Global Journal of Management and Business - Global Journals

Loading...

Online ISSN : 2249-460X Print ISSN : 0975-587X

Determinants of Football Games

Model of McKinsey

Practices and Personality Ethical

VOLUME 15

Análise Preditiva Do Campeonato

ISSUE 10

VERSION 1.0

Global Journal of Management and Business Research: A Administration and Management

Global Journal of Management and Business Research: A Administration and Management Volume 15 Issue 10 (Ver. 1.0)

Open Association of Research Society

© Global Journal of Management and Business Research. 2015. All rights reserved. This is a special issue published in version 1.0 of “Global Journal of Science Frontier Research.” By Global Journals Inc. All articles are open access articles distributed under “Global Journal of Science Frontier Research” Reading License, which permits restricted use. Entire contents are copyright by of “Global Journal of Science Frontier Research” unless otherwise noted on specific articles. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission. The opinions and statements made in this book are those of the authors concerned. Ultraculture has not verified and neither confirms nor denies any of the foregoing and no warranty or fitness is implied. Engage with the contents herein at your own risk. The use of this journal, and the terms and conditions for our providing information, is governed by our Disclaimer, Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy given on our website http://globaljournals.us/terms-and-condition/ menu-id-1463/

By referring / using / reading / any type of association / referencing this journal, this signifies and you acknowledge that you have read them and that you accept and will be bound by the terms thereof. All information, journals, this journal, activities undertaken, materials, services and our website, terms and conditions, privacy policy, and this journal is subject to change anytime without any prior notice. Incorporation No.: 0423089 License No.: 42125/022010/1186 Registration No.: 430374 Import-Export Code: 1109007027 Employer Identification Number (EIN): USA Tax ID: 98-0673427

Global Journals Inc. (A Delaware USA Incorporation with “Good Standing”; Reg. Number: 0423089)

Sponsors: Open Association of Research Society Open Scientific Standards

Publisher’s Headquarters office Global Journals Headquarters 301st Edgewater Place Suite, 100 Edgewater Dr.-Pl, Wakefield MASSACHUSETTS, Pin: 01880, United States of America USA Toll Free: +001-888-839-7392 USA Toll Free Fax: +001-888-839-7392

Offset Typesetting Global Journals Incorporated 2nd, Lansdowne, Lansdowne Rd., Croydon-Surrey, Pin: CR9 2ER, United Kingdom Packaging & Continental Dispatching Global Journals E-3130 Sudama Nagar, Near Gopur Square, Indore, M.P., Pin:452009, India Find a correspondence nodal officer near you To find nodal officer of your country, please email us at [email protected] eContacts Press Inquiries: [email protected] Investor Inquiries: [email protected] Technical Support: [email protected] Media & Releases: [email protected] Pricing (Including by Air Parcel Charges): For Authors: 22 USD (B/W) & 50 USD (Color) Yearly Subscription (Personal & Institutional): 200 USD (B/W) & 250 USD (Color)

Integrated Editorial Board (Computer Science, Engineering, Medical, Management, Natural Science, Social Science)

John A. Hamilton,"Drew" Jr., Ph.D., Professor, Management Computer Science and Software Engineering Director, Information Assurance Laboratory Auburn University

Dr. Wenying Feng Professor, Department of Computing & Information Systems Department of Mathematics Trent University, Peterborough, ON Canada K9J 7B8

Dr. Henry Hexmoor IEEE senior member since 2004 Ph.D. Computer Science, University at Buffalo Department of Computer Science Southern Illinois University at Carbondale

Dr. Thomas Wischgoll Computer Science and Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio B.S., M.S., Ph.D. (University of Kaiserslautern)

Dr. Osman Balci, Professor Department of Computer Science Virginia Tech, Virginia University Ph.D.and M.S.Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York M.S. and B.S. Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey

Dr. Abdurrahman Arslanyilmaz Computer Science & Information Systems Department Youngstown State University Ph.D., Texas A&M University University of Missouri, Columbia Gazi University, Turkey

Yogita Bajpai M.Sc. (Computer Science), FICCT U.S.A.Email: [email protected]

Dr. Xiaohong He Professor of International Business University of Quinnipiac BS, Jilin Institute of Technology; MA, MS, PhD,. (University of Texas-Dallas)

Dr. T. David A. Forbes Associate Professor and Range Nutritionist Ph.D. Edinburgh University - Animal Nutrition M.S. Aberdeen University - Animal Nutrition B.A. University of Dublin- Zoology

Burcin Becerik-Gerber University of Southern California Ph.D. in Civil Engineering DDes from Harvard University M.S. from University of California, Berkeley & Istanbul University

Dr. Bart Lambrecht Director of Research in Accounting and FinanceProfessor of Finance Lancaster University Management School BA (Antwerp); MPhil, MA, PhD (Cambridge) Dr. Carlos García Pont Associate Professor of Marketing IESE Business School, University of Navarra Doctor of Philosophy (Management), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Master in Business Administration, IESE, University of Navarra Degree in Industrial Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya Dr. Fotini Labropulu Mathematics - Luther College University of ReginaPh.D., M.Sc. in Mathematics B.A. (Honors) in Mathematics University of Windso

Dr. Söhnke M. Bartram Department of Accounting and FinanceLancaster University Management SchoolPh.D. (WHU Koblenz) MBA/BBA (University of Saarbrücken) Dr. Miguel Angel Ariño Professor of Decision Sciences IESE Business School Barcelona, Spain (Universidad de Navarra) CEIBS (China Europe International Business School). Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen Ph.D. in Mathematics University of Barcelona BA in Mathematics (Licenciatura) University of Barcelona Philip G. Moscoso Technology and Operations Management IESE Business School, University of Navarra Ph.D in Industrial Engineering and Management, ETH Zurich M.Sc. in Chemical Engineering, ETH Zurich

Dr. Lynn Lim Reader in Business and Marketing Roehampton University, London BCom, PGDip, MBA (Distinction), PhD, FHEA

Dr. Sanjay Dixit, M.D. Director, EP Laboratories, Philadelphia VA Medical Center Cardiovascular Medicine - Cardiac Arrhythmia Univ of Penn School of Medicine

Dr. Mihaly Mezei ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR Department of Structural and Chemical Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medical Center Ph.D., Etvs Lornd University Postdoctoral Training, New York University

Dr. Han-Xiang Deng MD., Ph.D Associate Professor and Research Department Division of Neuromuscular Medicine Davee Department of Neurology and Clinical NeuroscienceNorthwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Dr. Pina C. Sanelli Associate Professor of Public Health Weill Cornell Medical College Associate Attending Radiologist NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital MRI, MRA, CT, and CTA Neuroradiology and Diagnostic Radiology M.D., State University of New York at Buffalo,School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences

Dr. Michael R. Rudnick M.D., FACP Associate Professor of Medicine Chief, Renal Electrolyte and Hypertension Division (PMC) Penn Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Presbyterian Medical Center, Philadelphia Nephrology and Internal Medicine Certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine

Dr. Roberto Sanchez Associate Professor Department of Structural and Chemical Biology Mount Sinai School of Medicine Ph.D., The Rockefeller University

Dr. Bassey Benjamin Esu B.Sc. Marketing; MBA Marketing; Ph.D Marketing Lecturer, Department of Marketing, University of Calabar Tourism Consultant, Cross River State Tourism Development Department Co-ordinator , Sustainable Tourism Initiative, Calabar, Nigeria

Dr. Wen-Yih Sun Professor of Earth and Atmospheric SciencesPurdue University Director National Center for Typhoon and Flooding Research, Taiwan University Chair Professor Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Chung-Li, TaiwanUniversity Chair Professor Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.Ph.D., MS The University of Chicago, Geophysical Sciences BS National Taiwan University, Atmospheric Sciences Associate Professor of Radiology

Dr. Aziz M. Barbar, Ph.D. IEEE Senior Member Chairperson, Department of Computer Science AUST - American University of Science & Technology Alfred Naccash Avenue – Ashrafieh

President Editor (HON.) Dr. George Perry, (Neuroscientist) Dean and Professor, College of Sciences Denham Harman Research Award (American Aging Association) ISI Highly Cited Researcher, Iberoamerican Molecular Biology Organization AAAS Fellow, Correspondent Member of Spanish Royal Academy of Sciences University of Texas at San Antonio Postdoctoral Fellow (Department of Cell Biology) Baylor College of Medicine Houston, Texas, United States Chief Author (HON.) Dr. R.K. Dixit M.Sc., Ph.D., FICCT Chief Author, India Email: [email protected] Dean & Editor-in-Chief (HON.) Vivek Dubey(HON.) MS (Industrial Engineering), MS (Mechanical Engineering) University of Wisconsin, FICCT Editor-in-Chief, USA [email protected] Sangita Dixit M.Sc., FICCT Dean & Chancellor (Asia Pacific) [email protected] Suyash Dixit (B.E., Computer Science Engineering), FICCTT President, Web Administration and Development , CEO at IOSRD COO at GAOR & OSS

Er. Suyog Dixit (M. Tech), BE (HONS. in CSE), FICCT SAP Certified Consultant CEO at IOSRD, GAOR & OSS Technical Dean, Global Journals Inc. (US) Website: www.suyogdixit.com Email:[email protected] Pritesh Rajvaidya (MS) Computer Science Department California State University BE (Computer Science), FICCT Technical Dean, USA Email: [email protected] Luis Galárraga J!Research Project Leader Saarbrücken, Germany

Contents of the Issue

i. ii. iii. iv.

Copyright Notice Editorial Board Members Chief Author and Dean Contents of the Issue

1. 2. 3. 4.

Problems of Micro Manufacturing Entrepreneurs in Chittoor District. 1-6 Analyzing Organizational Structure based on 7s Model of Mckinsey. 7-12 Determinants of Football Games Demand in Brazil and England. 13-23 Contact of Communal Ethical Practices and Personality Ethical Behavioral Organizational Job Pleasure. 25-36 Análise Preditiva Do Campeonato Brasileiro. 37-48

5.

v. vi. vii. viii.

Fellows and Auxiliary Memberships Process of Submission of Research Paper Preferred Author Guidelines Index

Global Journal of Management and Business Research: A Administration and Management Volume 15 Issue 10 Version 1.0 Year 2015 Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA) Online ISSN: 2249-4588 & Print ISSN: 0975-5853

Problems of Micro Manufacturing Entrepreneurs in Chittoor District By Dr. P. Sankarappa, Dr. P. Siva Kumar & Prof. B. Bhagavan Reddy S.V. University, India

Introduction- In present scenario of business, the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) have been accepted as the engine of growth for promoting equitable development. The MSME sector in India is highly heterogeneous in terms of the size of the enterprises, variety of products, services and levels of technology. The sector not only plays a critical role in providing employment opportunities at comparatively lower capital cost than large industries but also helps in industrialization of rural and backward areas, reducing regional imbalances and assuring more equitable distribution of national income and wealth. The MSMEs contribute nearly 22 percent of the country’s GDP, 45 percent of the manufacturing output and 40 percent of the exports. GJMBR - A Classification : JEL Code: L26

ProblemsofMicroManufacturingEntrepreneursin ChittoorDistrict

Strictly as per the compliance and regulations of:

© 2015. Dr. P. Sankarappa, Dr. P. Siva Kumar & Prof. B. Bhagavan Reddy. This is a research/review paper, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/bync/3.0/), permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Problems of Micro Manufacturing Entrepreneurs in Chittoor District Introduction

n present scenario of business, the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) have been accepted as the engine of growth for promoting equitable development. The MSME sector in India is highly heterogeneous in terms of the size of the enterprises, variety of products, services and levels of technology. The sector not only plays a critical role in providing employment opportunities at comparatively lower capital cost than large industries but also helps in industrialization of rural and backward areas, reducing regional imbalances and assuring more equitable distribution of national income and wealth. The MSMEs contribute nearly 22 percent of the country’s GDP, 45 percent of the manufacturing output and 40 percent of the exports. Despite a vital role MSMEs play in the Indian economy, their development hampered by a number of problems and constrains. Therefore, an attempt is made in this article to analyse the problems confronted by micro manufacturing entrepreneurs in the Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh. II.

Methodology

The universe of the study is spread over the whole of Chittoor district. The study is confined to micro manufacturing enterprises as incorporated in the MSMEs Development Act, 2006. In Chittoor district,

there are 176 agro, food and allied; 81mechanical and metallurgical; 206 chemical, plastic and rubber; 238 glass and ceramics; 39 paper; 30 textiles; 14 wooden; 9 electrical and electronics; and 5 leather and footwear units. For a meaningful analysis of cross sectional data, there shall be a minimum of 25 units. In the first instance, the last three categories are excluded since the number of units registered with the DIC itself is less than 25. In the case of textiles, nearly half of the units are sick/ closed. Finally, five categories are left and therefore, the researcher has to necessarily select the samples from these categories. One hundred and twenty five units spread over five categories are purposely brought into the sample frame. Thus, stratified random sample technique is conveniently adopted.

Problems

III.

The various problems and constraints of micro manufacturing entrepreneurs discussed in this section. a) Finance A look at the Table 1 shows that, 81 out of 125 entrepreneurs have faced the problems such as non availability, delay and high rate of interest in obtaining funds. If all the 81 respondents are put together, the highest, 23.46 per cent have cited non-availability of funds, high rate of interest, delay in obtaining funds and lack of security to offer followed by 14.81 percent non

Table 1 : Problems Faced by Micro Entrepreneurs in Obtaining Finance Type of problems

Agro, food Mechanical and and metallurgical allied

Chemical, plastic and rubber

Glass and ceramics

Paper

Total

1 (6.25) 3 (18.75)

2 (13.33)

2 (9.52) 2 (9.52)

2 (15.38) 1 (7.69)

7 (8.64) 10 (12.35)

-

2 (12.50)

1 (6.67)

-

3 (23.08)

6 (7.41)

1 (6.25)

3 (18.75)

1 (6.67)

3 (14.29)

3 (23.08)

11 (13.58)

Non- availability of funds

-

High rate of interest

4 (25.00)

Delay in obtaining funds Non- availability of funds and lack of security

-

Author α : Academic Consultant, Dept. of Commerce, S.V. University, Tirupati. e-mail: [email protected] Author σ : UGC Post Doctoral Fellow, Dept. of Commerce, S.V. University, Tirupati. Author ρ: Dean, Faculty of Commerce and Management, S.V. University, Tirupati. © 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

2015

I

I.

ρ

Year

σ

1

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

α

Dr. P. Sankarappa , Dr. P. Siva Kumar & Prof. B. Bhagavan Reddy

Year

2015

Problems of Micro Manufacturing Entrepreneurs in Chittoor District

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

2

Non- availability of funds and high rate of interest

2 (12.50)

1 (6.25)

2 (13.33)

3 (14.29)

1 (7.69)

9 (11.11)

High rate of interest and delay in obtaining funds

2 (12.50)

1 (6.25)

3 (20.00)

1 (4.76)

-

7 (8.64)

Non- availability of funds, lack of security, high rate of interest and delay in obtaining funds

3 (18.75)

3 (18.75)

5 (33.33)

6 (28.57)

2 (15.38)

19 (23.46)

Non-availability of funds, high rate of interest and delay in obtaining funds

4 (25.00)

2 (12.50)

1 (6.67)

4 (19.05)

1 (7.69)

12 (14.81)

15 (100.00)

21 (100.00)

13 (100.00)

81 (100.00)

16 16 (100.00) (100.00) Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the percentage to total. Source: Compiled from field data. Total

availability of funds, high rate of interest and delay in obtaining funds, 13.58 per cent non availability of funds and lack of security, 12.35 per cent high rate of interest, 11.11 per cent non-availability of funds and high rate of interest, 8.64 per cent non-availability of funds and 7.41 per cent delay in obtaining funds as leading problems. The respondents who have faced problems in obtaining funds are spread over in all the industrial categories without any exception. Those in glass and ceramics formed the highest (21) followed by each of agro, food and allied and mechanical and metallurgical (16), chemical, plastic and rubber (15) and paper (13). None of the respondents in agro, food and allied have referred to either non-availability of funds or delay in obtaining funds. In the case of glass and ceramics, those who have faced delay in obtaining funds are nil. Similarly, no one had reported high rate of interest and delay in obtaining funds in paper. The share of respondents spread over different problems varied across the categories in varying proportions. Those who reported non-availability were in the range of 6.25- 15.38 per cent, high rate of interest 7.69- 25 per cent, delay in obtaining loans 6.67- 23.08 per cent, non-availability of funds and lack of security 6.25- 23.08 per cent, nonavailability of funds and high rate of interest 6.25- 14.29 per cent, high rate of interest and delay in obtaining

funds 4.76- 20 per cent, non- availability of funds, lack of security, high rate of interest and delay in obtaining funds 15.38- 33.33 per cent and availability of funds, high rate of interest and delay in obtaining funds 6.6725 per cent. b) Raw materials It can be observed from the Table 2 that, if all the units are taken as a whole, the highest, 21.62 per cent have perceived that the fluctuation in the prices of raw materials is high followed by scarcity, high fluctuations in prices and high transportation cost (19.82 per cent), high prices and transportation cost (17.12 per cent), high fluctuations in prices and irregular supply (12.61 per cent), high fluctuations in prices and poor quality and high prices, fluctuations in prices and irregular supply (9.91 per cent each) and high fluctuations in prices (9.01 per cent). Across the industrial categories, the perceptions of respondents have varied considerably. In the case of mechanical and metallurgical, 47.62 per cent, 23.81 per cent, 14.29 per cent, 9.52 per cent and 4.76 per cent have opinioned high prices and transportation cost, high fluctuations in prices, high fluctuations in prices and poor quality and high fluctuations in price and irregular supply respectively. In the rest of the cases, the respondents are absent. In the case of glass and ceramics, 26.09

Table 2 : Problems Faced by Micro Entrepreneurs in Procurement of Raw Materials Problems

Agro, food and allied

High price

6 (26.09)

High fluctuations in prices High price and transportation cost

© 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

4 (17.39)

Mechanical and metallurgical 10 (47.62) 3 (14.29) 5 (23.81)

Chemical, plastic and rubber

Glass and ceramics

-

3 (13.04)

4 (19.05) 3 (14.29)

6 (26.09)

Paper

Total

5 (21.74) 3 (13.04) 1 (4.35)

24 (21.62) 10 (9.01) 19 (17.12)

2 (9.52)

1 (4.76)

4 (17.39)

3 (13.04)

11 (9.91)

4 (17.39)

1 (4.76)

4 (19.05)

-

5 (21.74)

14 (12.61)

6 (26.09)

-

7 (33.33)

6 (26.09)

3 (13.04)

22 (19.82)

2 (8.70)

-

2 (9.52)

4 (17.39)

3 (13.04)

11 (9.91)

23 (100.00)

21 (100.00)

21 (100.00)

23 (100.00)

23 (100.00)

111 (100.00)

Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the percentage to total Source: Compiled from field data

per cent each have stated high price and transportation cost and scarcity, high fluctuations in prices and high cost of transportation, 17.39 per cent each high fluctuation in prices and poor quality and high prices, fluctuations in prices, irregular supply and 13.04 per cent, high prices. The respondents with the remaining two problems are absent. With regard to agro, food and allied, 26.09 per cent each have cited high price and scarcity, high fluctuations in prices and transportation charges as major problems followed by 17.39 per cent each, high price and transportation cost and high fluctuations in prices and irregular supply, 8.70 per cent high prices, fluctuations in prices and irregular supply, 4.35 per cent high fluctuations in price and poor quality. But those who cited high fluctuations in prices

are nil. In respect of chemical, plastic and rubber, the respondents are divided across the problems except those who have viewed that the prices of raw materials are high. The share of respondents was in the range of 4.76-33.33 per cent. The respondents under paper category have emerged in all the problem groups without any exceptions. Their proportion has varied between 4.35 per cent and 21.74 per cent. c) Labour A perusal respondents, 108 the entrepreneurs per cent have and indiscipline

of the Table 3 shows that, out of 125 have expressed labour problems. Of who have faced labour problems, 25 perceived absenteeism, shortage 20.37 per cent absenteeism and

Table 3 : Problems Faced by Units in Managing Hired Labour Agro, food and allied

Mechanical and metallurgical

Chemical, plastic and rubber

Glass and ceramics

Paper

Total

Absenteeism

2 (9.52)

2 (8.70)

2 (8.70)

-

4 (22.22)

10 (9.26)

Absenteeism and indiscipline Absenteeism and shortage of labour Absenteeism, indiscipline and demand for high wage Absenteeism, indiscipline and shortage of labour

4 (19.05) 4 (19.05)

2 (8.70) 6 (26.09)

2 (8.70) 5 (21.74)

3 (13.04) 5 (21.74)

2 (11.11) 2 (11.11)

13 (12.04) 22 (20.37)

3 (14.29)

4 (17.39)

1 (4.35)

6 (26.09)

2 (11.11)

16 (14.81)

4 (19.05)

4 (17.39)

7 (30.43)

6 (26.09)

6 (33.33)

27 (25.00)

4 (19.05)

5 (21.74)

6 (26.09)

3 (13.04)

2 (11.11)

20 (18.52)

21 (100.00)

23 (100.00)

23 (100.00)

23 (100.00)

18 (100.00)

108 (100.00)

Problems

Absenteeism, labour turnover and shortage of labour Total

Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the percentage to total Source: Compiled from field data © 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Year

Total

1 (4.35)

3

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

High fluctuations in prices and poor quality High fluctuations in prices and irregular supply Scarcity, high fluctuations in prices and high transportation cost High price, fluctuations in prices and irregular supply

2015

Problems of Micro Manufacturing Entrepreneurs in Chittoor District

Year

2015

Problems of Micro Manufacturing Entrepreneurs in Chittoor District

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

4

absenteeism and shortage, 18.52 per cent absenteeism, shortage of labour and labour turnover, 14.81 per cent absenteeism, demand for high wage and indiscipline, 12.04 per cent absenteeism and indiscipline and 9.26 per cent absenteeism. Of the 25 respondents in each category, 18 in paper, 21 in agro, food and allied and 23 each in mechanical and metallurgical, chemical, plastic and rubber and glass and ceramics have faced labour problems. Those who have faced the problem of absenteeism are in the range of 8.70 - 22.22 per cent, absenteeism and indiscipline 8.70 - 19.05 per cent, absenteeism, indiscipline and demand for high wage 4.35 – 26.09 per cent, absenteeism, indiscipline and shortage of labour 17.39 - 33.33 per cent and

absenteeism, labour turnover and shortage of labour 11.11 - 26.09 per cent. It may be noted that the respondents who have faced absenteeism exclusively are nil in glass and ceramics. d) Power Of the units, 70 have perceived the power problem. Of these 70 respondents, 55.70 per cent have cited power cuts as a major problem followed by power cuts and low voltage (31.40 per cent), power cuts, disruption and low voltage (7.10 per cent), power cuts and disruption (5.80 per cent) (see Table 4). In the case of mechanical and metallurgical category, 87.50 per cent have cited the problem of power cuts whereas the

Table 4 : Problems Encountered by Respondents Regarding Power supply Problems Power cut Power cut and disruption Power cut and low voltage Power cut, disruption and low voltage

Agro, food and allied

Mechanical and metallurgical

Chemical, plastic and rubber

Glass and ceramics

6 (46.20) 1 (7.70) 4 (30.80)

7 (87.50)

1 (12.50)

8 (61.50) 1 (7.70) 4 (30.80)

-

2 (15.40)

-

13 8 (100.00) (100.00) Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the percentage to total Source: Compiled from field data Total

rest, 12.5 per cent, power cuts and low voltage. With regard to agro, food and allied, those who have cited power cuts, power cuts and low voltage, power cuts, disruption and low voltage and power cuts and disruption as major problems have formed 46.20 per cent, 30.80 per cent, 15.40 per cent and 7.70 per cent respectively. In respect of chemical, plastic and rubber, 61.50 per cent, 30.80 per cent and 7.70 per cent have reported power cuts and low voltage and power cuts and power cuts and disruption serially. In the case of glass and ceramics, 23.80 per cent have mentioned power cuts, 9.60 per cent power cuts and disruption, 57.10 per cent power cuts and low voltage and 9.50 per cent power cuts, disruption and low voltage. With regard to paper those who have faced power cuts have accounted for 86.70 per cent and each 6.70 per cent power cuts and low voltage and power cuts, low voltage and disruption. The share of respondents who have cited power cuts and power cuts and low voltage have emerged in all the categories in varying proportions without any exception. Across the industrial categories, those who have confronted power problems are the © 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Paper

Total

5 (23.80) 2 (9.60) 12 (57.10)

13 (86.70)

1 (6.70)

39 (55.70) 4 (5.80) 22 (31.40)

-

2 (9.50)

1 (6.70)

5 (7.10)

13 (100.00)

21 (100.00)

15 (100.00)

70 (100.00)

-

highest in glass and ceramics (21) followed by paper (15), each of agro, food and allied, chemical, plastic and rubber (13) and mechanical and metallurgical (8). e) Marketing A glance at the Table 5 reveals that, among the industrial categories, those who have faced problems in marketing of goods have varied considerably. All the 25 units in paper, 24 in mechanical and metallurgical, 21 in chemical, plastic and rubber, 20 in agro, food and allied and 19 in glass and ceramics have faced marketing problems. In all, out of 125, 109 are subjected to marketing problem like competition, change of consumer taste, irregular demand, seasonal demand and transportation bottlenecks. Among the 109 respondents, 22.94 per cent each have cited competition and irregular demand and competition and transportation problems, 13.76 per cent competition and change in customer taste, 11.93 per cent change in consumer taste and irregular demand, 11.01 per cent competition, 9.17 per cent irregular demand and transportation problem and 8.26 per cent competition

Problems of Micro Manufacturing Entrepreneurs in Chittoor District

and seasonal demand. Across the industrial categories, their shares have varied significantly. Those who have faced competition are in the order of 4.17-12 per cent, competition and change in consumer taste 8.33-19.05 per cent, competition and irregular demand 10-47.37

per cent, competition and seasonal demand 5.26-15 per cent, competition and transportation problems 8.33-45 per cent, change in consumer taste and irregular demand, 4.76-45.83 per cent and irregular demand and transportation problems 4.76-16 per cent. In the case of

Competition and change of consumer taste Competition and irregular demand Competition and seasonal demand Competition and transportation problems Change of consumer taste and irregular demand Irregular demand and transportation problem Total

Mechanical and metallurgical

Chemical, plastic and rubber

Glass and ceramics

Paper

Total

2 (10.00)

1 (4.17)

4 (19.05)

2 (10.53)

3 (12.00)

12 (11.01)

3 (15.00)

2 (8.33)

4 (19.05)

3 (15.79)

3 (12.00)

15 (13.76)

2 (10.00) 3 (15.00)

5 (20.83)

5 (23.81) 3 (14.29)

9 (47.37) 1 (5.26)

4 (16.00) 2 (8.00)

25 (22.94) 9 (8.26)

9 (45.00)

2 (8.33)

3 (14.29)

2 (10.53)

9 (36.00)

25 (22.94)

-

11 (45.83)

1 (4.76)

1 (5.26)

-

13 (11.93)

1 (5.00)

3 (12.50)

1 (4.76)

1 (5.26)

4 (16.00)

10 (9.17)

20 (100.00)

24 (100.00)

21 (100.00)

19 (100.00)

25 (100.00)

109 (100.00)

-

Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the percentage to total Source: Compiled from field data.

glass, ceramics, mechanical and metallurgical, agro, food and allied, paper and chemical, plastic and rubber those who have faced the highest number of problems constituted 47.37, 45.83, 45, 36, and 23.81 sequentially. IV.

Conclusions

Nearly 65 per cent have faced the problems in obtaining finance. The respondents have stated multiple opinions over the acquisition of raw materials. The proportion of respondents is less than 40 per cent except high prices (47.62 per cent) in mechanical and metallurgical. The sample units are confronted with multiple problems with regard to labour in varying proportions across the industrial categories. Many units have faced marketing problems. Of the respondents who complained of problems, almost all the respondents felt that inadequate power has been a stumbling block to utilise the installed capacity fully.

3. 4.

5. 6.

7.

References Références Referencias

8.

1. Desai. (1983). Problems and Prospects of Small scale Industries in India. Bombay, Ind: Himalaya Publishing House. 2. Nirmala, K. (1990). Problems of Small-Scale Industries – A Study with special reference to Sattur

9.

Taluk. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Madurai Kamaraj University, Maduria, Tamil Nadu. Malgawakar, P.D. (1993). Problems of Small Industry: A Study in Andhra Pradesh. SIET, Hyderabad. Mali, D.D, (1998). Development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises of India: Current Scenario and Challenges. SEDME (Small Enterprises Development, Management and Extension) Journal, 25(4). Naik, C. (2001). Problems of Women Entrepreneurs. Southern Economist, .43(8), 17-18. Sasikala, D. (2003). A Study on Women Entrepreneurs Problems and Perspectives in Coimbatore Cit., Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Madurai Kamaraj University, Maduria, Tamil Nadu. Khom Raj Kharel. (2004). Current Statues, Opportunities and Challenges of Cottage and Small Scale Industries. Economic Journal of Nepal, 28(4), 257-63. Murugesan, V., and Sankaran, A. (2005). Entrepreneurial Perception of Problems in Tiny, Small, Medium and Large Scale Industries: A Comparative Perspective. SEDME, 32(2), 9-17. Madhavi, M., and Sujatha, M. (2009). Marketing Problems of Small and Medium Enterprises. Business Vision, 5(3), 96-101. © 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

2015

Competition

Agro, food and allied

Year

Problem

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

Table 5 : Problems Encountered by Micro Entrepreneurs in Marketing of Goods

5

Year

2015

Problems of Micro Manufacturing Entrepreneurs in Chittoor District

10. Sardar, G and Kumar, N.K. (2011). Marketing Strategies and Problems of MSMEs in A.P. Research Journal of Economics and Business Studies, 1(2), 20-32. 11. Kumbhar, D. A., & Kumbhar, D. D. (2011). “Problems and prospects of Women Entrepreneurs in India”, Global Economic Research, Vol. 1 No.1, 151-159. 12. Saurabh, S. (2012). “Issues and Challenges faced by Women entrepreneurs and their training needs”, SHIV SHAKTI International Journal of in Multidisciplinary and Academic Research (SSIJMAR), Vol. 1 No. 2, 1-8. 13. Vaidivu, T. S., & Devipriya, V. (2013). A Study on Problems of Women Entrepreneurs. Research Revolution, 1 (7), 20-23.

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

6

© 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Global Journal of Management and Business Research: A Administration and Management Volume 15 Issue 10 Version 1.0 Year 2015 Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA) Online ISSN: 2249-4588 & Print ISSN: 0975-5853

Analyzing Organizational Structure Based on 7s Model of Mckinsey By Mohammad Mehdi Ravanfar University of Hormozgan , Iran

Abstract- The aim of this descriptive-survey research was to investigate and analyze the organizational structure of Qeshm free zone based on 7 S of McKinsey. The research population included managers and experts of Qeshm free zone. Simple random sampling was used to select research population, and the number of population was decided according to Cohcaran formula, which was 84. The research was conducted in the form of questionnaires. The reliability and validity of the questions were tested by alpha Cronbach (0.848) and the use of experienced professors and experts respectively. To analyze research data Kolmogorov-Smirinov, T-test and Freedman test were used. The results of the research indicated that organizational structure based on 7-S McKinsey in Qeshm free zone is unfavorable, with common value, clerks and structure having the worst conditions. Keywords: organizational structure, Qeshm, style, shared value, skills. GJMBR - A Classification : JEL Code: D29

AnalyzingOrganizationalStructureBasedon7sModelofMckinsey Strictly as per the compliance and regulations of:

© 2015. Mohammad Mehdi Ravanfar. This is a research/review paper, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Analyzing Organizational Structure based on 7s Model of Mckinsey

Keywords: organizational structure, Qeshm, style, shared value, skills.

O

I.

Introduction

rganizational structure is the way responsibility and power are allocated, and work procedures are carried out among organizational members (Blau, 1970; Dewar and Werbel, 1979; Germain, 1996; Gerwin and Kolodny, 1992; Ruekert et al., 1985; Walton, 1985). The literature suggests that the nature of organizational structure in industrial versus postindustrial firms could be distinguished as mechanistic (inorganic) versus organic (Daft, 1995; Lawrence and Lorsch, 1967; Nemetz and Fry, 1988; Parthasarthy and Sethi, 1992; Zammuto and O’Connor, 1992). Significant changes are occurring in organizations in response to changes in the society at large. The mechanistic paradigm is effective when environments have a high degree of certainty, technologies tend to be routine, organizations are designed for large-scale, and employees are treated as another resource. Internal structures tend to be vertical, functional, and bureaucratic. The organization uses rational analysis and is guided by parochial values reflected in the vertical hierarchy and superior-subordinate power distinctions. The organic paradigm recognizes the unstable, even chaotic nature of the external environment (i.e. post-industrial). Technologies are typically non-routine, and size is less important. Organizations are based more on teamwork, face-toface interactions, learning, and innovation. Qualities Author: Master Student, Strategic Management Hormozgan. e-mail: [email protected]

University

of

traditionally considered egalitarian such as equality, empowerment, horizontal relationships, and consensus building become more important (Daft, 1995; Burns and Stalker, 1961). Organizational structure is partly affected by the firm’s external environment (Bourgeois et al., 1978; Duncan, 1972; Hrebiniak and Snow, 1980; Lawrence and Lorsch, 1967). Research suggests that firms organized to deal with reliable and stable markets may not be as effective in a complex, rapidly changing environment (Gordon and Narayanan, 1984; Spekman and Stern, 1979). The more certain the environment, the more likely the firm’s organizational structure and procedures (Lawrence and Lorsch, 1967). Organizations that operate with a high degree of environmental uncertainty may decentralize decision-making (Ruekert et al., 1985), rely less on formal rules and policies (Jaworski, 1988), and flatten their hierarchies (Walton, 1985). “McKinsey 7s model is a tool that analyzes firm’s organizational design by looking at 7 key internal elements: strategy, structure, systems, shared values, style, staff and skills, in order to identify if they are effectively aligned and allow organization to achieve its objectives.” Understanding the tool McKinsey 7s model was developed in 1980s by McKinsey consultants Tom Peters, Robert Waterman and Julien Philips with help from Richard Pascale and Anthony G. Athos. Since the introduction, the model has been widely used by academics and practitioners and remains one of the most popular strategic planning tools. It sought to present an emphasis on human resources (Soft S), rather than the traditional mass production tangibles of capital, infrastructure and equipment, as a key to higher organizational performance. The goal of the model was to show how 7 elements of the company: Structure, Strategy, Skills, Staff, Style, Systems, and Shared values, can be aligned together to achieve effectiveness in a company. The key point of the model is that all the seven areas are interconnected and a change in one area requires change in the rest of a firm for it to function effectively. Below you can find the McKinsey model, which represents the connections between seven areas and divides them into ‘Soft Ss’ and ‘Hard Ss’. The shape of the model emphasizes interconnectedness of the elements. © 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Year

investigate and analyze the organizational structure of Qeshm free zone based on 7 S of McKinsey. The research population included managers and experts of Qeshm free zone. Simple random sampling was used to select research population, and the number of population was decided according to Cohcaran formula, which was 84. The research was conducted in the form of questionnaires. The reliability and validity of the questions were tested by alpha Cronbach (0.848) and the use of experienced professors and experts respectively. To analyze research data Kolmogorov-Smirinov, T-test and Freedman test were used. The results of the research indicated that organizational structure based on 7-S McKinsey in Qeshm free zone is unfavorable, with common value, clerks and structure having the worst conditions. According to the research findings, it is recommended that managers of Qeshm free zone pay specific attention to internal environment of organization and ways to improve it.

7

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

Abstract- The aim of this descriptive-survey research was to

2015

Mohammad Mehdi Ravanfar

Year

2015

Analyzing Organizational Structure b ased on 7s Model of Mckinsey

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

8

analyzed alone. So the key in 7s model is not to look at your company to find the great strategy, structure, systems and etc. but to look if its aligned with other elements. For example, short-term strategy is usually a poor choice for a company but if its aligned with other 6 elements, then it may provide strong results.

The model can be applied to many situations and is a valuable tool when organizational design is at question. The most common uses of the framework are: • To facilitate organizational change. •

To help implement new strategy.



To identify how each area may change in the future.



To facilitate the merger of organizations.

a) 7s factors In McKinsey model, the seven areas of organization are divided into the ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ areas. Strategy, structure and systems are hard elements that are much easier to identify and manage when compared to soft elements. On the other hand, soft areas, although harder to manage, are the foundation of the organization and are more likely to create the sustained competitive advantage.



Hard S

Soft S

Strategy Structure Systems

Style Staff Skills Shared Values

Strategy is a plan developed by a firm to achieve sustained competitive advantage and successfully compete in the market. What does a well-aligned strategy mean in 7s McKinsey model? In general, a sound strategy is the one that is clearly articulated, is long-term, helps to achieve competitive advantage and is reinforced by strong vision, mission and values. But it is hard to tell if such strategy is well-aligned with other elements when

© 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)



Structure represents the way business divisions and units are organized and includes the information of who is accountable to whom. In other words, structure is the organizational chart of the firm. It is also one of the most visible and easy to change elements of the framework.



Systems are the processes and procedures of the company, which reveal business’ daily activities and how decisions are made. Systems are the area of the firm that determines how business is done and it should be the main focus for managers during organizational change.



Skills are the abilities that firm’s employees perform very well. They also include capabilities and competences. During organizational change, the question often arises of what skills the company will really need to reinforce its new strategy or new structure.



Staff element is concerned with what type and how many employees an organization will need and how they will be recruited, trained, motivated and rewarded.



Style represents the way the company is managed by top-level managers, how they interact, what

Analyzing Organizational Structure b ased on 7s Model of Mckinsey

Step 1. Identify the areas that are not effectively aligned During the first step, your aim is to look at the 7S elements and identify if they are effectively aligned with each other. Normally, you should already be aware of how 7 elements are aligned in your company, but if you are not, you can use the checklist from WhittBlog to do that. After you have answered the questions outlined there you should look for the gaps, inconsistencies and weaknesses between the relationships of the elements. For example, you designed the strategy that relies on quick product introduction but the matrix structure with conflicting relationships hinders that so there is a conflict that requires the change in strategy or structure. Step 2. Determine the optimal organization design With the help from top management, your second step is to find out what effective organizational design you want to achieve. By knowing the desired alignment you can set your goals and make the action plans much easier. This step is not as straightforward as identifying how seven areas are currently aligned in your organization for a few reasons. First, you need to find the best optimal alignment, which is not known to you at the moment, so it requires more than answering the questions or collecting data. Second, there are no templates or predetermined organizational designs that you could use and you will have to do a lot of research or benchmarking to find out how other similar organizations coped with organizational change or what organizational designs they are using. Step 3. Decide where and what changes should be made This is basically your action plan, which will detail the areas you want to realign and how would you

Step 4. Make the necessary changes The implementation is the most important stage in any process, change or analysis and only the wellimplemented changes have positive effects. Therefore, you should find the people in your company or hire consultants that are the best suited to implement the changes. Step 5. Continuously review the 7s The seven elements: strategy, structure, systems, skills, staff, style and values are dynamic and change constantly. A change in one element always has effects on the other elements and requires implementing new organizational design. Thus, continuous review of each area is very important. II.

Methodology

The present study was a descriptive-survey research. The research population included managers and experts of Qeshm free zone. Simple random sampling was used to select research population, and the number of population was decided according to Cohcaran formula, which was 84. The research was conducted in the form of questionnaires. The reliability and validity of the questions were tested by alpha Cronbach (0.848) and the use of experienced professors and experts respectively. To analyze research data Kolmogorov-Smirinov, T-test and Freedman test were used. a) Hypotheses In the present research, we investigated the condition of organizational structure of Qeshm free zone based on 7s of McKinsey. We used the following eight hypotheses: H1: The condition of organizational structure of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. H2: The condition of structure factor of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. H3: The condition of strategy factor of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. H4: The condition of system factor of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. H5: The condition of shared value of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. H6: The condition of staff factor of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. © 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

2015

Shared Values are at the core of McKinsey 7s model. They are the norms and standards that guide employee behavior and company actions and thus, are the foundation of every organization. As we pointed out earlier, the McKinsey 7s framework is often used when organizational design and effectiveness are at question. It is easy to understand the model but much harder to apply it for your organization due to a common misunderstanding of what should a well-aligned elements be like. There is a useful paper from excellencegateway.org.uk, which provides examples showing how effective and ineffective elements look like. Yet, separate elements that are effective on their own do not necessarily lead to optimal organizational alignment. We provide the following steps that should help you to apply this tool:

Year



like to do that. If you find that your firm’s structure and management style are not aligned with company’s values, you should decide how to reorganize the reporting relationships and which top managers should the company let go or how to influence them to change their management style so the company could work more effectively.

9

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

actions do they take and their symbolic value. In other words, it is the management style of company’s leaders.

Analyzing Organizational Structure b ased on 7s Model of Mckinsey

H7: The condition of style factor of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. H8: The condition of skill factor of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey.

Results of Research

Year

2015

III.

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

10

Based Kolmogorov-Smirinov test, on distribution of data is normal. In order to test research hypothesis, T- test and Freedman test were used. H1: The condition of organizational structure of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. Table 1 : T-test of Organizational structure Organizational Structure

P-value

7-S McKinsey

0.000

Mean 1.94

t -33.146

Based on the table, t is -33.146 and P-value is less than 0.05. Therefore, that condition of organizational structure of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. H2: The condition of structure factor of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. Table 2 : T-test of structure

Factor

P-value

Mean

SD

t

Shared Value

0.000

1.60

0.4591

-27.919

Based on the table, t is -27.919 and P-value is less than 0.05. So, the condition of shared value of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. H6: The condition of staff factor of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. Factor

P-value

Mean

SD

t

Staff

0.000

1.86

0.4398

-23.564

Based on the table, t is -23.564 and P-value is less than 0.05. Thus, the condition of staff of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. H7: The condition of style factor of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. Table 7 : T-test of style Factor Styles

Factor

P-value

Mean

SD

t

Structure

0.000

1.91

0.4514

-22.116

Based on the table, t is -22.116 and P-value is less than 0.05. Therefore, the condition of structure of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. H3: The condition of strategy factor of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. Table 3 : T-test of strategy Factor

P-value

Mean

SD

t

Strategy

0.000

2.07

0.5209

-16.232

Based on the table, t is -16.232 and P-value is less than 0.05. Thus, the condition of strategy of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. H4: The condition of system factor of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. Table 4 : T-test of system

P-value 0.000

P-value

Mean

SD

t

System

0.000

2.08

0.6031

-13.899

Based on the table, t is -23.564 and P- value is less than 0.05. Therefore, the condition of system of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey.

Mean 1.92

SD 0.5705

t -17.243

Based on the table, t is -17.243 and P-value is less than 0.05, so it shows that the condition of style of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. H8: The condition of skills factor of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. Table 8 : T-test of style Factor

P-value

Mean

SD

t

Skills

0.000

2.09

0.5207

-15.757

Based on the table, t is -15.757 and P-value is less than 0.05. Therefore, the condition of style of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey. The following table ranks the 7 elements of McKinsey model for Qeshm free zone, based on Freedman test. Table 9 : The ranking of 7 elements of McKinsey model for Qeshm free zone 7-S of McKinsey

Factor

© 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Table 5 : T-test of shared value

Table 6 : T-test of staff

SD 0.2908

H5: The condition of shared value of Qeshm free zone is unfavorable based on 7s model of McKinsey.

Systems Skills Strategies Styles Structures Clerks Shared value

Mean

Priorities

4.79 4.76 4.54 4.01 3.96 3.73 2.20

First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Type Hard s

Soft s

Point 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Distance gap 3.09 2.93 2.92 3.40 3.13 3.08 2.91

According to the table, skill factor represents the smallest gap (58.20 percentage); whereas, the largest gap belongs to the element of shared value (68 percentage). IV.

Conclusion and Discussion

The results of the research indicated that Qeshm free zone organizational structure based on 7-S McKinsey is unfavorable, with the elements of common value, clerks and structure having the worst conditions. According to the research findings, it is recommended that managers of Qeshm free zone pay more attention to internal environment of organization and ways to improve it. V.

Recommendations of Research

Based on theoretical principles, stable and secure environments are more compatible with the machines; whereas, in unsecure environments, organic structures can respond better to the needs of the environment. Moreover, the more complex an organization is vertically and horizontally, the more communication is needed. Formalizations undermine innovation and reduce communication. As organizations become more focused, decision making processes to respond appropriately to the environment take longer and organizational performance is flawed. Furthermore, the number of hierarchy levels should be reduced, and specific, repetitive decisions should be made by operational staff. Based on the theoretical foundations, harmony and balance between strategy and organizational structure is essential. To implement the strategy successfully, specific structural features are required. For example in implementing prospective strategies, structural features such as low formalization and complexity as well as flexibility are needed. As the organization grows and develops, it may consider different strategies. So, for better implementation of these strategies all available resources should be used, one of which is the structural characteristics. According to the Chandler theory, it is desirable to determine the appropriate strategy with regard to the environment, and later the organizational structure which is compatible with that strategy. Since Qeshm Free Zone Organization is highly formalized, some strategies like assigning and reducing the activities (outsourcing) can

© 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Year

Row

be applied to help the organizational structure become organic and flexible. In addition, the aims should be adjusted to the current situation. Each program in the organization should be performed in order to achieve the desired goal and departments should also adjust their plans with the strategies and goals of the organization. Opportunity to express opinions about the goals should be provided for all staff. The views of other national free zone organizations should be considered in determining the goals of the organization. Achieving an agile organizational structure is subject to mechanizing the organizational processes and elimination of time-consuming and repetitive tasks by the system. In addition, the software systems will help identifying weaknesses which results in the improvement of working processes. With the integrated systems, the communication between units would be more defined and arbitrary decisions are prevented. In addition, the resources and consumption rates of the organization can be well planed. Since problems in coordination, communication and control are due to high complexities, it is also recommended that the organization officials continuously record data through information technology to be able to control and supervise the organizational activities more precisely. Given the role of organizational culture in the acceptance or rejection of any changes and new developments in the organization, it is recommended that before implementing any changes in the organizational structure, necessary cultural backgrounds with the use of methods such as training and recruitment of qualified human resources, setting laws and regulations be provided. These help increasing risk taking, fair distribution of power and to maintain and reinforce the collectivism in the organization. It is suggested that, the statement of organizational values and its behavioral examples be revised and informed to all interested parties. Leadership is the basic process in any organization to which the success or failure of an organization is related; therefore, during the success or failure of an organization usually the leadership is considered. Appropriateness of the organizational structure with the type of leadership could enhance the performance of organizations. Therefore the researcher recommends to align the organizational structure with the leadership style. In case the mechanical structure is to be considered in the organization, an appropriate leadership style should be applied. Creating an open door system for better communication between employees and managers, and providing feedback systems to implement employees’ ideas would be very effective. Achieving organizational goals depends on the ability of the employees to perform their duties and adapt themselves to the changing environment. Educating and improving human resources would

11

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

Table 10 : Final Point based on 7s of Mckinsey

2015

Analyzing Organizational Structure b ased on 7s Model of Mckinsey

Analyzing Organizational Structure b ased on 7s Model of Mckinsey

enable them to continue performing their tasks effectively and increase their efficiency. Therefore, to increase the knowledge and skills of managers and employees, it is recommended to sign contracts with the scientific and academic centers, and subscribe to the relevant professional journals to help make the information available to them.

Year

2015

References Références Referencias

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

12

1. Zamani. A (2014), Assessing the readiness of Iranian insurance companies for successful implementation of BPM based on McKinsey 7S Model, Science Road Publishing Corporation Trends in Social Science, ISSN: 2251-967XTSS 10(1) 37-47, Journal homepage: http://www.sciroad.com/tss.html. 2. Blau, P.M., 1970. Decentralization in bureaucracies. In: Zald, M.N. (Ed.), Power in Organisations. Vanderbilt University Press, Nashville, TN, pp. 150–174. 3. Bourgeois, L.J., McAllister, D.W., Mitchell, T.R., 1978. The effects of different organizational environments upon decisions about organization structure. Academy of Management Journal 21, 508–514. 4. Burns, T., Stalker, G.M., 1961. The Management of Innovation, Tavistock, London. 5. Daft, R.L., 1995. Organization Theory and Design, 5th ed. West Publishing Company, St. Paul, MN. 6. Dewar, R., Werbel, J., 1979 Universalistic and contingency predictions of employee satisfaction and conflict. Administrative Science Quarterly 24, 426–448. 7. Duncan, R.B., 1972 Characteristics of organizational environments and perceived environmental uncertainty. Administrative Science Quarterly 17, 313–327. 8. Germain, R., 1996 The role of context and structure in radical and incremental logistics innovation adoption. Journal of Business Research 35, 117–127. 9. Gerwin, D., Kolodny, H., 1992. Management of Advanced Manufacturing Technology: Strategy, Organization, and Innovation. Wiley/Interscience, New York, NY. 10. Gordon, L., Narayanan, V.K., 1984. Management accounting systems, perceived environmental uncertainty, and organizational structure: an empirical investigation. Accounting, Organizations and Society 9, 33–47. 11. Hrebiniak, L. G., Snow, C. C., 1980. Industry differences in environmental uncertainty and organizational characteristics related to uncertainty. Academy of Management Journal 23, 750–759. 12. Jaworski, B.J., 1988. Toward a theory of marketing control: environmental context, control types, and consequences. Journal of Marketing 52, 23–29. © 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

13. Lawrence, P.R., Lorsch, J.W., 1967. Organization and Environment. Irwin, Homewood, IL. 14. Nemetz, P.L., Fry, L.W., 1988. Flexible manufacturing organizations: implication for strategy formulation and organization design. Academy of Management Review 13 (4), 627– 638. 15. Parthasarthy, R., Sethi, S.P., 1992. The impact of flexible automation on business strategy and organizational structure. Academy of Management Review 17 (1), 86–111. 16. Paul T. Bartone and Linton Wells II (2009), Understanding and Leading Porous Network Organizations An Analysis Based on the 7S Model, Center for Technology and National Security Policy National Defense University. 17. Ruekert, R.W., Walker Jr., O.C., Roering, K.J., 1985. The organization of marketing activities: a contingency theory of structure and performance. Journal of Marketing 49, 13–25. 18. Spekman, R.E., Stern, L.W., 1979. Environmental uncertainty and buying group structure. Journal of Marketing 43, 54–64. 19. Thanaphan Naipinit, Somkier Kojchavivong, Vorawit Kowittayakorn1 & Thongphon Promsaka NaSakolnakorn (2014), McKinsey 7S Model for Supply Chain Management of Local SMEs Construction Business in Upper Northeast Region of Thailand, Asian Social Science; Vol. 10, No. 8; ISSN 1911-2017 E-ISSN 1911-2025. 20. Theophilus Francis Gyepi-Garbrah, Frederick Binfor (2013), An Analysis of Internal Environment of a Commercial-oriented Research Organization: Using Mckinsey 7S Framework in a Ghanaian Context, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 9, ISSN: 2222-6990. 21. Walton, R.E., 1985. From control to commitment: transforming work force management in the United States. In: Clark, K., Hayes, R., Lorenz, C. (Eds.), The Uneasy Alliance: Managing the Productivity– Technology Dilemma. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, pp. 237–265. 22. Waterman. R, Piters.jr, T & pilips, j. r (1980), Structur is not Organization, Business Horizions, 22(3)14-26. 23. Zammuto, R. F., O’Connor, E. J., 1992. Gaining advanced manufacturing technologies’ benefits: the roles of organizational design and culture. Academy of Management Review 17 (4), 701–728.

Global Journal of Management and Business Research: A Administration and Management Volume 15 Issue 10 Version 1.0 Year 2015 Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA) Online ISSN: 2249-4588 & Print ISSN: 0975-5853

Determinants of Football Games Demand in Brazil and England By Bruno Ítalo Lima Benevides, Sandra Maria Dos Santos, Augusto Cézar De Aquino Cabral & Renata Aquino Ribeiro Federal University of Ceara, Brazil

Abstract- The football industry comprises a wide range of sectors, aimed acquire inputs, transform them and distrubute one. Considering this chain, this paper seeks to identify factors that determine the demand for football matches in Brazil and England. Secodary data were used from IBGE, Office for National Statistics (ONS), CBF, Pluri Consultoria, BBC Sports Survey and from the site World football, throughout web. The survey makes an analyse since the 380 matches occured in brazilian and english championship, 2013 season. To estimate the demand equation the Two Least Square Stage model was utilized. The model had as dependente variable the attendance in the stadiums. Economics, structurals factors and match quality were signifcants to explain the demand in Brazil and England. By forming prices, english team are more eficiente than brazilian one. Keywords: supply chain, football, demand. GJMBR - A Classification : JEL Code: M19

DeterminantsofFootballGamesDemandinBrazilandEngland Strictly as per the compliance and regulations of:

© 2015. Bruno Ítalo Lima Benevides, Sandra Maria Dos Santos, Augusto Cézar De Aquino Cabral & Renata Aquino Ribeiro. This is a research/review paper, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Determinants of Football Games Demand in Brazil and England

Keywords: supply chain, football, demand.

F

I.

Introduction

ootball, most publicized sport in the world, is one of the sports branches which has caught attention as economical activity. In this perspective, as stated by Cragnotti (apud DUCREY et al. 2003, p. 31), “Football is the most global business of the world in a time of globalization and triumph of leisure. What other good has been bought by three billion consumers? Not even Coca-Cola!”. Football industry estimated financial transactions around the world yearly is about US$ 400 billions and US$ 1 trillion, which represent about 18% and 44%, respectively, of the Brazilian GIP according to Belo and Paolozzi (2013). However, in Brazil, despite its enormous popularity, this sport moves around about R$ 36 billion yearly, which represents 1% of its global value, while in England the representation is up to 30%, according to report by PluriConsultoria (2012). Therefore, in Brazil, as economical activity, football is far from having its effienciency maximized, even farther from being recognized as national sport. Data presented suggests that in Brazil there is great economical potential to be explored in football. The dynamics of this industry and its reflections in the economy must be understood from an analysis of all the supply chain which involves football (BLUMENSCHMEIN; NEDAL, 2010). The concept of supply chain can be understood, according to Beamon (1998), as the integrated process of sectors which act as a whole with Author α σ ρ Ѡ: Federal University of Ceara, Brazil. e-mails: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]

the goal of acquiring materials, transforming them into products and distributing them to consumers. In the case of football industry, the game is the final product of the supply chain and the supporter is the final consumer. There is, also, in this chain, other important agents, such as investors, TV companies, marketing businesses, etc., regarded as intermediary consumers, which are between the productive market, formed by teams and federations, and the consumer market (LEOCINI; SILVA, 2003). For Ekelund (1998), the supporter is the main link in the chain, as it is through him which the origin of intermediary consumers. Blumenschmein (2013) agrees with the importance of this link in football supply chain, showing that the supporter has the participation of about 46% in the total value generated by the chain. Mostly, when it comes to evaluating the economical potential of a determinate sector, one analyses the number of consumers and the tendency that they have to consume the merchandise produced by the industry focused. This way, it is evident the importance of analyzing the football consumer behavior and understanding the factors which have led him to demand this good, so that this way this industry may function more efficiently, in the economical perspective. Regarding the search for the asset football, several researchers have based their studies, as having the audience present in the arenas as a proxy for supporter demand. And, as factors explained in the search for matches, there have been economical and structural factors as well as uncertainty of results and expected quality of the match. In Brazil, this is prominent in the works of Souza (2004), Madalozzo (2008), Bortoluzo, Laropoli e Machado (2011). Na Inglaterra, Dobson e Goddard (2001), Forrest e Simmons (2006), Buraimo e Simmons (2006) e O’Connor (2009). One of the most notable observations in these studies is the finding that there is a meaningful difference between Brazilian and English costumers in regards to the uncertainty of result in a match and the quality expected. These studies have shown that, in Brazil, the supporter is more sensitive to these factors than in England. Given that the main audience present in the arenas is taken as a proxy for the demand for football and that, according to O’Connor (2009), this audience represents one of the main sources of income from the proceeds of football teams, it is important to relate the demand with revenue. In Brazil, teams income, © 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Year

sectors, aimed acquire inputs, transform them and distrubute one. Considering this chain, this paper seeks to identify factors that determine the demand for football matches in Brazil and England. Secodary data were used from IBGE, Office for National Statistics (ONS), CBF, Pluri Consultoria, BBC Sports Survey and from the site World football, throughout web. The survey makes an analyse since the 380 matches occured in brazilian and english championship, 2013 season. To estimate the demand equation the Two Least Square Stage model was utilized. The model had as dependente variable the attendance in the stadiums. Economics, structurals factors and match quality were signifcants to explain the demand in Brazil and England. By forming prices, english team are more eficiente than brazilian one.

13

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

Abstract- The football industry comprises a wide range of

2015

Bruno Ítalo Lima Benevides α, Sandra Maria Dos Santos σ, Augusto Cézar De Aquino Cabral ρ & Renata Aquino Ribeiro Ѡ

Year

2015

Determinants of Football Games Demand in Brazil and England

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

14

originated from the supporters' expenditure in days of the matches, is aproximately 7% of the total proceeds, while in England this income is around 23%, according to a study by Delloit (2013). Meanwhile, the demand for matches in Brazil is about 60% smaller than in England. It is possible to know, then, that English football detains aproximately 30% of the total production of this industry, a value much higher than that of the Brazilian scenario, and that there is a meaningful difference, between Brazil and England, in the composition of teams income originating from ticket sales, and it is important to identify the determinant factors of the demand which differentiate the behaviour of supporters and teams in those two countries. Therefore, the main issue of this work is: what are the determinants for the demand of football matches in Brazil and in England? The following hypothesis may be examined: i) visiting teams quality affects more Brazilian supporters than English; ii) the price elasticity of the demand is closer to profit margin maximization in England. As a general objective, this work aims to identify the factors which determine the demand for football matches in Brazil and England. As specfic objectives, it is possible to foresee: i) identifying in which way economical factors affect the demand for football in both countries, ii) checking the impacts referring to match quality, substitute and structural and iii) comparing the behaviour of Brazilian and English teams as profit maximization agents. This study uses an economical model, in line with the idea of Souza (2004) that researches involving the demand for football matches follows a pattern, in which such model is built to try to explain the demand according to a series of factors. In terms of structure, other than this introduction, this article has other main four sections. Section 2 reaches out to the studies already done in the area of Sports Economics. Section 3 brings the description of methodology, while in section 4 an analysis of the results obtained is discussed. Lastly, section 5 presents the conclusions from this study. II.

The Economics of Football

Academic interest in professional teams sports economy originates in the middle of the 1950s, when Rottenberg (1956) analyzed the job market in American baseball. Since then, several books and articles were published about it. In this section, having in mind the objective of the study, researches about the demand for football matches are presented. a) Studies about football demand Demand is the quantity of an asset which consumers aim to purchase at a determinate price; however, the quantity demanded of an asset may not depend only in its price, but also in other variables (PINDYCK; RUBINFELD, 2009). Income being an important variable, as, with a larger income, consumers © 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

may acquire other assets. Regarding football matches, other than price and income, as pointed out by Souza (2004), aspects referring to the match as recent team performance, arena structure and time the match occurrs, are also important to explain the search for this asset. In the studies about football demand, Dobson and Goddard (2001), Forrest and Simmons (2006), Buraimo and Simmons (2006) and O’Connor (2009) have estimated a demand equation for the English championship. For the Brazilian championship, Souza (2004), Madalozzo (2008) and Bortoluzzo, Laropoli and Machado (2011) have also done this estimative. Dobson and Goddard (2001) estimated a model searching to explain the variations in average audience, each season, to the level of the team in the English championship, including the four divisions, between the seasons from 1947 to 1997. The authors have modeled the demand in two moments. In the first, the model was estimated using data in panel. The model’s coefficients reflect the influence of four factors upon demand: loyalty in the short-term (or persistence in attendance from year to year), success (measured by league position), admission price and entertainment (proxied by goals scored) (DOBSON; GODDARD, 2001, p. 342). Whereas in the second moment, the authors try to explain that “... the cross-sectional variation between clubs in their base levels of attendance, and their shortterm loyalty, success, price and entertainment coefficients obtained at the first stage.” (DOBSON; GODDARD, 2001, p. 343) In this phase, the authors have used as explanation variables socioeconomical and demographic characteristics of each team's city. Information used was, for instance, population size, occupation structure and unemployment other than football related characteristics, such as team age and the number of other teams in the same city. Results obtained by authors in the first stage have shown more significant to the level of 5%, except for the variable referring to goals scored, which have shown themselves non-significant for the model. Dobson and Goddard (2001) also conclude that the due to the fact that the audience is in logarhytm and all the variables are standardized, the estimated coefficients do not have a direct interpretation. Therefore, one may assume that results obtained only show that the factors seek to explain if the demand has a positive or a negative impact without, however, providing the elasticity of these factors. In the second phase, Dobson and Goddard (2001) have used as explanation variables the population natural logarhytm and the team number of years. There was the use also of the number of other teams present in the same city, the percentage of employees in agriculture, as well as the percentage of

© 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Year

tried to measure the elasticities of price and income of the demand. Souza (2004) also used an econometrical model, in which the dependent variable consists in the paying audience of each match. As for the explanation variables, the author has shared them in six groups of factors which influence the demand: economical, demographical factors, competitive unbalance, expected quality for the match, substitutes and team attributes. The author estimated his model in three ways, a linear, another log-linear and one log-log. According to the author, the linear model presents several problems, such as heterocedasticity and unconformity with the residuals, other than revealing an error specification. The log-log model was tested to capture the elasticity of income. There was also the obtainment of significant results to the level of 5% for the variables, except those referring to unemployment and televized matches. About the elasticity income of the demand, Souza (2004) concludes that the matches in the Brazilian championship of 2002 are inferior assets, presenting an elasticity of -3, 67. According to Madalozzo (2008), the demand for matches is frequently target of studies in sports economics. The most common approach is an equation of demand based on social and economical factors which determine the search for each type of sport. In their study, Madalozzo (2008) has investigated the factors which have affected the demand for football matches in the Brazilian championship between 2003 and 2006. Having analyzed 1946 matches, the author used the logarhythmo of paying audience as dependent variable. The model was estimated using data in a panel with fixed and random effects. The author also shared the factors which affect the demand in groups, being them: structural characteristics, expected quality, performance and uncertainty of the result. The estimated models by fixed and random effects have had similar results. In both, the variables referring to the structural group have shown to be significant to 5%, except for the number of matches played by the house team in the last month. Other than that, the income wasn't estimated by fixed effect, only random, presenting an elasticity of -0, 7, showing that football is an inferior asset. However, price obtained equal value in both models, having an elasticity of -0, 24, what implies, according to the author, considering each team as a monopolyst, this is not a profit maximizer. In the factors referring to the expected quality of the match, the variables relating to state and international titles in the year before have shown as nonsignificant. In this group, the variable relating to rivalry has shown to have an impact of 0, 63 in the demand for matches of the Brazilian championship. In the performance group, only the variable referring to points

15

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

employees in the sectors of energy, manufacturing and building contractors. Other than that, there was also the use of the number of men with age between 16-64 unemployed. As independent variables, authors have used the audience, price, short-term loyalty, league position and goals scored. The results were, all of them, significant to the level of 5%. To estimate the demand of the English championship, Buraimo and Simmons (2006) have also used an econometrical model, in which the search for matches is related to the six groups of factors: loyalty to the team, the quality of the teams involved in the match, uncertainty of the result, size of the market, competition and media. The authores have estimated the econometrical model using TOBIT and have obtained results statistically non-significant only for those variables referring to the quality of the teams involved in the matches, as age of the visiting team, as well as its number of points, and referring to media, as matches transmitted in Bank Holiday, and in the period when the match occurred. O’Connor (2009) has sought to estimate the loyalty of English supporters using an equation of demand, in order to check whether these factors such as the current moment of the team, like promotions to other divisions affect the search for matches. As a dependent variable, there was the use of percentage of arena total seats, given the relation between audience present and capacity of the arena. O’Connor (2009) hasn't shared the factors explaining the group demand. There was the use of the following variables: team position until the date the match happens, ticket prices, the number of goals that the team may have taken in the last three matches, as well as may have done, the percentage of matches which had already happened in the championship, the square of the team position, square of the percentage of matches occurred and dummies in case the team may had been promoted, lowered, or won at least one of the last three matches, lost at least on of the last three matches, if the match happened last week and lastly, if it involved rival teams. The author estimated the model in three ways, fixed effects, random and square minimum. The first two have shown similar results, being statistically significant the percentage of matches already occurred, the square percentage of matches done, lowering, promotion, match which happened during weekdays and involving rivals. However, in the method MQO, only promotion, matches involving rivals and the percentage of matches already done were significant. Whereas Souza (2004) had as a goal to check the most important factors which influentiate supporters' decision of appearing in the arenas, doing an analysis of the Brazilian championship of 2002. The author also checked whether the televized matches constitute a substitute asset to matches in the football arenas and

2015

Determinants of Football Games Demand in Brazil and England

Year

2015

Determinants of Football Games Demand in Brazil and England

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

16

gained by the visiting team in the last three matches has shown itself as non-significant. However, in the group uncertainty, the difference between the position of the opposing teams and the chance to go to Libertadores championship obtained non-significant results. Bortoluzzo, Laropoli and Machado (2011) have examined the demand for matches in the Brazilian football championship in A series in the period of 2004 to 2009, also using the paying audience as a dependent variable and estimating the model through TOBIT. The data is from 2481 matches in the Brazilian championship in the first division. As independent variables, they have used the annual income per capita in the city where the match occurred, the population of the respective city, classification of the house and the visiting team, points gained by the house and the visiting team in the last three matches, goals score by the house and visiting team in the three matches before, average price (given by dividing the amount of money raised and paying audience), dummies for: season of the year, case in which the math occurred in the weekend, case in which it may have rained, if the match happened at 21:00h, if the match is considered to be a classic, if there is a team from São Paulo or Rio de Janeiro and if the match was located in the beginning, middle or end of the championship. Five variables of the model have shown themselves non-significant: points gained by the visiting team in the last three matches, goals scored by the visiting team in the last three matches, dummy for the case when a match occurrs at 21:00h, dummy for the case when the match occurrs in the winter and dummy for the case when the match occurrs in the spring. With relation to the economical variables, the authors have found a price elasticity of -0, 21 and an income elasticity of the demand of -0, 47. It is important to have in mind that economical, structural and match quality factors are common in the studies about football demand. III.

Methodology

a) Research Typology The research is of explanatory and descriptive approach. As for its explanatory character, this type of research “has as its purpose to identify factors which determine or contribute to the occurrence of phenomena” (GIL, 2010, p.43) Therefore, data which aims to identify determinant factors for matches demand in the Brazilian football championship of the A series in 2013 and in the English Premier League, these justify the explanatory character of the study. The descriptive nature comes from the fact that it “aims to describe the characteristics of a determinate population or phenomena or the establishment of relationships among the variables.” (SILVA; MENEZES, 2001, p. 21) In such context, this research is descriptive, since it does a description of the characteristics of those factors. © 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Other than those aspects, this is a quantitative study, since the data used had statistical treatment (RICHARDSON, 2007) which made it possible to check the determinants that affect the demand for games in the Brazilian championship in the A series and in the English Premier League. b) Databases This research is based on secondary data generated by the database of Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics - InstitutoBrasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), the Brazilian Confederation of Football – ConfederaçãoBrasileira de Futebol (CBF), Puri Consultancy - PuriConsultoria, Football Arenas National Registrer - Cadastro Nacional de Estádios de Futebol, BBC Sports Survey and the site Worldfootball, through the internet in its respective official sites. The research did an analysis based on the 380 matches occurred in the season of 2013, in Brazil as well as in England. All of the data of this research is referring to the year of 2013, except the average income of addresses in Brazil, made available through IBGE, which refers to the year 2010. c) Econometrical model As affirmed by Souza (2004), researches involving the demand for football matches follow a pattern, in which an econometrical model is formulated to try to explain th demand according to a group of factors. Such statement is supported by Dobson and Goddard (2001), once they claimed that many studies analyze the audience, estimating a model of regression and interpreting the result as a demand equation. In this line of action, this study, also, uses an econometrical model. The dependent variable used in this study is given by the number of ticket payers for matches in the Brazilian championship. In England's case, according to study by Delloit (2012), only 30% of the composition of the audience present in the arenas is from supporters which have bought tickets only for the match at hand, not choosing to buy season tickets. This way, the dependent variable for English football consists in 30% of the audience present at the arena. Both were see in form of logarhythm, under the hypothesis of non-linearity with the independent variables. The paying audience is used, because it “provides the main source of data for the dependent variable in econometric models of the demand for football attendance” (DOBSON; GODDARD, 2001, p. 319). As for the explanatory variables, they originate from the assumption that the demand is related to four groups of factors, being those: economical, expected quality of the match, substitute and structural. Due to the limitation of available data at the time of this research, some variables included in these groups are not compatible between Brazil and England.

© 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Year

Teams such as Flamengo, Corinthians, São Paulo, Palmeiras, Vasco, Botafogo and Fluminense present a supporter group with over 40 % outside of their originating states. Therefore, one may suppose the hypothesis that the matches in which these teams are visiting, affect significatively the demand for championship matches in Brazilian competitions, indifferent to which series is playing. This way, the variable Great (Grande) will be added to the model. Regarding England, the variable Great (Grande) was used for the teams with a higher number of titles in the English championship, being those: Manchester United, Liverpool and Arsenal. Position (Posição) is a variable which represents the home team placement in the match i and it was used under the hypothesis that as farther from the fist colocations, the smaller the demand will be. To capture the effect of the advancement of the championship, it was used a variable referring to the round in which the match occurred, under the hypothesis that when approaching the end of the championship the demand for matches increases, as the matches become more and more decisive. As an estimation of the cost for the supporters going to watch the matches in the arenas, the value of the bus tickets in the city in which the match was done as a proxy for Brazil. However, in England, this cost was measured by the price of the pie, since the supporters have the habit of buying them in match day, so much that its cost is added to the cost of going to the arena, according to BBC Survey (2012). In Brazil, due to the accomplishment of the World Cup 2014, twelve arenas were renewed or built according to the english arena concepts, which bring greater confort and security to the supporters. In 2013, six of those arena had matches of the Brazilian championships. This way, it will be used a dummy in case the match may have occurred in one of those arenas. The size of the supporters' group is also present in the model, to capture the capacity of the market. Therefore, it was used the size of the supporter group of the home team. This variable can not be used for the English championship due to its unavailability during the research. The variable PFC is related to the percentage of subscribers, by state, of the pay-per-view channel Premiere FutebolClube, which does broadcasts of matches of the Brazilian football championship, acting, this way, as a good replacement for the ticket sales. To England, due to unavailability of data about subscribers of paid football channels, it was used the price of movie tickets in the day and time for the match, as proxy for a substitute asset. A dummy referring to the chance the home team classifies for the Libertadores, was employed in the Brazilian model. The same variable was used for the

17

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

Among the economical factors, it was used for Brazil the logarhythm of average price, given by sharing the money raised and paying costumers. However, for England, this variable was measured by the club day match, which consists of the value of the ticket adding the amount of pie and tea price. Also in this group of factors, it was used the average income of families in the city where the match occurred. In the group of factors related to the expected quality match for Brazilian football, are the variables Rival (Rival), Victory (Vitória), Great (Grande), Promoted (Promovido), Round (Rodada), Position (Posição), Points (Pontos), Points2 (Pontos2), Amplitude (Amplitude), Amplitude2 (Amplitude2) and Libertadores Championship (Libertadores). For England, there was the use of the same variables, with exception of Libertadores and adding the variable Champions. In the group of substitutes for Brazil, there was the use of the variable PFC, while for England there was the use of movies ticket price logarhythm. At last, among the structural factors are the variables Log (Capacidade) (Capacity), Log (Torcida) (Supporters), Arenas and Log (Passagem) (Travel Ticket) for Brazil. While for England there was the use of the same variables with exception of Arenas, Log (Torcida) (Supporter) and Log (Passagem) (Travel Ticket) and adding Log (pie). In relation to the economical variables price and income, these are used in microeconomics theory, as, as say Pindyck and Runbifeld (2009), these factors are determinant for the demand of consumers. The rival teams have met in the same territory, as city or state. Therefore, it will be used a dummy with the value of 1 in case the teams are from the same city and 0 otherwise. This variable will be used, since according to Madalozzo (2008), the matches between rival teams usually are between teams of the same city, what results in fans of both going to the arena, increasing this way the audience present. The variable Victory (Vitória) was added to the model under the hypothesis that in case the house team had won a larger proportion of the last three matches, it will attract more supporters to the arena. This variable is included among the factors which explain the importante of the team's current performance over the demand for tickets when it plays at home. The variable Capacity (Capacidade) shows online in the model with the hypothesis “of which larger arenas cater to teams with larger demand, being that from having more supporters, being located in more populated towns or other factors not identified.” (SOUZA, 2004, p. 61). The variable Promoted (Promovido) was added to the model under the hypothesis that the team which got to ascend in the season beforehand attracts a larger audience for the current season.

2015

Determinants of Football Games Demand in Brazil and England

Year

2015

Determinants of Football Games Demand in Brazil and England

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

18

English model, capturing the impact of the chance to classify for the Champions League in the demand for matches in English championship. There was also the addition of variables referring to the difference between points and position of teams involved in the match and the square of those variables, as, according to Souza (2004), the relationship among these variables is in a square way. And, as pointed out by Bortuluzzo, Laropoli and Machado (2011), this variable is important, since the importance of the match for the home team is relevant to understand the demand for tickets. Therefore, it is expected that the less the difference in position and points between teams, the more it will be the search for tickets. At last, there was the addition of dummies in case the match had occurred in the weekend and in the afternoon, as, according to García and Rodríguez (2001), the time and date for the fulfillment of the match are important to explain the demand. The table 1 brings a synthesis with the explanatory variables used in the econometrical model, the author(s) in which they are based on, the way in which the data was treated and the effect expected in both countries. Dobson and Goddard (2001) report the fact that managers can establish price before the matches what makes this variable relatable to the random disturbance Ei, what violates one of the assumptions of the regression analysis, presenting a possible obliquity of simultaneity in estimation. This problem of simultaneity in the price variable occurrs in the football demand equation unless the offer curve is perfectly elastic.

García and Rodríguez (2001) have also searched for the endogenousity of the variable price. Therefore, according to Murray (2006), when there is a relation between the explanatory variable and the random disturbance, it is necessary to have instrumental variables which avoid the obliquity of the estimators by ordinary minimum squares. Also according to Murray (2006), the method of minimum squares of two stages is the most used among econometricists to solve the problem of endogenousity. The models have been then estimated by the method of Minimum Squares of Two Stages MínimosQuadrados de DoisEstágios (MQ2E) due to endogenousity of the price variable. For Brazil, there was the use as tools of all the variables of the demand equation with the insertion of three more tools, being those: the proportion between the number of discount tickets sold and the number of full tickets sold, as well as the proportion between the number of supporters associated and tickets sold and the calculation between the number of tickets sold and the capacity of the arena in which the match was done. This way, in the first stage, the price variable is estimated in relation to the other variables in the model of the demand equation adding the following instruments: calculation between the number of discount tickets sold and the total paying audience, calculation between the number of supporters associated and the total paying audience, calculation between the number of tickets on sale and the capacity of the arena where the match was done, and the city population size where the match occurred. The estimated price at this stage was used in the second stage, in the demand equation. This is the structure: (1)

𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑖𝑖 = 𝛼𝛼0 + 𝛼𝛼1 𝑍𝑍1𝑖𝑖 + 𝛼𝛼2 𝑍𝑍2𝑖𝑖 + 𝛼𝛼3 𝑍𝑍3𝑖𝑖 + 𝛽𝛽1 𝑋𝑋1𝑖𝑖 + 𝛽𝛽2 𝑋𝑋2𝑖𝑖 + ⋯ + 𝛽𝛽19 𝑋𝑋19𝑖𝑖 + 𝜂𝜂𝑖𝑖

� 1𝑖𝑖 + 𝛼𝛼2 𝑋𝑋2𝑖𝑖 + 𝛼𝛼3 𝑋𝑋3𝑖𝑖 + 𝛼𝛼4 𝑋𝑋4𝑖𝑖 … + 𝛼𝛼19 𝑋𝑋19𝑖𝑖 + 𝜀𝜀𝑖𝑖 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝑖𝑖 = 𝛼𝛼0 + 𝛼𝛼1 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃

being Z the instrumental variables used to estimate price, X are the demand equation variables and � is the estimated price of the first stage. 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃ç𝑜𝑜 For England, it was estimated the same model but, due to incompatibility of data availability, it was

(2)

used instruments, other than all the variables of the demand equation, the audience average for the last championship, the team's position last season and if the match occurred during the winter.

Table 1 : Synthesis of the variables used in the econometrical model Explanation variables Log (Price)

© 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Theoreticalreferences

Operationalization

Expectedeffects

Dobson and Goddard It will be used the medium (2001); García and Rodríguez price (calculation between (2001); Madalozzo (2008) the total receipt from ticket and Bortoluzzo, Laropoli and sales of the match analyzed and paying audience in Machado (2011) total). To England, it will be used the club day match.

-

García and Rodríguez (2001);

-

It will be used the average

Determinants of Football Games Demand in Brazil and England

Log (Capacity)

(Great)

(Promoted)

+

García and Rodríguez (2001); It will be used the number of Souza (2004), Madalozzo victories of the home team in (2008) and Bortoluzzo, the last three games. Laropoli and Machado (2011)

+

Souza (2004); Madalozzo It will be used the capacity of (2008) and Bortoluzzo, the arena in which the game Laropoli and Machado (2011) occurred

+

It will be used a dummy with Souza (2004); Madalozzo (2008) and Bortoluzzo, the value 1 in case the team Laropoli and Machado (2011) visiting is Flamengo, Corinthians, São Paulo, Palmeiras, Vasco, Botafogo or Fluminense

+

It will be used a dummy with value 1 in case the home team may have been promoted in the last season and 0 otherwise

+

-

It will be used the % of subscribers from the channel Premiere FutebolClube, by state

-

Souza (2004)

It will be used the number of round in which the match occurred

+

Madolozzo(2008); Bortoluzzo, Laropoliand Machado (2011)

It will be used a dummy with value 1 in case the match occurrs in the weekend and 0 otherwise

+

It will be used the position in Dobson and Goddard (2001); Madalozzo (2008); the table of the home team in Bortoluzzo, the match Laropoli and Machado (2011)

-

(Round)

(End)

(Position)

Souza (2004)

It will be used the points difference until the fulfillment of the match between the home team and the visiting one

-

Souza (2004)

It will be given by the square of the variable Pontos (Points)

+

García and Rodríguez (2001); It will be used the difference between team positions Souza (2004) home/visiting during the match

-

García and Rodríguez (2001); It will be given by the square Souza (2004) of the variable Amplitude (Amplitude)

+

(Points)

(Points2)

(Amplitude)

(Amplitude2)

19

Dobson and Goddard (2001); Souza (2004); Madalozzo (2008) and Bortoluzzo, Laropoli and Machado (2011)

(PFC)

2015

(Victory)

It will be used a dummy with Souza (2004); Madalozzo (2008) and Bortoluzzo, value 1 in case the teams are Laropoli and Machado (2011) from the same city and 0 otherwise

Year

(Rivalry)

Souza (2004); Madalozzo income per house in the city (2008) and Bortoluzzo, in which the match occurred Laropoli and Machado (2011)

© 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

Log (Income)

Determinants of Football Games Demand in Brazil and England

-

It will be used the number of supporters of the home team, in the state where the match occurred

+

Log (gas)

-

It will be used the average price of the gas fare of the state where the match occurred

-

Arenas (Arenas)

-

It will be used a dummy with value 1 in case the match may have been done in one of the new Brazilian arenas

+

-

It will be used the logarhythm of the pie price in English arenas

-

Madalozzo (2008); Bortoluzzo, Laropoliand Machado (2011)

It will be used a dummy with value 1 in case the team is between among the first placed and sixth and 0 otherwise

+

Log (pie)

20

(Libertadores and Champions League)

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

Year

2015

Log (Supporters)

Source: The authors.

IV.

Analysis of the Results

This section consists in doing an evaluation of the results obtained by the demand equation estimated by MQ2E for the matches of Brazilian and English championships of 2013. And it is shared in two subsections, the first is about an analysis of the economical factors, as well as a comparison between the behavior of the Brazilian and English teams as profit maximizers. The second subsection retains its analysis in results referring to the match quality and the uncertainty of the result. a) Economical factors and implications in profit maximization The variables used in the economical, price and income factors group have shown statistically significant to the level of 5% for Brazil as well as for England. The price presented an elasticity of -0,72 for the Brazilian championship and -0,97 for the English. Therefore, football is inelastic in relation to price. This means that from the point of view of the consumer, the supporters in Brazil as well as in England are not very sensitive when it comes to variation in the price of tickets, since that an increase in this factor reduces less than proportionally the demand. From the point of view of the firm, in the case of the football teams, the English teams are more efficient than Brazilian in what pertains revenues originating from ticket sales, as in England the elasticity-price of the demand is closer to 1, value in which the revenue stops variating positively given a positive variation in price. The mathematical explanation for this may be seen in Varian (2006), who states that there may be a close relation © 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

between revenue and price-elasticity, defining the revenue as: 𝑅𝑅 = 𝑝𝑝. 𝑞𝑞

(3)

If price and revenue variate to p + ∆p e q + ∆q, respectively, the new revenue will be: 𝑅𝑅 ′ = (𝑝𝑝 + ∆p)(q + ∆q)

(4)

Subtracting R de R’, one has:

∆R = q∆p + p∆q

(5)

In order to obtain the relationship between revenue and price, one has only to share the equação (5) by ∆p, to obtain: ∆R ∆p

= 𝑞𝑞 +

∆q

∆p

(6)

To Varian (2006) the revenue will vary positively with price increase when: 𝑝𝑝 ∆q

𝑞𝑞 ∆p

> −1

(7)

|𝜀𝜀(𝑝𝑝)| < 1

(8)

The left side of the equação (7) is nothing more than the price-elasticity of the demand. Therefore, one has that the revenue varies positively when: The obtained resultads referring to price agree with those found by Dobson and Goddard (2001), Madalozzo (2008) and Bortoluzzo, Laropoli and Machado (2011), when showing that the demand for football is inelastic in both countries. With regards to income, there were differences among the results found in Brazil and in England. In those, the football has shown to be an inferior asset, with elasticity of – 0, 15, while that asset is normal,

b) Quality of the match, substitute and structural factors Other factors statistically significant in Brazil as well as in England are the capacity of the arenas,

Table 2 : Result for the model estimation by MQ2E- Brazil (2013) Dependent variable: Log Público (Log Audience) Variables

Brazil

England

(Constant)

-2,389520 (0,27)

6,104953* (0,04)

(Log (Price))

-0,720222* (0,050)

-0,972535* (0,04)

(Log (Income))

0,730711* (0,012)

-0,155367* (0,04)

(Promoted)

0,239909 (0,130)

0,191950* (0,03)

(PFC/Cinema)

-0,045340 (0,456)

0,217686* (0,020)

(Round)

-0,000691 (0,921)

0,000836 (0,557)

(End)

0,169207 (0,067)

0,049311* (0,027)

(Rivalry)

0,608143* (0,000)

0,006537 (0,827)

-0,013309 (0,406)

-0,034501 (0,009) *

(Libertadores/Champions League)

-0,021405 (0,897)

-0,087670 (0,033) *

(Points)

-0,009489 (0,653)

-6,22e^-05 (0,987)

(Points2)

0,000321 (0,593)

-2,97e^-05 (0,669)

(Position)

© 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Year

showing that this factor affects positively the search for games in both countries, being that in England the impact is larger. One of the hypothesis to be drawn from the result is that the arenas with more seats result in better confort for the supporters. In Brazil, other factors which have shown significant statistically were the variables referring to rivalry between clubs, the fact that the visiting team may be considered big and the new arenas. It is possible to see, then, that the Brazilian supporters are more sensitive to aspects related to visiting teams. In England, the movie theater has shown to be a substitute asset to football. Other factors such as team position in the classification table and the fact that the match may be done on the weekend affect the demand for matches in the English championship. The results point out that, in relation to the economical and structural factors, the consumers, in Brazil as well as in England, act the same way, except for income. However, in relation to the quality expected of the match and uncertainty of the result, Brazilian are more sensitive than English. Table 2 brings results of the estimative of the model MQ2E for Brazil and England.

21

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

therefore, an increase in the consumer income may cause an increase in the consume for football. This result may be different than the results found in Souza (2004), Madolozzo (2008) and Bortoluzzo, Laropoli and Machado (2011). This positive effect may be generated by the introduction of the variable Arena in the model. Therefore, this new concept of sports squares with more confort and security may have gotten more attention of the consumers with higher income to get to know the newer arenas, with a structure never before seen in Brazil. In England, the introduction of new arenas happened in the middle of the 1990s decade, finding itself, in the middle of 2010s decade, in a more mature phase, as such, supporters no longer have the interest of going to the matches with the goal of getting to know the arenas, something which is going on in Brazil. Therefore, it can be explained the difference between the signal of the elasticities-income of the demand found. One hopes, then, that the football returns, in the next years, to be an inferior asset, as well as in England.

2015

Determinants of Football Games Demand in Brazil and England

Determinants of Football Games Demand in Brazil and England

(Great)

0,290017 (0,018) * 0,003176 (0,933) -0,000646 (0,769) 0,284752* (0,000)

0,020576 (0,371) -0,012291 (0,262) 0,000949 (0,144) -

0,612901 (0,017) *

-

0,208234 (0,396)

-

(Log(TravelTicket) Log(Capacidade) (Log(Capacity)

0,306092* (0,010)

0,832275* (0,000)

R-Squared (R-Squared)

0,297244

0,792084

(Amplitude) (Amplitude2)

(Log(Suportters))

Year

2015

(Arenas)

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

22

Source: The authors. * Significant to the level of 5%.

V.

Conclusions

Football constitutes an economical activity very meaningful in many countries. As such, it must be seen from a systematic perspective, able to understand in its whole its supply chain. Due to the amount involved in the industry of football and the small participation of Brazil in this industry, as well as the great importance of England in this sector, this study aimed to identify the factors which influence the demand for matches in football championships in those respective countries, só that from the results obtained the agents involved in the industry focused may take measures aiming greater financial efficiency. From an econometrical model estimated by Minimum Squares of Two Stages - MínimosQuadrados de DoisEstágios (MQ2E), it was possible to find some factors which led the supporters to the Brazilian and English arenas, fulfilling the general objectives of this work. The results obtained in this study agree with hypothesis previously stated that English supporters are less sensitive to those aspects than Brazilian. This shows that, in England, fans of football go to the arenas moved by only aspects referring to their teams and not those of the adversary, as it does in Brazil. In relation to the behavior of clubs as profit maximizing agents, the results agree with the hypothesis that English clubs are closer to the profit maximization margin of the Brazilian, presenting a price-elasticity demand of -0,97. This result also fulfills one of the specific objectives presented in this work. Still in the specific objectives, the results found were enough to identify in which way the economical factors impact the demand for football in Brazil and in England, as well as structural factors, of match quality and substitutes. © 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

The findings of this study contribute to the increase fo the literature of Sports Economics, showing the importance of football as an industry. They contribute, also, for the agents involved in this industry to take decisions more efficiently, aiming to the increase of their results. It is possible to verify that in Brazil, for example, if clubs increase ticket prices, revenues will increase. Limitations found in this study consist in the unavailability of data for previous championships, which made impossible the extension of the research for a larger time span. It might be noted, as well the lack of information about violence in the Brazilian and English arenas, what could be one of the most important factors to explain the presence or lack of audience. It is suggested that the study is a base for comparison for future works about the demand for matches in the Brazilian and English championships. There is also the possibility of checking the impact of the World Cup FIFA 2014 in the search fo matches of the Brazilian championship. This research may, as well, serve as parameter for studies in national championships of other countries such as Spain and Germany which present a good audience average in arenas, analyzing in which way every factor in this work impacts the demand in these countries.

References Références Referencias 1. BBC SPORTS SURVEY. The price of football. Disponível em: . Acessadoem:23/02/2014. 2. BEAMON, B. M. Measuring supply chain performance International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 19, n. 3, p. 275-292, 1999. 3. BELO, Eduardo; PAOLOZZI, Vitor. Futebol faz 150 anos e movimenta até US$ 1 tri. Ano 14, n.3371.

6. 7. 8.

9.

10. 11. 12.

13.

14. 15.

16.

17. 18. 19.

21. 22. 23.

24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

30.

31. 32.

© 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Year

5.

20.

. Acessado em:23/02/2014. LEONCINI, Marvio Pereira; SILVA, Márcia Terra, da. Entendendo o futebol como negócio: um estudo exploratório. Revista Gestão e Produção, v.12, n.1, p.11-23. 2005.Disponível em:. Acessado em: 26/12/2014. MADALOZZO, Regina. A model of attendance demand at the brazilian football league. Insper Working Paper. WPE: 113/2008. 2008. MURRAY, Michael P. Econometrics: a modern introduction. Boston: Pearson, 2006. O’CONNOR, Joseph Gerald. Do league ranking, promotion and relegation affect football stadium attendance? An empirical investigation into the English football league. University of Nottingham. 2009. OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS. Economy. Disponível em: . Acessado em: 24/02/2014. PINDYCK, Robert S.; RUBINFELD, Daniel L. Microeconomia.7. ed.Pearson, Boston, 2009. PLURICONSULTORIA, Relatório. Disponível em: . Acessado em: 20/12/2013. RICHARDSON, Roberto Jarry. Pesquisa social: métodos e técnicas. 3. ed, São Paulo: Atlas, 2007. ROTTENBERG, S.The baseball players' labor market. Journal of Political Economy, v. 62, p. 242258. 1959. SILVA, Edna L.; MENEZES, Estera M. Metodologia da pesquisa e elaboração de dissertação. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, 2001. SOUZA, F. A. P. Um estudo sobre a demanda por jogos de futebol nos estádios brasileiros. Dissertação de mestrado. Departamento de Administração, FEA-USP, 2004. Disponível em: . Acessado em: 31/01/2014. VARIAN, Hal. R. Microeconomia: uma abordagem moderna. 7. ed. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier, 2006. WORLD FOOTBALL. Results & Tables. Disponívelem:. Acessadoem: 24/02/2014.

23

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

4.

10/2013.Disponível em: . Acessado em: 28/10/2013. BLUMENSCHEIN, Fernando; NEDAL, Rafael Kaufmann. A importância do futebol na economia brasileira. Rio de Janeiro:FGV, 2010. BORTOLUZZO, Adriana Bruscato; LAROPOLI, Pedro Trindade; MACHADO, Sérgio Jurandyr. Demand for Brazilian soccer: A censored model approach. Insper Working Paper, v. 237, p. 1-18, 2011. BURAIMO, Babatunde; SIMMONS, Rob. Market size and attendance in English Premier League. Lancaster University Management School. 2006. CADASTRO NACIONAL DE ESTÁDIOS DE FUTEBOL. Disponível em: . Acessado em 22/02/2014. CONFEDERAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE FUTEBOL. Competições. Disponível em: . Acessado em: 20/02/2014. DELLOITE. Relatório. Disponível em: .Acessadoem 01/12/2013. DOBSON, Stephen; GODDARD, John. Economics of football. Cambridge, 2001. DUCREY, Pierre; FERREIRA, Carlos Eduardo; HUERTA, Gabriel; MARSTON. Kevin Tallec. Revisiting UEFA’s Governance Model: adaptations for the challenges of modern football. International Master (MA) in Management, Law and Humanities. Sports. Centre International D’Etude Du Sport. 2003. Disponível em: . Acessado em: 12/01/2014. EKELUND, P. A rentabilidade das associações de times de futebol: os exemplos das ligas de futebol da Itália e da Inglaterra. São Paulo: FGV, 1998. GARCÍA, Jaime; RODRÍGUEZ, Plácido. The determinants of football match attendance revisited: empirical evidence from the Spanish football league. Economics Working Papers from department of Economics and Business, University Pompeu Fabra. 2001. Disponível em: . Acessado em: 30/03/2014. GIL, Antônio Carlos.Como elaborar projetos de pesquisa. 5. ed. São Paulo: Atlas, 2010. GUJARATI, Damodar. Econometria básica. São Paulo: Makron Books, 2002. INSTITUTO BRASILEIRO DE GEOGRAFIA E ESTATÍSTICA. IBGE [email protected] Disponível em:

2015

Determinants of Football Games Demand in Brazil and England

Year

2015

Determinants of Football Games Demand in Brazil and England

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

24

This page is intentionally left blank

© 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Global Journal of Management and Business Research: A Administration and Management Volume 15 Issue 10 Version 1.0 Year 2015 Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA) Online ISSN: 2249-4588 & Print ISSN: 0975-5853

Contact of Communal Ethical Practices and Personality Ethical Behavioral Organizational Job Pleasure By Muhammad Tauqir Sultan Shah, Ibrar Khan, M Yousaf Raza, M Ismail Ramay, Sajid Shah & Mushtaq Ahmed Federal Urdu University of Arts, Pakistan

Abstract- Pakistan is facing numerous political and social problems as developing county. In past several years military dictatorship replaced by weak democracy which is again replace by military dictatorship. It is ranked one of the top ten corrupted countries of the world. Very recently government which is a weak, unwilling and corrupt regime has brought down ethical standard to minimum and corrupt practices to a maximum. These practices were its shadow and impact on every social, economic and corporate sector. The purpose of this study was to measure impact of corporate ethical practices and individual behavior on organizational job satisfaction. 350 questionnaires were distributed among them 177 completed and useable questionnaire were received from employees and manager from different organization of capital territory of Pakistan. The association between variable was investigated and correlation, registration and factor analysis were performance. Keywords: individual ethics, organizational ethics, organizational job satisfaction. GJMBR - A Classification : JEL Code: D29, J62

ContactofCommunalEthicalPracticesandPersonalityEthicalBehavioralOrganizationalJobPleasure Strictly as per the compliance and regulations of:

© 2015. Muhammad Tauqir Sultan Shah, Ibrar Khan, M Yousaf Raza, M Ismail Ramay, Sajid Shah & Mushtaq Ahmed. This is a research/review paper, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Contact of Communal Ethical Practices and Personality Ethical Behavioral Organizational Job Pleasure

Keywords: individual ethics, organizational job satisfaction.

A

I.

organizational

ethics,

Introduction

ccording to a survey of Transparency International, 2010, Pakistan was not rated very high on the formulation and implementation of ethical standards and is apparently corrupt public sector in the world. Ethical practices of organizations do play an important role among all stakeholders. The rising demand from stakeholders such as employees, customers, shareholders, and the society for corporations to act morally responsible way, can no longer be overlooked. Organizational ethics is not a new concept and have been investigated since 18th century, (Strategic Direction, 2002). Ethical practices of Organization and their leaders are crucial. A positive employee perception toward their organizational ethical values leads to employee satisfaction (Koh and Boo, 2001; Labs, 1997). Individual ethics also have substantial effects on the institutional performance, employee satisfaction, employee performance, and organizational commitment. However, consistency between organizational and individual Author α σ ρ Ѡ ¥ §: Ph.D Fellow in Hamdard University Islamabad, working as Accountant in Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology Islamabad. e-mails: [email protected], [email protected]

ethics improves employee’s satisfaction. Through ethical practices organizations get many advantages from their stakeholders like customer loyalty, employee satisfaction, stockholder attraction and the favor of government. Organizational ethics and individual ethics are important causes determining intra- organizational relationship and employee’s perceptions (Valentine.et al., 2011). Examining the effects of organizational and individual ethics on employee satisfaction is an important research area. Study investigates individual’s behavior when they face ethical issues in organizations. So, individual perception toward these ethical issues is the major considerations of recent research. However main objective of this study is to examine impacts of organizational and individual ethics on job satisfaction in local context. Such influences therefore, are tested, using a set of data collected from a sample of managers working in different local companies with reference to Pakistani context. Employees perceived that their organization sustain moral behavior. This perception of employees thus, increases job satisfaction. Nevertheless, a little bit work has been done on this scenario in Pakistan. Therefore this study is conducted to fill this gap by examining such relationship and. In addition study also investigates the impact of individual ethics on job satisfaction. This study contributes body of knowledge to previous research in the same research era (Trevino et al., 2006, p.963, Elango. et al., 2010). Prior studies investigated the effects of organizational and individual ethics on ethical intention. Present study examines these effects on job satisfaction which add-up further contributions with previous study. Elc et al., (2009) presented similar research model in which they observed impacts of three types of organizational ethical climate on job satisfaction. Previous literatures enable us to make clear understanding about the influences of these factors on employee satisfaction Study provides the managerial implications for top management, policy makers as well as government to enhance employee motivation through ethical practices in Pakistan. Findings of the study can be used to enhance organizational ethical practices, ethical decision making, © 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Year

problems as developing county. In past several years military dictatorship replaced by weak democracy which is again replace by military dictatorship. It is ranked one of the top ten corrupted countries of the world. Very recently government which is a weak, unwilling and corrupt regime has brought down ethical standard to minimum and corrupt practices to a maximum. These practices were its shadow and impact on every social, economic and corporate sector. The purpose of this study was to measure impact of corporate ethical practices and individual behavior on organizational job satisfaction. 350 questionnaires were distributed among them 177 completed and useable questionnaire were received from employees and manager from different organization of capital territory of Pakistan. The association between variable was investigated and correlation, registration and factor analysis were performance.

25

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

Abstract- Pakistan is facing numerous political and social

2015

Muhammad Tauqir Sultan Shah α, Ibrar Khan σ, M Yousaf Raza ρ, M Ismail Ramay Ѡ, Sajid Shah ¥ & Mushtaq Ahmed §

Contact of Communal Ethical Practices and Personality Ethical Behavioral Organizational Job Pleasure

and ethical activities of the leaders, which strongly influence employee’s satisfaction. The remaining sections of this study are arranged as follows: The subsequently section explains literature review and research hypotheses. The following sections include the methodology and statistical findings. The final section provides relevant discussion and managerial implications.

Year

2015

II.

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

26

Literature Review

Franken (1973) has sketched two major hypothetical views in ethical dilemmas- that are known as deontological and teleological theories. Deontological perspective represents that “what is morally right’’ is reliant upon the characteristics of behavior itself. On the other hand, the teleological viewpoint highlights the outcomes of a behavior, when evaluating whether the behavior is ethical. Therefore, a behavior is right, if it perceived for creating batter over bad that some other option and is unethical, if it does not do so. Past researches show strong evidences that organizational ethics significantly influence job satisfaction (e.g. Traynor, 1999 and Valentine, et al; 2011). This study looks at these associations by two important theories of ethics which have revealed ethics as “a process by which members of the society appraise their actions form a moral values view point”. Cognitive dissonance theory” discusses all those efforts which are made to minimize individual differences in an environment (Festinger, 1942). Some other researchers also defined same types of theories (Heider, 1958; Goetz man and Pales, 1997; Gerald et al., 1998). Another point of view, often discussed in literature is the “justice theory” (Weiss, 2003) - distributive justice and procedural justice. This theory indicates that organizational justice affects employee’s perception towards their job related behaviors. Distributive justice may best be represented of as a teleological thought of justice due to its focus on employee outcomes, whereas procedural justice is best known as deontological thought as of its focal point on the means of decisions making process (Viswesvaran et al., 1998). According to Dailey & Kirk (1992), both procedural and distributive justice strongly relate to employee satisfaction. Lind’s (1992) investigated that if an employee perceives his organization to be ethical, also likely perceived that he is fairly treated by his organization. These positive perceptions of employee’s increase job satisfaction. Literatures indicate that ethical environment, organization support for ethical climate, and association between career success and moral behaviors have significant impact on job satisfaction. Study focuses on the impact of organizational ethics (top management support, ethical climate and © 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

relationship between career success and ethical behavior) and individual ethics on job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is an attitude which employees show towards their organization and behave “what they like or dislike” on the job, (Koh & Boo, 2001). According to Locke (1976) job satisfaction is ‘‘a pleasant and affecting state, ensuing from the appraisal of one’s job’’. This is an outcome of the perception which an employee’s work gives. Subsequently, work of Hertzberg et al., (1959), investigated job satisfaction as a worldwide notion with two separate aspects, that comprises intrinsic and extrinsic factors of one’s job (Boggler, 2001; Denham & Scott, 2000). Few studies have examined organization-ethics consequences, such as employee’s satisfaction, and organizational performance (Bullen & Flamholz, 1985; Saks, et al, 1996; Koh & Boo, 2001). Along with the consequences, job satisfaction has mostly been investigated in behavioral sciences therefore, relationship between organizational ethics, individual ethics and job satisfaction will considered an ethical matter in business. III.

Organizational Ethics

Previous studies showed positive association between organizational ethics and job satisfaction (Deshpanday, 1996; Josiph & Deshpanday, 1997; Babin et al., 2000; Koh & Boe, 2001; Valentine & Barnet, 2003; Weeks et al., 2004; Mulki et al., 2006; Woodbin, 2006; Elango et al., 2010 and Valentine.et al., 2011) Differences of ethical values of employees and organizational ethical climate lead to decrease job satisfaction. Schwepker (1999) investigated in a study; employees do not like inconsistency between their moral value and organizational ethical climate.If they perceive unethical climate in organization, they will feel dissatisfied with their job. Leigh et al., (1988) examined in a survey that organizational environment plays stronger role than individual in attributing job satisfaction. Koh et al., (2001), Jaramillo et al., (2006) and Mulki et al., (2009) also investigated that ethical climate positively effects job satisfaction. Deshpande (1996) and Joseph et al., (1997) examined that organizational ethical climate influence employees perception toward their job. Furthermore, Mulki et al., (2009) concluded that ethical climate indirectly effects job satisfaction. On the bases of broader studies, this research hypothesized that: H1: There is a positive relationship between ethical climate and job satisfaction In organizations where higher authority provides adequate support for ethical behavior, employees are expected to respond positively to management decisions, even if those decisions are contrary to their determination of what is ethical(Trevino, 1986). On the workplace ethics programs, code of conduct and ethical

Contact of Communal Ethical Practices and Personality Ethical Behavioral Organizational Job Pleasure

H3: Higher the organizational ethical behavior and career success, higher will be the job satisfaction.

V.

Methodology

a) Research Sample The sample of the study was taken from Ph.Ds and M.Phil scholars enrolled management sciences department at two major institutions in Pakistan. They are working full-time in public and private sector © 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Year

Individual ethic is separate philosophy from business ethic which reveals that individual believes about morality, “right or wrong’’. Individual ethics play pivotal role in human personal as well as official life. Individual ethics are based on environmental factors and may be derived from parents, grandparents, friends, colleagues, societies or cultures. Posner and Schmidt (1993) revealed “value congruencies” for both individual, and organization, he proved that consistency between individual ethics and organizational ethics has positive impact on ethical decision making which increases job satisfaction, but individual’s value effects strongly. Adkins et al., (1996) also investigated that “Value congruence” positively influences employee’s satisfaction. Individuals have their own values, norms, believes, and attitudes that are influenced by culture, religious, and environmental forces. These forces affect their choice of perceptions. Values have attained much attention of researchers because, these direct to positive behavior which may or may not obey the rules of ethical standards of an organization (Ostrowsky et al., 2009; Trevin˜o et al., 2006;) According to Sims and Kroeck (1994); and Sims & Keon (1997), that individual prefers high ethical congruence, while Ambrose et al., (2008) examined that these congruencies positively influence employee satisfaction. Individual ethical values are important element that strongly influences employee’s productivity as well as organizational performance (Schein, 2004). A study describes that values also affect employee satisfaction (Valentine et al., 2002; Watrous et al., 2006 Cazier et al., 2006, 2007; Alas, 2009). According to Liedtka (1988) ‘‘value congruence’’ refers to as internal consistency of person’s and institutional values. Liedtka emphasized to resolve the internal difference, either difference to the individual or difference between person and institution. Individuals with strong internal consistency are more determined to resolve ethical conflict and to make ethical decisions than individual with less internal consistency. Schwpker, (1999) investigated that generally employees do not like inconsistency between their personal moral value and organizational values. H4: There is positive relationship between individual ethic and job satisfaction.

2015

Individual Ethics

IV.

27

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

decision making approaches are developed by top management, so if top management follow such approaches, employees will respond positively toward ethical behaviors of top management (Andreoli and Lefkowitz, 2009; Ferrell et al., 2008; Trevin˜o and Nelson, 2007). According to “cognitive dissonance theory”, the in consistency between employee’s behaviors and the ethical values of top management, do lead to lower job satisfaction. On the other hand “justice theory” described that fair management provide adequate support for ethical behavior of its employees, this will result higher job satisfaction (Clay-Warner et al., 2005). Festinger, (1942), Dozier & Miceli (1985) Schwepker (1999), investigated that top management support for ethical behavior is positively influences job satisfaction. As Koh et al., (2001) postulated in a survey that ethical behaviors of top management positively influence employee satisfaction. Thus, hypothesis is proposed to test whether management support for moral behavior has any influence on the job satisfaction of Pakistani managers: H2: Top management support for ethical behavior has significant impact on job satisfaction Lufthansa and Stajkovic’s (1999) conducted an empirical research on the bases of reinforcement theory. There study examined that there are three types of reinforcement factors such as: money, feedback and social recognition which encourage individual behavior. Therefore, in an institution where moral behaviors are closely connected with career success, the ethical behaviors of employees are strengthened. As the organization recognizes ethical practices, provides fair reward system and ethical career opportunities which does match with those intrinsically valued by employees, this will result greater job satisfaction. Cognitive dissonance theory also revealed that if organizations reinforce unethical behaviors, the result is definitely lower job satisfaction. Correspondingly, from the justice theory view point, if organization do not promote or reward those employees who do not compromise their ethical values, will feel impatience that leads to lower the job satisfaction. According to Vitel and Davis (1990b) and Viswesvaran and Deshpande (1996) there is positive association between ethical behavior & job satisfaction. Schwepker (1999) also revealed that there is positive relationship between moral behavior and career success. Furthermore, Koh et al., (2001) has proved that relations among ethical behaviors and career success increase employee satisfaction. Based on literature, the study conjures up a hypothesis, a positive relationship between organizational ethics and job satisfaction is probable. That is, stronger organizational ethical behaviors are anticipated to be linked with job satisfaction.

Year

2015

Contact of Communal Ethical Practices and Personality Ethical Behavioral Organizational Job Pleasure

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

28

organizations and having greater than one years of job experience. Students in management and business administration programs have been presented as alternative to indicate management views in many past studies (Bekun et al., 2005; Vitel & Hidalgo, 2006) because they have an assured degree of personal maturity, life familiarity, and work know-how. Literature has shown that these scholars can provide efficiently as substitute in managerial decision-making, behavioral, marketing research and in consumer behavior studies respectively (Ramous, 1986; Khera &Benson, 1970; Burnett & Dune, 1986; Ennis et al., 1972). In fact, Ph Ds and M. Phil scholars frequently have management experience and are working as managers even they are Organizational Ethical Behavior: 1. Top Management Support 2. Ethical Climate 3. Carrier Associated between Success & Ethical Behavior

registered as scholars, as was the case with this sample. In order not to sensitize the scholar to the exact temperament of the research topic, rather we informed that the aim of this study was to get ‘‘the judgment of administration and management on organizational ethical behavior for a research scheme on ethical decision making by the organizations.’’ The respondents were informed that the data is confidential and assured promised that the study data would only be used for educational research. Nevertheless, the constraints of such agreement were that we could not investigate for non-response bias. Sample demographic data, is presented in table1.

Job Satisfaction

Individual Ethical Behavior Table 1 : Demographic data (N=177) Statistical Methods Demographic factors Gender: Male Female Age: 20>30 30>40 40>60 Experience: 01>02 02>05

Percentage 92.00% 08.00% 55.15% 39.70% 05.15% 41.18% 49.26%

Descriptive statistics (Mean and S.D) are used to build up abstract of the respondents and to sum up the variables. Also, reliability coefficients are calculated to check consistency of individual ethics, and organizational ethics, to job satisfaction. To better understand the associations among the variables; correlation analysis is carried out to generate the correlation matrix. Lastly, to measure hypotheses, regression analysis is used. VI.

Measurement

To measure individual ethical behaviors study follows that Peters (1972) scale (with some minor changes) that has been developed to observe value and attitude, concerning social responsibility. Modified Peter’s scale has been used by Paul et al., (1997) and Meager & Schuyte (2005) to measure individual ethical attitudes in organizations. This study made some minor changes in modified scale by Elango et al., (2010). Since the main aims of the present research were © 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

toward individual’s ethical behavior in business market with reference to Pakistan. Many of original scale items were deleted to put emphasis on local business situation of recent survey, resulting in a scale with 9 questions. The cronbach, s alpha is 0.71. All items were keep on a 5-point lykert scale, range from 1=‘‘Extremely Disagree’’ to 5 = ‘‘Extremely Agree,’’. Three items included to measured top management proceedings towards ethical practices, designed by Hunt et al., (1984). The reliability of these three item s is 0.833. Similarly study adapted three items (out of seven) to measure relationship between career success and ethical behavioral by sing scale, developed by Hunt et al., (1984), which was further modified by Elango et al., (2010). Only small changes we have made in these scales due to cultural differences. The alpha for these three items is .789. Third component of organizational ethics; ethical climate was measured in terms of Egoistic, benevolent and principled. Items to measure three components of ethical climate were adapted from original ethical climate scale designed by Cullen et al., (1993), which was adapted by Elango et al., (2010). Only 8 items were included after little modifications. The alpha is 0.806. All items were measured on five point scale, ranging from “Extremely disagree” to “Extremely agree”. Four dimensions (supervision, compensations, promotion and, colleague’s behaviors) of job satisfaction were measured by using scales developed by various research scholars (Vitel & Davis, 1990; Josiph & Deshpanday, 1996; Viswesvran et al., 1998). First three facets consist of three items each, while fourth dimension comprises four items measured on a

Contact of Communal Ethical Practices and Personality Ethical Behavioral Organizational Job Pleasure

SPSS 18.0 to calculate the mean, standard deviation, cronbach,s, alpha and hierarchical regression models to confirm hypothesized associations.

scale series from 1=: extremely disagree” to “5=extremely agree” which has been adapted by different researchers The alpha is 0.825.This study used

Table 2 : Descriptive statistics and Correlations (N=177) 1

2

3

4

5

6

.219** .191* .015 -.015 -.035 .162* -.100 .034 .310** .552** -.061 -.031 .264** .503** .636** ** * ** -.219 .172 .226 .143 .300** *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05.

7

.334**

behavior have positive and significant correlation (r = 0.300, p <.01) with job satisfaction. Similarly relationship between individual ethics and job satisfaction is also positive and significant (r = 0.334, p < 0.01). Likewise, the independent and dependent variable were somewhat correlated with each other and with demographic variable.

Table-2 explains descriptive statistic and correlation between variables designed in this study. There is a positive and significant relationship (r = .226, p<.01) between the Top management support and job satisfaction. There is a positive but insignificant relationship (r = .143, p >.01) between ethical climate and job satisfaction. Career success and ethical

Table 3 : Regression Analysis:- Demographic variable and Job satisfaction (N=177) Model (Const) Age Gender Duration

Β

SE .207 .086 .119 .056

T

.203 .025 -.033

F 2.277, df = 3, R2= 0.038 ΔR2 = 0.038 Note: SE= Standard error; β= Standardized beta Job satisfaction= dependent variable

The impact of demographic factors on job satisfaction was examined by regression analysis. The values of R2 in table 5 shows that 3.8% of the variation in job satisfaction is accounted for by the demographic factors with (F=22.7%, p<0.081). Beta values of 0.203 (p<0.01) shows that there is a positive and significant

Sig.

14.473 2.597 .322 -.424

.000 .010 .748 .672

sig of F changes p=0.081

impact of age on job satisfaction. Similarly, beta values of 0.205 (p<0.748) show that there is a positive but not significant impact of gender on job satisfaction, while, beta values of -0.033 (p<0.672) show that there is a negative but not significant impact of duration on job satisfaction.

Table 4 : Regression Analysis:- Independent variable and Job satisfaction (N=177) Model (Const) Top management support Ethical climate Career success & ethical behavior Individual ethics Dependent Variable: JS R2= 0.120 ΔR2 = 0.120 F =5.847, Note: SE= Standard error; β= Standardized beta

Β

SE .269 .060 .090 .071 .075

-.028 .231 .087 .132

df = 4,

The statistical analysis used for testing four hypotheses, is based on stepwise hierarchical regression models as shown in Table 4. The impact of organizational and individual ethics on job satisfaction was examined by regression analysis. The values of R2 in table 4 shows that 12% of

T 7.869 -.312 2.309 .888 1.720

Sig. .000 .755 .010 .076 .005

sig of F changes p=0.00

the variation in job satisfaction is accounted for by the independent variable with (F=58.47%, p<0.001). Beta values of.-0.028 (p<0.755) shows that there is a negative and insignificant association between job satisfaction and top management support for ethical behavior. So our second hypothesis is rejected by the © 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

2015

S.D .56345 .86825 .91287 .68804 .85048 .63717 .62321

Year

Mean 1.3842 1.7966 3.2900 3.1172 3.4821 3.0094 3.3125

29

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

Variables 1.Age 2.Duration 3.Top management support 4.Ethical climate 5.Career success & ethical behavior 6.Individual ethics 7.Job satisfaction **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01.

Year

2015

Contact of Communal Ethical Practices and Personality Ethical Behavioral Organizational Job Pleasure

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

30

result. Such relations have been founded by the study of Viswesvaran et al. (1998). They observed that this types of result might have been recognized to cultural dissimilarities. The authors speculated that the in significant results might have been attributed to cultural differences as the fundamental descriptions were based on the literature from American samples. It is possible that the Pakistani managers are accepting the ethical decisions of top management more passively than other managers. Similarly, beta values of 0.231 (p<0.01) shows that there is a positive & significant impact of ethical climate on job satisfaction. Result supports our hypothesis 1. Beta values of 0.087 (p<0.07) shows that there is a positive but not significant impact of association between career success and ethical behavior on job satisfaction (Koh et al., 2001). Our last hypothesis, individual ethics strongly influence job satisfaction, is proved with a beta value of 0.132(p<0.005) which shows positive and significant relationship between job satisfaction and individual ethics(Valentine et al., 2002; Watrous et al., 2006 Cazier et al., 2006, 2007; Alas, 2009). VII.

Discussion and Conclusions

In an environment where organizations are facing ethical issues, their ethical practices play an important role with respect to all stakeholders. This study is conducted to examine influences of individual and, organizational ethic on job satisfaction. In spite of ethics significance, this is the first study with respect to local context that efforts to recognize associations of employee’s behavior with ethical practice and individual ethical behavior. Result stated that there is a negative and insignificant relationship between top management support for ethical behavior and job satisfaction. Such relations have been founded by the study of Viswesvaran et al. (1998). They observed that this types of result might have been recognized to cultural dissimilarities. The authors speculated that the insignificant results might have been attributed to cultural differences as the fundamental descriptions were based on the literature from American samples. It is possible that the Pakistani managers are accepting the ethical decisions of top management more passively than other managers. This study holds up a strong positive correlation as founded between the top management support for ethical behavior, association between career success and ethical behavior and individual ethical behaviors with job satisfaction. The results revealed that stronger the individual ethics, top management support for ethical behavior and relationship between careers success and ethical behavior, higher will be the job satisfaction. Therefore our three hypotheses: H1, H3 and H4 are accepted due to significant positive © 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

associations founded by the result. Result does not support hypothesis 2 because of negative relationship. Thus, the findings of this study mirror those of Adkins et al., (1996) and Valentine.et al; (2011), and are reliable with Ostrowsky et al., (2009); Trevin˜o et al., (2006); Koh & Boe, 2001 and Elango et al., 2010. As individual ethics literature propose one potential enlightenment for this result could be that, when employees have strong ethical value, they are likely to think about their relationship with their ethical organization in terms of societal exchange rather than monetary exchange and they are possibly to give in return by helping the organization in a variety of ways (Organ, 1990). Thus, individual ethical behavior promotes going above and beyond the call of duty and job satisfaction. The recent results also authenticate the previous conclusions of Joseph & Deshpanday (1997). From literature review, it can be seen that organizational ethics influence job satisfaction which in turn encourage positive job attitudes. This study adds the body of knowledge in business ethics in two ways. First, the proven linkage between organizational, individual ethics and job satisfaction point out that business ethics care about moral concerns. Many of the respondents make an attempt to notify the reality and assist their organizations to make moral judgment. Second, the quantitative data representing reasons of ethical differences that would be excellent resources from which additional research can be made. The results of this research propose a contributory association between an organizational, individual ethics, and job satisfaction. Eventually, these facts recommend that how to resolve ethical differences and further ethical practice in organizations. These conclusions demonstrated that ethical problems which practitioners face in organizations are frequent. More than fifty percent of the respondents responded that they have suffered ethical variances in their organizations. They indicated that job satisfaction was strongly influenced by ethical grief in organizations. The consequences showed that the ethical issue needs to be critically addressed in institutions generally and in at Pakistan specifically. VIII. Limitations and Future Research Recent research has some restrictions due to the cultural factors, purposes of research, geographic factors, and business environment related issues. Sample of the study used MS, phd scholars with managerial acquaintance and significant national coverage as a substitute to confine genuine ethical employee’s attitudes. Despite the fact that the using MS, PhD scholars as sample, was reliable in earlier literatures for investigative survey such as this one. Scholars in classrooms are expected to imitate on moral concerns more intentionally than they may in genuine

IX.

Appendix – Measurement of Constructs Job Satisfaction

Pay • • •

My organization pays better than competitors. My pay is adequate considering the responsibilities I have. My fringe benefits are adequate

• • •

Promotion Promotions are infrequent in my organization. If I do a good job, I am likely to get promoted. I am satisfied with my rate of advancement

• •

Coworkers My colleagues provide me enough support In my organization, when I ask people to do things, the job gets done. I enjoy working with the people in my organization. In my organization, I work with responsible people.

• • •

Supervisor The managers I work for are competent. My supervisors listen to me. Management treats me fairly

• •

© 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Year

a) Organizational Ethics i. Top Management support • Top management in my organization does not accept unethical behaviors of employees • Unethical behavior of managers are discouraged if they are for personal gain • Unethical behavior of managers are discouraged if they are for corporate gain ii. Ethical climate a. Egoistic • My organization emphasizes the importance of furthering its interests • My organization does not expects from employee to be fair with its interest • In my organization, all decision are made just for business interest • My organization can compromise on its business interest b. Benevolent • My organization generally concern with employee welfare. • All decisions in my organization are made best interest of everyone c. Principled • Employees in my organization strictly obey the rules and procedures • People who avoids organization rules and procedures are discouraged iii. Association between ethical behavior and career success • Successful manager in my organization are more ethical than unsuccessful managers. • Successful managers in my organization withhold information that is unfavorable to their self-interest. • Ethical behaviors is important for success in my organization b) Individual Ethics • Maximizing profits should be the single most important goal of business • I would probably quit a company that I felt was unethical in the market • I am not concerned about the company decision, when I know that I can do nothing • Nation’s problem should be important for business even if there are no rewards for the business • Company product standards can be higher, as long as it does not break the local law • I feel that a company’s only major responsibility is to its shareholders • Government has no right to ask companies to do anymore than what it has contracted • Government has no right to ask companies for any kind of assistance for social reasons • Companies should be able to use any business practice acceptable to local market even if it is unethical

31

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

administrative observations or to convey imprecise answers due to societal reactions bias. The present research paid attention on national business ethical matters. Whereas the national setting, its cultural background, customs, and traditions of the nation have larger collisions outside the classroom surroundings which could ever repeat. Since, this research sample was small therefore, a prudent and comprehensive study framework was required, restricting the addition of probable determinants recognized in existing researches, (Ford & Richaedson (1994; Loe et al., 2000; O’Falon & Buterfield 2005; Trevino et al., 2006). They proposed many of factors that influence organizational, and individual ethical behavior. For further investigations, a more purposeful research will be helpful. In addition, the degree to which, job satisfaction is linked with individual and organizational ethical behavior match to real ethical behavior, is not easy to judge. Therefore, research designed specially at this question is required to move this matter further ahead. Additional variables that could affect job satisfaction such as ethics training programs, religious and organizational ethics, should be added in future researches. Future research might be conducted on moderating variable such as leadership or demographic as age, gender, income or mediating factors. Future research should also examine mediating role of job satisfaction by adding employee’s outcome, such as turnover intention, organizational commitment etc. In addition this research can be conducted in other context to examine these relationships.

2015

Contact of Communal Ethical Practices and Personality Ethical Behavioral Organizational Job Pleasure

Contact of Communal Ethical Practices and Personality Ethical Behavioral Organizational Job Pleasure

Year

2015

References Références Referencias

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

32

1. Adkins, C. L., C. J. Russell and j. D. Werbel: 1994, ‘judgments of fit in the selection process: the role of work-value congruence’, personnel psychology 47, 605–623. 2. Adkins, C. L., E. C. Ravlin and b. M. Meglino: 1996, ‘value congruence between co-workers and its relationship to work outcomes’, group and organization studies 21(4), 439–460. 3. Adkins, C. L. And C. J. Russell: 1997, ‘supervisorsubordinate work value congruence and subordinate performance: a pilot study’, journal of business and psychology 12(2), 205–217. 4. Alas, R. And S. Wei: 2008, ‘institutional impact on work-related values in Chinese organizations’, journal of business ethics 83, 297–306. 5. Alas, R.: 2009, ‘the impact of work-related values on the readiness to change in Estonian organizations’, journal of business ethics 86, 113–124. 6. Ambrose, M.L., & cropanzano, r. 2003. Longitudinal analysis of organizational fairness: an examination of reactions to tenure and promotion decisions. Journal of applied psychology, 88: 266-275. 7. Ambrose, M. L., arnaud, a., & Schminke, m. (2007). Individual moral development and ethical climate: the influence of person-organization fit on job attitudes, journal of business ethics, and 77, 323-333. 8. Ambrose, M. L., a. Arnaud and m. Schminke: 2008, ‘individual moral development and ethical climate: the influence of person-organization fit on job. 9. Bahaudin G. Mujtaba (2010: Business Ethics Perceptions of Public and Private Sector Respondents in Pakistan, “Asian Journal of Business Ethics – Springer”. 10. Bass, B. M. (1997). Does the transactional – transformational leadership paradigm transcend organizational and national boundaries? American psychologist, 52(2), 130 – 139. 11. Bass, B. M. (1999). Current developments in transformational leadership: research and applications. The psychologist manager journal, 3(1), 5 – 21. 12. Bateman, T. S., & organ, D. W. (1983). Job satisfaction and the good soldier. The relationship between affect and employee ‘‘citizenship’’. Academy of management journal, 26(4), 587 – 595. 13. B. Elango Karen Paulsummit k. Kundu Shishir k. Paudel: 2010, ‘organizational ethics, individual ethics, and ethical intentions in international decision-making’, journal of business ethics 97:543–561. 14. Babin, B. J., J. S. Boles and d. P. Robin: 2000, ‘representing the perceived ethical work climate among marketing employees’, academy of marketing science 28(3), 345–358. © 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

15. Beekun, R. I., J. Westerman and j. Barghouti: 2005, ‘utility of ethical frameworks in determining behavior intention: a comparison of The US and Russia’, journal of business ethics 61(3), 235–247. 16. Black, S., Morrison, a., & Gregersen, h. (1999). Global explorers: the next generation of leaders. New York: Routledge. 17. Bogler, R. (2001). The influence of leadership style on teacher job satisfaction. Educational administration quarterly, 37(5), 662 – 683. 18. Brief, 1998 cited in Weiss, H. M. (2002). Deconstructing job satisfaction: separating evaluations, beliefs and affective experiences. Human Resource Management Review, 12, 173-194, p. 174. 19. Brown, S. P. And r. A. Peterson: 1993, ‘antecedents and consequences of salesperson job satisfaction: meta- analysis and assessment of causal effects’, journal of marketing research 30, 63–77. 20. Brown, M.E., Trevino, L.K., Harrison, D.A. 2005. Ethical leadership: a social learning perspective for constructs development and testing. Organizational behavior and human decision process, 97: 117-134. 21. Burnett, J. J. And p. M. Dunne: 1986, ‘an appraisal of the use of student subjects in marketing research’, journal of business research 14(4), 329–343. 22. Cable, D. M. And d. S. Debreu: 2002, ‘the convergent and discriminate validity of subjective fit perceptions’, journal of applied psychology 87, 875–884. 23. Caciope, R., n. Forster and m. Fox: 2008, ‘a survey of manager’s perceptions of corporate ethics and social responsibility and actions that may affect companies’ success’, journal of business ethics 82(3), 681–700. 24. Cazier, j. A., b. B. Shao and r. D. St. Louis: 2006, ‘ebusiness differentiation through value-based trust’, information & management 43(6), 718–727. 25. Cazier, J. A., b. B. Shao and r. D. St. Louis: 2007, ‘sharing information and building trust through value congruence’, information systems frontiers 9, 515–529. 26. Chatman, J. A.: 1989, ‘improving international organizational research: a model of person– organization fit’, academy of management review 14, 333–349. 27. Cheng, b. S., Chou, l. F., wu, t. Y., huang, m. P., & farh, j. L. (2004). Paternalistic leadership and subordinate responses: establishing a leadership model in Chinese organizations. Asian journal of social psychology, 7, 89–117. 28. Cowton, C.J., & Thompson, p. (2000). Do codes make a difference? The case of bank lending and the environment, journal of business ethics, 24(2), 165-178.

© 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Year

45. Ford, R. C. And w. D. Richardson: 1994, ‘ethical decision-making: a review of the empirical literature’, journal of business ethics 13(3), 205–221. 46. Franken, W.K. (1973) ethics, Englewood cliffs, nj: prentice-hall inc. George, j. m and Jones, g. R. (2006), contemporary management, fourth edition, New York: mcgraw hill/Irwin. 47. Geisel, f., sleegers, p., Lethwood, k., &jaunts, d. (2003). Transformational leadership effects on teachers’ commitment and effort toward school reform. Journal of educational administration, 41(3), 228 – 256. 48. Griffin, R. W., &Bateman, t. S. (1986). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment. In c. L. Cooper & i. Robertson (eds.), international review of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 157 – 188). New York: Wiley. 49. Hamermesh, d. (2001). The changing distribution of job satisfaction, the journal of human resources, 36, 1, 1-30. 50. Hartman, S. J., A. C. Yrle and w. P. Galle, jr.: 1999, ‘procedural and distributive justice: examining equity in a university setting’, journal of business ethics 20, 337–351. 51. Hian ChyeKoh Alfred h. Y. Boo (2001) the link between organizational ethics and job satisfaction: a study of managers in Singapore “journal of business ethics” 29: 309–324, 2001. 52. Herzberg, F., mausner, b., &Snyder man, b. (1959). The motivation to work. New york: john Wiley& sons. 53. Hochwarter, w. A., p. L. Perrine, g. R. Ferns and r. A. Braymer: 1999, ‘job satisfaction and performance: the moderating effects of value attainment and affective disposition’, journal of vocational behavior 54(2), 296–313. 54. Hofstede, G.: 2002, culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations, 2nd edition (sage publications, thousand oaks, ca). 55. House, R. J., P. J. Hanges, m. Javidan, p.w. Dorfman and v. Gupta (eds.): 2004, culture, leadership, and organizations (sage publications, thousand oaks, ca). 56. Hunt, S. D., V. R. Wood and l. B. Chonko: 1989, ‘corporate ethical values and organizational commitment in marketing’, journal of marketing 53(3), 79–90. 57. Humbled; chief executives. (2003). The economist, 369(8355): 92. Retrieved July 16, 2007, from infotrac academic ASAP database. 58. Ibarra-Colado, e., s. R. Clegg, c. Rhodes and m. Kornberg: 2006, ‘the ethics of managerial subjectivity’, journal of business ethics 64(1), 45–55. 59. Jaramillo, F., J. P. Mulki and p. Solomon: 2006, ‘the role of ethical climate on salesperson’s role stress, job attitudes, turnover intention, and job

33

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

29. Cordeiro, W. P. (2003), “the only solution to the decline in business ethics: ethical managers,” teaching business ethics, 7, 265-277. 30. Cranny, Smith & Stone, 1992 cited in Weiss, H. M. (2002). Deconstructing job satisfaction: separating evaluations, beliefs and affective experiences. Human Resource Management Review, 12, 173194, p.174. 31. Ciula, j. 2004. Ethics, the heart of leadership. Pager publishers. 32. Cullen, j. B., b. Victor and w. J. Bronson: 1993, ‘the ethical climate questionnaire: an assessment of its development and validity’, psychological reports 73, 667–674. 33. Cyril H. Ponnu and Grinder Tennakoon, (2009) ‘The Association between Ethical Leadership and Employee Outcomes – the Malaysian Case, Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies, Vol. 14, No. 1 (2009). 34. Dailey, r. C. And d. J. Kirk: 1992, ‘distributive and procedural justice as antecedents of job. 35. Satisfaction and intent to turnover’, human relations 45, 305–317. 36. Davis, A.L. & Rothstein, h. r 2006. The effect of the perceived behavioral integrity of managers on employee attitude: A Meta analysis. Journal of business ethics, 67: 407-419. 37. Delaney, J.T., & Sockell, d. (1992). Do company ethics training programs make a difference? An empirical analysis, journal of business ethics, 11(9), 719-727. 38. Denham, S., & Scott, c. (2000). Moving into the third, outer domain of teacher satisfaction. Journal of educational administration, 38(4), 379 – 396. 39. Deshpande, S. P.: 1996, ‘the impact of ethical climate types on facets of job satisfaction: an empirical investigation’, journal of business ethics 15, 655–600. 40. Dozier, J. B. And m. P. Miceli: 1985, ‘potential predictors of whistle-blowing: a pro-social behavior perspective’, academy of management review 10, 823–836. 41. Ennis, B. M., k. K. Cox and j. E. Stafford: 1972, ‘students as subjects in consumer behavior experiments’, journal of marketing research 9(1), 72–74. 42. Ferrell, O. C. And g. Gresham: 1985, ‘a contingency framework for understanding ethical decisionmaking in marketing’, journal of marketing 49(3), 87–96. 43. Ferrell, O.K., & skinner, S.J. (1988). Ethical behavior and bureaucratic structure in marketing research organizations. Journal of marketing research, 25(1), 103-109. 44. Festinger, l.: 1942, ‘a theoretical interpretation of shifts in level of aspiration’, psychological review 49, 235–250.

2015

Contact of Communal Ethical Practices and Personality Ethical Behavioral Organizational Job Pleasure

Contact of Communal Ethical Practices and Personality Ethical Behavioral Organizational Job Pleasure

60.

Year

2015

61.

62. 63.

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

34 64.

65. 66. 67.

68.

69.

70. 71.

72.

73.

performance’, journal of personal selling & sales management xxvi (3), 271–282. Jody Clay-Warner,1,2 Jeremy Reynolds,1 and Paul Roman1(2005) Organizational Justice and Job Satisfaction: A Test of Three Competing Models “Social Justice Research, Vol. 18, No. 4, DOI: 10.1007/s11211-005-8567-5 Jones, G. And m. Kavanagh: 1996, ‘an experimental examination of the effects of individual and situational factors on unethical behavioral intentions in the workplace’, journal of business ethics 15, 511–523. Joseph, J. And S. P. Deshpande: 1997, ‘the impact of ethical climate on job satisfaction of nurses’, health care management review 22, 76–81. Khera, i. P. And j. D. Benson: 1970, ‘are students really poor substitutes for businessmen in behavioral research?’, journal of behavioral research 7(4), 529–532. Koh, h. C. And e. H. Y. Boo: 2001, ‘the link between organizational ethics and job satisfaction: a study of managers Singapore’, journal of business ethics 29, 09–324. Koh, h. C., & boo, e. H. Y. (2004). Organizational ethics and employee satisfaction and commitment. Management decision, 42, 677–693. Labs, j. J.: 1997, ‘Aristotle’s advice for business success’, orkforce 76, 75–79. Leigh, j. H., g. H. Lucas and r. W. Woodman: 1988, ‘effects of perceived organizational factors on role stress-job attitude relationships’, journal of management 14, 41–58. Lethwood, K., tomlinson, D., & genge, m. (1996). Transformational school leadership. In k. Lethwood, j. Chapman, D. Corson, p. Hollinger, & a. Hart (eds.), international handbook of educational leadership and administration (pp. 785 – 840). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: kluwer academic publishers. Liedtka, j. M.: 1988, ‘managerial values and corporate decision-making: an analysis of value congruence’, dissertation, Boston university, aat 8806763. Liedrka, j. M.: 1989, ‘value congruence: the interplay of individual and organizational value systems’, journal of business ethics 8, 805–815. Lind, e. A.: 1992, the fairness heuristic: rationality and “relationally” in procedural evaluations. Paper presented at the 4th international conference of the society for the advancement of socioeconomics, Irvine, ca. Locke, e. A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In m. D. Dinette (ed.), handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 1293 – 1349). Chicago: rand mcnally. Loe, T.W., Ferrell, l., & Mansfield, p. (2000). A review of empirical studies assessing ethical decision

© 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

74.

75.

76.

77.

78. 79.

80.

81. 82.

83.

84.

85.

86.

87.

making in business. Journal of business ethics, 25, 185-204. Mack, T., & pless, n. M. (2006). Responsible leadership in a stakeholder society– relational perspective. Journal of business ethics, 66(1), 99-115. Mathieu, j. E., & Zajac, d. M. (1990). A review and meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological bulletin, 108(2), 171 – 194. Meral elc¸i lu¨tfihak Alpkan: 2009, ‘the impact of perceived organizational ethical climate on work satisfaction, journal of business ethics 84:297–311. Maureen L. Ambrose, Anke Arnaud, Marshall Schminke (2008) ‘Individual Moral Development and Ethical Climate: The Influence of Person– Organization Fit on Job Attitudes’, journal of business ethics 77(30), 323–333. Maerof, g. (1988). The empowerment of teachers. New York: teachers college press. Meglino, B. M., E. C. Ravlin and c. L. Adkins: 1989, ‘a work values approach to corporate culture: a field test of the value congruence process and its relationship to individual outcomes’, journal of applied psychology 74, 424–432. Meglino, B. M., E. C. Ravlin and c. L. Adkins: 1992, ‘the measurement of work value congruence: a field study comparison’, journal of management 18, 33–43. Meijer, m. And t. Schuyte: 2005, ‘corporate social performance as a bottom line for consumers’, business and society 44(4), 442–461. Moran, R. T., P. R. Harris and s. V. Moran: 2007, managing cultural differences: global leadership strategies for the 21st century, 7th edition (Elsevier, Burlington, and ma). Mulki, j. P., f. Jaramillo and w. B. Locander: 2006, ‘effects of ethical climate and supervisory trust on salesperson’s job attitudes and intentions to quit’, journal of personal selling & sales management xxvi (1), 19–26. Mulki, j., j. Jaramillo and w. Locander: 2009, ‘critical role of leadership on ethical climate and salesperson behaviors’, journal of business ethics 86(2), 125–141. Neubert, M. J., D. S. Carlson, K. M. Kacmar, J. A. Roberts and L. B. Chonko: 2009, ‘the Virtuous Influence of Ethical Leadership Behavior: Evidence from the Field’, Journal of Business Ethics 90, 157–170. Ostrowsky, j. A., l. M. Leinicke, j. Kingman and w. M. Rexroad: 2009, ‘assessing elements of corporate governance: a suggested approach’, the CPA journal 79(2), 70–73. O’Fallon, m. J. And k. D. Butterfield: 2005, ‘a review of the empirical ethical decision-making literature:

90.

91.

92.

93.

94.

95. 96. 97.

98.

99. 100. 101.

103.

104.

105.

106.

107.

108.

109.

110.

111.

112.

113. 114.

115.

© 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Year

89.

102.

Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 97, 135–151. Schwartz, b. (2000). Self-determination: the tyranny of freedom, American psychologist, 55, 79-88. Schwepker, c. H.: 1999, ‘the relationship between ethical conflict, organizational commitment and turnover intentions in the sales force’, journal of personal selling & sales management 19, 43–49. Schwepker J.R., c. H.: 2001, ‘ethical climate’s relationship to job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover in the sales force’, journal of business research 54(1), 39–52. Schwepker, c. H. And m. D. Hartline: 2005, ‘managing the ethical climate of customer-contact service employees’, journal of service research 7(4), 377–397. Sean valentine, Lynn Godkin, Gary m. Fleischman, roland kid well (2011,”corporate ethical values, group creativity, job satisfaction and turnover intention: the impact of work context on work response” journal of business ethics (2011) 98: 353–372. Simkin, t., sisum, c., & mammon, m. (2003). School leadership in Pakistan: exploring the head teacher’s role. School effectiveness and school improvement, 14, 275 – 291. Sims, r. L. And k. L. Keon: 1997, ‘ethical work climate as a factor in the development of personorganization fit’, journal of business ethics 16(11), 1095–1105. Sims, r. L. And k. G. Kroeck: 1994, ‘the influence of ethical fit on employee satisfaction, commitment and turnover’, journal of business ethics 13(12), 939–947. Smith, c. A., organ, d. W., & near, j. P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: its nature and antecedents. Journal of applied psychology, 68(4), 653 – 663. Steers, r. M., & Rhodes, s. R. (1978). Major influences on employee attendance: a process model. Journal of applied psychology, 63(4), 391 – 407. Stodgily, R.M. & coons, a.l. 1957. Leader behavior it’s description and measurement, Ohio: bureau of business research, the Ohio state university, 88, 1-27. Strategic direction (2002), “mcdonalds jumps on the CSR bandwagon”, strategic direction, vol. 18, pp. 8-11. Sweeney, p. D. And d. B. Mcfarland: 1993, ‘workers’ evaluations of the “ends” and the “means”: an examination of four models of distributive and procedural justice’, organizational behavior and human decision processes 55, 23–40. Trevino, l. K., brown, m., &Hartman, l. P. (2003). A qualitative investigation of perceived executive ethical leadership: perceptions from inside and

35

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

88.

1996–2003’, journal of business ethics 59(4), 375–413. Paul, k., l. M. Zalka, m. Downes, s. Perry and s. Friday: 1997, ‘u.s. Consumer sensitivity to corporate social performance’, business and society 36(4), 408–418. Peters, w. H.: 1972, ‘social responsibility in marketing personnel: meaning and measurement’, in h. Becker (ed.), proceedings of American marketing association educators’ conference (America). Podsakof, p. M., Mackenzie, s. B., moorman, r. H., & fetter, r. (1990). Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers’ trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Leadership quarterly, 1(2), 107 – 142. Porter, l. W., steers, r. M., mow day, r. T., &Boolean, p. V. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of applied psychology, 59(5), 603 – 609. Posner, b. Z. And w. H. Schmidt: 1993, ‘value congruence and the differences between the interplay of personal and organizational value systems’, journal of business ethics 12(5), 341–348. Posner, b. Z. And r. I. Westwood: 1995, ‘a crosscultural investigation of the shared values relationship’, international journal of value-based management 8, 197–206. Posner, b. Z. And r. I. Westwood: 1997, ‘managerial values across cultures: Australia, Hong Kong and the US.’ Asia pacific journal of management 14, 31–66. Raelin, j. A.: 1993, ‘the Persian ethic: consistency of belief and action in managerial practice’, human relations 46(5), 575–621. Remus, w.: 1986, ‘graduate students as surrogates for managers in experiments on business decisionmaking’, journal of business research 14(1), 19–25. Roman, s., and munuera, j. L. (2005), “determinants and consequences of ethical behavior: an empirical study of salespeople,” European journal of marketing, 39, 473-495. Saks, a.m., Mudrak, P.E., & Ash forth, B.E. (1996). The relationship between the work ethic, job attitudes, intentions to quit, and turnover for temporary service employees, Canadian journal of administrative sciences, 13, 226-236. Schein, e. H.: 2004, organizational culture and leadership (san Francisco, jossey-bass). Schnak, m. (1991) Organizational citizenship: a review, proposed model, and research agenda human relations, 44(7), 735 – 759. Schminke, m., Ambrose, m. L., & niobium, d. O. (2005). The effect of leader moral development on ethical climate and employee attitudes.

2015

Contact of Communal Ethical Practices and Personality Ethical Behavioral Organizational Job Pleasure

Contact of Communal Ethical Practices and Personality Ethical Behavioral Organizational Job Pleasure

116. 117.

118.

Year

2015

119.

120.

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

36 121.

122.

123.

124.

125.

126.

127.

128.

outside the executive suite. Human relations, 56, 5–37. Traynor, m.: 1999, ‘the pursuit of happiness’, Vanderbilt law review 52, 1025–1031. Trevino, l. K.: 1986, ‘ethical decision making in organizations: a person-situation interactions model’, academy of management review 11, 601–617. Trevin˜o, l. K., g. R. Weaver and s. J. Reynolds: 2006, ‘behavioral ethics in organizations: a review’, journal of management 32(6), 951–990. Trimizi, s. A. (2002), the 6-l framework: a model for leadership research and development. Leadership and organization development journal, volume 23, no. 5, pp. 269-279. Valentine, s., l. Godkin and m. Lucero: 2002, ‘ethical context, organizational commitment, and person– organization fit’, journal of business ethics 41, 349–360. Vitel, s. J. And d. L. Davis: 1990, ‘the relationship between ethics and job satisfaction: an empirical investigation’, journal of business ethics 9(6), 489– 494. Vroom, v. H.: 1964, work and motivation (john Wiley, New York). Watrous, k. M., a.h. Huffman and r. D. Pritchard: 2006, ‘when coworkers and managers quit: the effects of turnover and shared values on performance’, journal of business and psychology 21(1), 103–126. Weaver, g. R., l. K. Trevin˜o and p. L. Cochran: 1999, ‘corporate ethics programs as control systems: influences of executive commitment and environmental factors’, academy of management journal 42(1), 41–57. Valentine, s. And t. Barnett: 2003, ‘ethics code awareness, perceived ethical values, and organizational commitment’, journal of personal selling & sales management 23(4), 359–365. Vitel, s. J. And e. R. Hidalgo: 2006, ‘the impact of corporate ethical values and enforcement of ethical codes on the perceived importance of ethics in business: a comparison of us. And Spanish managers’, journal of business ethics 64(1), 31–43. Vandenberg, r. J., & lance, c. E. (1992). Examining the causal order of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Journal of management, 18(1), 153 – 167. Victor, b. And j. B. Cullen: 1987, ‘a theory and measure of ethical climate in organizations’, in w. C. Frederick (ed.), research in corporate social performance and policy (jai press, Greenwich ct), pp. 51–71. Viswesvaran, c. And s. P. Deshpande: 1996, ‘ethics, success and job satisfaction: a test of dissonance theory in India’, journal of business ethics 15(10), 1065–1069.

© 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

129. Viswesvaran, c., s. P. Deshpande and j. Joseph: 1998, ‘job satisfaction as a function of top management support for ethical behavior: a study of Indian managers’, journal of business ethics 17, 365–371. 130. Weeks, w. A., t. W. Loe, l. B. Chonko and k. Wakefield: 2004, ‘the effect of perceived ethical climate on the search for sales force excellence’, journal of personal selling & sales management 24(3), 199–214. 131. Woodbine, g. F.: 2006, ‘ethical climate types and job satisfaction: study of chinese financial institutions’, international review of business research papers 2(1), 86–99. 132. Yukl, G.A. 1994. Leadership in organizations, Englewood cliffs, New jerseys prentice- hall. 133. Zhu, w., May, d. R. And Avolio, b. J. (2004), “the impact of ethical leadership behavior on employee outcomes: the roles of psychological empowerment and authenticity,” journal of leadership and organizational studies, 11, 16-26. 134. Transparency International: 2010, ‘Corruption Perceptions Index 2009’, ttp://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2009, accessed October 10, 2010.

Global Journal of Management and Business Research: A Administration and Management Volume 15 Issue 10 Version 1.0 Year 2015 Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA) Online ISSN: 2249-4588 & Print ISSN: 0975-5853

Análise Preditiva Do Campeonato Brasileiro By Bruno Ítalo Lima Benevides, Sandra Maria Dos Santos, Augusto Cézar De Aquino Cabral & Maria Naiula Monteiro Pessoa Federal University of Ceara , Brazil

Abstract- Every year the football industry moves, worldwide, a value between $ 400 billion and $ 1 trillion. This denotes the high economic potential of the football market. This is a complex market because teams need to use cooperation strategies with their rivals, to optimize the production of football. The objective of this study is to analyze the factors affecting the performance of clubs in the Brazilian championship, both in sports, as in the financial domain. It is a quantitative study of descriptive and explanatory nature with secondary database. One pooled logit was used to estimate the probability of sports and financial success. The results showed that the participation of clubs in international competitions increases the odds of sporting and financial success; the permanence of players between seasons also increases the chances of success. Keywords: football. sports clubs. sports performance. financial performance. GJMBR - A Classification : JEL Code: M19

AnalisePreditivaDoCampeonatoBrasileiro Strictly as per the compliance and regulations of:

© 2015. Bruno Ítalo Lima Benevides, Sandra Maria Dos Santos, Augusto Cézar De Aquino Cabral & Maria Naiula Monteiro Pessoa. This is a research/review paper, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Análise Preditiva Do Campeonato Brasileiro Bruno Ítalo Lima Benevides α, Sandra Maria Dos Santos σ, Augusto Cézar De Aquino Cabral ρ & Maria Naiula Monteiro Pessoa Ѡ

Palavras-chave: futebol. clubes esportivos. desempenho esportivo. desempenho financeiro. Abstract- Every year the football industry moves, worldwide, a

value between $ 400 billion and $ 1 trillion. This denotes the high economic potential of the football market. This is a complex market because teams need to use cooperation strategies with their rivals, to optimize the production of football. The objective of this study is to analyze the factors affecting the performance of clubs in the Brazilian championship, both in sports, as in the financial domain. It is a quantitative study of descriptive and explanatory nature with secondary database. One pooled logit was used to estimate the probability of sports and financial success. The results showed that the participation of clubs in international competitions increases the odds of sporting and financial success; the permanence of players between seasons also increases the chances of success.

Keywords: football. sports clubs. sports performance. financial performance.

Abstracto- Cada añolaindustriadelfútbol se mueve, todo el mundo, un valor entre $ 400 millones y US $ 1 billón. Esto denota el alto potencial económico del mercado delfútbol. Este es un mercado complejo porque losequipostienen que utilizar estrategias de cooperacióncon sus rivales, para optimizarlaproducción de fútbol. El objetivo de este estudio es analizarlosfactores que afectaneldesempeño de los clubes enel campeonato brasileño, tanto enel deporte, como enelámbitofinanciero. Se trata de unestudiocuantitativo de carácter descriptivo y explicativo con base de datos secundaria. Uno logit agrupado se utilizó para estimar laprobabilidad de que el deporte y eléxitofinanciero. Los resultados mostraron que laparticipación de los clubes en las competiciones internacionales aumenta las probabilidades de éxitodeportivo y financiero; lapermanencia de jugadores entre temporadas también aumenta lasposibilidades de éxito. Palabras chaves: fútbol. clubes deportivos. el rendimiento deportivo. rendimiento financiero. Author α σ ρ Ѡ: Federal University of Ceara, Brazil. e-mail: [email protected]

indústria do futebol movimenta em todo mundo,por ano, de acordo com Belo e Paolozzi (2013), um valor entre US$ 400 bilhões e US$ 1 trilhão, quantia que representa cerca de 18% e 44%, respectivamente, do PIB brasileiro. Esses números denotam o elevado potencial econômico do mercado do futebol. Em função do seu alto retorno financeiro, bem como de sua popularidade, o futebol se tornou um objeto de pesquisa científica. Leocini (2001) fez uma análise sobre essa indústria e configurou sua cadeia produtiva, evidenciando as característicasde seumercado produtor e consumidor, bem como as relações entre estes mercados.O mercado produtor é formado pelos times e ligas esportivas que ofertam, em conjunto, o jogo de futebol; já o mercado consumidor é formado por torcedores e fãs de futebol. Segundo Ekelund (1998), a partir daí, surgem os demais agentes intermediários (investidores, confederações, emissoras de televisão, etc.). Esses agentes consomem bens ou serviços, como direitos de imagem e licenciamento de produtos, do mercado produtor e os ofertam para o mercado consumidor. Com este arcabouço, o futebol tem se modificado significativamente. No Brasil, o futebol tem passado nas últimas décadas por grandes mudanças. No aspecto institucional, encontram-se a mudança na fórmula de disputa o campeonato brasileiro, que adotouo modelo Round Robin (pontos corridos), bem como à promulgação das leis n° 9.615/1998 e 10.671/2003, conhecidas como Lei Pelé e Estatuto do Torcedor, respectivamente. Já no âmbito organizacional, está a diversificação das fontes de receita por parte dos clubes brasileiros, como se verifica em Drummond, Araújo e Shikida (2010). Segundo estes autores, as mudanças na composição das receitas mostram que os times do Brasil têm buscado não só resultados positivos dentro de campo, como também fora do campo, criando a noção dos clubes-empresas. Estas mudanças organizacionais representam a “profissionalização” dos clubes. Leocini (2001) afirma que as mudanças institucionais no futebol brasileiro, como a já mencionada Lei Pelé, representam o início do processo de transformação das gestões dos clubes. Sendo assim, a profissionalização dos times brasileiros é uma © 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

2015

Introdução

Year

A

I.

37

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

Resumo- Anualmente, a indústria do futebol movimenta, em todo mundo, um valor entre US$ 400 bilhões e US$ 1 trilhão. Istodenota o elevado potencial econômico do mercado do futebol. Trata-se de um mercado complexo, pois os times precisam utilizar estratégias de cooperação com seus rivais, para otimizar a produção do futebol. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar os fatores que afetam o desempenho dos clubes no campeonato brasileiro, tanto no âmbito esportivo, como no âmbito financeiro. Trata-se de uma pesquisa quantitativa de natureza descritiva e explicativa com base de dados secundários. Foi utilizado um pooledlogitpara estimar a probabilidade de sucesso esportivo e financeiro. Os resultados evidenciaram que a participação de clubes em competições internacionais incrementaas probabilidades de sucesso esportivo e financeiro; a permanência de jogadores entre temporadas também aumenta as chances de sucesso.

Year

2015

Análise Preditiva Do Campeonato Brasileiro

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

38

etapa natural do mercado do futebol e essas mudanças institucionais são um reflexo desse processo evolutivo. Silva e Campos Filho (2006) destacam que a profissionalização tem um papel fundamental para que o potencial econômico do futebol seja melhor explorado. Esses autores citam o caso dos times europeus que se apresentam com gestões profissionais e receitas elevadas em contraste com os times brasileiros, dominadospor gestões mais amadores e receitas pequenas quando comparadas ao potencial econômico dos times. De acordo com relatório da BDO Consultoria (2014), atualmente a receita dos times brasileiros é composta, principalmente, pelas cotas de tv e transferências de atletas, que correspondem, juntas, a cerca de 55% do faturamento. Enquanto as receitas dos clubes europeus são compostas, principalmente, por atividades ligadas ao consumo do torcedor (Santoset al., 2014). Essa diferença na fonte de receitas pode ser vista como uma diferença no processo de profissionalização de gestão esportiva. Esta questão é complexa e envolve diversos fatores, inclusive a capacidade de se predizer resultados, como abordado nesta pesquisa. Para Alves et al.(2008), a previsão de resultados no futebol é de suma importância para o planejamento dos times. Com o uso de modelos preditivos robustos, não só os clubes futebolísticos, mas também os agentes importantes na composição da receita desses e que estão intrinsecamente ligados dentro da indústria do futebol, como empresas televisivas e patrocinadores, podem alocar de maneira mais eficiente os recursos destinados a investimentos. O estudo sobre o resultado dos jogos tem sido utilizado para a investigação de vários modelos, entre eles os de predições de placares, que auxiliam no mercado de apostas (Dobson e Goddard, 2000). Palomino, Rigottie Rustichini. (2000) afirmam, por exemplo, que o fato de um time jogar em casa aumenta a probabilidade de marcar gols durante a partida. Courneya e Carron (1992) afirmam que a familiaridade dos times com seus campos lhe dão vantagem em relação ao time visitante. Pollard (2006) espera desempenho melhor dos jogadores em casa do que fora devido sua familiaridade com o estádio e a torcida. Estas análises auxiliam os agentes envolvidos no futebol a tomarem decisões de curto prazo. Já Araújoet al. (2005) utilizaram um modelo para estimar a probabilidade de um estado ter um time campeão ou vice do campeonato brasileiro e na libertadores. E, assim, verificar os fatores socioeconômicos e futebolísticos que impactam nesta probabilidade. Segundo estes autores, os brasileiros, em geral, não enxergam o futebol de forma científica, por entenderem que tudo que acontece dentro de campo seja dado pelo acaso. Mas, ainda para Araújoet © 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

al.(2005), o homo economicus também está presente nos agentes envolvidos na indústria futebolística. Tendo em vista o que foi apontado nesta seção, nota-se a importância da busca de um modelo preditivo para o sucesso dos clubes brasileiros, para que assim os agentes interligados na indústria do futebol possam tomar decisões econômicas mais eficientes e aproveitar melhor o potencial econômico dessa atividade esportiva. Embora o senso comum tenda a crer que o futebol não possui uma racionalidade e que o sucesso dos times não pode ser explicado por fatos estilizados, a realidade é outra. Dito isso, a questão de pesquisa deste trabalho é: quais os fatores que influenciam a probabilidade de sucessodos times que participaram na série A do Campeonato Brasileiro? As principais hipóteses são: a) clubes com maior faturamento terão maior probabilidade de sucesso; b) clubes que participam de competições internacionais em anos anteriores incrementam a probabilidade de sucesso no campeonato nacional; c) times com permanênciade jogadores ampliamaschances de sucesso devido ao entrosamento da equipe; d) um bom desempenho esportivo dos clubes acarreta em maiores chances de sucesso financeiro. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é o de analisar os principais fatores que afetam o sucesso dos clubes no campeonato brasileiro, não só no âmbito esportivo, mas também no âmbitofinanceiro. Definiu-se sucesso esportivo em dois casos: o time ser campeão do Campeonato Brasileiro; e, um caso mais abrangente, o time ser classificado para Copa Libertadores da América, ou seja, terminar a temporada do Campeonato Brasileiro entre os quatro primeiros colocados. Sucesso financeiro foi definido como o time estar entre os cinco clubes com maior faturamento. Como objetivos específicos têm-se:1) verificar o efeito do faturamento dos clubes na probabilidade de sucesso de um clube no campeonato brasileiro de futebol; 2) verificar se apresençados times em campeonatos internacionais aumenta suas chances de sucesso no campeonato local; 3) estimar a influência da permanência de jogadores nos clubes em sua probabilidade de sucesso; 4) averiguar a influência do desempenho dos clubes no campeonato anterior na probabilidade de sucesso dos clubes brasileiros. Na condução da pesquisa, tendo em vista os objetivos propostos, foi utilizada uma adaptação do modelo sugerido por Araújoet al.(2005), um pooledlogit que será explicado na seção de metodologia. O presente trabalho está estruturado em cinco (5) seções, incluindo esta introdução. Na seção dois, apresenta-se o referencial teórico, com foco nas principais linhas de pesquisa na área da economia do futebol. O modelo, os dados e as variáveis são apresentados na seção três. A seção quatro consiste nos resultados do modelo e em sua interpretaçãoe, por

Referencial Teórico

O estudo de futebol sob a ótica econômica, denominado Economia do Futebol, está enquadrado em uma área mais ampla chamada de Economia do Esporte. No Brasil, o estudo científico do futebol ainda é recente, mas vem crescendo nos últimos anos. Nesta seção são apresentados os principais enfoques da literatura da Economia do Futebol. a) Gestão Esportiva: uma pré-condição para o sucesso Primeiramente, observa-se que “gestão do esporte é a coordenação das atividades de produção e “marketing” de serviços esportivos “(Rochae Bastos, 2011:95, “grifo dos autores”). Existe um debate sobre qual o objetivo dos clubes. Leocini (2001) afirma que os clubes são organizações que têm de lidar com a trade-off desempenho esportivo x desempenho financeiro. Esse autor define desempenho esportivo como a quantidade de vitórias em jogos e ganho de títulos e desempenho financeiro como equilíbrio nas contas do clube. As principais fontes de renda dos clubes de futebol se dividem em: Bilheteria de jogos, Mídia, Comercial e Venda de jogadores (Silva eCampos Filho, 2006). Segundo esses autores a fonte de renda Comercial se divide em Patrocínio e Fornecimento de material esportivo e em Merchandising e Licenciamento e a fonte de renda Mídia está relacionada com as cotas de televisão. Já do lado dos custos, o principal gasto é com os salários do departamento técnico (treinadores, jogadores, preparados e outros membros da equipe), também chamado de departamento de futebol, além de custos relacionados aos fatores de mercado, como manutenção dos estádios e contato com os consumidores (Leocinie Silva, 2005). Leocinie Silva (2005) sugerem a existência de uma correlação significante e diretamente proporcional entre desempenho esportivo e gasto com salários e entre desempenho esportivo e geração de receitas no mercado dos consumidores fazendo com que “a maioria dos dirigentes invista recursos significativos na montagem de um bom time, para que o resultado esportivo venha acompanhado do aumento de suas receitas” (Leocinie Silva, 2005:19). Conforme os referidos autores, a performance financeira está muito relacionada com a performance esportiva. Para que o potencial econômico do futebol seja melhor explorado, se faz necessário uma “modernização das organizações que o comandam, já que a sociedade brasileira é insatisfeita com os serviços prestados e os clubes brasileiros, na sua maioria endividada, acabam desvalorizando sua marca associada a uma ineficácia administrativa.” (Silva e

b) Mercado do futebol Este tópico visa analisar o mercado do futebol, explicando a interação entre oferta e demanda, e o ambiente de cooperação dos times. Toma-se como ponto de partida uma visão sistêmica macro do futebol. i. Cadeia produtiva do futebol As leis econômicas que regem o produto esportivo são muito especiais, desde a combinação da baixa elasticidade preço da demanda com a elevada elasticidade renda, até uma estrutura de mercado que precisa da competição entre os principais agentes (Aidar, 2000). Este subtópico procura explicar como se dá as relações entre os consumidores e produtores da indústria do futebol. Leocini (2001) e Leocini e Silva (2005) afirmam que o principal produto dessa cadeia produtiva é o jogo de futebol ou bem futebol. Para chegar nesse produto, os produtores, clubes de futebol e ligas esportivas, interagem com os consumidores, torcedores ou fã de futebol. O bem futebol é um produto intangível, os torcedores ao consumir esse bem procuram satisfazer suas emoções. A identificação do atleta e a busca pela vitória são características desse esporte que podem atuar como motivadores e causadores de consumo de produtos esportivos por parte dos torcedores (Cabral, 2011). “Os esportes ao mexerem com a emoção das © 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Year

II.

Campos Filho, 2006:196). O processo de modernização das organizações esportivas recebe, por diversos autores, o nome de profissionalização da gestão. Leocini (2001) afirma que as primeiras etapas para a profissionalização são os clubes adotarem uma visão de clubes-empresas, nos quais os clubes de futebol passam a atuar como empresas competitivas tomando decisões de acordo com objetivos estratégicos e o torcedor passa a ser visto como cliente. “O posicionamento estratégico do clube implica, em última instância, a escolha do mercado em que ele irá competir” (Leocinie Silva, 2005:20). Os mercados se dividem em dois tipos básicos: mercado de torcedores e mercado de jogadores (Leocinie Silva, 2005). O mercado de jogadores consiste no comércio de jogadores entre os times e o mercado de torcedores consiste na oferta do produto final, partida de futebol, e de subproduto. A busca pelo desempenho financeiro deve ser acompanhada por um bom desempenho esportivo. Verifica-se que um time que possua contas equilibradas, mas poucos númerosde vitórias e títulos, tende a ser menos valorizado por seus torcedores. Afetando seu desempenho financeiro (Leocini, 2001). Por esse motivo, torna-se relevante estudar os casos de sucesso dos clubes europeus que conseguiram conciliar esses dois desempenhos e apresentam retornos financeiros elevados.

39

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

fim, a seção cinco apresenta as conclusões do trabalho.

2015

Análise Preditiva Do Campeonato Brasileiro

Year

2015

Análise Preditiva Do Campeonato Brasileiro

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

40

pessoas conduz a sentimentos de alegria, satisfação nas vitórias dos atletas e dos times preferidos, ou ainda, na própria prática dos mesmos, a projeção das idealizações individuais e coletivas” (Cabral, 2011:81). Em sua maioria, os produtos esportivos possuem elasticidade-preço muito baixa e alta elasticidade-renda, sendo a segunda mais acentuada em regiões de elevada renda per capita. Também relevante é o fato que o bem futebol apresenta elasticidade-substituição zero (Cabral, 2011), ou seja, um torcedor não deixaria de ir para um clássico Flamengo x Fluminense por outro espetáculo de preço inferior. A oferta desse bem normalmente se afasta do modelo de concorrência perfeita, fazendo que esse mercado do futebol, e a maioria dos mercados esportivos, funcionem sobre o regime de concorrência imperfeita com dominância de agentes monopolista que ofertam quantidades pequenas por preços superiores aos custos marginais (Frey, 2003). Já a demanda desse bem é um serviço de demanda derivada e conjunta. A procura pelo bem futebol é função do desempenho da atividade, do sucesso e prestígio dos clubes que podem transmitir ao consumidor a expectativa de prazer (Cabral, 2011). Além desses fatores, o consumidor só ficará satisfeito quando houver à combinação dos conjuntos de elementos que compõem a cadeia de produção ampla e diversificada da indústria futebolística. Desse modo, de acordo com Cabral (2011:83) “A produção do espetáculo depende de uma complexa interação de fatores que envolvem os diversos segmentos da indústria do entretenimento, da indústria esportiva, da indústria da construção e de incontáveis serviços, dos mais simples aos mais especializados”. Leocini (2001) divide o mercado do futebol em dois grandes agentes: um conjunto de agentes ligados à produção dos espetáculos esportivos que comandam e organizam a matéria-prima, o bem futebol, e outro conjunto de clientes que consomem os diversos produtos e serviços relacionados ao futebol. Do lado da demanda, os torcedores são o mercado consumidor principal, atuando como consumidores finais da cadeia, demandando jogos de boa qualidade dos clubes e das ligas (Leocini, 2001). O torcedor é uma das principais fontes de receita de um time, fato que vai ser mais bem explicado no próximo tópico. Dessa forma, é de interesse dos clubes realizarem espetáculos que agradem seus consumidores (Cabral, 2011). O valor de um time e seu potencial econômico é medido principalmente pela quantidade de torcedores que o time possui, além do grau de fidelidade dessa torcida e de sua abrangência territorial (Leocini, 2001). As operações básicas realizadas pelo mercado consumidor são: bilheteria e merchandising. A primeira está relacionada com a ida ao estádio, principal © 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

operação do mercado do futebol; a segunda está relacionada ao consumo da marca pelos torcedores (Leocini, 2001). Do lado da oferta o mercado produtor apresenta dois agentes principiais: os clubes e as ligas esportivas (Leocini, 2001). O primeiro utiliza como insumos os jogadores, técnicos e centros de treinamentos para participarem de campeonatos que são organizados pelo segundo que tem como insumos clubes, árbitros e regras ou instituições (Leocinie Silva 2005). Uma função importante das ligas esportivas é a de promover o ambiente de cooperação entre os clubes. Além de organizar as competições, essas ligas são responsáveis por garantir a existência de um ambiente cooperativo no mercado do futebol. A importância desse ambiente é explicada no próximo subtópico. Existe também um mercado produtor intermediário que oferta subprodutos aos torcedores e fãs de futebol. Esse mercado intermediário se divide em dois grupos: mercado intermediador de revenda e o mercado intermediador industrial. O primeiro compra dos clubes direitos de transmissão e licenciamento de produtos e revende para o torcedor, já o segundo está ligado ao marketing esportivo relacionado à venda de produtos com a marca do clube para os torcedores e aos patrocinadores de clubes (Leocinie Silva, 2005). Um exemplo de subproduto ofertado pelo mercado de revenda é o pacote de pay-per-viewofertada por empresas televisivas e um exemplo de subproduto ofertado pelo mercado industrial é o clube apresentar em seu uniforme a logomarca de uma empresa patrocinadora. Cabral (2011) destaca instrumentos, como obsolescência programada e efeito demonstração, para explicar o comportamento da demanda por bens esportivos. Segundo essa autora, esses instrumentos agem em conjunto quando os clubes mudam periodicamente o design dos produtos ofertados aos consumidores. Essa mudança age como um incentivo para os consumidores comprarem os novos produtos e, dessa forma aumentar a receitas dos times. Os mercados intermediários também podem ser considerados como parte do mercado consumidor a partir do momento em que compram produtos, como direitos televisivos dos clubes para então revendê-los. Dessa forma, o mercado produtor é formado pelos clubes e ligas, responsáveis pelo espetáculo de futebol e o mercado consumidor pelo mercado intermediário industrial, pelo mercado intermediário de revenda e pelos torcedores. O mercado de jogadores diz respeito ao comércio de jogadores entre os clubes. Como mencionado no tópico anterior, essa operação é uma das fontes de receitas dos clubes sendo explorada de acordo com as estratégias dos times. (Leocinie Silva,

Como exposto nesta seção, é nítida a complexidade do mercado do futebol. O bem futebol, usualmente, apresenta baixa elasticidade-preço, alta elasticidade-renda e elasticidade-substituição zero. As empresas, os clubes de futebol, precisam adotar estratégias cooperativas com seus rivais para produzir seu bem principal, o jogo de futebol, caracterizando um capitalismo de alianças. As ligas esportivas possuem papel fundamental em assegurar esse ambiente de cooperação, por meio das competições e regras. Além disso, os clubes devem lidar com o trade-off desempenho esportivo x desempenho financeiro, buscando satisfazer as necessidades de seus torcedores e apresentarsaldos positivos em suas contas financeiras. © 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Year

ligas aperfeiçoam a cadeia produtiva apresentada na Figura 2. As empresas adotam simultaneamente estratégias competitivas e colaborativas. “Essa dicotomia competição-cooperação marca a configuração das relações econômicas capitalistas contemporâneas, sendo, por isso, denominada por alguns autores capitalismo de alianças” (BalestrineVerschoore, 2008:34, grifo dos autores). Esses autores afirmam que a cooperação entre as organizações ganhou destaque nas últimas décadas devido à crescente dificuldade das empresas em atender às exigências competitivas isoladamente. Assim “a cooperação interorganizacional decorre do desenvolvimento deliberado de relações entre organizações autônomas para a consecução de objetivos individuais e coletivos” (Balestrine Verschoore, 2008:40). Mitchell e Singh (1996) afirmam que em mercados com comercialização de bens complexos maiores benefícios ocorrem quando as firmas colaboram entre sim. Umdos princípios das estratégias cooperativas é a de que as firmas superam desafios a custos menores em comparação as estratégias que visam à competição. Begnis, PedrozoeEstivalete(2008) evidenciam vantagens uma redução dos custos de transações em arranjos cooperativos quando se compara com relações interfirmas competitivas. Esses autores também destacam a confiança e o aprendizado como elementos centrais na formação de relações cooperativas. No mercado de futebol, a cooperação entre as empresas é fundamental para um bom resultado. Como exposto no subtópico anterior, os clubes disputam competições organizadas pelas ligas esportivas para produzir o bem futebol que é demandado pelos torcedores. Um time sozinho não consegue produzir o bem futebol, é preciso que ocorra uma interação com um time rival para alcançar esse objetivo.

41

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

2005). O mercado produtor de futebol exige certo grau de cooperação entre seus agentes. O bem futebol só é produzido quando ocorre uma interação entre os clubes e as ligas esportivas. ii. Cooperação como fator de competitividade Drummond, Araújo Júnior eShikida (2010) afirmam que para esportes é preciso que haja certo nível de competitividade, logo posições de monopólio não são interessantes. “Ter certeza sobre as vitórias de um time, mesmo que seja o seu, é quase tão desestimulante quanto ter certeza sobre as derrotas.” (Drummond, Araújo Júnior eShikida, 2010:75). Dessa forma, a redução do balanço competitivo pode influenciar negativamente nas receitas dos times. “Em termos econômicos, ligas esportivas são similares aos cartéis, já que seus participantes têm interesses semelhantes e, aparentemente, podem se beneficiar com a redução da competição” (Drummond, Araújo Júnior eShikida, 2010:75). De acordo com Buraimoe Simmons (2008), a hipótese usual sobre balanço competitivo e incerteza de resultados no esporte é a de que os consumidores preferem jogos nos quais eles não têm certeza do resultado a jogos previsíveis. Szymanski (2003) afirma que a necessidade de determinados níveis de competitividade para maximizar a renda dos clubes serve de justificativa para a adoção de medidas intervencionistas por parte das ligas esportivas. Essas medidas têm como objetivo aumentar a competitividade das competições e, desse modo, aumentar as receitas dos times. Drummond, Araújo Júnior eShikida(2010) citam como uma dessas medidas a mudança do formato de pontos do Campeonato Brasileiro de Futebol que passou de playoffs para pontos corridos. “A medida revela efeito positivo: o aumento da competitividade. Como todas as equipes têm o mesmo número de jogos, cada vez mais é necessário que se faça planejamento de longo de prazo.” (Drummond, Araújo Júnior eShikida., 2010: 86). Fica claro que o mercado de futebol diverge de outros mercados competitivos tradicionais. Como afirmam Leocinie Silva (2005), para se produzir o bem futebol, definido por esses autores como espetáculo esportivo ou jogo, é preciso que os clubes cooperem e concorram ao mesmo tempo. Essa dualidade dá às empresas da indústria futebol as características de competidores complementares no processo produtivo (Leocinie Silva, 2005). Segundo Balestrine Verschoore (2008), a cooperação ocorre quando os fornecedores, companhias e compradores se unem para aumentar o valor gerado na cadeia produtiva, enquanto a competição ocorre no momento de dividir os ganhos da cadeia produtiva. O mercado de futebol necessita de um ambiente cooperativo para funcionar perfeitamente, visto que a cooperação e colaboração entre os times e

2015

Análise Preditiva Do Campeonato Brasileiro

Análise Preditiva Do Campeonato Brasileiro

Metodologia

Year

2015

III.

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

42

Esta pesquisa é de natureza quantitativa, uma vez que assume as características próprias de um estudo quantitativo, como afirmam, Silva e Menezes (2001). Ou seja, os dados utilizados receberam tratamento estatístico que, no caso em foco, possibilitaram analisar e identificar os fatores que afetam a probabilidade de um time obter sucesso no campeonato brasileiro de futebol. Quanto aos seus objetivos, a pesquisa é de natureza descritiva, pois, em alinhamento ao que ressaltam Silva e Menezes (2001) acerca de trabalhos desta natureza, visa descrever as características de determinada população ou fenômeno ou estabelecimento de relações entre as variáveis. A pesquisa é também de natureza explicativa, pois, em consonância com o que afirma Gil (2008) sobre pesquisas explicativas, busca identificar os fatores determinantes ou contribuintes que expliquem a ocorrência de um determinado fenômeno. Este trabalho se baseia em dados secundários, gerados a partir de relatórios da BDOConsultoria, do sítio oficial da Confederação Brasileira de Futebol (CBF), do sítio Zero Zero e do sítio Bola na Área. A base de dados compreendeu o período de 2007 a 2013. a) Modelo Econométrico Os modelos utilizados nesta pesquisa são modelospooledlogit estimados pelo método de Máxima Verossimilhança (MV), semelhante ao utilizado por Araújo, Shikida e Monasteiro (2005). A escolha do logit foi devido ao seu uso freqüente na literatura. Por se tratar de estimação de probabilidade, é necessário criar uma variável dependente binária (Yit) para captar o sucesso do time. Sendo Yit =1, caso o time obtenha sucesso e Yit =0 caso contrário. As probabilidades de sucesso e insucesso podem ser expressas das seguintes formas:

Pr(𝑌𝑌𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 = 1) = 𝐹𝐹(𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖)

(1)

Pr(𝑌𝑌𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 = 0) = 1 − 𝐹𝐹(𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖)

(2)

Yit = F(vXit) + εit

(3)

Utilizando noções de probabilidade, obtém-se a equação a ser estimada em pool, Máxima Verossimilhança:

Onde: Yit é a variável dependente, F(vXit) é função de distribuição cumulativa de probabilidade e εit é a perturbação aleatória. Como é utilizado um modelo logit, a função de distribuição cumulativa é dada por:

F(vXit) =

e vX it

1+e vX it

(4)

Essa função logística apresenta valores entre zero e um e será denominada de Λ. © 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Nos sub-tópicos a seguir, são explicadas as variáveis dependentes e as independentes utilizadas nos modelos estimados. i. Desempenho Esportivo Como mencionado anteriormente, o desempenho esportivo de um clube está relacionado com o número de vitórias em jogos e número de títulos (Leocini, 2001). Para mensurar esse desempenho, foi utilizada uma variável dependente binária, denominada sucesso esportivo capturada de duas formas.Optou-se por utilizar duas mensurações da variável sucesso esportivo, pois foi percebido que os times brasileiros possuem outros interesses além de ganhar o campeonato local, como participar em competições de porte internacional. Primeiro, adotou-se uma definição de sucesso mais rigorosa: sucesso esportivo seria um time ser campeão do campeonato brasileiro no ano t. A variável dependente foi mensurada através de uma dummy com valor um (1), caso o clube seja campeão no ano t, e zero (0), caso contrário foi capturada essa variável. Em um segundo momento, ampliou-se a faixa de sucesso para um time ser campeão ou ser classificado para a Copa Libertadores, ou seja, sucesso esportivo seria um time ocupar uma das quatro primeiras posições do campeonato brasileiro no ano t. A variável dependente foi mensurada atravésde uma dummy com valor um (1), caso o clube seja campeão ou classificado para Libertadores no ano t, e zero (0), caso contrário. A primeira variável explicativa para o sucesso esportivo é o faturamento anual dos clubes. Araújo Júnior, Shikidae Monasteiro (2005) e Hoffman, Chinge Ramasamy (2002) mostraram que o desempenho no futebol dos estados brasileiros e o desempenho das nações, respectivamente, são influenciados positivamente por suas rendas. Desse modo, acreditase que times com maiores faturamentos apresentem maiores probabilidades de sucesso. A variável “Faturamento” foi mensurada utilizando o relatório da BDO Consultoria que mostra o faturamento anual dos principais clubes brasileiros de futebol. Infelizmente só foi possívelo acesso aos faturamentos a partir do ano de 2007, gerando uma limitação a pesquisa. Outra variável para explicar o sucesso esportivo utilizado nesse trabalho é a presença dos clubes na Copa Libertadores no ano t-1. Um time participar de uma copa de alto nível como a Libertadores, principal competição entre os clubes profissionais da América do Sul, gera um impacto positivo em sua performance no campeonato nacional. A variável “Libertadores” foi mensurada através de uma dummy com valor um (1) caso o time tenha participado na Libertadores no ano t-1 e valor zero (0) caso contrário. Na Copa Libertadores no Brasil são

P(Sucesso Esportivo =1|ϰ)= Λ(β0 + β1Fatur + β2Liber + β3Jog + β4Posicao) Onde: Sucesso esportivo é a variável dependente de resposta binária, β0 é a constante, Fatur é o faturamento anual dos clubes, Liber é a dummy para presença dos times na libertadores, Jog é a quantidade de jogadores que permaneceram no time e Posicao é a posição do time no ano anterior. ii. Desempenho Financeiro O desempenho financeiro de um time está relacionado com o equilíbrio em suas contas (Leocini, 2001). Para mensurar esse desempenho, foi utilizada uma variável dependente binária, denominada sucesso financeiro, com valor um (1) caso o time apresente um dos cinco maiores faturamentos e zero (0) caso o contrário. A primeira variável explicativa para o sucesso financeiro foi o desempenho esportivo. Leocini (2001) acredita que um bom desempenho esportivo é positivo para as receitas dos times por atrair investidores e torcedores. O desempenho esportivo foi mensurado através de uma dummy com valor um (1) caso o time seja campeão do campeonato brasileiro no ano t e zero (0) caso contrário. A variável Libertadores também foi utilizada para explicar o sucesso financeiro. A presença dos clubes em competições de porte internacional pode valorizar a marca do time, além de atrair novos patrocinadores. Essa variável foi mensurada através de

uma dummy com valor um (1) caso o time tenha participado na Libertadores no ano t-1 e valor zero (0) caso contrário. O número de jogadores que permaneceram no time do ano t-1 para o ano tserá outra variável explicativa, espera-se um impacto positivo dessa variável no desempenho financeiro, Dell” OssoeSzymanski (1991) consideram o grau de entrosamento e cooperação entre os jogadores do time inglês Liverpool uma das causas do aumento do seu lucro. A variável “jogadores” foi mensurada através do site Zero Zero, que apresenta o elenco de jogadores dos clubes brasileiros em diversos anos. Para obtenção dos dados necessários, iniciou-se a análise a partir do ano de 2006. Esta foi feita por meio de comparação entre os jogadores que estavam presentes no time no ano anterior, e o novo elenco do ano seguinte. Assim, comparando os nomes presentes nas listas de dois anos, foi possível contabilizar quantos jogadores deixaram o clube, ou seja, não apareciam na lista do ano seguinte, e quantos permaneceram e tinham seus nomes repetidos na nova lista. O número utilizado para preencher a variável “jogadores” foi aquele de quantos permaneceram no time, do ano t-1 para o ano t. O modelo de desempenho financeiro estimado pode ser especificado da seguinte forma:

P(Sucesso Financeiro =1|ϰ)= Λ(β0 + β1Camp + β2Liber + β3Jog) Onde: Sucesso financeiro é a variável dependente de resposta binária, β0 é a constante, Camp é a dummy para capturar o desempenho esportivo com valor 1 caso o time seja campeão do Campeonato brasileiro no ano t, Liber é a dummy para

(5)

(6)

presença dos times na Libertadores com valor 1 caso o time participe dessa competição no ano t-1 e Jog é a quantidade de jogadores que permaneceram no time.

© 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Year

comparando os nomes presentes nas listas de dois anos, foi possível contabilizar quantos jogadores deixaram o clube, ou seja, não apareciam na lista do ano seguinte, e quantos permaneceram e tinham seus nomes repetidos na nova lista. O número utilizado para preencher a variável “jogadores” foi aquele de quantos permaneceram no time, do ano t-1 para o ano t. Por fim, utilizou-se a posição do time no Campeonato Brasileiro no ano t-1 como variável explicativa, na tentativa de acompanhar a evolução dos times durante várias temporadas e dessa forma avaliar seu desempenho. Espera-se que um desempenho bom influencie positivamente a probabilidade de sucesso dos times.A variável “posição” foi mensurada utilizando a posição do time no campeonato brasileiro do ano t-1. Foram utilizados os dados fornecidos pela CBF. Os modelos de desempenho esportivos estimados podem ser especificados da seguinte forma:

43

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

classificados os quatro primeiros clubes com maior pontuação no Campeonato Brasileiro e o campeão da Copa Brasil. Se houver casos em que o campeão da Copa Brasil se encontra entre os quatros primeiros, o time com a quinta maior pontuação do Campeonato Brasileiro é classificado para Libertadores. O número de jogadores que permaneceram no time do ano t-1 para o ano t será outra variável explicativa. Dell’OssoeSzymanski (1991), em seu estudo sobre os times ingleses, perceberam que o entrosamento entre os integrantes dos times afeta positivamente seu desempenho. A variável “jogadores” foi mensurada através do site Zero Zero, que apresenta o elenco de jogadores dos clubes brasileiros em diversos anos. Para obtenção dos dados necessários, iniciou-se a análise a partir do ano de 2006. Esta foi feita por meio de comparação entre os jogadores que estavam presentes no time no ano anterior, e o novo elenco do ano seguinte. Assim,

2015

Análise Preditiva Do Campeonato Brasileiro

Year

2015

Análise Preditiva Do Campeonato Brasileiro

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

44

iii. Interpretando os resultados Gujarati (2006) apresenta formas de interpretar o modelo logit além da interpretação do coeficiente angular. São elas: interpretação das chances, cálculo da probabilidade e efeito marginal. “Se tomarmos o antilogaritmo do j-ésimo coeficiente angular, subtraímos 1 dele e multiplicarmos o resultado por 100, obtemos a variação percentual das chances em favor de um aumento de uma unidade do jéssimoregressor” (Gujarati, 2006:485). Para realizar essa interpretação é necessário calcular os antilogaritmos dos coeficientes angulares, o calculo do antilog é feito elevando o coeficiente estimado na base e(𝑒𝑒 𝛽𝛽𝑖𝑖 ). Pelo cálculo das probabilidades, é possível verificar a probabilidade de o sucesso ocorrer dado os valores das variáveis explicativas. O cálculo da probabilidade dedesempenho esportivo é feito por meio da fórmula:

𝑃𝑃(𝑋𝑋) =

𝑒𝑒 (β0 + β1Fatur + β2Liber + β3Jog + β4Posicao)

(7)

1+𝑒𝑒 (β0 + β1Fatur + β2Liber + β3Jog + β4Posicao)

Já probabilidade de sucesso para o modelo de desempenho financeiro é dada pela fórmula:

𝑃𝑃(𝑋𝑋) =

𝑒𝑒 (β0 + β1Camp + β2Liber + β3Jog)

(8)

1+𝑒𝑒 (β0 + β1Camp + β2Liber + β3Jog)

O impacto da variação da variável explicativas na variável dependente, conhecido como efeito marginal, pode ser calculado de acordo com a equação:

𝑒𝑒 𝛽𝛽 ′ 𝑋𝑋

1+𝑒𝑒 𝛽𝛽 ′ 𝑋𝑋

�1 −

𝑒𝑒 𝛽𝛽 ′ 𝑋𝑋

1+𝑒𝑒 𝛽𝛽 ′ 𝑋𝑋

� 𝛽𝛽

(9)

Onde: β'X representa o vetor de coeficientes multiplicado por um vetor que contenha valores para as variáveis independentes e β o coeficiente estimado. Por essa fórmula percebe-se que o efeito marginal é “função não-linear das estimativas dos parâmetros e dos níveis de todas as variáveis explanatórias X do modelo” (Pino, 2007:10). Para fins de interpretação, os efeitos marginais foram calculados com os valores médios das variáveis explicativas. No caso da dummy, foi considerado valor 0. IV.

Análise de Resultados

Nesta seção,são analisados os resultados obtidos com a estimação dos modelos detalhados na seção anterior. Como explicado anteriormente, foram utilizadas duas definições de sucesso por isso esta seção se dividirá em dois subtópicos para melhor entendimento. Os outputs dos modelos se encontram nos anexo estatísticos. a) Resultados para Desempenho Esportivo Os resultados dos modelos pooledlogit para desempenho esportivo se encontram na tabela 1. O modelo 1 utiliza como variável dependente o time ser campeão do Campeonato Brasileiro e o modelo 2 utiliza o time ser classificado para Libertadores. Foram utilizadas 125 observações no primeiro modelo, 126 observações no segundo modelo e sete anos, 2007 a 2013, em ambos os modelos.

Tabela 1 : Resultados dosmodelospooledLogit (Modelo 1: Sucesso= Time ser campeão do Campeonato Brasileiro; Modelo 2: Sucesso = Time ser classificado para Copa Libertadores) Coeficiente

Variáveis

Estatística z

p-valor

M1

M2

M1

M2

M1

M2

C

-0,156541

-2.084060

-0,076

-2,047

0,939

0,041*

FATURAMENTO

7,47E-09

6.46E-09

1,406

2,066

0,159

0,039*

LIBERTADORES

2,118261

0.515619

-0,076

-2,048

0,045*

0,298

JOGADORES

-0,195394

-0.004129

1,406

2,066

0,071**

0,922

POSICAO

-0,052343

0.001446

2,0003

1,039

0,521

0,972

McFadden R² M1 = 0,210572

McFadden R² M2 = 0,068484

LR statistic (4 df) M1 = 11,36123

LR statistic (4 df) M2 = 9,310178

Fonte: Elaboração própria dos autores a partir dos resultados obtidos. *Significante ao nível de 5 % **Significante ao nível de 10%

O modelo 1 apresentou uma variável significante ao nível de 5%, a variável “Libertadores” e uma variável significante ao nível de 10%, a variável “Jogadores”.O sinal positivo da variável “Libertadores” confirma a hipótese que a presença de clubes em competições internacionais influencia positivamente seu desempenho no campeonato brasileiro. © 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

A variável “Jogadores” apresentou um sinal contrário ao esperado, indo contra os resultados encontrados na literatura e refutando a hipótese de que times aumentam sua probabilidade de sucesso com a permanência do mesmo elenco de jogadores. Uma possível explicação para esse resultado é a de que como os clubes brasileiros concentram seu

Análise Preditiva Do Campeonato Brasileiro

desempenho esportivo em jogadores centrais, a transferência desses jogadores causauma queda no desempenho dos times. Ao abranger a faixa de sucesso esportivo, a variável “faturamento” fica significante ao nível 5%, indicando que a renda dos times influencia positivamente na probabilidade de um time se classificar na Libertadores.

Embora os regressores em sua maioria não sejam significativos, eles em conjunto possuem impacto significativo no sucesso dos times. O modelo 1 apresenta uma estatística LR de 11,36 e o modelo 2 apresenta uma estatística LR de 9,31. Pelo teste F ambos os modelos apresentam os regressores com impacto significativo em conjunto.

Tabela 2 : Interpretação das chances dos modelosLogit de Desempenho Esportivo (Modelo 1: Sucesso= Time ser campeão do Campeonato Brasileiro; Modelo 2: Sucesso = Time ser classificado para Copa Libertadores)

M1

M2

M1

M2

C

-0.156541

-2.084060

0,855

0,124

FATURAMENTO

7.47E-09

6.46E-09

1,000

1,000

LIBERTADORES

2.118261

0.515619

8,317

1,675

JOGADORES

-0.195394

-0.004129

0,822

0,996

POSIÇÃO

-0.052343

0.001446

0,949

1,001

Year

2015

Chances

45

Fonte: Elaboração própria dos autores a partir dos resultados

Pela tabela 2, percebe-se que o fato de um time participar da Copa Libertadores no ano anterior aumenta em 8,32 vezes, ou cerca de 732%, suas chances de ser campeão da série A do Campeonato Brasileiro, tudo mantido o mais constante; o aumento em uma unidade da variável “Jogador” provoca uma diminuiçãode 0,8 vezes das chances do time ser

classificadopara a Copa Libertadores, tudo o mais constate; e o aumento em uma unidade da variável “Faturamento” aumenta em 1 vez as chances de um time ser classificado para a Libertadores. A tabela 3 apresenta as probabilidades de desempenho esportivo do Cruzeiro, campeão do Campeonato Brasileiro no ano de 2013.

Tabela 3 : Probabilidade de sucesso do clube Cruzeiro de acordo com os modelosde Desempenho Esportivo (Modelo 1: Sucesso= Time ser campeão do Campeonato Brasileiro; Modelo 2: Sucesso = Time ser classificado para Copa Libertadores) Observações

Fatur

Liber

Jog

Posição

Cruzeiro 2007

77600000

0

21

Cruzeiro 2008

94100000

0

Cruzeiro 2009

121300000

Cruzeiro 2010

P(X) M1

M2

9

0,016

0,160

28

5

0,005

0,170

1

22

3

0,169

0,295

101400000

1

30

4

0,034

0,263

Cruzeiro 2011

128700000

1

22

2

0,185

0,304

Cruzeiro 2012

120400000

1

19

16

0,156

0,300

Cruzeiro 2013

187900000

0

16

9

0,091

0,284

Fonte: Elaboração própria dos autores a partir dos resultados

Pela tabela 3, observa-se que o Cruzeiro apresentava no ano de 2013, segundo as estimações do modeloslogitde desempenho esportivo, uma probabilidade de 9,01% de ser campeão do campeonato brasileiro e uma probabilidade de 28,4% de ser classificado para a Copa Libertadores.

© 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

Coeficientes

Variáveis

Análise Preditiva Do Campeonato Brasileiro

Tabela 4 : Efeitos marginais dos modelos de desempenho Esportivo (Modelo 1: Sucesso= Time ser campeão do Campeonato Brasileiro; Modelo 2: Sucesso = Time ser classificado para Copa Libertadores)

Year

2015

Variáveis

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

46

Valor Médio

Coeficientes M1

M2

M1

𝜷𝜷′𝑿𝑿

Efeito Marginal M2

M1

M2

Faturamento

99951800

7.47E-09

6.46E-09

0,747

0,646

1,63E-09

1,48E-09

Libertadores

0,000

2.118261

0.515619

0,000

0,000

0,529

0,129

Jogadores

22,693

-0.195394

-0.004129

-4,434

0,094

-0,002

-0,001

Posição

7,143

-0.052343

0.001446

-0,374

0,010

-0,013

0,0004

Fonte: Elaboração própria dos autores a partir dos resultados

Pela Tabela 4.observa-se que o fato do clube participar da Copa Libertadores no ano anterior aumenta em 52,9% sua probabilidade de ser campeão brasileiro no ano t e aumentaem 12,9% sua probabilidade de ser classificado para a Libertadores no ano t. O aumento de uma unidade da variável “Jogadores” diminui em 0, 2% a probabilidade do time

ser campeão e diminui em 0,1% a probabilidade de ser classificado para a Copa Libertadores. b) Resultados para Desempenho Financeiro Os resultados do modelo pooledlogit para desempenho financeiro se encontram na tabela 5. Foram utilizadas 139 observações e um período de sete (7) anos, 2007 a 2013.

Tabela 5 : Resultados do modelo pooledLogit (Sucesso= Time estar entre os cinco maiores faturamentos) Variáveis

Coeficiente

Estatística z

p-valor

C

-4,244019

-4,197

0,0000

CAMPEAO

0,333245

0,379

0,7048

LIBERTADORES

1,567975

3,432

0,0006*

JOGADORES

0,110790

2,7801

0,0054*

McFadden R²= 0,174716 LR statistic (3 df) = 27,78269 Fonte: Elaboração própria dos autores a partir dos resultados obtidos. *Significante ao nível de 5%

O modelo apresentou duas variáveis significantes ao nível de 5%, Libertadores e Jogadores.A variável “Libertadores” e a variável “Jogadores” apresentaram sinais esperados. O modelo apresenta uma estatística LR de 27, 78, pelo teste F as variáveis apresentam significância em conjunto. A tabela 6 mostra a interpretação das chances desse modelo logit de desempenho financeiro por meio dos antilogaritmos.Nota-se que o time ter sido campeão

do Campeonato Brasileiro aumenta em 1,39 vezes, ou cerca de 39%, as chances do time estar entre os cinco clubes com maior faturamento, tudo o mais constante; o time ter participado da Copa Libertadores aumenta em 4,80, ou cerca 380%, suas chances de estar entre os cinco times com maior faturamento e a permanência de mais um jogador aumenta em 1,117 vezes, ou cerca de 11,7%, as chances de sucesso financeiro.

Tabela 6 : Interpretação das chances do Modelo Logit de desempenho financeiro (Sucesso= Time estar entre os cinco maiores faturamentos) Variáveis

Coeficientes

Chances

C

-4,244019

0,014

CAMPEAO

0,333245

1,395

LIBERTADORES

1,567975

4,797

JOGADORES

0,110790

1,117

Fonte: Elaboração própria dos autores a partir dos resultados © 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Análise Preditiva Do Campeonato Brasileiro

Pela tabela 7 pode-se observar que a probabilidade do São Paulo apresentar sucesso econômico no ano de 2013 era de 20,4% de acordo com o modelo logit de desempenho financeiro, ou seja,os efeitos marginais das variáveis explicativas para o modelo de desempenho financeiro. As dummies apresentam valor médio zero. O efeito marginal das variáveis mostra que o fato do time

ser campeão do Campeonato brasileiro aumenta suas chances de obter um bom desempenho financeiro em 8,3%; caso o time tenha participado da Copa Libertadores no ano anterior, sua probabilidade de obter um bom desempenho financeiro aumenta em 39,2%; e o aumento em uma unidade da variável “Jogadores” aumenta a probabilidade de sucesso financeiro dos times em 0,8%.

Coeficiente

Efeito Marginal

0,333245

𝜷𝜷′𝑿𝑿

Campeão

0,000

0,000

0,083

Libertadores

0,000

1,567975

0,000

0,392

Jogadores

22,693

0,110790

2,514

0,008

Fonte: Elaboração própria dos autores a partir dos resultados

V.

Conclusão

O futebol é o esporte mais popular no mundo. Nos últimos anos, é crescente o número de trabalhos científicos com enfoque econômico sobre futebol, a chamada Economia do Futebol.Por acreditar que existe uma racionalidade por trás desse esporte, este trabalho buscou analisar os principais fatores que influenciam o desempenho dos clubes no campeonato brasileiro. Um ponto a ser questionado é sobre o produto da cadeia produtiva do futebol. A maioria dos trabalhos na área da Economia do Futebol aceita que o produto final é o jogo de futebol. Uma abordagem diferente seria encarar a partida como um processo produtivo, os consumidores comprariam dos agentes produtores a expectativa de resultado, podendo ser positivo ou negativo. Por meio de modelos pooledlogit estimados por Máximo Verossimilhança, foi possível modelarduas equação da probabilidade do desempenho esportivo e uma equação de probabilidade de desempenho financeirodos times brasileiros. A hipótese que o faturamento aumenta a probabilidade foi confirmada quando se adotou uma definição de sucesso mais branda, apresentando insignificância estatística com o sucesso mais rigoroso. A hipótese de que a presença dos times em campeonatos internacionais afeta positivamente as chances dos times foi confirmada, pela interpretação das chances foi encontrado que o fato de um timer participar da Copa Libertadores no ano anterior, suas chances de ser campeão do Campeonato Brasileiro aumentam em oito vezes, coeterisparibus. Foi comprovada a hipótese de que um bom desempenho esportivo acarreta maiores chances de sucesso financeiro. De acordo com os resultados do modelo logit de desempenho financeiro estimado, caso o time seja campeão do campeonato brasileiro, suas

chances de sucesso financeiro aumentam em 39%, tudo o mais constante. Já a hipótese de que permanência de jogadores no mesmo time aumenta suas chances de sucesso foi refutada quando o coeficiente apresentou sinal negativo. Esse resultado foi contrário à literatura.Indicando que a rotatividade no mercado de jogadores no Brasil possui um efeito diferente de outros países, como a Inglaterra. Acredita-se que esse resultado esteja relacionado com o fato dos times brasileiros concentraremseu desempenho esportivo em jogadores centrais. Uma saída seria os clubes realizarem uma boa formação de base, dessa forma, seu desempenho não dependeria de jogadores chaves e aumentaria o entrosamento da equipe. Uma das limitações encontradas nesse trabalho foi a falta de dados sobre o faturamento dos times,limitando a abrangência da pesquisa.Como sugestão para futuros trabalhos, poderia se estimar a influência que os custos dos times possuem em seu desempenho esportivo, bem como em seu desempenho financeiro. Seria também interessante o uso de uma variável que mensurasse o impacto que mudanças de técnicos provocam na probabilidade de desempenhos esportivos dos times e a utilização do número de torcedores como variável explicativa para o desempenho financeiro dos times.

References Références Referencias 1. AIDAR, A. C. Ki. A transformação do modelo de gestão no futebol. São Paulo: EAESP/FGV/ NPP, p. 5-121. 2000. 2. ALVES, A. M.; RAMOS, T. G.; MELLO, J. C. C. B. S.; SANT’ANNA, A. P. Uma proposta de previsão de resultados para o campeonato brasileiro através do modelo logito. In: SIMPÓSIO DE PESQUISA OPERACIONAL E LOGÍSTICA DA MARINHA, 11, © 20 15 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Year

Valor Médio

47

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

Variáveis

2015

Tabela 7 : Efeitos marginais do modelo de Desempenho Financeiro (Sucesso= Time estar entre os cinco maiores faturamentos)

Análise Preditiva Do Campeonato Brasileiro

3.

4.

Year

2015

5.

6.

Global Journal of Management and Business Research ( A ) Volume XV Issue X Version I

48 7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14. 15. 16.

Rio de Janeiro. Anais... Rio de Janeiro: SPOLM, 2008. ARAÚJO JR, A. F.; SHIKIDA, C. D.; MONASTERIO, L. M. Uma análise econométrica do futebol brasileiro. Revista Análise Econômica, ano 23, n°. 44, pp.218-240. 2005. BALESTRIN, A.; VERSCHOORE, J. Redes de cooperação empresarial: estratégias de gestão na nova economia. Porto Alegre: Bookman, 2008. BDO CONSULTORIA, 7º Valor das marcas dos clubes brasileiros, 2014. Disponível em: Acessado em: 25/10/2014. BEGNIS, H.S.M; PEDROZO, E. A.; ESTIVALETE, V. F. B. Cooperação como estratégia segundo diferentes perspectivas teóricas. Revista de Ciências da Administração, v. 10, n. 21, p. 97-121, 2008. BELO, Eduardo; PAOLOZZI, Vitor. Futebol faz 150 anos e movimenta até US$ 1 tri. Ano14, n.3371, 10/2013. Disponível em. Acessadoem 25/02/2014. BURAIMO, B.; SIMMONS, R. Do sports fans really value uncertainty of outcome? Evidence from the English Premier League.International Journal of Sport Finance, v. 3, n. 3, p. 146-155, 2008. CABRAL, B. B. Um negócio chamado futebol: suas perspectivas no estado da Bahia. Dissertação (Mestrado), Bahia. Mestrado em análise regional, Universidade de Salvador, 2011. DELL’OSSO, F.; SZYMANSKI, S. Who are the Champions? (An Analysis of FootballAnd Architecture). Business Strategy Review. Summer, p. 113-130, 1991. DOBSON, Stephen; GODDARD, John. Stochastic modelling of soccer match results.2000. Disponível em. Acessado em 18/02/2014. DRUMMOND, Lucas; ARAÚJO, Júnior; SHIKIDA, C.D. Campeonato brasileiro de futebol e balanço competitivo: uma análise do período 1971-2009. Revista Brasileira de Futebol, v.3, n.2, p.73-87. 2010. EKELUND, P. A rentabilidade das associações de times de futebol: o exemplo das ligas de futebol da Itália e da Inglaterra. In: I CONGRESSO EASP DE GESTÃO DE ESPORTES, Anais… FGV. 1998. FREY, Bruno S. El apoyo público a las artes. In: TOWSE, Ruth. Manual de economia de La cultura. Madrid: Fundación Autor, 2003. GIL, A. C. Como elaborar projetos de pesquisa. 4. ed. São Paulo: Atlas, 2008. GUJARATI, D. N. Economia Básica. 1ª Ed. São Paulo. Saraiva, 2011.

© 2015 1 Global Journals Inc. (US)

17. HOFFMANN, R.; GING, L. C.; RAMASAMY, B. The socio-economic determinants of international soccer performance. JournalofAppliedEconomics, v. 5, n. 2, p. 253-272, 2002. 18. LEONCINI, M. P. Entendendo o negócio futebol: um estudo sobre a transformação do modelo de gestão estratégica nos clubes de futebol. Tese (Doutorado), São Paulo.Escola Politécnica, Universidade de São Paulo, 2001. 19. LEONCINI, M. P.; SILVA, M. T. Entendendo o futebol como negócio: um estudo exploratório. RevistaGestão e Produção, v.12, n.1, p.11-23. 2005. 20. MITCHELL, W.; SINGH, K. Survival of businesses using collaborative relationships to commercialize complex goods. Strategic Management Journal, v. 17, n. 3, p. 169-195, 1996. 21. PALOMINO, F.; RIGOTTI, L.; RUSTICHINI, A..Skill, strategy and passion: an empirical analysis of soccer. In: ECONOMETRIC SOCIETY WORLD CONGRESS, 1999, Contributed Paper. 2000. Disponívelem. Acessado em: 20/02/2014. 22. PINO, F. A. Modelos de Decisão Binários: Uma Revisão. Rev. de Economia Agrícola, São Paulo, v. 54, n. 1, p. 43-57, jan./jun. 2007 23. ROCHA, C.M.; BASTOS, F.C. Gestão do Esporte: definindo a área. Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte, São Paulo, v.25, p. 91-103, dez. 2011 N. esp. 24. SANTOS, S. M.; BENEVIDES, B. I. L.; CABRAL, A. C. A.; PESSOA, M. N. M.; RIBEIRO, R. A.; HOLT, N. L. S. Determinantes da demanda por jogos de futebol no Brasil e na Inglaterra. In: ENCONTRO ANUAL da EnANPAD, 38, Rio de Janeiro. Anais... Rio de Janeiro: EnANPAD, 2014. 25. SILVA, C. V. D. G. F.; CAMPOS FILHO, L. A. N. Gestão de clubes de futebol brasileiros: fontes alternativas de receita. Sistemas & Gestão, v. 1, n. 3, p. 195-209, 2006. 26. SILVA, E. L.; MENEZES, E. M. Metodologia da pesquisa e elaboração de dissertação. Florianópolis: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2001. 27. SZYMANSKI, S. The economic design of sporting contests. Journal of economic literature, v. 41, n. 4, p. 1137-1187, 2003. Disponível em:http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/0022051037 71800004. Acesso em set 2014.

Global Journals Inc. (US) Guidelines Handbook 2015 www.GlobalJournals.org

Fellows

FELLOW OF ASSOCIATION OF RESEARCH SOCIETY IN BUSINESS (FARSB) Global Journals Incorporate (USA) is accredited by Open Association of Research Society (OARS), U.S.A and in turn, awards “FARSB” title to individuals. The 'FARSB' title is accorded to a selected professional after the approval of the Editor-inChief/Editorial Board Members/Dean. The “FARSB” is a dignified title which is accorded to a person’s name viz. Dr. John E. Hall, Ph.D., FARSB or William Walldroff, M.S., FARSB. FARSB accrediting is an honor. It authenticates your research activities. After recognition as FARSB, you can add 'FARSB' title with your name as you use this recognition as additional suffix to your status. This will definitely enhance and add more value and repute to your name. You may use it on your professional Counseling Materials such as CV, Resume, and Visiting Card etc. The following benefits can be availed by you only for next three years from the date of certification: FARSB designated members are entitled to avail a 40% discount while publishing their research papers (of a single author) with Global Journals Incorporation (USA), if the same is accepted by Editorial Board/Peer Reviewers. If you are a main author or coauthor in case of multiple authors, you will be entitled to avail discount of 10%. Once FARSB title is accorded, the Fellow is authorized to organize a symposium/seminar/conference on behalf of Global Journal Incorporation (USA).The Fellow can also participate in conference/seminar/symposium organized by another institution as representative of Global Journal. In both the cases, it is mandatory for him to discuss with us and obtain our consent. You may join as member of the Editorial Board of Global Journals Incorporation (USA) after successful completion of three years as Fellow and as Peer Reviewer. In addition, it is also desirable that you should organize seminar/symposium/conference at least once. We shall provide you intimation regarding launching of e-version of journal of your stream time to time.This may be utilized in your library for the enrichment of knowledge of your students as well as it can also be helpful for the concerned faculty members. © Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US) | Guidelines Handbook

I

The FARSB can go through standards of OARS. You can also play vital role if you have any suggestions so that proper amendment can take place to improve the same for the benefit of entire research community.

As FARSB, you will be given a renowned, secure and free professional email address with 100 GB of space e.g. [email protected] This will include Webmail, Spam Assassin, Email Forwarders,Auto-Responders, Email Delivery Route tracing, etc. The FARSB will be eligible for a free application of standardization of their researches. Standardization of research will be subject to acceptability within stipulated norms as the next step after publishing in a journal. We shall depute a team of specialized research professionals who will render their services for elevating your researches to next higher level, which is worldwide open standardization. The FARSB member can apply for grading and certification of standards of their educational and Institutional Degrees to Open Association of Research, Society U.S.A. Once you are designated as FARSB, you may send us a scanned copy of all of your credentials. OARS will verify, grade and certify them. This will be based on your academic records, quality of research papers published by you, and some more criteria. After certification of all your credentials by OARS, they will be published on your Fellow Profile link on website http://associationofresearch.org which will be helpful to upgrade the dignity. The FARSB members can avail the benefits of free research podcasting in Global Research Radio with their research documents. After publishing the work, (including published elsewhere worldwide with proper authorization) you can upload your research paper with your recorded voice or you can utilize chargeable services of our professional RJs to record your paper in their voice on request. The FARSB member also entitled to get the benefits of free research podcasting of their research documents through video clips. We can also streamline your conference videos and display your slides/ online slides and online research video clips at reasonable charges, on request. © Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US)| Guidelines Handbook

II

The FARSB is eligible to earn from sales proceeds of his/her researches/reference/review Books or literature, while publishing with Global Journals. The FARSB can decide whether he/she would like to publish his/her research in a closed manner. In this case, whenever readers purchase that individual research paper for reading, maximum 60% of its profit earned as royalty by Global Journals, will be credited to his/her bank account. The entire entitled amount will be credited to his/her bank account exceeding limit of minimum fixed balance. There is no minimum time limit for collection. The FARSC member can decide its price and we can help in making the right decision. The FARSB member is eligible to join as a paid peer reviewer at Global Journals Incorporation (USA) and can get remuneration of 15% of author fees, taken from the author of a respective paper. After reviewing 5 or more papers you can request to transfer the amount to your bank account.

MEMBER OF ASSOCIATION OF RESEARCH SOCIETY IN BUSINESS (MARSB) The ' MARSB ' title is accorded to a selected professional after the approval of the Editor-in-Chief / Editorial Board Members/Dean. The “MARSB” is a dignified ornament which is accorded to a person’s name viz. Dr. John E. Hall, Ph.D., MARSB or William Walldroff, M.S., MARSB. MARSB accrediting is an honor. It authenticates your research activities. After becoming MARSB, you can add 'MARSB' title with your name as you use this recognition as additional suffix to your status. This will definitely enhance and add more value and repute to your name. You may use it on your professional Counseling Materials such as CV, Resume, Visiting Card and Name Plate etc. The following benefitscan be availed by you only for next three years from the date of certification. MARSB designated members are entitled to avail a 25% discount while publishing their research papers (of a single author) in Global Journals Inc., if the same is accepted by our Editorial Board and Peer Reviewers. If you are a main author or coauthor of a group of authors, you will get discount of 10%. As MARSB, you will be given a renowned, secure and free professional email address with 30 GB of space e.g. [email protected] This will include Webmail, Spam Assassin, Email Forwarders,Auto-Responders, Email Delivery Route tracing, etc. © Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US) | Guidelines Handbook

III

We shall provide you intimation regarding launching of e-version of journal of your stream time to time.This may be utilized in your library for the enrichment of knowledge of your students as well as it can also be helpful for the concerned faculty members. The MARSB member can apply for approval, grading and certification of standards of their educational and Institutional Degrees to Open Association of Research, Society U.S.A. Once you are designated as MARSB, you may send us a scanned copy of all of your credentials. OARS will verify, grade and certify them. This will be based on your academic records, quality of research papers published by you, and some more criteria. It is mandatory to read all terms and conditions carefully.

© Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US)| Guidelines Handbook

IV

Auxiliary Memberships Institutional Fellow of Open Association of Research Society (USA)-OARS (USA) Global Journals Incorporation (USA) is accredited by Open Association of Research Society, U.S.A (OARS) and in turn, affiliates research institutions as “Institutional Fellow of Open Association of Research Society” (IFOARS). The “FARSC” is a dignified title which is accorded to a person’s name viz. Dr. John E. Hall, Ph.D., FARSC or William Walldroff, M.S., FARSC. The IFOARS institution is entitled to form a Board comprised of one Chairperson and three to five board members preferably from different streams. The Board will be recognized as “Institutional Board of Open Association of Research Society”-(IBOARS). The Institute will be entitled to following benefits: The IBOARS can initially review research papers of their institute and recommend them to publish with respective journal of Global Journals. It can also review the papers of other institutions after obtaining our consent. The second review will be done by peer reviewer of Global Journals Incorporation (USA) The Board is at liberty to appoint a peer reviewer with the approval of chairperson after consulting us. The author fees of such paper may be waived off up to 40%. The Global Journals Incorporation (USA) at its discretion can also refer double blind peer reviewed paper at their end to the board for the verification and to get recommendation for final stage of acceptance of publication. The IBOARS can organize symposium/seminar/conference in their country on behalf of Global Journals Incorporation (USA)-OARS (USA). The terms and conditions can be discussed separately. The Board can also play vital role by exploring and giving valuable suggestions regarding the Standards of “Open Association of Research Society, U.S.A (OARS)” so that proper amendment can take place for the benefit of entire research community. We shall provide details of particular standard only on receipt of request from the Board. The board members can also join us as Individual Fellow with 40% discount on total fees applicable to Individual Fellow. They will be entitled to avail all the benefits as declared. Please visit Individual Fellow-sub menu of GlobalJournals.org to have more relevant details.

© Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US) | Guidelines Handbook

V

We shall provide you intimation regarding launching of e-version of journal of your stream time to time. This may be utilized in your library for the enrichment of knowledge of your students as well as it can also be helpful for the concerned faculty members. After nomination of your institution as “Institutional Fellow” and constantly functioning successfully for one year, we can consider giving recognition to your institute to function as Regional/Zonal office on our behalf. The board can also take up the additional allied activities for betterment after our consultation. The following entitlements are applicable to individual Fellows: Open Association of Research Society, U.S.A (OARS) By-laws states that an individual Fellow may use the designations as applicable, or the corresponding initials. The Credentials of individual Fellow and Associate designations signify that the individual has gained knowledge of the fundamental concepts. One is magnanimous and proficient in an expertise course covering the professional code of conduct, and follows recognized standards of practice. Open Association of Research Society (US)/ Global Journals Incorporation (USA), as described in Corporate Statements, are educational, research publishing and professional membership organizations. Achieving our individual Fellow or Associate status is based mainly on meeting stated educational research requirements. Disbursement of 40% Royalty earned through Global Journals : Researcher = 50%, Peer Reviewer = 37.50%, Institution = 12.50% E.g. Out of 40%, the 20% benefit should be passed on to researcher, 15 % benefit towards remuneration should be given to a reviewer and remaining 5% is to be retained by the institution. We shall provide print version of 12 issues of any three journals [as per your requirement] out of our 38 journals worth $ 2376 USD. Other: The individual Fellow and Associate designations accredited by Open Association of Research Society (US) credentials signify guarantees following achievements: 

The professional accredited with Fellow honor, is entitled to various benefits viz. name, fame, honor, regular flow of income, secured bright future, social status etc. © Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US)| Guidelines Handbook

VI





  



In addition to above, if one is single author, then entitled to 40% discount on publishing research paper and can get 10%discount if one is co-author or main author among group of authors. The Fellow can organize symposium/seminar/conference on behalf of Global Journals Incorporation (USA) and he/she can also attend the same organized by other institutes on behalf of Global Journals. The Fellow can become member of Editorial Board Member after completing 3yrs. The Fellow can earn 60% of sales proceeds from the sale of reference/review books/literature/publishing of research paper. Fellow can also join as paid peer reviewer and earn 15% remuneration of author charges and can also get an opportunity to join as member of the Editorial Board of Global Journals Incorporation (USA) • This individual has learned the basic methods of applying those concepts and techniques to common challenging situations. This individual has further demonstrated an in–depth understanding of the application of suitable techniques to a particular area of research practice.

Note : ″

 In future, if the board feels the necessity to change any board member, the same can be done with the consent of the chairperson along with anyone board member without our approval. 

In case, the chairperson needs to be replaced then consent of 2/3rd board members are required and they are also required to jointly pass the resolution copy of which should be sent to us. In such case, it will be compulsory to obtain our approval before replacement.



In case of “Difference of Opinion [if any]” among the Board members, our decision will be final and binding to everyone. ″

© Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US) | Guidelines Handbook

VII

Process of submission of Research Paper The Area or field of specialization may or may not be of any category as mentioned in ‘Scope of Journal’ menu of the GlobalJournals.org website. There are 37 Research Journal categorized with Six parental Journals GJCST, GJMR, GJRE, GJMBR, GJSFR, GJHSS. For Authors should prefer the mentioned categories. There are three widely used systems UDC, DDC and LCC. The details are available as ‘Knowledge Abstract’ at Home page. The major advantage of this coding is that, the research work will be exposed to and shared with all over the world as we are being abstracted and indexed worldwide. The paper should be in proper format. The format can be downloaded from first page of ‘Author Guideline’ Menu. The Author is expected to follow the general rules as mentioned in this menu. The paper should be written in MS-Word Format (*.DOC,*.DOCX). The Author can submit the paper either online or offline. The authors should prefer online submission.Online Submission: There are three ways to submit your paper: (A) (I) First, register yourself using top right corner of Home page then Login. If you are already registered, then login using your username and password. (II) Choose corresponding Journal. (III) Click ‘Submit Manuscript’. Fill required information and Upload the paper. (B) If you are using Internet Explorer, then Direct Submission through Homepage is also available. (C) If these two are not convenient, and then email the paper directly to [email protected] Offline Submission: Author can send the typed form of paper by Post. However, online submission should be preferred. © Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US)| Guidelines Handbook

VIII

Preferred Author Guidelines MANUSCRIPT STYLE INSTRUCTION (Must be strictly followed) Page Size: 8.27" X 11'" • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Left Margin: 0.65 Right Margin: 0.65 Top Margin: 0.75 Bottom Margin: 0.75 Font type of all text should be Swis 721 Lt BT. Paper Title should be of Font Size 24 with one Column section. Author Name in Font Size of 11 with one column as of Title. Abstract Font size of 9 Bold, “Abstract” word in Italic Bold. Main Text: Font size 10 with justified two columns section Two Column with Equal Column with of 3.38 and Gaping of .2 First Character must be three lines Drop capped. Paragraph before Spacing of 1 pt and After of 0 pt. Line Spacing of 1 pt Large Images must be in One Column Numbering of First Main Headings (Heading 1) must be in Roman Letters, Capital Letter, and Font Size of 10. Numbering of Second Main Headings (Heading 2) must be in Alphabets, Italic, and Font Size of 10.

You can use your own standard format also. Author Guidelines: 1. General, 2. Ethical Guidelines, 3. Submission of Manuscripts, 4. Manuscript’s Category, 5. Structure and Format of Manuscript, 6. After Acceptance. 1. GENERAL Before submitting your research paper, one is advised to go through the details as mentioned in following heads. It will be beneficial, while peer reviewer justify your paper for publication. Scope The Global Journals Inc. (US) welcome the submission of original paper, review paper, survey article relevant to the all the streams of Philosophy and knowledge. The Global Journals Inc. (US) is parental platform for Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology, Researches in Engineering, Medical Research, Science Frontier Research, Human Social Science, Management, and Business organization. The choice of specific field can be done otherwise as following in Abstracting and Indexing Page on this Website. As the all Global

© Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US) | Guidelines Handbook

IX

Journals Inc. (US) are being abstracted and indexed (in process) by most of the reputed organizations. Topics of only narrow interest will not be accepted unless they have wider potential or consequences. 2. ETHICAL GUIDELINES Authors should follow the ethical guidelines as mentioned below for publication of research paper and research activities. Papers are accepted on strict understanding that the material in whole or in part has not been, nor is being, considered for publication elsewhere. If the paper once accepted by Global Journals Inc. (US) and Editorial Board, will become the copyright of the Global Journals Inc. (US). Authorship: The authors and coauthors should have active contribution to conception design, analysis and interpretation of findings. They should critically review the contents and drafting of the paper. All should approve the final version of the paper before submission The Global Journals Inc. (US) follows the definition of authorship set up by the Global Academy of Research and Development. According to the Global Academy of R&D authorship, criteria must be based on: 1) Substantial contributions to conception and acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of the findings. 2) Drafting the paper and revising it critically regarding important academic content. 3) Final approval of the version of the paper to be published. All authors should have been credited according to their appropriate contribution in research activity and preparing paper. Contributors who do not match the criteria as authors may be mentioned under Acknowledgement. Acknowledgements: Contributors to the research other than authors credited should be mentioned under acknowledgement. The specifications of the source of funding for the research if appropriate can be included. Suppliers of resources may be mentioned along with address. Appeal of Decision: The Editorial Board’s decision on publication of the paper is final and cannot be appealed elsewhere. Permissions: It is the author's responsibility to have prior permission if all or parts of earlier published illustrations are used in this paper. Please mention proper reference and appropriate acknowledgements wherever expected. If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be taken from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to take these in writing. Approval for reproduction/modification of any information (including figures and tables) published elsewhere must be obtained by the authors/copyright holders before submission of the manuscript. Contributors (Authors) are responsible for any copyright fee involved. 3. SUBMISSION OF MANUSCRIPTS Manuscripts should be uploaded via this online submission page. The online submission is most efficient method for submission of papers, as it enables rapid distribution of manuscripts and consequently speeds up the review procedure. It also enables authors to know the status of their own manuscripts by emailing us. Complete instructions for submitting a paper is available below. Manuscript submission is a systematic procedure and little preparation is required beyond having all parts of your manuscript in a given format and a computer with an Internet connection and a Web browser. Full help and instructions are provided on-screen. As an author, you will be prompted for login and manuscript details as Field of Paper and then to upload your manuscript file(s) according to the instructions.

© Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US)| Guidelines Handbook

X

To avoid postal delays, all transaction is preferred by e-mail. A finished manuscript submission is confirmed by e-mail immediately and your paper enters the editorial process with no postal delays. When a conclusion is made about the publication of your paper by our Editorial Board, revisions can be submitted online with the same procedure, with an occasion to view and respond to all comments. Complete support for both authors and co-author is provided. 4. MANUSCRIPT’S CATEGORY Based on potential and nature, the manuscript can be categorized under the following heads: Original research paper: Such papers are reports of high-level significant original research work. Review papers: These are concise, significant but helpful and decisive topics for young researchers. Research articles: These are handled with small investigation and applications Research letters: The letters are small and concise comments on previously published matters. 5.STRUCTURE AND FORMAT OF MANUSCRIPT The recommended size of original research paper is less than seven thousand words, review papers fewer than seven thousands words also.Preparation of research paper or how to write research paper, are major hurdle, while writing manuscript. The research articles and research letters should be fewer than three thousand words, the structure original research paper; sometime review paper should be as follows: Papers: These are reports of significant research (typically less than 7000 words equivalent, including tables, figures, references), and comprise: (a)Title should be relevant and commensurate with the theme of the paper. (b) A brief Summary, “Abstract” (less than 150 words) containing the major results and conclusions. (c) Up to ten keywords, that precisely identifies the paper's subject, purpose, and focus. (d) An Introduction, giving necessary background excluding subheadings; objectives must be clearly declared. (e) Resources and techniques with sufficient complete experimental details (wherever possible by reference) to permit repetition; sources of information must be given and numerical methods must be specified by reference, unless non-standard. (f) Results should be presented concisely, by well-designed tables and/or figures; the same data may not be used in both; suitable statistical data should be given. All data must be obtained with attention to numerical detail in the planning stage. As reproduced design has been recognized to be important to experiments for a considerable time, the Editor has decided that any paper that appears not to have adequate numerical treatments of the data will be returned un-refereed; (g) Discussion should cover the implications and consequences, not just recapitulating the results; conclusions should be summarizing. (h) Brief Acknowledgements. (i) References in the proper form. Authors should very cautiously consider the preparation of papers to ensure that they communicate efficiently. Papers are much more likely to be accepted, if they are cautiously designed and laid out, contain few or no errors, are summarizing, and be conventional to the approach and instructions. They will in addition, be published with much less delays than those that require much technical and editorial correction.

© Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US) | Guidelines Handbook

XI

The Editorial Board reserves the right to make literary corrections and to make suggestions to improve briefness. It is vital, that authors take care in submitting a manuscript that is written in simple language and adheres to published guidelines. Format Language: The language of publication is UK English. Authors, for whom English is a second language, must have their manuscript efficiently edited by an English-speaking person before submission to make sure that, the English is of high excellence. It is preferable, that manuscripts should be professionally edited. Standard Usage, Abbreviations, and Units: Spelling and hyphenation should be conventional to The Concise Oxford English Dictionary. Statistics and measurements should at all times be given in figures, e.g. 16 min, except for when the number begins a sentence. When the number does not refer to a unit of measurement it should be spelt in full unless, it is 160 or greater. Abbreviations supposed to be used carefully. The abbreviated name or expression is supposed to be cited in full at first usage, followed by the conventional abbreviation in parentheses. Metric SI units are supposed to generally be used excluding where they conflict with current practice or are confusing. For illustration, 1.4 l rather than 1.4 × 10-3 m3, or 4 mm somewhat than 4 × 10-3 m. Chemical formula and solutions must identify the form used, e.g. anhydrous or hydrated, and the concentration must be in clearly defined units. Common species names should be followed by underlines at the first mention. For following use the generic name should be constricted to a single letter, if it is clear. Structure All manuscripts submitted to Global Journals Inc. (US), ought to include: Title: The title page must carry an instructive title that reflects the content, a running title (less than 45 characters together with spaces), names of the authors and co-authors, and the place(s) wherever the work was carried out. The full postal address in addition with the email address of related author must be given. Up to eleven keywords or very brief phrases have to be given to help data retrieval, mining and indexing. Abstract, used in Original Papers and Reviews: Optimizing Abstract for Search Engines Many researchers searching for information online will use search engines such as Google, Yahoo or similar. By optimizing your paper for search engines, you will amplify the chance of someone finding it. This in turn will make it more likely to be viewed and/or cited in a further work. Global Journals Inc. (US) have compiled these guidelines to facilitate you to maximize the web-friendliness of the most public part of your paper. Key Words A major linchpin in research work for the writing research paper is the keyword search, which one will employ to find both library and Internet resources. One must be persistent and creative in using keywords. An effective keyword search requires a strategy and planning a list of possible keywords and phrases to try. Search engines for most searches, use Boolean searching, which is somewhat different from Internet searches. The Boolean search uses "operators," words (and, or, not, and near) that enable you to expand or narrow your affords. Tips for research paper while preparing research paper are very helpful guideline of research paper. Choice of key words is first tool of tips to write research paper. Research paper writing is an art.A few tips for deciding as strategically as possible about keyword search:

© Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US)| Guidelines Handbook

XII

x

x x

One should start brainstorming lists of possible keywords before even begin searching. Think about the most important concepts related to research work. Ask, "What words would a source have to include to be truly valuable in research paper?" Then consider synonyms for the important words. It may take the discovery of only one relevant paper to let steer in the right keyword direction because in most databases, the keywords under which a research paper is abstracted are listed with the paper. One should avoid outdated words.

Keywords are the key that opens a door to research work sources. Keyword searching is an art in which researcher's skills are bound to improve with experience and time. Numerical Methods: Numerical methods used should be clear and, where appropriate, supported by references. Acknowledgements: Please make these as concise as possible. References References follow the Harvard scheme of referencing. References in the text should cite the authors' names followed by the time of their publication, unless there are three or more authors when simply the first author's name is quoted followed by et al. unpublished work has to only be cited where necessary, and only in the text. Copies of references in press in other journals have to be supplied with submitted typescripts. It is necessary that all citations and references be carefully checked before submission, as mistakes or omissions will cause delays. References to information on the World Wide Web can be given, but only if the information is available without charge to readers on an official site. Wikipedia and Similar websites are not allowed where anyone can change the information. Authors will be asked to make available electronic copies of the cited information for inclusion on the Global Journals Inc. (US) homepage at the judgment of the Editorial Board. The Editorial Board and Global Journals Inc. (US) recommend that, citation of online-published papers and other material should be done via a DOI (digital object identifier). If an author cites anything, which does not have a DOI, they run the risk of the cited material not being noticeable. The Editorial Board and Global Journals Inc. (US) recommend the use of a tool such as Reference Manager for reference management and formatting. Tables, Figures and Figure Legends Tables: Tables should be few in number, cautiously designed, uncrowned, and include only essential data. Each must have an Arabic number, e.g. Table 4, a self-explanatory caption and be on a separate sheet. Vertical lines should not be used. Figures: Figures are supposed to be submitted as separate files. Always take in a citation in the text for each figure using Arabic numbers, e.g. Fig. 4. Artwork must be submitted online in electronic form by e-mailing them. Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication Even though low quality images are sufficient for review purposes, print publication requires high quality images to prevent the final product being blurred or fuzzy. Submit (or e-mail) EPS (line art) or TIFF (halftone/photographs) files only. MS PowerPoint and Word Graphics are unsuitable for printed pictures. Do not use pixel-oriented software. Scans (TIFF only) should have a resolution of at least 350 dpi (halftone) or 700 to 1100 dpi (line drawings) in relation to the imitation size. Please give the data for figures in black and white or submit a Color Work Agreement Form. EPS files must be saved with fonts embedded (and with a TIFF preview, if possible). For scanned images, the scanning resolution (at final image size) ought to be as follows to ensure good reproduction: line art: >650 dpi; halftones (including gel photographs) : >350 dpi; figures containing both halftone and line images: >650 dpi. Color Charges: It is the rule of the Global Journals Inc. (US) for authors to pay the full cost for the reproduction of their color artwork. Hence, please note that, if there is color artwork in your manuscript when it is accepted for publication, we would require you to complete and return a color work agreement form before your paper can be published.

© Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US) | Guidelines Handbook

XIII

Figure Legends: Self-explanatory legends of all figures should be incorporated separately under the heading 'Legends to Figures'. In the full-text online edition of the journal, figure legends may possibly be truncated in abbreviated links to the full screen version. Therefore, the first 100 characters of any legend should notify the reader, about the key aspects of the figure. 6. AFTER ACCEPTANCE Upon approval of a paper for publication, the manuscript will be forwarded to the dean, who is responsible for the publication of the Global Journals Inc. (US). 6.1 Proof Corrections The corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing a link to a website or will be attached. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the related author. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (Free of charge) from the following website: www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html. This will facilitate the file to be opened, read on screen, and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Proofs must be returned to the dean at [email protected] within three days of receipt. As changes to proofs are costly, we inquire that you only correct typesetting errors. All illustrations are retained by the publisher. Please note that the authors are responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor. 6.2 Early View of Global Journals Inc. (US) (Publication Prior to Print) The Global Journals Inc. (US) are enclosed by our publishing's Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles sent in advance of their publication. Early View articles are absolute and final. They have been completely reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after sending them. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the conventional way. 6.3 Author Services Online production tracking is available for your article through Author Services. Author Services enables authors to track their article once it has been accepted - through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The authors will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. 6.4 Author Material Archive Policy Please note that if not specifically requested, publisher will dispose off hardcopy & electronic information submitted, after the two months of publication. If you require the return of any information submitted, please inform the Editorial Board or dean as soon as possible. 6.5 Offprint and Extra Copies A PDF offprint of the online-published article will be provided free of charge to the related author, and may be distributed according to the Publisher's terms and conditions. Additional paper offprint may be ordered by emailing us at: [email protected] . You must strictly follow above Author Guidelines before submitting your paper or else we will not at all be responsible for any corrections in future in any of the way.

© Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US)| Guidelines Handbook

XIV

Before start writing a good quality Computer Science Research Paper, let us first understand what is Computer Science Research Paper? So, Computer Science Research Paper is the paper which is written by professionals or scientists who are associated to Computer Science and Information Technology, or doing research study in these areas. If you are novel to this field then you can consult about this field from your supervisor or guide. TECHNIQUES FOR WRITING A GOOD QUALITY RESEARCH PAPER: 1. Choosing the topic: In most cases, the topic is searched by the interest of author but it can be also suggested by the guides. You can have several topics and then you can judge that in which topic or subject you are finding yourself most comfortable. This can be done by asking several questions to yourself, like Will I be able to carry our search in this area? Will I find all necessary recourses to accomplish the search? Will I be able to find all information in this field area? If the answer of these types of questions will be "Yes" then you can choose that topic. In most of the cases, you may have to conduct the surveys and have to visit several places because this field is related to Computer Science and Information Technology. Also, you may have to do a lot of work to find all rise and falls regarding the various data of that subject. Sometimes, detailed information plays a vital role, instead of short information. 2. Evaluators are human: First thing to remember that evaluators are also human being. They are not only meant for rejecting a paper. They are here to evaluate your paper. So, present your Best.

3. Think Like Evaluators: If you are in a confusion or getting demotivated that your paper will be accepted by evaluators or not, then think and try to evaluate your paper like an Evaluator. Try to understand that what an evaluator wants in your research paper and automatically you will have your answer.

4. Make blueprints of paper: The outline is the plan or framework that will help you to arrange your thoughts. It will make your paper logical. But remember that all points of your outline must be related to the topic you have chosen.

5. Ask your Guides: If you are having any difficulty in your research, then do not hesitate to share your difficulty to your guide (if you have any). They will surely help you out and resolve your doubts. If you can't clarify what exactly you require for your work then ask the supervisor to help you with the alternative. He might also provide you the list of essential readings. 6. Use of computer is recommended: As you are doing research in the field of Computer Science, then this point is quite obvious. 7. Use right software: Always use good quality software packages. If you are not capable to judge good software then you can lose quality of your paper unknowingly. There are various software programs available to help you, which you can get through Internet.

8. Use the Internet for help: An excellent start for your paper can be by using the Google. It is an excellent search engine, where you can have your doubts resolved. You may also read some answers for the frequent question how to write my research paper or find model research paper. From the internet library you can download books. If you have all required books make important reading selecting and analyzing the specified information. Then put together research paper sketch out.

9. Use and get big pictures: Always use encyclopedias, Wikipedia to get pictures so that you can go into the depth.

10. Bookmarks are useful: When you read any book or magazine, you generally use bookmarks, right! It is a good habit, which helps to not to lose your continuity. You should always use bookmarks while searching on Internet also, which will make your search easier. 11. Revise what you wrote: When you write anything, always read it, summarize it and then finalize it.

© Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US) | Guidelines Handbook

XV

12. Make all efforts: Make all efforts to mention what you are going to write in your paper. That means always have a good start. Try to mention everything in introduction, that what is the need of a particular research paper. Polish your work by good skill of writing and always give an evaluator, what he wants. 13. Have backups: When you are going to do any important thing like making research paper, you should always have backup copies of it either in your computer or in paper. This will help you to not to lose any of your important. 14. Produce good diagrams of your own: Always try to include good charts or diagrams in your paper to improve quality. Using several and unnecessary diagrams will degrade the quality of your paper by creating "hotchpotch." So always, try to make and include those diagrams, which are made by your own to improve readability and understandability of your paper. 15. Use of direct quotes: When you do research relevant to literature, history or current affairs then use of quotes become essential but if study is relevant to science then use of quotes is not preferable. 16. Use proper verb tense: Use proper verb tenses in your paper. Use past tense, to present those events that happened. Use present tense to indicate events that are going on. Use future tense to indicate future happening events. Use of improper and wrong tenses will confuse the evaluator. Avoid the sentences that are incomplete. 17. Never use online paper: If you are getting any paper on Internet, then never use it as your research paper because it might be possible that evaluator has already seen it or maybe it is outdated version. 18. Pick a good study spot: To do your research studies always try to pick a spot, which is quiet. Every spot is not for studies. Spot that suits you choose it and proceed further. 19. Know what you know: Always try to know, what you know by making objectives. Else, you will be confused and cannot achieve your target. 20. Use good quality grammar: Always use a good quality grammar and use words that will throw positive impact on evaluator. Use of good quality grammar does not mean to use tough words, that for each word the evaluator has to go through dictionary. Do not start sentence with a conjunction. Do not fragment sentences. Eliminate one-word sentences. Ignore passive voice. Do not ever use a big word when a diminutive one would suffice. Verbs have to be in agreement with their subjects. Prepositions are not expressions to finish sentences with. It is incorrect to ever divide an infinitive. Avoid clichés like the disease. Also, always shun irritating alliteration. Use language that is simple and straight forward. put together a neat summary. 21. Arrangement of information: Each section of the main body should start with an opening sentence and there should be a changeover at the end of the section. Give only valid and powerful arguments to your topic. You may also maintain your arguments with records. 22. Never start in last minute: Always start at right time and give enough time to research work. Leaving everything to the last minute will degrade your paper and spoil your work. 23. Multitasking in research is not good: Doing several things at the same time proves bad habit in case of research activity. Research is an area, where everything has a particular time slot. Divide your research work in parts and do particular part in particular time slot. 24. Never copy others' work: Never copy others' work and give it your name because if evaluator has seen it anywhere you will be in trouble. 25. Take proper rest and food: No matter how many hours you spend for your research activity, if you are not taking care of your health then all your efforts will be in vain. For a quality research, study is must, and this can be done by taking proper rest and food. 26. Go for seminars: Attend seminars if the topic is relevant to your research area. Utilize all your resources.

© Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US)| Guidelines Handbook

XVI

27. Refresh your mind after intervals: Try to give rest to your mind by listening to soft music or by sleeping in intervals. This will also improve your memory. 28. Make colleagues: Always try to make colleagues. No matter how sharper or intelligent you are, if you make colleagues you can have several ideas, which will be helpful for your research. 29. Think technically: Always think technically. If anything happens, then search its reasons, its benefits, and demerits. 30. Think and then print: When you will go to print your paper, notice that tables are not be split, headings are not detached from their descriptions, and page sequence is maintained. 31. Adding unnecessary information: Do not add unnecessary information, like, I have used MS Excel to draw graph. Do not add irrelevant and inappropriate material. These all will create superfluous. Foreign terminology and phrases are not apropos. One should NEVER take a broad view. Analogy in script is like feathers on a snake. Not at all use a large word when a very small one would be sufficient. Use words properly, regardless of how others use them. Remove quotations. Puns are for kids, not grunt readers. Amplification is a billion times of inferior quality than sarcasm. 32. Never oversimplify everything: To add material in your research paper, never go for oversimplification. This will definitely irritate the evaluator. Be more or less specific. Also too, by no means, ever use rhythmic redundancies. Contractions aren't essential and shouldn't be there used. Comparisons are as terrible as clichés. Give up ampersands and abbreviations, and so on. Remove commas, that are, not necessary. Parenthetical words however should be together with this in commas. Understatement is all the time the complete best way to put onward earth-shaking thoughts. Give a detailed literary review. 33. Report concluded results: Use concluded results. From raw data, filter the results and then conclude your studies based on measurements and observations taken. Significant figures and appropriate number of decimal places should be used. Parenthetical remarks are prohibitive. Proofread carefully at final stage. In the end give outline to your arguments. Spot out perspectives of further study of this subject. Justify your conclusion by at the bottom of them with sufficient justifications and examples. 34. After conclusion: Once you have concluded your research, the next most important step is to present your findings. Presentation is extremely important as it is the definite medium though which your research is going to be in print to the rest of the crowd. Care should be taken to categorize your thoughts well and present them in a logical and neat manner. A good quality research paper format is essential because it serves to highlight your research paper and bring to light all necessary aspects in your research.

,1)250$/*8,'(/,1(62)5(6($5&+3$3(5:5,7,1* Key points to remember: Submit all work in its final form. Write your paper in the form, which is presented in the guidelines using the template. Please note the criterion for grading the final paper by peer-reviewers. Final Points: A purpose of organizing a research paper is to let people to interpret your effort selectively. The journal requires the following sections, submitted in the order listed, each section to start on a new page. The introduction will be compiled from reference matter and will reflect the design processes or outline of basis that direct you to make study. As you will carry out the process of study, the method and process section will be constructed as like that. The result segment will show related statistics in nearly sequential order and will direct the reviewers next to the similar intellectual paths throughout the data that you took to carry out your study. The discussion section will provide understanding of the data and projections as to the implication of the results. The use of good quality references all through the paper will give the effort trustworthiness by representing an alertness of prior workings.

© Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US) | Guidelines Handbook

XVII

Writing a research paper is not an easy job no matter how trouble-free the actual research or concept. Practice, excellent preparation, and controlled record keeping are the only means to make straightforward the progression. General style: Specific editorial column necessities for compliance of a manuscript will always take over from directions in these general guidelines. To make a paper clear · Adhere to recommended page limits Mistakes to evade Insertion a title at the foot of a page with the subsequent text on the next page Separating a table/chart or figure - impound each figure/table to a single page Submitting a manuscript with pages out of sequence In every sections of your document · Use standard writing style including articles ("a", "the," etc.) · Keep on paying attention on the research topic of the paper

· Use paragraphs to split each significant point (excluding for the abstract)

· Align the primary line of each section

· Present your points in sound order

· Use present tense to report well accepted

· Use past tense to describe specific results

· Shun familiar wording, don't address the reviewer directly, and don't use slang, slang language, or superlatives

· Shun use of extra pictures - include only those figures essential to presenting results

Title Page:

Choose a revealing title. It should be short. It should not have non-standard acronyms or abbreviations. It should not exceed two printed lines. It should include the name(s) and address (es) of all authors.

© Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US)| Guidelines Handbook

XVIII

Abstract: The summary should be two hundred words or less. It should briefly and clearly explain the key findings reported in the manuscript-must have precise statistics. It should not have abnormal acronyms or abbreviations. It should be logical in itself. Shun citing references at this point. An abstract is a brief distinct paragraph summary of finished work or work in development. In a minute or less a reviewer can be taught the foundation behind the study, common approach to the problem, relevant results, and significant conclusions or new questions. Write your summary when your paper is completed because how can you write the summary of anything which is not yet written? Wealth of terminology is very essential in abstract. Yet, use comprehensive sentences and do not let go readability for briefness. You can maintain it succinct by phrasing sentences so that they provide more than lone rationale. The author can at this moment go straight to shortening the outcome. Sum up the study, with the subsequent elements in any summary. Try to maintain the initial two items to no more than one ruling each. Reason of the study - theory, overall issue, purpose Fundamental goal To the point depiction of the research Consequences, including definite statistics - if the consequences are quantitative in nature, account quantitative data; results of any numerical analysis should be reported Significant conclusions or questions that track from the research(es) Approach: Single section, and succinct As a outline of job done, it is always written in past tense A conceptual should situate on its own, and not submit to any other part of the paper such as a form or table Center on shortening results - bound background information to a verdict or two, if completely necessary What you account in an conceptual must be regular with what you reported in the manuscript Exact spelling, clearness of sentences and phrases, and appropriate reporting of quantities (proper units, important statistics) are just as significant in an abstract as they are anywhere else Introduction: The Introduction should "introduce" the manuscript. The reviewer should be presented with sufficient background information to be capable to comprehend and calculate the purpose of your study without having to submit to other works. The basis for the study should be offered. Give most important references but shun difficult to make a comprehensive appraisal of the topic. In the introduction, describe the problem visibly. If the problem is not acknowledged in a logical, reasonable way, the reviewer will have no attention in your result. Speak in common terms about techniques used to explain the problem, if needed, but do not present any particulars about the protocols here. Following approach can create a valuable beginning: Explain the value (significance) of the study Shield the model - why did you employ this particular system or method? What is its compensation? You strength remark on its appropriateness from a abstract point of vision as well as point out sensible reasons for using it. Present a justification. Status your particular theory (es) or aim(s), and describe the logic that led you to choose them. Very for a short time explain the tentative propose and how it skilled the declared objectives. Approach: Use past tense except for when referring to recognized facts. After all, the manuscript will be submitted after the entire job is done. Sort out your thoughts; manufacture one key point with every section. If you make the four points listed above, you will need a least of four paragraphs.

© Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US) | Guidelines Handbook

XIX

Present surroundings information only as desirable in order hold up a situation. The reviewer does not desire to read the whole thing you know about a topic. Shape the theory/purpose specifically - do not take a broad view. As always, give awareness to spelling, simplicity and correctness of sentences and phrases. Procedures (Methods and Materials): This part is supposed to be the easiest to carve if you have good skills. A sound written Procedures segment allows a capable scientist to replacement your results. Present precise information about your supplies. The suppliers and clarity of reagents can be helpful bits of information. Present methods in sequential order but linked methodologies can be grouped as a segment. Be concise when relating the protocols. Attempt for the least amount of information that would permit another capable scientist to spare your outcome but be cautious that vital information is integrated. The use of subheadings is suggested and ought to be synchronized with the results section. When a technique is used that has been well described in another object, mention the specific item describing a way but draw the basic principle while stating the situation. The purpose is to text all particular resources and broad procedures, so that another person may use some or all of the methods in one more study or referee the scientific value of your work. It is not to be a step by step report of the whole thing you did, nor is a methods section a set of orders. Materials: Explain materials individually only if the study is so complex that it saves liberty this way. Embrace particular materials, and any tools or provisions that are not frequently found in laboratories. Do not take in frequently found. If use of a definite type of tools. Materials may be reported in a part section or else they may be recognized along with your measures. Methods: Report the method (not particulars of each process that engaged the same methodology) Describe the method entirely To be succinct, present methods under headings dedicated to specific dealings or groups of measures Simplify - details how procedures were completed not how they were exclusively performed on a particular day. If well known procedures were used, account the procedure by name, possibly with reference, and that's all. Approach: It is embarrassed or not possible to use vigorous voice when documenting methods with no using first person, which would focus the reviewer's interest on the researcher rather than the job. As a result when script up the methods most authors use third person passive voice. Use standard style in this and in every other part of the paper - avoid familiar lists, and use full sentences. What to keep away from Resources and methods are not a set of information. Skip all descriptive information and surroundings - save it for the argument. Leave out information that is immaterial to a third party. Results: The principle of a results segment is to present and demonstrate your conclusion. Create this part a entirely objective details of the outcome, and save all understanding for the discussion. The page length of this segment is set by the sum and types of data to be reported. Carry on to be to the point, by means of statistics and tables, if suitable, to present consequences most efficiently.You must obviously differentiate material that would usually be incorporated in a study editorial from any unprocessed data or additional appendix matter that would not be available. In fact, such matter should not be submitted at all except requested by the instructor.

© Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US)| Guidelines Handbook

XX

Content Sum up your conclusion in text and demonstrate them, if suitable, with figures and tables. In manuscript, explain each of your consequences, point the reader to remarks that are most appropriate. Present a background, such as by describing the question that was addressed by creation an exacting study. Explain results of control experiments and comprise remarks that are not accessible in a prescribed figure or table, if appropriate. Examine your data, then prepare the analyzed (transformed) data in the form of a figure (graph), table, or in manuscript form. What to stay away from Do not discuss or infer your outcome, report surroundings information, or try to explain anything. Not at all, take in raw data or intermediate calculations in a research manuscript. Do not present the similar data more than once. Manuscript should complement any figures or tables, not duplicate the identical information. Never confuse figures with tables - there is a difference. Approach As forever, use past tense when you submit to your results, and put the whole thing in a reasonable order. Put figures and tables, appropriately numbered, in order at the end of the report If you desire, you may place your figures and tables properly within the text of your results part. Figures and tables If you put figures and tables at the end of the details, make certain that they are visibly distinguished from any attach appendix materials, such as raw facts Despite of position, each figure must be numbered one after the other and complete with subtitle In spite of position, each table must be titled, numbered one after the other and complete with heading All figure and table must be adequately complete that it could situate on its own, divide from text Discussion: The Discussion is expected the trickiest segment to write and describe. A lot of papers submitted for journal are discarded based on problems with the Discussion. There is no head of state for how long a argument should be. Position your understanding of the outcome visibly to lead the reviewer through your conclusions, and then finish the paper with a summing up of the implication of the study. The purpose here is to offer an understanding of your results and hold up for all of your conclusions, using facts from your research and generally accepted information, if suitable. The implication of result should be visibly described. Infer your data in the conversation in suitable depth. This means that when you clarify an observable fact you must explain mechanisms that may account for the observation. If your results vary from your prospect, make clear why that may have happened. If your results agree, then explain the theory that the proof supported. It is never suitable to just state that the data approved with prospect, and let it drop at that. Make a decision if each premise is supported, discarded, or if you cannot make a conclusion with assurance. Do not just dismiss a study or part of a study as "uncertain." Research papers are not acknowledged if the work is imperfect. Draw what conclusions you can based upon the results that you have, and take care of the study as a finished work You may propose future guidelines, such as how the experiment might be personalized to accomplish a new idea. Give details all of your remarks as much as possible, focus on mechanisms. Make a decision if the tentative design sufficiently addressed the theory, and whether or not it was correctly restricted. Try to present substitute explanations if sensible alternatives be present. One research will not counter an overall question, so maintain the large picture in mind, where do you go next? The best studies unlock new avenues of study. What questions remain? Recommendations for detailed papers will offer supplementary suggestions. Approach: When you refer to information, differentiate data generated by your own studies from available information Submit to work done by specific persons (including you) in past tense. Submit to generally acknowledged facts and main beliefs in present tense.

© Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US) | Guidelines Handbook

XXI

THE $'0,1,675$7,2158/(6

Please carefully note down following rules and regulation before submitting your Research Paper to Global Journals Inc. (US): Segment Draft and Final Research Paper: You have to strictly follow the template of research paper. If it is not done your paper may get rejected. The major constraint is that you must independently make all content, tables, graphs, and facts that are offered in the paper. You must write each part of the paper wholly on your own. The Peer-reviewers need to identify your own perceptive of the concepts in your own terms. NEVER extract straight from any foundation, and never rephrase someone else's analysis. Do not give permission to anyone else to "PROOFREAD" your manuscript. Methods to avoid Plagiarism is applied by us on every paper, if found guilty, you will be blacklisted by all of our collaborated research groups, your institution will be informed for this and strict legal actions will be taken immediately.) To guard yourself and others from possible illegal use please do not permit anyone right to use to your paper and files.

© Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US)| Guidelines Handbook

XXII

CRITERION FOR GRADING A RESEARCH PAPER (COMPILATION) BY GLOBAL JOURNALS INC. (US) Please note that following table is only a Grading of "Paper Compilation" and not on "Performed/Stated Research" whose grading solely depends on Individual Assigned Peer Reviewer and Editorial Board Member. These can be available only on request and after decision of Paper. This report will be the property of Global Journals Inc. (US). Topics

Grades

Abstract

Introduction

Methods Procedures

Result

Discussion

References

and

A-B

C-D

E-F

Clear and concise with appropriate content, Correct format. 200 words or below

Unclear summary and no specific data, Incorrect form

No specific data with ambiguous information

Above 200 words

Above 250 words

Containing all background details with clear goal and appropriate details, flow specification, no grammar and spelling mistake, well organized sentence and paragraph, reference cited

Unclear and confusing data, appropriate format, grammar and spelling errors with unorganized matter

Out of place depth and content, hazy format

Clear and to the point with well arranged paragraph, precision and accuracy of facts and figures, well organized subheads

Difficult to comprehend with embarrassed text, too much explanation but completed

Incorrect and unorganized structure with hazy meaning

Well organized, Clear and specific, Correct units with precision, correct data, well structuring of paragraph, no grammar and spelling mistake

Complete and embarrassed text, difficult to comprehend

Irregular format with wrong facts and figures

Well organized, meaningful specification, sound conclusion, logical and concise explanation, highly structured paragraph reference cited

Wordy, unclear conclusion, spurious

Conclusion is not cited, unorganized, difficult to comprehend

and Complete correct format, well organized

Beside the point, Incomplete

Wrong format and structuring

© Copyright by Global Journals Inc.(US) | Guidelines Handbook

XXIII

Index

F Facets · 46

J Judiciously · 43, 45

L Loomed · 56

M Manifests · 13, 15

R Remuneration · 22, 28, 31, 33, 35

S Spurring · 51

V Vigour · 58

© Global Journals

Loading...

Global Journal of Management and Business - Global Journals

Online ISSN : 2249-460X Print ISSN : 0975-587X Determinants of Football Games Model of McKinsey Practices and Personality Ethical VOLUME 15 Análi...

4MB Sizes 3 Downloads 0 Views

Recommend Documents

Global Journal of Management and Business - Global Journals
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET)Dhaka1000. About2- Department of Industrial and Production Eng

Global Journal of Human Social Science - Global Journals
Dr. Wen-Yih Sun. Professor of Earth and Atmospheric. SciencesPurdue University Director. National Center for Typhoon and

Global Journal of Human Social Science - Global Journals
Dr. Wen-Yih Sun. Professor of Earth and Atmospheric. SciencesPurdue University Director. National Center for Typhoon and

journal-of-global-business-and
... http://wywozgruzuzzlodz.top/journal-entries-english-class-examples.pdf 2017-12-06T00:00:00+11:34 Daily 0.90 http://w

Global Journal of Human Social Science - Global Journals
diambildarihttp://www.ditpertais.net/annualconferen ceancon06/Makalah%20-Husni%20Thoyyar.pdf, 13. April 2012. 10. Kamaru

Global Journal of Human Social Science - Global Journals
Kebudayaan Melayu di Pulau Kalimantan,” this paper is prepared as a resource person's material for the seminar of loca

Scope of Journals | Engineering | Journals - Global Journals
It includes conversion of fiber to yarn and yarn to fabric, coloration and apparel manufacturing; Transportation enginee

Financial management and business success - ACCA Global
Your financial management needs will continually evolve as the business grows and circumstances change. Successful, grow

journal-of-global-business-and-economics.pdf 2017
... 2017-12-06T00:00:00+11:34 Daily 0.90 http://pebook.in/journal-entries-english-class-examples.pdf 2017-12-06T00:00:00

Global Journal of Business and Social Science - (SSRN) Papers
Dec 27, 2012 - Sci. Review 1 (1) 114-119 (2013). Sugiyono. (2013). Metode Penelitian Pendidikan Pendekatan Kuanatitatif,