Bengal and Bihar).

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2. For the goods coming from West and Central Asia at the Indus. • •

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Shershah improved communication by building roads. The roads built by Shershah are called ‘the arteries of the empire’. Sarais were built on roads. He restored the old imperial road called Grand Trunk road, from the Indus River to Sonargaor, in Bengal. Built his tomb at Sasaram in Bihar. Built a new city on the bank of Yamuna River (present day Purana Qila). Malik Mohammad Jaisi composed Padmavat (in Hindi) during his reign. Abbas Khan Sarwani was his historian, who wrote Tarikh – i – SherShahi. Sher Shah Suri gradually gained power during his time. He was attacked by Sher Shah at Chausa (Battle of Chausa) in 1539, but escaped. Here Humayun was saved by Nizam, a water carrier (saqqa). But in the Battle of Kannauj (also called Battle of Bilgram) in 1540, he was defeated by Sher Shah and had to flee. Passed nearly 15 years (1540 – 1555) in exile. First fled to Sind, which was under Shah Hussain Arghuna. In 1545, he went to the Persian emperor’s court. Had the chance to return in 1555. Sher Shah, the victor of Kannauj, died in 1545. He was succeeded by his son Islam Shah, who ruled up to 1553. He was succeeded by Muhammad Adil Shah. He was very fond of pleasures and left the affairs of his government in the hands of Hemu, his minister. His authority was challenged by Ibrahim Shah and Sikandar Shah. There were a large number of bloody battles among the various rivals. The net result of all this was that the Suri Empire was broken up. Bairam Khan, his most faithful officer, helped him in this. Died in 1556, due to a fall from his library building stairs (Sher Mandal, Delhi) seven months after he captured Delhi. It is said about him that “Humayun tumbled through life and he tumbled out of it”. Gulbadan Begum, his half – sister, wrote Humayun – nama.

Maharana Pratap : A Rajput ruler of Mewar, he belonged to the Sisodia clan of Suryavanshi Rajputs. He was a son of Udai Singh II. In 1568, during the reign of Udai Singh II, Mewar was conquered by the Akbar. Battle of Haldighati was fought on Jun 18, 1576, in which Maharana Pratap was defeated by Akbar’s army, led by Raja Maan Singh. Maharana had to flee the field on his trusted horse Chetak. Thereafter, Pratap had to retreat into the Aravallis from where he continued his struggle through the tactics of guerilla warfare. Using the hills as his base, Pratap harassed the large and therefore awkward mughal forces in their encampments. He ensured that the mughal occupying force in Mewar never knew peace. Rana Pratap died of injuries sustained in a hunting accident. Important aspects of Akbar’s Rule : • • • • •

History of Akbar (1556 – 1605) : • • • • • •

Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar was the son of Humayun and Hamida Banu Begam. He was born at Amarkot in 1542. Bairam Khan coronated him at Kalanaur when he was 14 years old. Bairam Khan represented him in the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556 against Hemu Vikramaditya. Hemu, the PM of Muhammad Shah Adil of Bengal, was defeated. Hemu is considered the last Hindu king ofDelhi. Between 1556 – 1560, Akbar ruled under Bairam Khan’s regency. (Bairam Khan was as sassinated at Patan, Gujarat, on his way to Mecca by one of his old Afghani enemies). Conquered Malwa in 1561 defeating Baz Bahadur. He was later made the Mansabdar to honour his skill as a musician. Then defeated Garh – Katanga (ruled by Rani Durgawati) followed by Chittor and Ranthambhore.


Akbar followed a policy of reconciliation with the Rajputs. Some of the Rajput princes entered into matrimonial alliances with him. In 1562, he married the eldest daughter of Raja Bharmal of Jaipur. In 1570, he married princesses from Bikaner and Jaisalmer. In 1584, Prince Salim was married to the daughter of Raja Bhagwan Das. All these activities paved the way for friendship between Rajputs and Mughals (except Mewar). Won Gujarat in 1572. It was in order to commemorate his victory of Gujarat that Akbar got the Buland Darwaza constructed at Fatehpur Sikri. Fought Battle of Haldighati with Mewar forces on 18 Jun, 1576. Mughals were represented by Raja Maan Singh and Rajputs by Rana Pratap Singh. Rajputs were defeated. Raja Maan Singh conquered Bihar, Bengal and Orissa for him. In 1586, he conquered Kashmir and in 1593, he conquered Sindh. His last conquest was at the fort of Asirgarh in Deccan. At his death in 1605, his empire included Kashmir, Sind, Kandhar and extended as far as the Godavary in the Deccan.

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Ralph Fitch (1585) was the first Englishman to visit Akbar’s court. Abolished jaziyah in 1564 and the tax on pilgrims. The use of beef was also forbidden. Regularly visited the shrine of Sheikh Muinuddin Chishti at Ajmer. Believed in Sulh – i – Kul or peace to all. Built Ibadatkhana (Hall of prayers) at Fatehpur Sikri. He used to conduct religious discussions there with : Purshottam Das (Hindu), Maharaji Rana (Parsi), Harivijaya Suri (Jain), Monserate and Aquaviva (Christian). In 1579, Akbar issued the ‘Decree of Infallibility. Formulated an order called Din – i – Ilahi or Tauhid – i – Ilahi in 1581. Birbal, Abul Fazl and Faizi joined the order. His Land Revenue System was known as Todar Mai Bandobast or Zabti System. Three salient features of Zabti system were – measurement of land, classification of land and fixation of rates. Todar Mai and Muzaffar Khan Turbati were the important revenue officers. Also introduced the Mansabdary System to organise the nobility as well as the army. Mansabdar meant holder of a rank. There were two ranks: Zat and Sawar. Zat fixed the status and standing in the administrative hierarchy while sawar fixed the number of troopers held by the Mansabdar. It wasn’t a hereditary system.

Akbar’s Navratna History :



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Abu’l – Fazl, the Wazir of Akbar and author of the Akbamama an account of Akbar’s reign. He also led the Mughal imperial army in its wars in the Deccan. He was assassinated in a plot contrived by Akbar’s son, Salim. Faizi was historian Abul Fazl’s brother in Akbar’s court. He was a poet composing in Persian and an all – round genius. Akbar highly recognized the genius in him and appointed him teacher for his son and gave place to him among his decorative ‘Nau Ratnas’. His famous work Lilabati is on mathematics. Tansen, believed to be one of the greatest musician of all times, was born in a Hindu family in Gwalior. He served as the court musician to King Ramachandra of Mewar and later to Akbar. Tansen accepted Islam at the hands of the great Sufi mystic and saint – Shaykh Muhammad Ghaus of Gwalior. It was believed that Tansen made miracles such as bringing rain and fire through singing the ragas Megh Malhar and Deepak, respectively. Raja Birbal, alias Mahesh Das, was a courtier in the administration of Akbar. Birbal was referred to as a court wit as a result of the fact that he frequently had witty and humorous exchanges with Akbar. He was a poet and author whose wit and wisdom led the Emperor Akbar to invite him to be a part of the royal court and to bestow upon him a new name – Birbal. Akbar also conferred on him the title of “Raja”. Raja Todar Mai was Akbar’s finance minister, who overhauled the revenue system in the kingdom. He introduced standard weights and measurements, revenue districts and officers. His systematic approach to revenue collection became a model for the future Mughals as well as the British. He had developed his expertise while working under Sher Shah. In 1582, Akbar bestowed on the raja the title Diwan – i – Ashraf. Raja Man Singh was the Kacchwaha raja of Amber. He was a mansabdar and a trusted general of Akbar. He was the grandson of Akbar’s father – in – law, Bharmal and the adopted son of Raja Bhagwan Das. He assisted Akbar in many battles including the well – known | battle of Haldighati, among others. He also led campaigns in Orissa and Bengal. Abdul Rahim Khan – e – Khana was a poet and the son of Akbar’s trusted caretaker, Bairam Khan. After Bairam Khan was murdered, Bairan Khan’s wife became the second wife of Akbar, which made Abdul Rahim Khan – e – Khan his stepson. He had a high place I among Akbar’s Navratnas. Although a Muslim by birth, he was a devotee of Lord Krishna. Faqir Aziao Din was one of Akbar’s chief advisors. Mullah Do Piaza was among the Mughal emperor Akbar’s chief advisors. Akbar regarded his advice in high esteem.


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The most important event in Jahangir’s life was his marriage to Mehr – un – Nisa, the widow of Sher Afghani in 1611. The title of Nur Jahan was conferred on her.

She had great influence on Jahangir’s life, as she was given the status of Padshah Begum, coins were struck in her name and all royal farmans beared her name.

She got high positions for her father (Itmad – ud – daulah), and her brother (Asaf Khan). She married Asaf’s daughter, Mumtaz Mahal to Khurram (later, Shahjahan). This cemented the alliance between Nurjahan, her father, Asaf Khan and Khurram.

This alliance practically ruled the empire for 10 years. Problem arose when Nur Jahan married her daughter by Sher Afghani to Jahangir’s youngest son, Shahryar. Now Nur Jahan supported him for the heir – apparent.

All these events hampered the military events for the recovery of Kandhar.

Had a chain of justice outside his palace in Agra (called Zanzir – i – Adil). He also laid a number of gardens, such as the Shalimar and Nishat gardens in Kashmir.

Captain Hawkins (1608 – 11) and Sir Thomas Roe (1615 – 1619) visited his court. Due to the efforts of Sir Thomas Roe English factories were established at Surat and some other places.

Pietra Valle, famous Italian traveler came during his reign.

Tobacco growing started during his reign. It was brought by the Portuguese.

History of Shahjahan (1628 – 1658) : • • •

History of Jahangir (1605 – 1627) : •

Akbar’s eldest son Salim assumed the title of Nuruddin Muhammad Jahangir and ascended the throne.

He mostly lived in Lahore which he adorned with gardens and buildings.

But soon, his eldest son Khusro revolted, which was suppressed.

The fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjun Dev, had helped Khusro. So he was also executed after 5 days of torture.

Rana Amar Singh (son of Maharana Pratap) of Mewar submitted before Jahangir in 1615. Rana’s son Karan Singh was made a mansabdar in the Mughal court.

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Faced a formidable opponent in Malik Amber in his expedition to Ahmednagar.

His greatest failure was the loss of Kandahar to Persia in 1622.

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Able general and administrator. Had to face revolts in Bundelkhand (Jujjhar Singh Bundela of Orchcha) and in the Deccan (Khan – i – Jahan Lodi) in the initial years. Shahjahan’s policy of annexing the Deccan was quite successful. Ahmednagar was annexed while Bijapur and Golconda accepted his overlordship. Shahjahan also expelled the Portuguese from Hughli, as they were abusing their trading privileges. In 1639, Shahjahan secured Kandahar and immediately fortified it. But Persia wrested Kandahar from the Mughals in 1649. Shahjahan sent three expeditions to recover Kandahar, but all failed. Made his son, Aurangzeb, the Viceroy of Deccan in 1636. Aurangzeb first tenure was till 1644. Aurangzeb’s second term as Viceroy in Deccan began in 1653 and continued till 1658. Aurangzeb built an effective Revenue System there (Murshid Kuli Khan was his dewan there). Last 8 years of his life were very painful, as there was a brutal war of succession among his four sons – Dara, Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad. Dara was his favourite but Aurangzeb was the ablest. Ultimately, Aurangzeb took control and he was made the prisoner in the Agra Fort, being looked after by his daughter, Jahan Ara, till his death in 1666. His reign is considered the ‘Golden Age of the Mughal Empire’. 2 Frenchmen, Bernier and Tavernier, and an Italian adventurer Manucci, visited during his reign.

History of Taj Mahal : •


Taj Mahal, the eternal love monument is located in Agra. Shah Jahan commissioned its construction as a mausoleum lor his favourite wife, Arjumancl Bano Begum, better known as Mumtaz Mahal, in 1631.



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It was constructed in 22 years (1631 – 1653) by a workforce of 22,000. It is generally considered the finest example of Mughal architecture. The Taj Mahal was not designed by a single person. The project demanded talent from many quarters. Ustad Isa and Isa Muhammad Effendi are edited with a key role in the architectural design of the complex. The main dome was designed by Ismail Khan. Qazim Khan cast the solid gold finial that crowned the Turkish masters dome. Chiranjilal was chosen as the chief sculptor and mosaicist. Amanat Khan was the chief calligrapher. Muhammad Hanif was the supervisor of masons. Mir Abdul Karim and Mukkarimat Khan handled finances and the management of daily production. The Taj rises on a high red sandstone base topped by a huge white marble terrace on which rests the famous dome flanked by four tapering minarets. Within the dome lies the jewel – inlaid cenotaph of the queen. The only asymmetrical object in the Taj is the casket of the emperor which was built beside the queen’s as an afterthought. It is often described as one of the seven wonders of the modern world.


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Note :

Aurangzeb Alamgir (1658 – 1707) : • • • • •

At the time of Shahjahan’s illness, Dara was in Delhi and the other brothers were in different places – Shuja in Bengal, Murad in Gujarat and Aurangzeb in Deccan. Aurangzeb first defeated the Imperial army in the Battle of Dharmat and then defeated a force led by Dara in the Battle of Samugarh. Thereafter, he entered Agraand crowned himself with the title of ‘Alamgir’ (conqueror of the world). Under him, the Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent, and the largest single state ever known in India from the dawn of history to the rise of British Power was formed. His reign can be broadly divided into two 25 year periods: first in the affairs of N.India when the Maratha power under Shivaji emerged, and second marked by his preoccupations about the affairs of Deccan.



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In his rule, various rebellions took place – Jat peasantry at Mathura, Satnami peasantry in Punjab and Bundelas in Bundelkhand. He caused serious rift in the Mughal-Rajput alliance by his policy of annexation of Marwar in 1639 after the death of Raja Jaswant Singh. In 1675, he ordered the arrest and execution of ninth Sikh guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur. In 1679, he reimposed jaziyah. Also, Nauraj, singing in the court, and the practice of ‘jharokha-darshan’ were banned. Also forbade inscription of Kalima (the Muslim credo) on the coins. When he was conducting the campaign against Marwar, his son Akbar rebelled in 1681. The Mughal conquests reached the territorial climax during his reign, as Bijapur (1686) and Golconda (1687) were annexed to the Mughal Empire. The Mughal Empire stretched from Kashmir in die north to Jinji in the south, from the Hindukush in the west to Chittagong in the east. Patronized the greatest digest of Muslim law in India, Fatwa-i-Alamgiri. Mutasib (regulator of moral conduct) was appointed. He was called a ‘Darvesh’ or a ‘Zinda Pir’. He also forbade Sati.

The empire lost power after Aurangzeb’s rule. His successors were weak and incapable rulers.


Ambitious nobles became direct contenders of power. The Sayyid brothers (also known as King Makers) put three princes on the throne. Ultimately these brothers were murdered by a conspiracy between Mohammad Shah and Chin Kilich Khan (Nizam – ul – Muik). One of the generals of Nadir Shah, Ahmed Shah Abdali, invaded India repeatedly between 1748 – 1767. He defeated the Marathas in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. In this battle, Marathas were led by Sadashiv Rao Bhau, while the Peshwa at that time was Balaji Bajirao.

Akbar II (1806 – 37) : He gave Rammohan the title ‘Raja’. He sent Raja Ram Mohan Roy to London to seek a raise in his allowance. Bahadur Shah II (1837 – 57) : He was confined by the British to the Red Fort. During the revolt of 1857, he was proclaimed the Emperor by the rebels. He was deported to Rangoon after that.

Kohinoor Diamond History : •

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Fall of Mughal Empire •

Bahadur Shah (1707 – 1712) : Assumed the title of Shah Alam I was also known as Shah – i – Bekhabar. He made peace with Guru Gobind Singh and Chhatrasal. He granted Sardeshmukhi to Marathas and also released Shahu. Jahandar Shah (1712 – 13) : First puppet Mughal emperor. He abolished jaziya. Farrukhsiyar (1713 – 19) : Ascended the throne with the help of Sayyid brothers. He executed Banda Bahadur. Farrukhsiyar himself was murdered by the Sayyid brothers with Maratha help in 1719. Mohammad Shah (1719 – 48) : Nadir Shah (of Iran) defeated him in the Battle of Karnal (1739) and took away Peacock throne and Kohinoor diamond. During his tenure, Chin Kilich Khan (Nizam – ul – Mulk) founded Hyderabad, Murshid Quli Khan founded Bengal and Saddat Khan laid down the foundation of Awadh out of the realms of Mughal Empire. He was a pleasure – loving king and was nick – named Rangeela. Ahmad Shah (1748 – 54) : During his period, Safdarjung, the nawab of Awadh, was the Wazir or Prime Minister of the empire. Alamgir II (1754 – 59) Shah Alam II (1759 – 1806) : Shah Alam II joined hands with Mir Qasim of Bengal and Shuja – ud – Daula of Awadh in the Battle of Buxar against the British in 1764. They were defeated.

Kohinoor is a 105 carat (21.6 gm) diamond that was once the largest known diamond in the world it originated in India, belonged to various Indian and Persian rulers who fought bitterly over it at various points in history, and seized as a spoil of war, it became part of the Crown Jewels of England when Queen Victoria was proclaimed empress of India. It is reputed to bring misfortune or death to any male who wears or owns it. Conversely, it is reputed to bring good luck to female owners. Most sources agree that the Kohinoor was mined at Rayalaseema in Andhra Pradesh. It was first owned by Kakatiya dynasty, but the Kakatiya kingdom under Pratapa Rudra was ravaged in 1323 by Muhammad bin Tughluq. From then onwards, the stone passed through the hands of successive rulers of the Delhi sultanate, finally passing to Babur in 1526. Shah Jahan had the stone placed into his ornate Peacock Throne. It was taken away by Nadir Shah in 1739 along with the Peacock Throne. After the assassination of Nadir Shah in 1747 it came into the hands of Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan. It was passed down to his descendants until it was taken by Maharaja Ranjit Singh ofPunjab in 1813.



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From him, the gem passed on to the British. Ranjit Singhs successor, Duleep Singh gave the gem to Queen Victoria in 1851. In 1852, under the personal supervision of Victoria’s consort, Prince Albert, the diamond was cut from 1861 / 16 carats (37.21 gm) to its current 105.602 carats (21.61 gm), to increase its brilliance. The stone is presently used as the centre piece of the crowns of the Queens consort of the United Kingdom. Queen Alexandra was the first to use the stone, followed by Queen Mary. In 1936, the stone was set into the crown of the new Queen Elizabeth (later known as the Queen Mother), wife of King George VI. In 2002, the crown rested atop her coffin as she by in state.


History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Buildings in Jahangir Mughal Empire : • • •

With Jahangir’s reign, the practice of putting up buildings in marble and decorating the walls with floral designs made of semi-precious stones started. This method of decoration was known as Pietra Dura. Nurjahan built the tomb of Itmad-ud-Daula at Agra. Jahangir built Moti Masjid at Lahore and his own mausoleum at Shahdara (Lahore).

Shahjahan Architecture : Mughal Administration System • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

The entire kingdom was divided into suba or pranta, suba into sarkar, sarkar into pargana and the pargana into villages. Babar and Humayun had a Prime Minister known as Vakil. The office of Vakil, was, however, discontinued after Bairam Khan. Wazir was the Prime Minister. Dewan was the head of the revenue department. Mir Bakshi : Military Department. Khan – i – Saman : Royal household. Qazi – ul – quzaf : Judicial Department. The qazis were helped by the muftis. Sadr – us – Sadr : Charitable and religious endowments. Mustaufi : Auditor – General. Amil : Judicial officer in civil and judicial disputes. Quanungo : Head accountant. Lambardar : Village headman. Patwari : Village accountant. During Akbar’s reign the empire was divided into 15 subas. The number reached 21 during Aurangzeb’s reign. The territory of the empire was divided into khalisa (crown lands), jagirs (land granted to nobles) and inam (land granted to religious and learned men).

Mughal Buildings in India Babar : Built two mosques: one at Kabulibagh in Panipat and the other in Sambhal in Rohilkhand. Buildings in Humayun Empire : • • •

Laid the foundation of the city Din Panah at Delhi. Built Jamali Mosque and the Mosque of Isa Khan at Delhi. Humayun’s tomb is called the prototype of Taj Mahal. It was built by his widow Haji Begum.

Akbar Buildings :

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Built Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid at Agra, Jama Masjid and Red Fort at Delhi, Shalimar Bagh at Lahore and city of Shahjahanabad. Also built Mussaman Burz at Agra (where he spent his last years in captivity), Sheesh Mahal, etc. He got the peacock throne built by Bebadal Khan on which Amir Khusrau’s couplet – ‘If there is a paradise on earth, it is here’, inscribed on it.

Aurangzeb Architecture : • •

Built Moti Masjid at Delhi and Badshahi Mosque at Lahore. Built Bibi ka Makbara in Aurangabad.

Paintings of Mughal Period :: List of Mughal Emperors Humayun : He invited 2 Persian artists, Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdus Samad, who became his court painters. Paintings of Akbar Mughal Empire : • • •

Organised painting in imperial karkhanas and also introduced European style. Abdus Samad, Farrukh Beg, Khusro Kuli, Jamshed, Basawan, Daswanth, etc were the prominent painters. Daswanth painted the Razm Namah (Persian Mahabharat).

Mughal Empire Jahangir Paintings : •

Painting reached its zenith under Jahangir.

Special progress was made in portrait painting and painting of animals. Bishan Das was a master of portraits while Ustad Mansur specialised in animal painting.

Use of ‘Halo’ or Divine Lights started under Jahangir.

History of Mughal literature :: List of Mughal Emperors • •

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Built Agra fort (in red sandstone). He also built Fatehpur Sikri (city of victory) near Agra. In Fatehpur Sikri are the Panch Mahal, Diwan-I-Khas, Diwan-I-Aam, Jodhabai’s palace and Sheikh Salim Chishti’s tomb. Buland Darwaza (53 m high) is located here, commemorating the emperor’s conquest of Gujarat. Built his own tomb at Sikandra, near Agra. Built the temple of Govindadeva at Vrindavan.


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Khan Abdur Rahman translated Babur’s Tuzuk – I – Baburi from Turki to Persian during Akbar’s reign. Abul Fazal composed Ain – I – Akbari and Akbarnamah. Abdul Qadir Badauni, who was in Akbar’s court, wrote : Kitab – ul – Ahadish, Tarikh – i – Alfi and Muntakhab – ul – Tawarikh. Khwaja Nizamuddin Ahmad Harawi wrote Tabaqat – i – Akbari.



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Jahangir composed his memoir, Tuzuk – I – Jahangiri (in Persian language), and patronized the valuable dictionary, Farhang – I – Jahangiri. During Jahangir’s reign Hamid wrote Padshah Namahand Khafi Khan wrote Muntakhab – i – Lubab. Dara was a great scholar. He translated Upanishads and Bhagvadgita. He also wrote Majm – ul – Bahrain. Mirza Md. Qazim wrote Alamgirnama. Ishwar Das Nagar wrote Fatuhat – i – Alamgiri.


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Communal and Regional Uprisings •

The Sikhs History : • • • •

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Belong to a religious sect founded by Guru Nanak (1469 – 1539). His main teachings were the faith in one true Lord, the worship of the Name and the necessity of a Guru in the worship of the name. After his death, Guru Angad (1539 – 52) became his successor. He invented the Gurumukhi script for the Punjabi Language. Guru Amardas (1552 – 74) was the next guru. He reformed the institution of hangar and gave more importance to it. He divided his spiritual empire into 22 parts called Manjis. Each Manjis was put under the charge of a Sikh. IV guru, Guru Ramdas (1575 – 81) had very cordial relations with Akbar. He laid the foundation of Amritsar city. He dug a tank (sarovar) and it exists at Amritsar. In the midst of the tank, the Harmandir Sahib (Temple of God) was constructed. V guru, Guru Arjun Dev (1581 – 1606) compiled the Adi Granth. He also completed the construction of Amritsar and founded other cities like Taran Taran and Kartarpur. He was executed by Jahangir for helping his rebellious son, Khusro. VI guru, Guru Har Govind Rai (1606 – 44) defeated a Mughal Army at Sangrama. He transformed the Sikhs into military community, estd. Akal Takhtat the Golden Temple and held court there to conduct secular matters. He himself took up the tide of Sachcha Padshah.He also fortified Amritsar. Guru Har Rai (1644 – 61) and Guru Har Kishan (1661 – 64) were the VII and VIII gurus respectively. IX guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur (1664 – 75) revolted against Aurangzeb but was executed by him. He was beheaded at Delhi’s Chandni Chowk in November 1675. The Sis Ganj Gurudwara marks the site of his martyrdom. X and last guru, Guru Gobind Singh (1675 – 1708) (born in Patna) organised Sikhs as a community of warriors and called them as Khalsa (Baisakhi day, 1699). He summoned a big assembly of Sikhs at Anantpur and selected 5 persons who came to be known as Panj Piaras. They took the water of immortality.

The Sikhs were given a distinct dress and they were required to keep on their person five things beginning with K, viz., Kesh, Kripan, Kachha, Kanga and Kara. He compiled a supplementary granth called ‘Daswen Padshah ka Granth’. After the death of Aurangzeb, Guru Gobind Singh had cordial relations with his son. Bahadur Shah I. He even agreed to accompany the new king to Deccan. But the Guru was stabbed to death by a Pathan in 1708. At his death, he declared that henceforth, the Guru shall be in the Khalsa and the Khalsa in the Guru. He declared that from now on Granth Sahib should be treated as the Guru.

• • • •

Marathas after Shivaji : • •

The Marathas Indian History : • • • •

Rose to prominence under Shivaji. He was born to Shahji Bhonsle and Jijabai in 1627 at fortress of Shivner in Poona. Shahji was a military officer in the state of Bijapur and he owned the territory of Poona as a jagir. He was highly impressed by his mother, Dadaji Kondadeo (his guardian), Guru Ramdas Samarth and Tuka Ram, both Bhakti saints. From 1656, he started capturing many forts from the local officer’s of Bijapur.


Ali Adil Shah, sultan of Bijapur sent Afzal Khan to teach Shivaji a lesson in 1659. But Shivaji killed him in a meeting with his tiger claws. Ultimately, in 1662, the Sultan of Bijapur made peace with Shivaji and acknowledged him as an independent ruler of his conquered territories. Aurangzeb got worried by Shivaji’s extensive conquests. He sent Shaista Khan (Viceroy of Mughal Deccan) to kill him. Here again, in a daring manner, Shivaji attacked Shaista Khan’s camp in night, injuring him. Then Aurangzeb sent Raja Jai Singh (of Amber) who forced him to sign the Treaty of Purandar in 1665. Under the treaty, Shivaji had to surrender 23 of his major forts out of the total 35 forts. Shivaji also agreed to help the Mughals in their attack of Bijapur. Shivaji visited Agra with his son Sambhaji in 1666. There he was put on a house arrest. But he escaped from there, concealing in a basket of sweets. He very soon conquered all the forts which he had surrendered to the Mughals. He defeated a Mughal force in the Battle of Salher in 1672. He was crowned in 1674 at Raigarh and assumed the title of Chhatrapati. He became the sovereign ruler of Maharashtra. Unfortunately, Shivaji didn’t live long. He died in 1680 at the age of 53.

• •

After Shivaji, his son Sambhaji (1680 – 89) succeeded throne (although a lot many supported his step-brother, Rajaram). He was a man of loose character and spent all his time in merry – making. When Aurangzeb was busy in his campaigns against Bijapur and Golconda, he and his followers did not take full advantage of the opportunity. When Sambhaji gave shelter to Aurangzeb’s rebel son, Akbar, he was executed and his infant son, Shivaji II, better known as Shahu, was taken captive by Aurangzeb. Sambhaji was succeeded by Rajaram in 1689. Rajaram also lacked the qualities of his father. He was hardly ten when his father died and he was kept a prisoner by his brother Sambhaji. The result was that he failed to get the education which was necessary for his status. However, he was fortunate in having brilliant advisors and helpers. Initially, he was successful against the Mughals. But he was killed in 1700 when Aurangzeb himself conducted an expedition against him. After Raja Ram’s death, his widow Tarabai put her infant son, Shivaji III on the throne. After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughals tried to divide the Marathas. Shahu was released by Aurangzeb’s successor, Bahadur Shah I. now he claimed the government. His release led to the Maratha civil war between Shahu and Tarabai. In the civil war Shahu emerged victorious (Battle of Khed) with the help of Balaji Vishwanath, the founder of the line of Peshwas. After the battle, Tarabai retired to Kolhapur with her son. In the reign of Shahu, the Peshwa or Prime Minister, Balaji Vishwanath, virtually became the ruler of the state. From now onwards began the rule of the Peshwas who had their seat of power at Poona. (Shahu’s capital was Satara). In all, there were seven Peshwas, namely : 1. Balaji Vishwanath (1713 – 20) 2. Balaji Baji Rao I (1720 – 40) 3. Balaji Baji Rao (1740 – 61) 4. Madho Rao (1761 – 72) 5. Narayan Rao (1772 – 73) 6. Madho Rao Narayan (1773 – 95) 7. Baji Rao II (1795 – 1818) Of these seven Peshwas, the ablest was Baji Rao I and the weakest and most incompetent was Baji Rao II. Baji Rao II signed the Treaty of Bassein in 1802 with the British, which gave the British effective control of not only the Maratha region but also of the Deccan and western India.



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Under Peshwas, Maratha kingdom transformed into an empire based on the principle of confederacy, in which prominent Maratha chiefs were assigned a territory as their ‘sphere of influence’, which they were supposed to conquer on their own and which they can administer autonomously. Consequently, several Maratha families became prominent in different parts of India : 1. Gaekwad in Baroda 2. Bhonsle at Nagpur 3. Holkar at Indore 4. Scindia at Gwalior 5. Peshwa at Poona

• •

Besides the land revenue, Chauth or 1/4th land revenue was the main revenue. Sardeshmukhi was an additional levy of 10% on those lands of Maharashtra over which the Marathas claimed hereditary rights, but which formed part of the Mughal Empire. Shivaji was helped by 8 ministers or Ashta Pradhana. a. Peshwa or Mukhya Pradhan (Prime Minister). b. Majumdar or Amatya (Finance Minister). c. Mantri or Waqianavis (Personal safety of king). d. Sachiva or Surunavis (In charge of royal secretariat). e. Samant or Dabir (Foreign Minister) a Senapati (Commander in Chief). f. Pandit Rao (Chief Religious Advisor). g. Nyayadhish (Administration of justice). With the exception of Nyayadhish and Pandit Rao, all other ministers were required to command armies and lead expeditions. Later, Rajaram created a new post of Pratinidhi, thus taking the total ministers to nine.

The Jats Indian History : • • •

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Modern Indian History Advent of Europeans in India

• • • • • •

• •

First revolted in 1669 under Gokla. Second uprising in 1685 under Rajaram and Churaman. After Aurangzeb’s death, they set up separate Jat state at Bharatpur (Churaman and Badan Singh). Suraj Mai (1756 – 63) took their state to glory. He is known as Plato of the Jat tribe.

• • •

• • •


Dutch East India Company was formed in 1602. They set – up their first factory at Masulipatnam in 1605. Their other factories were at Pulicat, Chinsura, Patna, Balasore, Nagapattanam, Cochin, Surat, Karikal, Kasimbazar.

English East India Company : •

In the second half of the 18th century, the rise of Mysore under Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan and their alliance with the French was seen as a danger to the British power in India. Mysore emerged as a powerful throne under Haider Ali who became the king in 1761. He used western military training to strengthen his army. In the I Anglo – Mysore war (1767 – 1769), Haider Ali faced the triple alliance of the English, the Nizam and the Marathas. As Haider Ali was a great diplomat, he bought off the Marathas and won over the Nizam and thus broke the alliance. The war was brought to an end by signing of the Treaty of Madras (1769). Hyder Ali died in 1782 during the II Anglo – Mysore war. His son Tipu Sultan carried on the war till 1784 when the two sides concluded peace by signing the Treaty of Mangalore. Tipu planted a tree of liberty at Srirangapatnam. He employed French officers to train his army and showed a keen interest in French Revolution and became a member of the Jacobin Club. He assumed the title of Padshah in 1797.

The Portuguese voyager Vasco da Gama reached Calicut on May 17, 1498. At that time Calicut was ruled by a king named Zamorin. Vasco da Gama’s voyage was successful in establishing a sea route fromEurope to India that would permit trade with the Far East, without the use of the costly and unsafe Silk Road caravan routes, of the Middle East and Central Asia. In 1502, he established a factory at Cochin. The first Governor of Portuguese in India was Francisco Almeida. He was followed by Alfonso de Albuquerque in 1503. He gave them new heights. He captured Goa in 1510 from the Bijapur ruler. He also abolished Sati. Nino – da – Cunha transferred the Portuguese capital in India from Cochin to Goa in 1530 and acquired Diu (in 1535) and Daman (in 1559). Portuguese lost Hugly in 1631 during the reign of Shahjahan. In 1661, the Portuguese king gave Bombay to Charles II of England as dowry, for marrying his sister. Gradually, their Indian territories were taken away from them by various sources. The Dutch played an important role to oust them.

Dutch East India Company :

Mysore India : •

In the III Anglo – Mysore war (1789 – 1792), he was defeated by the triple alliance of British, Nizam and the Marathas and had to sign the Treaty of Sriranagapatnam. By this treaty, Tipu ceded half of his territory to the English and paid a large amount as war indemnity. He was defeated and killed in the IV Anglo – Mysore war (1799) by Lord Wellesley.

Portuguese in India :

Maratha Administration : • •


• • • • •

The English East India Company was formed in 1599, and was given the royal Charter by Queen Elizabeth I in 1600 to trade in the east. Captain William Hawkins stayed in Jahangir’s court from 1609 – 1611. But he failed to get the king’s permission to erect a factory at Surat. Captain Middleton succeeded in this effort in 1611. An imperial Farman allowed the Company to set up a permanent factory at Surat in 1613. Sir Thomas Roe played an important role in this. In 1616, the Company established its first factory in the south in Masulipatnam. In 1633, it established its first factory in east India in Hariharpur, Balasore (Orissa). The Company got the lease of Madras in 1639 and built Fort St. George in Madras, which acted as its headquarter on the Coromandal coast. Bombay was made the Company’s main settlement on the west coast in 1668. Aurangzeb gave the Company the Farman in 1667 to trade in Bengal. In 1690, a factory was set up at Sutanuti village. In Sutanati and nearby villages of Kalikata and Gobindpur, grew the city of Calcutta (now Kolkata). In 1696, the Company fortified the Calcutta factory into Fort William.



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In 1717, John Surman obtained a Farman from Farrukhsiyar which gave large concessions to the Company. This Farman is called the ‘Magna Carta’ of the Company.


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Danes in India : • • • •

The Danish East India Company was formed in 1616. They established settlements at Serampur (Bengal) and Tranquebar (Tamil Nadu). The banes sold their settlements to the English in 1845. •

French in India : • • • •

The French East India Company was set in 1664, at the instance of a minister, Colbert, in the reign of Louis XIV. The French Company was created, financed and controlled by the State and it differed from the English Company which was a private commercial venture. They established their first factor)’ at Surat in 1668 and at Masulipatnam in 1669. The foundation of Pondicherry was laid in 1673 which, afterwards, became its capital. They also developed a factory in Chandernagar.

Mir Jafar was made the next Nawab of Bengal. The Company was granted undisputed right to free trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. It received the Zamindari of 24 Parganas. Next came Mir Qasim. He revoked against the British as he was angry that the British were misusing the dastaks (free duty passes). The Battle of Buxar was fought in 1764 between the British forces (led by Major Munro) on one side, and the triple alliance of Nawab Mir Qasim of Bengal, Nawab Shuja – ud – Daula of Awadh and Mughal emperor Shah Alam, on the other side. But the triple – alliance was defeated. The importance of this battle lay in the fact that not only the Nawab of Bengal but the Emperor of India was also defeated. If the Battle of Plassey had made the English a powerful factor in the politics of Bengal, the victory of Buxar made them a great power of. North India and contenders for the supremacy of the whole country. The English now faced the Afghans and the Marathas as serious rivals in the final struggle for the Empire of Hindustan. The Treaty of Allahabad followed (August 1765) in which the English got the Diwani (or right to collect revenue) of Bengal and thus became the master of the whole of Bengal (i.e. Bengal, Bihar and Orissa). The Dual Government of Bengal system followed wherein the Company acquired the real power, while the responsibility of administration rested on the Nawab of Bengal. The Mughal emperor was virtually Company’s prisoner at Allahabad.

Note : The British Conquest of Bengal : • • • • • •

The Mughal governor of Bengal, Murshid Quli Khan, made Bengal virtually independent of the Mughal Empire during his reign (1717 – 1727). His son Shuja – ud – daulah succeeded him and ruled for 12 years. After his death, Alivardi Khan ruled till 1756. These three rulers gave Bengal a long reign of peace and orderly administration. They suppressed the East India Company, but never crushed it. On the other hand, the Company constantly increased its power taking advantage of the corrupt officers. The result was the defeat of Siraj – ud – daulah (grandson and successor of Alivardi Khan) in the Battle of Plassey in 1757. In this battle major part of the Nawab’s army (led by Mir Jafar and Rai Durlabh) didn’t take part in the battle. The Nawab was defeated and killed.

Robert Clive and Battle of Plassey : Robert Clive is regarded as the true founder of British Political Dominion in India. He correctly read the intricacies of the political situation of the time and struck boldly and in the right direction. He outdid his French adversary Dupleix and achieved more permanent results. He was made the Governor of Bengal twice form 1757 – 60 and then from 1765 – 67. He administered Bengal under the Dual government.

Raja Sawai Jai Singh ruled Amber from 1681 – 1743. He was the most outstanding Rajput king of this period. He built the city of Jaipur and set up observatories at Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain, Mathura and Varanasi. He drew up a set of tables, titled Zij Muhammadshahi, for astronomical observations.

Governor Generals of India Governor Generals of British India Warren Hastings Plan 1772 – 1785 : • • • •

• •

With the resources of Bengal, the English conquered South India and routed their only political rival in India, the French. Above all, he transformed a mere trading body that the east India Company was into a territorial power with the role of king – maker in Bengal. On his return to England, he committed suicide in 1774. • •

The Battle of Plassey had great political significance as it laid the foundation of the British Empire in India. It is regarded as the starting point of British Rule in India. A great transformation came about in the position of the English Company in Bengal. Before Plassey, the English Company was just one of the European companies trading in Bengal and suffering various extractions at the hands of Nawab’s officials. After Plassey the English Company virtually monopolized the trade and commerce of Bengal. The alleged Black Hole Tragedy happened during the reign of Siraj – ud – daulah in 1757.


Brought the Dual Govt, of Bengal to an end by the Regulating Act, 1773. Deprived zamindars of their judicial powers and Civil and Criminal courts were established. Maintenance of records was made compulsory. The First Anglo – Maratha War (1776 – 82), which ended with the Treaty of Salbai (1782), and the Second Anglo – Mysore War (1780 – 84), which ended with the Treaty of Mangalore (1784), were fought during Hasting’s period. As a great patron of oriental learning, he founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal with William Jones in 1784. He wrote introduction to the first English translation of “The Gita” by Charles Wilkins. Impeachment proceedings started against him when he returned on the charges of taking bribe. After a trial of 7 years, he was finally acquitted.

Note : Sir John MacPherson was made the acting Governor – General from 1785 to 1786. Lord Cornwallis India (1786 – 1793) : • • • •

Did the Permanent Settlement of Bengal (also called Zamindary System). First person to codify laws. The code separated the revenue administration from the administration of justice. Police Reforms : Each district was divided into 400 sq. miles and placed under a police superintendent assisted by constables. The civil service was brought into existence.



History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Sir John Shore History (1793 – 1798)


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The position of the cultivator became more secure but the rigid system of revenue collection often forced him into the clutches of the money – lender.

Lord Wellesley in India (1798 – 1805) : Mahalwari System in India : • •

Adopted the policy of Subsidiary Alliance a system to keep the Indian rulers under control and to make the British the paramount power. He defeated the Mysore force under Tipu Sultan in the Fourth Anglo – Mysore War in 1799.

Subsidiary Alliance in India : • •

The Subsidiary Alliance System was used by Weilesley to bring Indian Slates within the orbit the British political power. The system played a very important part in the expansion of ll Company’s dominionsand many new territories were added to the Company’s possessions. There were four stages in it. In the first stage, the Company undertook to lend its, friendly Indian prince to assist him in his wars, in the second stage, the Company’s troops tot the field on their own account with the assistance of an Indian ally who made common; them.

The next stage was reached when the Indian ally was not to supply men but money. The company undertook to raise, train and equip an. army under English officers and rende to the ally a fixed number of troops on receiving a sum of money towards the cost of these troop Tire final stage was the next logical step. The Company undertook to defend the territories of an Indian ally and for that purpose stationed a subsidiary force in the territory of the state. 11 Indian ally was asked not to pay money but surrender territory from the revenue of which tl expenses of the subsidiary force were to be met. •

The Indian states were to conduct negotiations with other states through the Company. The ste was to accept a British Resident at its headquarters. The Alliance enabled the Company maintain a large standing army at the expense of Indian princes. It disarmed the Indian states ai threw British protectorate over them. The states that accepted this policy were the Nizam of Hyderabad, the ruler of Mysore, the Raja Tanjore, the Nawab of Awadh, the Feshwa, the Bhonsle Raja of Berar, the Scindia, the Rajputs Jodhpur, Jaipur, etc.

Land Revenue System in India :

Modified version of Zamindari settlement introduced in the Ganges valley, NWFR parts of Central India and Punjab. Revenue settlement was to be made by village or estate with landlords. In Western UR a settlement was made with the village communities, which maintained a form of common ownership known as Bhaichara, or with Mahals, which were groups of villages. Revenue was periodically revised.

George Barlow (1805 – 1807) Lord Minto I Governor General of India (1807 – 1813) : • •

Concluded the treaty of Amritsar with Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1809). Charter Act of 1813 was passed.

Lord Hasting India (1813 – 1823) : The Anglo-Nepal War (1814 – 16) was fought during his reign which ended with the Treaty of Sagauli (1816). Lord Amherst (1823 – 1828) Lord William Bentinck History (1828-1835) : • • • •

Carried out the social reforms like Prohibition of Sari (1829) and elimination of thugs (1830). Made English the medium ofhighereducation inthe country (Afterthe recommendations of Macaulay). Suppressed female infanticide and child sacrifice. Charter Act of 1833 was passed; made him the first Governor General of India. Before him, the designation was Governor General of Bengal.

Sir Charles Mercalfe History (1835 – 1836) : Abolished all restrictions on vernacular press (called Liberator of the Press).

Permanent Settlement (The Zamindari System) : • • •

Introduced in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and districts of Banaras and Northern districts of Madras by Lord Cornwallis in 1793. John Shore planned this. It declared Zamindars as the owners of the land. Hence, they could keep 1/11th of the revenue collected to themselves while the British got a fixed share of 10/11th of the revenue collected. The Zamindars were free, to fix the rent. Assured of their ownership, many Zamindars stayed in towns (absentee landlordism) and exploited their tenants.

Ryotwari System in India : • • •

Introduced in Bombay, Madras and Assam. Lord Munro and Charles Reed recommended it. In this, a direct settlement was made between the govt, and the ryot (cultivator). The revenue was fixed for a period not exceeding 30 years, on the basis of the quality of the soil and the nature of the crop. It was based on the scientific rent theory of Ricardo.


Lord Auckland 1842 (1836 – 1842) : The most important event of his reign was the First Afghan War, which proved to be a disaster for the English. Lord Ellenborough (1842 – 1844) Lord Hardinge I (1844 – 1848) Lord Dalhousie Reforms (1848 – 1856) : • • •

Opened the first Indian Railway in 1853 (from Bombay to Thane). Laid out the telegraph lines in 1853 (First was from Calcutta to Agra). Introduced the Doctrine of Lapse and captured Satara (1848), Jaipur and Sambhalpur (1849), Udaipur (1852), Jhansi (1854) and Nagpur (1854) through it.



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Established the postal system on the modern lines through the length and breadth of the country, which made communication easier. Started the Public Works Department. Many bridges were constructed and the work on Grand Trunk Road was started. The harbors of Karachi, Bombay and Calcutta were also developed.

Lord Dalhousie Doctrine of Lapse : The Doctrine of Lapse was an annexation policy devised by Lord Dalhousie. According to the Doctrine, any princely state or territory under the direct influence (paramountcy) of the British East India Company, as a vassal state under the British Subsidiary System, would automatically be annexed if the ruler was either “manifestly incompetent or died without a direct heir”. The company took over the princely states of Satara (1848), Jaipur and Sambalpur (1849), Nagpur and Jhansi (1854) and Awadh (Oudh) (1856) using the Doctrine. The Doctrine is thought to be one of the major driving forces behind the Revolt of 1857. • • • • •

Made Shimla the summer capital. Started Engineering College at Roorkee. Encouraged science, forestry, commerce, mineralogy and industry. In 1854, “Wood’s Dispatch’ was passed, which provided for the properly articulated system of education from the primary school to the university. Due to Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar’s efforts, remarriage of widows was legalized by Widow Remarriage Act, 1856).

Revolt of 1857 in India

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Political Causes of the revolt of 1857 :

Important Persons : • •

Bakht Khan (captured Delhi, was from the Barreily unit of the army). Nana Sahib alias Dhondhu Pant (from Kanpur, along with Tantia Tope and Azimullah) Begum Hazrat Mahal of Awadh (declared her son as the Nawab of Awadh).

Rani Lakshmi Bai History : Rani Lakshmi Bai, the queen of Jhansi, represents a symbol of resistance to British rule in India. Affectionately called Manu, she was married to Raja Gangadhar Rao, the Maharaja of Jhansi in 1842. She gave birth to a son in 1851, but this child died when he was about four months old. In 1853, the couple was forced to adopt a child as Gangadhar Rao fell very ill and died.

Nana Sahib was refused pension, as he was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. The policy of Doctrine of Lapse.

Because of her unprecedented bravery, courage and wisdom, and her progressive views on women’s empowerment, and dAue to her sacrifices, she became an icon of Indian nationalist movement.

Economic Causes of Revolt of 1857 : Heavy taxation, evictions, discriminatory tariff policy against Indian products and destruction of traditional handicrafts that hit peasants, artisans and small zamindars.

Military Discrimination :

• • • •

• •

On Mar 29, 1857, a soldier named Mangal Pandey attacked and fired at his senior at Barrackpur in Bengal (in 19th and 34th Native infantry). On May 10, there was a mutiny of sepoys’ at Meerut (3rd native cavalry). Mutiny spread throughout UP along with some other parts of the country. ‘Mar to Delhi’ became the battle cry of the rebels. At Delhi, the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah II was proclaimed the Emperor of India. Where the rulers were loyal to the British, the soldiers revolted as in Gwalior and Indore. In some places, the people revolted before the sepoys did. In the beginning, the rebels were successful. Europeans were killed, law courts and police stations were attacked and revenue records were destroyed. But reverses soon began to occur.

Lord Dalhousie tried to annex Jhansi under the Doctrine of I.apse. But Rani was determined to defend Jhansi. She fought valiantly and was even able to acquire Gwalior from the Sindhia rulers, who were British allies. But eventually, the Rani reached her martyrdom at Kalpi, near Jhansi.

Causes of Revolt of 1857 :

• •


Indian soldiers were paid low salaries; they could not rise above the rank of subedar and were racially insulted. They were also grieved because of the refusal of British to pay Foreign Service allowance (batta) while fighting in remote regions such as Punjab and Sindh.

Rani Lakshmibai, the widowed queen of Raja Gangadhar Rao of Jhansi (Tantia Tope joined her and they defeated the Scindia of Gwalior, but both were defeated by Sir Hugh Rose. She died on Jun 17, 1858, while Tantia was later captured and executed). Kunwar Singh and Amar Singh (Bihar). Maulavi Ahmedullah (First Awadh and then Rohilkhand). Devi Singh of Mathura. Kadam Singh of Meerut.

Suppression : Religious Discrimination : • • •

British social reforms (widow remarriage, abolition of Sati, education for girls, Christian missionaries). The introduction of Enfield rifle, the cartridge of which was greased with animal fat, provided the spark. Inventions like railway and telegraphs spread of Western education also promoted the cause.

Outbreak :

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Delhi : By John Nicholson and Hudson Kanpur : By Campbell, Havelock Lucknow : By Havelock, Outram, James Neill and Campbell Jhansi : Hugh Rose Banaras : James Neill The revolt was completely suppressed by the end of 1858.

Fate of the leaders of Revolt of 1857 in India :




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Bahadur Shah II : Deported to Rangoon, where he died in 1862. His sons were shot dead. Nana Sahib and Begum Hazrat Mahal : Escaped to Nepal. Rani Jhansi : Died in the battle field. Tantia Tope : Was captured and executed in 1859.

Causes of Failure of 1857 Revolt : • • • •


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History of Ramakrishna Mission :

• •

Founded by Vivekanand (earlier, Narendranath Dutta) (1863 – 1902) in 1897, 11 years after the death of his guru Ram Krishna Paramhans. Vivekanand attended the Parliament of Religion at Chicago in 1893. He published two papers : Prabhudha Bharat in English and Udbodhana in Bengali.

Vivekanand’s Quotes :

No social progress is possible without improving condition of women, who were most important instrument of social change. So long as millions live in hunger and ignorance I hold every man a traitor who, having been educated at their expense, pays not the least heed to them. All power is within you, you can do anything and everything. Believe in that; do not believe that you are weak. You can do anything and everything, without even the guidance of any one. All power is there. Stand up and express the divinity with you. Arise, awake, sleep no more. With each of you there is the power to remove all wants and all miseries. Believe in this, that power will be manifested.

Scindia of Gwalior, the Holkar of Indore, the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Raja of Jodhpur, the Nawab of Bhopal, the rulers of Patiala, Sindh and Kashmir and the Rana of Nepal provided active support to the British. The military equipment of the rebels was inferior. Comparative lack of efficient leadership. The modern intelligent Indians also didn’t support the cause.

Impact of the revolt of 1857 : • • •

The revolt was mainly feudal in character carrying with it some nationalist elements. The control of Indian administration was passed on to the British crown by the Govt, of India Act, 1858. The army was carefully reorganized to prevent the recurrence of such an event.

Social and Cultural Uprisings Brahmo Samaj Movement: • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in 1828. He earlier started Atmiya Sabha in 1814. Criticized Sati Pratha, casteism and advocated widow remarriage. He gave enthusiastic assistance to David Hare, who founded the famous Hindu College in Calcutta. Established a Vedanta College in which courses both in Indian and Western social and physical sciences were offered. He was a gifted linguist. He knew more than dozen languages including Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, English, French, Latin, Greek and Hebrew. He was opposed to Sanskrit system of education; because he thought it would keep the country in darkness. Other important leaders were Devendranath Tagore (father of Rabindranath Tagore) and Keshab Chandra Sen. Tagore dismissed Keshab Chandra in 1865. Keshab started Sangat Sabha, Prarthana Samaj and Brahmo Samaj of India. Tagore’s organization came to be known as Tattvabodhini Sabha and Adi Brahmo Samaj. Anand Mohan Bose started the Sadharana Brahmo Samaj. Justice M.G. Ranade founded the Prarthana Sabha.

Arya Samaj India : • • • • •


Irish woman Margaret Noble (Known as sister Nivedita) popularized Ramakrishna Mission after Vivekanand’s death.

Young Bengal Movement : • • • •

During the late 1820 and early 1830, there emerged a radical intellectual trend among the youth in Bengal, which came to be known as the ‘Young Bengal Movement’. Founded by Henry Louis Vivian Derozio (1809 – 31). He was a teacher in Hindu College in Calcutta. He also edited the papers, Hesperus and Calcutta Literary Gazette and was connected with the India Gazette. He urged the students to live and die for truth. He also supported women’s education and their rights.

History of Veda Samaj : • •

Called Brahmo Samaj of South. Started by Sridharalu Naidu. He translated books of Brahmo Dharma into Tamil and Telegu.

Dharma Sabha : • •

Founded by Swami Dayanand (or, Moolshankar) in 1875. His motto was ‘Go back to the Vedas’ & ‘India for the Indians’. He disregarded Puranas, idol worship, casteism and untouchability. He advocated widow remarriage. Dayanand’s views were published in his famous work, Satyarth Prakash. He also wrote Veda Bhashya Bhumika and Veda Bhashya. Established a large number of educational institutions in India, viz., Gurukuls, DAV schools, etc. Also started the ‘Siddhi’ movement to convert non – Hindus to Hinduism.

Other prominent persons of Arya Samaj were Lala Hans Raj, Pt. Guru Dutt, Lala Lajpat Rai, Swami Shraddhanand.

Initiated by Radhakant Deb in 1830. Was opposed to reforms and protected orthodoxy, but played an active role in promoting western education even to girls.

Drain of Wealth Theory India : •

R.C. Dutta and Dadabhai Naoroji first cited the drain of wealth theory. Naoroji brought it to light in his book titled “Poverty and Unbritish Rule in India”. R C Dutt blamed the British policies for economic ills in his book “Economic History of India”.



History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ • • • • • •

Drain of wealth refers to the portion of national product of India, which was not available for consumption of Indians. Drain of wealth began in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey when the Company’s servants began to extort fortunes from Indian rulers, zamindars, merchants and common people and send home. In 1765, the Company acquired the Diwani of Bengal and began to purchase the Indian goods out of the revenue of Bengal and exported them. These purchases were known as Company’s investments. Duty free inland trade provided British merchants a competitive edge over their Indian counterparts. The actual drain, as a part of the salaries and other incomes of the English officials and the trading fortunes of English merchants, was even more. The drain of wealth stunted the growth of Indian enterprise and checked and retarded capital formation in India.


History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ • • •

The Aligarh Movement : • •

Lokahitawadi : • •

Started by Gopal Hari Deshmukh. Advocated western education and a rational outlook. He advocated female education for the upliftment of women. As a vptary of national self – reliance, he attended Delhi durbar in 1876, wearing handspun khadi cloth.

• • •

Founded by M.G. Ranade and Raghunath Rao. It held its first session in 1887. Its main focus was on abolition of polygamy and kulinism and it encouraged intercaste marriages. It also pledged to fight child marriages. The Conference is sometimes referred as the social reform cell of the Indian National Congress.

• Formed by Gopal Krishna Gokhale in 1915. It did notable work in providing famine relief and in improving the condition of the tribal.

Radhaswami Movement :

• •

Founded in 1861 by a banker of Agra, Tulsi Ram, popularly known as Shiv Dayal Saheb or Swami Maharaj. The sect preached belief in one Supreme Being, the Guru’s supreme position and a simple social life for the believers (the Satsangis).

Deva Samaj History : • •

Founded by Jyotiba Phule in 1873 to fight Brahmanic domination and to liberate low castes by educating them and teaching them their rights. He advocated the cause of untouchables. Jyotiba also started a school for untouchables and an orphanage for widows. His books, Ghulamgiri and Sarvajanik Satyadharma Pustak questioned the traditional customs and beliefs of society. Met the Duke of York as the representative of poverty stricken Indian peasant.

The Justice Party Movement :

• •

Dr. T.M. Nair, Sir Pitti Theagaraja Chettiar and the Raja of Panagal formed the South Indian Liberal Federation (SILF) in 1916 to protest against the domination of Brahmins in government service, education and in the political field. The newspaper, Justice, was their main organ for expressing views and opinions. The SILF came to be called the Justice Party later on.

Self Respect Movement in Tamil Nadu :

Theosophical Society Annie Besant : • •

Founded by Shiv Narain Agnihotri in 1887. it preached high moral and social conduct like, for instance, keeping oneself away from gambling and intoxicants. Deva Shastra tells us about the ideals of Deva Samaj.

In 1866, the Deoband School of Islamic Theology was set up at Deoband by Rashid Ahmed Gangohi and Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi to promote studies in classical Islam and moral and religious regeneration of the Muslims. The school did not support western education and. culture. Its liberal interpretations of Islam earned it a high reputation.

Satyashodhak Samaj :

Seva Samiti : Hridayanath Kunzru, a member of the Servants of India Society, organized the Samiti at Allahabad in 1914, to improve the status of the suffering classes, reform criminals and to rescue those suffering in society.

• •

Started by Mirza Ghulam Ahmed in 1889. His movement embraced the belief in a universal religion, opposed sacred wars and encouraged fraternal relations among all.

The Deobandi Movement :

Servants of India Society : • •

Started by Sir Syyed Ahmed Khan. He encouraged Muslims to accept the virtues of western education and urged them to apply the principle of enquiry to religion. For a rational and scientific order in society, he founded a scientific society in 1864, an Urdu journal, Tahzib – al – akhlaq in 1870, and the Aligarh school in 1875. The school was made into the Muhammadan Anglo – Oriental College in 1877. The college grew into the Aligarh Muslim University.

The Ahmedia Movement in Islam : • •

Indian (National) Social Conference :

In 1882, it was shifted to India at Adyar (Tamil Nadu). Annie Besant was elected its President in 1907. She founded the Central Hindu College in 1898, which became Banaras Hindu University in 1916. The society accepted Hindu beliefs like re – incarnation, Karma and draws inspiration from Upanishads, Sankhya, Yoga and Vedanta schools.

Founded by Westerners who drew inspiration from Indian thought and culture. Madam H P Blavatsky laid the foundation of the movement in US in 1875. Later, Col. M S Olcott of the US Army joined her.


• •

The radical movement was launched by Periyar or E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker in Tamil Nadu in 1925, to awaken non – brahmins for overthrowing Brahmanic superiority. The movement organized weddings without involving the Brahmins and temple entry.



History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Self Respect Movement in India : •

History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Lord Ripon (1880 – 1884) :

Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar’s movement worked for the upliftment of the untouchables by fighting for their educational, legal and political rights and encouraging them to throw off the traditional caste duties imposed on them. Ambedkar founded the Depressed Classes Institute (Bahishkrit Hitkarini Sabha) in Bombay in 1924, a Marathi fortnightly Bahishkrit Bharat in 1927 and the Sarnaj Samata Sangha in 1927. He also founded the Independent Labour Party. The Scheduled Caste Federation, a political party, was formed by him in 1942.

Viceroys of India

• • • • • •

Liberal person, who sympathized with Indians. Repeated the Vernacular Press act (1882) Passed the local self government act (1882) Took steps to improve primary & secondary education (on William Hunter Commission’s recommendations). The I Factory act, 1881, aimed at prohibiting child labour. Passed the libert Bill (1883) which enabled Indian district magistrates to try European criminals. But this was withdrawn later.

Lord Dufferin (1884 – 1888) : Indian National Congress was formed during his tenure. Lord Lansdowne (1888 – 1894) :

British Viceroys of India Lord Canning History (1856 – 1862) : • • • • • •


The last Governor General and the first Viceroy. Mutiny took place in his time. On November, 1858, the rule passed on to the crown. Withdrew Doctrine of Lapse. The Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras were established in 1857. Indian Councils Act was passed in 1861.

• • •

II Factory act (1891) granted a weekly holiday and stipulated working hours for women and children, although it failed to address concerns such as work hours for men. Categorization of Civil Services into Imperial, Provincial and Subordinate. Indian Council act of 1892 was passed. Appointment of Durand Commission to define the line between British India and Afghanistan.

Lord Elgin II (1894 – 1899) : Great famine of 1896 – 1897. Lyall Commission was appointed. Lord Curzon (1899 – 1905) :

Lord Elgin (1862 – 1863) • • •

Lord Lawrence (1864 – 1869) : • • • •

Telegraphic communication was opened with Europe. High Courts were established at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1865. Expanded canal works and railways. Created the Indian Forest department.

• •

Lord Mayo History (1869 – 1872) : • • • • •

• •

Started the process of financial decentralization in India. Established the Rajkot college at Kathiarwar and Mayo College at Ajmer for the Indian princes. For the first time in Indian history, a census was held in 1871. Organised the Statistical Survey of India. Was the only Viceroy to be murdered in office by a Pathan convict in the Andamans in 1872.

Passed the Indian Universities act (1904) in which official control over the Universities was increased. Partitioned Bengal (October 16, 1905) into two provinces Bengal (proper) & East Bengal & Assam. Appointed a Police Commission under Sir Andrew Frazer to enquire into the police administration of every province. The risings of the frontier tribes in 1897 – 98 led him to create the North Western Frontier Province (NWFP). Passed the Ancient Monuments Protection act (1904), to restore India’s cultural heritage. Thus the Archaeological Survey of India was established. Passed the Indian Coinage and Paper Currency act (1899) and put India on a gold standard. Extended railways to a great extent.

History of Lord Minto (1905 – 1910) : •

There was great political unrest in India. Various acts were passed to curb the revolutionary activities. Extremists like Lala Laipat Rai and Ajit Singh (in May, 1907) and Bal Gangadhar Tilak (in July, 1908) were sent to Mandalay jail in Burma. The Indian Council act of 1909 or the Morley Minto Reforms was passed.

Lord Northbrook (1872 – 1876) : Lord Hardinge (1910 – 1916) : Lord Lytton (1876 – 1880) : • • • •

Known as the Viceroy to reverse characters. Organised the Grand ‘Delhi Durbar’ in 1877 to decorate Queen Victoria with the title of ‘Kaiser I Hind’. Arms act (1878) made it mandatory for Indians to acquire license for arms. Passed the infamous Vernacular Press act (1878).


• • • • •

Held a durbar in December, 1911 to celebrate the coronation of King George V. Partition of Bengal was cancelled (1911), capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi (1911). A bomb was thrown at him; but he escaped unhurt (December 23, 1912). Gandhiji came back to India from South Africa (1915). Annie Besant announced the Home Rule Movement.



History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Lord Chelmsford (1916 – 1921) : • • • • • • •

History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ •

August Declaration of 1917, whereby control over the Indian government would be gradually transferred to the Indian people. The government of India act in 1919 (Montague Chelmsford reforms) was passed. Rowlatt act of 1919; Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919). Non Cooperation Movement. An Indian Sir S.P.Sinha was appointed the Governor of Bengal. A Women’s university was founded at Poona in 1916. Saddler Commission was appointed in 1917 to envisage new educational policy.

Lord Reading (1921 – 1926) : • • • • • • • • • • •


Rowlatt act was repeated along with the Press act of 1910. Suppressed non – cooperation movement. Prince of Wales visited India in November, 1921. Moplah rebellion (1921) took place in Kerala. Ahmedabad session of 1921. Formation of Swaraj Party. Vishwabharati University started functioning in 1922. Communist part was founded in 1921 by M.N. Roy. Kakory Train Robbery on August 9, 1925. Communal riots of 1923 – 25 in Multan, Amritsar, Delhi, etc. Swami Shraddhanand, a great nationalist and a leader of the Arya Samajists, was murdered in communal orgy.

• • • •

Government of India act enforced in the provinces. Congress ministries formed in 8 out of 11 provinces. They remained in power for about 2 years till October 1939, when they gave up offices on the issue of India having been dragged into the II World War. The Muslim League observed the days as ‘Deliverance Say’ (22 December) Churchill became the British PM in May, 1940. He declared that the Atlantic Charter (issued jointly by the UK and US, stating to give sovereign rights to those who have been forcibly deprived of them) does not apply to India. Outbreak of World War II in 1939. Cripps Mission in 1942. Quit India Movement (August 8, 1942).

Lord Wavell (1944 – 1947) : • • • •

Arranged the Shimla Conference on June 25, 1945 with Indian National Congress and Muslim League; failed. Cabinet Mission Plan (May 16, 1946). Elections to the constituent assembly were held and an Interim Government was appointed under Nehru. First meeting of the constituent assembly was held on December 9, 1946.

Lord Mountbatten (March 1947 – August 1947) : • • • •

Last Viceroy of British India and the first Governor General of free India. Partition of India decided by the June 3 Plan. Indian Independence Act passed by the British parliament on July 4, 1947, by which India became independent on August 15, 1947. Retried in June 1948 and was succeeded by C. Rajagopalachari (the first and the last Indian Governor General of free India).

Important National Activities

Lord Irwin (1926 – 1931) : • • • • • • •

Simon Commission visited India in 1928. Congress passed the Indian Resolution in 1929. Dandi March (March 12, 1930). Civil Disobedience Movement (1930). First Round Table Conference held in England in 1930. Gandhi Irwin Pact (March 5, 1931) was signed and Civil Disobediance Movement was withdrawn. Martydorm of Jatin Das after 64 days hunger strike (1929).

History of Indigo Revolt 1859–60 : • • •

In this, the peasants were forced to grow indigo in their lands unwillingly by the European factory – owners. The anger exploded in Govindpur village of Nadia district (Bengal) under Digambar Biswas & Vishnu Biswas. Others who played important role were Harish Chandra Mukherjee (editor of the newspaper Hindu Patriot), Dinbandhu Mitra (writer of play, Neel Darpari) & Michael Madhusudan Datta (eminent Bengali poet-cum-play writer, who translated Neel Darpan into English). The Govt appointed an Indigo Commission in 1860 and removed some of the abuse of Indigo cultivation.

Lord Willington (1931 – 1936) : The Indian National Congress : • • • • • •

Second Round Table conference in London in 1931. On his return Gandhiji was again arrested and Civil Disobedience Movement was resumed in January, 1932. Communal Awards (August 16, 1932) assigned seats to different religious communities. Gandhiji went on a epic fast in protest against this division. Third Round Table conference in 1932. Poona Pact was signed. Government of India act (1935) was passed.

• • •

• •

Lord Linlithgow (1936 – 1944) :


Formed in 1885 by A.O. Hume, an Englishman and a retired civil servant. Hume’s main purpose was probably to provide a “safety valve” to the growing discontent among the educated Indians. Other important leaders during foundation were Dadabhai Naoroji, Badrudin Tyabji, Anand Mohan Bose, R.C.Dutt, Ferozshah Mehta, G.K.Gokhale, G. Subramaniyam Aiyyar, Dinshaw Vacha, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Mahadev Govind Ranade, Madan Mohan Malviya. First session in Bombay under WC.Banerjee in 1885 (72 delegates attended it). In the first two decades (1885 – 1905), quite moderate in its approach and confided in British justice and generosity. But the repressive measures of the British gave rise to extremists within Congress like Bipin Chandra Pal, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai (Lai, Bal, Pal), along with Aurobindo Ghosh.



History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Partition of Bengal 1905 : • • • • •

• •

• • • • •

History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ •

By Lord Curzon on October 16, 1905, through a royal Proclamation, reducing the old province of Bengal in size by creating East Bengal and Assam out of rest of Bengal. The government said that it was done to stimulate growth in eastern region. Actually, the objective was to set up a communal gulf between Hindus and Muslims. A mighty upsurge swept the country against the partition. National movement found real expression in the movement against the partition of Bengal in 1905. Rabindranath Tagore composed the national song ‘Amar sonar Bangla’ for the occasion which was sung by people everywhere. This song was adopted as national anthem by Bangladesh in 1971 after liberation from Pakistan. The ceremony of Raksha Bandhan was observed on October 16, 1905. Hindus and Muslims tied rakhis on each other’s wrist showing solidarity. The newspapers played a significant role in the movement. The main newspapers were K.K. Mitra’s Sanjeevani, S.N. Banerjee’s Bengali, Motilal Ghosh’s Amrit Bazar Patrika, B.B. Upadhyaya’s Yugantar, Bipin Chandra Pal’s New India, Aurobindo Ghosh’s Bande Mataram, Aji Singh’s Bharat Mata, etc.

Swadesh Movement Indian History : •


Had its origin in the anti – partition movement of Bengal. The leaders of Bengal felt that mere demonstrations, public meetings and resolutions were not enoughand something more concrete was needed and the answer felt was Swadeshi and Boycott. An important aspect of the Swadeshi movement was emphasis placed on self – reliance. Lai, Bal, Pal, and Aurobindo Ghosh played the important role. INC took the Swadeshi call first at the Banaras Session, 1905 presided over by G.K. Gokhale. A resolution to boycott British goods was adopted on August 7, 1905 at a meeting of INC at Calcutta. Bonfires of foreign goods were conducted at various places.

Ghadar Party of India 1913 : • • • • •

• • • • •

Setup in 1906 under the leadership of Aga Khan, Nawab Salimullah of Dhaka and Nawab Mohsin – ul – Mulk. It was a loyalist, communal and conservative political organization which supported the partition of Bengal, opposed the Swadeshi movement, demanded special saieguards of its community and a separate electorate for Muslims. Swaraj : In December 1906 at Calcutta, the INC under Dadabhai Naorojiadopted ‘Swaraj’ (Self – Government) as the goal of Indian people.

Komagata Maru was the name of a ship which carried a shipload of Sikh and Muslim immigrants from Punjab to Vancouver, Canada. But the Canadian immigration authorities turned them back after months of uncertainty. The ship finally anchored at Calcutta on September 29, 1914. But the inmates refused to board the Punjab bound train and there was a clash with the police in which 22 persons died. This incidence fired up the revolutionary activities which sought to avenge the death of the innocents.

Revolutionary Activities National Revolutionary Movement

• • •

Formed by Lala Hardayal, Taraknath Das and Sohan Singh Bhakna. The name was taken from a weekly paper, Ghadar, which had been started on November 1, 1913 to commemorate the 1857 revolt. HQ was at San Francisco. The outbreak of the First World War provided the Ghadarites with an opportunity to free India from a Government which was indifferent to their cause. They began to return to India in thousands for a co – ordinated revolt in collaboration with the Bengal revolutionaries. Their plan was foiled at the last moment due to treachery.

Komagata Maru Incident 1914 :

Muslim League 1906 :

Aimed at dividing the nationalist ranks and at rallying the Moderates and the Muslims to the Government’s side.

• • • •

The first political murder of a European was committed in 1897 at Poona by the Chapekar brothers, Damodar and Balkishan. Their target was Mr. Rand, President of the Plague Commission, but Lt. Ayerst was accidentally shot. In 1907, Madam Bhikaiji Cama, a Parsi revolutionary unfurled the flag of India at Stuttgart Congress (of Second International). In 1908, Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki threw a bomb on the carriage of Kingford, the unpopular judge of Muzaffarpur. Khudiram, Kanhaiyalal Dutt and Satyendranath Bose were hanged. (Alipur Case). In 1909, M L Dhingra shot dead Col. William Curzon Whyllie, the political advisor of ‘India Office’ in London. In 1912, Rasbihari Bose and Sachindra Nath Sanyal threw a bomb at Lord Hardinge at Delhi. (Delhi Conspiracy Case) In Oct, 1924, a meeting of revolutionaries from all parts of India was called at Kanpur.

History of Surat Session of Inc :

The meeting was attended by old revolutionary leaders like Sachindra Nath Sanyal, Jogesh Chandra. Chatterjee and Ram Prasad Bismil and some young revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh, Shiv Verma, Sukhdev, Bhagwati Charan Vohra and Chandrashekhar Azad. They setup Hindustan Socialist Republic Association/ Army (HSRA). Their three objectives were:

• • •

To raise the consciousness of people against the futility of Gandhian movement of non-violence. To perform directaction and revolutionto attain complete independence. To set up a republic of the United States ofIndia on the federal structure.

They carried out a dacoity on the Kakori bound train on the Saharanpur-Lucknow railway line on Aug 9, 1925. The conspirators were later arrested and hanged (Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqulla, Roshan Lai and Rajendra Lahiri).

• • • •

The INC split into two groups -The extremists and The moderates, at the Surat session in 1907. Extremists were led by Bal, Pal, Lai while the moderates by G.K. Gokhale. Controversy rose over the elected president, Ras Bihari Ghosh, as extremists didn’t accept him. Extremists wanted Lala Lajpat Rai to be chosen. The government after this launched a massive attack on extremists by suppressing their newspapers and arresting their leaders.

The Indian Councils act 1909 (or) Minto Morley Reforms 1909 : •

Besides other constitutional measures, it envisaged a separate electorate for Muslims.




History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ • •

• • • •


Bhagat Singh, with his colleagues shot dead Saunders (Asstt. S.E of Lahore, who ordered lathi charge on Lala Lajpat Rai) on Dec 17, 1928. Then Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in the Central Assembly on Apr 8, 1929. Thus, he, Rajguru and Sukhdev were hanged on Mar23, 1931 at Lahore Jail (Lahore Conspiracy Case) and their bodies cremated at Hussainiwala near Ferozepur. In 1929 only Jatin Das died in Lahore jail after 63 days fast to protest against horrible conditions in jail. Meerut Conspiracy Case started in 1929 and continued for four years against 31 communists accused of conspiracy against the British sovereign. In this, Muzaffar Ahmed received transportation for life. Surya Sen, a revolutionary of Bengal, formed the Indian Republic Army in Bengal. In 1930, he masterminded the raid on Chittagong armoury. He was hanged in 1933. In 1931, Chandrashekhar Azad shot himself at Alfred Park in Allahabad.

Revolutionary Organisations found outside India:


Year Founder


India House

1905 Shyamji Krishna Verma


Abhinav Bharat

1906 V.D. Savarkar


Indian Independence

1907 Tarak Nath Das


League Ghadar Party

1913 Lala Hardayal,Tarak Nath Das & Sohan Singh Bhakna San Francisco

Indian Independence

1914 Lala Hardayal and Birendra

History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/

Anushilan Samiti (I)

1902 Gyanendranath Bose


Abhinav Bharat

1904 V.D. Savarkar


Swadesh Bandhav

1905 Ashwini Kumar Dutt


Samiti Anushilan Samiti (II)

1907 Birendra Kumar Ghosh and Bhupendra Dutt


Bharat Mata Society

1907 Ajit Singh & Amba Prasad


Hindustan Republican Association

1924 Jogesh Chandra Chatterji, Sachindranath Sanyal Kanpur

Naujavan Sabha

1926 Bhagat Singh

Hindustan Socialist Republican Association 1928 Chandrashekhar Azad

Indian National Army History of Indian National Army •


• League Nath Chattopadhyaya Indian Independence 1915 Raja Mahendra Pratap


• League & Government Indian Independence

1942 Ras Behari Bose


League Indian National Army

1942 Ras Behari Bose


The idea of the Indian National Army (INA) to liberate India was originally conceived by Rasbehari Bose, who had fled to Japan in 1915 and had become a Japanese citizen, with the help of Mohan Singh, arrindian officer of the British Indian army in Malaya. S.C. Bose secretly escaped from India in Jan 1941, and reached Berlin. In Jul 1943, he joined the INA atSingapore. There, Rasbehari Bose handed over the leadership to him. The soldiers were mostly raised from Indian soldiers of the British army who had been taken prisoners by the Japanese after they conquered S.E.Asia. Two INA headquarters were Rangoon and Singapore (formed in Singapore).

INA had three fighting brigades named after Gandhi, Azad and Nehru. Rani Jhansi Brigade was an exclusive women force.

The INA launched an attack on India and penetrated into the Indian Territory. It annexed Andaman and Nicobar with Japanese help and named them as ‘Shaheed’ and ‘Swaraj’. But, it couldn’t face the British army and surrendered. In this, S.C.Bose gave the call ‘Dilli Chalo’,

(in 1943, INA was reorganized by Subhash Chandra Bose in Singapore.)


Revolutionay Organisation in India: • Organisation

Year Founder


Mitra Mela

1899 Savarkar Brothers


• •

INA trials were held at Red Fort, Delhi. RK. Sehgal, Shah Nawaz (commander of the INA battalion that had reached the Indo-Burma front) and Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon were put on trial. The Congress took up their defence, with Bhulabhai Desai, TejbahadurSapru, Jawaharlal Nehru, K.N. Katju and Asaf Ali defending them. Muslim League also joined for the countrywide protest. Nov 12, 1945 was celebrated as the INA Day.

Wavell Plan 1945 :




History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ • •

Given by Lord Wayell. The plan was that the Viceroy’s Executive Council should be so reconstituted that its members, except the Governor General and the Commander-in-Chief, were to be Indians (from various parties). Simla conference was convened in this regard, but was rejected by Jinnah.


History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ • • • • •

India to be divided into India and Pakistan. Bengal and Punjab will be partitioned and a referendum in NEFP and Sylhet district of Assam would be held. There would be a separate constitutional assembly for Pakistan to frame its constitution. The Princely states would enjoy the liberty to join either India or Pakistan or even remain independent. Aug 15, 1947 was the date fixed for handing over power to India and Pakistan.

The British govt, passed the Indian Independence Act of 1947 in Jul 1947, which contained the major provisions put forward by the Mountbatten plan.

The Cabinet Mission Plan 1946 :

The struggle for freedom entered a decisive phase in the year 1945-46. The new Labour Party PM, Lord Attlee, made a declaration on Mar 15, 1946, that British Cabinet Mission (comprising of Lord Pethick Lawrence as Chairman, Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V. Alexander) will visit India. The mission held talks with the INC and ML to bring about acceptance of their proposals.

On May 16, 1946, the mission put forward its proposals:

Rejected the demand for separate Pakistan and instead a federal union consisting Princely States was suggested. The union would deal into the following subjects: Foreign affairs, Defence and Communication and would have the powers to raise the finances required for the above subjects. Full autonomy would be enjoyed by the provinces in respect of all subjects other than the union subjects. There were to be three groups of Provinces: Group A with six Hindu majority provinces (Bombay, United Province, Bihar, Central Province, Orissa, Madras); Group B with three Muslim majority provinces (Sind, NWFP, Punjab) and Group C (Assam and Bengal). After the first general elections, a province could come out of the group and after 10 years a province could call for reconsideration of the group or union constitution. The Union would consist of an executive and a legislature. The legislature would not be directly elected by the people but by the provincial legislatures on the basis of communal electorates. Members of the Princely States would be appointed by the rulers of the Princely States. Both Congress and Muslim League accepted it. The elections of the Constituent Assembly were held in Jul 1946. The Congress got 209 of the total 273 seats. Interim Government 1946 : Based on Cabinet Mission Plan, an interim government consisting of Congress nominees was formed on Sep 2, 1946. J.L. Nehru was its Vice-President and the Governor-General remained as its President. Muslim League did not join it initially but finally Wavell succeeded in having five members of the League join the government on Oct 26, 1946.

• • •

• •

• • • •

Jinnah was alarmed at the results of the elections because the Muslim League was in danger of being totally eclipsed in the constituent assembly. Therefore, Muslim League withdraw its acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan on Jul 29, 1946. It passed a ‘Direct action’ resolution, which condemned both the British Government and the Congress (Aug 16, 1946). It resulted in heavy communal riots. Jinnah celebrated Pakistan Day on Mar 27, 1947.

Formation of constituent Assembly of India : The constituent assembly met on Dec 9, 1946 and Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as its president. Mountbatten Plan of June 1947 : •

• •

On Jun 3, 1947, Lord Mountbatten put forward his plan which outlined the steps for the solution of India’s political problem. The outlines of the Plan were:


All political parties accepted the Mountbatten plan. Two Commissions were appointed by the British Government with Sir Cyril Redcliffe as chairman of both to see through the partition and fix the international boundaries of the two nations-to-be. At the time of independence, there were 562 small and big Princely states in India. Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, the first home minister, used iron hand in this regard. By Aug 15, 1947, all the States, with a few exceptions like Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagarh had signed the Instrument of Accession. Goa was with the Portuguese and Pondicherry with the French.

Constitutional Development in India India Regulating Act 1773 : • • • • •

Subjected the Company’s actions to the supervision of the British Government End of Dual government. Governor of Bengal to be the Governor – General of British territories of India. Establishment of Supreme Court in Calcutta. The servants of the Company were forbidden to engage in private trade, accept presents or bribes, etc.

Pitts Act of 1784 : •

History of Jinnah Direct Action Resolution : •

National Movement Partition and Independence:

• • • • •

The commercial and political activities of the Company were now separated. Board of Control of six members (including two cabinet ministers) set – up to guide and supervise the affairs of the Company in India. Three members will be there in Governor – General’s Executive Council. Secret Committee of three Directors were to look into political and military affairs. [Governor General and the council were forbidden to declare war and make treaties without the sanction of secret committee]. Madras and Bombay Presidencies were subordinated to the Governor – General – in – Council of Bengal in all matters. This act gave the British Government a measure of control over the Company’s affairs. In fact, the Company became a subordinate department of the State. Act of 1786 : Governor General given the power to over – ride the council and was made Commander – in – Chief also.

Charter Act of 1793 : • • • •

Company given monopoly of trade for 20 more years. Expenses and salaries of the Board of Control to be charged on Indian revenue. The Governor General and the Governors could now over – ride the decisions of their respective Councils. All laws were to be translated in Indian languages.



History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ •

It laid the foundation of government, by written laws, interpreted by courts.

Charter Act of 1813 India : • •

History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ The Indian Council Act 1861 : • •

Company deprived of its trade monopoly in India except in tea and trade with China. This made the Company more of an administrative body. All Englishmen could trade in India subject to few restrictions. A sum of 1 lakh earmarked annually for education of Indians.


• •

A fifth member, who was to be a jurist, was added to the Viceroy’s Executive Council. 6 – 12 additional members to be added to the Executive Council for legislation purpose. This implied that Viceroy’s Executive Council, which was so long composed of officials, would now include certain additional non – official members. Some of non – official seats were offered to natives of high ranks. Thus, a minute element of ‘popular’ participation was introduced in the legislative process. The additional members, though, had little powers. The Executive Council was now to be called Central Legislative Council. Viceroy could issue ordinances in case of emergency.

Further, Christian missionaries were also permitted to come to India and preach their religion. Indian Council Act 1892 :

Charter Act of 1833 : • • •

• • • •

End of Company’s monopoly even in tea and trade with China. Company was asked to close its commercial business at the earliest. All restrictions on European immigration into India and acquisition of land and property in India by them were removed, legalizing European colonization of India. Governor General of Bengal to be Governor General of India; all powers, administrative and financial, were centralized in the hands of the Governor – General – in – Council. (1st Governor General of India – Lord William Bentinck). President of Board of Control became the minister for Indian affairs. A law member (without power to vote) was added to the Executive Council of the Governor General. Macaulay was the first Law member. This increased the Council’s strength to four, with it began the Indian Legislature. A law commission was constituted for codification of laws. The Act threw open to ail, irrespective of religion, place of birth, descent and colour, services under the Company.

Charter Act of 1853 : • • • • • •

The Act renewed the powers of the Company and allowed it to retain the possession of Indian territories in trust for the British Crown but not for any specified period. The number of members of the Court of Directors was reduced from 24 to 18 of which 6 were to be nominated by the Crown. The Law member was made a full member of the Governor General’s Executive Council. Legislation was treated for the first time as separate from executive functions. Questions could be asked and the policy of the Executive Council could be discussed, though the Executive Council could veto a bill of the Legislative Council. Recruitment to Civil Services was based on open annual competition examination (excluding Indians).

Government of India Act 1858 : • •

• • •

• •

Indian Council Act 1909 Or Morley – Minto Reforms : • • • •

• •


Morley was the Secretary of State, while Minto was the Indian Viceroy. Legislative Councils, both at the Centre and in the Provinces, were expanded. With regard to Central Government, an Indian member was taken in the Executive Council of the Governor General. The size of the Provincial Legislative Councils were enlarged by including elected non – official members so that the official majority was gone. Their functions were also increased. Now, they could move resolutions on Budget and on some matters of public matters. An element of election was also introduced in the Central Legislative Council, but the official majority was maintained. The most notable and retrograde change introduced was that Muslims were given separate representation. Thus, communal representation was introduced.

Government of India Act 1919 Or Montague – Chelmsford Reforms : •

Rule of Company in India ended and that of the Crown began. System of Dual government ended. Court of Directors and Board of Control abolished and substituted them with a post of Secretary of State (a member of the British cabinet). He was assisted by a 15 – member council (called Indian Council). He was to exercise the powers of the Crown. Secretary of State governed India through the Governor General. Governor General received the title of Viceroy. He represented Secretary of State and was assisted by an Executive Council, which consisted of high officials of the Government. A unitary and highly centralized administrative structure was created.

Two improvements in both the Central and the Provincial Legislative Councils were suggested. Though the majority of the official members was retained, the non – official members were to be nominated by the Bengal Chamber of Commerce and Provincial Legislative Councils. [The non - official members of the Provincial Councils were to be nominated by certain local bodies such as universities, district boards, municipalities]. Indian leaders like G.K. Gokhale, Ashutosh Mukherjee, Ras Bihari Ghosh and S.N. Banerjee found their way in the Legislative Council. The Councils were to have the powers to discuss the annual statement of revenue and expenditure (i.e. the budget) and of addressing questions to the Executive). They could also put questions, within certain limits, to the Government on matters of public interest after giving six days notice.

Dyarchy system introduced in the provinces. It was considered to be a substantial step towards transfer of power to the Indians). The Provincial subjects of administration were to be divided into two categories : Transferred and Reserved. The Transferred subjects were to be administered by the Governor with the aid of ministers responsible to the Legislative Council. The Governor and the Executive Council were to administer the reserved subjects without any responsibility to the legislature. Devolution Rules : Subjects of administration were divided into two categories – Central and Provincial. Subjects of all India importance (like railways and finance) were brought under the category of Central, while matters relating to the administration of the provinces were classified as Provincial. The Provincial Legislature was to consist of one House only (Legislative Council).



History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ • • •

The number of Indians in the Governor General’s Executive Council was raised to three in a Council of eight. The Indian members were entrusted with departments such as Law, Education, Labour, Health and Industries. The Centre was now to have a Bicameral Legislature for the first time. It actually happened after 1935 Act. Communal representation extended to Sikhs, Christians, Anglo – Indians, etc. Secretary of State to be henceforth paid salary out of the British revenue.

Government of India Act 1935 : • • •

• •

Provided for the establishment of All – India Federation consisting of the British provinces and the Princely States. The joining of Princely States was voluntary and as a result the federation did not come into existence. Dyarchy was introduced at the Centre (e.g., Department of Foreign Affairs and Defence were reserved for the Governor General). The other Federal subjects were to be administered by the Governor General with the assistance and advice of a Council of Ministers to be chosen by him (but to include representatives of Princely States and minorities, and to be responsible to the Central Legislature). Residuary powers were to be with the Governor General only. The Federal Legislature (Central Legislature) was to have two chambers (bicameral) – the Council of State and the Federal Assembly. The Council of State was to be a permanent body with one – third of its membership being vacated and renewed triennially. The Federal Assembly’s duration was fixed for five years. It made a 3 – fold division of powers: Federal (Central) Legisl1ative List Provincial Legislative List and the Concurrent Legislative List. Residuary legislative powers were subject to the discretion of the Governor General. Even if a bill was passed by the Federal Legislature, the Governor General could veto it, while even Acts assented to by the Governor General could be disallowed by the King – in – Council. Provincial autonomy replaced Dyarchy in Provinces i.e., the distinction between Reserved and Transferred subjects was abolished and full responsible government was established, subject to certain safeguards. They were granted separate legal identity. The Governor was the head of the Provincial Executive and was expected to be guided by the advice of the popular ministries. However, the Act gave arbitrary powers to the Governors to act in their ‘discretion’ in certain matters. The Act also provided for a Federal Court (which was established in 1937), with original and appellate powers) to interpret the Constitution. A Federal Bank (the Reserve Bank of India) was also established. The Indian Council of Secretary of State was abolished. Principle of separate electorate was extended to include Anglo – Indians, Indian Christians and Europeans. Burma (now Myanmar) and Aden were separated from India and two new provinces Orissa and Sind were created.

British Educational Policy and Growth of Modern Education


History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Second Phase (1813 – 1853) : •

Due to the strong pressure exerted on the Co. by the Christian missionaries and many humanitarians, including some Indians, to encourage and promote modern education in India, The Charter Act of 1813 required the Co. to spend rupees 1 lakh annually for encouraging learned Indians and promoting the knowledge of modern sciences in India.

Two controversies about the nature of education arose during the part of this phase. They were :

Whether to lay emphasis on the promotion of modern western studies or on the expansion of traditional Indian learning? Whether to adopt Indian languages or English as the medium of instruction in modern schools and colleges to spread western learning?

• •

• •

Third Phase (1854 – 1900) : • •

British Educational Policy and Growth of Modern Education • First Phase (1758 – 1812) : • •

The British East India Co. showed very little interest in the education of its subjects during this period, the 2 minor exceptions being : 1. The Calcutta Madrsah set up by Warren Hastings in 1781 for the study and teaching of Muslim law and subjects. 2. The Sanskrit college at Varanasi by Jonathan Duncan in 1792 for the study of Hindu Law and Philosophy. Both were designed to provide a regular supply of qualified Indians to help the administration of law in the courts of Co.


These 2 controversies were settled in 1835 when Lord William Bentinck (with the support of R.M. Roy) applied English medium. In 1844, Lord Hardinge decided to give govt, employment to Indians educated in English Schools. The success was thus assured (of English education). It made good progress in the 3 presidencies of Bengals Bombay and Madras where the number of schools and colleges increased. Three other developments were : 1. A great upsurge in the activities of the missionaries who did pioneer work in quite a few fields of modern education. 2. Establishment of medical, engineering and law colleges, which marked a beginning in professional education. 3. Official sanction accorded to education of girls (Lord Dalhousie, in fact, offered the open support of govt.). The Govt, policy of opening a few English schools and colleges instead of a large number of elementary schools led to the neglect of education of masses. To cover up this defect in their policy, the British took recourse to the so – called ‘Downward Filtration Theory’ which meant that education and modern ideas were supposed to filter or radiate downward from the upper classes. This policy continued till the very end of British rule, although it was officially abandoned in 1854.

• •

The Educational Dispatch of 1854 was also called Wood’s Dispatch (after Sir Charles Wood, the then President of Board of Control, who became the first Secretary of State for India). It is considered as the Magna Carta of English Education in India (forms a landmark in the history of modern education in India). It rejected the ‘filtration theory’ and laid stress on mass education, female education and improvement of vernaculars, favoured secularism in Education. Creation of Education Departments in the provinces of Bombay, Madras, Bengal, N.W. Provinces and Punjab in 1855; Organizations of Indian Education Service in 1897 to cover the senior most posts. Establishment of universities of Calcutta (Jan 1857) Bombay (Jul 1857), Madras (Sep 1857), Punjab (1882) and Allahabad (1887). Lord Ripon appointed Hunter Commission (under Sir WW Hunter) : 1. It recommended that local bodies (distt. boards and municipalities) should be entrusted with the management of primary schools. 2. Also said that govt, should maintain only a few schools and colleges; others to be left to private hands.



History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Fourth Phase (1901 – 1920) : • • • • • • • • •


History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Presidents of Indian National Congress (INC)

Lord Curzon appointed a Universities Commission under Thomas Raleigh (Law member of the Viceroy’s Executive Council) in 1902, and based on his recommendations Indian Universities Act of 1904 was passed. It enabled the universities to assume teaching functions (hitherto they were mainly examining bodies), periodic inspection of institutions, speedier transaction of business, strict conditions for affiliation etc. Criticized by nationalists for its tightening govt, control over universities. In 1910, a separate department of Education was established at the Centre. The Saddler Commission was appointed by Lord Chelmsford to review the working of Calcutta University (2 Indians: Sir Ashutosh Mukherji and Dr. Ziauddin Ahmed.). Main recommendations were: Secondary Education by a Board of Secondary education and duration of degree course be 3 yrs. 7 new universities were opened (Total 12 now). They were : Banaras, Mysore, Patna, Aligarh, Dhaka, Lucknow and Osmania. Kashi Vidyapeeth and Jamia Milia Islamia were established. University course divided into pass course and Honours.




1885, 1882





Dadabhai Naoroji



Dadabhai Naoroji



Dadabhai Naoroji



Badruddin Tyyabji (first Muslim President)



George Yule (first English President)



Sir William Wedderburn



Sir Feroze S.Mehta

1895, 1902

Poona, Ahmedabad





1907, 1908

Surat, Madras

Rasbehari Ghosh






A.C.Majumdar (Re - union of the Congress)



Annie Besant (first woman President)



Motilal Nehru


Calcutta (sp.session)

Lala Lajpat Rai

1921, 1922

Ahmedabad, Gaya



Delhi (sp.session)

Abdul Kalam Azad (Youngest President)






Sarojini Naidu (first Indian woman President)



Motilal Nehru (first All India Youth Congress Formed)

Fifth Phase (1921 – 1947) : • •

Came under Indian control officially, as it became a provincial subject administered by provincial legislature. Thus, expansions started everywhere. Increase in number of universities (20 in 1947); improvement in the quality of higher education (on recommendations of Saddler Commission); establishment of an inter – University Board (1924) and beginning of inter collegiate and inter – university activities. Achievement in women’s education and education of backward classes.

Hartog Committee 1929 : • • • •

Recommended the policy of consolidation and improvement of Primary education. Recommended a selective system of admission to universities and diversified courses leading to industrial and commercial careers. Universities should be improved. Wardha scheme of Basic Education (1937), worked out by the Zakir Hussain Committee after Gandhiji published a series of articles in the HariJan.

Sargeant Plan of Education 1944 : It envisaged : • • • • • •

Establishment of elementary schools and high school. Universal and compulsory education for all children between the ages of 6 – 11. High schools of 2 types : Academic. Technical and Vocational. Intermediate courses were to be abolished.

Venue, Year and Presidents of Indian National Congress (INC)




J.L.Nehru (Poorna Swaraj resolution was passed)



Vallabhbhai Patel (Here, resolution on Fundamental rights and the National Economic Program was passed)

1932, 1933

Delhi, Calcutta

(Session Banned)



Rajendra Prasad






J.L.Nehru (first session in a village)



S.C.Bose (a National Planning Committed set - up under J.L.Nehru).



S.C.Bose was re - elected but had to resign due to protest by Gandhiji (as Gandhiji supported Dr.Pattabhi Sitaramayya). Rajendra Prasad was appointed in his place.



Abdul Kalam Azad



Acharya J.B.Kriplani



History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Year 1948

Venue Jaipur


History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/


Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramayya

Newspapers and Journals Newspaper / Journal

Founder / Editor

Newspaper / Journal

Founder / Editor

Indian Mirror

Devendra Nath Tagore

Nav Jeevan


Young India




Prabudha Bharat

Swami Vivekananda

Bengal Gazette (1780) (India's first newspaper)



Swami Vivekananda



Indian Socialist

Shyamji Krishna Verma



Talwar (in Berlin)

Birendra Nath Chattopadhyaya



Free Hindustan (in Vancouver)

Tarak Nath Das

Amrita Bazar Patrika

Sisir Kumar Ghosh & Motilal Ghosh

Hindustan Times


Vande Mataram

Aurobindo Ghosh


Mirajkar, Joglekar, Ghate

Native Opinion


Kavivachan Sudha

Bhartendu Harishchandra

Rast Goftar (First newspaper in Gujarati)

Dadabhai Naoroji

New India (Weekly)

Bipin Chandra Pal


Robert Knight

Causes of the Indian Mutiny

Sir Syyed Ahmed Khan


Vir Raghavacharya and G.S.Aiyar

Ghulam Giri

Jyotiba Phule



To all fighters of freedom, Why Socialism?

J.P. Narayan

Vichar Lahiri

Krishnashastri Chiplunkar


Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan

Hindu Patriot

Girish Chandra Ghosh (later Harish Chandra Mukherji)

Problems of the East

Lord Curzon

My Indian Years

Lord Hardinge II

Economic History of India

R.C. Dutt

Pather Panchali

Bibhuti Bhushan Banerji

The Spirit of Islam

Syyed Ameer Ali

Precepts of Jesus

Ram Mohan Roy

A Gift of Monotheists

Ram Mohan Roy

Satyarth Prakash

Swami Dayanand

Anand Math

Bankim C. Chatterji

Devi Chaudharani

Bankim C. Chatterji


Bankim C. Chatterji

The Indian Struggle

S.C. Bose

Poverty & Un - British Rule in India

Dadabhai Naoroji

A Nation in the Making

S.N. Banerji

Books and Authors Books

Som Prakash

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar


Bhupendranath Datta and Barinder Kumar Ghosh

Bombay Chronicle

Firoze Shah Mehta






Mohammed Ali

Tahzib - ul - Akhlaq

Sir Syyed Ahmed Khan

Al - Hilal

Abdul Kalam Azad

Al - Balagh

Abdul Kalam Azad


Motilal Nehru


Lala Lajpat Rai

New India (Daily)

Annie Besant


Annie Besant


Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi

Essays in Indian Economics


Samvad Kaumudi (Bengali)

Ram Mohan Roy

Mirat - ul - Akhbar

Ram Mohan Roy (first Persian newspaper)



Unhappy India

Lala Lajpat Rai

The Indian War of Independence

V.D. Savarkar

India Divided

Rajendra Prasad

The Discovery of India

J.L. Nehru



History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Books


History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/





Neel Darpan

Dinbandhu Mitra

British Association of Awadh


Raja Shiv Prasad Sahu

Hind Swaraj

M.K. Gandhi

Liberal Association


Sapru, Jayakar and Chintamani

Indian Liberal Federation


S.N. Banerji

What Congress and Gandhi have done to the untouchables B.R. Ambedkar

Pre Congress Nationalist Organizations Organisation




Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) 1927

G.D. Birla and Thakurdas

Hindustan Sewa Dal


N.G. Hardikar

Independence of India League


J.L. Nehru and S.C. Bose

Landholder's Society Or Zamindary Association


Calcutta Dwarkanath Tagore

Praja Party


Akram Khan, Fazuil Haq and Abdur Rahman

British India Society



Hindu Association


Annie Besant

Bengal British India Society


Calcutta George Thomson

South India Federation of Peasants and Agricultural Labour


N.G. Ranga and Namboodiripad

British India Association (Amalgamation of Landholder's Society and Bengal British India Society)


Calcutta Devendranoth Tagore & Rodhakant Deb

Unionist Party


Fazl Hussain

Rashtriya Swayamsewak Sangh



All India Untouchability League


M.K. Gandhi

Hindu Mahasabha


Revived by M.M. Malviya

Jana Sangh


Shyama Prasad Mukherji

National Mohammadan Association


Amir Ali

Mohammadan Literacy Society


Abdul Latif

Deccan Educational Society


Tilak & Agarkar

Madras Native Association


Bombay Association


East India Association


London Indian Society


Indian National Association




William Adams


Bombay Dadabhai Naoroji & Dinshaw Wacha London London London

Dadabhai Naoroji Feroz Shah Mehta, Badruddin Tyyabji, W.C. Banerji and Manmohan Ghosh Mary Carpentar



Poona Sarvajanik Sabha 1867


M.G. Ranade, G.V Joshi and Chiplankar


Indian Society



Anand Mohan Bose

India League


Calcutta Sisir Kumar Ghosh

Indian Association


Calcutta Anand Mohan Bose and Surendra Nath Banerji

National Conference



Anand Mohan Bose and Surendra Nath Banerji

Madras Mahajan Sabha



M. Viraghavacharya, G. Subramaniya Aiyar and P. Anand Charlu

Indian National Union




Labour and Trade Union Organization Organization

(National Conference and Indian National Union merged to form the Indian National Congress in 1885). Post Congress Nationalist Organizations : Organisation




Bombay Mill and Millhands Association


N.M. Lokhanda

Working Men's Club


Sasipada Banerji

Printer's Union



Railway Men's Union



Kamgar Hitwardhak Sabha


S.K. Bole

Social Service League



Madras Labour Union


G.R. Naidu and Chelvupathi

Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants of India 1897


Ahmedabad Textile Labour Association

M.K. Gandhi


Founder Organization



Anti - Non Cooperation Association

1920 - 21 Purshottam Das and Thakurdas

Jorhat Sarvajanik Sabha


Ras Behari Ghosh

All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC)


N.M. Joshi and Roy Chaudhary

Raja Mundari Social Reform Association



Bombay Textile Labour Union


N.M. Joshi

Anti - Circular Society


K.K. Mitra

All India Trade Union Federation


N.M. Joshi

Lok Sewa Mandal


Lala Lajpat Raj

Independent Congress Party


Madan Mohan Malviya

National Federation of Trade Union


N.M. Joshi

United India Patriotic Association


Sayyid Ahmed Khan

Hindustan Majdoor Sabha


V.B. Patel, Rajendra Prasad and J.B. Kriplani




History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Organization Indian Federation of Labour




N.M. Roy

Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) 1944

V.B. Patel


History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ •

Champaran Satyagraha (1917) : There the European planters forced the cultivators to cultivate indigo on 3 / 20th of their holdings (called Tinkathia System). But when indigo became unremunarative, the European planters imposed higher taxes to compensate their losses in the International market.

Gandhiji, with the help of Rajendra Prasad and others, encouraged the peasants to offer Satyagraha. Gandhiji was arrested and then made a member of the Enquiry Committee of Jun 1917. The Champaran Agrarian Act finally abolished the TinKathia system and compensated the peasants for the raised dues imposed on them.

Ahmedabad Mill Strike (Mar, 1918) : The dispute was between the mill – owners and the workers over the ‘Plague Bonus’ which the mill – owners wanted to withdraw once the epidemic was over. The workers troubled by inflation wanted adequate compensation.

Gandhiji initially persuaded the mill – owners and workers to agree to arbitration by a tribunal but the mill – owners withdrew after commitment. Here Gandhiji first used the weapon of ‘Hunger Strike’. After this, the mill – owners were pressurized into accepting the tribunal award of 55 percent increase.

Kheda Satyagraha (1918) : The peasants were in extreme distress due to the failure of crops and the government ignored their appeals for die remission of land revenue. The peasants of Kheda were already hard pressed because of plague, high prices and drought.

Appeals and petition having failed, Gandhiji advised the withholding of revenue and asked the peasants to fight unto death. After the Government directed that the revenue should be recovered only from those peasants who could pay, the movement was withdrawn.

Leftist Organizations : Organisation




Communist Party of India


Tashkent M.N. Roy

Labour Kisan Party




Labour Swaraj Party (later renamed as Peasants & Worker's Party) -


Qazi Nazrul and Muzaffar Ahmed

Kirti Kisan Party



Sohari Singh Josh

Workers and Peasants Party



S.S. Mirajkar, K.N. Joglekar and S.V. Ghate

Bihar Socialist Party



J.P. Narayan, Phulan Prasad Verma

Congress Socialist Party



Nateridra Dev, J.P. Narayan and Minoo Masani

Forward Block



S.C. Bose

Congress Labour Party




The Bolshevik Party of India



N.D. Mazumdar

Radical Democratic Party



M.N. Roy

Independence Labour Party



B.R. Ambedkar

Dadabhai Naoroji History (1825 – 1917) :

Important National Leaders • •

M.K. Gandhi (1869 – 1948) : •

The ‘Father of the Nation’ was born at Porbandar (Kathiarwar) on October 2, 1869. he was the son of Karamchand and Putlibai Gandhi. He married Kasturba in 1883.

Proceeded to England in 1888 to study law and returned to India in 1891.

He failed as a practicing lawyer both at Rajkot and in Bombay.

In 1893, he proceeded to Natal, South Africa, as the lawyer of a firm of Porbandar Muslims.

He was appalled at the racial discrimination by the whites in that country. There he founded a political organization known as ‘National Indian Congress’ and also started a newspaper called ‘Indian Opinion’. He formed Phoenix Farm near Durban in 1904.

Returned to India on Jan 9, 1915.

In 1916, he founded the Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmedabad.

• •

Gopal Krishna Gokhale (1886 – 1915) : • • •

Gandhiji considered him as his political guru. He served as the President of the INC at its Banaras session in 1905. Laid the foundation of Servants of Indian Society in 1905. (Objective was to train people who would work as national missionaries).

History of Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1857 – 1920) : • • • • • • •


First to demand ‘Swaraj’ from the INC Platform (Calcutta session, 1906). Wrote a bock ‘Poverty & Un – British Rule in India’ (in 1901) in which he brought out the connection between the draining of wealth from India by the British and rampant poverty in India. Also known as ‘Indian Gladstone’ and ‘Grand Old Man of India’. Selected to ‘House of Commons’ on Liberal Party ticket (First Indian to do so).

Collaborated with Agarkar, and set up institutions to give cheap education to people. First nationalist leader who tried to establish a close contact with the masses. Started Akharas, Lathi clubs and anti – cow killing societies to built his rapport. Founded two newspapers – The Maharatta (in English) and Kesari (in Marathi). First congress leader who went to prison several times. He joined the INC in 1891. Formed the Bal, Pal, Lai group of extremists and caused a split in the Surat Congress in 1907. Founded the Home Rule League in 1916, and helped in ushering in the Lucknow Pact and the Reforms Act at the Amritsar Congress in 1919.



History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ • • •


History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/

Valentine Shirol described him as the ‘Father of Indian Unrest’. In the Nagpur session of 1920, the INC demanded Swaraj (after Tilak’s slogan only). An erudite scholar. His books are ‘The Arctic Home of Vedas’ & ‘Gita Rahasya’.

B. R. Ambedkar History (1891 – 1956) : • • • • • • • •

In 1941, he escaped to Berlin and met Hitler. In 1943, he took charge of Indian National Army in Singapore and set up the Indian Provisional Government there. He gave the war cry of ‘Dilli Chalo’. He addressed Mahatma Gandhi as the Father of the Nation; He gave the slogan of ‘Jai Hind’. He wrote his autobiography ‘The Indian Struggle’. He supposedly died in a plane crash on Aug 18, 1945.

He was a jurist, a statesman, a social reformer and a leader of the depressed classes. He was born in Mahar caste in Mahu (M.P) in 1891. He went for higher studies to England and America. He was the first graduate of Mahar caste. He participated in all the three Round Table Conferences. He signed Poona Pact with Gandhiji in 1932. From 1942 to 1946, he was in the Executive Council of the Governor General. He organized the Indian Labour Party, Scheduled Caste Federation and People’s Education Society. He was the chairman of the Drafting Committee of our Constitution. He also piloted the Hindu Code through the Indian Legislature. From 1947 to 1951, he was a law minister in Nehru’s cabinet. Towards the end of his life he embraced Buddhism.

History of Jawaharlal Nehru (1889 – 1964) : He was the first Prime Minister of Independent India and is known as the architect of Modern India. He was born in Allahabad on Nov 14, 1889. In 1928, he became the General Secretary of the INC and in 1929 its President. At the Lahore session, under his President ship was passed the Independence resolution. He was the Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1964. He was the author of the Doctrine of Panchsheel, and believed in the policy of non – alignment. He was an author of international fame. His works include The Discovery of India, Glimpses of World Histoty, A Bunch of Old Letters, The Unity of India, Independence and After, India and the World, etc. His autobiography, entitied Autobiography, is one of his most famous works.

• • • • • • •

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad History (1890 – 1958) : • • • • • • • •

He was bora in Mecca in 1890. For higher education he went to the Al Azhar University at Cairo. He joined the INC during the Swadeshi movement. He began two weeklies, Al Hilaland Al – Balagh. He was made the President of the Khilafat Committee in 1920. He became the President of the Congress session of 1923 at Delhi. He led the Congress delegation during the Shimla Conference in 1945. He also led the delegation during the Cabinet Mission Plan. He was elected the member of the Constituent Assembly in 1946. He was the Education Minister in the Interim Government and also Independent India’s first Education Minister. He was also instrumental in the foundation of U.G.C. and IIT – Kharagpur. His book India Wins Freedom evoked much controversy.

History of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (1890 – 1988) : • • • • •

Popularly known as Frontier Gandhi, Badshah Khan or Sarhadi Gandhi. Founded an organization Khudai Khidmatgars. It was an organization of non – violent revolutionaries which was also known as ‘Red Shirts’. He also published a newspaper, Pakhtoon. Ghaffar Khan vehemently opposed partition. He was awarded Bharat Ratna in 1987 by the Government of India.

Subhash Chandra Bose History (1897 – 1945) :

Indian Freedom Movement Struggle Year

Indian Freedom Struggle Events


Partition of Bengal announced to come in force fom Oct 16, 1906.

31 Dec, 1906

Muslim League founded at Decca.

30 Apr, 1908

Khudiram Bose executed.

22 Jul, 1908

Tilak sentenced to six years on charges of seditior.

21 May, 1909

Minto-Morley Reforms of Indian Councils Act, 1909.


The coronation or Delhi durbar held at Delhi in which the Partition of Bengal is cancelled.


Delhi becomes the new capital of India

23 Dec, 1912

Bomb thrown on Lord Hardinge on his state entry into Delhi.

1 Nov, 1914

Ghadar Party formed at San Francisco.

16 Jun, 1914

B.G. Tilak released from jail.

4 Aug, 1914

Outbreak of the 1st World War.

29 Sep, 1914

Komagatamaru ship reaches Budge Budge (Calcutta port).

9 Jan, 1915

Gandhiji arrives in India.

19 Feb, 1915 Death of Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

• • • • •

Popularly known as Netaji, was born on Jan 23, 1897 at Cuttack. He passed the Indian Civil Services Examination in 1920, but left it on the Gandhiji’s call of Non – Cooperation Movement. He founded the Independence for India League with Jawahar Lai Nehru. In 1938, he was elected the President of the INC ai its Ilaripura session and in 1939, he was elected President of its Tripuri session. But he had to resign from Tripuri due to differences with Gandhiji. He founded the Forward Block in 1939.


28 Apr, 1916

B.G. Tilak founds Indian Home Rule League with its headquarters at Poona.

25 Sep, 1916

Another Home Rule League started by Annie Besant.

Apr 1917

Mahatma Gandhi launches the Champaran campaign in Bihar to focus attention on the grievances of indigo planters.

20 Aug, 1917

The Secretary of State for India, Montague, declares that the goal of the British government in India is the introduction of Responsible Government.



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Ghadar Party formed at San Francisco.


History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 1 Nov, 1914

Ghadar Party formed at San Francisco.


Beginning of trade union movement in India.


Gandhiji withdraws from active politics and devotes himself to constructive programmes (1934-39).

Apr, 1918

Rowlatt (Sedition) Committee submits its report. Rowlatt Bill introduced on Feb 16, 1919.

4 Aug, 1935

The Government of India Act 1935 passed.

13 Apr, 1919

Jallianwala Bagh tragedy


Elections held in India under the Act of 1935 (Feb 1937). The INC contests election and forms ministries in several provinces (Jul 1937).

5 Dec, 1919

The House of Commons passes the Montague Chelmsford Reforms or the Government of India Act, 1919. The new reforms under this Act came into operation in 1921.

19 - 20 Feb, 1938

Haripura session of INC. Subhash Chandra Boss elected Congress president.


First meeting of the All India Trade Union Congress, (under Narain Malhar Joshi). The Indian National Congress (INC) adopts the Non-Co-operation Resolution

10 - 12 Mar, 1939

Tripuri session of the INC.

Dec, 1920 1920 - 22

Non-Co-operation Movement, suspended on Feb 12, 1922 after the violent incidents at Chauri Chaura on Feb 5, 1922.

Apr, 1939

Subhash Chandra Bose resigns as the president of the INC.

3 Sep, 1939

Second World War (Sep 1). Great Britain declares war on Germany; the Viceroy declares that India too is at war.

27 Oct - 5 Nov, 1939

The Congress ministries in the provinces resign in protest against the war policy of the British government.

22 Dec, 1939

The Muslim League observes the resignation of the Congress ministries as ‘Deliverance Day’

Mar, 1940

Lahore session of ihe Muslim League passes the Pakistan Resolution.

10 Aug, 1940

Viceroy Linlithgow announces-August Offer.

18 - 22 Aug, 1940

Congress Working Committee rejects the 'August Offer'.

Aug, 1922

Moplah rebellion on the Malabar coast.

1 Jan, 1923

Swarajist Party formed by Motilal Nehru and others.


The Communist Party of India starts its activities at Kanpur.

Aug, 1925

Kakori Train Conspiracy case.

8 Nov, 1927

The British Prime Minister announces the appointment of the Simon Commission to suggest future constitutional reforms in India. Simon Commission arrives in Bombay on Feb 3, 1928 and all-India 3 hartal. Lala Lajpat Rai assaulted by police at Lahore.


Nehru Report recommends principles for the new Constitution of India. All parties conference considers the Nehru Report, Aug 28-31, 1928.

17 Nov, 1928

Death of Lala Lajpat Rai.

17 Oct, 1940

Congress launches Individual Satyagraha movement.


Sarda Act passed prohibiting marriage of girls below 14 and boys below 18 years of age with effect from 1930.

17 Jan, 1941

Subhash Chandra Bose escapes from India; arrives in Berlin (Mar 28).

9 Mar, 1929

All Parties Muslim Conference formulates the 'Fourteen Points' under the leadership of Jinnah.

11 Mar, 1942 Churchill announces the Cripps Mission.

8 Apr, 1929

Bhagot Singh and Batukeshwai Dutt throw bomb in the Central Legislative Assen. Lord Irwin's announcement that the goal of British policy in India was the grant of the Dominion status.

7 - 8 Aug, 1942

The INC meets in Bombay; adopts 'Quit India' resolution

31 Oct, 1929 31 Dec, 1929

The Lahore session of the INC adopts the goal of complete independence poorna swarajya for India; Jawaharlal Nehru hoists the tricolour of Indian Independence on the banks of the Ravi at Lahore.

9 Aug, 1942

Gandhiji and other Congress leaders arrested. Quit India movement begins; the Great Aug Uprising.

26 Jan, 1930

First Independence Day observed.

11 Aug, 1942 1 Sep, 1942

Subhash Chandra Bose establish the Indian National Army 'Azad Hind Fauj

21 Oct, 1943

Subhash Chandra Bose proclaims the formation of the Provisonal Government of Free India.

Dec, 1943

Karachi session of the Muslim League adopts the slogan Divide arc

25 Jan, 1944

Wavell calls Simla Conference in a bid to form the Executive Council at Indian political leaders.

14 Feb, 1930 The Working Committee of the INC meets at Sabarmati and passes the Civil Disobedience resolution. 12 Mar, 1930 Mahatma Gandhi launches the Civil Disobedience movement with his epic Dandi Mar (Mar 12 to Apr 6). First phase of the Civil Disobedience movement: Mar 12, 1930 to Mar 5, 1931. 30 Nov, 1930 5 Mar, 1931

First Round Table Conference begins in London to consider the report of the Simon Commission.

18 Feb, 1946 Mutiny of the Indian naval ratings in Bombay.

Gandhi lrwin pact signed. Civil Disobedience movement suspended.

23 Mar, 1931 Bhagat Singh, Sukh Dev and Rajguru executed.

15 Mar, 1946 British Prime Minister Attlee announces Cabinet Mission ro propose new solution to the Indian deadlock; Cabinet Mission arrives in New Delhi (Mar 14); issues proposal (May 16).

7 Sep, 1931

Second Round Table Conference.

6 Jul, 1946

Jawaharlal Nehru takes over as Congress president.

28 Dec, 1931

Gandhiji returns from London after the deadlock in llnd RTC. Launches Civil Disobedience Movement. The INC declared illegal.

6 Aug, 1946

Wavell invites Nehru to form an interim government; Interim Government takes office (Sep 2).

9 Dec, 1946

First session of the Constituent Assembly of India starts. Muslim League boycotts it.

4 Jan, 1932

Gandhiji arrested and imprisoned without trial.

20 Feb, 1947 British Prime Minister Attlee declares that the British government would leave India not later than Jun 1948.

16 Aug, 1932

British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald announces the infamous "Communal Award".

20 Sep, 1932

Gandhiji in jail, begins his epic "fast unto death" against the Communal Award and ends the fast on Sep 26 after the Poona Pact.

3 Jun, 1947

Mountbatten Plan for the partion of India and the announcement (Jun 4 that transfer to power will take place on Aug 15. India wins freedom

17 Nov, 1932

The Third Round Table Conference begins in London (Nov 17 to Dec 24)

15 Aug, 1947

9 May, 1933

Gandhiji released from prison as he begins fast for self-purification. INC suspends Civil Disobedience movement but authorizes Satyagraha by individuals.

24 Mar, 1947 Lord Mountbatten, the last British Viceroy and Governor General of India, sworn in (Mar 24, 1947 to Jun 21, 1948)




History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Where They Rest:


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Famous Personality of India


Beginning of Saka era


Repeated attacks of Mehmud Ghazni

Mahatma Gandhi

Raj Ghat


Sacking of Somnath temple by Mehmud




First battle of Tarain in which Prithviraj Chauhan defeated Mohammed Ghori.

B.R. Ambedkar



Second battle of Tarain in which Mohd. Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan.

Indira Gandhi



Qutubuddin Aibak founded the llbari/Slave dynasty.

Charan Singh

Kisan Ghat


Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji established Khilji dynasty.

Zail Singh



Marco Polo visited India.

Rajiv Gandhi



Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq founded the Tughlaq dynasty.

Morarji Desai

Abhay Ghat


Ibn Batuta arrived in India.

Gulzari Lai Nanda

Narayan Ghat


Harihara and Bukka founded the Vijaynagar empire

Jagjivan Ram



Bahmani kingdom founded.

L.B. Shastri

Vijay Ghat


Timur invades India.


Lodi dynasty comes in power in Delhi Sultanate.


Birth of Guru Nanak Dev


Vasco da Gama lands at Calicut.


Portuguese capture Goa-Albuquerque Governor.


First Battle of Panipat in which Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi and established the Mughal dynasty.


Second battle of Panipat in which Akbar defeated Hemu.


Battle of Talikota in which Vijaynagar Empire is defeated.


Foundation of Fatehpur Sikri by Akbar.


Battle of Haldighati in which Akbar defeated Maharana Pratap.


Akbar started Din-i-llahi.


English East India Company established.


Compilation of Adi Granth.


Death of Akbar.


The English built a factory at Masulipatnam.


Birth of Shivaji


Death of Shah Jahan's wife Mumtaz Mahal. The building of Taj Mahal.


Aurangzeb became Emperor of Delhi.


Birth of Guru Gobind Singh.


Guru Gobind Singh creates 'Khalsa'.


Death of Aurangzeb, fall of Mughal empire begins.


Nadir Shah invaded India; the peacock throne and the Kohinoor Diamond taken away from India.


Battle of Plassey in which the English defeated Siraj-ud- daula, Nawab of Bengal.


Battle of Wandiwash, end of French power in India.


Third Battle of Panipat in which Ahmed Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas.


Battle of Buxar in which the English defeated the triple alliance of Nawab Mir Qasim of Bengal, Nawab Shuja-ud-daula of Awadh and Mughal emperor Shah Alam.

Important Dates of Indian History Timeline of Historical Events in India : Year

Historical Events

B.C. 2500-1800 Indus valley civilization 599

Birth of Mahavir; Nirvana in 523 B.C


Birth of Gautam Buddha; Nirvana in 483 B.C


Alexander's invasion of India and the opening of land route between India and Europe.


Ashoka's reign


Battle of Kalinga


Beginning of Vikrama era


Satvahana dynasty in Deccon. Pandyan Empire in for south


78 320 360

Beginning of Saka era Beginning of Gupta era Samudragupta conquers the whole of N.India and much of the Deccan.


Rule of Chandragupta Vikramaditya, age of Kalidasa, renewal of Hinduism


Rule of Harshavardhana

645 622 712

Hieun Tsang's visit in India Beginning of Hijra era Arab invasion of Sind by Mohd. bin Qasim




History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 78

Beginning of Saka era


History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Famous Battles in Indian History :


Permanent settlement in Bengal.


Fourth Anglo Mysore War, death of Tipu Sultan, Ranjit Singh occupied Lahore and made it his capital.


Marathas finally crushed.


Lord William Bentick becomes Governor General; Era of social reforms; Prohibition of Sati (1829), Suppression of thugs (1830)



Introduction of English as medium of instruction.



First Indian railway from Bombay to Thane.

1191 First Battle of Tarain in which Prithviraj Chauhon defeated Mohammed Ghori


First war of Indian Independence.

1192 Second Battle of Tarain in which Mohd. Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan.


British crown takes over the Indian Government; End of East India Company's rule.


Birth of Rabindra Nath Tagore.


Birth of M.K.Gandhi.


Formation of Indian National Congress.


Partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon.


Formation of All India Muslim League.


Minto-Morley Reforms.


Delhi durbar held, partition of Bengal cancelled, capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi.


World War I started.

1918 1919

B.C. 326

Alexander defeated Porus in the Battle of Hydaspas


Ashoka defeated Kalinga in the Kalinga War

Invasion of Sind by Mohammed-bin-Qasim

1194 Battle of Chhandwar in which Mohd. Ghori defeated Jaichandra of Kannauj. 1526 First Battle of Panipat in which Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi. 1527 Battle of Khanua in which Babar defeated Rana Sanga. 1529 Battle of Ghaghara in which Babar defeated the Afghans. 1539 Battle of Chausa in which Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun. 1540 Battle of Kannauj (or Bilgram) in which Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun and forced him to flee.


Second Battle of Panipat in which Bairam Khan (representing Akbar) defeated Hemu.


Battle of Talikota (or Banihatti) in which an alliance of Ahmednagar, Bijapur, Golkonda and Bidar defeated the Vijaynagar empire (represented by Sadasiva).

End of World War I.


Battle of Haldighati in which Akbar defeated Maharana Pratap.

Rowlatt Act, Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Montague-Chelmsford reforms.


Mewar submitted to the Mughals. A treaty of peace was signed between Jahangiri and Rana Amar Singh of Mewar.


Non-cooperation Movement launched.


Kandahar was lost to Persia forever by the Mughals.


Moplah rebellion in Malabar; visit of Prince of Wales.


Battle of Dharmatt and Samugarh in which Aurangzeb defeated Dara Shikoh.


Chauri-Chaura incidence


Raja Jai Singh defeated Shivaji and the Treaty of Purandar signed.


Swaraj party formed.


Battle of Khed in which Shahu defeated Tara Bai.


Simon Commission appointed.


Battle of Bhopal in which Baji Rao defeated Mohammed Shah.


Visit of Simon Commission to India, death of Lala Lajpat Rai.


Battle of Karnal in which Nadir Shah defeated Mohammed Shah.


Congress demanded 'Poorna Swaraj' in Lahore session.


Battle of Plassey in which the English forces (under Robert Cive) defeated Siraj-ud-daula, the Nawab of Bengal.


January 26 celebrated as Independence Day throughout India, Dandi Salt Satyagraha, First Round Table conference.


Battle of Wandiwash in which the English forces defeated the French forces.

Gandhi-lrvin Pact, Second Round Table Conference.


Third Battle of Panipat in which Ahmed Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas.


Suppression of Congress Movement, Third Round Table Conference, Communal Award, Poona Pact.


Battle of Buxar in which the English under Munro defeated the alliance of Nawab Mir Qasim of Bengal, Nawab Shuja-ud-daula of Awadh and Mughal emperor Shah Alam.


Government of India Act. Inauguration of Provincial Autonomy. Congress ministries formed in 8 out of 11 provinces.


First Anglo Mysore War in which Hyder Ali defeated the English forces.

1937 1939

Resignation of Congress ministries, beginning of World War II.


First Anglo Maratha War in which the British were defeated.


Cripps Mission Plan, Quit India Movement, Formation of Indian National Army by S.C. Bose. 1770

Battle of Udgir in which the Marathas defeated the Nizam.


Simla conference held and the failure of Wavell Plan, INA trials at Red Fort, Delhi. Second Anglo Mysore War. Hyder Ali died during the battle (1782) and the field was taken by his son Tipu Sultan. The war concluded with the Treaty of Mangalore (1784).



Cabinet Mission Plan, Formation of Interim Government, Direct Action Resolution by Muslim League.



Mountbatten Plan of June 3 in which partition of India resolution is proposed, India divided, Pakistan created, both achieve independence, Jawarhar Lai Nehru becomes the I Prime Minister of India.


Third Anglo Mysore War in which Tipu Sultan was defeated. The Treaty of Serirangapatnam followed.


Fourth Anglo Mysore War in which Tipu was defeated and killed.


Second Anglo Maratha War in which the British defeated the Marathas.

Important Battles in Indian History




History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 1556

Second Battle of Panipat in which Bairam Khan (representing Akbar) defeated Hemu.



History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 1556

Second Battle of Panipat in which Bairam Khan (representing Akbar) defeated Hemu.


Battle of Khed in which Shahu defeated Tara Bai.


Battle of Bhopal in which Baji Rao defeated Mohammed Shah.


Battle of Karnal in which Nadir Shah defeated Mohammed Shah.


Battle of Plassey in which the English forces (under Robert Cive) defeated Siraj-ud-daula, the Nawab of Bengal.


Battle of Wandiwash in which the English forces defeated the French forces.


Third Battle of Panipat in which Ahmed Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas.


Battle of Buxar in which the English under Munro defeated the alliance of Nawab Mir Qasim of Bengal, Nawab Shuja-ud-daula of Awadh and Mughal emperor Shah Alam.


First Anglo Mysore War in which Hyder Ali defeated the English forces.


Third Anglo Maratha War in which the British defeated the Marathas badly.


First Anglo Burmese War in which the British defeated the Burmese.


First Anglo Afghan War in which the British defeated the Afghan ruler Dost Mohammad.


First Anglo Sikh War in which the Sikhs were defeated.


Second Anglo Sikh War in which the Sikhs were defeated and Punjab was annexed by the British.


Second Anglo Burmese War in which the British won. Third Angio Burmese War in which the British won & annexed Burma.


First Anglo Maratha War in which the British were defeated.

1865 186880

Second Anglo Afghan War in which the English suffered losses.


Battle of Udgir in which the Marathas defeated the Nizam.


Third Anglo Afghan War in which the English, though victorious, did not benefit from the war.


Second Anglo Mysore War. Hyder Ali died during the battle (1782) and the field was taken by his son Tipu Sultan. The war concluded with the Treaty of Mangalore (1784).


Third Anglo Mysore War in which Tipu Sultan was defeated. The Treaty of Serirangapatnam followed.


Fourth Anglo Mysore War in which Tipu was defeated and killed.


Second Anglo Maratha War in which the British defeated the Marathas.


Third Anglo Maratha War in which the British defeated the Marathas badly.

Important Battles in Indian History B.C. 326

Alexander defeated Porus in the Battle of Hydaspas


Ashoka defeated Kalinga in the Kalinga War


First Anglo Burmese War in which the British defeated the Burmese.

Invasion of Sind by Mohammed-bin-Qasim


First Anglo Afghan War in which the British defeated the Afghan ruler Dost Mohammad.


First Anglo Sikh War in which the Sikhs were defeated.


Second Anglo Sikh War in which the Sikhs were defeated and Punjab was annexed by the British.


Second Anglo Burmese War in which the British won.


Third Angio Burmese War in which the British won & annexed Burma.


Second Anglo Afghan War in which the English suffered losses.


Third Anglo Afghan War in which the English, though victorious, did not benefit from the war.

A.D. 712

1191 First Battle of Tarain in which Prithviraj Chauhon defeated Mohammed Ghori 1192 Second Battle of Tarain in which Mohd. Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan. 1194 Battle of Chhandwar in which Mohd. Ghori defeated Jaichandra of Kannauj. 1526 First Battle of Panipat in which Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi. 1527 Battle of Khanua in which Babar defeated Rana Sanga. 1529 Battle of Ghaghara in which Babar defeated the Afghans. 1539 Battle of Chausa in which Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun. 1540 Battle of Kannauj (or Bilgram) in which Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun and forced him to flee.


Second Battle of Panipat in which Bairam Khan (representing Akbar) defeated Hemu.


Battle of Talikota (or Banihatti) in which an alliance of Ahmednagar, Bijapur, Golkonda and Bidar defeated the Vijaynagar empire (represented by Sadasiva).


Battle of Haldighati in which Akbar defeated Maharana Pratap.


Mewar submitted to the Mughals. A treaty of peace was signed between Jahangiri and Rana Amar Singh of Mewar.


Kandahar was lost to Persia forever by the Mughals.


Battle of Dharmatt and Samugarh in which Aurangzeb defeated Dara Shikoh.


Raja Jai Singh defeated Shivaji and the Treaty of Purandar signed.

Important Wars in 20th Century 20th Century Wars : Russo – Japanese War Summary (1904 – 05) : The conflict arising from the rivalry of Russia and Japan for control of Manchuria and Korea. Russia was forced to surrender Korea, the Liaotung Peninsula and Sakhalin to Japan.




History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ History of First World War (1914 – 18) : •


History of India and Indian National Movement | http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ Iran-Iraq War Summary (1980 – 90) :

International conflict began between Austria and Serbia. The chief contestants were the Central Powers (Germany and Austria) and the Triple Entente (Britain, France and Russia). Many other countries joined as the war began. The naval blockade of Germany caused severe food shortages and helped to end the war. An armistice was agreed in November 1918 and peace treaties were signed at Versailles (1919).

Sino – Japanese War Summary (1931 – 1933) :

War began shortly after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Iraq wanted control over oil – rich Iranian border territory. Iraq expressed readiness to negotiate peace, after it lost ground. In 1988, Iran agreed to a ceasefire. Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990. History of Gulf War (16 Jan, 1991 – 28 Feb, 1991) : Military action by a US led coalition to expel Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Kuwait was liberated (Feb 26, 1991), and a ceasefire was declared on Feb 28.

Two wars between China and Japan, marking the beginning and the end of Japanese imperial expansion on the Asian mainland. The first war in 1894-95 arose from rivalry for control of Korea. The second war in 1937-45 developed from Japan’s seizure of Manchuria and the conflict merged into World War II, ending with the final defeat of Japan in 1945.

History of Bosnian War (1992 – 1998) : Ethnically rooted war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a republic of Yugoslavia with a multiethnic population – Muslims, Serbs and Croats. The Dayton peace agreement was signed in 1995. Bosnia Herzegovina became a single state.

History of Second World War (1939 – 45) :

US – Afghan War (2001) : •

International conflict arising from disputes provoked by the expansionist policies of Germany in Europe and Japan in the Far East. The axis powers – Germany, Italy and (after September 1940) Japan – controlled most of Europe and much of northern Africa, China and Asia. The United States stayed out of the war until December 7, 1941, when Japan attached Pearl Harbor, and the United States joined the Allies in fighting not only Japan but the other Axis powers as well. The war ended when the U. S. dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan.

Gulf War II Timeline (2003) : Military action by a US led coalition to oust Saddam Hussain from power in Iraq. It was conducted on the pretext of Iraq possessing Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD).

Arab – Israeli War Timeline (1948 – 49, 1956, 1967, 1973 – 74) : •

Military action by US against the Taliban government of Afghanistan in protest against the Sept 11 attack on WTC Towers. US claimed that Afghanistan was the breeding ground of terrorists and had given refuge to Osama bin Laden.

Conflict between Israel and the Arab states. After the creation of the state of Israel (May 14, 1948), troops from Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria and Trans Jordan (Modern Jordan) invaded the new nation. Simmering Arab – Israeli hostilities exploded into war in 1967, when Israel, assailed by Palestinian guerillas, launched a massive primitive strike against Egypt, the Arab world’s leading state. In the six day war, Israel captured the Sinai Peninsula, the old city of Jerusalem, the West Bank, and the Golan Heights.

History of Korean War (1950 – 53) : Conflict between North Korea, supported by China and South Korea supported by UN forces dominated by the USA. Negotiations continued for two years before a truce was agreed in Jul 1953. History of Vietnam War (1954 – 75) : Conflict between US backed South Vietnam and the Viet Cong, who had the support of communist North Vietnam. It followed to the partition of Vietnam. In 1975 South Vietnam was overrun by North Vietnamese forces, and the country was united under Communist rule. Falkland War Timeline (Apr – Jun, 1982) : Military conflict between Great Britain and Argentina on the question of sovereignty over the Falkland Islands. Britain won the war.


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