Free English Grammar E-Book Level 2
Table of Contents Present Continuous For Future Use……………………………………
Will or Going To? ……………………………………………………………….
Linking Words: Reasons and Results ………………………………
Linking Words: Adding, Organizing, Summarizing……………
Linking Words: Contrasting Ideas……………………………………… 13 Tips for Learning Irregular Verbs ……………………………………… 14 Simple Past and Past Continuous ……………………………………… 20 Present Perfect + Ever / Never …………………………………………
Present Perfect + Yet / Already / Just ……………………………… 25 Present Perfect + For / Since ……………………………………………
Present Perfect Simple / Continuous ………………………………… 28 Comparative Adjectives: Not as ______ as ……………………… 30 Comparative Adjectives: Quantifiers ………………………………… 31 Comparative or Superlative? ……………………………………………… 33 So / Neither / Too ……………………………………………………………… 34 Verbs + Infinitive or –ING ………………………………………………… 38 Permission, Obligation, Prohibition …………………………………… 42 Prepositions of Time …………………………………………………………… 46 Prepositions of Place …………………………………………………………… 51 Prepositions of Movement …………………………………………………… 56 Relative Clauses …………………………………………………………………… 61 Word Order: Asking Questions …………………………………………… 65 www.espressoenglish.net
~3~ Direct and Indirect Questions …………………………………
Two Forms of “Used to” …………………………………………… 73 Too and Enough ………………………………………………………… 74 Some / Any / No ………………………………………………………… 75 Subject-Verb Agreement …………………………………………… 78 First Conditional ………………………………………………………… 81 Second Conditional …………………………………………………… 83 Should / Could / Would ……………………………………………… 85 Past Perfect ………………………………………………………………… 88 Present Perfect or Past Perfect? ………………………………… 91 Passive Voice: Present / Past …………………………………… 94 Reported Speech: Statements…………………………………… 95 Reported Speech: Requests, Orders, Questions ……… 97
Welcome! Thanks for downloading the Free English Grammar E-Book Level 2 – I hope it helps you with your English studies! If you have any questions about the lessons, please e-mail me at [email protected]
Espresso English has over 300 fun, fast online English lessons (www.espressoenglish.net). You can also sign up to get new English lessons every week by e-mail, as well as the Free English Grammar E-Book Level 1.
Please Share This Book This book is free, but can I ask you to help me with one thing? Please post a link to the book on Facebook and Twitter to share it with your friends and classmates. Thanks – I really appreciate it!
Present Continuous For Future Use Talking about the future in English Many students use only will or going to in order to talk about the future. However, it’s very common to use the present continuous to talk about the future, in the case of arrangements that are planned: +
I’m having dinner with friends tonight.
She’s meeting David at the train station tomorrow.
He isn’t coming to the party.
We aren’t seeing our family this weekend.
What are you doing on Saturday?
Is Mary arriving at 7:00 or 8:00 tomorrow morning?
You can use the present continuous for future plans with these words: tonight, tomorrow, this weekend next week/month/year this summer/fall/winter/spring on Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday/etc. next Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday/etc.
Will or Going To? There are two additional ways to talk about the future in English: will/won’t and going to.
Use “going to” for plans and arrangements: On my next vacation, I’m going to stay in a nice hotel in Paris. She’s going to look for a new job after her current contract ends. David’s going to meet me at the airport at 8:00. We’re going to get married next July. They’re going to visit Amy next week. They made plans to meet up on Monday. Peter and Paul are going to share an apartment when they move to New York. Note: You can also use the present continuous for the future in these cases. On my next vacation, I’m staying at a nice hotel in Paris. David’s meeting me at the airport at 8:00. We’re getting married next July.
Use “will/won’t” for promises: I‘ll send you an e-mail. I won’t tell anyone your secret. He‘ll pay you back tomorrow. We won’t forget your birthday.
Use “will” for offers: I‘ll buy you a drink. My secretary will help you with the paperwork.
Use “will” for decisions made in that moment: “Would you like potatoes or rice?” “I‘ll have the rice.” ”Which shirt do you like?” “Well, the red one is cheaper, but I prefer the color blue. I‘ll take the blue one.”
~7~ You can use either “will/won’t” or “going to” for predictions or general statements about the future: My company‘s going to move its headquarters overseas next year. My company will move its headquarters overseas next year. Your wife will love those flowers – they’re beautiful! Your wife’s going to love those flowers – they’re beautiful! The economy isn’t going to improve much this year. The economy won’t improve much this year. He won’t pass the test. He hasn’t studied at all. He’s not going to pass the test. He hasn’t studied at all. Use I think… will and I don’t think… will to express thoughts about the future. Don’t use I think… won’t. (it doesn’t sound natural). • I think you won’t like this movie. It’s very violent. • I don’t think you’ll like this movie. It’s very violent.
Will/Won’t vs. Going to Quiz Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/grammar-in-use-willwont-vs-going-to#quiz
Linking Words: Reasons and Results Image source: FreeDigitalPhotos.net
Linking words help you connect the ideas in a sentence. In this lesson, you’ll learn some common linking words to express reasons and results.
Linking Words: Reasons
~8~ Because / Because of The difference between these two words is that because is followed by a subject + verb, and because of is followed by a noun: • The game was canceled because of the rain. • The game was canceled because it was raining. In spoken English, many people say ’cause as a short form of “because.”
Due to / Owing to Due to and owing to are also followed by a noun. These words are a little more formal. There’s a lot of traffic today due to the upcoming holiday. (holiday = noun) The after-school program was canceled owing to lack of interest from the students. (lack = noun)
Due to the fact that / Owing to the fact that Use these phrases before a subject + verb. Again, these phrases are a little more formal. Many people are still unemployed due to the fact that the economic recovery has been slower than anticipated. The publisher rejected the author’s latest work owing to the fact that the manuscript was full of errors.
Since / As Since and as are more informal, and they are followed by a subject + verb. • I’m going to bed at 10 PM since I need to get up early tomorrow. • I didn’t go to the gym today, as I had a lot of homework to do.
Linking Words: Results www.espressoenglish.net
~9~ Therefore / Consequently / As a result These words are more formal, and are more commonly used in written English. Our company’s profits have increased 150% in the past year. Therefore, we’re going to invest in new equipment and training programs. The tennis player had knee surgery mid-October; consequently, she took the rest of the season off. There have been heavy rains throughout the interior of the state. As a result, several areas have experienced flooding.
So “So” is more informal, and more commonly used in spoken English. We were hungry, so we stopped at a cafe for a snack.
Linking Words Quiz: Reasons and Results Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/linking-words-in-english-reasons-andresults/#quiz
~ 10 ~
Linking Words: Adding, Organizing, Summarizing Adding Information and Examples for example / for instance Use these words to give one example of the idea you are talking about. Both of these expressions can go at the beginning or the end of a sentence. There are a number of problems in this school. For example, many of the classrooms don’t have audiovisual equipment. She has a lot of good ideas for our business – opening an online store, for instance. Written English: i.e. and e.g In written English, we can use i.e. to give further explanation or clarification; it means “that is” or “in other words.” Our last marketing campaign failed (i.e. we spent $50,000 and didn’t make many sales). We can use e.g. to give examples; it means “for example” I enjoy radical sports (e.g. rock climbing, hang gliding, and windsurfing). In formal writing, these expressions always appear inside parentheses.
namely / such as There is a difference between namely and such as. Namely is followed by ALL of the examples you referred to, but such as gives only one or some of the examples, not all of them.
~ 11 ~ A few of the students – namely Brian, Thomas, and Jack – failed the course. A few of the students, such as Brian, failed the course.
also / too Also can go in the middle of a sentence, whereas too is typically used at the end. We did a lot of sightseeing on our vacation. We also bought a number of souvenirs. We did a lot of sightseeing on our vacation. We bought a number of souvenirs, too.
as well / as well as As well goes at the end of the sentence (similarly to too). As well as must be followed by another word. • She’s not only extremely successful, she’s beautiful as well. • She’s beautiful as well as being extremely successful.
in addition / moreover / furthermore These linking words are usually used at the beginning of a sentence to add another idea or further develop the previous point. People who exercise regularly have more energy during the day and sleep better at night. In addition, they tend to live longer. Construction on the new subway has been delayed for months due to budget shortfalls. Moreover, the workers are threatening to go on strike. Our sales are expected to rise 30% in the next year. Furthermore, purchase of new equipment will help cut manufacturing costs and increase profits.
~ 12 ~
Note: In addition, moreover, and furthermore are more formal English. In informal spoken English, we usually use the expressions plus, what’s more, and besides.
Organizing and Ordering Information Firstly / Secondly When you are going to make a series of points, you can use firstly and secondly for the first and second points. After that, you can use “The third point,” ”The fourth point,” etc. or “in addition.”
Lastly / Finally For your final point, you can begin the sentence with lastly or finally. These words show your audience that you are almost finished.
the former / the latter You can use these words to refer back to two examples previously mentioned: Our company has two factories: one in Detroit and one in Atlanta. The former is operating at 95% capacity and the latter at 65%. In this case, “the former” = the factory in Detroit, and “the latter” = the factory in Atlanta.
Summarizing Information Here are some English phrases you can use to give a summary of the information you have already said or written. In general, these phrases go at the beginning of the sentence and are followed by a comma. • In short, • In summary, • To summarize, • In conclusion, • In a nutshell, (more informal)
~ 13 ~
Linking Words: Contrasting Ideas Image source: FreeDigitalPhotos.net
But / However But is more informal than however. You can use however at the beginning of a sentence, but you can’t use but at the beginning of a sentence (in written English). I tried to lift the box, but it was too heavy for me. I tried to lift the box. However, it was too heavy for me.
Although / Even though These linking words are the same, and they are both followed by a subject + verb. Although I exercise every day, I can’t seem to lose any weight. She still loves him, even though he treated her very badly.
Despite / In spite of These linking words are the same, and they are followed by a noun or a gerund (-ing form of the verb, which can function as a noun). Our plane arrived on time in spite of the delay during takeoff. We won the game despite having two fewer players.
Despite the fact that / in spite of the fact that These phrases are followed by a subject + verb. They arrived on time in spite of the fact that they left an hour late. We won the game despite the fact that we had two fewer players.
While / Whereas / Unlike These linking words are used to make contrasts. While and whereas are usually used between two complete phrases. Unlike is typically used with only a subject. I like tennis, while my brother prefers bowling. www.espressoenglish.net
~ 14 ~ This cell phone plan costs $0.05 per minute, whereas that one gives you up to 800 minutes per month for a fixed price. His boss allows him to work from home, unlike mine. She’s very friendly, unlike her sister.
Linking Words Quiz: Contrasting Ideas Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/linking-words-contrastingideas#quiz
Tips for Learning Irregular Verbs Did you know that about 70% of the time when we use a verb in English, it is an irregular one? That means that learning and using irregular verbs is essential for learning English! The English language has so many irregular verbs that it can make you go crazy… but even irregular verbs follow some patterns. In this lesson, you’ll learn “groups” of irregular verbs that can make it easier to memorize them. Don’t just study this list – try to create your own sentences and use all the verbs you know! This will help you remember them much better. Ready? Let’s go!
Verbs with all 3 forms identical Let’s begin with the easiest group of irregular verbs. These verbs are the same in the present, the past, and the past participle. They include: bet, burst, cast, cost, cut, fit,* hit, hurt, let, put, quit, set, shut, split, spread * When talking about clothes being the correct size
Verbs with identical Present and Past Participle www.espressoenglish.net
~ 15 ~ These verbs are the same in the present and the past participle. Only the simple past form is different: Present
Verbs with –N in the Past Participle These verbs are a little more complicated, as they have –n in the past participle form. There are a few different groups of verbs: With “o” in the past and past participle Present
~ 16 ~ With “o” in the past only Present
Past with -ew, past participle with -own Present
Other irregular verbs with past participle ending in –n Present
~ 17 ~ see
Verbs with vowel changes Long “e” changes to short “e” Present
“ea” is pronounced differently Present
~ 18 ~ Long “i” changes to “ou” Present
Short “i” changes to “u”
-ell changes to -old
-ought and –aught endings
~ 19 ~ catch
Verbs with 3 different vowels! Are you ready for a challenge? These irregular verbs have different vowels in each form. Fortunately, they do follow a pattern. Vowel changes from “i” to “a” to “u” Present
The REALLY Irregular Verbs Well, these are the completely irregular verbs – the ones that don’t fit into any of the categories above! They are also some of the most commonly used verbs in the English language, so make sure to memorize them in all their crazy irregular forms!
~ 20 ~ Present
was / were
Simple Past and Past Continuous When to use the Past Continuous To talk about things that were in progress in the past.
Past Continuous Positive To form the past continuous positive, use subject + was/were + verb + -ing
I / He / She / It
You / We / They
Examples: “What were you doing when I called you?” “I was studying.” She was playing guitar at the party. At 5:30 last night, we were driving home. They saw a starfish while they were walking on the beach.
~ 21 ~
Past Continuous Negative The past continuous negative is: subject + was not / were not + verb + -ing
I / He / She / It
was not (wasn’t)
You / We / They
were not (weren’t)
Examples: I wasn’t listening when the teacher gave the instructions. She wasn’t wearing jeans. She was wearing a dress. We weren’t driving very fast because the road was wet. They weren’t sleeping at 10 PM last night; they were watching a movie.
Past Continuous Questions To form past continuous questions, use: Was/Were + subject + verb + -ing
I / he / she / it
you / we / they
Examples: Were you sleeping when I called you? What was she thinking about last night? She looked worried. Was it raining when you left the bar? What music were they listening to?
~ 22 ~ Note: You can put a question word at the beginning: • Who were you talking to on the phone last night? I was talking to my cousin. • What was John doing at the library? He was looking for a book. • Why were they drinking champagne yesterday? Because it was their anniversary.
Be careful! Some verbs are never used in the continuous form: like, want, need, believe. I was needing to find a job. I needed to find a job. She was believing that he loved her. She believed that he loved her.
Simple Past and Past Continuous The past continuous is often used together with the simple past to show that one thing happened while another thing was in progress: I was talking on the phone when my sister arrived. He was drinking beer when he suddenly felt sick. She took a photo as we were getting out of the bus. We were waiting for the bus when we saw a car accident.
~ 23 ~ Simple Past and Past Continuous Exercises Click here to take the Quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/simple-past-and-pastcontinuous#quiz
Present Perfect + Ever / Never
“Have you ever taken dance classes?”
Use the present perfect + ever to ask questions about experiences in someone’s life. “Have you ever taken dance classes?” “Yes, I have. I took 6 weeks of lessons before my wedding!” “Has your brother ever been to India?” “No, he hasn’t.” “Have your friends ever helped you move to a new apartment?” “Yes – twice!” Don’t use “ever” in the answer. Only use it in questions. If you want, you can use before in the answer: • Yes, I’ve ever taken dance classes. • Yes, I’ve taken dance classes before. (or simply “Yes, I have.”)
~ 24 ~ Use the present perfect + never to talk about things you have NOT done at any time in your life. I’ve never failed a test. I’ve always gotten 80% or more. He’s never heard of Michael Jackson. I can’t believe he doesn’t know the King of Pop! Samantha has never been surfing. She’s afraid of the ocean. We’ve never studied Italian. We studied French and Spanish in school, but Italian wasn’t available. They’ve never told a lie. I know we can trust them. Conversation Tip: Many conversations begin with a question in the present perfect, and then continue with more specific questions about the experience in the simple past: • • • • • •
“Have you ever taken dance classes?” “Yes, I have. I took 6 weeks of lessons before my wedding last year.” “Wow! So did you dance well on the big day?” “No, I didn’t – I forgot everything I’d learned in the classes, and I stepped on my wife’s feet many times!” “Oh no! Was she angry?” “No – she said she still loved me!”
Present Perfect + Ever / Never Quiz Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/grammar-in-use-present-perfectevernever#quiz
~ 25 ~
Present Perfect + Yet / Already / Just The words already, yet, recently, lately, and just all refer to a recent and non-specific time. (A specific time would be “yesterday” or “three hours ago” or last Friday,” and in these cases we would use the simple past).
Already and yet Already can be used in positive statements and questions. • “I’ve already read today’s newspaper.” • “Have you already paid the electric bill?” • “She’s finished the test already.” Note: Already can go in between “have/has” and the past participle (as in the first two examples) or at the end of the sentence. Yet can be used in negative statements and questions. • “We haven’t cleaned the house yet.” • “Has he told you the good news yet?” • “Have they booked their tickets yet?” Note: Yet usually goes at the end of the sentence or phrase.
Recently, lately, and just Recently and lately can be used in positive statements, negative statements, or questions: Recently • “He’s recently lost some weight.” • “I haven’t seen her recently.” • “Have you spoken to Beth recently?”
Lately • “I’ve gotten a lot of spam e-mails lately.” • “Adam and Jessica haven’t been to church lately.” • “Have you seen any good movies lately?”
~ 26 ~ Just (usually means very recent) is typically only used in positive statements and questions: • “Don’t touch the walls. I’ve just painted them; they’re still wet.” • “What book have you just finished reading?” American English Spoken American English often uses the simple past with already, yet, and just: • • •
“Did you book the tickets yet?” (instead of “Have you booked…”) “I already replied to the e-mail.” (instead of “I’ve already replied…”) “We just got back from the gym.” (instead of “We’ve just got…”)
Quiz: Present Perfect with ever, never, already, recently, lately, and just Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/the-complete-guide-to-the-presentperfect-tense/#quizyet
~ 27 ~
Present Perfect + For / Since The present perfect is also used with for and since to talk about actions that began in the past and continue to the present. • “I’ve lived here since 2004.” • “I’ve lived here for 8 years.”
Since is used with a point in time, and means “from that point in time until the present.” Use since with dates (2011, January, Tuesday, etc.), times (6:15, noon, this morning, etc.), and past events (I was a child, he graduated from college, etc). Since is always used with the present perfect, and not the simple past: “I’ve gone to the beach every year since I was a child.” (repeated action that continues until today) “I went to the beach when I was a child.” (finished action at a specific time in the past; I don’t go to the beach nowadays) For is used with a time period, and means “for that period of time until the present.” Use for with times of any length (five seconds, eight hours, two days, six weeks, nine months, ten years, a decade, centuries, etc.) Be careful with for, because using the present perfect or the simple past can change the meaning: “We’ve lived in Berlin for 6 months.” (and we live in Berlin now) “We lived in Berlin for 6 months.” (and we don’t live in Berlin now)
Quiz: Present perfect with FOR and SINCE Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/the-complete-guide-to-the-present-perfecttense#quizforsince
~ 28 ~
Present Perfect Simple / Continuous How to form the Present Perfect Continuous: Positive and Negative Statements: SUBJECT
working here since 1992.
sleeping well lately.
Questions: QUESTION WORD AUXILIARY VERB SUBJECT
In some cases, either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous can be used, with the same meaning. We often do this with the verbs “work” and “live”: “I’ve worked here since 1992.” = “I’ve been working here since 1992.” However, we often use the present perfect continuous to emphasize the action, and the present perfect simple to emphasize the result: “I’ve been working on this report for three weeks.” (emphasizes the action of working) “I’ve finished the project.” (emphasizes that the project is done) “We’ve been cleaning the house all afternoon.” (emphasizes the action of cleaning)
~ 29 ~ “We’ve cleaned the bathroom and the kitchen.” (emphasizes the fact that the bathroom and kitchen are done)
Remember that “state” verbs are never used in continuous form: “I’ve been knowing my best friend since elementary school.” “I’ve known my best friend since elementary school.” “She’s been understanding everything in the advanced class so far.” “She’s understood everything in the advanced class so far.”
In spoken English, we often use the present perfect continuous to talk about ways you have spent your time recently: • • • •
“Hi, Joanna! What have you been up to lately?” “I’ve been training for a karate competition.” “Wow – good luck! And how is your son?” “He’s good. He’s been studying a lot lately because finals are coming up next week.”
Quiz: Present Perfect Continuous / Present Perfect Simple Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/the-complete-guide-to-the-present-perfecttense#quizcontinuous
~ 30 ~
Comparative Adjectives: Not as ______ as
“The white wine is not as expensive as the red wine.”
You know how to compare two things by using comparative adjectives: 1.
Add -ER (taller, older, faster)
Add -ER and double the final consonant (bigger, hotter, thinner)
Remove -Y and add -IER (easier, friendlier, prettier)
Add “more” or “less” to long words (more expensive, less popular, more interesting) Irregular comparatives (better, farther, worse)
There’s another structure that you can use:
not as (adjective) as Running is not as fast as biking. = Biking is faster than running. Canada is not as hot as Ecuador. = Ecuador is hotter than Canada. Helen is not as friendly as her husband. = Helen’s husband is friendlier than she is.
~ 31 ~ Movies are not as interesting as books. = Books are more interesting than movies. Playing video games is not as good as exercising. = Exercising is better than playing video games In this structure, we don’t use -ER or “more” with the adjective. • This shirt isn’t as prettier as that blouse. This shirt isn’t as pretty as that blouse. • Last week’s test wasn’t as worse as the previous one. Last week’s test wasn’t as bad as the previous one.
Comparative Adjectives Exercise: NOT AS _____ AS Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/comparative-adjectives-not-as-as#quiz
Comparative Adjectives: Quantifiers
“The dog is SLIGHTLY bigger than the cat. The elephant is MUCH bigger than the cat.”
~ 32 ~ Comparative adjectives are used to compare two things. Quantifiers show if the difference is big or small.
Quantifiers showing a big difference
Quantifiers showing a small difference
(informal) a great deal
a bit (informal)
a shade / a hair / a tad (informal)
considerably way (informal)
These quantifiers can be used both to show a “more” difference and a “less” difference: This car is a bit more expensive than this motorcycle. This motorcycle is a bit less expensive than this car. This house is way bigger than that apartment. That apartment is way smaller than this house. These quantifiers CANNOT be used with the not as _______ as structure: My brother is much not as old as me. My brother is much younger than me. Jill is a little not as tall as Kim. Jill is a little shorter than Kim.
~ 33 ~
Comparative or Superlative? Comparative: To compare 2 things.
The boy is taller than the girl. The girl is shorter than the boy. The boy is older than the girl. The girl has longer hair than the boy.
Superlative: To compare 3 or more things.
The brush on the left is the biggest. The brush on the right is the smallest.
Quiz: Comparative or Superlative? Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/comparative-or-superlative#quiz
~ 34 ~
So / Neither / Too
“I love strawberry ice cream.” – “Me too!”
Me Too / Me Neither The easiest way to agree in English is to say ”Me too” (to agree with a positive statement) or “Me neither” (to agree with a negative statement): “I love strawberry ice cream.” “Me too!” “I don’t go to the gym very often.” “Me neither.” A “negative statement” is any sentence that uses a negative auxiliary verb: • • • • • •
don’t / doesn’t / didn’t can’t haven’t / hasn’t / hadn’t won’t / wouldn’t isn’t / aren’t / am not never
You can say “Me too” or “Me neither” in response to statements in any tense (present, past, future, present continuous, present perfect, past perfect, etc.)
~ 35 ~ Examples: “I’ve been traveling a lot for work lately.” “Me too.” “I haven’t seen the new movie yet.” “Me neither.” “I’m going to the beach tomorrow.” “Me too!” “I can’t draw very well.” “Me neither.” The phrase “me either” is not technically correct, but many people say it in spoken English!
So do I / Neither do I You can say “So do I” and “Neither do I” to respond to simple present sentences. “I always sleep late on Saturday.” “So do I.” “I don’t think that’s a good idea.” “Neither do I.”
So am I / Neither am I You can say “So am I” and “Neither am I” to respond to simple present sentences with the verb “BE” or present continuous sentences. “I’m from Moscow.” “So am I!”
~ 36 ~ “I’m not very outgoing.” “Neither am I.” “I’m studying for the test next week.” “So am I.”
So did I / Neither did I You can say “So did I” and “Neither did I” to respond to simple past sentences. “I studied chemistry in college.” “So did I.” “I didn’t like broccoli when I was a kid.” “Neither did I.”
So was I / Neither was I You can say “So was I” and “Neither was I” to respond to simple past sentences with the verb BE or past continuous sentences. “I was very athletic when I was in high school.” “So was I.” “I wasn’t happy about the new company policy.” “Neither was I.”
So have I / Neither have I You can say “So have I” and “Neither have I” to respond to present perfect sentences and present perfect continuous sentences. “I’ve been married for over 20 years.” “So have I.”
~ 37 ~ “I haven’t had much free time this week.” “Neither have I.” “I’ve been thinking about learning a new language.” “So have I.” “I haven’t been feeling well lately.” “Neither have I.”
So can I / Neither can I You can say “So can I” and “Neither can I” to respond to sentences with “can” and “can’t.” “I can run a mile in six minutes.” “So can I.” “I can’t sing very well.” “Neither can I.”
So will I / Neither will I You can say “So will I” and “Neither will I” to respond to sentences with “will” and “won’t.” “I’ll be in the office until 8 PM today.” “So will I.” “I won’t be able to go on the trip.” “Neither will I.”
So would I / Neither would I You can say “So would I” and “Neither would I” to respond to sentences with “would” and “wouldn’t.”
~ 38 ~ “I’d like to learn how to cook.” “So would I.” “I wouldn’t recommend that restaurant.” “Neither would I.” The General Rule As you can see from the examples, the general rule for “So… I” and “Neither… I” is that the verb matches the verb tense used in the original sentence. Try the quiz below to test your understanding!
So / Neither / Too Quiz Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/so-neither-too-how-to-agree-inenglish#quiz
Verbs + Infinitive or –ING Verbs + Infinitive Here are some common verbs in English that are followed by the infinitive: decide She decided to study biology, not physics. help Can you help me to carry these boxes? It’s very common to remove the word “to”: Can you help me carry these boxes? hope We hope to hear from you soon. I hope it doesn’t rain this weekend.
~ 39 ~ learn She’s learning to swim. It’s very common to add the word “how” if you are learning a new skill: I’m learning how to cook. need I need to go to the supermarket. We don’t have any eggs. offer My friend offered to take me to the airport. plan We’re planning to have a big party when our son graduates from college. pretend He pretended to be sick so that he didn’t have to take the test. promise He promised to call me back as soon as possible. try I’m trying to read this book, but it’s too difficult. want I want to learn English so that I can study in the U.S. would like I’d like to travel to France someday.
Special Case #1: REMEMBER / FORGET We use remember + infinitive and forget + infinitive to talk about the future, to give a reminder: • Remember to bring your dictionary tomorrow! • Don’t forget to pay the rent next week.
~ 40 ~
Verbs + -ING Here are some common verbs in English that are followed by -ing. avoid You should avoid eating after 10 PM. enjoy I enjoy skiing, surfing, and playing tennis. finish Have you finished reading the newspaper yet? can’t stand I can’t stand going to parties where I don’t know anyone. don’t mind I don’t mind working overtime. look forward to I look forward to seeing you next week. practice I need to practice speaking English more often. spend (time) My roommate spends hours watching TV. stop He stopped smoking ten years ago. suggest I suggest taking some time off.
~ 41 ~ Special Case #1: REMEMBER / FORGET We use remember + -ing and forget + -ing to talk about the past, to talk about a memory: • I remember having dinner with my grandparents every Sunday when I was a child. • I’ll never forget eating lobster for the first time – it was delicious!
Special Case #2: START / LIKE / LOVE / HATE Start, like, love, and hate can be used with the infinitive or -ing. Both are correct! The baby started to cry. = The baby started crying. I like to run. = I like running. I hate doing laundry. (this form is probably more common) = I hate to do laundry. We love reading. = We love to read.
Verbs + Infinitive or -ING Quiz Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/verbs-infinitive-or-ing#quiz
~ 42 ~
Permission, Obligation, Prohibition Permission = It’s OK
“You can smoke here.”
English words used for permission: can allowed may permitted What’s the difference? The word “to” is used after allowed and permitted, but not after can or may. You’re allowed to smoke in here. You can to smoke in here. You can smoke in here. Can is more informal, may and permitted are more formal, and allowed is both formal and informal.
~ 43 ~
For the past and future of “can,” you can use could / was allowed to (in the past) and will be allowed to (in the future): • When I was a kid, I was allowed to stay up until 11 PM on Friday nights. • We‘ll be allowed to check two suitcases on the flight.
Obligation = It’s necessary
“You have to show your photo ID.”
English words used for obligation: have to need to must required
What’s the difference? Must and required are more formal than have to and need to. Don’t use “to” after “must.”
~ 44 ~
Supposed to / Not supposed to You can use these words for “light” requirements and prohibitions – for example, rules that are often not followed. • We’re supposed to arrive on time, but it’s OK if we’re a little late. Our boss is pretty relaxed. •
The employees aren’t supposed to eat lunch at their desks, but a lot of them do so anyway.
Prohibition = It’s not OK
“You’re not allowed to swim here.”
English words used for prohibition: can’t mustn’t not allowed not permitted Can’t is more informal, mustn’t and not permitted are more formal, and not allowed is both formal and informal. Don’t use “to” after “mustn’t.”
~ 45 ~
Pronunciation: The first “t” in “mustn’t” is silent!
No obligation = It’s not necessary
“You don’t need to wear shoes here.”
English words used for no obligation: don’t have to don’t need to not necessary not required optional What’s the difference? Don’t have to and don’t need to are more informal. Not necessary, not required, and optional are more formal.
~ 46 ~
Prepositions of Time Image source: FreeDigitalPhotos.net
after / later Use after + phrase, and use later alone (at the end of a sentence or phrase). I’ll call you later. I’ll call you after I get home from work. First he bought a new car. Two weeks later, he bought a new motorcycle. He bought a new motorcycle two weeks after he bought a car. You can say “later + time period” to refer to an unspecified time in the future, for example: I’ll finish the project later this week. We’ll go on vacation later this year. Never end a sentence with “after.” Instead, you can use “afterwards” • “Did you go straight home after the baseball game?” • “No, we went out for drinks after.” • “No, we went out for drinks afterwards.”
ago / before www.espressoenglish.net
~ 47 ~ Use ago to talk about past times in reference to the current moment. Use before to talk about past times in reference to another moment in the past.
by / until Use by for one specific event that will happen before a certain time in the future. Use until for a continuous event that will continue and then stop at a certain time in the future. Please send me the information by Monday. He’s staying in London until the 30th.
~ 48 ~
during / while Both during and while mean that something happens at the same time as something else. Use during + noun. She cried during the movie. Use while + subject + verb, or while + gerund. She cried while she was watching the movie. She cried while watching the movie.
from… to / till / until We use from + to / till / until to define the beginning and end of a time period. The museum is open from 8 AM to 4 PM. Jack will be on vacation from tomorrow until next Friday. I studied English from 2001 till 2004.
~ 49 ~
on / in / at Use in for centuries, decades, years, seasons, and months: • In the 18th century • In the 1960s • In 2001 • In the summer • In October Use on for days: • On Friday • On March 15th • On my birthday • On the weekend Use at for times: • At 3:30. • At noon. • At quarter past four. Be careful with morning, afternoon, evening, and night! • In the morning • In the afternoon • In the evening • At night
past / to We can use these prepositions with minutes in relation to the hour: • 3:50 = Ten to four • 6:15 = Quarter past six
for / since www.espressoenglish.net
~ 50 ~ For is used for a period of time, and since is used to reference a specific point in time. I’ve been waiting for three hours. I’ve been waiting since ten o’clock. We’ve lived here for four years. We’ve lived here since 2008. She’s been working there for six months. She’s been working there since she graduated from college.
as soon as / as long as As soon as means “immediately after another event.” We’ll call you as soon as we arrive. (if we arrive at 8:00, we’ll call you at 8:05) As long as means “for the period of time” or “on the condition that”: I stayed awake for as long as I could. (period of time) I’ll take the job as long as I have the freedom to work from home a few days a week. (condition)
Prepositions Quiz: Prepositions of Time Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/prepositions-of-time-in-english#quiz
~ 51 ~
Prepositions of Place above / on top of / on Use above when the two objects are not touching. Use on or on top of when the two objects are touching. The pictures are above the couch. The pillows are on the couch.
Difference between “on” and “on top of” Generally, we use “on” when it is a normal place to put something: •
The keys are on the table.
And we use “on top of” when it is an unusual place to put something: •
The keys are on top of the refrigerator.
~ 52 ~
under / below / underneath / beneath Use under when one object is covered by another. Use below when one object is in a lower position than the other.
Underneath and beneath are more formal words for “under” and “below.”
behind / in front of Use behind when object A is farther away from you than object B, and in front of when object A is closer to you than object B. In the first picture, the mouse is in front of the box. In the second picture, the mouse is behind the box.
~ 53 ~
What about “in back of”? Some people say “in back of” for “behind.” Note that it’s always “in back of” and never “back of:” We can also say “in the back of” to describe the back part of a space: • Jonas and Gabriel like to sit in the back of the classroom so that the teacher can’t see them.
between / beside / next to Beside and next to are the same, but beside is a little more formal. In everyday English we usually say “next to.” Between means that the object is in the middle of two other objects.
near / close to / by These words all mean the same thing – that the distance between the two objects is small. Be careful not to confuse them. “Close to” is the only one that uses the word “to.” The The The The
ball ball ball ball
is is is is
near to the box. close to the box. near the box. by the box.
Nearby is used without a direct object. It
~ 54 ~ is generally used at the end of a sentence or phrase. The ball is nearby the box. There’s a box with a ball nearby.
in / inside / within / into In and inside mean the same thing in most cases: The mouse is in the box. = The mouse is inside the box.
The word “into” is actually a preposition of movement, not location. It means something is moving into a space:
The word “within” means “inside a limit.” The limit can be in place, time, or some other scale. There are five malls within ten miles of here. (limit of place) She’s written three books within the last year. (limit of time) www.espressoenglish.net
~ 55 ~ The law didn’t pass because of disagreements within the government. (limit of area / class of people)
out / outside / out of Outside refers to location. In this case, we cannot use “out.” The dog is outside the doghouse. The dog is out the doghouse.
Out and out of usually suggest movement, not just location. “Out of” must always be followed by a noun. She ran out of the room. I’m bored. Let’s go out.
~ 56 ~
Prepositions of Movement across / through Across is going from one side of an area, surface, or line to the other side.
I drew a line ACROSS the paper.
Through is movement from one side of an enclosed space to the other side.
The baseball went THROUGH the window.
~ 57 ~ Sometimes, either ACROSS or THROUGH can be used for areas: • • • •
We walked across the park. = We walked through the park. They drove across the city. = They drove through the city.
along / around Along is to follow a line. Around is to go in a circular direction around some obstacle.
into / out of Into is to go from outside a space to inside a space. Out of is to go from inside a space to outside a space.
~ 58 ~
The cat went into the box.
The cat jumped out of the box.
onto / off Onto and off refer to surfaces, differently from into / out of (which refer to enclosed spaces): The dog jumped onto the table. The dog jumped into the table. I took the picture off the wall. I took the picture out of the wall.
~ 59 ~
up / down
Going up the stairs / Going down the stairs In addition to physical movement, go up and go down can also be used for “increase” and “decrease.” • The price of food has gone up in the past two years. • The number of children per family has gone down.
over / under To go over is to pass above something. To go under is to pass below something.
~ 60 ~
towards / away from If you go towards something, you get closer to it. If you go away from something, you get farther away from it.
The dog is running towards me.
The boy is running away from me.
~ 61 ~
back to “Back to” is movement of return to a place you have been before: He went to Italy. (maybe for the first time) He went back to Italy. (it is the second time, or he is originally from Italy) He went back Italy. (this form is incorrect)
What is a Relative Clause? A relative clause is a phrase that adds information to a sentence. All relative clauses describe a noun, and they begin with one of these relative pronouns or relative adverbs.
~ 62 ~ Relative Pronouns who (to describe people – subject) The woman who works in the bank is my neighbor. whom (to describe people – object) My cousins, one of whom is a doctor, live in England. whose (to describe possession) The man whose car was stolen went to the police station. that (to describe things – defining relative clauses) I’m selling the computer that I bought in the U.S. which (to describe things – non-defining relative clauses) I’m selling this computer, which has a 250-GB hard drive, for $500. Relative Adverbs when (to describe times) My favorite season is fall, when all the leaves change color. where (to describe places) I visited the neighborhood where I grew up why (to give a reason) Do you know the reason why the stores are closed today?
~ 63 ~
Relative Clauses = Better Sentences in English Here is an example of some English sentences without relative clauses: Yesterday I met a man. He works in the circus. I bought a cell phone. It has internet access. There’s the restaurant. I ate at that restaurant last night. These sentences are correct, but they are very short and simple. You can use relative clauses to make your sentences in English sound more fluent and natural: Yesterday I met a man who works in the circus. I bought a cell phone that has internet access. There’s the restaurant where I ate last night.
Defining and Non-Defining Relative Clauses Non-defining relative clauses add EXTRA information to the sentence. Defining relative clauses add ESSENTIAL information to the sentence. You can see if a relative clause is defining or non-defining by removing it from the sentence. If you remove a non-defining relative clause, the sentence still has the same meaning. If you remove a defining relative clause, the sentence has a different meaning or is incomplete.
Example of a sentence with a NON-DEFINING relative clause: My brother, who lives in California, is an engineer. If you remove “who lives in California,” the sentence still has the same meaning: My brother is an engineer. The relative clause “who lives in California” is extra information.
~ 64 ~
Example of a sentence with a DEFINING relative clause: That’s the student who failed English class three times. If you remove “who failed English class three times,” the sentence is incomplete: That’s the student. Therefore, the relative clause “who failed English class three times” is essential information, because it defines which student, specifically, we are talking about. Always use a comma before and after non-defining relative clauses.
Which or That? Use which for non-defining relative clauses, and use a comma before it. Use that for defining relative clauses, and don’t use a comma before it. • The bananas that I bought on Monday are rotten. • The bananas, which I bought on Monday, are rotten. In the first case, it’s possible that we have two types of bananas in the house: • Older bananas that I bought on Monday • Newer bananas that I bought on Wednesday …and that only the first bananas are rotten, but the second bananas are not. In the second case, all the bananas in the house were bought on Monday, and they are ALL rotten. Again, to decide if a clause is defining or non-defining, try removing it from the sentence: I read all the books that I borrowed from the library. Without clause: I read all the books. (sentence is incomplete – WHAT books?)
~ 65 ~ The new Stephen King book, which I borrowed from the library, is very good. Without clause: The new Stephen King book is very good. (sentence is complete. The “library” part was only an extra detail)
Relative Clauses Quiz Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/relative-clauses-exercises#quiz
Word Order: Asking Questions Forming questions in English can be confusing. Don’t worry – I’m going to teach you a simple formula that works for asking questions in almost ALL the verb tenses! This formula is called QUASM: QU estion word A uxiliary verb S ubject M ain verb Look how QUASM works for forming questions in these verb tenses:
~ 66 ~
Simple Present Questions: QUESTION
about the project?
apartment? How many
Simple Past Questions: QUESTION
English so fast?
about your idea?
Present Continuous Questions: www.espressoenglish.net
~ 67 ~ QUESTION
at the moment?
Past Continuous Questions: QUESTION
to on the phone?
when you called?
Present Perfect Questions: www.espressoenglish.net
after the surgery?
~ 68 ~ QUESTION
on clothes this
at this school?
for their order?
Future Questions: QUESTION
to the party?
about your plan?
to clean your room?
to quit her job?
~ 69 ~ QUESTION
SUBJECT MAIN VERB
if you had a million dollars?
on my next vacation?
Exceptions: Yes/No questions do not use a question word… …but they still follow ASM (Auxiliary verb – Subject – Main verb) •
Do you like bananas?
Did you enjoy the movie?
Are you studying English?
Were you sleeping when I called you last night?
Have you finished your homework?
Will you call me when you get home?
Are you going to accept the job offer?
Should we take the early morning flight?
~ 70 ~
Questions with the main verb “be” also don’t follow the pattern: • Are you thirsty? • Is she a teacher? • Were your parents angry when you failed the test? • Was her ex-boyfriend a basketball player?
Quiz: Asking Questions in English Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/an-easy-way-to-form-almost-anyquestion-in-english#quiz
Direct and Indirect Questions What are Indirect Questions? Direct questions are the “normal” questions that we can ask to friends, family members, and people who we know well. You can form direct questions using the QUASM model that we learned last lesson. Example of a direct question: “Where’s the bathroom?” Indirect questions are a little more formal and polite. We use them when talking to a person we don’t know very well, or in professional situations, and their form is a little different. Example of an indirect question: “Could you tell me where the bathroom is?”
~ 71 ~
Phrases for Indirect Questions Could you tell me… Do you know… I was wondering… Do you have any idea… I’d like to know… Would it be possible… Is there any chance…
Direct and Indirect Questions in English: Examples Direct: Where is Market Street? Indirect: Could you tell me where Market Street is? In indirect questions with is/are, the verb (is) comes after the subject (Market Street).
Direct: What time does the bank open? Indirect: Do you know what time the bank opens? In indirect questions, we don’t use the auxiliary verbs do/does/did. Also, you can see that the verb is “open” in the direct question, and “opens” in the indirect question.
Direct: Why did you move to Europe? Indirect: I was wondering why you moved to Europe. Again, there is no auxiliary verb did in the indirect question. In fact, this indirect question isn’t even a question – it’s more of a statement that invites the other person to give more information.
Direct: How has he managed to get in shape so quickly? Indirect: Do you have any idea how he’s managed to get in shape so quickly? www.espressoenglish.net
~ 72 ~ The auxiliary verbs have and has can be used in both the direct and indirect questions – but in the direct question, “has” comes before the subject (he), and in the indirect question, “has” comes after the subject.
Direct: How much does this motorcycle cost? Indirect: I’d like to know how much this motorcycle costs. To form the indirect question, remove does and change “cost” to “costs.”
Direct: Can you finish the project by tomorrow? Indirect: Would it be possible for you to finish the project by tomorrow? For direct questions with can, we can use the phrase “would it be possible…” to make it indirect.
Direct: Can we change the meeting to Thursday? Indirect: Is there any chance we could change the meeting to Thursday? “Is there any chance…” is another option for forming indirect questions with can.
Yes/No Direct Questions –> “If” in Indirect Questions If the direct question is a “yes or no” question (it has no question word such as what, who, when, where, why, or how), then the indirect question will have if. Direct: Does Tom like Italian food? Indirect: Do you know if Tom likes Italian food? Direct: Are your parents joining us for dinner? Indirect: Could you tell me if your parents are joining us for dinner? Direct: Do they speak English? Indirect: I was wondering if they speak English. www.espressoenglish.net
~ 73 ~ Direct: Has Barbara ever studied abroad? Indirect: Do you have any idea if Barbara’s ever studied abroad? Direct: Do you plan on traveling this summer? Indirect: I’d like to know if you plan on traveling this summer.
Two Forms of “Used to”
Many English learners confuse the two forms of used to. Read this lesson and take the quiz to test your understanding!
used to = accustomed to The first meaning of used to is “accustomed to” – when something was strange or different for you in the past, but now you think it’s normal: When I first moved to Korea, I didn’t like the food – but now I’m used to it. We‘re used to waking up early – we do it every day. My 4-year-old son cried on the first day of school; he wasn’t used to being away from his mother the whole day. It took me a long time to get used to driving on the right side of the road after I moved from New York to London. So, you’ve lived in Finland for 5 years – are you used to the cold weather yet? www.espressoenglish.net
~ 74 ~ Before this form of used to, we use the verbs BE and GET – “be” to describe the state of being accustomed to something, and “get” to describe the process of becoming accustomed to something. After this form of used to, we use a noun or the -ing form.
used to / didn’t use to = something you did repeatedly in the past, but not now The second meaning of used to is to describe actions you did repeatedly in the past, but that you don’t do now: When I was a child, I used to go to the beach with my grandparents. He used to play tennis, but he stopped a few years ago. She didn’t use to like vegetables, but now she eats them frequently. They didn’t use to come to church, but now they’re among the most dedicated members. Did you use to drink a lot in your college years? After this form of used to, we use the infinitive of the verb.
Quiz: Two forms of USED TO Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/two-forms-of-used-to#quiz
Too and Enough TOO too + adjective
This shirt is too expensive. It costs $30 and I only have $25.
too much + uncountable noun
I drank too much water; now I really need to go to the bathroom!
~ 75 ~ too many + countable noun
She put too many eggs into the cake. The recipe said 3 and she used 5.
verb + too much
He complains too much. He has such a negative attitude.
ENOUGH enough + noun (countable or uncountable)
We don’t have enough people for a soccer team. We have 8 people and a team needs at least 11. Sorry kid, you’re not old enough to buy
adjective + enough
alcohol. You’re 19 and the minimum age is 21. I don’t exercise enough. I need to go to the
verb + enough
gym more than once a month.
Too / Enough Quiz Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/difference-between-too-andenough#quiz
Some / Any / No Some or Any? Use SOME in positive statements. I’ve read some good books lately. Use “some” with uncountable nouns and with plural countable nouns.
~ 76 ~ With singular countable nouns, just use a/an: I’ve read a good book lately.
Use ANY in negative statements (with don’t, didn’t, haven’t, etc) I haven’t read any good books lately. Use “any” with uncountable nouns and with plural countable nouns. With singular countable nouns, just use a/an: I don’t have any pencils. (pencils = plural countable noun) I don’t have any paper. (paper = uncountable noun) I don’t have any dictionary. I don’t have a dictionary. (dictionary = singular countable noun) Use ANY in questions: Have you read any good books lately? Exception: Always use SOME when offering something (would you like…?) or asking for something (can I have…?) • Can I have some soda? • Would you like some chicken?
Any or No? In sentences that begin with ”There,” you can say them two different ways:
~ 77 ~ There aren’t any books on the table. = There are no books on the table. There isn’t any milk in the fridge. = There‘s no milk in the fridge. There wasn’t any music at the party. = There was no music at the party. There weren’t any cookies in the box. = There were no cookies in the box. Both forms are correct!
Double Negatives Never use “not” and “no” together: • There aren’t no books on the table. • There isn’t no milk in the fridge. • There wasn’t no music at the party. • There weren’t no cookies in the box.
Something / Anything / Nothing The same rules apply to something, anything, and nothing: I want to try something new this year. (positive sentence) I didn’t eat anything at the restaurant. (negative sentence)
~ 78 ~ Are you doing anything interesting this weekend? ( question) There’s nothing to do in this town.
Someone / Anyone / No one Somebody / Anybody / Nobody Someone and somebody are the same, as are anyone and anybody and no one and nobody. Someone forgot to turn the lights off before leaving. (positive sentence) I don’t know anyone who works from home. (negative sentence) Did you meet anyone new at the conference? (question) Nobody likes the new teacher.
Somewhere / Anywhere / Nowhere Let’s go somewhere warm on our next vacation. (positive sentence) I can’t find my keys anywhere! (negative sentence) Did you go anywhere else before coming home? (question) The waiting room was so crowded that there was nowhere to sit.
~ 79 ~ Quiz: Some / Any / No Exercises Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/some-any-no-exercises#quiz
Subject-Verb Agreement Subject-verb agreement is one of the first things you learn: • “My friend is Japanese.” (singular) • “My friends are Japanese.” (plural) In this English lesson, you’re going to learn a few more advanced cases of subject-verb agreement that confuse many learners.
everybody / anybody / somebody / nobody everyone / anyone / someone / no one These subjects are all singular! “Everyone have problems.” “Everyone has problems.” “I don’t know if anybody is in the office right now.” “How do you react if someone gives you a compliment?” “Nobody likes the new English teacher.”
club / team / family / army These subjects are also singular, even though they are talking about a group of people. “My family is visiting me for the holidays.” “The basketball team has a new coach.”
~ 80 ~ Note: In British English “family” and “team” are often plural.
police Usually, “police” is plural: “The police are investigating the murder.” “Police have arrested three suspects.” To talk about an individual member of the police, we can say policeman or policewoman - or the gender-neutral term police officer.
people / children / men / women / mice / feet These words are irregular plural nouns (nouns that are not formed by adding -s) and they take the plural form of the verb: “Our children are very well-behaved.” “The people like the new president.” “Men don’t usually enjoy shopping for clothes.” “My feet are cold.”
both of / a few of / many / several These words always take the plural form of the verb: “Both of my brothers are older than me.” “A few of these products have defects.” “Many of the houses in this neighborhood don’t have garages.” “Several of the students aren’t going to pass.”
half of / a third of / 40% of / some / most These words can be singular OR plural depending on what follows them! “Half of the students are from another country.” “Half of the class is from another country.”
~ 81 ~ “Some of these facts are incorrect.” “Some of this information is incorrect.” “40% of the people don’t support the new law.” “40% of the country doesn’t support the new law.”
Is “data” singular or plural? There is a debate about the word “data”! Technically, data is plural (the singular form is “datum”). However, in common usage, people often treat “data” like “information” – as an uncountable noun, which takes the singular form. So both forms are correct: “The data is accurate” and “The data are accurate.” You can read more about the “data debate” here and here. Quiz: Advanced Subject-Verb Agreement Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/advanced-subject-verb-agreementexercises#quiz
Use the First Conditional to talk about future possibilities: • If it’s sunny tomorrow, I’ll go to the beach. www.espressoenglish.net
~ 82 ~ • If it rains tomorrow, I’ll stay home. There are two parts to a first conditional sentence: the condition and the result.
If you study this weekend,
you’ll pass the test on Monday.
If you don’t study,
If John goes on a trip next month,
he won’t have time to finish the project.
If we don’t save money this year,
we won’t be able to buy Christmas presents.
It is possible to reverse the condition and the result: • If you don’t study, you’ll fail. = You’ll fail if you don’t study.
How to form the first conditional: CONDITION: if + subject + present simple RESULT: subject + future (will/won’t, going to)
It is possible to use other words instead of if in first conditional sentences:
WHY USE IT?
When the “condition” will
When I die, I’ll leave all my money to
To emphasize immediacy
This situation is very urgent. I’ll call you as
As soon as
~ 83 ~ soon as I have more information. Unless
In place of “if not”
You’ll fail the test unless you study. = You’ll fail the test if you don’t study.
Let’s study each case separately.
When: When the “condition” will definitely happen in the future. Look at the difference between these two sentences: If I see Sam, I’ll give him your message. (I’m not sure if I will see him or not) When I see Sam, I’ll give him your message. (I will definitely see Sam)
As soon as: To emphasize immediacy. My feet hurt! As soon as I get home, I’m going to take off these shoes. As soon as we have enough money saved, we’ll take a vacation to Costa Rica. We can’t wait! I’ll respond to your e-mail as soon as I can.
Unless: Substitute for “if not.” You won’t lose any weight unless you start eating healthier food. = You won’t lose any weight if you don’t start eating healthier food. I’m not going to dance unless somebody invites me. = I’m not going to dance if somebody doesn’t invite me. Unless there’s an emergency at work, I’ll be home on time. = If there’s not an emergency at work, I’ll be home on time. First Conditional Quiz Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/first-conditional#quiz
~ 84 ~
Second Conditional Use the Second Conditional to talk about impossible, imaginary, or unlikely situations: If I were an animal, I’d be a tiger. (impossible) What would you do if you had a billion dollars? (imaginary) If Americans ate less fast food, they’d be healthier. (unlikely) There are two parts to a second conditional sentence: the condition and the result:
If he exercised more,
he’d be thinner.
If I were taller,
I could be a professional basketball player.
If the teacher spoke more slowly,
we’d understand her better.
If your company went bankrupt,
what would you do?
It is possible to reverse the condition and the result: • If he exercised more, he’d be thinner. = He’d be thinner if he exercised more.
How to form the second conditional: CONDITION: if + subject + past simple RESULT: subject + would/might/could + verb
~ 85 ~ With would, it’s common to use the contractions: I’d, you’d, he’d, she’d, we’d, they’d What’s the difference between would, might, and could? would – the result is more definite or certain If Peter asked Karen to marry him, she would say yes. (In this case, we know that Karen loves Peter very much) might - the result may or may not happen If Peter asked Karen to marry him, she might say yes… but she might say no. (In this case, we aren’t sure if Karen loves Peter or not) could - to talk about possible results If I had a million dollars, I could do anything! I could buy a new car every month, I could have my own helicopter, I could live in a mansion, I could eat expensive gourmet food, I could quit my job… (“could” emphasizes the opening of possibilities)
Second Conditional Quiz Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/second-conditional#quiz
Should / Could / Would The difference between should, could, and would is difficult for many English learners – this lesson will help you understand when to use each one!
~ 86 ~
Use SHOULD and SHOULDN’T for advice Here are some examples of using should and shouldn’t to ask for and give advice and suggestions: “I’ve had a really bad headache for the past week.” “That’s not good – you should go to the doctor.” “I want to make more friends, but I don’t know how.” “First of all, you shouldn’t spend so much time on the computer. You should go out and join a club or start playing a sport instead!” “I had a fight with my best friend. What should I do?” “Hmm… I think you should call her and tell her you’re sorry.”
Use COULD and COULDN’T for ability in the past Could and couldn’t are the past forms of can and can’t: When I was younger, I could run a mile in 7 minutes. Now it takes me 20 minutes! Yesterday, I couldn’t find my wallet anywhere – but this morning I found it. Last year, he couldn’t speak English very well, but now he can.
Use COULD for possibilities in the future Here’s an example of could to talk about future possibilities: “Do you have any ideas for our publicity campaign?” “Yes, I’ve got a few ideas. I could put advertisements on Facebook and Google. We could also give out pamphlets in our neighborhood. Maybe John could even contact local TV stations.”
Use COULD to make polite requests Could you please open the window? It’s hot in here. Could you turn the music down? Thanks. Could you make 10 copies of this report, please?
~ 87 ~
Use WOULD to talk about unreal or unlikely situations If I were the president of my company, I would make a lot of changes. If people were more generous, there wouldn’t be so much poverty in the world today. She would travel around the world if she had more vacation time. Note: In this case, would is often shortened to ‘d If I were the president of my company, I’d make a lot of changes.
Use WOULD YOU LIKE to make polite offers Here are some examples of using would you like…? to make polite offers: “Would you like anything to drink?” “A soda would be great. Thanks!” “Would you like to join us for dinner?” “I’d love to, but I actually have other plans tonight.” “Would you like to see some pictures from my vacation?” “Sure!” Don’t use “to” after should, could, and would: • You shouldn’t to smoke. You shouldn’t smoke. • We could to order pizza tonight. We could order pizza tonight. • I would to buy a new car if I had the money. I would buy a new car if I had the money.
Quiz - Difference between Should, Could, and Would Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/difference-between-should-could-andwould/#quiz
~ 88 ~
Past Perfect The past perfect is “the past before the past.” You can use it to talk about an event that happened before another event in the past. The past perfect is formed with:
had + past participle I had studied English for several years before I traveled to the U.S. I hadn’t studied English before I traveled to the U.S. Had you studied English before you traveled to the U.S.?
Past Perfect Example 1 Imagine you are late for work on the day of an important meeting. 1.
The meeting started at 8:00
You arrived at 8:15
You can use the past perfect to say: “The meeting had already started by the time I arrived.”
~ 89 ~
Past Perfect Example 2 Imagine that there is a husband and wife who got divorced last year. Before the divorce, they were married for 3 years: 1. They were married from 2008-2011. 2.
They got divorced in 2011.
You can use the past perfect to say: “They had been married for 3 years when they divorced.”
It’s common to use the short form ‘d: They’d been married 3 years when they divorced. When I checked my cell phone, I saw that she’d called me twice. By the end of the day, I’d written two hundred e-mails.
“Had had”? With the past perfect, it’s possible to have the structure “had had” and “hadn’t had” in a sentence, when “had” is both the auxiliary verb and the main verb. In these cases, it’s very common to use the short form: ‘d had. I had had five different jobs by the time I was 30 years old. I‘d had five different jobs by the time I was 30 years old. www.espressoenglish.net
~ 90 ~ When I saw him, I could tell that he had had too much to drink. When I saw him, I could tell that he‘d had too much to drink. I told my boss that I hadn’t had enough time to finish the project. We had never had an argument until last week.
Signal Words for the Past Perfect In general, these words (only when used about a situation in the past) signal the use of the past perfect in the sentence: By the time I‘d finished all the work by the time you called. When When we arrived at the airport, our flight had already left. Before Before we sold our car, we had owned it for 12 years. Until He‘d never met a native English speaker until he visited London. Said She said that she‘d lost her wallet. Note: The simple past and the past perfect are often in the same sentence, but not necessarily. It’s possible for the first sentence to establish the “context” of the past, and for following sentences to be in the past perfect: I first met John in 2001. He had been looking for work for the past two years. Although he had gone for interviews in several big companies, nobody had hired him.
~ 91 ~ Quiz: Past Perfect Exercises Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/past-perfect-english-grammar#quiz
Present Perfect or Past Perfect? Both present perfect and past perfect talk about something that happened before a point in time (reference point). In the present perfect, our reference point is the present. In the past perfect, our reference point is in the past.
Present perfect An action that started in the past and continues to the present. I have lived in this city for six months. An action that happened before now (unspecified time) I have been to Japan twice. How to form the present perfect: HAVE / HAS + past participle Examples of the present perfect: My mother has just gone to the store. Janet has lived abroad for five years. I haven’t seen the new movie yet. Have you finished your homework?
~ 92 ~ It’s very common to use the contractions ‘ve and ‘s in the present perfect: • • •
I’ve been to Japan three times. My mother’s just gone to the store. Janet’s lived abroad for five years.
Past perfect An action that happened before a time in the past: “When I arrived at the office this morning, I discovered that I had left my computer on the night before.” How to form the past perfect: HAD + past participle Examples of the past perfect: 1.
I went to Japan in 1988 and 1991.
I turned 10 years old in 1994.
I had been to Japan twice by the time I was 10 years old. 1.
My husband ate breakfast at 6:00 AM
I woke up at 7:00 AM
When I woke up this morning, my husband had already eaten breakfast. It’s very common to use the contraction ‘d in the past perfect: I’d traveled to five different countries by the time I was 20 years old. Present Perfect vs. Past Perfect Quiz Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/difference-between-present-perfectand-past-perfect-in-english/#quiz
~ 93 ~
Passive Voice: Present / Past Passive Voice: Definition In the active voice, the subject of the sentence DOES the action: John painted the house last week. Subject / verb / object In the passive voice, the subject of the sentence RECEIVES the action. The house was painted last week. Subject / verb Notice that the object of the active sentence (house) became the subject of the passive sentence.
Passive Voice: Use The passive voice is used when: 1. We do not know who did the action Example: The documents were stolen. (we don’t know who stole the documents) 2. The receiver of the action is more important Example: The pyramids were built nearly 5,000 years ago by the ancient Egyptians. (we want to emphasize “pyramids” more than “ancient Egyptians”)
Passive Voice: Form To change an active voice sentence to a passive voice sentence: 1. Make the object of the active sentence into the subject of the passive sentence. 2. Use the verb “to be” in the same tense as the main verb of the active sentence. 3. Use the past participle of the main verb of the active sentence. Here are some active and passive voice examples to help! www.espressoenglish.net
~ 94 ~ Active: People drink champagne on New Year’s Eve. Passive: Champagne is drunk on New Year’s Eve. Active: Chefs use these machines to mix the ingredients. Passive: These machines are used to mix the ingredients. Active: They renovated the restaurant in 2004. Passive: The restaurant was renovated in 2004. Active: The teachers informed the students that the class had been cancelled. Passive: The students were informed that the class had been cancelled.
Passive Voice: Present In the present, the passive voice uses the verbs is and are + past participle of the main verb. The passive voice present is often used to describe: Processes First the apples are picked, then they are cleaned, and finally they’re packed and shipped to the market. General thoughts, opinions, and beliefs New York is considered the most diverse city in the U.S. It is believed that Amelia Earhart’s plane crashed in the Pacific Ocean. Hungarian is seen as one of the world’s most difficult languages to learn. Skin cancers are thought to be caused by excessive exposure to the sun.
Passive Voice: Past In the past, the passive voice uses the verbs was and were + past participle of the main verb. The passive voice past is often used to describe:
~ 95 ~ Events in history • George Washington was elected president in 1788. Crimes / Accidents • Two people were killed in a drive-by shooting on Friday night. • Ten children were injured when part of the school roof collapsed. …as well as in many other situations when the person who did the action is unknown or unimportant.
Quiz: Passive Voice Exercises - Present and Past Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/passive-voice-examples-exercisespresent-past#quiz
Reported Speech: Statements
What is reported speech? “Reported speech” is when we talk about what somebody else said: • Direct Speech: “I’ve been to London three times.” • Reported Speech: She said she’d been to London three times.
~ 96 ~ We often use “reported speech” when talking about a conversation that happened in the past. There are some changes to the verbs with reported speech; read the table to find out how each verb tense changes:
“I want to go home.” She said she wanted to go home.
“I’m reading a good book.” She said she was reading a good book.
“I ate pasta for dinner last night.” She said she’d eaten pasta for dinner last night.
“I’ve just finished cleaning my room.” She said she’d just finished cleaning her room. “My mother has never been to Japan.” She said her mother had never been to Japan.
Can / can’t
Could / couldn’t
“I can meet with you next Monday.” She said she could meet with me next Monday. “Sorry, I can’t talk now. I’m at work.” She said she couldn’t talk at the moment because she was at work.
Will / won’t
Would / wouldn’t
“I’ll pick him up at the airport.” She said she’d pick him up at the airport. “I won’t tell anybody your secret.” She said she wouldn’t tell anybody my secret.
~ 97 ~
Be careful: “said” and “told” have a small difference. After “told,” we need to include a person: • • • • •
She She She She She
said that she wanted to go home. told me that she wanted to go home. told John that she wanted to go home. told that she wanted to go home. said me that she wanted to go home.
Reported Speech (Part 1) Quiz Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/reported-speech-part-1statements#quiz
Reported Speech: Requests, Orders, Questions How to form reported requests, orders, and questions: DIRECT SPEECH
Asked (me/him/her) to…
“Please make 10 copies of this report.”
Told (me/him/her) to…
She asked me to make 10 copies of the report. “Go to the bank.” He told me to go to the bank.
Asked if… Wanted to know if…
“Are you coming to the party?” He asked if I was coming to the party. “Has John seen the new movie?”
~ 98 ~ She wanted to know if John had seen the new movie. Other questions
Asked… Wanted to know…
“When was the company founded?” She asked when the company was founded. “What kind of car do you drive?” He wanted to know what kind of car I drive.
1. Requests/orders “Asked me to” is used for requests. “Told me to” is stronger; it is used for orders/commands. The main verb stays in the infinitive: She asked me to make copies. He told me to go to the bank. 2. Yes/no questions “Asked if” and “wanted to know if” are equal. The main verb changes according to the rules for reported statements: “Did you turn off the TV?” (past simple) She asked if I had turned off the TV (past perfect) We don’t use the auxiliary verbs “do/does/did” in the reported question. 3. Other questions “Asked” and “wanted to know” are equal. We don’t use the auxiliary verb “do” or “does” in the reported question: “Where does he work?” She wanted to know where he works. In questions with the verb “to be,” the word order changes in the reported question: “Where were you born?” (Question word + [to be] + subject) He asked where I was born (Question word + subject + [to be]) He asked where was I born www.espressoenglish.net
~ 99 ~
Reported Speech (Part 2) Quiz Click here to take the quiz! http://www.espressoenglish.net/reported-speech-part-2-requestsorders-and-questions#quiz
Thank You! I hope this Free English Grammar E-Book has helped you! If you have any questions, please e-mail me: [email protected]
Please share this e-book with your friends and classmates