Guia de Estudos - CACD Inglês

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GUIA DE ESTUDOS PARA O CONCURSO DE ADMISSÃO À CARREIRA DE DIPLOMATA

incremento do trânsito na região de fronteira, consubstanciada na nova ponte sobre o rio Oiapoque. No plano regional mais amplo, a iniciativa americana do Plano Colômbia é vista com reticência pelas autoridades brasileiras, que não o apoiaram, o que não impede a cooperação no que toca a pontos específicos. Para o Brasil, a estratégia americanocolombiana não é eficiente, pois só modificaria as áreas de produção e traria riscos às fronteiras e ao meio ambiente (até mesmo o uso do agente-laranja foi cogitado no Plano). Em relação a outras regiões, destaca-se a necessidade cada vez mais urgente de cooperação internacional com a Europa, em virtude da peculiar “complementaridade” da indústria da droga nas duas regiões. As chamadas “mulas” levam cocaína de Bolívia e Colômbia, que entra pela fronteira seca, para a Europa e trazem de volta drogas sintéticas oriundas especialmente de Holanda e Espanha. A cooperação com a Interpol e com a Europol tem sido fundamental para a repressão a esse trânsito. Devido à forma como se organizam, desafiando a lógica territorial dos Estados, as redes de narcotráfico exigem novas formas de cooperação política, policial e informacional entre os países, sob pena de ineficiência.

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INGLÊS A prova de Inglês, com o valor máximo de 100 (cem) pontos, constará de quatro partes: tradução de um texto do inglês para o português (valor 20 pontos); versão de um texto do português para o inglês (valor 15 pontos); resumo de um texto (valor 15 pontos); e redação a respeito de tema de ordem geral, com extensão de 350 a 450 palavras (valor 50 pontos). Será apenada a redação que desobedecer à extensão mínima de palavras, deduzindo-se 0,20 ponto para cada palavra que faltar para atingir o mínimo exigido de 350. Será atribuída nota 0 (zero) à redação, caso o candidato não se atenha ao tema proposto ou obtenha pontuação 0 (zero) na avaliação da correção gramatical. A legibilidade é condição essencial para a correção da prova. Programa (Primeira e Terceira Fases): Primeira Fase: 1. Compreensão de textos escritos em língua inglesa. 2. Itens gramaticais relevantes para compreensão dos conteúdos semânticos. Terceira Fase: 1. Redação em língua inglesa: expressão em nível avançado; domínio da gramática; qualidade e propriedade no emprego da linguagem; organização e desenvolvimento de idéias. 2. Versão do Português para o Inglês: fidelidade ao texto-fonte; respeito à qualidade e ao registro do texto-fonte; correção morfossintática e lexical. 3. Tradução do Inglês para o Português: fidelidade ao texto-fonte; respeito à qualidade e ao registro do texto-fonte; correção morfossintática e lexical. 56

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4. Resumo: capacidade de síntese e de reelaboração em Inglês correto. Orientação para estudo 1. Tradução – Translation, Part A (20 pontos) A tradução do Inglês para o Português deve ser feita de forma fidedigna, respeitando a qualidade e o registro do texto original. Subtrai-se 1 (um) ponto para cada um dos seguintes erros: falta de correspondência ao(s) texto(s)-fonte, erros gramaticais, escolhas errôneas de palavras e estilo inadequado. Erros de pontuação ou de ortografia serão apenados em 0,5 (meio) ponto. 2.Versão – Translation, Part B (15 pontos) A versão do Português para o Inglês deve ser feita de forma fidedigna, respeitando a qualidade e o registro do texto original. Subtrai-se 1 (um) ponto para cada um dos seguintes erros: falta de correspondência ao(s) texto(s)-fonte, erros gramaticais, escolhas errôneas de palavras e estilo inadequado. Erros de pontuação ou de ortografia serão apenados em 0,5 (meio) ponto. 3. Resumo – Summary (15 pontos) O candidato deve apresentar capacidade de reelaborar, de forma concisa e coerente, o texto proposto. São critérios de avaliação a objetividade, a precisão, a clareza e a concisão do texto, além naturalmente da correção e propriedade no uso da língua inglesa. 4. Redação - Compostition (50 pontos) Os candidatos devem demonstrar conhecimento avançado de Inglês e capacidade de usá-lo em redação bem estruturada. A distribuição dos 45 pontos faz-se da seguinte maneira: Correção gramatical (20 pontos) Avaliam-se a correção e a propriedade no emprego da linguagem. Deduz-se 1 (um) ponto para cada erro, com exceção das falhas de pontuação ou de ortografia, às quais corresponde dedução de 0,5 (meio) ponto por ocorrência. A atribuição de nota zero no quesito “correção gramatical” implica, automaticamente, nota zero para a redação como um todo. Do mesmo modo, será atribuída nota zero às redações que demonstrarem baixo padrão de conhecimento da língua inglesa. •

Organização e desenvolvimento de idéias (20 pontos) Serão considerados, principalmente, os itens a seguir: a) capacidade de raciocínio e de expressão clara em Inglês; b) pertinência das idéias e da eventual exemplificação em relação ao tema; c) adequada organização formal da redação, com adequada paragrafação. Os candidatos devem esforçar-se para apresentar redação interessante. A originalidade não será exigida, mas será avaliada positivamente, da mesma forma que o uso adequado de exemplos. Serão severamente punidas as redações decoradas e simplesmente adaptadas ao tema proposto. A redação que fugir a esse tema será punida com nota zero.





Qualidade de linguagem (10 pontos)

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Atribuem-se pontos ao candidato pelo correto uso de Inglês idiomático, por construções variadas e pelo emprego de vocabulário amplo e preciso. Os candidatos que usarem construções de cunho meramente elementar na redação receberão nota zero no quesito, em especial quando esse recurso for utilizado para evitar erros. Bibliografia sugerida: Jornais e revistas A Internet permite o acesso a vasto número de publicações em língua inglesa. Para preparar-se para o concurso, é útil a leitura de publicações do padrão do The Times de Londres, The New York Times, The Washington Post e Guardian, The International Herald Tribune, The Financial Times, The Economist e Newsweek. Pode-se encontrar a versão impressa de muitas dessas publicações em livrarias e bancas de revistas das principais cidades do País. Dicionários de inglês Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary. Londres: Collins. Language Activator. Londres: Longman. The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Londres: Longman. The Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English. Oxford: University Press. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The Random House College Dictionary. New York: Random House. The Random House Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Random House. Roget´s Thesaurus. Londres: Longman. Webster´s Collegiate Dictionary. New York: BD&L. Webster´s Third International Dictionary. New York: BD&L. Dicionários inglês-português e português-inglês Cambridge Word Routes-Inglês/Português: contemporâneo. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1996.

Dicionário

temático

do

inglês

Dicionário Português-Inglês, Inglês-Português. Porto: Porto Editora. Novo Michaelis: Português-Inglês, Inglês-Português. São Paulo: Melhoramentos. Taylor, J. L. Portuguese-English Dictionary. Rio de Janeiro: Record. Gramáticas BENSON, M. et alii.. The BBI Combinatory Dictionary of English: A guide to word combinations. Amsterdã/Filadélfia: John Benjamins. Collins Cobuild English Usage. Londres: Harper Collins.

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Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Londres: Longman. CUTTS, M. The Plain English Guide. Oxford, Oxford University Press. FRANK, M. Modern English. Englewood-Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. LEECH, G.; SVARTVIK, J. A Communicative Grammar of English. Londres: Longman. HILL, J.; LEWIS, M. (Orgs.) LTP Dictionary of Selected Collocations. Hove: Language Teaching Publications. SANTOS, Agenor. Guia Prático de Tradução Inglesa. São Paulo: Cultrix. SWAN, M. A Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press. THOMPSON, A. J.; MARTINET, A.V. A Practical English Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Outras fontes WALKER, S. B. Candidate´s Handbook: English. Brasília: FUNAG, 2000. Internet: Há numerosos dicionários e glossários disponíveis em linha, bem como variadas fontes de informações e de consulta. Duas referências iniciais, a título meramente indicativo: http://www.yourdictionary.com; http://www.bbc.co.uk

Prova de 2009 TRANSLATION (Total: 35 marks) PART A (20 marks) Translate into Portuguese the following excerpt adapted from Edward Said’s 1993 Reith Lecture “Intellectual exile: expatriates and marginals. What is the proper role of the intellectual in today’s society?” Exile means being neither entirely at one with the new setting, nor fully disencumbered of the old; beset with half-involvements and half-detachments; nostalgic and sentimental yet equally a consummate mimic or secret outcast. Being adept at survival becomes the imperative, with the dangers of getting too comfortable and secure constituting a threat constantly to be guarded against. Salim, the main character of V.S. Naipaul’s novel “A Bend in the River,” is an affecting instance of the modern intellectual in exile: an East African Muslim of Indian origin, he has left the coast and journeyed into the interior, where he survives precariously in a new state modelled on Mobutu's Zaire. Naipaul portrays Salim’s life at a 'bend in the river’ as a no-man’s-land, to which hail the European intellectual advisers (who succeed the idealistic missionaries of colonial times), as well as the assorted mercenaries, profiteers, and other Third World drifters in whose ambience Salim is forced to live, gradually forfeiting his property and integrity in the mounting confusion. As the novel unravels, the natives themselves have become exiles in their own country, so preposterous and erratic are the whims of the ruler, Big Man, a symbol of all post-colonial regimes.

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GUILHERME FITZGIBBON ALVES PEREIRA (19/20) Exílio significa estar nem integrado por completo ao novo ambiente, tampouco totalmente desprendido do antigo; acometido de semi-envolvimentos e semi-destacamentos; nostálgico e sentimental, mas em igual medida um mímico contumaz ou um excluído secreto. A maestria na sobrevivência torna-se um imperativo, os perigos de acomodar-se e de tornarse seguro demais constituindo uma ameaça contra a qual deve-se proteger constantemente. Salim, o personagem principal do romance Uma curva no rio, de V. S. Naipaul, é um exemplo tocante do intelectual exilado moderno: muçulmano de origem indiana do leste africano, ele deixou o litoral e rumou ao interior, onde sobrevive precariamente em um Estado baseado no Zaire de Mobutu. Naipaul retrata a vida de Salim em uma “curva no rio” como uma terra de ninguém, para onde dirigem-se os conselheiros intelectuais europeus (sucessores dos missionários idealistas de épocas coloniais), bem como diversos mercenários, gananciosos e outros golpistas terceiro-mundistas em cuja companhia Salim é forçado a viver, gradualmente renunciando a suas propriedades e sua integridade no ambiente de crescente agitação. Conforme o romance se desenvolve, os próprios nativos tornam-se exilados em seu próprio país, tão absurdos e erráticos são os desmandos do governante, Grande Homem, um símbolo de todos os regimes políticos pós-coloniais. PART B (15 marks) Translate into English the following excerpt adapted from a special Folha de São Paulo report on Sri Lanka by Roberto Candelori published 18th May 2009: O Sri Lanka vê-se diante de um conflito que já dura um quarto de século. Com uma população dividida entre cingaleses budistas (74%) e tâmeis de orientação hindu (18%), o antigo Ceilão tornou-se um "banho de sangue", segundo a ONU. O país conquistou a independência dos britânicos em 1948, quando começou a implantação de políticas discriminatórias contra a minoria tâmil, que tivera lugar de destaque na administração colonial. Sucessivos governos baixaram leis que cercearam os direitos dos tâmeis ao imporlhes o cingalês como língua oficial e restringir-lhes o acesso à educação superior e a cargos públicos. Revoltados, os tâmeis passaram a reagir, exigindo a igualdade linguística, social e religiosa. Em 25 anos de conflito, estima-se que tenham ocorrido até 100 mil mortes, e o futuro parece não menos assustador. Mais de 250 mil tâmeis encontram-se agora sob a mira dos fuzis e sob o silêncio da comunidade internacional. A ordem é atirar. JOSÉ ROBERTO HALL BRUM DE BARROS (13,5/15) Sri Lanka faces a conflict that has already been going on for a quarter of a century. With a population divided between Buddhist Singalis (74%) and Hindu Tamils (18%), former Ceylan has become a “blood bath”, according to the UN. The country achieved its independence from the British in 1948, when it started the implementation of discriminatory measures against the Tamil minority which had occupied key positions in the colonial administration. Successive governments passed laws that curtailed Tamils' rights, by imposing Singali on them as an official language and denying them access to higher education and public offices. The Tamils, outraged, began to fight back, demanding linguistic, social, and religious equality. In 25 years of conflict, one hundred thousand deaths have been estimated, and the future seems no less dreadful. Over 250 thousand Tamils are now under guns' sights and under the silence of international society. The order is to shoot. 60

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SUMMARY (Total: 15 marks) Write a summary in your own words not over 200 words in length of the following excerpt adapted from “Open up,”an Economist special report on migration published 3rd January 2008. Enoch Powell had a point. The radical British Conservative politician warned, nearly four decades ago, that immigrants were causing such strife that “like the Roman, I seem to see the River Tiber foaming with much blood.” That proved to be nonsense, as did his advice that migrants should be encouraged to leave. Had they done so, Britain and other rich countries that depend heavily on foreign labour would be in a dreadful state. One prediction he made was spot on, however: that by about now, one in ten people in Britain would be migrants. At the last count in 2005, the foreign-born made up 9.7% of the British population. By historical standards, that is high but consistent with that in other rich economies. In America the proportion is now about 13%, not far off the 15% peak reached shortly before World War I. What is particularly striking in Europe is that countries which had hitherto known only emigration, e.g. Ireland or Greece, now have an influx typical of countries like Australia and the U.S. This special report argues that both emigration and immigration countries, as well as the migrants themselves, have been coping remarkably well with this new force reshaping our world. Yet ominous signs are emerging of a shrill backlash against immigration on both sides of the Atlantic. Politicians may tinker with migration policies. They will certainly, under public pressure, pump extra resources and energy into building more fences and walls to keep foreigners out. By linking immigration to terrorism, they may even make their societies more fiercely policed. The basic forces driving migration, though, are unlikely to ebb. Migrants move mainly for economic reasons. Most appear to do so legally. The number of illegal migrants is by definition hard to ascertain, but likely to be smaller than the legal sort. They probably comprise the bulk of those seen floating on rafts in the Mediterranean or scrabbling over the fence from Mexico to America. Others do not risk the high seas or physical borders, entering instead under some other guise, perhaps as tourists, and then staying on. Lastly, there are refugees and asylum-seekers, strictly defined as those escaping persecution but often including anybody forced to flee, for example from a war. According to the UN's refugee agency, at the close of 2006 some 10m people fell under this category. The number of migrants worldwide has been reckoned at 200m. That sounds a lot, but actually adds up to only 3% of the world's population, so there is ample potential for growth. Migration has proved a successful ploy for the world's poor to improve their lot. Nor is it the very poorest who travel, for money is required to travel overseas. In the 100 years to 1920, brighter prospects encouraged some 60m Europeans to uproot and move to the New World. A European crossing the Atlantic could expect to double his income. Today the incentives are even more enticing. Those moving from a poor country to a rich one can expect to see their income rise fivefold. As long as such differentials persist, the draw will continue. Demography too plays a big part. Not every migrant is bound for America or Europe: two in every five head for another poor or middle-income destination. Those aiming for the richest parts of the world, however, do their inhabitants a favour. Without them, the greying and increasingly choosy populations across the rich world would already be on the decline. 61

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That is paramount for their fast-changing economies, which consistently demand either highly skilled workers or those willing to do unpleasant and tiring jobs. One reason why much of the world has enjoyed a sustained economic boom with low inflation in the past decade is that the effective global workforce is expanding apace. The IMF estimates it has quadrupled since 1980. In all likelihood it will continue to grow, though at a slower rate, with a 40% increase in the world's working-age population forecast by 2050. According to the UN, the global stock of migrants has more than doubled in four decades. Not enough young natives have the skills or motivation, so the rich must hope outsiders will keep coming. And they will. Luckily for Europe and America, there are huge pools of workers eager to jump on the next plane, train or leaking raft to work abroad. This can prove beneficial for their countries of origin as well. If exporting brawn generally makes sense for a poor country, letting its better brains drain away may not. Most poor and middle-income countries grapple with chronic shortages of skilled labour. Professionals in demand abroad are the hardest to keep at home. In fact, if the lure is strong enough, it is virtually impossible to block the exit of the highly skilled. Rich countries are taking in more highly skilled migrants than ever before. Yet emigration of skilled workers may be a consequence rather than a cause of problems in the sending country. For example, nurses may be emigrating because their salaries are not being paid or because hospitals are crumbling; entrepreneurs may be relocating because the local business climate is wretched. Halting emigration - even if that were feasible - would not solve these problems. Nurses might still quit their jobs, would-be entrepreneurs might sit on their hands. Indeed, some argue that emigration can actually enhance the stock of brainpower. Migrants spend longer studying, pick up more skills and experience, and may then return home. Remittances are often used to fund schooling. Moreover, the prospect of emigration and prosperity abroad may induce others to get an education. All this suggests that the consequences of emigration, albeit not negligible, are tricky to measure. Governments should thus endeavour to tackle the factors pushing their skilled professionals out. If émigrés can be enticed back home, even for short spells, so much the better. Unfettered movement of capital and goods has made the world a far richer place while greater human mobility has not only created wealth but also helped share it out more evenly. The billions in remittances repatriated each year eloquently testify to that. The cost of keeping people out would be steep. Nasty surprises are constantly sprung on us. Wars can suddenly displace millions, who may start out as refugees but frequently end up as migrants. Some claim that climate change may forcibly relocate tens of millions of people in the space of decades. Misguided policies, a backlash over terrorism or a failure to integrate migrants could all pose serious problems. Nonetheless, 40 years on, it seems clear that Mr Powell was utterly amiss in everything save his sums.

As nowadays developed migration

THOMAZ ALEXANDRE MAYER NAPOLEÃO (14/15) Conservative politician Enoch Powell once predicted, migrants constitute one tenth of the entire British population, a rate comparable to that of other societies. Contrary to his expectations, however, violence has not ensued. Instead, has brought positive overall results to the persons and countries involved,

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including those formerly used to emigration which are now in the receiving end, such as Greece and Ireland. While governments may adopt harsh migration policies, the phenomenon is too vigorous to be stopped. Migrants are mostly legal, though clandestine flows exist. They constitute roughly 200 million people, 10 million of whom are refugees or asylum-seekers. Income inequalty and demographic growth are key factors. Migrants may earn five times as much when abroad; around 60% of them head to wealthy countries, thus helping overcome the trends towards populational decrease in these parts. This could be a problem for developing nations, but may turn out to be a blessing instead, since successful migrants may return home or repatriate their earnings. It would be unwise to curtail migration, as it fosters global prosperity. Nevertheless, since unexpected tragedies may occur, it is crucial to promote sound integration measures.

COMPOSITION (Total: 50 marks) At the beginning of the 21st century, migration continues to loom large as a subject of media interest, of community preoccupation and of political controversy. Nevertheless, the discourse has evolved significantly in recent years, both in terms of substance and tone, and is now conducted with noticeably less acrimony than before and with much reduced levels of distrust between developed and developing countries. For instance, at [several recent high-level international conferences] participants were, in general, disposed to agree that migration holds considerable potential for economic and social development. At the same time, however, it was apparent that there is much more to be done before agreement can be reached on appropriate management strategies to be put in place, both nationally and on the international level, for that promise to be realized. The task of formulating a workable global approach to the management of international migration remains a formidable challenge, and one that will require both time and effort over the coming years. An extract from the Introduction to World Migration 2008: managing labour mobility in the evolving global economy. Geneva: International Organization for Migration, 2008, p. 1.

Taking into account the points made above, discuss the main issues involved in the contemporary political debate on migration. (Length: 350-400 words)

THOMAZ ALEXANDRE MAYER NAPOLEÃO (40,5/50) Due to the persistent gap between industrialized and underdeveloped countries, migration remains a vital issue in contemporary world politics. As humanity evolves towards a near-consensus on the inevitability of this phenomenon and its potential to generate global progress, the topic gradually becomes less controversial. Notwithstanding this trend, numerous disagreements regarding migration policy still exist. The debate concerns three complex subjects above all others: the economic consequences of human mobility, the risks involved in terms of trafficking and terrorism, and the impact of migration upon national cultures and identities. The economic side of migration, if examined through the lenses of sheer and cold rationality, would seen to be utterly simple: while some countries have a diminishing workforce, others can barely feed their ever-expanding population, so it would be logical to 63

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encourage human flows from the latter group of nations to the former. Unsurprisingly, the issue is not that straightforward. Not all developing states are willing to cede their best and brightest citizens, as they fear the impact of an unequal flux of skilled workers, the so-called brain drain. Conversely, some industrial countries do not feel they can accommodate every potential migrant. Hence, limits and quotas are often established. Secondly, the security threats possibly linked to the increasing migration flows are manifold. As the United States painfully learned on September 11th, 2001, not all foreigners legally settled are harmless. Beyond terrorism, other risks may be ushered by the uncontrolled movement of humans, namely drug trafficking and the clandestine trade of arms and other goods. Even diseases, such as the swine flu from Mexico, can be transmitted freely through migration. Last but not least, it is evident that the cultural features of some countries, such as their language, religion and habits, will be partially under pressure if and when large inflows of migrants arrive. This is a delicate issue in Europe, where it often leads to prejudice and even xenophobia. Two opposite sets of policies claim to offer the best solution in this sense: the British usually allow foreigners to gather and form their own separate communities, whereas the French prefer to assimilate all migrants by imposing the so-called “Republican values” upon them. Whether we study it from the economic perspective, the security angle, or the cultural point of view, migration continues to raise concerns and generate opportunities. One thing is clear, though: no country or society will be able to design and implement sound migration policies without paying the utmost attention to the quintessential human values of tolerance, respect, and cooperation.

Exemplos de temas para redação em anos anteriores: 2008 “Nationalism – Internationalism. These abstract words, so often abused, so often misunderstood, cover high ideals and strong emotions, reflect modes of thought and action that shape our world. We often see the word ‘nationalism’ used in a derogatory sense. The same is true of the word ‘internationalism’. When nationalism connotes, for example, a ‘go-italone’ isolationism, and internationalism an outlook that belittles the significance of national life and of nations as centres of political action and spiritual tradition, the words become contradictory and the attitudes they describe irreconcilable. From such interpretations of the words comes the tendency to think of nationalism as in fundamental conflict with an internationalist attitude.” Discuss the above statement, adapted from an address by then United Nations Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld at Stanford University in 1955, in the light of current international political events. 2007 Write a composition on the following quotation from Albert Einstein: “The unleashed power of the atom has changed everything save our modes of thinking and we thus drift toward unparalleled catastrophe.” 64

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2006 Awareness that change is a constant feature of human life is as old as civilisation. However, more recently, technological development has greatly enhanced both the prospects for rapid change and the range of its social, political, and cultural impact. Bearing this in mind, comment on Berman’s contention (in Muqtedar Khan’s text “Radical Islam, Liberal Islam” in section 2 above) that “those motivated by aversion for liberalism will continue to seek the downfall of the West as long as its culture continues to influence the world, the Muslim World in particular”. 2005 Read the following editorial from the Washington Post, 20th March, 2005, and in the light of it and of the text by Richard Gott in section 2, comment on the geopolitical, social, and economic issues raised as they affect South American integration. A Threat to Latin Democracy Another Latin American democracy is on the verge of crumbling under pressure from leftist populism. The trouble comes this time in Bolivia, where a democratic president and Congress face a paralyzing mix of strikes and roadblocks by a radical movement opposed to foreign investment and free-market capitalism. The insurgents, who claim to represent the country's indigenous population, drove one democratically elected president from office 18 months ago; now they are working on his successor, Carlos Mesa, who has searched valiantly but unsuccessfully for compromise. The populists ride a leftist wave of momentum in Latin America and have the rhetorical, and possibly material, support of the region's self-styled "Bolivarian" revolutionary, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez. The democrats could use some outside help, from their neighbors and the United States. Accounts of political crises in Andean countries such as Bolivia sometimes portray a poor and disenfranchised indigenous majority pitted against an ethnically European and mestizo elite. The facts tell a different story in Bolivia. Mr. Mesa, polls show, has the support of two-thirds of his compatriots, while the party leading the protests, the Movement Toward Socialism, has never received more than 21 percent of the vote in an election. Nor is it the case that Bolivia's experiment with free-market policies in the 1990s failed to help the poor. Per capita incomes rose by 20 percent in the second half of the decade. Thanks to private foreign investment, significantly more Bolivians gained access to water, sewage systems and electricity. The populist minority, led by former coca farmer Evo Morales, is bent on using force to reverse that progress. Already it has effectively blocked natural gas exports to the United States. Its current strikes are aimed at stopping further foreign investment in that industry through confiscatory taxes and reversing the privatization of other industries. Mr. Mesa, swearing off the use of force to break up the roadblocks, has countered with democratic political tactics: first a national referendum on a compromise gas policy, then an accord with Congress on political and economic reforms. Last week, in desperation, he proposed that his own term as president be cut short and new elections be held in August; Congress rejected the proposal, and Mr. Mesa later announced he would stay on. But the opposition still threatens to renew a blockade that is devastating one of the hemisphere's poorest economies and 65

GUIA DE ESTUDOS PARA O CONCURSO DE ADMISSÃO À CARREIRA DE DIPLOMATA

prompting talk of secession in Bolivia's relatively prosperous and pro-capitalist eastern provinces. All of this is good news for Mr. Chavez, who along with Cuba's Fidel Castro dreams of a new bloc of Latin "socialist" (i.e., undemocratic) regimes that will join with like-minded states such as Iran, Libya and China to oppose the United States. Bolivia's neighbors, including Brazil, Argentina and Chile, ought to be alarmed by this trend; but though their own leftist governments have expressed support for Mr. Mesa they have refrained from more concerted action -- such as demanding that Mr. Chavez cease his meddling. The State Department issued a statement last week expressing "support for the people of Bolivia and a peaceful democratic process." If there is a deeper U.S. policy to head off the breakdown of democracy in Latin America, there isn't much sign of it. ***

NOÇÕES DE ECONOMIA A prova de Noções de Economia consistirá de quatro questões discursivas, duas das quais com o valor de 30 (trinta) pontos cada uma e duas com o valor de 20 (vinte) pontos cada uma. As respostas às questões com o valor de 30 (trinta) pontos terão, cada uma, a extensão máxima de 60 linhas; as respostas às questões com o valor de 20 (vinte) pontos terão, cada uma, a extensão máxima de 40 linhas. Programa (Primeira e Terceira Fases): 1. Microeconomia. 1.1. Demanda do Consumidor. Preferências. Curvas de indiferença. Restrição orçamentária. Equilíbrio do consumidor. Mudanças de equilíbrio, efeito-preço, efeitorenda e efeito-substituição. Taxa marginal de substituição. Curva de demanda. Deslocamento da curva e ao longo da curva. Elasticidade-preço e elasticidade-renda. Classificação de bens. Excedente do consumidor. 1.2. Oferta do Produtor. Fatores de produção. Função de produção. Isoquantas. Elasticidade-preço da oferta. Rendimentos de fator. Rendimentos de escala. Custos de produção. Excedente do produtor. 1.3. Concorrência Perfeita, Monopólio, Concorrência Monopolística e Oligopólio. Comportamento das empresas. Determinação de preços e quantidades de equilíbrio. 2. Macroeconomia. 2.1. Contabilidade Nacional. Os conceitos de Produto e Renda Interna, Produto e Renda Nacional, Renda Disponível Bruta, Poupança Bruta Doméstica e capacidade ou necessidade de Financiamento Externo. Conceitos e cálculo do Déficit Público. A Conta de Balanço de Pagamentos: estrutura e cálculo do resultado do Balanço. Números Índices. Deflator Implícito e Índices de Preço ao Consumidor. 2.2. Evolução do pensamento macroeconômico. Keynesianismo, monetarismo e escolas posteriores. 2.3. Mercado de trabalho. Determinação do nível de emprego. 2.4. Funções da moeda. Criação e distribuição de moeda. Oferta da moeda e mecanismos de controle. Procura da moeda. Papel do Banco Central. Moeda e preços no longo prazo. 2.5. Poupança e investimento. Sistema financeiro. 66

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Guia de Estudos - CACD Inglês

GUIA DE ESTUDOS PARA O CONCURSO DE ADMISSÃO À CARREIRA DE DIPLOMATA incremento do trânsito na região de fronteira, consubstanciada na nova ponte sobr...

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