Editor Associate Editors Managing Editor - Journals at the University of

Loading...
VOLUME 27 / NUMBER 3 / 1985

Published by THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE

Editor MINZE STUIVER

Associate Editors To serve until January 1, 1989 STEPHEN C PORTER Seattle, To serve until January 1, 1986 W G MOOK Groningen, The

Washington

Netherlands

HANS OESCHGER Bern, Switzerland To serve until January 1, 1987 RONALD B DAVIS Orono, Maine To serve until January ANDREW MOORE

1,

1990

Managing Editor RENEE S KRA

Kline Geology Laboratory Yale University New Haven, Connecticut 06511

ISSN: 0033-8222

Radiocarbon Proceedings of the 12th International Radiocarbon Conference Trondheim, Norway, June 24-28, 1985 Radiocarbon, Volume 28, Number 2A & B, 1986 @ $60.00

Please order from: Radiocarbon Kline Geology Laboratory Yale University PO Box 6666 New Haven, CT 06511

NOTICE TO READERS AND CONTRIBUTORS Since its inception, the basic purpose of Radiocarbon has been the publication of compilations of 14C dates produced by various laboratories. These lists are extremely useful for the dissemination of basic 14C information. In recent years, Radiocarbon has also been publishing technical and interpretative articles on all aspects of 14C. We would like to encourage this type of publication on a regular basis. In addition, we will be publishing compilations of published and unpublished dates along with interpretative text for these dates on a regional basis. Authors who would like to compose such an article for his/her area of interest should contact the Managing Editor for information. Our new associate editor for Archaeology, Andrew Moore, is a prehistoric archaeologist who recently became an assistant professor in the Department of Anthropology at Yale University. He received his doctorate from Oxford University and has also taught at the University of Arizona. His research is mainly concerned with the origins of agriculture and sedentary life in Southwest Asia. He is interested, further, in the prehistory of Europe, prehistoric economies, and theory and method in archaeology. Another section is added to our regular issues, "Notes and Comments." Authors are invited to extend discussions or raise pertinent questions to the results of scientific investigations that have appeared on our pages. The section includes short, technical notes to relay information concerning innovative sample preparation procedures. Laboratories may also seek assistance in technical aspects of radiocarbon dating. Book reviews will also be included for special editions. Manuscripts of radiocarbon papers shouldl follow the recommendations in Suggestions to Authors* and RADIOCARBON Style Guide (R,1984, v 26, p 152-158). Our deadline schedule for submitting manuscripts is: Date For Jan 1, 1986 Vol 28, No. 3, 1986 Half life of 14C. In accordance with the decision of the Fifth Radiocarbon Dating Conference, Cambridge, 1962, all dates published in this volume (as in previous volumes) are based on the Libby value, 5570 ± 30 yr, for the half life. This decision was reaffirmed at the 11 th Conference in Seattle, Washington, 1982. Because of various International Radiocarbon uncertainties, when 14C measurements are expressed as dates in years BP the accuracy of the dates is limited, and refinements that take some but not all uncertainties into account may be misleading. The mean of three recent determinations of the half life, 5730 ± 40 yr, (Nature, v 195, no. 4845, p 984, 1962), is regarded as the best value presently available. Published dates in years BP can be converted to this basis by multiplying them by 1.03. AD/BC Dates. In accordance with the decision of the Ninth International Radiocarbon Conference, Los Angeles and San I)iego, 1976, the designation of AD/BC, obtained by subtracting AD 1950 from conventional BP determinations is discontinued in Radiocarbon. Authors or submitters may include calendar estimates as a comment, and report these esO mates as AD/BC, citing the specific calibration curve used to obtain the estimate. 1961, we endorsed the notation z (Lamont VIII, 1961) for Meaning of b14C. In Volume 3, '4C activity, corrected for isotopic fractionation in samples and geochemical measurements of b14C that entered the calculation of was in the NBS oxalic-acid standard. The value of fact has been lost defined by reference to Lamont VI, 1959, and was corrected for age. This b14C as the observed sight of, by editors as well as by authors, and recent papers have used At the New Zealand Radiocarbon Dating Conference it was deviation from the standard. recommended to use b14C only for age-corrected samples. Without an age correction, the value should then be reported as percent of modern relative to 0.95 NBS oxalic acid (Proceedings 8th Conference on Radiocarbon Dating, Wellington, New Zealand, 1972). The Ninth International Radiocarbon Conference, Los Angeles and San Diego, 1976, recommended that the reference standard, 0.95 times NBS oxalic acid activity, be normalized to b'c = -19%0. b14C and & uncorrected for In several fields, however, age corrections are not possible. age, have been used extensively in oceanography, and are an integral part of models and theories. For the present, therefore, we continue the editorial policy of using notations for samples not corrected for age. *Suggestions to Authors of the Reports of the United States Geological Survey, 6th ed, 1978, Supt of Documents, U S Govt Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.

1

RADIOCARBON Editor: MINZE STUIVER

Managing Editor: RENEE S Published by

KRA

THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Editors: JOHN RODGERS, JOHN H OSTROM, ROBERT A BERNER Managing Editor: MARIE C CASEY

Published three times a year, in Winter, Spring, and Summer, at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511.

Subscription rate $75.00 (for institutions), $50.00 (for individuals), available only in whole volumes. Subscription rate for 1986 will be $80.00 (institutions), $60.00 (individuals). The price of the full volume 22, nos. 1-4, is $60.00 for individuals and $80.00 for institutions. The Proceedings of the Tenth International Radiocarbon Conference, vol 22, nos. 2 and 3, are available for $60.00. The Proceedings of the Eleventh International Radiocarbon Conference, Vol 25, no. 2, 1983 are $50.00. The Proceedings of the Twelfth International Radiocarbon Conference, Vol 28, nos. 2A and 2B, 1986, will be $60.00. All correspondence and manuscripts should be addressed to the Managing Editor, RADIOCARBON, Kline Geology Laboratory, Yale University, 210 Whitney Aye, PO Box 6666, New Haven, Connecticut 06511.

Reprints. The minimum reprint order for each article will be 50 copies without cover. No reprints will be furnished free of charge unless page charges are paid. The cost of additional copies will, of course, be greater if the article is accompanied by plates involving unusual expense. Copies will be furnished with a printed cover giving the title, author, volume, page, and year,

when specially ordered.

Page charges. Each institution sponsoring research reported in a technical paper or a date list, will be asked to pay a charge of $80.00 per printed page. Institutions or authors paying such charges will be entitled to 100 free reprints without covers. No charges will be made if the author indicates that his institution is unable to pay them, and payment ofpage charges on an article will not in any case be a condition for its acceptance. Back issues and price lists may be obtained from the office

of RADIOCARBON.

Missing issues will be replaced without charge only if claim is made within three months (six months for India and Australia) after the publication date. Claim for missing issues will not be honored if absence results from failure by the subscriber to notify the Journal of an address

change. Illustrations should include explanation of symbols used. Copy that cannot be reproduced cannot be accepted; it should be capable of reduction to not more than 10 by 17.5, all lettering being at least 1 /6 inch high after reduction. When necessary, one large map or table can be accepted, if it will not exceed 17.5 inches in width after reduction. Line drawings should be in black India ink on white drawing board, tracing cloth, or coordinate paper printed in blue and should be accompanied by clear ozalids or reduced photographs for use by the reviewers. Photographs should be positive prints. Photostatic and typewritten material cannot be accepted as copy for illustrations. Plates (photographs) and figures (line drawings) should each be numbered consecutively through each article, using arabic numerals. If two photographs form one plate, they are figures A and B of that plate. All measurements should be given in SI (metric units). Citations. A number of radiocarbon dates appear in publications without laboratory citation or refererence to published date lists. We ask that laboratories remind submitters and users of radiocarbon dates to include proper citation (laboratory number and date-list citation) in all publications in which radiocarbon dates appear. Radiocarbon Measurements: Comprehensive Index, 1950-1965. This index covers all published 14C measurements through Volume 7 of RADIOCARBON, and incorporates revisions made by all laboratories. It is available to all subscribers to RADIOCARBON at $20.00 US per copy. List of laboratories. The comprehensive list of laboratories at the end of each volume appears in the third number of each volume. Changes in names or addresses should be reported to the Managing Editor by May 1.

Annual Index. All dates appear in index form at the end of the third number of each volume. Authors of date lists are asked to supply indexed material of archaeologic samples only with their date lists. 11

Vol 27, No. 3

Radiocarbon

1985

CONTENTS Historical 14C Measurements from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans AW Fairhall and AW Young ....................................................................

473

DATE LISTS BM

Janet Ambers, Keith Matthews, and Richard Burleigh British Museum Natural Radiocarbon Measurements XVIII .................

508

T

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knul Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX ..............................

525

UGRA

Cecilio Gonzalez-Gomez, Purificacion Sanchez-Sanchez, and Maria

Domingo-Garcia

University of Granada Radiocarbon Dates II .........................................

VRI

Heinz Felber

610

Vienna Radium Institute Radiocarbon Dates XV ...................................

616

List of Laboratories ...................................................................................... Index to Volume 27 ......................................................................................

623 635

111

[RADIOCARBON, VOL

27, No. 3, 1985, P 473-507]

Radiocarbon 1985

HISTORICAL

14C

MEASUREMENTS FROM THE ATLANTIC, PACIFIC, AND INDIAN OCEANS A W FAIRHALL

Department of Chemistry, University of Washington and A W YOUNG* Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, Washington 98195 INTRODUCTION

As a result of nuclear testing in the atmosphere, the estimated preatomic era world inventory of 14C of 2.2 x 1030 atoms was increased by ca 6 x 1028 atoms, ie, ca 3% (Fairhall & Young, 1970). About 40% of this bomb 14C was produced in nuclear testing from the decade before the 1958 moratorium. The remaining 60% was added during the intensive nuclear testing of 1961 and 1962. Because the atmosphere contains a relatively small fraction (ca 2%) of the world's supply of natural radiocarbon, over 90% of the total being in the deep sea below 100m, the additional 14C from nuclear testing produced a dramatic increase in the level of 14C atmospheric CO2. Unlike the fission products, which have a comparatively short lifetime in the troposphere, the tropospheric residence time of 14C is on the order of a few years before being transferred to the sea. Thus, it appeared that a study of the distribution of the "excess" 14C in the sea and its change with time would give valuable insight into such problems as 1) the rate of CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and the sea and its dependence on wind speed over the sea surface, 2) the rate of transfer by oceanic mixing processes of contaminants, including fallout radionuclides introduced initially into the mixed surface layer of the sea, 3) the rate of bottom water formation at high latitudes and subsequent aclvective transport from these source regions into the deep sea. METHODOLOGY

We report here the results of the '4C sampling program which we initiated to study some of these processes.. Our first goal was to develop a system for stripping CO2 from sea water aboard ship, operated by the ship's personnel. We selected 60L of sea water as a sample of sufficient size for C assay yet easily handled by one person. Beer kegs modified with valves and spigot (Young, Buddemeier, & Fairhal1,1969) proved excellent for this purpose. We built ten of these at a very modest cost. Some of our deep*Current address: 11915 Lakeside Pl NE, Seattle, WA 98125

473

Fairhall and Young

474

water samples were collected with other types of water samplers such as Niskin bottles, Bodman samplers, and bag samplers, depending ujon the type available on the particular ship. When vertical profiles of C were measured, several samples were often collected on the same day. Those which could not be processed at once were stored temporarily in 20L plastic bottles. Another requirement for our 14C assay program was a suitable absorbent for CO2 stripped from sea water. Wet chemical methods have often been used to accomplish this, but we found that the molecular sieve technique, first used by Fergusson (1963), offered several advantages: the sieve is 100% efficient for absorbing CO2, provided the capacity of the sieve is ample; it is in the form of innocuous dry pellets which pose no problems should the container accidentally be broken; the absorbed CO2 is readily liberated on heating; the sieve can be re-used indefinitely with negligible memory effects. The system used to extract CO2 from ca 50L of sea water is shown schematically in figure 1. To liberate the CO2, the seawater samples were acidified with 250m1 of ordinary battery acid. A 1-pint (ca 500cm3) glass bottle of molecular sieve was used as the CO2 absorbent. The leak-tight aquarium pump circulated the residual air in the system at a rate of 1 L/ min, sufficient to completely strip the CO2 from the water in 4 hours. The CO2 in the air that was initially in the stripper bottle had a higher 14C/12C ratio (by perhaps as much as a factor of 2) than the CO2 which was stripped from the sea water, but the perturbation on the 14C analyses which this could have produced is completely negligible; Berger and Libby (1969) show that the rate of air-sea exchange of CO2 in a barrel of ocean water 1

/TO

SIGNAL

frh

LIGHT

IMP

1111

Ilil

AQUARIUM AIR PUMP

I

I

I

I I

I

GAS

SIEVE

OUTLET

BOTTLE

FILL

MAGNETIC REED SWITCH

TUBE

50 LITER CARBOY

MAGNET _WATER LEVEL

GAS

INLET

E

u

DOOR

h N

-1 DRAIN

HOSE STORAGE

FLOAT

U

Fig L Outgassing unit for stripping CO2 from 50L of acidified sea water

Historical

14C

475

Measurements

through which air is bubbled is very slow. Therefore, most of the CO2 that was in the air inside the stripper before it was filled with sea water was expelled from the stripper without exchanging its 14C during the filling operation. The atmospheric CO2 that remained in the stripper after it was full was absorbed along with the CO2 from the seawater sample, but its volume is insignificant compared with the volume of CO2 released from the sea water, itself; hence, it can be neglected. The same is true for water stored temporarily in bottles. When the samples of exposed sieve were received in the laboratory, the absorbed CO2 and water were driven off by heating the sieve to 380°C. Water vapor was condensed in a trap cooled with a dry-ice-acetone bath. The dried CO2 was then condensed in a trap cooled with liquid nitrogen. A 50L sample of sea water typically yielded 2.5L-atmospheres (at 25°C) of CO2 and from 10 to 20cm3 of water, depending on the temperature of the water sample during the outgassing procedure. The CO2 stripped from the sieve was stored for a month in a steel cylinder to allow radon to decay. (The molecular sieve contains traces of radium and yields significant quantities of radon on outgassing the CO2.) After a month this contaminant had decayed to a level that no longer interfered with the counting of 14C. The aged CO2 was then converted to methane by catalytic hydrogenation with tritium-free hydrogen (Buddemeier et al, 1970); a small aliquot of the CO2 was sometimes taken first for 13C/12C isotope ratio measurement. The assay for 14C was performed in 1 of 3 14C gas proportional counters each of ca 1 L volume. Two of these were constructed from nylon and quartz and had backgrounds of between 1 and 2 counts per minute. The third counter was a thin plastic membrane counter with a background of <1 count per minute. The reference standard was oxalic acid distributed by the National Bureau of Standards. By convention (Broecker & Olson, 1961), the 14C concentrations relative to the oxalic acid standard are given by 814C

_

(Asamie

- 0.95 Astd )xl000

0.95 Astd

0140 _ 8140

_

(1)

8140

(28130

+ so) (1 +

(13C/12C)

1000

(2)

_ 1 X 1000 (3) C/ In these equations, A refers to the net counting rate, after the background counting rate is subtracted, of the sample or the oxalic acid standard. Almost all the samples were counted at the same gas pressure (usually 2 atm 0.1 %) in the proportional counter to minimize the number of background and standard samples needing to be counted. The weighting factor, 0.95, applied to the activity of the oxalic acid standard brings its activity into agreement with the age-corrected activity of 19th century wood. The quantity, 814C, in units of per mil (%o), measures the difference in radioactivity sample

S13C

(

13

12

C)std

Fairhall and Young

476

between the sample and the standard, uncorrected for isotope fractionation in the sample; 0140 is the corresponding quantity corrected for isotope fractionation. d13C is the correction factor for isotoe fractionation in the sample, also expressed in per mil. We measured the C/12C ratio relative to a sample of PDB belemnite using a modified CEC Model 21-103 mass spectrometer; the accuracy of these ratio measurements as determined by interlaboratory comparisons was ±0.4%0. In general, S13C was observed to vary from an average of ca + 1.4%o in surface water to -1.5%o in deep water, although variations from these mean values were sometimes observed. This is particularly true in areas of strong upwelling. For samples that lacked b13C measurements, 014C was calculated using an average value of a13C of

-0.1.

Each sample was counted at least twice. If the two results agreed within standard deviations, the two counts were averaged; otherwise, the sample was counted a third time and a weighted average taken. Allowing for a few per mil uncertainty in 4C due to a possible variation in Y3C from the mean value used in correcting the majority of the samples, the average standard deviation of the measurements is estimated to be ± 10%o. One problem that we encountered was contamination of our samples from tracer 14C used for productivity studies aboard oceanographic ships. The 14C-labeled carbonate used to inoculate samples of sea water to determine productivity is extremely labile. The contamination probably results from traces of airborne 14CO2 from these experiments exchanging with the seawater sample during its transfer from the water sampler to the CO2 outgassing unit. When it was possible to work in an area remote from the biology laboratory, preferably on an open deck or other location not on the ship's ventilation system, we obtained samples that yield internally consistent results. The deepwater samples agree well with samples collected at other times when there was no possibility of contamination. Under these favorable circumstances, there was probably no significant contribution of tracer 14C to the measured values. However, during one cruise, the sea water was processed in a laboratory where tracer 14C might have entered through the ventilating system, and several samples were highly suspect; the rest of the samples were also somewhat dubious or at least yielded only upper limits of 14C levels. Only those data that seem above suspicion are reported here. In addition to measuring 14C specific activity, on many of the cruises we collected 250m1 aliquots of water for total dissolved CO2 (CO2 = CO2 + HC03- + CO3-) analysis using the Nansen bottle accompanying the beer keg sampler. The procedures followed for collection and storage were described by Wong (1968). The samples were analyzed in the laboratory by the gas chromatographic technique of Park, Kennedy, and Dobson (1964) which uses a sodium carbonate standard for comparison. The accuracy of the method is ± I %. Shipboard analysis soon after collection would have been preferable to returning the samples to the laboratory, but this was beyond our capabili2

ties.

From the total dissolved CO2 and

Z

4C,

the absolute concentration of

Historical

14C

Measurements

x

477

14C in the water can be calculated from the equation (Fairhall, Young, & Bradford, 1972): 0140+40 14 1 + C atoms/L (4) absolute 14 C = 7.0 x 1088 x CO2

1000

The depths at which the samples were collected were determined, when possible, by protected and unprotected reversing thermometers. In most cases, the depth had to be estimated from the length of cable and wire angle. Except for some of the earliest samples, of which no salinities were measured, a Nansen bottle generally accompanied the water sampler so that salinities of sampler and Nansen bottle could be compared. The two were usually in acceptable agreement, lending reassurance that the water sampler did not pretrip or leak. Samples in which the salinity agreement was suspect were rejected and are not reported. A few 200L water samples were collected in 1958 by Dr Sayed El Wardani using different techniques from those outlined above: the CO2 was stripped from the water with a stream of nitrogen gas and absorbed in a solution of barium hydroxide. The resulting slurry of barium carbonate was stored in its glass container with a tightly fitting rubber stopper to exclude air. The top was then dipped in melted wax for further insurance against leakage. These samples remained in storage until 1966 when they were finally processed for 14C counting. Their 14C levels are in fairly good agreement with the early data of Bien, Rakestraw, & Suess (1960), indicating that there was little or no leakage of air into the containers during their long period of storage. RESULTS

Tables 1-9, below, include the following information: Name of the cruise and the cruise vessel Station number and its geographic location Date the sample was collected Nominal sampling depth Temperature and salinity at the sampling depth s14c

b13C

14C

(a value in

parenthesis

is

an assumed value)

Total CO2 (CO2) concentration of 14C in Sample identification number

10 atoms/liter

Absolute

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

As may be expected for a program that operated largely on a ship-ofopportunity basis, we are indebted to a great many individuals, some of whom are unknown to us. Those deserving special thanks include the officers and crew of the US Coast Guard cutters Bering Strait, Bibb, Campbell, Duane, Klamath, Spencer, Wachusett, and Winona; the officers and crew of the USNS Eltanin; Joe Reed and the officers and crew of the Scripps research vessel, Thomas Washington.

478

Fairhall and Young

We also thank Joel Cline and the officers and crew of the University of Washington's research vessel, Thomas Thompson; Robert Burns and the officers and crew of the NOAA research vessel, Oceanographer; Vaughn Bowen and the officers and crew of the Woods Hole research vessel, Atlantis II; the officers and crew of the Canadian weather ships Quadra and Vancouver. We are grateful for the financial support provided by the US Atomic Energy Commission, later renamed the Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation, Antarctic Research Division, which provided logistical support for sample collections aboard RV Eltanin. REFERENCES

Berger, R and Libby, W F, 1969, Equilibration of atmospheric carbon dioxide with sea water: possible enzymatic control of the rate: Science, v 164, p 1395-1397. Bien, G S, Rakestraw, N W, and Suess, H E, 1960, Radiocarbon concentration in Pacific Ocean water: Tellus v 12, p 436-443. Broecker, W S and Olson, E A, 1961, Lamont radiocarbon measurements VIII: Radiocarbon, v 3, p 176-204. Buddemeier, R W, Young, A W, Fairhall, A W, and Young, J A, 1970, Improved system of methane synthesis for radiocarbon dating: Rev Sci Instruments, v 41, p 652-654. Fairhall, A W and Young, J A,1970, Radiocarbon in the environment, in Radionuclides in the environment, advances in chemistry series no. 93: Washington, DC, Am Chem Soc, p

401-418.

Fairhall, A W, Young, A W, and Bradford, P A, 1972, Radiocarbon in the sea, in Rafter, T A and Grant-Taylor, T, eds, Internatl conf on radiocarbon dating, 8th, Proc: Wellington, Royal Society of New Zealand, p C2-C16. Fergusson , G J, 1963, Upper tropospheric carbon-14 levels during Spring 1982: Jour Geophys Research, v 68, 3933-3941. Park, K, Kennedy, G, and Dobson, H, 1964, Comparison of gas chromatographic method and pH-alkalinity method for determination of total carbon dioxide in sea water: Analytical Chemistry, v 36, p 1686. Wong, C S, (ms), 1968, The distribution of inorganic carbon in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean: PhD dissert, Univ California, San Diego. Young, A W, Buddemeier, R W, and Fairhall, A W, 1969, A new 60-liter water sampler built from a beer keg: Limnol Oceanog, v 14, p 634-637.

Historical 14C Measurements

479

TABLE 1 Seawater samples from the Atlantic Ocean

13

14C

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

CRUISE:

ATLANTIS

Station: Date:

36.546

17.67

36.411

200

16.41

36.289

300

15.03

36.044

400

13.76

35.900

10.89

35.564

500

81

te:

S-02/1914

0

26.22

37.241

20.08

36.844

18,49

36.609

200

11.78

36.513

300

16.22

36.293

400

14.90

36.013

500

14.66

35.868

700

11.03

35.540

1000

7.92

35.325

1500

5,41

35.258

2000

3.88

35.091

3000

2.79

34.992

5500

2.49

34.896

UW

no.

)

-.3

18.1'N

S-03/1921 9/12/73

0

26.10

36.968

50

25.45

37.337

100

23.49

31.148

200

18.05

36.557

300 400

15.19

36.077

13.43

35.751

100

8.17

35.111

1000

6.03

34.912

1500

4.69

35.059

2200

3.71

35.029

3000

2.77

34.977

5700

2.39

34.867

Station:

S-04/1935

0

28.06 14.28

35.377

100

200

10.44

34.856

300

8.75

34.664

400

8.30

34.654

500

7.97

34,638

700

6,81

34,579

1500

5.05 4,40

34.623 34.817

2000

3.52

34.816

1000

ay/

27.2'N

150

Date:

C (X10

9/7/13.

100

Station:

CO2 (mM)

9/5/73 22.19

Station:

14

C

5-01/1913

0

700

14

C

d

II-78

100

E

b

6

.2

09.0°N

35.361

-24

-.2

-72

2.18

1,48

0-0793

Fairhall and Young

480

TABLE Seawater

14C

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

Station:

S-05/1942

28.68 22.01

36,303

200

13.12

35.562

500

7.41

34.111

700

5.89

34.819

850

5.28

34.631

1000

4,97

34.734

1500

4,36

35.019

2500

3.18

35.118

4500

2.10

34.843

0

28.41

33.970

25.41

36.780

23.51

36.940

200

17.30

500

5.98

36.427 35.033

1000

5.22

35.043

S-07/1963

002 (mM)

C at1,

(X10

6W no,

1

62

13.5°N

0

27.32

36.647

100

24.15

36.618

140

28.42

37.143

200

18.81

36.596

300

14.53

500

9.25

35.900 35.078

700

1.82

34.704

1000

5.70

34.762

1500

3.51

34.980

2500

3.00

34.934

3500

2.50

34,902

5050

1.71

34.809

Wte:

14

C

9/29/73

130

Station:

C

12.0°N

S-06/1954

100

Station:

14

13

a

29.526

0

Date:

6

Ocean

9,0°N

100

Station:

(continued)

1

samples from the Atlantic

S-08/1968

18.0°N

10/11/73

0

27.26

37.125

90

37,175

100

25.18 24.38

150

21.42

37.069

200

18.82

36.764

300

16.10

36.200

500

11.04

35.502

31.137

5

-.2

-45

2.22

1.54

0-0834

Historical 14C Measurements TABLE Seawater

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

Station: Date:

S-09/1914

0

26,72

31.434

21.84

37.163

18.76

36.811

300

17.03

36.359

500

13.67

35.867

100

10.25

35.461

2500

3.08

34.945

S-09/1915

23.0°N

6.09

35.043

1500

4.83

35.045

Late:

S-10/1986

23.5°N

10/26/73

0

27.52

36.681

100

23.07

37.043

150

21.24

37,032

200

19.27

36.114

300

11.43

36.432

500

14.61

36.016

700

11.37

35.540

1000

6.74

35.012

2500

3.13

34,959

3500

2.78

34.912

5600

2.03

34.844

Station: L

te:

S-11/1993

23.0°N

0

21,62

35.955

23,53

36.678

150

21,64

36,797

200

19,94

36,772

300

17,61

36,492

500

14,85

36.026

700

11,19

35,465

1000

6,42

34,967

1500

4,31

35,010

2500

3.07

34,947

4000

2,33

34.891

5879

2,07

34,833

Date:

20.0°N

S-12/1997 10/31/73

21.88

34.702

200

22.23

37.059

300

18.09

36.512

500

12.76

35.670

0

2

10/29/73

100

Station:

no.

C

10/18/73

1000

Station:

14

C

23,O°N

100

c8te:

13 C

Ocean

10/14/73

200

Station:

(continued)

samples from the Atlantic

14

Depth

1

481

-43

-1,7

-88

2.11

1.45

0-0816

Fairhall and Young

482

TABLE

2

Sea water samples collected in the Caribbean Sea by NOAA ship OCEANOGRAPHER during the BORAX Expedition

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

C

S

C

a

C

/

17.6°N

0

27.42

35.229

100

21.42

35.225

21.42

35.258

300

27.32

35.457

400

26.87

36.405

500

26.50

36.792

1000

24.71

37.090

2000

19.03

36.601

3000

15.92

36.102

4000

13.23

35.658

7

TABLE

13

14C

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

BRAVO

b

S

3

56.7°N

8.16 4.99

56

500

4.01

64

1500

3.68

-13 -.2

-61

(-.1)

BRAVO

SW

no.

56.7°N

4.96

34.43 160

(-.1)

3445

116

(-.1)

CHARLIE 9/29/69 to

52.5°N 10/5/69

0

10.14

34.530

115

5.72

34.672

2828

3.16

34.931

3212

3.10

34.995

Rate:

5/L

10/6/12

1545

Station:

C

(X10

4

-16

Rate:

14

34.04

3500

Station:

CO2

50.6°W

2000

10

C

Q

9/3/71

0

Rate:

14 C

BRAVO, CHARLIE, DELTA and ECHO

(mM)

50

Station:

UW no.

54.6°W

Seawater samples from the Atlantic Ocean at Ocean Weather Stations

Rate:

C at/(

(X1O-y

5/29/69

200

Station:

14

CO (mill

Station: Date:

14

13

14

Oepth

CHARLIE

18

52.5°N

1/26-30/70

0

6.86

36.683

110

6.81

34.650

231

5.31

319

5.11

34.150 34.944

426

4.78

34.909

0

48

551

4.37

34.946

2071

3.27

34.950

3

3106

2.97

34.982

25

3727

2.96

34.965

-1

(-.1)

-50

2.23

1.54

0-0252

Historical

14C

TABLE

(continued)

Seawater samples from the Atlantic

14

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

Ocean Weather Stations

14

13

C

483

Measurements

3

C

C

r.o,

2

Station: Date:

11/14-24/70 132

0 7.54

34.724

101

8.28

34.736

152

6.93

34.799

22)

5.85

34.804

Late: 1000

Station: Date:

200

CHARLIE

Date:

52.5°N

3.91

34.95

1/6/73

5.16

34.66 38

11/8-20/11 15.31

35.22

15.24

35.33

100

15.08

35.40

200

13.72

35.76

300

13.10

35.75

500

10.35

35.38

700

7.87

35.15

1000

5.56

35.07

1500

4.24

35.01

2000

3.36

34.96

.8

63 1

1

0

-18

3500

(-.1)

44.0°N

DELTA

9/22/72 20.41

35.03

50

17.14

36.09

100

15.92

36.01

150

14,75

35.85

200

13.88

35.72

300

13.08

35.69

500

10,57

35,34

700

8.03

35.13

1000

5,77

35,07

0

(-.1)

44.0°N

DELTA

0

Gate:

5

CHARLIE

50

Station:

(-.1)

4/23/71

2000 Station:

0 .1

0 5

.1

2.20

2000 3000 4663

Station: Date:

39

(-,1)

26

(-.1)

0-0676A

44,0°N

LELTA

6/18-23/73

0

17.77

100

15.71

100

13.88

36.030 36.088 35.688

300

12.82

36°391

400

11.82

35°522

500

35.219

25

700

35.075

22

5.66

35.020

1500

4,00

34°908

2000

3,73

34,964

3000

3.03

35.011

1000

i

52.5'N

CHARLIE

50

Station:

(mM)

5 .1

-66

2.19

1,49

0-0732

Fairhall and Young

484

TABLE

3

(continued)

Seawater samples from the Atlantic Ocean Weather Stations

14C

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

Station:

Ite:

22.59

36.50

18.51

36.40

15.22

36.04

700

11.98

35.59

7.01

35.13

1900

-3

2000

-16 -8

4877

-31

ECHO

.5

(-.1) 1.1

35.0°N

1/1-20/73

36.39 36.333

0

18.06

100

18.63

205

18.32

305

11.41

36.396

405

16.62

36.282

525

15.42

36.059

195

770

35.440

1350

35.071

2

2650

35.007

6

3360

34.915

4050

34.884

2.30 0

2.20 14

TABLE

4

Seawater samples from the Pacific Ocean at Ocean Weather Stations

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

Station:

NOVEMBER

Date:

11/11/68

14C

14C

13

6

6

1(OVEMBER, PAPA and VICTOR

0

14

CO

/

(mM)

C aX/(

OW no.

(X10-y)

30,009

306

0

34.422

1000

Date:

OW no,

1

.7

3000

Station:

a /L

C

(X10

35.0°N

0

Date:

14

CO2

6/1-29/72

100

Station:

C

C

6

(mM)

ECI-O

500

1000

14

13

6

.5

-152

30.0°N

NOVEMBER 2/16/69

258

0

100

18.77

220 330 440

13.00 10.09 7.75

550

6.01

1100

3.87

1655

(-.1)

35.045 35.014 18

34.671 33.998

16

65

40

88

2.96

33.996 34.449 34.403

2205

2.38

34.614

2360

2.08

34.626

3785

1.76

34.684

2000

-212

(-.1)

-116

-1.9

-214

0-0206

Historical 14C Measurements TABLE

4

485

(continued)

Seawater samples from the Pacific Ocean Weather Stations

Oepth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

14C

(4C

a13 C

S

14

CO2

Q

(mM)

C a

/L

Uw no.

(X10

30.0o Station:

NOVEMBER

Date:

(2/24/69

35.013

0

300

115

19.4

35.001

220

13.1

34.133

325

9.9

34.059

437

7.5

33.995

38

86

500

6.8

33.979

51

98

3040

1.6

34.655

Station:

Date:

30.00

NOVEMBER

11/3/10

0

20.9

34,776

50

20.9

34.660

100

17.9

34.595

200

12.9

34.080

500

6.4

33.969

1000

3.8

34.391

2000

Station: Date:

0

34.607

59

-180

30.0

NOVEMBER

°W

5/31/71

0

19,7

265

102

18,9

248

204

12.5

147

306

10.2

52

0

405

8.5

- 23

72

506

6.6

- 97

125

5.0

-104

1000

4.4

2105

2.4

-176 -224

3080

2.0

-201

4470

1.9

-164

Station: Date: 0

.7

30,0°))

NOVEMBER 9/1/12

22.6

316

101

19.1

35.018

200

15.0

34.477

310

11.0

34,172

442

7,9

34.010

48

556

6.3

34.054

83

738

5.3

34.250

1020

4.2

34,429

2010

2.5

3080

2.0

34.636 34.644

4500

2.0

34.689

-180

96

(-.1)

-221

2.44

1,40

0-0665

Fairhall and Young

486

TABLE

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

Station: Date:

a)

0

(8.22

34.894

17.78

34.941

16.57

34.724

330

10.14

34.136 34.083

700

34.168

- 14 - 95

2000

34.627

-195

3000

34.537

-152

4000

34.684

-168

Station:

NOVEMBER

Date:

11/28/13

14C a

/L

UW no.

(X)0

140.0°W

63

30.0°N

0

20.56

210

100

18.30

271

200

9.61

300

10.69

400

8.96

21

500

6.55

- 68

2.05 88

700

4.37

-118

1000

3.50

2000 3000

2.46 2.19

-168 -204

4000

2.02

-165

4300

1.86

-116

30

-187

30.O°N

NOVEMBER

W

3/16/74

0

19.5

35.173

100

18.4

35.031

220

12.0

34.173

440

8.2

34.037

0

552

6.5

33.979

16

110

4.3

34.138

10)5

4.1

34.387

2610

2.6

34.648

300

Date:

CO2 (mM)

400

Station:

3C

5/5/73

100

Date:

(continued)

14C

a

30.0°N

NOVEMBER

200

Station:

4

samples from the Pacific Ocean Weather Stations

Seawater

75

PAPA

(-.1)

49

SO.0°N

4/6/68

SO

5.90

32.578

100

5.13 4.80

32.629

150

33.567

4

300

3.80

33.902

80

500

3.70

34.147

1000

1.88

34.411

2000

1.93

3000

1.56

34.589 34.655

-170

43

-.7

-211

0-1589

Historical

14C

TABLE Seawater

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m1

(°C)

(0/00)

Station: Date:

PAPA

b

14C

14C (mM)

4.23

32.660

4.14

33.569

300

3.73

33.751

100

500

3.50

34.154

1000

2.80

34.410

2000

1.90

34.591

.9 (-.1) 150 13

81

32.606

4.5

210

32.702 33.513

8

200

4.1

33.739

63

500

3.8

34.138

150

42

50.0°N

PAPA 1/18/10

50

5.82

32.602

100

5.80

32.603

150

4.00

33.373

200

3.90

33.652

500

3.54

34.109 50.0°N

PAPA 1/5/70

100

5.14

32.824

150

4.55

33.476

300

4.06

33.950

500

3.85

34.127

1000

3.00

34.380

2000

2.18

34.573

3000

1.90

34.645

Station: PAPA Date:

no.

2/11/69

50

Date:

11W

J

50.0°N

PAPA

100

Station:

ai/1

50.0°N

215

Date:

14C

(X10

3/26/69

215

Station:

CO2

a13C

0

Date:

(continued)

samples from the Pacific Ocean Weather Stations

50

Station:

4

487

Measurements

8

89

50.0°N

11/14/11

0

7.50

32.630

50

1.51

32.635

100

7.26

32.641

150

4.27

33.622

200

4.20

33.784

8

42

300

3.94

33.919

48

96

500

3.64

34.102

82

1000

2.85

2000 3000

1.94

34.382 34.598 34.665

1.62

15

-188

-.9

-227

2.40

1.31

0-0523

Fairhall and Young

488

TABLE

(continued)

4

Seawater samples from the Pacific Ocean Weather

k pth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

(

Station: Date:

14

13

C

C

C

CO

/L

2

(mM)

no.

1

50.O °N

PAPA 6/2/13

0

32.581

268

5.06

32.764

200

4.41

33.784

300

3.97

33.910

67

400

3.19

34.008

92

Date:

C

L

100

Station:

Stations

.0

35

50.0°N

PAPA 3/1/75

0

220

(-.1)

50

221

(-.1)

100

2.05

0-0908

150

2.14

0-0909

300

2.26

0-0910

Station:

Date:

34.O °N

VICTOR

3/19/10

0

13.72

32.556

130

14.02

32.833

275

12.26

34.453

330

10.14

34.281

440

9.66

34.270

500

6.09

33.988

605

5.30

34.033

Station: Date:

4

22 15

63

34.0°N

VICTOR 9/22/69

0

25.34

34.421

51

34.767

100

20.12 17.95

200

16.72

34.610

314

14.18

34.566

405

10.90

34.390

500

7.94

34.211

78

640

7.52

34.194

15

920 1010 1717

3.55 3.73

34.254 34.271

2.22

34.557

2030

2.49

34.623

3460

1.56

34.598

Station: Date:

34.808

34.0°N

VICTOR

3/19/10

0

13.72

32.556

130

14.02

275

12.26

32.833 34.453

330

10.14

34.281

440

9.66

34.270

500

6.09

33.988

605

5.30

34.033

4

22 15

63

2.24

1.53

0-0288

14C

Historical TABLE

(continued)

4

Seawater samples from the Pacific

Station: Sate:

Temp

Salinity

(°C)

(0/00)

14

Ocean Weather Stations

13

C

a

489

Measurements

14

C

b

C

0

CO (m'))

34.0°N

VICTOR

14

C a_Z/( (X10 y)

UW

no.

164.1°E

5/31/11

0

132

(-.1)

76

30

152

(-.1)

95

0-0369 0-0310

45

0-0311

69

100

(-.1)

150

- 25

(-.I)

-

13

0-0372

299

- 12

(-.1)

- 62

0-0373

1300

-(76

(-.1)

-217

0-0374

1995

-218 -2)6

(-.1)

-257

0-0375

(-.1)

-255

0-0376

2975

Station:

VICTOR

Date:

8/3/11

34.0°N

164.1°E

25.4

126

1.3

67

1.98

1.53

0-0484

102

14.2

69

(-.1)

16

2.06

1.52

210

11.6

6

(-.1)

2.09

1.46

0-0485 0-0486

311

8.5

2

(-.1)

- 45 - 48

2.12

1.47

0-0487

414

6.9

18

(-.1)

- 32

2.13

1.50

0-0488

520

5.6

-127

(-.1)

-170

2.20

1.34

112

4.5

-146

-.7

-188

2.36

1.41

0-0489 0-0490

1065

3.6

-165

(-.1)

-207

2.31

1.35

0-0491

2135

2.3

-209

(-.1)

-248

2.4)

1.34

0-0492

3158

2.0

-180

(-.1)

-220

2.33

1.34

0-0493

4086

2.0

-196

-.8

-235

2.29

1.29

0-0494

10

TABLE

5

Miscellaneous sea water samples from the Pacific Ocean

14

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

1°C)

(0/00)

Date:

7/1/58

Date:

0

6

7/4/58 32.480

7/5/58 15.68

32.510

14

C

C CO2 L (mM)

C e (X10

/

UW no.

1

130°W

(-.1)

- 63

(-.1)

-210

0-0059 0-0037

5

0-0038

- 41 - 21

0-0039 0-0040

-223

0-0041

58

49.2°N

3850

a

14

49.2°N

15.10

14

C

-168

-

2565

0

13

C

48.7°

0

Qate:

d

135.1°W (-.1)

136.1°W

9

(-.1)

-177

(-.1)

49.4°N -182

49.7N

140.90W (-.1)

144,70W

1000

2.81

34.4)0

-146

(-.1)

-188

0-0042

4150

1.53

34,700

-152

-.1

-194

0-0043

Fairhall and Young

490

TABLE Miscellaneous

5

(continued)

sea water samples from the Pacific Ocean 14C

Oepth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

Gate:

1000

ate: 1000

Dente:

46.1'N 34.380

7/12/58

44.8°))

0

15.52

33.030

4950

1.58

34.700

C>ste:

41.3°N

7/14/58

-143

4500 1000

Date:

3.11

38.4°N

1/16/58

0

33.380

5000

1.56

34.700

2.92

34.410

0

19.11

33.440

3700 Dote:

34,680

1/21/58

40.1'N

3700 Gate:

27

40.6°

7/20/58 1.55

8

39.7°N

1/18/58

1100

Qate:

(-.1)

34,350

19.47

Date:

no.

34,410

1/11/58 2.97

a1/L

(X10-yl

47.1°N

7/10/58 2.89

14C

CO

b

-156

7/22/58

(-.1)

39.4°

16.91

32.890

0

16.45

3350

1.58

33.060 34,690

24

27

31

60

0 5

-.8

44

(-.I)

0

190

50

190

1.8

100

138

-.3

150

41

-.3

11

200

- 28

-.9

75

250

-

46

-.I

93

0-0015

Historical 14C Measurements TABLE Miscellaneous

Oepth

Temp

(m)

(continued)

5

sea water samples from the Pacific Ocean

14c

6'3C

14C

Salinity

a

0

1.5

244

.8

7.60 6.33

150

6.70

33.371

200

6.62

33.8(9

250

6.04

33.877

25

37

300

5.49

33.904

350

5.07

33.933

70

10/21/66

47.0°N

10/23/66

47.0°N

278

3

280

-

380

4.80

33.964

540

4.17

34.141

3.36

Date:

Date:

246

Date:

5.50

Date:

0

(-.1)

1.3

32.600 59.5°N

2/20/67 4.10

32.400 51.5°N

2/26/61 3.80

32.500 52.3°N

3/2/67

0

-.6

53.0°N

2/5/67

0

88

41.0°N

10/29/66

0

(-.1)

81

-205

0

.9

34.384

3

Date:

95

47.0°N

10/27/66

1360 Date:

44

-101

670

980

11

208

48

Date:

- 35

234

75

Date:

no.

1

32.543

100

Date:

(-.1)

44

3

13.16

SW

C

(X10

47.6°N

10/15/66

50

14

48.5°N

10/13/66

14

Oate:

co, (mM)

(0/00)

Oate:

491

3.30

32.700

3.70

32.700

53.0°N

3/4/67

157

(-.1)

100

0-0090

Fairhall and Young

492

TABLE

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

Date:

6/25/67

(continued)

5

sea water samples from the Pacific Ocean

Miscellaneous

14

13

14

C

14

C

-

22

(-.1)

71

-

24

(-.1)

13

90

-

12

(-.1)

62

3

-2.0

49

1.3

(-.1)

48

(-.1)

18

4

-1.5

51

4

(-.1)

46

35

(-.1)

83

6/25/67

48,2°N

5

-

80 160

-

30

48.2°N

6/25/67

-

5

100

200

-

0

261

.9

100

148

-.1

6

-1.0

42

300

-

21

-.4

69

400

-

44

-.4

90

200

0

28.11

33.895

50

21.95

33.889

100

20.38

34.270

150

14.74

34.776

15

61

200

12.63

34.838

30

79

300

11.53

34.176

9

57

500

8.66

34.623

40

84

2000

2.30

34.636

Date:

15 9

10.0°N

2/2/68 23.89

34.499

6

53

50

14.41

34.869

4

51

100

13.31

34.888

10

57

150

12.83

34.865

20

66

200

12.52

34.815

4

48

300

10.95

34.755

26

70

500

8.21

34.628

82

1000

4.80

34.513

0

2000

-164

-.9

3000

-188

(-.1)

Date:

1/1/69

16.3°S

0

94

50

128

(-.1)

100

3

(-.1)

41

-.5

69

500

no.

J

48.2°N

5

Date:

C aj/i (X10

45

Date:

CO2

-

21

1.4

3000

-198

(-.1)

4000

-148

(-.1)

5500

-149

-.1

-191

0-0483

Historical 14G Measurements TABLE

5

sea water samples from the Pacific Ocean

Miscellaneous

140

140

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

Date:

3/8/69

200

(mM)

Date:

6/21/69

16

(-.1)

65

2

(-.1)

48

-

41

(-.1)

89

-

64

(-.1)

47.0°8

50

300

(-.1)

100

246

(-.1)

200

10

(-.1)

40

300

-

36

(-.1)

84

400

-

71

(-.1)

500

-

24

(-.1)

600

-

58

(-.1)

Date:

3/16/10

13

39.0°S

0

232

50

210

(-.1)

100

193

(-.1)

200

88

(-.1)

300

9

(-.1)

500

19

(-.1)

31

-

34

(-.1)

82

-

70

750 1000

.7

-122

(-.1)

2000

-131

(-.1)

2400

-141

(-.1)

2/23/72

9.0°N

0

178

2.6

100

-

38

-.6

500

-

71

-.1

-135

1.1

1000

41

2.7

1500

Date:

no.

1

9.0°N -

600

a /L

6

300

400

493

(continued)

85

-180

2.43

1.46

0-0527

Fairhall and Young

494

TABLE

14C

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

CRUISE:

PIQUERO III

Station:

Drake's Passage

Date:

0

6.50

34.081

4.19

34.116

195

3.89

34.180

1986

1.94

34.712

3930

1.02

34.719

Station: Date:

&

C

C

CO2 (mM)

C a / (X10

UW

no.

J

57.8'S

ARIES - 2 ST 24(M)S) 1/27/71 85

0

811

2.41

34.570

1208

2.20

34.690

2375

1.36

24.732

4368

0.54

34.701

CRUISE:

14

14

13

a

1/25/69

94

CRU)SE:

(continued)

S

sea water samples from the Pacific Ocean

Miscellaneous

.9

ROSS SEA

Station: Date:

S-A1 (MIS)

2/11/74

0

-31

-.6

100

-58

(-.1)

200

-80

(-.1)

300

-102

-.9

400

-98

500

-95

700

-84

-1.0 -1.0 -.9

-113

1.1

.2 1500

TABLE

6

Air and sea water samples collected by NOAA ship OCEANOGRAPHER on a circumnavigation

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/001

Station: Date:

168

Q

14

C

CO2

C ay/L (X10

OW no.

1

71.9'W

34,9'N

.I

109

00-0001

102

00-0002

134

00-0003

59.4'W

4/4/67 162

0

Station:

0

C

s

(mM)

32.9'N

Station:

Date:

14

13

C

4/2/67

0

Date:

14

S

34,9'N

1.0

43.9'W

4/6/67 194

-.1

Historical

14C

TABLE

495

Measurements (continued)

6

Air and sea water samples collected by NOAA ship OCEANOGRAPHER

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

Station: Date:

221

.2

36.7N

-9.7

.3

18.8N

00-0005

690

00-0006

117

00-0007

46

00-0008

65.3°E

697

(-10)

71.6E

11.1'N 7/1/67

212

(-.1)

08.7N

Station:

152

74.)E

7/2/67 (-.i)

177

0

Station:

1)8

00-0010

105

00-0011

132

00-0012

644

00-0014

120

00-0015

599

00-0017

82.1°E

05.6°N 7/4/61 163

0

Station:

(-.1)

05.1N

90.4°E

7/6/67

0

191

Station:

00.4°S

(-.1)

107.0°E

8/10/67 695

Air

Station:

04.2°S

(-10)

110.4°E

8/11/67 119

0

Station:

Air

138

6/18/67

0

Date:

00-0004

65.3°E

176

Station:

Date:

159

6/18/67

Air

Date:

UW no.

J

30.8°E

18.8°N

Station:

Date:

(.1)

743

0

Date:

B/L

08.7°W

32.9N

Station:

Date:

C (X(0

5/18/67

Air

Date:

CO2

4/26/61

Station:

Date:

14

C

j

28.5°W

197

Date:

C

(mM)

38.0°N

Station:

Date:

14

13

a

4/14/67

0

Date:

14 bC

13.2S

(-.1)

114.1E

8/15/67 648

(-10)

Fairhall and Young

496

TABLE

6

(continued)

Air and sea water samples collected by NOAA ship OCEANOGRAPHER 14C

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

Station: Date:

14C (mM)

13.2'S

114.('E

51

169

(-.1)

165

(-.1)

165

11

(-.1)

35.0'S

112.5'E

Station: 8/30/67

686

Air

Station: Date:

no.

(X(0

8/16/61

100

Date:

14C

C02

a

34.8'S

(-10)

122.O'E

9/1/67

0

163

(-.1)

0

Station: Date:

0

(-.1)

Station: Date:

9/10/67

Station:

142

Date:

0

Station: Date:

Station: Date: (-.1)

0

Station:

35.0'S

Date: 0

(-.1)

124

00-0033

Historical 14C Measurements TABLE

6

497

(continued)

Air and sea water samples collected by NOAA ship OCEANOCRAPRER

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

Station: Date:

b

14c

14C C

L

35.1'S

253

(-.1)

187

(-.1)

100

215

(-.1)

150

216

(-.1)

200

155

(-.1)

250

89

(-.1)

300

81

(-.1)

35.0'S

Station:

219 34.9'S

Station:

663

34.2'S

Station:

201

0

32.9'S

205

12.0'S

Station:

675

0

214

Station:

05.4'S

264

02.9'S

Station:

681

11.2'N

Statlo n:

180

Station:

75.3'W

(-.1)

84.9'W

(-10) (-.1)

84.9'W

(-.1)

92.0'W

(-10)

92.0'W

21.4'N

(-.1)

108.4'W

11/30/67

0

235

AIr

692

Station:

0

(-.1)

11/26/67

0

Date:

104.8'W

11/21/67

Alr

Date:

(-10)

11/17/67

0

Date:

110.0'W

11/15/67

Alr

Date:

(-.1)

10/29/67

0

Date:

118.9'W

10/25/67

Station:

Date:

35

10/24/67

Air

Date:

no.

10/23/67

0

Date:

a/

(X)0

130.2'W

0

Date:

14C

10/21/67

50

Date:

C0 2 (mM)

33.6'N

(-.I) (-10)

120.8W

12/5/67 222

(-.1)

161

00-0053

Fairhall and Young

498

TABLE

7

Surface sea water samples from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans collected by RV THOMAS THOMPSON

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/CO)

GUISE: Station: Date:

THOMAS THCMPSON

S-001

Date:

Date:

Date:

S-003

Date:

S-004

Date:

Date:

0

0

a?/

UW no.

(X10

(-.1)

20.8N

(-.1)

11.2°N

.9

07.8N

232

S-005

(-.1)

15.3°N

12/2/65 212

S-006

(-.1)

33.0°N

12/10/65

240

5-007

(-.1)

39.i°N

12/12/65

284

0

Station:

002

11/28/65

0

Station:

14

0

38.7N

299

0

Station:

Q

010

282

0

Station:

C

10/14/65

0

Station:

14

13

a

(mM)

265

S-002

0

Station:

14

10/9/65

0

Station:

-

60

S-008

(-.I)

42.8N

12/13/65

223

(-.1)

162

00-0034

Historical

14C

Measurements

TABLE

499

8

Sea water samples from the Pacific Ocean collected by RV ELTANIN on Cruises 36, 38, 39 and 43

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

CRUISE:

Station: Gate:

14

a

EL36/07-02-0896

6.91

34.367

93

6.87

34.346

94

175

5.44

34.168

91

100

4.20

34.326

-35

1000

3.11

34.380

-60

2000

2.30

34.714

-40

EL36/16-03-0910

6(0

-1.63

33.958

56

100

-1.23

34.167

-12

300

1.89

34.642

-69

500

1.96

34.711

-86

700

1.84

34.740

-83

1000

1.65

34.149

2000

0.81

34.717

-96

3000

0.22

34.691

-101

4000

-0.18

34.683

-91

UW no.

(-10) (-.1)

EL36/32-04-0935

(-10)

-96

44.0'S

11/21/68 130

0 100

11.27

34.880

(22

300

9.64

34.748

(25

500

8.80

34.636

1000

5.55

34.423

-6

34.616

-97

Date:

-y)

61.8'S

0

Station:

C

11/3/68

Air

3000

14

(X10

49.1S

0

Date:

CO2

10/26/68

75

Station:

C

10/20/68

170

ate:

G

EL36/00-01-0000

610

Station:

14

C

ELTANIN-36

0

Date:

13

a

(mill

Air

Station:

C

1.84

E136/35-05-0938 11/25/68

.8

65

50.0'S

86

0

8.90

34.655

100

8.88

34.623

90

500

8.09

34.576

68

1000

6.62

34.4(1

36

(-.1)

-(6

OE-0034

Fair/sail and Young

500

TABLE

(continued)

8

Sea water samples from the Pacific Ocean collected by RV ELTANIN

14

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

Station: Date:

EL36/35-05-0938 11/25/80 3.05

34.434

-62

2.40

34.642

-60

3000

1.74

34.760

-12

609 1.56

33.999

159

100

-0.58

34.370

82

300

1.63

34.121

53

500

1.49

34.137

-46 -70

700

-0.74

34.740

1000

1.00

34.728

-7

2000

0.37

34.697

-50

EL36/54-07-0966

9.35

34.380

126

1.62

34.435

164

500

6.94

34.396

104

EL36/55-08-0000

500

9.44

35.196 34.772

1000

5.34

34.418

13.69

52 0

1500

3.14

34.567

-89

2.22

34.652

-102

2500

1.80

34.709

-56

EL38/07-01-0002

0

64.2'S

3/29/69

1

40

34.617

150

1.58

34.654

190

1

68

34.731

400

1.72

34.809

470

1.68

34.804

-84

980

1.24

34.712

-54

Date:

86

ELTANIN-38

100

Station:

2

(-.1)

2000

Dete:

0

42.0'S 144

0

Station:

0

12/15/68

100

CRUISE:

(-10)

50.0'S

0

Date:

no.

i

12/12/68

300

Station:

a/

(X10

12/3/68

0

Date:

CO2

62.7'S

EL36/45-06-0951

Air

Station:

C

0

49.8'S

1500

Date:

C

(ml))

2000

Station:

14

14

13

C

.

.

EL38/08-02-0007

62.0'S

4/5/69

0

0.31

33.912

300

1.98

34.624

1000

1.65

34.729

1500

1.13

34.733

2000

0.95

34.706

-79

(-.1)

-125

0E-0189

Historical '4G Measurements TABLE

8

501

(continued)

Sea water samples from the Pacific Ocean collected by RV ELTANIN

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

Station: pate:

13

14

Depth

EL38/09-03-0009

d

C

a

57.3°S

3.59

33.875

28

34.374

-36

(-.1)

1000

1.98

34.718

-82

(-.1)

1460

1.58

34.172

-89

(-.1)

1940

1.08

34.714

-103

(-.1)

3200

0.39

34.695

-99

EL38/10-04-0012

54.0°S

2.2 151.5°E

4/22/69 2.53

34.564

-51

(-.1)

1920

1.92

34.741

-82

(-.1)

3900

0.74

34.697

-96

1.6

EL38/11-05-0014

49.7°S

152.5°E

4/26/69

50

9.53

34.304

121

1.2

100

9.22

34.547

110

(-.1)

145

8.53

34,562

75

(-.I)

210

8.71

34.633

69

(-.1)

320

8.54

34.599

80

(-.1)

400

7.94

34.528

83

(-.1)

510

7.40

34.464

45

(-.1)

1000

3.76

34.342

-28

1.4

3100

1.40

34.726

-77

(-.1)

4200

0.89

34.702

-104

Station: Date:

EL38/12-06-0019

40.0°S

.0

152.O'E

5/8/69

50

15.81

35.333

351

(-.1)

195

11.95

35.130

173

(-.1)

480

8.55

34.645

18

(-.1)

1000

4.92

34.433

-40

(-.1)

3050

1.57

34.726

-113

(-.1)

3920

1.15

34.715

-118

(-.1)

4600

1.12

34,717

-109

(-.1)

CRUISE:

ELTANIN-39 41,0'S

Station: pate:

139.5 42.0°S

Station:

(-.1)

83

OE-0165

67

0E-0166

79

0E-0167

126,0°E

6/24/69 123

0

43.0'S

Station: Ekte:

126,0°E

6/24/69

0

Date:

I

.6

1000

Date:

2

149.5°E

-0.34

Station:

r.o.

C

4/20/69

50

pate:

o

(mM)

150

Station:

14 C

(-.1)

126.0'E

6/25/69 136

(-.1)

502

Fairhall and Young TABLE

(continued)

8

Sea water samples from the Pacific Ocean collected

Depth (m)

Temp

C

14 C

G

no.

C 1

45.0S

126.0E

6/25/69

0

203

46.0S

Station:

Date:

b

(0/00)

Station: Date:

13

14

Salinity

(oC)

by RV ELTANIN

(-.1)

126.0°E

6/26/69

OE-0098 0

10.40

157

47.0°S

Station:

Ote: 0

9.50

117

48.0S

Station: Date:

140

49.0S

Station:

149

Station:

51.0'S

123

52.0S

Station:

0

4.50

54.0S

138

55.0S

0

Station: Date:

126.0E

126.0°E

(-.1)

126.0E

7/3/69

2.60

85

56.0S

Station: Date:

(-.1)

7/2/69

Station:

0

126.0°E

141

0

Date:

(-.1)

1/1/69

Station: Date:

126.0'E

6/29/69

0

Date:

(-.1)

6/28/69

0

Qate:

126.0E

6/27/69

0

Date:

126.0E

6/21/69

126.0E

7/4/69 2.50

108

EL39/05-01-1138

40.0S

6/23/69

0

12.00

34.753

100

11.90

34.165

200

9.49

34.718

300

9.01

34.614

500

8.62

34.611

700

8.01

34.547

1000

5.32

34.396

2000

2.52

34.658

3000

1.83

34.741

5

-110

-.4

-154

2,29

1.42

OE-0178

14C

Historical TABLE

503

Measurements

(continued)

8

Sea water samples from the Pacific Ocean collected by RV ELTANIN

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

Station: Date:

EL39/11-02-1150

14C

6

C

50.0'S

34.045

136

(-.1)

7.34

34.058

143

(-.1)

200

9.35

34.630

103

1.8

300

7.82

34.383

102

1.6

500

34.453 34.349

-8

1.8

700

6.17 4.84

-7

.6

1000

3.10

34.351

-42

.2

2000

2.22

34.721

-93

.4

2800

1.58

34.750

-97

.3

EL39/16-03-1161

57.8'S

1.34

33.829

103

1.39

34.835

94

200

1.36

34.212

37

540

2.23

34.597

-86

1000

2.05

34.121

-106

2000

1.25

34.737

-70

(-.1)

3000

0.49

34.737

-105

(-.1)

4000

0.07

34.682

-118

EL39/20-04-1164 7/10/69

52.0'S

1.3

(-.1) .3

.1

134.0E

6.35

34.093

144

(-.1)

34.097 34.288

138

(-.1)

200

6.37 7.07

85

(-.1)

500

5.20

34.319

-25

(-.1)

700

3.85

34.308

-61

(-.1)

1000

3.02

34.424

-88

-.9

2000

2.22

34.701

-67

(-.1)

1.41

34.142

-117

EL39/25-05-1168

42.0'S

-.1 142.5'E

7/18/69

0

9.90

34.701

120

1.0

100

9.83

34.700

133

(-.1)

200

9.84

34.701

109

1-.))

300

8.68

34.647

43

(-.1

500

7.14

34.470

-3

(-.I) (-.1)

)

100

5.40

34.400

-48

1100

3.43

34.411

-78

2000

2.30

34.710

-102

(-.1)

3000

1.10

34.744

-121

(-.1)

4000

1.07

34.719

-102

Station: Date:

no.

(-1.)

0

Oate:

UW

1

(-.1)

100

Station:

ay/

126.5'E

0

2800

C (X)0

7/5/69

100

Oate:

14

126.O'E

7.14

Station:

C CO2

6/29/69

0

Date:

C

(mM)

100

Station:

14

13

6

EL39/37-06-1169

-.7

-.9

40.8S

154.6'E

7/27/69

0

15.33

35.520

97

(-.1)

100

13.69

35.286

89

(-.1)

200

12.09

35.069

144

(-.I)

300

10.98

34.950

99

(-.1)

500

9.24

34.704

33

(-.1)

700

1.93

34.558

35

(-.1)

1000

5.56

34.462

-44

(-.1) (-.1) (-.1) (-.11

2000

2.45

34.653

-94

3101

1.66

34.736

-95

4000

1.21

34.725

-108

-152

AF-ntFL

Fairhall and Young

504

TABLE

8

(continued)

Sea water samples from the Pacific Ocean collected by RV ELTANIN

Depth (m)

CRUISE: Station: Oete:

Temp I

Salinity

C)

595

300

1.49

34.459

500

2.04

34.607

100

2.02 1.15

34.668 34.727

4800 Station:

EL43/08-SD-1185

62,5'S

0.44

34.716

EL43/09-02-1186

-108 57.7'S

34,152

192

5.68

34.152

126

200

5.43

34.223

106

300

5.03

34.230

79

400

4.60

34.192

20

500

4.34

34.249

-12

100

3.46

34.291

-51

1000

2.76

34.423

-87

2000

2.06

34.732

-80

4200

0.74

34.716

-119

EL43/10-03-1187

52.6'S

5/11/70

0

6.62

34.185

138

100

6,62

34.241

96

200

6,56 5,99

34,310

94

300

34.293

81

400

5,68

34.284

500

5.21

34.259

45

700

4,46

-14

1000

3.20

34.309 34.368

2200

2.03

34.720

Date:

(-10)

5/4/70

5.65

Station:

OW no.

34.372

0

Date:

ay/

(X10

2

100

Station:

14C

4/29/70

200

Date:

(mM)

EL43/04-01-1181

34,121

Station:

CO2

Q

ELTANIN-43

-0.68 1,13

2000

14C

a13C

(0/CO)

Air 100

14C

a

EL43/11-04-1188

39

-55 -115 46.9'S

5/13/10

0

9.91

34.212

165

100

34.268

144

200

9.53 7.01

34.392

66

300

6.81

34.396

79

400

6.62

34.386

60

500

6.37

34.366

49 -44

1000

4,28

34.330

2000

2.30

34.647

-97

4500

1.29

34.720

-117

7

-.3

-(61

2.34

1.44

OE-0282

Historical TABLE

14C

505

Measurements

(continued)

8

Sea water samples from the Pacific Ocean collected by RV ELTANIN 14C

14C

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

Station: Date:

b

60.4'S

EL43/14-05-1190

CO (mM)

at/L

UW

no.

(X10-yI

162.5'W

0

1.80

33.905

43

.7

1.16

33.945

57

(-.1) (-.1)

200

1.66

34.077

0

300

2.05

34.243

-57

(-.1)

400

2.30

34.363

-14

(-.1)

500

2.33

34.459

-84

(-.1)

100

2.34

34.584

-101

1000

2.21

3000

4.87

34.689 34.122

-103 -125

Date:

L

5/24/70

100

Station:

14C

C

G

o13c

EL43/15-06-1191 5/27/70

4

.6

(-.1) .4

54.8'S

175.1'W

80

(-.1)

0

6.56

100

6.50

34.176

102

200

5.91

34.291

86

(-.1)

1.5

300

5.03

34.191

56

(-.1)

400

5.10

34,257

-4

(-.1)

500

4.58

34.271

-25

(-.1)

700

3.63

34.286

-67

1000

2.80

34.356

2000

2.18

34.739

-80 -104

5218

0.89

34.712

-123

3

.4

(-.1) (-.1) .5

TABLE

9

Sea water samples from the Indian Ocean collected by RV Eltanin on Cruise 48

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

Station:

EL48/03-01-1325

0

10.43

34,796

100

10.47

34.195

200

10,47

34.775

300

10.19

34.813

500

9,76

34.777 34.659

700

8.82

1015

5.73

2000

2.49

Station: Date:

a

14

14

13

Depth

C

C

C02 (mM)

C (X10

a/L

UW no.

)

41.0'S

20

34.659

EL48/04-H1-1326

38.9'S

7/14/11

1010

5.47

34.383

4110

2.32

34.114

-108

(-.1)

-152

2.30

1.43

OE-0321

506

Fairhall and Young TABLE

9

(continued)

Sea water samples from the Indian Ocean collected

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

( C)

(0/00)

Station: Oate:

°

EL48/06-02-1328

14

14.95

35.565

194

14.80

35.560

192

200

11.47

35.319

116

300

11.48

35.075

134

500

10.07

34.886

51

100

8.97

34.702

37

1010

5.74

34.413

-28

2000

2.50

34.618

-114

4250

1.02

34.716

-88

EL48/09-H2-1329

11.14

35.896

213

4.66

3160

1,49

34.390 34.735

-120

EL48/12-03-1331

28.5'S

0

18.91

35.878

230

18.91

35.878

260

16.79

35.515

163

300

13.89

35.382

155

500

10.99

34.958

90

700

9,25

34.122

31

1010

6.11

34.426

-47

2000

2.35

34.121

-114

3250

1.40

34.733

-116

E148/10-H3-1330

28.5'S

208

0

18.91

35.761

6.11

34.449

-59

3950

1.29

34.124

-139

Dete:

EL48/16-H4-1333

35.40'S

7/24/71

0

15.14

35.568

190

1010

5.46

34.396

-32

3510

1.22

34.713

-98

Station: i

te:

.6

7/19/71

1010

Station:

5

7/21/71

100

Oate:

1

-56

200

Station:

no.

C

30.5'S

0

Dote:

2 (mM)

7/18/11

1010

Station:

C

34.0'S

0

Date:

14

7/16/71

100

Station:

13

C

by RV ELTANIN

EL48/20-04-1334

39.9'S

7/28/71 112

0

11.74

100

11.72

34.986

139

200

11.76

34.987

115

300

11.51

34.991

106

500

10.83

34,881

103

700

10.00

34.806

49

1010

6,21

34.434

-38

2000

2.60

34.643

-71

3320

1.49

34.721

-113

-.6

-156

2.30

1.42

OE-0348

Historical TABLE

14C

507

Measurements

(continued)

9

Sea water samples from the Indian Ocean collected by RV ELTANIN 14

13

Depth

Temp

Salinity

(m)

(°C)

(0/00)

Station: Date:

EL48/22-H5-1335

a

35.063

137

5.07

34.358

-55

4360

1.34

EL48/30-H6-1337

12.39

35.216

151

5.84

34.420

-26

2360

2.15

34.735

-97

EL48/32-05-1338

at/`

UW

no.

.6

34,9'S

8/3/11 161

0

13.30

100

13.09

35.102

154

200

12.03

35.063

144

300

11.59

35.008

114

500

10.98

34.950

60

700

9.82

34.801

75

1010

6.02

34.434

-44

2000

2.54

34.671

-94

3650

1.27

34.733

-99

EL48/37-06-1339

4

30.0'S

8/5/71

0

17,21

35.830

201

100

16.21

35.705

183

100

13.24

35.255

125

300

11.69

35.025

108

500

10.65

34,930

69

700

9.33

34,739

19

1010

5.08

34,402

-44

2000

2.46

34,713

4150

1,34

34.721

-110 -136

Station:

C

(X10 9i

36.5'S

0

Obte:

14

-89

1010

Station:

CO2

39.1'S

12.39

Date:

L

7/29/71

0

Station:

C

Q

L(mM)

1010

Station:

C

EL48/54-07-1343

32.1'S

0

15.21

35.772

201

100

14.79

35.646

118

200

14,49

35.556

184

300

11.48

35.060

138

500

9.27

34.726

76

700

8.37

34.608

28

1010

4,18

34.409

-92

2000

2.56

34.651

-85

5100

1.01

34.715

-99

(-.1)

-144

2.30

1.44

OE-0382

[RADIOCARBON, VOL

27, No. 3, 1985, P 508-524]

BRITISH MUSEUM NATURAL RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS XVIII JANET AMBERS, KEITH MATTHEWS, and RICHARD BURLEIGH Research Laboratory, The British Museum, London WC 1 B 3DG, England The following list consists of dates for archaeologic and geologic samples mostly measured from June 1983 to June 1984. The dates were obtained by liquid scintillation counting of benzene using the laboratory procedures outlined in previous lists (see, eg, BM-VIII, R, 1976, v 18, in radiocarbon years relative to AD 1950 based p 16). Dates are expressed on the Libb7 half-life for 14C of 5570 yr, and are corrected for isotopic fractionation ((3 3C values are relative to PDB). Some dates are corrected, using the calibration tables of Klein et al (1982), and are reported in the Comment with an asterisk (*). The modern reference standard is NBS oxalic acid (SRM 4990). Errors quoted with dates are based on counting statistics alone and are equivalent to ± 1 standard deviation (± 1 cr). Descriptions, comments, and references to publications are based on information supplied by submitters. ARCHAEOLOGIC SAMPLES

British Isles

England 1950 ± 50

S13C Stonea = -28.0%o Waterlogged wood, ref ADZ/AEQ W38, from large bundle of prepared rods embedded in thick peat deposit within very large feature at Stonea Grange, near March, Cambridgeshire (52° 30' N, 0° 10' E, Nail Grid Ref TL 449937). Colt 1982 and subm by R Jackson, Dept Prehist and Romano-British Antiquities, British Mus. Comment (RJ): subsequent excavation in 1983 and 1984 that feature was filled in ca AD 130-140, thus according well withsuggests C determination.

BM-2157.

Modern

8130 BM-2158. Ozengell = -22.6%o Collagen from shaft of right femur from burial of complete skeleton of ox in rectangular pit (ref Fl/LOM 5/82) cut into chalk within circular ditched enclosure at Ozengell (Lord of the Manor), Ramsgate, Kent (51 ° 20' N, 1° 25' E, Natl Grid Ref TR 356653). Colt 1982 and subm by D R J Perkins, Is. Thanet Archaeol Unit, to provide date for later modification of group of Neolithic/Bronze age enclosures/harrows, and for presumed remains of Bosprimigenius, ca 1000 bc. Comment (DRJP): enclosure is one of group presumed to be small henges, interspersed with ploughed-off round barrows and Ozengell Anglo-Saxon cemetery. Excavations 1976 to 1977 revealed re-use of enclosures assoc with Beaker pottery and crouched

508

British Museum Natural Radiocarbon Measurements X VIII

509

burial (Perkins & MacPherson-Grant, ms in preparation). Pit (F2) at center of enclosure LOM 5, close to ox burial, contained selected human bones from 4 individuals. Possibly these bones were found and re-interred when pit Fl was dug for relatively modern burial of ox. Result shows remains belong to domestic ox, not Bos primigenius.

Dorchester Cursus series Samples from cursus and assoc earthworks at Dorchester-on-Thames, Oxfordshire (51 ° 40' N, 1° 10' W, Nat! Grid Ref SU 582948). Coll 1981 by R Chambers, Oxfordshire Archaeol Unit and subm by R Bradley, Univ Reading.

3840 ± 40 b13C BM-2161. Dorchester Cursus = -24.6%o Charcoal, ref Site III 2009/8, (outer rings of Quercus sp, >15 yr old) id by M Robinson, Univ Mus, Oxford, from burned post in situ within post pit of timber circle, loc at center of cursus monument. Measured to establish terminus post quern for bldg of timber circle. 3870 ± 60

b13C Dorchester Cursus = - 24.2%0 Charcoal, ref Site III 2013/9, (Quercus sp, possibly sapwood) id by M Robinson, from outer rings of different burned post from same timber cir-

BM-2162.

cle as BM-2161, above.

3780 ± 50 b13C BM-2163. Dorchester Cursus = -24. 7%o Charcoal, ref Site III 2009/1, (Quercus sp) id by M Robinson, from upper fill of post pipe of upright belonging to same timber circle as BM2161, -2162, above, assoc with deposit of cremated bone. Measured to establish interval between use of circle and deposition of cremation. 3890 ± 60 b13C BM-2164. Dorchester Cursus = -24.4%o Charcoal, ref Site III 2014/11, (Quercus sp, possibly heartwood) id by M Robinson, from outer rings of different burned post from same timber circle as BM-2161, -2162, -2163, above. 3330 ± 80 b13C BM-2165. Dorchester Cursus = -25.1%0 Charcoal, ref Site III 2013/1, (Quercus sp, Fagus sp) id by M Robinson, from upper fill of post pipe of timber circle postdating burning of post and assoc with cremated bone. 3730 ± 45

-

b13C BM-2166. Dorchester Cursus = 24.6%0 Charcoal, ref Site III 2014/7, (Quercus sp) id by M Robinson from upper fill of post pipe of upright belonging to same timber circle as BM-

Janet Ambers, Keith Matthews, and Richard Burleigh

510

2161 to -2165, above. Measured to date re-use of site after removal of timber circle.

3390 ± 70

b13C Dorchester Cursus = -24.8%o Charcoal, ref Site IV F 1006, (Quercus sp) id by M Robinson, from pit at center of ring ditch inside cursus, assoc with Collared Urn and cremated

BM-2167.

bone. 3950 ± 70 513C BM-2268. Dorchester Cursus = 21.3%0 Collagen from antler pick, ref Site I F81, id as probably red deer by R Wilson, Univ Mus, Oxford, from top of primary fill of ditch of hengiform single-entranced enclosure within E terminal of Dorchester Cursus. Measured to establish terminus ante quern for cremation burials cut into uppermost filling of ditch. General Comment (RB): samples suggest date of secondary activity inside cursus complex, involving construction of substantial post circle and hengiform enclosure. BM-2163 and -2166 suggest date of secondary use of timber circle for deposition of human cremations. BM-2165 should date same activity but seems anomalously late. BM-2167 indicates continuing significance of cursus in Early Bronze age. Earlier use of cursus is suggested by OxA-119, 4800 ± 130 by (Gillespie et al, 1984).

-

11,570 ± 410 b13C BM-2168. Kent's Cavern = -19.8%o Collagen from fragmentary atlas vertebra of bovid (ref no. 1951), id by A Currant, Dept Palaeontol, British Mus (Nat Hist), from `Black Band' above cave earth sealed by stalagmite in Kent's Cavern, Lincombe Hill, Torquay, Devon (50° 25' N, 3° 30' W, Nat! Grid Ref SX 935642). Coll 1867 by W Pengelly and subm by R M Jacobi, Dept Classics and Archaeol, Univ Lancaster, from Pengelly colln in British Mus (Nat Hist) (ref no.M559), to help estimate range of time over which fauna! remains and artifacts attributed by Pengelly to `Black Band' could have accumulated. Comment (RMJ): this new determination opens possibility of incorporation of Late Glacial backed blade assemblage (see dates for Gough's Cave, BM-2183 to -2188, this list, below) into this part of Pengelly's excavations at date later than inferred previously (ca 14,000 bp; Campbell & Sampson,1971). Both dates need to be taken into consideration when estimating age of possible human return after last glacial max (Jacobi et al, ms in preparation).

Down Farm series Samples from Neolithic ring ditch re-used as Deverel-Rimbury cremation cemetery near Down Farm, Woodcutts, Dorset (50° 55' N, 2° 0' W, Nat! Grid Ref SU 002137). Coll 1980 and subm by R Bradley. Ring ditch is 130m from Deverel-Rimbury enclosed settlement site previously dated (cf BM-1850, 2680 ± 130; BM-1851, 2730 ± 50; BM-1852, 2740 ± 40; BM1853, 2790 ± 45; BM-1854, 2800 ± 45; R, 1982, v 24, p 271).

511

British Museum Natural Radiocarbon Measurements X VIII

3050 ± 70

-

b'3C BM-2177. Down Farm Ring Ditch = 25.0%o Charcoal, ref L4, (Quercus sp) id by M Robinson, from upper filling of ring ditch, directly sealed by flint layer, L3, measured to give terminus post quem for flint layer, dated directly by BM-2178, below.

3010 ± 60

b'C = -24.9%o BM-2178. Down Farm Ring Ditch Charcoal, ref L3, (Quercus sp, heartwood) id by M Robinson, from flint packing containing cremated bone and Deverel-Rimbury pottery in top filling of ring ditch. Dated to check if contemporary with nearby Deverel-Rimbury settlement. 2740 ± 30 b'3C BM-2179. Down Farm Ring Ditch = -24. 7%o Charcoal, ref crem 12, (Fraxinus sp) id by M Robinson, from pit outside ring ditch, assoc with human cremation and Deverel-Rimbury sherds. Dated to check if deposit is contemporary with nearby settlement. 2810 ± 50 b'3C -24. 7%o = BM-2180. Down Farm Ring Ditch Charcoal, ref crem 6, (Fraxinus sp) id by M Robinson, from pit outside ring ditch, assoc with human cremation and Globular Urn fragments. Dated to check if deposit is contemporary with nearby settlement. General Comment (RB): BM-2177 and -2178, both on heartwood, indicate period of re-use of Neolithic ring ditch, whilst BM-2179 and -2180 suggest that secondary cremation cemetery may have belonged to nearby settlement dated by BM-1850 to-1854; R,1982,v24, p271.

5520 ± 60 b'3C = -23.2%o BM-2181. Pitstone Collagen from basal part of fragmentary left horn core of Bos primigenius, id by Barbara Noddle, Univ Coil, Cardiff, from Postglacial (Flandrian) buried soil beneath hillwash in Pitstone no.3 Quarry, N E side of Tring Gap, Pitstone, Buckinghamshire (51 ° 50' N, 00 40' W, Natl Grid Ref SP 933140). Coll 1970 and subm by J G Evans, Dept Archaeol, Univ Coil, Cardiff, from Bucks Co Mus colln (ref 378.1972) to provide max age for onset of hillwash and date for Bos primigenius (late Pleistocene/early Holocene mammalian extinctions program; R, 1983, v 25, p 39-41). Comment (JGE): horn core was found in buried soil overlying coombe rock and under several m of colluvium in bottom of dry valley. Charcoal from buried soil in adjacent valley assoc with molluscan evidence for woodland clearance was dated 3910 ± 220 (HAR-327; Evans & Valentine, 1974). Molluscan assemblages from hollows below buried soils in two other closely adjacent valleys were of closed woodland type indicative of an Atlantic age (Evans, 1966). Although correlation is indirect assemblages are probably approx same age as horn core.

512

Janet Ambers, Keith Matthews, and Richard Burleigh

Gough's Cave series Collagen from bones of horse (Equus ferns) id by Dorothea Bate, from levels (spits) in Gough's (New) Cave, S side of Cheddar Gorge, Mendip,

Somerset (51 ° 15' N, 2° 45' W, Nat! Grid Ref ST 467539). Coll 1927 to 1928 by R F Parry (1929) and subm 1982 by R M Jacobi, Dept Classics and Archaeol, Univ Lancaster from British Mus (Nat Hist) colln, to provide dates for assoc Cheddarian artifacts and occurrence of horse in late Devensian fauna of British Is. 12,120 ± 120 813C BM-2183. Gough's Cave = -20.6%o Atlas vertebra, humanly modified, from Parry's Level 10. 12,020 ± 120

BM-2184. Gough's Cave Calcaneum from Parry's Level 12.

8130

BM-2185. Gough's Cave Metapodial from Parry's Level 13.

8130

BM-2186. Gough's Cave Metapodial from Parry's Level 14.

8130

BM-2187. Gough's Cave Metapodial from Parry's Level 16.

5130

= -20.3%o

11,970 ± 230 = 20.2%o

-

12,240 ± 220

= -20.2%o

12,070 ± 170

= -19.9%o

12,160 ± 210

5130 BM-2188. Gough's Cave = -19.9/oo Metapodial from Parry's Level 18. General Comment (RMJ): believed to be 1st reliable dates for important Late Glacial backed blade assemblage, so-called "Cheddarian" industry. Stylistically, assemblage seems very similar to that recovered from Black Band at Kent's Cavern (BM-2168, above). Results imply contemporaneity of this type of assemblage with later Hamburgian style stone tool kits from further E in European mainland. Dates confirm Cheddar Man (9080 ± 150; R, 1971, v 13, p 180) was later, intrusive, inhumation, and are substantially earlier than ages of just before 11,000 bp, apparently assoc with lithic assemblage with many Tjonger points from in front of Mother Grundy's Parlour, Creswell Crags, Derbyshire (Jacobi, 1981, p 62; Burleigh, Jacobi, & Jacobi,1985).

Whitton Hill series Charcoal from prehistoric earthworks at Whitton Hill, Northumberland (55° 40' N, 2° 0' W, Natl Grid Ref NT 930355). Coll 1982 and subm by R Miket, Tyne and Wear Co Council, to establish chronol for site.

British Museum Natural Radiocarbon Measurements X VIII

513

4820 ± 80 b13C = -26. O%o BM-2203. Whitton Hill Charcoal, ref T2/1, from patch of burning cut by W arc of ring ditch (Site 2). Measured to date earliest evidence of activity found at site. 2860 ± 90

b13C = -24.9%0 Whitton Hill (Site monument to 2), assoc Charcoal, ref T2/3, from Pit 1 at entrance with cremation deposit.

BM-2204.

BM-2205. Whitton Hill Charcoal, ref T2/4, from mid-point of ditch of Site 2.

b13C

3610

±

45

= -26.5%o

3740 ± 50 b13C = -25.3%o BM-2206. Whitton Hill Charcoal, ref T1/2, from timber structure within ditch (Site 1). 2880 ± 310 b13C = -24.2%o BM-2264. Whitton Hill on cremation central covering stone beneath Charcoal, ref T2/2 from Site 2. 3680 ± 80

b13C = - 26.2%0 BM-2265. Whitton Hill Charcoal, ref T1/1, from timber structure within ditch (Site 1), from similar context to BM-2206, above.

BM-2266. Whitton Hill Charcoal, ref T1/3, from central burial in Site 1.

b13C

3660 ± 50 = -25.9%o

2770 ± 170 b13C = -25.2%o BM-2267. Whitton Hill Charcoal, ref T2/5, from ditch on Site 2. General Comment (RM): from structure and assoc finds, both monuments were considered to fit within later 3rd/early 2nd millennium BC context. Corrected dates for Site 1 are consistent with this. Two of 5 dates for Site 2, however, present anomalies. Ditch, central deposit, and entrance pits all appear to be part of same process. Date for ditch fill (BM-2205) would also link this monument to adjacent Site 1, but consistently younger dates from other elements of monument (BM-2264, from central deposit, and BM2204, from 1 of entrance pits) do not match expected earlier date. Date, 820 ± 170 be (BM-2267), from upper silting of ditch fill was assoc with vessel of 1st millennium BC. This was seen as evidence of much later discard activity, but conflicting dates referred to above now throw this open to

question.

514

Janet Ambers, Keith Matthews, and Richard Burleigh

Rangoon Street series Bone from two articulated female human skeletons buried together in one grave orientated N-S in `Dark Earth' layer from Rangoon St, Aldgate Ward, City of London (51 ° 30' N, 0° 05' W, Natl Grid Ref TQ 335815). Coll 1982 and subm by Barbara West and David Butler, Dept Urban Archaeol, Mus London, to date `Dark Earth' in London. BM-2214. Rangoon St Collagen from human ribs, ref 1090.

b13C

1050 ± 45 = -16.0%0

980 ± 50

b13C BM-2215. Rangoon St = -20. 4%0 Collagen from human ribs, ref 1157. General Comment (BW) skeletons are one of few examples of non-residual datable objects within `Dark Earth' but burial itself is enigmatic. N-S orientation suggests pagan burial but there are no grave goods and date is too late for pagan Saxon burial. Dates might fit Viking activity but lack of grave goods is surprising.

Asham Quarry series Samples of charcoal and shells of Pomatias elegans from biostrat sec in Asham Quarry, near Lewes, Sussex (50° 50' N, 0° 0' W, Natl Grid Ref TQ 440060). Coll 1982 to 1983 and subm by Caroline Ellis, Dept Geol, Imperial Coll, Univ London, from buried soil assoc with open-country and mixed open-country and woodland molluscan faunal assemblages representing clearance (molluscan biozones d and e). Samples measured to provide dates for molluscan zones (Kerney,1977) and for comparison of dates for charcoal and snail shells from related strat level. 2760 ± 120 b13C BM-2216. Asham = -25.6%o Charcoal from N Sec, from hearth in middle of molluscan column. Open-country assemblage (biozone e, clearance horizon, but prior to appearance of Monacha cartusiana). Carbonized seeds from sample include Arrhenatherum elatius, Atriplex spp, Potentilla anselina, Veronica hederifolia, and Plantago lanceolata, id by D T Holyoak, Geog Dept, Univ Nottingham. 3460 ± 190 b13C BM-2217. Asham = -25.6%o Charcoal from N Sec, from hearth ca 3m to right of molluscan column and strat below BM-2216. Mixed open-country and woodland assemblage (biozones d and e). 3580 ± 280 b13C BM-2277. Asham = -24. 7%o Charcoal from S Sec, from same strat layer as BM-2217, above. Opencountry assemblage with small element of woodland sp (boundary between biozones d and e).

515

British Museum Natural Radiocarbon Measurements X VIII

BM-2296. Asham

4590 ± 110 = 6.5%o

-

b13C

Carbonate, aragonite form, id by Susan La Niece, Research Lab, Brit-

ish Mus, from shells of Pomatias elegans from N Sec for comparison with charcoal from same sec, BM-2217, above. General Comment (CE): charcoal results indicate Bronze age date for forest clearance at this site. Date for shell carbonate is older than corresponding charcoal despite careful selection of shells without calcite encrustations

(forms part of continuing comparative study of dates for charcoal and shells of selected sp of land snails).

3450 ± 150 b13C = -24.6%o BM-2219. South Heighton Sussex Newhaven, near Heighton, South sec at biostrat from Charcoal (50° 45' N, 00, W, Nat! Grid Ref TQ 450034). Coll 1982 to 1983 and subm by Caroline Ellis, from clearance horizon (base of biozone) in buried soil with open-country molluscan faunal assemblage with Monacha cartusiana present. Comment (CE): charcoal result obtained from South Heighton indicates Bronze age date for forest clearance. Several Bronze age artifacts were found close to site. Cow Gap series

Charcoal and shells of Pomatias elegans from slope deposits at Cow ° Gap, near Eastbourne, Sussex (51 40' N, 0° 10' E; Nat! Grid Ref TV 595957). Coll 1982 to 1983 and subm by Caroline Ellis, from biostrat sec assoc with mixed open-country and woodland molluscan fauna! assemblage representing clearance (boundary between molluscan biozones d and e). Samples measured to provide dates for molluscan zones (Kerney, 1977) and for comparison of dates for charcoal and snail shells (cf Asham Quarry, above).

4820 ± 350 b13C = -24.6%o BM-2220. Cow Gap late glaoverlying directly Charcoal from base of postglacial colluvium of fauna molluscan mixed with assoc silts, and rubble of chalk cial deposits open-country and woodland sp including Monacha cartusiana. 5860

BM-2295.

Cow Gap

b13C

=

± 130

-6. 1%o

Carbonate, aragonite form, id by S La Niece, from shells of Pomatias elegans from basal co!luvium directly overlying late glacial deposits, dated for comparison with charcoal from same level, BM-2220, above. General Comment (CE): charcoal date is considerably earlier than those for Asham and South Heighton, above. Date falls within Neolithic period and agrees with sherd of finger-impressed Beaker pottery from same strat layer (Bell, 1981). Carbonate date from Pomatias elegans shells from same layer is considerably older than charcoal date, as is shell carbonate date from

Janet Ambers, Keith Matthews, and Richard Burleigh

516

Asham. Possible sources of error in shell dating are discussed by Burleigh and Kerney (1982) and Goodfriend and Hood (1983).

Gallibury Down series Charcoal samples from Bronze age round barrow at Gallibury Down, Calbourne, Isle of Wight (50° 40' N, 1° 20' W, Natl Grid Ref SZ 442855). Coil 1978 and subm by D J Tomalin, Co Archaeol Unit, Newport, Isle of Wight, to establish chronol for site. 3560 ± 50

b13C BM-2230. Gallibury Down = -27.0%0 Charcoal, ref NBD 78 Context 20 (sample 1), from scattered deposit on old ground surface sealed by clay upcast from primary Beaker burial pit containing Dorset-type bowl. Sample dates use of ground surface just before primary burial.

5150 ± 60 b13C Gallibury Down = -26.9%o Charcoal, ref NBD 78 Context 18/22, from in and around posthole BM-2231.

100u. 3380 ± 80

b13C BM-2232. Gallibury Down = -26.6%o Charcoal, ref NBD 78 Context 14/5 (sample 3), from scatter at base of turf stack. Sample dates opening of phase II contemporary with barrow construction. Terminus post quem for graves G and H.

3440 ± 150 b13C BM-2233. Gallibury Down = -25.4%o Charcoal, ref NBD 78 Context 15 (sample 5), from scatter on paleosol beneath turf stack. Dates later part of phase I of barrow construction. 3520 ± 90

b13C Gallibury Down = -26.0%0 Charcoal, ref NBD 78 Context 15 (sample 6), from scatter on paleosol beneath turf stack. Dates later part of phase I of barrow construction. General Comment (DJT): BM-2230 provides terminus post quem for deposition of handled Beaker bowl and Clarke's Dorset type. Date is also assoc with palynol horizon indicative of pastoral/grassland environment on surrounding chalk hilltop. BM-2233 and -2234 give terminus post quem for close of phase I of barrow and are approx coincident with graves B, C, D, and E (graves D and E assoc with Food Vessels with lugs and feet), BM-2232 provides terminus post quem for construction of outer post corduroy and turf enlargement of barrow at opening of phase II. Date also gives terminus post quem for insertion of secondary food vessel urn cremation graves G and H. On grounds of Armorican ceramic assoc, grave H can be generally equated with Gerloff's Armorican-British C dagger grave series. BM-2231 is equated with charcoal evidence for archaic anthropogenic activity pre-

BM-2234.

British Museum Natural Radiocarbon Measurements XVIII

517

served in B horizon and pre-barrow paleosol. Series provides concise dating for sustained use of barrow and accords with proposed development of Tomalin's Form 3 Food Vessel/Urn series after ca 1500 bc. 9930 ± 210 b'3C BM-2249. Soldier's Hole = -19.3%0o Collagen from juvenile reindeer metacarpal (Rangifer tarandus) id by A Currant, Dept Palaeontol, British Mus (Nat Hist), from Spit 8 of Unit 3 in Soldier's Hole, Cheddar Gorge, Mendip, Somerset (51 ° 15' N, 2° 45' W, Nat! Grid Ref ST 469540). Coll 1928 to 1929 by R F Parry (1931) and subm 1983 by R M Jacobi, Dept Classics and Archaeol, Univ Lancaster, from colln of Manchester Mus, as addition to series of dates for remains of reindeer from later contexts in British Is. (late Pleistocene/early Holocene mammalian extinctions program; see, eg, R, 1983, v 25, p 39-41). Comment (RB & RMJ); result compares with few other available dates for reindeer from late glacial/early postglacial contexts in British Is. (Glutton-Brock & Burleigh, 1983), and agrees closely with date of 9920 ± 130 by (Q-1581) for reindeer antler from neighboring site, Gough's Cave. Bone shows no evidence of human modification and need not be assoc with Cheddariantype late Magdalenian technol from this unit (cf BM-2183 to -2188, dates for Gough's Cave, Cheddar, above). With determinations from Gough's (New) Cave (Q-1581; Hawkins & Tratman,1977) and Sun Hole (Birm-819; Colcutt, Currant & Hawkes, 1981) confirms terminal ice-age presence of reindeer in Mendip area.

Ireland

Ferriters Cove series Samples from series of shell middens resting on wave-cut platform overlain by sand dunes at Ferriters Cove, Ballyoughteragh South, Co Kerry, Eire (52° 10' N, 10° 30' W). Coll 1983 and subm by P C Woodman, Univ Coll, Cork. 5230 ± 200

b13C BM-2227. Ferriters Cove = -29.3%o Charcoal, ref Sample 1, Site 1, loosely assoc with plano-convex stone knife and stone-working industries.

5190 ± 110

BM-2227A. Ferriters Cove Repeat measurement of BM-2227, above.

b'jC = -29.3 %o 5580 ± 110

513C BM-2228. Ferriters Cove = -29. l%o 7, 2, industry. Charcoal, ref Sample Site assoc with stone-working

Ferriters Cove of BM-2228, above. measurement Repeat BM-2228A.

b'3C

5620 =

±

80

-29.1 /oo

518

Janet Ambers, Keith Matthews, and Richard Burleigh 5310 ± 130 b13C BM-2229. Ferriters Cove = -28.5%o Charcoal, ref Sample 1, from Site 3, assoc with stone industry.

Ferriters Cove Repeat measurement of BM-2229, above. BM-2229A.

b13C

5270

±

90

= -28.5%o

General Comment (PCW): dates from Site 1 are slightly later than those from other sites which could be in keeping with slightly different industrial tradition and loose assoc with plano-convex knife. Industry from Sites 2 and 3 was, despite absence of "type fossils," reminiscent of later Mesolithic of N E Ireland. Dates would be in keeping with assumption that this material is

later Mesolithic. Ecuador

Hacienda Guarumal series Samples from Jambeli site at Hacienda Guarumal, near Machala, Eloro (3° 20' S, 80° 0' W). Co111976 and subm by Elizabeth J Currie (Carter), Inst Archaeol, Univ London. 1820 ± 70 b13C BM-1682. Hacienda Guarumal = -24.9%o Charcoal, ref HG 76 A13 S41, from thick layer of charcoal in probable fossil `A' horizon of original land surface beneath Shell Mound 1 (1.6m as!) just before 1st dumping of as yet unid. sp of Crassostrea. Dated for early phase of site occupation, as represented by exploitation of sp as primary food source. 1760 ± 70 b13C BM-1684. Hacienda Guarumal = -24.8%o Charcoal, ref HG 76 Al 1 S37, from within Crassostrea deposits. General Comment (EC): BM-1684 dates span for Crassostrea phase and provides ref between early date, BM-1682, for surface prior to shell dumping, and late date from final dumping layer in Mound 1, BM-1688 (R, 1983, v 25, p 46). BM-1684 fits with expectations for level well into Crassostrea deposits and is consistent with interpretation of regular exploitation of this shellfish for many seasons. These dates, with previous series (BM-1688, -1689; R, 1983, v 25, p 46) contribute to dating of main phases of site occupation, and, with pottery analysis, confirm this to be within later half of Ecuadorian Regional Development period.

India Zawar series Samples from early zinc-smelting site covering wide area at Zawar, Udaipur Dist, Rajasthan (center ca 24° N, 74° E). Coll 1983 and subm by P T Craddock, Research Lab, British Mus.

British Museum Natural Radiocarbon Measurements XVIII

519

10±40

b13C Zawar = -27.0%o Charcoal from Tr 1, Layer 3. Comment: AD 1680 to 1705,1810 to 1850, or 1880 to 1920*.

BM-2222.

230 ± 60 b13C Zawar = 29.0%0 Charcoal from Site 30 near N side of excavated furnace of form so far unique to Zawar. Comment: AD 1505 to 1675, 1710 to 1805, or 1925 to 1950*.

-

BM-2223.

80 ± 60 b13C Zawar = -26. l%o Charcoal sample, ref 33, from Site 34 at W end of Old Zawar. Sample taken from below many layers of floor levels where sec cut through occupation layers by modern road. Comment: AD 1665 to 1940*. General Comment (PTC): zinc distillation is described iii detail in Indian spagyrical works from 13th century onwards. Presence of concentration of 14th and 15th century temples within smelting area and documentary evidence from same period suggest extensive early zinc smelting at this time. Tod's reliable history (1829, p 399) records that mines were working in 1760 but were completely extinct by 19th century. Two samples from inside mine (BM-2184, -2149; R, 1984, v 26, p 67-68) gave dates of ca 2000 bp, but mines produced mixed silver/lead/zinc ore and these early dates probably relate to exploitation of silver/lead, with zinc production commencing at some time in medieval period. Zinc production on massive scale resulting in heaps of debris that cover site seems to have occurred in final 3 centuries of early process, possibly connected with rise and fall of East India trade to Europe. BM-2243.

Israel

1210 ± 100

b13C Timna = -25.1%o Charcoal, ref 1393, from bottom of smelting furnace cut into bedrock at Timna Site 30, in Timna Valley (Rothenberg, 1972; Rothenberg, Tylecote, & Boydell,1978), Wadi Arabah, ca 30km N of Elat, Gulf of Aqaba (34° 55' N, 29° 45' E) assoc with Egyptian pottery. Coll 1982 and subm by B Rothenberg, Inst Archaeo-Metallurg Studies, London. Comment supplied

BM-2242.

by P T Craddock, Research Lab, British Mus. Comment (PTC): sample came from Layer-l-type furnace, which was previously placed in Late Bronze age. However, this date and presence of some early Arabic pottery in vicinity suggests type was used much later. Other samples are currently being studied to establish if all Layer 1 furnaces are so late, or whether this fur-

nace type had long use. For other dates from site, see BM-1115, -1117, -1162, -1163; R, 1979, v21, p349-350; BM-1368, -1598; R,1982,v24, p 165.

520

Janet Ambers, Keith Matthews, and Richard Burleigh Nigeria

Igbo-Ukwu series Samples from sites at Igbo-Ukwu (6° 30' N, 7° 0' E). Area has produced cast bronzes, evidence of iron smelting, and copper (Shaw, 1975). Coil 1964 and subm by T Shaw, Cambridge. 720 ± 360

b13C BM-2142. Igbo-Ukwu = -25.0%o Richard. FracIgbo in burial chamber at from stool ref IR Wood, 420, tionation correction estimated.

1030 ± 300 513C BM-2143A. Igbo-Ukwu = -26. l%o Combined charcoal samples, ref IJ 248, IJ 441, IJ 381, and IJ 325 from Pit IV, Igbo Jonah.

880 ± 240 b13C BM-2143B. Igbo-Ukwu = 26.1 %o Repeat measurement of BM-2143A, above. General Comment (TS): controversy existed over 5 previous 14C dates from Igbo-Ukwu, of which 4 (I-2008, -1784; R, 1968, v 10, p 289 and Hv-1514, -1515; unpub) fall in 9th century ad and 1(Hv-1516; unpub) in 15th (Shaw, 1975). These 3 additional dates, together with 5 previous ones, would appear to place Igbo-Ukwu finds firmly in 9th to 11th centuries ad.

-

Pakistan Charcoal samples measured to supplement series from Punjab and North West Frontier Prov already pub (R, 1983, v 25, p 50-54). All samples coll 1983 and subm by K D Thomas, British Archaeol Mission to Pakistan and Inst Archaeol, Univ London. 2140 ± 130

b13C BM-2195. Bhir Mound = -25.0%o Charcoal, ref BM 1, from earliest occupation, 4 to 4.1 m below present surface, NE side of Bhir Mound, Taxila Valley, Punjab Prov (30° 45' N, 72° 50' E). Coordinates correct those previously given. Sample comes from distant part of site and was measured to check if surprisingly late dates from earlier series (BM-1951 to -1965; R, 1983, v 25, p 51-54) can be applied to whole site. Comment (KDT): date compares well with previous dates for earliest occupation at Bhir Mound.

Hathial West series Samples from mound of Hathial West, now thought to be 1st major settlement at Taxila (Allchin, 1982), near Taxila Mus, Punjab Prov (33° 45' N, 72° 50' E). Coordinates correct those given previously. BM-2196, -2197, -2198 from floors apparently assoc with previously undated Red Burnished

British Museum Natural Radiocarbon Measurements XVIII

521

Ware levels. BM-2199 from intrusive pit, probably contemporary with early Bhir Mound occupation, measured to check link between 2 sites. BM-2196.

Hathial West Charcoal, ref H 1.

b13C

BM-2197. Hathial West Charcoal, ref H2.

b13C

Hathial West Charcoal, ref H3.

b13C

BM-2198.

1890 ± 60 = -23.9%o

1890 ± 50

= -23.5%o

2610 ± 120 = -25.6%o 2210 ± 70

b13C = -24.9%o BM-2199. Hathial West Charcoal, ref HS 1. General Comment (KDT): BM-2196 and -2197 agree but are much later than expected and also much later than BM-2198, which seemed to come from same series of deposits. Both compare well with some dates for later occupation at Bhir Mound (BM-1952, -1955, -1957 to -1959, -1961; R, 1983, v 25, p 50-54). BM-2198 is, as expected, earlier than dates for Bhir Mound series (BM-1961, -1963 to -1965; R, 1983, v 25, p 50-54). BM-2199 is not consistent with BM-2196, -2197 but is strat consistent with BM-2198 and is earlier than those for earliest occupation of Bhir Mound. Series of dates is enigmatic; despite their agreement, BM-2196 and -2197 are at variance with archaeol interpretation of cultural sequence at site. BM-2198 is acceptable date in that Red Burnished Ware period was expected to be earlier than earliest occupation at Bhir Mound, although by how much was unknown; thus, date is provisional for Red Burnished Ware occupation at site. Clearly, complex strat and chronol relationships between various phases of occupation at Hathial will not be solved without further excavation.

Jhang series Samples from mound at Jhang, Taxila Valley, Taxila, Punjab Prov (33° 40' N, 72° 40' E), measured as addition to previous series of dates for northern extension of Kot Dijian culture. Site was severely damaged by recent excavations for foundation trenches of hospital. BM-2200. Jhang Charcoal, refJ 1, from Kot Dijian occupation floor.

b13C

3780 ± 220 = -24.2%o

BM-2201. Jhang Charcoal, ref J2, from Kot Dijian occupation floor.

b13C

4030 ± 50 = _24.0%o

Janet Ambers, Keith Matthews, and Richard Burleigh

522

940 ± 30 5'3C -25.0%0 BM-2202. Jhang Charcoal, ref J3, from pit. General Comment (KDT): BM-2200 compares well with later Kot Dijian dates from Serai Khola and Hathial, in Taxila Valley, and Tarakai Quila and Islam Chauki in Bannu Basin (R, 1983, v 25, p 50-54; R, 1982, v 24, p 281). BM-2201 compares well with earlier Kot Dijian occupation dates from Serai Khola. BM-2202 is far too late for Early Historic period occupation; either limited colln of potsherds has been inadequate to classify period of occupation of site or there is even later occupation in addition to one of Early Historic period. Date compares well with BM-1947 from upper levels at Serai Khola, assigned to late Hindu Shahi period. Spain

Modern

b13C BM-2002. Olive wood = -23. 8%o Olive wood (Olea europea) from exposed central zone of massive tree, ca 2m diam, at Ferrandell Oleza, Valldemosa, Mallorca, Baleares (39° 40' N, 2° 30' E). Coil 1981 and subm by R Burleigh to check against age of >1000 yr often claimed for some large or ancient-looking olive trees. Comment (RB): result presumably reflects difficulty of resolving 14C ages for last 200 to 300 yr due to natural 14C variations, as tree of this size cannot be completely modern; also shows that size and ancient appearance of these trees are not reliable indicators of great age (cf BM-2001; R, 1984, v 26, p 71). So-called "Olivos milenarios" trees may be only ca 200 yr old.

Moncin series Collagen from fragmentary domestic horse mandibles, id by AJ Legge, Dept Extra-Mural studies, Univ London, from multi-period occupation site at Moncin, Borja, Zaragoza prov (41 ° 50' N, 2° 10' W). Coll 1980 and 1982 and subm by R J Harrison, Dept Classics and Archaeol, Univ Bristol, and A J Legge.

BM-2193.

Moncin

b13C

2860 ± 60 = 20.400

-

From Quad 1, Level 3A (1980). 2840 ± 70

-

b'3C Moncin = 2 7.0%0 From Quad 1B/1D, Level 4, yellowish soil (1982). General Comment (RB & RJH): samples dated to check possibility of domestic horses at Moncin in Beaker period, ca 2000 bc, but results show that context of these bones is clearly late Bronze age and dates correspond clearly with BM-1926, 2880 ± 35 (R, 1983, v 25, p 54) from same cultural horizon in which finds include open platters and bowls, some decorated in "Boquique" style of stab-and-drag incision. Dates show that faunal remains

BM-2194.

British Museum Natural Radiocarbon Measurements XVIII

523

within deep middens at Moncin are in correct strat positions and that intermixing did not occur. GEOLOGIC SAMPLES

Copal series Copal (resin) from E Africa (ca 7° S, 38° E) and Miches, Dominican Republic (ca 19° N, 69° W); E African specimen from British Mus (Nat Hist) colln, Dominican specimen from Helen Fragnet. Subm by P E S Whalley, Dept Entomol, British Mus (Nat Hist) to verify age of material in relation to insect inclusions (R, 1982, v 24, p 256; Burleigh & Whalley,1983). BM-2211. E African copal Sample (ref BM-60864) coil by Sir Joseph Banks ca

140 ± 50 = -25.2%o 1750.

b13C AD

b13C

>36,000

BM-2235. Dominican copal = -26. l%o Sample ref D 001. General Comment (RB): result for E African specimen, BM-2211, is consistent with date of colln when allowance is made for natural 14C variations and adds to series of recent dates for copal for which Pleistocene age was expected (Burleigh & Whalley, 1983). Dominican specimen had IR specand was expected to be either Recent (modern) or trum similar to C age). Age is significant in relation to insect inclusions Miocene (infinitecoal in this material, 1st Pleistocene specimen dated. 1

REFERENCES

Allchin, F R, 1982, How old is the city of Taxila?: Antiquity, v 56, p 8-14. Bell, M, (ms), 1981, Valley sediments as evidence of Prehistoric land use: a study based on dry valleys in southeast England: PhD dissert, Univ London. Burleigh, R and Kerney, M P, 1982, Some chronological implications of a fossil molluscan assemblage from a Neolithic site at Brook, Kent, England: Jour Archaeol Sci, v 9, p 2938. Burleigh, R and Whalley, P, 1983, On the relative geological ages of amber and copal: Jour Nat Hist, v 17, p 919-921. Burleigh, R, Jacobi, E B, and Jacobi, R M, 1985, Early human resettlement of the British Isles following the last glacial maximum: new evidence from Gough's Cave, Cheddar: Quaternary Newsletter, no. 45, p 1-6. Campbell, J B and Sampson, C G, 1971, A new analysis of Kent's Cavern, Devonshire, England: Univ Oregon Anthropol Papers, no. 3. Clutton-Brock, J and Burleigh, R, 1983, Some archaeological applications of the dating of animal bone by radiocarbon with particular reference to post-Pleistocene extinctions, an Internatl symposium on C-14 and Archaeol, 1st, Groningen, Netherlands, 24-28 Aug, 1981, Proc: PACT Jour, v 8, p 409-419. Colcutt, S N, Currant, A P, and Hawkes, CJ, 1981, A further report on the excavations at Sun Hole, Cheddar: Univ Bristol Speleol Soc Proc, v 16, pt 1, p 21-38. Evans, J G, 1966, Late-glacial and Post-glacial subaerial deposits at Pitstone, Buckinghamshire: Geol Assoc Proc, v 77, p 347-364. Evans, J G and Valentine, K W G, 1974, Ecological changes induced by prehistoric man at Pitstone, Buckinghamshire: Jour Archaeol Sci, v 1, p 343-351. Gillespie, R, Gowlett, A J, Hall, E T, and Hedges, R E M, 1984, Radiocarbon measurement by accelerator mass spectrometry: an early selection of dates: Archaeometry, v 26, p 15-20. Goodfriend, G A and Hood, D G, 1983, Carbon isotope analysis of land snail shells: implications for carbon sources and radiocarbon dating: Radiocarbon, v 25, p 810-830. Hawkins, A B and Tratman, E K, 1977, The Quaternary deposits of the Mendip, Bath and

Janet Ambers, Keith Matthews, and Richard Burleigh

524

Bristol areas, including a reprinting of Donovan's 1954 and 1964 bibliographies: Univ Bristol Speleol Soc Proc, v 14, pt 3, p 197-232. Jacobi, R M, 1981, The Late Weichselian peopling of Britain and northwest Europe, in Archaeol Interregionalis, v 1, p 57-76, Warsaw and Cracow. Kerney, M P, 1977, A proposed zonation scheme for Late-glacial and Postglacial deposits using land Mollusca: Jour Archaeol Sci, v 4, p 387-390. Klein, Jeffery, Lerman, J C, Damon, P E, and Ralph, E K, 1982, Calibration of radiocarbon dates: tables based on the consensus data of the Workshop on Calibrating the Radiocarbon Time Scale: Radiocarbon, v 24, p 103-150. Parry, R F, 1929, Excavations at the caves, Cheddar: Somerset Archaeol and Nat Hist Soc Proc, v 74, pt 2, p 102-121. Excavations at Cheddar: Somerset Archaeol and Nat Hist Soc Proc, v 76, p

--1931,

46-62. Rothenberg, B, 1972, Timna-valley of the Biblical copper mines: London, Thames and Hudson.

Rothenberg, B, Tylecote, R F, and Boydell, P J, 1978, Chalcolithic copper smelting (Archaeometallurgy, JAMS Mono no. 1): London, Inst Archaeo-Metallurg Studies. Shaw, Thurstan,1975, Those Igbo-Ukwu radiocarbon dates-facts, fictions and probabilities: Afr Hist Jour, v 16, pt 4, p 503-517. Tod, J, 1829, Annals and antiquities of Rajast'han, or the central and western Rajpoot States of India, 2 vols (1829-1832): London, Smith Elder & Co.

[RADIOCARBON, VOL

27, No. 3, 1985, P 525-609]

TRONDHEIM NATURAL RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS IX REIDAR NYDAL, STEINAR GULLIKSEN, KNUT LOVSETH, and FRED SKOGSETH Radiological Dating Laboratory, The Norwegian Institute of Technology, The University of Trondheim, Norway INTRODUCTION

Most dates in this list were measured from 1976 to 1981. The counting technique is based on gas counting of CO2 in proportional counters at 2 atmospheres pressure. In addition to the 6 previous counters, with effective volumes ranging between 0.6L and 1.6L (R, 1978, v 20, p 105-133), two very small counters have been put into operation. These counters, effectively based on 0.2L and 0.1 L CO2, have backgrounds of 0.10 and 0.12 c/min and standard net count of 1.29 c/min and 0.69 c/min, respectively.

Chemical treatment of samples largely follows our earlier procedure. For gyttja samples, we tend to date the soluble and insoluble fractions separately. The date is only regarded satisfactory when agreement in age occurs between the two fractions. Dating of very old shells (>30,000 yr) has generally been performed on outer and inner fractions of the sample. Even if these fractions normally yield equal 14C ages, their reliability is often still doubted. Independent methods of amino acid and thorium/uranium dating have not yet completely excluded the possibility of contamination with younger carbon. Ages are calculated according to the Libby half-life of 5570 ± 30 years. The recent standard is 95% of the 14C activity of oxalic acid, referring to AD 1950. All ages are given in years before present (AD 1950) and correction for isotopic fractionation is generally performed. In addition to these dates, MASCA-calibrated dates are provided for samples up to 7000 yr, and are cited, AD/BCC`. The shell samples in our present and previous date lists are also corrected for reservoir effect (440 yr) and thus represent a fairly true historical age. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors wish to thank the submitters of the samples for their collaboration in preparing the manuscript. Typing and editorial assistance by Thea Marie Aasen has been of great importance. Financial support from The Norwegian Research Council for Science and the Humanities (NAVF) is gratefully acknowledged. GEOLOGIC SAMPLES

Svalbard Raised Beaches

Forlandet series Shells, shell fragments, and whale bone from Prins Karls Forland, Svalbard were coll 1975 to date sediments and raised beaches; subm 1975 to 525

526

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut L ivseth, and Fred Skogseth

1976 by Otto Salvigsen, Norwegian Polar Inst, Oslo. Comment (OS): sam14C ples designated SA are Th/U dated. Th/U ages of this series agree with results (Salvigsen & Nydal, 1981). If dates are reliable, series shows that highest beaches and great amounts of sediment are 30,000 to 40,000 yr BP. Late Weichselian ice sheet did not reach Prins Karls Forland, and area has been free of glacial ice for at least 40,000 yr (Salvigsen, 1977; Mangerud &

Gulliksen,1975). 32,750

+ 450

- 430

5130 = + 1.4%o T-2095. Aberdeenflya 1/SA-10 N, 10° 42' E). Shell fragments from surface at +30m (78° 52'

12,590 ± 70 5'3C + 0.9%o = T-2096. Aberdeenflya 2 Hiatella arctica from river cut in marine sediments at +9m, depth 0.5m (78° 51' N, 10° 50' E). Comment (OS): shells lived at unknown water depth. 35,230

+ 470

- 440

51C= +1.0%o T-2097. Aberdeenflya 3/SA-12 Hiatella arctica from river cut in clay-rich sediments at +1 2m, depth 0 to 0.5m (78° 52' N, 10° 50' E). 9300 ± 120 5130 = + 0.2%o T-2212. Austflyodden 1 Mya lruncata from beach sediments at + 10m (78° 15' N, 12° 05' E). Shells probably lived near tidal zone. 9370 ± 150 5'3C = -19.2%0 T-2235. Austflyodden 2 (OS): Comment l Om. at + Whale bone, well-preserved rib, on surface with T-2232 dates give same age for I Om level. 9490 ± 140

5130=-16.1%o T-2233: Persisiatna Remnants of whale bone on surface, covered by moss vegetation at + 28m (78° 18' N,11 ° 59' E). Comment (OS): age seems too old compared to Austflyodden dates. 10,880 ± 100 513C = + 1.0%o T-2391. Vestflya 0.25m (78° 15' m, depth Hiatella arctica in frost-sorted material at + 21 N,11 ° 55' E). Comment (OS): date is max for 21 m level.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

527

34,250 + 440 420 b13C T-2098. Aberdeenflya 4/SA-15 = + 0.9'/00 Mya truncata and Hiatella arctica on surface, frost-sorted material with stone circles at +36m (78° 51' N, 10° 49' E).

-

37,340

+ 910

- 820

8130 T-2392. Aberdeenflya 5 = + 1.2%0 Mya truncatg found in river cut at + l Om on surface (78° 51' N, 10°

56'E).

37,050

+ 910

- 830

8130 T-2099II. Sildresletta/SA-16 = + 1.2%0 Mya truncata from river cut near underlying bedrock slate at + 20m, depth 5 to 7m (78° 46' N, 10° 52' E).

41,400 +1600 1300 813C T-2100. Mc Vitiepynten 1/SA-13 = +0.3%o Mya truncatg from thin shell-rich layer in sediments meeting sea in steep, wave-cut cliff at +5.5m, depth 11 m (78° 52' N, 10° 52' E).

-

43,870 +

T-2101. Mc Vitiepynten 2 Mya truncatg at + 6m, depth 10.5m (see T-2100).

b13C

410

- 279

= + 0.3%o

Danskoya series Shells and shell fragments from Danskoya and Amsterdamoya, Svalbard (T-2091). Coll and subm 1975 to 1978 by 0 Salvigsen. Comment (OS): dates are max for glacial advance in NW corner of Svalbard. Th/U ages are highly variable and often younger than 14C ages. + 430 28,530 310 b13C = +D.Sobo

-

T-2091. Hakluytodden/SA-1 Mya Truncata and Hiatella arctica deposited on land at + 6 to + 8m by glacier stream (79° 47' N, 10° 48' E). 1400 38,400 + 1200 b13C T-2092. Kapp de Geer/SA-3 = +0.7%o Mya truncata, probably pushed up from sea bottom by glacial advance at +6 to +7m, depth 0 to 0.5m (79° 43' N, 10° 44' E).

-

528

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth 900

it- 800

38,800 813C=

+ D. 6%o T-2093. Kobbefjjorden/SA-5 Mya truncata from seaward front of moraine ridge of N shore of Kobbefjorden at +3 to +4m, depth 0 to 0.5m (79° 42' N, 10° 49' E).

41,100 +2700 2000 5'3C = +1. l%o T-2094. Luftskipsodden 1/SA-8 Hiatella arctica from seaward front of moraine ridge at +3 to + 4m, depth 0 to 0.5m (79° 41' N, 20° 43' E). 1800 40,700 + T-2390. Luftskipsodden 2/SA-6 1500

-

-

Hiatella arctica from sediments probably in situ at + 4m, depth 0 to 0.5m (79° 41' N, 10° 46' E). Comment (OS): underwater moraines and moraine ridges on land represent max extension of Late Weichselian ice sheet. Parts of this area have been ice-free for at least 40,000 yr (Salvigsen, 1979; Liestol, 1972). T-3095. Luftskipsodden/SA-8

38,500

it-

550 540

Mya truncata from seaward front of moraine ridge at +3 to + 4m, depth 0 to 0.5m at Luftskipsodden, Danskoya (79° 41' N, 10° 43' E). Vari+1000 BP; ous fractions (towards inside) 14C dated: A(24%): 37,700 900 B(33%): 39,300

T-3096.

+1700

-1400

BP;

C(33%): 38,900

Amsterdamoya

+900

- 800

-

BP

39,700

+ 1300

- 1000

Hiatella arctica from sand cliff facing sea on W coast at + 6m, depth 0.5m at Amsterdamoya (79° 46' N, 10° 41' E). Co111977; subm 1978 by 0 Salvigsen.

Phippsoya series Shells and whale bone from Phippsoya, Sjuoyane, Svalbard. Coil and

subm 1978 by 0 Salvigsen. 9950 ± 60 T-3100. Phippsoya I/SA78-51 Mya truncata from bottom of 18m high cliff sec facing sea of marine and glacial sediments at + 8m, depth 0.5m (80° 42' N, 21 ° 00' E). Comment (OS): discrepancy between assumed (30,000 to 40,000 yr) and real age is probably due to misinterpretation of sediments. They may have slid from top to bottom of sec. 1500 39,800 + T-3103. PhiPPsoYa II/SA-71 1300

-

Hiatella arctica from till overlain by marine deposits from cliff sec facing sea at +8m, depth 0.5m (80° 43' N, 20° 48' E). Comment (OS): various

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

529

3100 + 3300 BP; BP; B(21%): 38,000 dated; A(21%): 41,200 + 2300 2200 + 1500 BP. Amino acid date: >70,000 C(37%): 39,800 yr (Salvigsen & fractions

14C

-

Nydal, 1981).

T-3102.

-

-

1300

Phippsoya III/SA-46

39,400

+ 1000

-

900

Mya truncata found on and near surface in frost-sorted till above marine limit at +37m to +38m, depth 0 to 0.2m (80° 42' N, 21 ° 60' E). + 1960 BP; B(31%): 37,600 + 1400 BP; Comment: '4C dated; A(31%): 38,400

- 1200

-1500

C(32%): 41,400

+ 1900 BP. Amino acid date: ca 40,000 1500

-

BP,

and Th/U age

below ca 50,000 BP. 1330 ± 70

b13C T-3104. Phippsoya IV = -17.2%o Remnants of old-looking whale bone, 0.5m long, on surface of old beach ridge near marine limit at +22.5m (80° 42' N, 21 ° 00' E). Comment (OS): sample was thought to date marine limit on Sjuoyane. Age shows that this bone must have been brought up to its level by polar bear or man.

Damesmorena series Samples from marine morainal deposits in Damesmorena, Svalbard (77° 52' N, 16° 30' E). Coil 1975 and subm 1978 by 0 Haga and 0 Salvigsen, Norsk Polarinstitutt, Oslo. Comment: dated sample T-2236 supplements previous dates in series (R, 1978, v 20, p 107-108). T-2236. Damesmorena 4 340 ± 80 Driftwood (Salix sp) from oldest part of beach area of Damesmorena at +2m, partly buried in solifluction material from moraine. Comment (OH): dated for min of great surge of Paulabreen glacier, Van Mijen-

fjorden (Haga,1978). Svartknausflya series Driftwood and whale bones from different levels of raised beaches at Svartknausflya, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard (79° 25' N, 22° 00' E). Coil 1976; subm 1976-1977 by 0 Salvigsen. Comment (OS): dated to establish reliable emergence curve for this area (fig 1; Salvigsen, 1978). T-2393. Svartknausflya 1 >46,600 (2i) Log (Picea sp) from littoral sand and gravel at +89.9m in permafrost layer 1.5m below surface before its recent exposure by temporary meltwater stream. Diam is ca 0.2m with 120 annual rings. Comment (OS): log possibly survived greater extension of ice in Nordaustlandet. T-2394. Svartknausflya 2 Whale bone (vertebra) on surface at + 70m.

b13C

9630

± 120 = -17.0%o

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

530 m a.s.l.

80 -,

I-I W

70 -

W

# F+-i 60

-

F-.-1:14C AGE 20r

W :WHALEBONE *:PROBABLY MOVED DOWNWARDS

50

40 -I

30-

F--I

20-

10-

f+l PRESENT DRIFTWOOD LIMIT

0 10

9

8

7

6

5

1000 YEARS

4

3

2

0

1

B.P.

Fig 1. Emergence curve for the southern part of Nordaustlandet based on driftwood dates in the Svartknausflya series

9550 ± 80 T-2503. Svartknausflya 3 Driftwood (Salix sp) at + 65.5m, probably moved a few meters downwards by temporary meltwater stream.

9640 ± 140 5130 T-2502. Svartknausflya 4 = -18.5%o Whale bone, well-preservedjaw, covered by snow field at +68.7m. T-2697. Svartknausflya 5 Driftwood, (Salix sp) covered by snow field at + 52.8m.

9130

±

80

T-2504. Svartknausflya 6 Driftwood (Larix sp) diam ca 0.25m at +51.8m.

8800

± 100

T-2505. Svartknausflya 7 Driftwood (Larix sp) diam ca 0.3m at +48.7m.

8780

±

T-2696. Svartknausflya 8 Driftwood (Picea sp) diam ca 0.2m at +46.3m.

513CC

110

8890 ± 130 = -26. 7%o

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

T-2695. Svartknausflya 9 Driftwood (Larix sp) diam ca 0.35m at +43.7m.

531

b13C

8770 ± 120 = -26.0%o

T-2506. Svartknausflya 10 Driftwood (Larix sp) diam ca 0.4m at +41.8m.

8200 ± 110

T-2507. Svartknausflya 11 Driftwood (Salix sp) diam ca 0.15m at +36.8m.

8150 ± 100

T-2508. Svartknausflya 12 Driftwood (Larix sp) diam ca 0.3m at +31 .4m.

7440 ± 110

T-2509. Svartknausflya 13 Driftwood (Larix sp) diam ca 0.45m at + 25.1 m.

5850 ± 90

6270 ± 90

b13C T-2698. Svartknausflya 14 = -24.6%0 Driftwood, conifer, at + 23.1 m; probably moved downwards.

5670 ± 90 b13C T-2510. Svartknausflya 15 = -17.6%o Whale bone covered by beach sediment exposed in river cut 1 m below surface at +19.2m. T-2699. Svartknausflya 16 Driftwood (Larix sp) diam ca 0.3m at +1 6.4m.

b13C

4970 ± 60 = -25.9%o

T-2396. Svartknausflya 17 Driftwood (Larix sp) diam ca 0.3m at +1 6m.

4560 ± 80

T-2395. Svartknausflya 18 Driftwood (Picea sp) diam ca 0.3m at + 14.7m.

4650 ± 90

T-2694. Svartknausflya 19 Driftwood (Salix sp), diam ca 0.15m at + 12.2m.

b13C

T-2693. Svartknausflya 20 Driftwood (Larix sp), diam ca 0.3m at + 10.5m.

b13C

T-2511. Svartknausflya 21 Driftwood (Larix sp), diam ca 0.15m at + 7.7m.

4100 ± 90 =

- 2 7.1 °oo

4020 ± 100 = -24.4°oo

3520 ± 70

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

532

2600 ± 50

T-2692. Svartknausflya 22 Driftwood (Pinus sp), diam ca 0.25m at +4.5m.

3'3C= -24.4%o

1570 ± 70 T-2512. Svartknausflya 23 Driftwood (Larix sp), diam ca 0.5m at + 2.7m. Comment (OS): limit of new driftwood is ca 2.5m above mean tide level.

Northern Spitsbergen series Dates in this series are part of study of glacial history and old sea levels along Northern Spitsbergen coast. Coll and subm 1977 to 1978 by 0 Salvigsen.

9380 ± 110 T-2700. Liefdefjjorden Mya truncata and Hiatella arctica at + 6m, depth 0 to 0.3m from Lief defjorden, Spitsbergen, Svalbard (79° 35' N, 12° 45' E). Marine limit is ca 1Om.

>35,000 T-2701. Reinsdyrflya I SE part of in material frost-sorted of Shell fragments from surface N, 13° 43' 0.2m (79° to 0 depth +65m, at Spitsbergen, Reinsdyrflya, 40' E). T-2702 II.

Reinsdyrflya II

1800 43,300 + -1400

Hiatella arctica found on and near surface of marine terrace at + 80m at Reinsdyrflya (79° 45' N, 13° 40' E). 9260 ± 90 513C = -17.7%o T-2703. Reinsdyrflya III Part of whale rib found on surface at +1 9m at Reinsdyrflya (79° 45' N, 13° 50' E). Comment (OS): compared with other whalebone dates in area, this age seems too low. 9090 ± 70

b13C = -18.0%0 T-2838. Reinsdyrflya IV Whale cranium, partly covered with beach sediments at + 5m at Reinsdyrflya.

9480 ± 140 T-2819. Reinsdyrflya V Very big Mya truncata valves from marine sec, 8m thick, at + 4m, depth 0.4m on Stasjonsoyane (79° 41' N, 13° 40' E). 9540 ± 110

b13C = -17.9%o T-2837. Bockfjjorden I river at small by uncovered Skeleton of big whale in beach sediments, +21.5m at Bockfjorden (79° 28' N, 13° 25' E).

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

533

Bockfjorden II 10,050 ± 120 Shells of Mya truncata and Hiatella arctica from surface of frost-sorted material at 35m, depth 0 to 0.2m at Bockfjorden (79° 25' N, 13° 20' E). T-2918.

Roosneset 9580 ± 150 Mya truncata, single valves of >30g from bottom of marine terrace sec at +2m, depth 0.5m at Woodfjorden (79° 39' N, 13° 20' E), surface level, 7m asl. T-2917.

8760 ± 70 513C T-3097. Grahuken I = -17.9%o Cranium of big whale on ground surface at + 6m at Grahuken (79° 48' N,14° 34' E).

Grahuken II 9360 ± 110 Mytilus edulis shells from marine sec, 11 m thick, at + 8m, depth 1 m at Andree Land (79° 49' N, 14° 58' E). Comment (OS): Mytilus edulis is now extinct in Spitsbergen waters; date indicates rather warm Early Holocene climate in Spitsbergen. T-3098.

T-3099. Grahuken III 10,920 ± 120 Hiatella arctica from beach ridge terrace at +40m, depth 0 to 0.2m at Andree Land (79° 47' N, 14° 31' E). Comment (OS): date probably represents age of lower marine limit in area. Higher levels seem to be >40,000 yr (T-2702 II).

Rundisen series Driftwood and whale bones from different levels of raised beaches near Rundisen, Kongsoy, Kong Karls Land, Svalbard (78° 50' N, 29° 20' E). Coll 1979; subm 1979-1980 by 0 Salvigsen. Comment (OS): dated to establish reliable emergence curve for this area (fig 2; Salvigsen, 1981). T-3397. Rundisen 1 9790 ± 120 Driftwood (Larix) at + 1 OOm, recently exposed by temporary meltwater stream, diam ca 0.25m. Comment (OS): also dated as interlab check sample, GSC-3039: 9850 ± 80 (2cr).

33,600 ± 970 b13C T-3906. Rundisen 2 = -20.6%0 Whale bone at +96m, exposed by meltwater stream. Comment (OS): survived last glaciation in Svalbard, age seems too young compared with Rundisen 4 and 5. Coll by Bjorn Holmgren, Univ Uppsala. 8740 ± 130

bl3C T-3907. Rundisen 3 = -17.O0oo Whale bone on surface at + 88m. Comment (OS): seems too young compared with driftwood dates. Coll by B Holmgren.

534

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

ELEVATION (m)

110-

100-

\1

90-

80-

70-

60-

\W

50-

I-I 40 -I

30

20

-

N i-..:14C AGE±2aW : WHALEBONE

N

10-

Present driftwood limit I

10

9

8

7

6

5

1000 YEARS

4

B.

3

2

1

0

P.

Fig 2. Emergence curve for the eastern part of KongsOya based on driftwood dates in the Rundisen series

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

535

T-3355. Rundisen 4 >46,000 (2cr) Driftwood (Picea) at + 80m, recently exposed by meltwater stream, diam ca 0.05m. Comment (OS): survived Last glaciation in Svalbard. T-373211.

Rundisen 5

>52,000 (2o)

Driftwood (Picea) at + 72m, recently exposed by meltwater stream, diam ca 0.15m. Comment (OS): survived Last glaciation in Svalbard. T-3456. Rundisen 6 Driftwood (Picea) at +58m, diam ca 0.25m. T-3731. Rundisen 7 Whale bone (jaw) at +50m.

8370 ± 100

b13C

7640 ± 110 = -17.4 oo

T-3457. Rundisen 8 Driftwood (Picea) at +44m, diam ca 0.1 m.

6760 ± 90

T-3733. Rundisen 9 Driftwood (Larix) at +36.6m, diam ca 0.3m.

5850

70

T-3458. Rundisen 10 Driftwood (Larix) at + 31.5m, diam ca 0.15m.

5240

70

T-3726. Rundisen 11 Driftwood (Larix) at +27m, diam ca 0.4m.

4440

80

T-3730. Rundisen 12 Driftwood (Pinus) at +23.5m, diam ca 0.5m.

3970

80

T-3459. Rundisen 13 Driftwood (Larix) at + 17.2m, diam ca 0.5m.

2620

70

T-3729. Rundisen 14 Driftwood (Larix) at + 16m, diam ca 0.5m.

3110

80

T-3728. Rundisen 15 Driftwood (Pinus) at + 10.3m, diam ca 0.5m.

2150

70

750

60

T-3460. Rundisen 16 Driftwood (Populus) at +4.7m, diam ca 0.5m.

T-3727. Rundisen 17 110±60 Driftwood (Larix) at +2.5m, diam ca 0.25m. Comment (OS): limit of new driftwood is ca 2.5m above mean tide level.

536

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth Norway

Continental Shelf Mapping

Continental Shelf series, N Norway Marine shells and shell fragments were dated as part of regional mapping program of Continental Shelf Inst (IKU). Samples coil 1975 from 50 loci; Grab (0.5m3 vol), gravity corer (110mm diam), and vibrocorer (84mm) were used with Decca Main Chain as positioning system (Rokoengen, 1979; Rokoengen et al, 1977, 1979a; Rokoengen, Bugge, & Lofaldi, 1979b). 430 ± 60 C76-126/1 Malangsgrunnen at layer top from sample grab Arctica islandica, (69° 53' N, 17° 38' E), at 90m water depth.

T-2876.

1590 ± 70 T-2878. C76-139/1 Shell fragments, grab sample from gravelly top layer at Sveinsgrunnen (69° 34' N,16° 56' E), at 45m water depth. 1760 ± 70 T-2926. C76-136/1, 0.15m Grab sample 0.15m below sea bed in top sand with Cibicides lobatulus fauna at Sveinsgrunnen (69° 43' N, 16° 47' E), at 105m water depth.

5150 ± 60 T-2877. C-127/l, 0.l m Grab sample 0.1 m below sea bed in top sand with Cibicides lobatulus fauna at Malangsgrunnen (69° 54' N, 17° 33' E), at 75m water depth.

5590 ± 80 T-2530. B76-12/1, 0.2 to 0.3m Shell, grab sample, mainly Chlamys islandica and Macoma calcarea in silty, gravelly sand below 0.2m of silty, clayey sand in Vestfjorden (67° 23' N, 13° 05' E), at 230m water depth. 7030 ± 70 T-2546. C76-108/3, 0.1 to 0.2m Small shell and shell fragments in top sand, 0.22m thick, at Nordvestbanken (70° 21' N, 17° 24' E). Colt with vibrocorer at 200m water depth.

9630 ± 120 C76-113/3, 0.3 to 0.4m 0.05m top sand at Pomatoceros triqueter from layer, 0.4m thick, below 198m water N, at corer with gravity Colt E). 17° 51' 56' (70° Fugloybanken depth.

T-2879.

11,050 ± 140 B76-10/1, 0.15 to 0.4m Mya truncata, grab sample from 0.25m layer of silty, sandy, gravelly clay with shells below 0.15m sandy, gravelly top layer (67° 39' N, 12° 09' E), at

T-2648.

128m water depth. 11,090 ± 80 T-2529. C76-115/1, 0.6 to 0.7m Mya truncata and Macoma calcarea partly in life position at 0.6 to 0.7m ° below sea bed in silty, clayey sand at Tromsoflaket (71 16' N, 19° 44' E).

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

537

Sample contained microfauna dominated by Cibicides lobatulus, Cassidulina crassa, and Elphidium excavatum. Coil with gravity corer at 220m water depth. T-2327.

C76-114/1, 0.15 to 0.30m

11,130

±

180

Chlamys islandica from shell layer below 0.15m silty top sand at Fugloybanken (70° 54' N, 18° 00' E), was dominated by Cibicides lobatulus, Trifarina angulosa, and Cassidulina crassa. Grab sample at 207m water

depth. T-2649. C76-142/1, 0.05 to 0.2m 11,240 ± 150 Grab sample, mainly Mya truncata, from silty, gravelly sand layer below thin layer of stone, gravel, and sand (69° 21' N, 15° 32' E), at 170m water depth. T-2528. C76-113/3, 0.65 to 0.8m 11,770 ± 170 Shell fragments from silty, sandy, gravelly clay below 0.05m sand and 0.4m shell layer (see C76-113/3, 0.3 to 0.4m). Coil with gravity corer at 198m water depth (70° 51' N, 17° 56' E). T-2345. C76-148/1, 0.1 to 0.4m 11,970 ± 170 Shell fragments (Hiatella arctica, Mya truncata, and Balanus sp) in silty, sandy, gravelly clay below top layer of gravel and sand (68° 39' N,12° 59' E). Grab sample at 130m water depth.

T-2531. C76-108/3, 0.22 to 0.27m 12,200 ± 110 Shell fragments (Chlamys islandica, Macoma calcarea, and Balanus sp) in silty, sandy clay between top sand (see C76-1083, 0.1 to 0.2m) and basal till. Coll with vibrocorer at 200m water depth (70° 21' N, 17° 24' E). Comment (KR): till below (Mulegga drift) must be older than date. T-2344. C76-118/2, 0.3 to 0.4m 12,220 ± 200 Hiatella arctica from glacial marine clay below 0.2m silty sand and gravel and 0.1 m top sand (70° 47' N, 20° 00' E). Grab sample at 180m water depth. Comment (KR): this date also is min for underlying till (Mulegga Drift). T-2326. C76-109/1, 0.1 to 0.3m 13,310 ± 110 Shell fragments (mainly Chlamys islandica, Balanus sp, Mya truncata, and Hiatella arctica) from supposed till below 0.l m gravelly top sand (70° 27' N, 17° 41' E). Grab sample at 160m water depth. Comment (KR): date is max for Nordvestsnaget Drift off Troms.

Interstadial Events

Sandnes Interstadial series Marine sediments underlying Late Weichselian drift sheet at Ja ren (Sandnes Interstadial). Coll and subm 1965 to 1978 by B G Andersen, Dept Geol, Univ Oslo. Comment: after removing outer shell surface (10-20%),

538

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

various fractions (% of total) towards inside are both 14C and Th/U dated. 14C dates suggest age ca 40,000 BP for interstadial. Amino acid and some Th/U dates agree generally with this conclusion (Feyling Hanssen, 1971; Andersen et al, 1981).

T-3422 .

Oppstad , Jaeren

1800

A (43%)

39 , 200

- 1600

(45%)

, 600

1600 1300

Shell fragments from Skagerak moraine and underlying tectonized marine clay at + 180m, depth 0 to 3m, at old Oppstad clay pit (58° 39' N, 5° 42' E).

T-3423 .

Foss , Eigeland

A (30%)

27, 900

(60%)

, 330

850

- 760 700 640

Shell fragments from partly tectonized marine clay below Late Weichselian till at +60m, depth 0 to 6m, near Foss, Eigeland (58° 46' N, 5° 45' E).

>27,300 (2o) T-641. Graveren, Sandnes Whale bone from marine clay with Portlandia arctica, foraminiferal zone I at +20m from Sandnes (58° 50' N, 5° 45' E). Skagerak Moraine Shell and shell fragments from very clayey till (glacially tectonized marine clay) "Skagerak Moraine," at J2eren and Karmoy. Previously thought to be of Saalean age. Colt and subm 1968 to 1978 by B G Andersen. Comment: dates suggest that Skagerak Moraine is of Late Weichselian age. Th/U dates and amino acid dates support this conclusion (Andersen et al, 1981). T-640.

Lerbrekk, Jaeren

41,500

T-3631

Lerbrekk Jaeren

46

T-3011 .

Lerbrekk , Jaeren

43 ,

2000 2600

+ 2300 1800

Arctica islandica from Skagerak Moraine exposed in river bluff at +20m, depth 0 to 8m, at Lerbrekk, (58° 35' N, 5° 38' E).

Jren

T-1784.

Bo, Karmoy

Shell fragments at +8m, depth 0 to 6m.

35,900

+ 1900 1500

-

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

T-2006.

Bo, Karmoy

539 2200

37 , 500

- 1700

38, 300

- 1700

Portlandia arctica at +1 0m, depth 2 to 4m. T-2007.

Bo II , Karmoy

2400

Mya truncata at + l Om, depth 2 to 4m. Various shell and shell fragments exposed in clay pit at Bo, Karmoy (59° 22' N, 5° 13' E).

Nygaard interstadial series, Karmoy Marine sediments below Late Weichselian drift sheet at Karmoy were correlated with marine sediments below Sandnes interstadial deposits at J eren. They represent low shore level phase, called Nygaard Interstadial, separated from Sandnes Interstadial by Jren Stadial (Andersen et al, 1981). Coll and subm 1966 to 1978 (except for T-567) by B G Andersen. Comment (BGA): 14C dates suggest age between 40,000 and 50,000 BP. Amino acid and Th/U dates generally support this conclusion.

T-2953.

Bo Karmoy

A+B

(53.5%)

38 , 000

D

5%)

700

1700

- 1400

1800 Mya truncata from marine clay and sand beds below tectonized clay and Skagerak Moraine at ±6m, depth 5m, at Bo, Karmoy.

T-2954. Bo, Karmoy >46,500 (2Q) Well-preserved Chlamys islandicus from low-lying beds within marine unit. at +1m, depth 1Om. T-567. Reve, Jeren >37,500 (2(r) Hiatella arctica from bed in marine unit, lying below Late Weichselian till and overlying older till at +8m, depth 6m. Coll by S R Ostmo, Dept Geol, Univ Bergen. 1180 35,850 + 1040 Decomposed sand- and silt-rich organic matter at + 720m in Asheim, Bykle (59° 27' N, 7° 22' E). Colt and subm 1976 by Per Blystad, Univ Bergen. Sediment was found in ridge at top of brown, cobble- and boulderrich till overlying tectonized glaciofluvial sediment. Brown till was covered by compact basal till and loose melt-out till. Comment (PB): strat position, pollen content, and high age, indicate interstadial origin. Due to possible contamination by younger carbon, date should be regarded as min, indicating Early or Middle Weichselian age (Blystad, 1981).

T-2380.

Asheim

-

540

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

Glacial Events

Tjotta Glacial Event series, Nordland Shells from end moraines of Tjotta Glacial Event indicate early Younger Dryas age, 10,500 to 11,000 BP. 10,800 ± 180 T-3081. Sovik Portlandia arctica from zone with dropstones, 1 m thick, within min 4m thick glaciomarine clay sec at + l Om on distal side of Breimo end moraine at Sovik (65° 55' N, 12° 28' E). Coll and subm 1978 by B G Andersen. 10,460 ± 190 T-3083. Angersnes I Mya truncata from 0.5m thick bed of glaciomarine blue clay with dropstones within Angersnes end moraine at +25m at Angersnes (66° 04' N, 12° 42' E). Coll and subm 1978 by BGA.

10,540 ± 90 T-3272. Angersnes II from lenticula) Yoldiella arctica, Hiatella Shell fragments (Mya truncata, bouldery and gravelly till-like bed at + 25m within Angersnes moraine. 10,510 ± 190 silty sand with from elliptica Astarte Mya truncata, Macoma calcarea, and dropstones at + 1 Om at Laukbakken (66° 28' N, 13° 04' E). Coll and subm 1978 by BGA.

T-3276. Laukbakken

10,940 ± 120 T-3271. Sovikskar Mya truncata and Hiatella arctica from glaciomarine clay below Sovikskar end moraine (65° 54' N,12° 28' E). Coll and subm 1978 by BGA. 11,400 ± 100 T-3082. Breimo within Breimo end silt beds folded from strongly shells Crushed moraine at +60m at Breimo (65° 57' N, 12° 32' E). Beds are pushed up by glacier and are older than glacial advance. Coll and subm 1978 by BGA.

11,210 ± 200 T-3084. Fagervik Portlandia arctica from 4m silty clay unit, with no dropstones but overlain by 4m clayey silt without fossils and 2m outwash gravel. Sample was lkm from Brunes end moraine at +50m at Fagervik (66° 07' N, 12° 52' E). Coll and subm 1978 by BGA. 10,860

T-2374. Saetvik

3'3C

± 150 = +1. l%o

Chlamys islandica, Mya truncata, and Hiatella arctica from glaciomarine silty clay underlying Holocene marine sand ca 2km outside end-moraines deposited during Glomfjord event at ca +4m in Meloy (66° 50' N, 13° 55' E). Coll and subm 1976 by Arne Rasmussen, Geol Inst, Univ Bergen. Comment (AR): glaciomarine silt is correlated with Glomfjord moraines. Thus, sample dates Glomfjord event (Andersen et al, 1979).

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

541

11,050 ± 120 = +1.3%o Astarte elliptica, Mya truncatg, and Macoma calcarea from glaciomarine, silty clay at ca + 1 Om at Meloy (66° 50' N, 13° 45' E). Coil and subm 1976 by A Rasmussen. Comment (AR): also dates Glomfjord event.

T-2372.

Sands

b13C

11,080 ± 140 T-3520. Gravvik Shell fragments from till-sec, 11.5 to 14m high, in end-moraine deposited during Tjotta event at ca +30m at Nroy (65° 00' N, 11° 47' E). Coil and subm 1979 by Frede Boen, Geol Inst, Univ Bergen. Comment (FB): date is max for Tjotta event in area. 10,330 ± 200 T-3519. Bogen Portlandia arctica, Macoma calcarea, Hiatella arctica and Nuculana pernula from 2 to 3m glaciomarine clay at ca + 20m at Nroy, N Trondelag (65° 04' N, 11° 57' E). Coil and subm 1979 by F Boen. Comment (FB): probably dates late phase of Tjotta event.

Tjotta-Nordli events series, Nordland Shells from glaciomarine clays deposited during glacial retreat from Tjotta Event to Nordli Event moraines. Coll and subm 1977 by B G Andersen.

10,380 ± 270 T-2767. Mjones clay from glaciomarine Shells (Yoldiella lenticula) and fauna + 15m at Mjones (67° 16' N, 14° 59' E). Comment (BGA): date agrees very well with our knowledge of Tjotta and Nordli Events. 16,360 ± 480 T-2769. Nesna Foraminifera and Yoldiella lenticula from glaciomarine clay with dropstones + 15m at Nesna (66° 12' N,13° 02' E). Comment (BGA): date is much too old; sample must have been contaminated.

26,470 ± 3790 T-2768. Holstad-Venset Foraminifera, Yoldiella lenticula, etc from glaciomarine clay + 30m at Holstad-Venset (67° 16' N, 15° 01' E). Comment (BGA): see T-2769. 10,540 ± 190 T-2641. Nygardsjoen Yoldiella lenticula and Macoma calcarea at ca + 60m from lower parts of 3 to 5m glaciomarine clay, lying directly on bedrock and superimposed by 1 to 1.5m shore gravel at Gildeskal (67° 08' N, 14° 19' E). Coil and subm 1977 by Pal N Vallevik, Geol Inst, Univ Bergen. Comment (PNV): date is min for Stromoy event (Andersen et al, 1979).

Nordli Glacial Event series, Nordland Coil and subm 1978 by BGA.

542

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

T-3085.

Nordli

10,140

±

T-3273.

Forsland

10,100

±

180 Bathyarca glacialis, Yoldiella lenticula, and Macoma calcarea from gravelly and bouldery blue clay at + 60m, overlain by 0.5m gray clay with dropstones, l to 3m strat silt and clay and 1 m beach gravel with large boulders at Nordli (66° 05' N, 13° 06' E).

250

Macoma calcarea, Yoldiella lenticula, and Nuculana pernula at +50m from glaciomarine clay with dropstones on distal side of supposed loc of ice front during Nordli Event at Forsland (66° 03' N, 13° 01' E).

T-3275. Gronliakselen 9620 ± 110 Mya truncata, etc at + 15m from strat silt and clay on proximal side of Gronliakselen end moraine, which is older than silt and clay at Gronliakselen (66° 00' N, 12° 57' E).

T-3274. Ranelv 9480 ± 70 Mya truncata and Arctica islandica at +75 to 80m from bed of fossiliferous clay, 0.5m thick, on top of broad, low end moraine at Ranelv (66° 05' N, 13° 07' E). Clay rests on glaciomarine clay with dropstones and Yoldia lenticula fauna.

Vassdal Event series, Nordland Shells from glaciomarine clays deposited shortly after Vassdal Event. Coll and subm 1977 and 1978 by Arne Rasmussen, Dept Geol, Univ Bergen. T-2669. Bratsberg 11,740 ± 100 Macoma calcarea from glaciomarine silty clay, 1m thick, underlying ca 1 m shore gravel, also containing Astarte elliptica and Mya truncata at ca +20m, depth ca 3m, at Bratsberg, Gildeskal (66° 58' N,14° 04' E). Comment (AR): date is min for deglaciation at Sorfjorden. T-2672. Nverdal 11,610 ± 140 Mya truncata from lower part of 0 to 2m thick shell-rich glaciomarine clay overlying till at ca +40m in Neverdal, Meloy (66° 50' N, 13° 46' E). Comment (AR): dates early Allerod deglaciation of Glomfjorden.

Engavagen 11,720 ± 200 Macoma calcarea from glaciomarine clayey silt underlying 1 to 2m shore gravel at ca +5m at Engavagen, Meloy (66° 46' N, 13° 32' E). Comment (AR): date is min for Vassdal Event and early Allerod deglaciation of outer parts of Glomfjorden (Andersen et al, 1979). T-3080.

Pre-boreal Glacial events series, Nordland Shells from glaciomarine clays deposited in front of glaciers during several Pre-boreal glacial events. Coll 1979 by B G Andersen, F Boen, and N Vallevik; subm 1979 by F Boen.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

543

T-3521. Elsfjord 9780 ± 130 Mya truncata and Chlamys islandica from glaciomarine clay with numerous dropstones underlying 2 to 3m silty clay with few dropstones at Elsf ford, Vefsn (66° 05' N, 13° 30' E). Comment (BGA): date is believed contemporaneous with ice-front delta deposited from N at Elsfjord. 9890 ± 230 = + 1.0%o Yoldiella lenticula and Nuculana pernula from ca 3m glaciomarine clay with numerous dropstones underlying ca 1.5m layered, sandy clay with few b13C

T-3522. Terrak

dropstones, 200 to 300m outside end moraine at + 20m at Terrak, Bindal (65° 06' N, 12° 20' E). Comment (BGA): glaciomarine clay is believed contemporaneous with end moraine at Terrak. T-2870. Reisadalen, Troms 8940 ± 210 Gyttja from basal layer of bog at +80 to +85m in Reisa Valley, Nordreisa (69° 37' N, 21 ° 16' E). Bog is only few meters above highest marine level. Coll 1976 and subm 1978 by Bjorn Bergstrom, Dept Geol, Univ Bergen. Comment (BB): date is min for deglaciation and Betula rise and culmination in this part of valley. T-2765.

Oksfjord, Finnmark

11,040 ± 140 10,930 ± 130 Mya truncata and Hiatella arctica at + 15m from silt bed within foreset beds of delta, ca +25m, at Oksfjord (69° 57' N, 27° 30' E). Coil and subm 1977 by B G Andersen. A B

Forsand, Rogaland 12,250 ± 150 Mytilus edulis from clay bed at + 35m, overlain by 2m strat silt and clay and 8m outwash gravels at Forsand (58° 53' N, 5° 9' E). Coil and subm 1976 by B G Andersen. Comment (BGA): date is min for end moraine (corresponds with Lysefjord end moraine) and shows that glacier had retreated to position of moraine in late Boiling time. T-2467.

T-3202. Turhusvatnet 6-78, More og Romsdal 9170 ± 160 Gyttja from bog at + 350m, depth 5.4 to 5.5m at Turhusvatn, Eresfjord (62° 40' N, 8° 04' E). Coll 1978 by A B Carlson and B Torp, Dept Geog, Univ Oslo; subm 1978 by j L Sollid, Dept Geog, Univ Oslo. Comment (BLS): dated to test hypothesis that morphologic marginal moraines from Younger Dryas chronozone are synchronous. Date is younger than expected. Sample from lower part of core may not be from basal sediment (Sollid & Sorbel, 1979). Sea Level Changes

Frosta series, Nord-Tr, ndelag Gyttja and clay-gyttja from eight lakes on Frosta peninsula in NordTrndelag (63° 33' to 63° 37' N, 10° 40' to 10° 52' E). Series dates marine-

544

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

lacustrine boundaries from Late Weichselian and Flandrian time. Soluble (a) and insoluble (b) fractions were dated separately after treatment with 0.1 M Na4P2O7 and 0.1 M NaOH (Goh & Molloy,1972). Coil and subm 1976 to 1977 by Alfred Kjemperud and Ulf Hafsten, Bot Inst, Univ Trondheim (fig 3; Kjemperud 1978,1981; Hafsten, 1983). 10,480 ± 200 = -25.9%o

(a)

T-2624.

Skalitjern

o13C

(b)

10,610 ± 190 13C = -24.1%o

Coil at +1 70m, depth 8.37 to 8.41m, above marine/lacustrine boundary. Comment (AK): dates describe hyerbola-shaped shoreline displacement curve with continual regression from middle Younger Dryas up to now, and agree well with pollen strat established in all basins. (a)

T-2484.

Smatjern (b)

10,330

b13C

±

270

= -25.2%o

10,920 ± 150 = 24.0%0

-

b13C

Total organic (c)

10,590 ± 210 = 24.6%0 Colt at + 170m, depth 7.74 to 7.78m, above marine/lacustrine boundary.

-

o13C

m

T

Skalitjern 1-2624 A

Smatjern T-2484A

-1 Storsvetjern T- 2571 A Gronnsjoen T- 2569 A

L

150

r r r

t- Hovdalsvatn -

Rem mavatn

1-2570 A T-2568 A

100

-Asklundvatn T-1134A

r

\-

Skardtjern T-2483A

50

-¢-Lianvatn

`

r

12

10

8

6

1-2625A

4

Logtunmyr 1-1130

2

l 03 years

BP

Fig 3. Shore displacement curve for Frosta, Nord-Trndelag. -p- = MASCA age. After Kjemperund (1981)

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX (a)

T-2571.

Storsvetjern (b)

545 10,200

b13C

±

200

= -25.3%o

10,380 ± 130 = -24.0/oo

b13C

Coil at + 154m, depth 3.69 to 3.73m, above marine/lacustrine boundary. (a)

T-2569.

Gr,4?nnsjOen

(b)

b13C

b13C

9730

±

200

= -31.5%o

9880

±

130

-30.0/0o Coil at + 143m, depth 5.31 to 5.35m, above marine/lacustrine boun=

dary. (a)

T-2570.

Hovdalsvatn (b)

b13C

b13C

9560

± 160 = -25.5/oo

9520

± 120 = -23.9%o

Coil at + 118.5m, depth 3.60 to 3.64m, above marine/lacustrine boundary. (a)

T-2568.

Remmavatn (b)

b13C

9530 ± 150 = -35.8%o

b13C

9700 ± 160 = -35.4%o

Coli at + 108.5 m, depth 6.64 to 6.68m, above marine/lacustrine boundary. (a)

T-2482.

Skardtjern I (b)

Total organic (c)

b13C

b13C

b13C

8300

± 190 = -32.7/oo

8320 ± 130 = -31.4%o

8490

± 150 = -32.8%o

Coil at + 72m, depth 6.65 to 6.69m, beneath marine/lacustrine boundary. (a)

T-2483.

Skardtjern II (b)

b13C

b13C

8180

± 190 = -32.0/0o

8370

±

200

= -31.7%o

Coarse gyttja at +72m, depth 6.61 to 6.65m, above marine/lacustrine boundary.

546

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth (a)

T-2625.

Lianvatn

b13C

(b) S13G

5880

± 130 = -32.1%0

6000 ± 100 = -31.6%0

Clay gyttja at +42.5m, depth 5.41 to 5.45m, above marine/lacustrine boundary. Comment (AK): dates agree well with previous dates from same basin (Gulliksen, Nydal, & Skogseth, 1978).

Saug series, Hedmark Peat from shallow bog at + 250m in small depression at Saug, Ringsaker (60° 52' N, 10° 48' E). Coll 1972 and subm 1973 to 1974 by R Sorensen, Dept Geol, Agric Univ Norway (NLH), As. T-1531. Saug myr,1.02m 9260 ± 150 Basal telmatic peat at 1.02m depth. Comment (RS): dates approx deglaciation of area (Henningsmoen,1975; Hafsten, 1975). 8930 ± 140 b13C Saug myr, 6.50m = -32.0%0 Terrestrial peat at 0.65m depth. Comment (RS): dates Alnus expansion, also immigration of Ulmus. Age is too old compared to data from Stange (Henningsmoen, 1975), but similar to Valertjern (Hafsten, 1975; R, 1978, T-1746.

v20, p114). T-1842. Limosen 9460 ± 170 Gyttja with fine sand at + 208m, depth 8.65m, from Limosen, on Hauerseter glacial delta in Ullensaker (60° 10' N, 11 ° 13' E). Coll and subm 1974 by S R Ostmo and R Sorensen. Coil from deepest part of bog just above marine limit on large glacio-fluvial glacial delta. Comment (SRO, RS): date provides inf on establishment of pioneer vegetation (Holtedahl,1924, 1974).

As-Ski series, SE Norway Samples date Holocene sea-level changes and age of Ski Moraine from Akershus and Buskerud. Coil and subm 1973 to 1977 by R Sorensen and J M Ostby, Dept Geol, NLH, As (R, 1975, v 17, p 367; Sorensen, 1979).

3440 ± 110 S13C T-1529. Batsto peat = -31.7%o Peat and gyttja at +24m, depth 3.4m near present Oslofjord (59° 42' N, 10° 38' E). Comment (RS): dates abrupt transition from marine to terrestrial facies; 1885 ± 195 BC*.

T-1624I.

Batsto gyttja

6490

360

T-1624II. Batsto wood 6190 240 Wood and gyttja from + 50m, depth 2.3m at Verpen Lake (59° 42' N, 10° 38' E). Comment (RS): dates transition from marine to limnic facies. Mean age: 6280 ± 200; 5185 ± 165 BC*.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

547

T-1838. Verpen Lake 5580 ± 140 Clay gyttja from +42m, depth 5.20 to 5.25m at Verpen Lake (59° 40' N,10° 33' E). Comment (RS): similar to T-1624; 4470 ± 110 Be*. T-604. Gultvedt I 8100 ± 120 Pinus cones from + 70m, depth ca 1.2m at Gultvedt, As (59° 39' N,10° 43' E). Coil 1965 and subm 1966 by S Skjeseth and G Semb, NLH. Comment (SS): dates approx fm of lower Alnus carr peat.

T-1837. Gultvedt II 8760 ± 290 Clay gyttja from + 70m, depth 1.4m. Comment (SS): dates transition from marine to limnic/brackish facies. (a)

T-1528.

Kirkerudtjernet

b

(b)

'3C

9170 ± 310 = 35.00/o0

-

10,520 ± 270

b13C

= -37.5%0

Soluble (a) and insoluble (b) fractions of clay gyttja from + 120m, depth 7.45m (59° 43' N, 10° 46' E). Comment (RS): dates transition from marine to limnic facies. Older insoluble fraction may be due to contamination. T-2749. Haoya, Frogn 9590 ± 70 Mya truncata from + 1.25m, depth ca 2m at Frogn (59° 41' N, 10° 36' E). Comment (RS): approx age of 135m shore level. (a)

T-1527.

Grytland grustak (b)

9290

b13C

=

±

130

-0. 8%0

9290 ± 120 = 0.5%0

b13C

-

Arctica islandica from + 140m, depth ca 1.5m at Grytland, Krakstad (Ski) (59° 41' N, 10° 51' E). Comment (RS): approx age of 140m shore level.

T-607. Nordbyhogda 9530 ± 180 Balanus sp from + 150m, depth ca 4m at Nordbyhogda (59° 43' N, 10° 46' E). Coll and subm 1966 by S Skjeseth and G Semb. Comment (SS): approx age of 150m shore level. 9440 ± 140 b13C T-1747. Haugland = -1.5%o Arctica islandica from + 162m, depth 0.2m at Haugland, Ski (59° 44' N, 10° 49' E). Coil and subm 1974 by R Sorensen. Comment (RS): approx age of 162m shore level. T-1727. Myren 10,570 ± 250 Clay gyttja from bog of glaciomarine sediments at +1 67m, depth 4m at Enebakk (59° 45' N, 11 ° 00' E). Coil 1973 by J M Ostby, Dept Geol, Univ

548

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

Oslo; subm 1973 by J M Ostby and R Sorensen. Comment (RS): date is ca 1000 yr too old compared to others in series, possibly due to contamination.

10,490 ± 190 T-1623. Langskaugtjern Clay gyttja from small tarn with rock and moraine threshold at + 192m, depth 14.5m at Langskaugtjern, Enebakk (59° 46' N, 10° 59' E). Coll 1973 by J M Ostby; subm 1973 by J M Ostby and R Sorensen. Comment (RS): date is ca 700 yr too old compared to others in series, possibly due to contamination.

9520 ± 150 T-1726. Ostre Kollasen Clay gyttja from bog with rock threshold on NE side of hill at + 195m, depth 4.75m in Kollasen, Ski (59° 45' N, 10° 57' E). Coll 1973 by J M Ostby and E Sorensen; subm 1973 by J M Ostby. Comment (JMO): dates approx transition from marine to limnic facies.

Kilebu-Kolbjornvik series, Ostfold Shells from upper part of small valley below crags in Kolbjornviken, °

Marker (59° 19' N,11 ° 36' E) and S Kilebu, Rakkestad (59° 20' N,11 33' E). Coll 1973 and subm 1974 by R Sorensen (Breien, 1932; Oyen, 1912; Sorensen, 1973). 10,110 ± 190 b13C = 0.5%o T-1839. Kolbjornvik, skogen Balanus sp and Mya truncata from +1 80m, depth 1 to 1.5m. Comment (RS): dates approx upper marine limit at Kolbjornviken.

-

10,050 ± 190 5130 = -1.2%o T-1841. Kolbjornviken Comment Kolbjornviken. 1.5m at +11 6m, depth from Mytilus edulis (RS): unexpectedly high age of dominant littoral fauna. Mytilus shell beds may develop in deep water (>40m?). 9520 ± 140

S13C = -0.9%o T-1840. Kilebu "littorina level" Ltttorina sp from + 142m, depth ca 1m at Kilebu. Comment (RS): dates local Middle Pre-boreal.

Telemark I series Sediments from isolation contacts in cores from basins at + 7.4 to + 99.Om, dating Holocene sea level changes in Telemark. Transition from marine to lacustrine sediments determined by diatom analysis. Coll and subm 1972 to 1977 by Bjorg Stabell and Helge Irgens Hoeg, Dept Geol, Univ Oslo. Comment (HIH, BS): dates are generally in fair agreement with palynol (Stabell, 1976, 1980). Pollen analysis suggests that isolation coincides with Corylus rise (9500 BP).

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

549

T-1732. Depth 5.90 to 5.96m 8000 ± 270 Clay gyttja at +47m from Stamland, Eidanger (59° 05' N, 9° 45' E).

T-1740. Depth 3.70 to 3.75m 3750 ± 150 Clay gyttja at + 19.5m from Storemyr, Skien (59° 11' N, 9° 40' E); 2315 ± 225 BC*. T-1849. Depth 3.93m 5900 ± 240 Clay gyttja at +31.9m from Halvarp, Porsgrunn (59° 04' N, 9° 48' E); 4800 ± 290 BC*. T-1850. Depth 3.64 to 3.66m 2630 ± 180 Clay gyttja at +8.43m from Lona (Svartkjenn), Kragero (58° 50' N, 9° 17' E); 870 ± 340 BC*. T-1851. Depth 3.38m 3070 ± 170 Clay gyttja at + 14.95m from Bero, Kragero (59° 52' N, 9° 27' E);1395 245 BC*. T-1852. Depth 2.73m 4340 ± 180 Clay gyttja at + 18.5m from Bog N of Oisang, Risor, Aust-Agder (58° 46' N, 9° 16' E); 3105 ± 245 BC*. T-1853. Depth 4.30 to 4.33m 5860 ± 290 Clay gyttja at +27.5m from Dyvikvann, Kragero (58° 55' N, 9° 27' E); 4770 ± 330 BC*. T-1962. Depth 3.30 to 3.40m 3260 ± 240 Clay gyttja at + 7.4m from Vallemyr, Porsgrunn (59° 07' N, 9° 41' E). Change from Hystrix and Discorbina to Pediastrum. Comment (BS): sediment dates change to more saline water, not isolation from sea; 1665 ± 355 BC*. T-1963. Depth 4.70 to 4.73m 2750 ± 240 Gyttja at + 10.5m from Karlstadkjenna, Kragero (58° 52' N, 9° 23' E); 975 ± 215 BC*.

T-1964. Depth 4.00 to 4.03m 6270 ± 130 Clay gyttja at +28.6m from Tyvatn, Kragero (58° 54' N, 9° 19' E); 5180 ± 130 BC*.

T-1965. Depth 6.20 to 6.23m 7720 ± 200 Clay gyttja at +38m from Lillie Neslandskjenn, Kragero (58° 57' N, 9° 17' E)

T-1966. Depth 5.58 to 5.60m 8500 ± 180 Clay gyttja at +43m from Storekjenn, Kragero (58° 50' N, 90 26' E).

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

550

8820 ± 300 T-1967. Depth 6.62 to 6.64m Clay gyttja at +50.5m from Poddetjonn, Kragero (58° 49' N, 9° 14' E).

9040 ±210 T-1968. Depth 9.16 to 9.18m Clay gyttja at +99m from Langvann bog, Kragero (58° 51' N, 9° 16' E). Comment (BS): palynol suggests isolation occurred prior to Corylus rise (9500 BP). 2360 ± 110 T-2120. Depth 2.58 to 2.60m Clay gyttja at +7.4m from Vallermyr, Porsgrunn (59° 7' N, 9° 41' E); 580

±

170

BC*.

3830 ± 280 T-2414. Depth 2.23m N, 9° 21' 47' Clay gyttja at + 15m from Nygaardstjenna, Kragero (58° E); 2460 ± 410 BC*.

9180 ± 340 T-2415. Depth 6.95m Clay gyttja at +82m from Storemyr (Kolbjornsmyr), Kragero (58° 48' N, 9° 17' E). Transition from marine to lacustrine sediments determined by diatom analysis. 9620 ± 80 T-2564. Ovre Grefsen Gard Erratic plates of Balanus balanus on large boulder, at + 198m, depth ca 5m, at Ovre Grefsen Gard, Oslo (59° 57' N, 10° 47' E). Coil 1977 by Iver Grefsen; subm 1977 by Just Gjessing, Dept Geog, Univ Oslo and Nils Spjeldnaes, Dept Palaeoecol, Aarhus Univ, Denmark. Comment (JG): dated in accordance with current views on ice recession and uplift of land in region, but in contrast with earlier dates for Skadalen (at + 221 m) judged to be too young (Gjessing & Spjeldnaes, 1979).

Svinesund Project series, Ostfold Svinesund Project is pilot proj using methods of modern marine ecology to improve precision of graphic methods used for late Pleistocene. Loc 2km NNE of Svinesund Bridge, Ostfold (UTM grid, 32, P1 307554). Coll 1974 and subm 1976 by Nild Spjeldnaes. Comment (NS): previous methods do not reflect time-strat but rather small ecol changes in basal condition. Complex at Svinesund was deposited during comparatively short time, as expected from geog position and fauna (Spjeldnaes, 1978). 11,160 ± 100 SV-IA, upper bed Macoma calcarea in life position in fresh road cut at + 70.5m.

T-2430.

11,140 ± 140 SV-IF, Mytilus clump Mytilus edulis from fresh road cut in clay at + 67m. Shells are supposed to represent ice-rafted clump of animals with articulated valves, originally living in littoral environment.

T-2431.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

551

Vegetation History and Shore Displacement

Endletvann series, Nordland Clay and gyttja coil with 0.054m diam sampler (Geonor) at +35m at Endletvann, Andoya (69° 44' N,16° 05' E). Coil and subm 1972 to 1976 by K D Vorren, Univ Tromso. Comment (KDV): 4m sample core gives continuous inf of vegetational development during long period of late Weichselian. Site is unique in being only one in Scandinavia covering time span from 18,000 to 19,000 BP until present. Dating either of total sample (HCltreated) or NaOH soluble (a) and insoluble fraction (b) (Vorren, 1978). Core extension is 5.3m for Late Weichselian layers and 5.5m for Holocene, totally 10.8m. Samples were in overlapping 0.8m segments. T-1888. Endletvann 10 (a) 10,510 ± 510 Depth 5.45 to 5.55m. Comment (KDV): dated for regional Holocene Betula expansion; expected age ca 9500 BP. T-1889. Endletvann 11 10,850 ± 280 Depth 5.75 to 5.85m. Comment (KDV): dated for rise of Empetrum curve during later part of Younger Dryas, but is estimated to be too old. T-1510. Endletvann 2 Depth 6.25 to 6.35m. Rumex decline, Artemisia rise.

10,940

±

270

T-1511. Endletvann 3 12,610±220 Depth 6.65 to 6.67m. Comment (KDV): age concerns rise of Salix curve in late glacial period. T-1887. Endeltvann 9 12,920 ± 110 (KDV): oldest Dryas/Bolting transition. Depth 7.30 to 7.45m. Comment Marked increase in loss on ignition. Temperate mosses occurring. T-1576. Endletvann 7 (a) 11,800 ± 2000 Depth 7.42 to 7.52m. Comment (KDV): expected age ca 13,000 yr BP (see T-1887). T-1573. Endletvann 5 De p th 8 . 2 to 8 4m; ex p ected a ge ca 15 , 000 .

T-2152.

Endletvann 12

1600 BP .

(a) (b)

14,990

130

15,300 ± 290 Depth 9.05 to 9.15m. Dating of soluble (a) and insoluble fractions (b). Comment (KDV): expected to date climatic amelioration. Date is satisfac-

tory.

T-1512. Endletvann 4 18,710 ±400 Depth 9.75 to 9.95m. Expected to date near-bottom sediments (laminated clayey silt or gyttja). Date is satisfactory.

552

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

T-1575. Endletvann 6 (a)' 14,800 ± 1800 Depth 9.75 to 9.95m. Comment (KDV): expected age ca 18,000 to 19,000 BP. (a)'

18,100 ± 800 19,100 ± 270 Depth 9.98 to 10.28m. Comment (KDV): dates bottom lacustrine sediments; age is satisfactory.

T-1775.

Endletvann 8

(b)

T-1509. Palsa II, Troms 110 ± 70 Dated for sporadic permafrost (palsa) fm in area. Salix-Ericales peat was sampled at + 630m with iron tube, 0.1 m diam, and sampled for study of "pollen horizons" from Raggastatjaegge, Malsely (68° 37' N, 20° 01' E). Coil and subm 1973 by K D Vorren;
T-1220. Palsa, N Finland 1010 ± 80 Sphagnum lindbergii peat from palsa (5m high) at Ropinsalmi, 50km E of Kilpisjarvi (68° 50' N, 21° 20' E). Coil and subm 1973 by K D Vorren. Comment (KDV): date is older than expected, probably because of erosion; AD 970 ± 80*.

Bverdalen series, Oppland Peat coil with plastic pipes, O.IOm wide and 2m long, and gyttja coil with Russian type of chamber sampler, from BOverdalen Valley in W Jotunheimen mt area. Series dates start of peat fm and organic sedimentation, as well as various pollenstrat horizons. Samples coil and subm 1981 by Marie Aukrust and Ulf Hafsten. Comment (UH, MA): series indicates that oldest bog or lake deposits in area date to Boreal/Atlantic transition (T-4091, -4096A, -4090A). Alder (Alnus cf incana) was probably in area at that time. Dates show tendency of two-peaked pollen max during post-glacial optimum period. Agric activity may be traced back to late Bronze/early Iron age (T-4093) and cultivation to Viking age or a little later (T-4092) (Aukrust, 1983). 7890 ± 110 5'3C T-4091. Blamyrh = -29.2%o Peat from bog area NE of BlahO, Lom at +1 226m, depth 0.77 to 0.82m (61 ° 41' N, 08° 07' E). Dated sample at base of peat column.

8120 ± 120 5'3C T-4096A. B, verkinntjern II = 30.6%o Fine detritus gyttja from small lake E of Jotunheimen fjellstue, Lom at + l 000m, depth 5.80 to 5.85m (61 ° 40' N, 0.8° 09' E). Dated sample at base of organic deposits.

-

'

Hurnic acids extracted with 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M Na4P2O7 x 10 H2O.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

553 5300 ± 120

b13C T-4095A. B,1!verkinntjern I = -31.l%o Fine detritus gyttja from 5.05 to 5.1 Om at base of marked decrease in Pinus and non-arboreal pollen and start of continuous occurrence of Rumex pollen; 4170 ± 190 BC*.

7890 ± 160

b13C T-4090A. Raubergstultjern = -31.8%o Fine detritus gyttja from margin of small lake at Raubergstulen in ° BOverdalen, Lom at +999m, depth 4.58 to 4.63m (61 43' N, 08° 24' E). Dated sample at base of organic gyttja.

5510 ± 190 b13C T-4094. Dalsvatnmyr II = -28. l%o Peat from log at Dalsvatn in BOverdalen, Lom at + 736m, depth 1.12 to 1.17m (61 ° 41' N, 08° 10' E). Dated sample at base of peat column and steep fall in Alnus cf incana pollen curve; 4375 ± 185 BC*. 2480 ± 80

-

b13C T-4093. Dalsvatnmyr I = 25.5 oo Peat from 0.53 to 0.57m at steep fall in Pinus, Alnus and non-arboreal pollen and start of continuous occurrence of Rumex and Artemisia; 645 ±

155 BC*.

950 ± 80 b13C T-4092. Vassmyr = -24.8%o Peat from Vassmyra in BOverdalen, Lom at + 660m, depth 0.35 to 0.40m (61 ° 43' N, 08° 25' E). Dated sample at temporary min in Betula and non-arboreal pollen and at start of continuous occurrence of weed pollen (Artemisia, Rumex, Chenopodium, and Plantago lanceolata); AD 1030 ± 90*. Dovre series, Oppland Peat coll with plastic pipes, O. l Om wide and 2m long, and wood of subfossil pine trunk, from subalpine region of Dovre, S Norway, including Fokstumyra Nature Reserve and Dovrefjell Natl Park. Series dates start of bog and mire fm in area and various pollenstrat horizons. Peat samples coll and subm 1981 to 1982 by Grete Berge Owren and Ulf Hafsten; pine trunk coil 1979 by Johs Domaas, Dombas, and subm 1980 by Ulf Hafsten. Comment (UH, GBO): series indicates bog and mire fm in area dates to Boreal time (Fokstrumyrin I, Nysetra I). Pinus sylvestris probably had greatest extension in Boreal (Nysetra IV), whereas Alnus cf incana immigrated and culminated during Atlantic time, when concentration of Corylus and Ulmus pollen (long-distance transport?) is also highest. 8560 ± 70 b13C T-4563. Nysetra I = -28. 6%o From bog NW of Nystri, at + 101 Om, depth 1.26 to 1.30m (62° 09' N, 09° 18' E). Dated sample at base of peat column, well below first appearance of Alnus pollen.

554

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

6130 ± 110 8130 T-4434. Nysetra II = -27. O%o Peat from 0.73 to 0.77m depth, just below substantial Alnus cf incana pollen max and highest values recorded of Corylus and Ulmus; 5090 ± 150 BC*.

4910 ± 90 b13C = -25.9%o T-4435. Nysetra III Peat from 0.43 to 0.47m depth, just above max of alder, hazel, and elm, (see T-4434); 3705 ± 65 BC*. 8240 ± 100

8130 T-3650. Nysetra IV = -26.l%o Outer wood layer of protruding end of subfossil pine trunk, 3 to 4m long and 0.3m thick, sticking out of bog. Coll 1979 by Johs Domaas; subm 1980 by U Hafsten. Comment (UH): date agrees with results from Hardangervidda plateau and Sylene-Ovik mts in Jamtland, Sweden, that pine had greatest extension during early post-glacial warming period (Hafsten, 1981).

9010 ± 120 813C T-4565. Fokstumyrin I = -23.5%o Peat from central part of Fokstumyrin at + 950m, depth 1.61 to 1.65m (62° 07' N, 09° 18' E). Dated sample at base of peat column, well below first appearance of alder pollen. 6200 ± 40 8130 T-4566. Fokstumyrin II = -24.9%o Peat from 0.98 to 1.02m, at steep rise in birch pollen curve from 25 to 40% level, which might reflect establishment of subalpine birch forest belt in Dovre area; 5160 ± 80 BC*. 5720 ± 40 8130 T-4437. Valasj = 2 7.5%0 Peat from bog SW of ValasjOen at +940m, depth 1.03 to 1.07m (62° 10' N, 09° 22' E). Dated sample at upper boundary of alder pollen max and contemporaneous shift from pine to birch pollen dominance, 4555 ± 45

-

BC*.

3970 ± 80 b13C T-4436. Gavali = -27.8%o Peat from bog S of Gavalivatnet, Oppdal, SOr-TrOndelag at +940m, depth 0.93 to 0.97m (62° 16' N, 09° 38' E). Dated sample at marked fall in alder pollen and contemporaneous increase in non-arboreal pollen; 2600 ± 180 BC*.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

555

6940 ± 110 b13C T-4564. Bekkeiegret = -26. 7%0 Peat from bog 1 km SW of Bekkekegret, Oppdal, SOr-TrOndelag at + 111 Om, depth 1.38 to 1.41m (62° 20' N, 09° 46' E). Dated sample at base of peat column, at base of steep increase in alder and at end of pine dominance.

Nord-sterdal series, Hedmark Pine wood and peat coil from drainage ditches in extensive Gotlandsfloen peat bog, +482m (62° 17' 30" N, 10° 52' E), just E of Glomma R, in Tynset, Hedmark. T-1678. Gotlandsfloen I 6180 ± 100 Sample dates pine wood from stump layer resting on silty underground, beneath ca 2m thick peat layer. Coil 1973 by Ivar A Streitlien, from bottom of drainage ditch; subm 1974 by U Hafsten. T-3193. Gotlandsfloen II 7810 ± 60 Sample dates peat from 1.43 to 1.45m depth, at depth where local alder establishment is reflected. Coil 1975 and subm 1978 by U Hafsten. Comment (UH): date indicates that post-Weichselian alder establishment occurred at practically same time in continental Nord-sterdal dist as in most other parts of S Norway. 2730 ± 90 T-794. Ullahornet, M,9re and Romsdal Peat from base of extensive blanket bogs covering central mt plateau at +300 to 325m, 0.8m below surface at HaramsOy, NordOyane archipelago, Haram (62° 40' N, 06° 11' E). Sample coil SE of Ullahornet, at transition from mineral soil to overlying dark peat, where traces of organic matter of glacial survivals might be found. Coil and subm 1968 by U Hafsten, for Rolf Nordhagen, Univ Oslo. Comment (UH): date indicates that peat sample does not help trace plant survivals in ice-free refuges during last glaciation, but does trace local start of blanket bog fm (Hafsten & Tallantire, 1978).

Ytre Trondheimsfjord series, S Tr,dndelag Gyttja and peat coil with 75mm chamber samples and 110mm piston sampler from four lakes and bogs at mouth of Trondheimsfjord, in Agdenes and Bjugn, SOr-TrOndelag: Eidemstjern, Agdenes, +22m (63° 26' N, 9° 35' E), Langmyran, Bjugn, +65m (63° 43' N, 90 48' E), LomtjOnn, Bjugn, +1 34m (63° 44' N, 9048 E), and DamtjOnn, Bjugn, +1 34m (63° 47' N, 90 59 E). Series dates various palynol and strat horizons of post-Weichselian vegetational development and shore displacement. Coil and subm 1977-1979 by BjOrn Petter Hansen and Ulf Hafsten, Trondheim Univ. Comments (BPH, UH).

556

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

Vegetational History

8020 ± 110 T-2831. Lomtj¢nn I Peat, 3.05 to 3.15m depth, dates start of continuous alder pollen curve, reflecting local alder establishment. 7940 ± 130 T-3152A. DamtjOnn Gyttja 9.20 to 9.23m depth, dates start of continuous alder pollen curve, reflecting local alder establishment. 7830 ± 120 T-3153A. Lomtjnn IV Peat, 4.00 to 4.05m depth, dates isolated (30% high) alder and (5% high) hazel pollen max, ca 1 m below start of continuous (Megathermal) pollen curves for alder and hazel. Comment (BPH): date uncovers mix-up during sampling, later proved by resampling. Date agrees well with T-2831 and -3152A.

4230 ± 90 5'3C T-2832. Lomtjonn II = 28.5%o Peat, 2.20 to 2.30m depth, dates end of coinciding alder and elm pollen max; 2840 ± 150 BC*.

-

4100 ± 60 T-3282A. Eidemstjern II Gyttja, 6.70 to 6.73m depth, dates end of elm pollen max; 2770 ± 150 BC*.

T-3283A. Eidemstjern III 3750 ± 90 Gyttja, 6.43 to 6.46m depth, dates end of hazel pollen max; 2280 ± 160 BC*.

3010 ± 100 5'3C T-2833. Lomtjy nn III = -28.5%o Peat, from 1.85 to 1.95m depth, dates end of hazel pollen max; 1215 ± 185 BC*.

650 ± 70 5'3C T-2834. Langmyran = -28.5%o Peat, 0.17 to 0.21m depth, dates start of continuous spruce pollen curve, reflecting local spruce establishment; AD 1330 ± 70* (Hafsten, 1985). Shore Displacement

T-3151A. Eidemstjern I 4710 ± 50 Gyttja from 6.80 to 6.83m, overlying marine/lacustrine boundary; 3510 ± 100 BC*.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

557

T-3257. Eidemstjern IV 5000 ± 70 Thick-walled valve of Ostrea edulis shell, exposed on very shallow lake bottom near outlet of lake. Coil 1978 and subm 1979 by Ulf Hafsten; 3805 ± 85 BC*. Comment (UH): date supports that of T-3151A; basin was inundated by sea prior to 4710 ± 50 BP.

Steinkjer series, N Trdndelag Gyttja/dy, coil with Russian version of Hiller sampler, and peat, coil with 0.1 Om wide plastic pipe, from four lakes and bogs in Steinkjer, Nordto 170m (64° 03' N,11 ° 21' E), Vassaunvatnet, TrOndelag: Lomtjern, +165 ° N, 11 28' E), "Hammersumpen," +49m (64° 02' N, 11 ° + 117m (64° 03' 16' E), and Kirknesmyr, +36.5m (64° 02' N, 11° 15' E). Series dates various palynol and strat horizons of post-Weichselian vegetational development and agric hist. Coil and subm 1979-1981 by Ole Erik Jevne and U Hafsten. Comments (Jevne, 1982). 6050 ± 130

b13C T-3689A. Lomtjern I = -31.7 o Gyttja, 4.45 to 4.50m depth, dates steep rise in Corylus curve just below distinct increase in Ulmus pollen. Dates local establishment of hazel and elm; 4960 ± 170 BC*.

8030 ± 130 '3C T-4103A. Lomtjern III b = -32.2%o Gyttja, 5.15 to 5.20m depth, dates start of steep rise in Alnus curve reflecting local alder establishment. T-3690A.

Lomtjern II

b13C

9430 ± 110 = -30.3%0 9640 ± 140

b13C T-4178A. Lomtjern II = -29.5%o Gyttja, 5.40 to 5.45m depth, dates steep rise in Pinus curve reflecting local pine forest establishment. Comment: date seems somewhat high compared with pine forest establishment in S Scandinavia.

10,590 ± 190

b13C T-4104A. Lomtjern IV = -29.1%o Clay gyttja/gyttja, 5.63 to 5.68m depth, dates basis of organic deposits overlying basal clay. Comment: date seemingly too old compared with deglaciation hist of area, cf possible influence of inactive carbon from CambroOrdovician limestone ridges to E.

1350 ± 130

b13C T-3465A. Vassaunvatnet IV = -31.7%0 Gyttja, 3.85 to 3.90m depth, dating start of steep rise in Picea curve reflecting local forest establishment of Norwegian spruce; AD 640 ± 150* (Hafsten, 1985).

558

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

4550 ± 80 b13C = 31.8/0o T-4105A. Vassaunvatnet III Dy/gyttja, 4.65 to 4.70m depth, dates end of steep decline in Alnus, Corylus, and Ulmus curves and first appearance of cultivation (weeds only); 3330 ± 140 BC*.

-

7940 ± 130 b'3C = -37.6%o T-3464A. Vassaunvatnet II Gyttja, 5.25 to 5.30m depth, dates start of steep rise in Alnus curve reflecting local alder establishment. T-3463A.

Vassaunvatnet I

513C

9210 ± 130

-32.7%o 8760 ± 160

513C -31.3%o T-3463B. Vassaunvatnet I Gyttja 5.70 to 5.73m depth, dates marine/lacustrine boundary (isolation contact) of basin. Comment: result is surprising, because 1) soluble fraction indicates higher age than insoluble, and 2) both dates seem too young compared with shore displacement curve for Frosta, at same isobase (Kjem-

perud,1981). 1990 ± 80 513C = -30.7%o T-3688. Hammersumpen Minerogenous peat with charcoal particles, 0.62 to 0.66m depth, dates start of local cultivation reflecting late clearance phase; 45 ± 115 BC*. 1860 ± 40 b13C T-4102. Kirknesmyr II = -29.4/0o Peat from 1.10 to 1.15m depth, dates first appearance of cultivation including Cereale pollen; AD 115 ± 45*.

3910 ± 90 b13C T-2185. Kirknesmyr I = -27. 7/oo Lacustrine gyttja/peat, 1.5m depth, dates base of organic deposits resting on (beach)? gravel; 2400 ± 210 BC*. Comment (UH): date is min for Arctic rock carvings at Hammer, 0.5km to E, at same alt, which had been covered by old beach deposits and thus had been made just above ancient, littoral zone (Bakka,1975, p 17).

Nry series, N Tr,ndelag Gyttja coil with Russian version of Hiller sampler, and peat, coll with 0.10km wide plastic pipes from 11 lakes and bogs in NrOy, N TrOndelag. Series dates various palynol and strat horizons of post-Weichselian vegetational development and shore displacement. Coll and subm 1977 to 1980 by H Ramfjord and U Hafsten. Comments (HR, UH): (Ramfjord, 1982).

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

559

Vegetational History

T-3043A. GorrtjOnn II 8280 ± 150 Gyttja from GorrtjOnn at +66m, depth 4.47 to 4.52m (64° 55' N, 11 ° 38' E). Dates start of continuous alder curve, presumably reflecting local alder establishment.

T-2845. BlavasstjOnn II 8000 ± 160 Gyttja from BlavasstjOnn at +92m, depth 3.90 to 3.95m (64° 54' N, ° 11 38' E). Dates start of continuous alder curve, presumably reflecting local alder establishment. T-3045A. Blavasstj,nn III 6110 ± 200 Gyttja, 3.37 to 3.42m depth, dates "megathermal" min in QM curve, at same depth as decline of Alnus; 5090 ± 190 BC*. T-3044A. GorrtjOnn III 2630 + 120 Gyttja, 2.20 to 2.25m depth, dates start of continuous spruce curve, presumably reflecting local spruce establishment; 905 ± 115 BC*.

T-2846. BlavasstjOnn IV 2600 ± 120 Gyttja, 2.65 to 2.70m depth, dates start of continuous spruce curve, presumably reflecting local spruce establishment; 895 ± 115 BC*. T-3373A.

GorrtjOnnmyr

2400 ± 100

600 ± 180 BC*.

T-3373B. GorrtjOnnmyr 2060 ± 200 Peat, 0.26 to 0.30m depth, dates start of continuous spruce curve, presumably reflecting local spruce establishment; 145 ± 275 BC*. T-3247. Lypmomyr 1510 ± 110 Peat from LOypmomyr at +25m, depth 0.67 to 0.72m depth (64° 49' N, 11 ° 22' E). Dates rise in spruce curve, presumably related to climatic change at end of Roman Iron age; AD 420 ± 130* (Hafsten, 1985). Shore Displacement

Gyttja overlying marine/lacustrine boundary. 10,340 ± 250 b13C T-3844A. Nedre LisetjOnn = -27.7%o Gyttja 4.79 to 4.84m depth at Nedre LisetjOnn + 12m (64° 25'N, 11 °

49' E).

T-3844B.

Nedre LisetjOnn

b13C

9230

± 130 = -27.7%o

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

560

± 130 -30.7%o = T-3843A. Kvennhusvatn ° Gyttja, 3.53 to 3.58m depth at Kvennhusvatn +11 7m (64° 57' N, 11 b13C

9230

36' E).

T-3843B. Kvennhusvatn

b13C

8630 ± 150 = -28.7%o 8450 ± 80

b13C = -32.1%o T-3807A. LomstjOnn Gyttja, 3.35 to 3.40m depth at Lomstjern + 103m (64° 55' N, 11° 36'

E). b13C

8360

±

240

= -31.6%o T-3807B. LomstjOnn Date seems too young, compared with dates from lower level sites

(T-2844A, -2847A). 8950 ± 260 513C = -27.7%o T-2844A. Blavasstj, nn I Gyttja, 4.35 to 4.39m depth at BlavasstjOnn +92m (64° 54' N, 11° 38' E).

8680 ± 150 b13C = -27. 7%o T-2847A. Gorrtionn I N, 11 ° 38' +66m (64° 55' GorrtjOnn at 4.63m depth Gyttja, 4.58 to E).

6180 ± 90 b13C = -32.5%o T-3738A. Lomtjylnn Gyttja, 5.48 to 5.53m depth at LomtjOnn +52m (64° 53' N, 11° 39' E); 5135 ± 115 BC*.

T-3738B. 5280 ± 70

Lomtj,4?nn

513C

6380 ± 90 = -31.6%o

BC*.

7080 ± 110 b13C = -31.8%o T-3805 IIA. Strandavatn Gyttja, 10.90 to 10.95m depth at Strandavatn +48m (64° 56' N, 11°

31' E). 3750 ± 110 513C = -27.7%o T-3806A. L, ypmotjynn +18m 50' N,11° 22' (64° at 3.20m depth to Gyttja, 3.15 LOypmotjOnn E); 2295 ± 185 BC*.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX b13C

T-3806B. LOypmotjnn 1885 ± 225 BC*.

561

3440 ± 140 = -32.2%0

1570 ± 190

T-3845. Osavatn Gyttja, 2.97 to 3m at Osavatn +7m (64° 57' N,

Y3CC

11

°

= -31.0%0

41' E);

AD

405

±

185*.

Spruce Forest Establishment, SE Norway I Peat toll with plastic pipes, 0.10m wide and 2m long, from 18 peat bogs in E part of SE Norwegian spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst) forest prov, mainly within lower Glomma and Trysilelven catchments. Series dates peat at depths revealing local spruce forest establishment (fig 4). Coll and subm 1978 to 1983 by U Hafsten. Comment (UH): series shows that immigration and initial forest establishment of spruce in SE Norway took place within rather restricted period over its total N-S range, from Femund region in N to Iddefjord region in S (ca 300km), viz centuries just preceding and succeeding birth of Christ (late Celtic Iron age in N and Roman Iron age in S). Dates are arranged geog from N to S (Hafsten,1985). 2170 ± 70

b13C T-4850. Kvislflaet = -25.00/o0 From W part of extensive Kvislflaet bog area, Engerdal, Hedmark at +760m, depth 0.40 to 0.45m (61 ° 48' N, 12° 03' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; 275 ± 135 BC*.

2100 ± 80 b13C T-4856. S,rmyra = -26. 4%0 From SOrmyra at SennsjOen, Trysil, Hedmark at +520m, depth 0.80 to 0.85m (61 ° 36' N, 11 ° 55' E). Date at base of distinct rise in Picea pollen curve; 190 ± 200 BC*. 2990 ± 100 b13C T-4086. Storkyolen Profile A, I = -27.7%o From rim of big ditch dug in bog at StorkjOlen, Trysil, Hedmark at +735m, depth 0.53 to 0.57m (61° 20' N, 12° 38' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; 1305 ± 155 BC*. Comment (UH): reported date millennium older than other dates reported for spruce establishment in this area; due possibly to contamination at wall of ditch dug by excavator.

2210 ± 50 b13C T-4609. Storkjlen Profile A, II = -24. 7%o Depth 0.50 to 0.53m. Date at beginning of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; 315 ± 105 BC*.

562

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

Fig 4. Map series illustrating immigration and spread of spruce in S Norway. A-D: end of various Early Iron age stages; E-G: end of Late Iron age stages and Medieval time; H: early part of 20th century; small dots indicate scattered stands outside continuous (hatched) area.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

:

563

Fig 4 (cont'd). sites where local spruce forest establishment has already taken place. 0: establishment at transition to next period, 0: establishment not yet reflected for period (Hafsten,1985).

564

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

1900 ± 70 813C = -21.3%o T-5328. Storkj,dlen Profile B From same bog as Profile A, but coil ca 40m away from ditch where Profile A was secured, depth 0.68 to 0.70m. Date as base of marked rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 85 ± 65*. 1950 ± 50 813C = 26.1 % o T-3425. Rundfloen From bog at Rundfloen, Trysil, Hedmark at + 330m, depth 0.55 to 0.60m (61 ° 05' N, 12° 34' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve;

-

ADS ± 65*.

1960 ± 40 813C = -26.9%o T-3649. Fliskj len ° From FliskjOlen, Trysil, Hedmark at + 500m, depth 0.35 to 0.40m (61 04' N, 11 ° 57' E). Date of base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 5 ± 45*.

1990 ± 70 813C = 26.4%0 T-3867. Kinds] Oen From KindsjOen, Varmland, Sweden at +350m, depth 0.55 to 0.60m (60° 38' N, 12° 41' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; 35 ± 105 BC*.

-

2140 ± 70 813C = -28.3%o T-3253. Langmyra From Langmyra, Asnes, Hedmark at +200m, depth 0.85 to 0.90m (60° 39' N, 12° 13' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; 235 ± 165 BC*.

1890 ± 70 8130 = -27.2%o T-4085. Rogden I From bog at ROgden, Grue, Hedmark at + 285m, depth 1.05 to 1.1 Om (60° 25' N, 12° 28' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 90 ± 70*. 513C

390 ± 40

-

= 24.00/oo T-4451. Rdgden II Depth 0.35 to 0.40m. Date at base of temporary, pronounced min in Picea pollen curve; AD 1465 ± 45*.

1920 ± 70 813C = 28.0%o T-3256. Rennmyra From Rennmyra, Asnes, Hedmark at +1 68m, depth 1.45 to 1.50m (60° 31' N, 12° 02' E). Date at start of distinct rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 75 ± 65*.

-

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

565

1830 ± 70 b13C T-3254. Glesmyr = 26.8%0 From Glesmyr, Valer, Hedmark at + 187m, depth 0.80 to 0.85m (60° 41' N, 11 ° 50' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 140 ±

-

70*.

1830 ± 60 b13C T-3252. Raudstadmosen = -26.5%o From Raudstadmosen, Kongsvinger, Hedmark at + 160m, depth 0.75 to 0.80m (60° 13' N, 12° 02' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 140 ± 70*. 1710 ± 70 b13C T-3251. Ullernmosen = -27.7%0 From Ullernmosen (Stormyra), SOr-Odal, Hedmark at +1 38m, depth 0.95 to 1.OOm (60° 13' N,11 ° 39' E). Date at base of slow rise in Picea pollen curve, O. l Om below final steep rise in pollen curve; AD 260 ± 100*. 1850 ± 80 313C T-3250. Magnormosen = -27. 7%0 From bog N of Magnor, Eidskog, Hedmark at +1 28m, depth 1.12 to 1.15m (59° 58' N, 12° 13' E). Date at start of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 130 ± 80*. T-3042. Liermosen 1720 ± 70 From Liermosen, Aurskog-HOland, Akershus at +1 28m, depth 1.55 to 1.60m (59° 54' N, 11 ° 34' E). Date at start of distinct rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 260 ± 100*. 1730 ± 80 b13C T-3255. Vesle Jarsmoen = -27.7%o From Vesle Jarsmoen, Aurskog-HOland, Akershus at +161 m, depth 1.40 to 1.45m (59° 57' N,11 ° 23' E). Date at start of slow rise in Picea pollen curve, 0.30m below final, steep rise in pollen curve; AD 245 ± 105*. 1830 ± 40 bt3C T-4299. Lintjern I = -26.7%o From bog SE of Lintjern, Marker, Ostfold at +1 66m, depth 1.20 to 1.25m (59° 36' N,11 ° 37' E). Date at first slow rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 135 ± 45. 1650 ± 50

-

b13C T-4300. Lintjern II = 25.9%0 Depth 0.98 to 1.02m. Date at steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 325 ±

65*.

1730 ± 40 b13C T-4452. Breidmosen = -25.3%o From Breidmosen, Rakkestad, (stfold at +11 Om, depth 1.05 to ° 1. l Om (59° 22' N,11 32' E), Date at base of slow rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 230 ± 50*.

566

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

1580 ± 70 513C = -26. 1%o T-4652. Gullundmosen From Gullundmosen, Halden, Ostfold at +1 70m, depth 0.45 to 0.50m (50° 04' N,11 ° 31' E). Date at base of slow rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 410 ± 120*.

Spruce Forest Establishment, SE Norway II Peat, coil with plastic pipes, 0.10m wide and 2m long, from 24 peat bogs in central and W part of SE Norwegian spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst) forest prov, arranged from SE to NW along main river valleys or catchments (Osterdalen/Gudbrandsdalen, Valdres, Hallingdal-Hemsedal, Numedal). Series dates peat from depths where local spruce forest was established (fig 4). Coll and subm 1978 to 1983 by U Hafsten. Comment (UH): series shows distinct migration and spread of spruce forest in W or NW direction from earlier inhabited areas in E-most SE Norway (see SE Norway I). Areas at E foothills of Langfjellene mt range, which represents W boundary of continuous SE Norwegian spruce forest, were reached ca 800 to 1100 BP (see T-5329, -4553, -5060, -5059). Early outposts of spruce forest may have existed in areas W of MjOsa and Gudbrandsdalen Valleys (see T-4853 and probably -4088) (Hafsten, 1985). 1920 ± 40 5130 = -27.6%o T-3648. Svarstadmyr From bog S of Svarstadbua, Amot, Hedmark at + 370m, depth 0.35 to 0.38m (61 ° 12' N,11 ° 35' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 65 ± 45*. 1630 ± 80 5130 = -27.2%o T-4087. Stenersetra From bog at Stenersaetra, Trysil, Hedmark at +615m, depth 0.55 to 0.60m (61 ° 24' N,11 ° 52' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 335 ± 105*. 2020 ± 70 5130 = -26.3%o T-3426. Evenstad I From bog S of Evenstad RR sta, Stor-Elvdal, Hedmark at +260m, depth 0.50 to 0.55m (61 ° 25' N,11 ° 06' E). Date at start of low Picea pollen curve; 70 ± 130 BC*. 1460 ± 80 513C = -24.0%o T-4301. Evenstad II Depth 0.28 to 0.32m. Date at final, steep rise in Picea pollen curve, 0.20m, above T-3426; AD 520 ± 90*.

b13C

1680 ± 80 = -29.9%o

T-3647. stmyra I From S part of stmyra, Rendalen, Hedmark at +257m, depth 0.65 to 0.70m (61 ° 49' N, 11 ° 08' E). Date at initial, slow rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 285 ± 105*.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

567 1290 ± 70

b13C T-5061. Ostmyra II = -24.1%o Depth 0.40 to 0.45m. Date 0.20m above T-3647, at distinct rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 700 ± 90*.

1630 ± 60 b13C T-3646. Langmyra I = -28.6%o From Langmyra, Rendalen, Hedmark at +395m, depth 0.95 to 1.OOm (62° 02' N, 10° 55' E). Date at start of slow rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 345 ± 85*. 1230 ± 70

b13C T-4302. Langmyra II = -26. 7%o Depth 0.75 to 0.80m. Date 0.20m above T-3646, at start of final rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 750 ± 100*.

1760 ± 80 b13C T-3424. L, ten almenning = -27.5%o From boggy area at LOten almenning, LOten, Hedmark at +265m, depth 0.45 to 0.50m (60° 51' N,11 ° 25' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 200 ± 90*.

1620 ± 40 b13C T-4851. Danserasmyr = -26.8%o From Danserasmyr, Ringsaker, Hedmark at + 615m, depth 1.10 to 1.15m (60° 54' N, 10° 53' E). Date at start of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 360 ± 70*. 1190 ± 40

b13C T-5329. Holsbru = -24.7%o From peat bog surrounding small tarn ca 400m N of Holsbru, Gausdal, Oppland at +735m, depth 0.28 to 0.30m (61 ° 10' N, 09° 53' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 790 ± 60*.

1820 ± 80

b13C T-4088. Ormtjern = -27.9/oo From soligenous mire E of Ormtjern, Gausdal, Oppland at +835m, depth 0.28 to 0.32m (61 ° 11' N, 09° 51' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 160 ± 90*. Comment: because peat column was taken from sloping vaginatum mire, underlain by mica schist and alum slate, possibly that date is too old cannot be ignored.

T-3041. Gaustadmosan 1770 ± 50 From Gaustadmosan, Nittedal, Akershus at +1 09m, depth 1.10 to 1.13m (60° 02' N, 10° 53' F). Date at initial, slow rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 205 ± 55*.

568

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

1840 ± 80 8130 = -25.2%o T-4857. Skrukkelisj Oen From bog at E shore of SkrukkelisjOen, Hurdal, Akershus at +330m, depth 1.15 to 1.20m (60° 25' N, 10° 54' E). Date at start of initial, slow rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 140 ± 80*. 1920 ± 30 b13C = -25. 7%o T-4554. Stormyra From Stormyra, Vestre Toten, Oppland at +400m, depth 0.68 to 0.72m (60° 31' N, 10° 39' E). Date at steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 65 ± 35*.

3040 ± 80 513C = -28.0%0 T-4853. Vardal I From S part of bog complex N of Vardal church, GjOvik, Oppland at +500m, depth 0.35 to 0.40m (60° 50' N, 10° 31' E). Date at abrupt start and rise in Picea pollen curve; 1360 ± 140 BC*. Comment (UH): reported age millennium or more older than all other dates reported for spruce establishment in central SE Norway. 1580 ± 80 b13C = -28.3%o T-4089. Lykkrosmyr From Lykkrosmyr, 1 km W of Vikers etra, Ringerike, Buskerud at +700m, depth 0.25 to 0.30m (60° 27' N, 09° 56' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 400 ± 110*.

1140 ± 40 313C = -25. O%o T-4552. ROymyri From ROymyri, Nord-Aurdal, Oppland at +436m, depth 0.63 to 0.67m (60° 53' N, 09° 28' E). Date at start of marked rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 840 ± 70*. 1140 ± 30 25.0%0

'3C=

-

T-4553. Heggeb,? From bog at HeggebO, Oystre Slidre, Oppland at +650m, depth 0.13 to 0.17m (61 ° 10' N, 09° 03' E). Date of start of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 835 ± 55*. 960 ± 80 Y3C -26.3%o = Beitost,l T-5060. From complex bog E of Vesleani, 2km SE of BeitostOlen, Oystre ° Slidre, Oppland at +790m, depth 0.30 to 0.35m (61 13' N, 08° 56' E). Date at start of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 1020 ± 80*. 1140 ± 80

-

b13C = 26.3%0 T-4303. Stormyri I From Stormyri, 8km SE of Nesbyen, Nes, Buskerud at +251 m, depth 0.88 to 0.92m (60° 31' N, 09° 11' E). Date at initial, slow rise in Picea pollen

curve;

AD

835

± 165*.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

569 810 ± 40

AD

b13C T-4304. Stormyri II = -27.7%o Depth 0.48 to 0.52m. Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; 1155 ± 65*.

1450 ± 60

b13C T-4852. Granheim = -27.1% From bog at rifle range, 1.5km SE of Granheim, Hemsedal, Buskerud at +540m, depth 0.15 to 0.20m (60° 46' N, 08° 47' E). Date at start of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 530 ± 80*.

1040 ± 80

b13C T-5673. Fystro seter = -28.0%0 From small boggy spot within fenced-in meadow of Fystro seter, V Slidre, Oppland at +940m, depth 0.29 to 0.31m (60° 57' N, 08° 52' E). Date at start of rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 935 ± 85*.

810 ± 60 b13C T-5059. Vetremyrene = 25.3%0 From bog at old rifle range in Vetremyrene, Ho!, Buskerud at + 550m, depth 0.30 to 0.35m (60° 36' N, 08° 20' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 1155 ± 75*.

-

1190 ± 60 b13C T-5670. Lampeland = -26.1%o From bog 600m SSW of Ranvik, Flesberg, Buskerud at +1 70m, depth 0.60 to 0.63m (59° 50' N, 09° 34' E). Date at start of rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 785 ± 95*. 1360 ± 40

-

b13C T-4551. Aslefetmyr = 26.1 %o From Aslefetmyr, Flesberg, Buskerud at + 190m, depth 0.23 to 0.27m (59° 52' N, 09° 24' E). Date at start of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 620 ± 50*.

910 ± 60

b13C T-5671. Stormyri = -25.5%o From bog 2km E of Rollag, Rollag, Buskerud at +350m, depth 0.34 to 0.37m (59° 59' N, 09° 20' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 1075 ± 95*.

Spruce Forest Establishment, SE Norway III Peat coil with plastic pipes, O.IOm wide and 2m long, from four peat bogs in SW part of SE Norwegian spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst) forest prov, across Aust-Agder Co from E to W or SW. Series dates peat from depths of local spruce forest establishment (fig 4). Coil and subm 1982 to 1983 by U Hafsten. Comment (UH): series shows inland spread to W, towards Setesdalen Valley (viz, T-5332 at Evje), during Viking and Medieval ages and

570

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

probably followed by S migration down Setesdalen towards coast (see T-5331), during Medieval and Recent times (Hafsten, 1985). 1130 ± 70 b13C = -23.9%o T-4855. Kvisli From bog ca 1 km S of Kvisli, Vegardshei, Aust-Agder at + 220m, depth 0.30 to 0.35m (58° 54' N, 08° 56' E). Date at start of slow rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 855 ± 85*.

680 ± 70 b13C = -26.9%o T-5672. Myrli From bog NE of Myrli farm, Amli, Aust-Agder at + 270m, depth 0.13 to 0.16m (58° 40' N, 08° 43' E). Date at slow rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 1275 ± 75*.

400 ± 70 b13C = -23.9%o T-5330. Hinnebu From narrow bog 1 km S of Hinnebu, Froland, Aust-Agder at + 240m, depth 0.25 to 0.27m (58° 34' N, 08° 29' E). Date at start of marked rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 1465 ± 55*. 530 ± 40 513C = -24.8%o T-5332. Bjorvassmyr From Bjorvassmyr, Evje & Hornnes, Aust-Agder at +401m, depth 0.13 to 0.15m (58° 35' N, 07° 53' E). Sample at start of marked rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 1385 ± 25*. 170 ± 70

5'3C= -27.7%o T-5331. Fredsmyr From narrow bog S of Fredsmyr, Birkenes, Aust-Agder at + 200m, depth 0.33 to 0.35m (58° 20' N, 08° 07' E). Date at marked rise in Picea pollen curve. Younger than AD 1530*.

Spruce Forest Establishment, W Norway 1720 ± 80 b13C T-4306. Istadmyrene = -26.2%o From bog at Istad, Voss, Hordaland at +250m, depth 0.25 to 0.30m (60° 36' N, 06° 34' E). Date at start of low `tail' of Picea pollen curve, 0.2m below final rise; AD 270 ± 110*.

490 ± 70 b13C T-4305. Istadmyrene = 26.5%o Depth 0.08 to 0.12m. Date at final rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 1400 ± 40* (Hafsten, 1985).

-

Spruce Forest Establishment, Sr-Trndelag Peat, coil with plastic pipes, 0.1Om wide and 2m long, from seven ombrotrophic bogs in various parts of spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst) forest

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

571

in SOr-TrOndelag Co. Series dates peat from depths of local spruce forest establishment. Coil and subm 1978 to 1982 by P 0 Trillerud and U Haf sten. Comment: series shows slow spread of spruce from two early centers or outposts in Trondheim (cf Sjetnemyr) and upper part of Gauldalen (cf KjOlen) to central (cf Lundadalen and Gasbakken), S (cf Berkak) and W (cf Siken) spruce area (Trillerud,1983; Hafsten,1985).

1850 ± 70 b13C T-3864. Sjetnemyr = -23.1%o From Sjetnemyr, Trondheim, SOr-TrOndelag at +1 55m, depth 0.60 to 0.65m (63° 22' N, 10° 23' E). Date at base of rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 130 ± 70*.

1950 ± 70 b13C T-4150. Ki¢len = -26.1%o From KjOien bog complex, Haltdalen, SOr-TrOndelag at +570m, depth 0.22 to 0.25m (62° 56' N,11 ° 12' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 15 ± 115*.

1170±70

b13C T-4151. Fordalen = -26.2%o From Fordalen, Midtre Gauldal, SOr-TrOndelag at +570m, depth 0.20 to 0.23m (62° 53' N, 10° 44' E). Date at slow rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 865 ± 105*.

1070 ± 80 b13C T-3865. Lundadalen = 26.3%0 From Lundadalen, Melhus, SOr-TrOndelag at + 240m, depth 0.30 to 0.35m (63° 08' N, 10° 26' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 910 ± 90*.

-

850 ± 70

-

b13C T-4154. Gasbakken I = 26.0%0 From bog W of Gasbakken, Melhus, SOr-TrOndelag at + 260m, depth 0.30 to 0.35m (63° 07' N, 09° 57' E). Date at slow rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 1125 ± 95*.

1730 ± 70

b13C T-4153. Gasbakken II = -25.8%o From 0.65 to 0.70m. Date at base of protracted `tail' in Picea pollen curve; AD 250 ± 100*.

390 ± 70 b13C T-4152. Siken = -27.4%0 From bog at Siken, Orkdal, SOr-TrOndelag at +1 75m, depth 0.35 to 0.40m (63° 15' N, 09° 42' E). Date at base of marked rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 1500 ± 90*.

572

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

410 ± 70 b13C = -25.8%o T-3866. Berkak From bog S of Berkak, Rennebu, SOr-TrOndelag at +430m, depth 0.12 to 0.15m (62° 48' N, 10° 02' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 1465 ± 55*.

Spruce Forest Establishment, N Tr,dndelag I Peat coil with plastic pipes, 0.1Om wide and 2m long, from eight ombrotrophic bogs in spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst) forest in S part of NordTrOndelag Go, from Storvallen in Jamtland, Sweden, down StjOrdalen Valley to Trondheimsfjorden and N-ward E of fiord to Levanger. Series dates peat from depths of local spruce forest establishment. Coll and subm 1979 to 1981 by P U Sandvik and U Hafsten. Comment: series shows spread of Norwegian Spruce from E towards W part of study area (Hafsten,1985).

4820 ± 100 b13C = -26.3%o T-3967. Storvallen Profile A to 0.30m +570m, depth 0.25 at Storvallen From bog complex E of (63° 17' N, 12° 10' E). Date at base of slow rise in Picea pollen curve; 3635 ± 96 BC*. 2830 ± 80

b13C = -25.5%o T-4431. Storvallen Profile B A, depth 0.18 Profile From same bog as T-3967, but coil 2m away from to 0.20m. Date at base of slow rise in Picea pollen curve; 1075 ± 135 BC*. Comment: dated out to be control of T-3967, which seems surprisingly old.

1880 ± 40 513C T-3708. Skurdalsvollen = -29. 1%o From bog at Skurdalsvollen, Meraker at +442m, depth 1.03 to 1.07m (63° 23' N, 12° 00' E). Date at base of slow rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 100 ± 40*. 1910 ± 70 b13C T-3709. Klokkhaugen = -27.8%o From bog at Klokkhaugen, Meraker at +1 OOm, depth 0.43 to 0.47m (60° 26' N, 11 ° 42' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 75 ± 65*.

2010 ± 80 b13C T-3966. Hegra festning = -28.8%o From bog at Hegra festning, StjOrdal at +215m, depth 0.55 to 0.60m (63° 27' N,11 ° 10' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; 65 ± 125 BC*. 1340 ± 60 b13C T-3707. Aunet = -28. 7%o From Aunet in Lanke, StjOrdal at +160m, depth 0.90 to 0.95m (63° 24' N, 10° 55' E). Date at base of slow rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 630 60*.

573

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

1170 ± 40 b13C = -25.6%o T-4122. Nordsveet I From bog at Nordsveet, StjOrdal at +1 60m, depth 1.15 to 1.20m (63° 33' N, 10° 57' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 805 ± 75*. 1450 ± 90

-

b13C = 2 7.7%o T-4123. Nordsveet II From 1.95 to 2.OOm. Date at base of protracted `tail' in Picea pollen curve; AD 535 ± 105*.

b13C

1030 ± 70

= -27.2%o T-3963. Ronglan I From bog at Tuv N of Ronglan, Levanger at + 60m, depth 1.05 to ° 1.1 Om (63° 40' N,11 07' E). Dates lower of two steps in Picea pollen curve; ± 95*. AD 35

1470 ± 70 b13C = -26.7%o T-3964. Ronglan II From 0.75 to 0.80m depth. Dates upper of two steps in Picea pollen curve; AD 515 ± 85*.

1320 ± 70 '3C b = -27.3 %o T-4124. Alstadhaug I From bog SE of Alstadhaug church, Levanger at + 60m, depth 1.05 to ° 1.1 Om (63° 43' N,11 14' E). Data at base of slow rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 650 ± 80*. 3140 ± 80

b13C = -26.8%o T-4125. Alstadhaug II in Picea `tail' protracted of base at Date From 1.55 to 1.60m depth. pollen curve; 1470 ± 130 BC*.

Spruce Forest Establishment, N Tr,dndelag II Peat coll with plastic pipes, 0.1 Om wide and 2m long, from seven bogs in various parts of spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst) forest in central part of Nord-TrOndelag Co, E of Trondheimsfjorden and Snasavatn. Series dates peat from depths of local spruce forest establishment. Coll and subm 1979 to 1982 by S F Selvik and U Hafsten. Comment: series shows spread of spruce from E towards W part of study area (Hafsten, 1985). b'3C

2360

± 70

-28. 4%o

T-3898. Kalvikmyra From bog S of KvesjOen, Lierne at +430m, depth 0.49 to 0.51m (64° 27' N, 13° 52' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; 565 ± 145 BC*.

=

574

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

2030 ± 80 813C T-4119. Formofoss = 27.4%o From bog S of Formofoss, Grong at +1 75m, depth 1.03 to 1.06m (64° 23' N, 12° 31' E). Date at base of slow rise in Picea pollen curve; 95 ± 155 BC*.

2290 ± 80 813G T-4118. Brennmyra = -26.4%o From bog E of Snasavatnet, Snasa at + 75m, depth 1.20 to 1.22m (64° 14' N, 12° 19' E). Date at rise in Picea pollen curve; 430 ± 40 BC*. 1240 ± 70 813C T-3897. Bjrnamyra = -26. l%o From bog at Sasegg, Steinkjer at 80m, depth 1.04 to 1.07m (63° 56' N, ° 11 40' E). Date at rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 750 ± 100*.

2770 ± 80 813C T-3899. Leinsmyra I = -27.5%o From bog near Stiklestad, Verdal at +35m, depth 2.90 to 2.93m (63° 48' N,11 ° 32' E). Date at base of Picea pollen curve; 1005 ± 105 BC*. 1640 ± 70

S13C T-3896. Leinsmyra II = -28.3%o From 1.50 to 1.53m. Date at slow rise in Picea pollen curve, at end of protracted `tail' in same curve; AD 330 ± 100*.

720 ± 80 8130 T-3711. Leinsmyra III = 28.4°,/oo From 0.78 to 0.81m. Date at marked rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 1245 ± 65*.

-

1960 ± 60 8130 T-3548. Sveet = -28. 8%o From bog E of Veravatnet, Verdal at + 380m, depth 0.48 to 0.52m (63° 48' N, 12° 23' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; 5 ± 95 BC*.

1780 ± 70 8130 T-3710. Litlmomyra = 27.9%o From bog at Sul, Verdal at +250m, depth 0.72 to 0.76m (63° 40' N, 12° 00' E). Date at base of steep rise in Picea pollen curve; AD 190 ± 80*.

Hardangervidda series, SW Norway These studies have been part of "The Hardangervidda project for interdisiplinary cultural research" (HTK), to document vegetational and environmental hist during Holocene. Peat, gyttja, and wood were dated from this mountainous area, ca 8000km2 (60° 15' N, 07° 30' E). Coll and subm 1970-1974 by Dagfinn Moe, Bot Inst, Univ Bergen (Johansen,1973;

575

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

Moe, 1978a; Moe, Indrelid, & Kjos-Hansen, 1978; Moe, 1979; R, 1975, v 17, p 371-372; Indrelid & Moe,1982).

T-1079. DM 2302 Salix at +1310m (UTM MM 272865); 3940

5090 ± 180 ±

240

BC*.

6760 ± 100

T-1193. DM 1916 Betula pubescens at +1 005m (MM 048959).

5240 ± 140

T-1194. DM 1917 Pinus sylvestris at +1005m (MM 048959); 4120

±

230

BC*.

T-1197. DM 1287 Salix at + 1205 (MN 517017).

7170 ± 100

T-1254. DM 1288 Salix at + 1205m (MN 517017).

6580 ± 170

T-1309. DM 1782 Pinus sylvestris at +670m (MN 037003); AD 10

1930 ± 120

T-1310. DM 1784 Pinus sylvestris at +670 (MN 037003); 3690 T-1431. DM 1810 Peat at +670m (MN 037003); 4165 T-1432. DM 2595 Peat at +1135m (MN 540032); 915

± 150*.

4900 ± 130 ± 110 BC*.

5280 ± 100

185

±

BC*.

2710 ± 80

105

±

T-1432B. DM 2595B Peat at +1135m (MN 540032); AD 375 T-1433. DM 2596 Peat at +1135m (MN 540032); 3420

BC*.

1610 ± 110 ±

155*. 4640 ± 130

±

200

BC*.

T-1435. DM 2597 Betula pubescens at +890m (MN 121986); 3240

4450 ± 90 ±

130

BC*.

T-1436. DM 3057A Betula pubescens at +11 22m (MN 603625).

7010 ± 100

T-1437. DM 3060 Pinus sylvestris at +11 80m (MN 5172).

7740 ± 160

T-1438. DM 3061. Pinus sylvestris at + 1 1 OOm (MN 417917).

6510 ± 190

576

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

T-1447. DM 3062A Clay/gyttja at + 1190m (MM 44976).

16,350

620

8460

190

T-1447B1. DM 3062B (KOH) Clay/gyttja at +11 90m (MM 442976).

DM 3062A 9400 ± 260 Clay/gyttja at +1190m (MM 442976). Comment (DM): T-1447 is too old; sediment contains fyllit. New dates T-1447B1 (8460 ± 260 BP) and II are based on fractioned material. T-1 447B1 is close to estimate. T-1447B11.

T-1554. DM 2472 Peat at +1310m (MN 512038); AD 575

1400 ± 80 ± 85*.

T-1555. DM 2591(2588) Peat at +670m (MN 037003).

7570 ± 100

T-1651. DM 2577 Peat at +1005m (MN 048959); 830

2590 ± 80 ± 70 Bc*.

T-1652. DM 3280 Gyttja at +1245m (MM 148721). T-1653. DM 3281 Peat at +670m (MN 037003); 815

7910 ± 230

2570 ± 80 ±

75 BC*.

T-1654. DM 3278 Pinus sylvestris at +985m (MN 374083); 3540

4760 ± 90

140

±

BC*.

T-1655. DM 3279 Pinus sylvestris at + 11 OOm (MN 2814).

8180 ± 110

T-1656. DM 3239 Pinus sylvestris at +760m (MM 059987); 1155

2890 145

±

±

100

BC*.

T-1657. DM 3240 Pinus sylvestris at +760m (MM 059987);1090

± 150 Bc*.

T-1658. DM 3244 Pinus sylvestris at +800m (MN 052987); 3845

±

2840

±

80

5040

±

90

4080

±

80

115 Bc*.

T-1659. DM 3246 Betula pubescens at +990m (MM 114958); 2750

±

160

BC*.

T-1660. DM 3264 Pinus sylvestris at +1.100m (LM 982800); 4805

±

205

BC*.

5910

T-1741. DM 3242 Pinus sylvestris at + 675m (MN 036001); AD 1210

740 ±

100*.

±

140

±

90

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

577

T-1742. DM 3258 Pinus sylvestris at + 920m (MM 008933).

7160 ± 130

T-1743. DM 3274 Betula pubescens at +990m (MN 3709); 4220

5360 ± 110

T-1744. DM 3276 Pinus sylvestris at +990m (MN 3709); 5230

± 180 BC*.

6340 ± 100 ±

90

T-1745. DM 3263 Pinus sylvestris at + 1100m (LM 987812).

T-1762. DM LOC 35,108-112 Peat at + 1245m (MM 148721); 3380

BC*.

8310 ± 110

4580 ± 90 ±

140 BC*.

ARCHAEOLOGIC SAMPLES

Norway Settlement Sites

Iversfjord series, Finnmark Charcoal and marine shell from coastal site dating from younger Stone age. Fifteen of 50 houses were excavated 1974 to 1977 at +8 to + 12m in Iversfjord, Gamvik (70° 48' N, 27° 50' E). Coll and subm 1975 to 1977 by Ericka Helskog, Tromso Mus, Univ Tromso. General Comment (EH): most extensively excavated late Stone age site between Varangerfjord and Soroya. Dates indicate greater variation in length of occupation, activity, and population size than previously believed (Helskog, 1983). 3100 ± 70 T-2048. House 18 Charcoal (birch) from S side of entrance passage, depth 0.25m. Comment (EH): possibly secondary use of house; 1430 ± 120 BC*.

2600 ± 70 T-2049. House 19 Charcoal (birch) from middle of entrance passage, depth 0.15 to 0.20m; 840 ± 60 BC*. 2490 ± 100 T-2050. House 19 0.15 to depth passage, entrance of middle from Charcoal (birch) 0.20m; 645 ± 165 BC*. 3910 ± 70 b'3C = +1. l%o T-2347. House 15 midden Marine shell from layer 5 of midden, depth 0.4 to 0.5m. Comment (EH): osteol material indicates possible year-round occupation; 2405 ± 195 BC*. 3490 ± 100 T-2348. House 17 interior, house in platform stone from underlying (birch) Charcoal depth 0.2m;1910 ± 200 BC*.

578

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth T-2349. House 20 3560 ± 100 Charcoal (birch) from entrance passage, depth 0.2m; 1975 ± 175

BC*.

T-2350. House 22 2800 ± 110 Charcoal (birch) from charcoal concentration in middle of house interior, depth 0.1 to 0.2m;1055 ± 155 BC*. T-2351. House 32 3050 ± 90 Charcoal (pine, juniper) from charcoal concentration at N end of stone-lined hearth in house interior, depth 0.12m;1360 ± 140 BC*. T-2771. House 17 3640 ± 120 Charcoal (birch) in assoc with ornamented asbestos ceramics in layer 3 of refuse area in front of house entrance, depth 0.25m. Comment (EH): only '4C date on this material from coast of Finnmark; 2100 ± 80 BC*. T-2772. House 18 3730 ± 90 Charcoal (birch) from stone-lined hearth in house interior, depth 0.1 m; 2210 ± 100 BC*. T-2773. House 24 3410 ± 80 Charcoal (birch) from middle of stone-lined hearth in house interior, depth 0.1 m;1860 ± 180 BC*. T-2881. House 15 midden 4240 ± 100 Charcoal (birch) from midden layer 4, depth 0.4m; 3000 ± 150 BC*. T-2485. House 15 midden 4120 ± 50 Marine shell from layer 4 of midden, depth 0.3 to 0.4m; 2785 ± 135 BC*.

T-2486. House 17 3480 ± 130 Charcoal from charcoal concentration on border between floor and wall in NW quad of house interior, depth 0.13 to 0.15m;1900 ± 210 BC*.

T-2487. House 20 3590 ± 70 Charcoal (birch) from charcoal concentration in middle of house interior, depth 0.2m; 2080 ± 65 BC*.

Iesjav'ri series, Finnmark Charcoal concentration assoc with textile-ornamented asbestos ceramics from two-component Stone-age site at ca +400m, depth 0.2m at Karasjok (69° 42' N, 24° 18' E). Coil 1974 by Knut Helskog, Tromso Mus, Univ Tromso; subm 1975 to 1978 by E Helskog. Comment (EH): only 14C dated finds of asbestos ceramics from interior of Finnmark. T-1814. Gasadaknjar'ga no. l 1685 ± 185 BC*

3280

±

120

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

T-2880.

Gasadaknjar'ga no. 5

579 3100 ± 80

1425 ± 125 BC*

T-1815. Gasadaknjar'ga no. 6

4130 ± 230

2815 ± 335 Bc*

T-3312. Skrolsvik 1980 ± 70 Charcoal (Betula, Pinus) from hearth of Stone-age-type house C at +1 Sm in Skrolsvik, Trano, Troms (69° 04' N, 16° 49' E). Coil 1956 by Per Sorensen, Tromso Mus; subm 1979 by Olav S Johansen, Univ Tromso, 35 ± 105 BC*.

Tussoy series, Troms Charcoal from house site in Tussoy (69° 40' N, 18° 10' E). Samples (except T-1847) coil and subm 1972 to 1975 by Kari Storen Binns, Tromso Mus, Univ Tromso. Comment (KSB): dates show that site was used, with possible intervals, from AD 300 to 900 (Johansen, 1979; Storen, 1976; Storen Binns, 1978).

T-1402. Tussoy I/Dk From fireplace in SW end of site; AD 850

1120 ± 110 ±

150*.

T-1403. Tussoy I/Ek 1430 ± 80 From SW end of house, from earliest settlement layer of site; AD 545 ± 95*.

T-1628. Tussoy III/Vk From under wall of most recent house; AD 305

1660 ± 110 ±

135*.

T-1629. Tussoy VII/Ak 1220 ± 70 From inside E corner of wall, may be remnants from post hole; AD 750 ± 100*.

T-1630. Tussoy RI/Ak 480 ± 60 From burial cairn. Comment (KSB): date is 400 to 500 yr later than end of this type of burial; AD 1410 ± 30*. T-1847. Tussoy I/23 (1) From corner of oldest house site;

1400 ± 2 70 AD

580

±

T-2051. Tussoy I/27 (1) From fireplace in corner of house; AD 985

AD

300*. 990 ± 60 ±

65*.

T-2218. Tussoy I/28 1410 ± 70 From oldest settlement layer, outside walls of most recent house site; 570 ± 80*.

580

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

1620 ± 90 T-1900. Greipstad I Iron age farm is part of site which in house fireplace from Charcoal consisting of 5 houses, 3 burial graves, and gate at Greipstad, Troms (69° 33' N, 18° 27' E). Coll 1961 by Jens Storm Munch, Tromso Mus; subm 1973 by K Storen Binns; AD 350 ± 130*. 1980 ± 70 3'3C = -14.8%0 T-3064. Austein I Human bones of female skeleton buried in shelly sand with no visible grave structure on surface at + 3m, depth 0.5m at Austein, Kvaloy, Troms (69° 35' N, 18° 2' E). Coil and subm 1978 by K Storen Binns. Comment (KSB): oldest known date of Iron age burials in N Norway. Finds suggest Merovingian period (Storen Binns, 1978); 25 ± 95 BC*.

Helgoy series I, Troms Charcoal from Iron-age house sites in Helgoy parish were dated as part of multidisciplinary Helgoy Proj at Karlsoy (70° 07' N, 19° 21' E). Coll 1975 to 1979 by Kari Storen Binns, Astrid Utne, and I M Holm-Olsen, Tromso Mus; subm 1975 to 1980 by I M Holm-Olsen. Comment (IMHO): these Iron-age houses are of type traditionally attributed to Norwegian population (as opposed to Sami), and represent N-most permanent settlement of this kind in Norway (Holm-Olsen,1980). T-2044. Finnby 1975/2 From junction of wall and floor area;

AD

750

T-2281. Finnby 1975/1 From floor area; AD 735

±

1220

50

1250

60

1220

50

70*.

± 85*.

T-2742. Grunnfjord, Naust 1977/7 From floor area in boat house; AD 750

±

70*.

1350 ± 70 T-2914. Grunnfjord, Naust 1977/25 Charcoal concentration underlying floor level of boat house; AD 630 ±

60*.

T-3664. Nordskar 79/JA From interior wall of house;

350 ± 50 AD

1520 ± 90*.

Tjotta series, Nordland Charcoal from courtyard site at +1 Om at Laekkenga, Alstahaug (65° 00' N, 01 ° 30' E). T-2156, -2157, and -2746 colt 1950 by HE Lund, DKNVS Mus, Univ Trondheim; subm 1976 (except T-2746) by Tom Sobstad, Tromso Mus. Other samples coil and subm 1977 by Birgitta Wik, DKNVS Mus. Comment (BW): courtyard site consists of min 10 houses around an open square. Tjotta is known from Saga to be governmental center at end of Viking age. Evidence suggests center of religious, economic, administra-

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX Live,

581

and military activities. Similar sites also found on SW and N coast of

Norway.

T-2743. Laekkenga, Tuft A 1030 ± 50 Coll 0.73m below surface in center of hearth, 0.58m thick at S end of house; AD 960 ± 50*. T-2744. Laekkenga, Tuft B 1190 ± 50 Coll 0.36m below surface from hearth, 0.2 to 0.3m thick, at S end of house; AD 775 ± 75*. T-2745. Laekkenga, Tuft C 1410 ± 60 Coll 0.38 to 0.58m below surface from hearth, 0.2m thick, at S end of house; AD 575 ± 65*. T-2746. Laekkenga, Haug 2 1390 ± 70 Coil 0.5m below surface at base of mound under two stone layers; AD 585

± 75*.

T-2819. Laekkenga 5 1290 ± 70 Coll 0.46m below surface from lower part of construction loc between outer turf walls of houses A and. B, 0.38m thick, with burned stones, black earth, and burned animal bones; AD 685 ± 75*.

T-2156. Laekkenga, Tuft I 1640 ± 80 Coil from cooking pit, 0.8 to 0.9m deep, with burned stones and black earth. Top of pit was at floor level; AD 330 ± 110*. T-2157. Laekkenga, Tuft IIB Coll in hearths and along walls inside house;

1320 ± 70 AD

650

±

80*.

Vestvagoy series, Nordland Charcoal from several Iron-age farms, Vestvagoy I. Coll 1973 to 1977 and subm 1974-1978 by 0 S Johansen, Tromso ( Johansen,1979). T-3030. Malnes I, 1978/4 900 ± 50 Betula and Pinus from small deserted farm E of Malnes Hill at +1 Sm (68° 12' N, 14° 07' E). Coil from bottom of cultural layer on house floor; AD 1095 ± 75*. T-3031. Malnes II, 1978/1 Corylus at + 20m; AD 1080 ± 100*.

900 ± 80

T-1671. Liland 1973/2 1270 ± 110 Coll at + 25m, depth 0.15m in stone fireplace at Liland (68° 13' N, 13° 44' E). Comment (OSJ): only known example of stone fireplace in Iron-age house site on Vestvagoy. Date corresponds well with T-1672; AD 725 ± 125*.

582

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth 1330 ± 110 T-1672. Liland 1973/3 Coil at +25m, depth 0.3m below stone fireplace; AD 670 ± 120*.

2150 ± 80 T-1673. Bostad 1973/1 Coll at +25m, depth 0.4m from hearth below E outer sod wall at Bostad (68° 15' N, 13° 45' E). Comment (OSJ): date represents human activities before bldg of house. Pollen analysis confirms farming activities at Bostad almost continuously from ca 3800 BP; 285 ± 145 BC*. 1060 ± 150 T-1674. Bostad 1973/6 Coil at depth 0.15m in charcoal layer in house site. Comment (OSJ): with datable artifacts, date confirms that house belongs to late Iron age; AD 895 ± 165*. 1790 ± 150 T-1831. Bostad 1973/2 From cultural layer, 0.5m thick, below W outer wall of house site. Comment (OSJ): represents activities that antedate house; AD 205 ± 155*.

T-1832. Bostad 1973/7 Coil 0.3 to 0.4m above T-1831;

1260 ± 90 AD

720 ± 100*.

1470 ± 180 T-1833. Bostad 1973/8 From earth fill of depression in house floor. Comment (OSJ): range is too wide to determine if depression in floor antedates house or is part of structure; AD 485 ± 195*. 1650 ± 130 T-1834. Bostad 1973/4 From post hole in floor. Comment (OSJ): position does not fit well into house structure. Date supports suggestion that it belongs to older house; AD 325 ± 155*. 1290 ± 80 T-1969. Bostad 1973/3 From W outer sod wall. Comment (OSJ): post quem date for house; AD 695 ± 95*.

1680 ± 110 T-2112. Moland, Tuft 1,1975/5 Betula at + 20m from charcoal layer below outer sod wall at Moland (68° 13' N, 14° 07' E). Comment (OSJ): post quem date for construction of house; AD 295 ± 135*. 1610 ± 80 T-2113. Moland, Tuft 1,1975/8 Betula from charcoal layer along inside of outer sod wall; probably remains of inner wooden wall. Comment (OSJ): agrees with datable artifacts found in house; AD 370 ± 110*. 1540 ± 50 b'3C T-2628. Moland, Tuft 1,1976/7 = -28.7%o Betula from fireplace on house floor. Comment (OSJ): date generally agrees with T-2113; AD 460 ± 70*.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

583

T-2807. Moland, Tuft 1,1975/2 1680 ± 120 Betula from charcoal layer in earth fill on house floor. Comment (OSJ): dated for evidence of oldest period of farm; AD 295 ± 135*.

T-1835. Moland, Tuft 2,1974/2 1070 ± 70 Probably remains of inner wooden wall. Comment (OSJ): late Iron age; agrees with artifactual remains; AD 910 ± 90*. T-1970. Moland, Tuft 2,1974/1 1670 ± 160 Betula from concentration of charcoal on floor. Comment (OSJ): too old compared with artifacts and other 14C dates; may represent older activities, as it fits dates from houses 1, 3, and 4 in vicinity; AD 325 ± 185*. T-1971. Moland, Tuft 2,1974/11 1120 ± 70 Betula from charcoal layer in outer sod wall. Comment (OSJ): post quem date for construction of house. Fits with late Iron-age Viking-period date for house; AD 855 ± 85*. T-2114. Moland, Tuft 2,1975/2 1190 ± 100 Probably remains of inner wooden wall. Comment (OSJ): date seems to be from barn and agrees with 14C dates of T-1835 and -1971; AD 780 ± 130*.

Moland, Tuft 3,1975/XXXVI 1530 ± 70 Concentration of charcoal on floor. Comment (OSJ): agrees with datable artifacts in house: AD 460 ± 90*. T-2116.

T-2117. Moland Tuft 4,1975/7 1300 ± 90 From charcoal layers in outer wall. Comment (OSJ): date slightly too young compared with T-2118 and sherds from floor; AD 690 ± 100*. T-2118. Moland, Tuft 4,1975/20 1600 ± 60 From concentration of charcoal on floor. Comment (OSJ): agrees with date of potsherds from floor; AD 370 ± 80*. 1960 ± 100

-

b13C T-2629. Moland, Tuft 5,1976/40 = 28.9/00 From bottom of hearth dug into sterile soil in floor of house. Comment (OSJ): date is unacceptable compared to artifacts on floor, indicating that house belongs to Viking/early Medieval period; 5 ± 135 BC*.

1320 ± 60

-

b13C T-2630. Moland, Tuft 6,1976/am = 29.1 /oo From bottom of cultural layer (below slab) on floor in N part of house. Comment (OSJ): date is acceptable but slightly older than T-2809; AD 665 ± 65*.

T-2809. Moland, Tuft 6,1976/as Charcoal layer on floor in S part of house; AD 925

1050 ± 80 ± 95*.

584

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

1410 ± 60 T-2333. Moland, Struktur Z, 1976/3 From test pit of round shallow depression in meadow. Charcoal taken from central area where concentration of charcoal indicated fireplace. Comment (OSJ): no datable evidence; site may be ruins of round house.

2010 ± 150 T-2119. Moland, akerrein,1975/5 Charcoal in layer of sand underlying lynchet with traces of ploughing with ard. Comment (OSJ): post quem date for fm of lynchet; 125 ± 255 BC*. 1230 ± 110 T-2808. Moland, akerrein 1975/4 From charcoal layer ca 0.1Om above sample T-2119. Comment (OSJ): date indicates considerable interval between farming activities below lynchet (T-2119) and fm of lynchet; AD 750 ± 130*. 1660 ± 170 T-1972. Moland, Roys 1,1974/12 Charcoal from earth layer below stones in burial cairn. Comment (OSJ): it is uncertain if date is of construction period of cairn or is post quern date; AD 335 ± 195*.

1470 ± 190 T-1995. Moland, Roys 1,1974/13 Charcoal from sand layer 0.05m below T-1972. Comment (OSJ): post quern date for construction of cairn; AD 490 ± 200*.

960 ± 160 T-1973. Moland, Roys 2,1974/16 Comment (OSJ): cairn. in burial stones below Charcoal from sand layer it is uncertain if date is of construction period of cairn, or is post quem date; AD 1020 ± 170*. 790 ± 70

-

b13C = 28.0%o T-2631. Moland, naust,1977/7 sod and stone; From charcoal layer along inside of outer wall built of probably remains of inner wooden wall. Comment (OSJ): date younger than expected; may represent secondary activity on site; AD 1170 ± 80*.

1230 ± 70 T-3029. Moland, naust,1978/7 Betula and Pinus from charcoal layer at ca 3m on floor of boat house at Moland (68° 13' N, 14° 07' E). Comment (OSJ): date is more acceptable than T-2631; AD 750 ± 100*.

Gjerland series, Sogn og Fjordane Charcoal from two houses and cooking pits at +300m, depth 0.3m at Gjerland, Forde, (61 ° 20' N, 6° 20' E). Coll 1971 to 1972 and subm 1972 to 1973 by B Myhre. Comment (BM): dates were somewhat older than expected, but are now convincing (Myhre, 1973). T-1334.

No.

l

From fireplace in House I; AD 180

1790 ± 110 ±

110*.

T-1335. No. 2 From cooking pit outside houses; AD 405

1580 ±

185*.

150

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

No. 3 From fireplace in House I;

T-1404.

585 1650 ± 70

AD

315

T-1459. No. 4 From fireplace in House II; AD 300

± 95*.

1670

80

± 100*.

Boat house series, Hordaland Charcoal from several types of boat houses above sea level. All samples (except T-2950) coil 1970-1978 and subm 1973-1978 by Bjorn Myhre, Hist Mus, Univ Bergen. Commet (BM): dates fit well with expected period, based on type of boat and elevation. Boat house was probably used in "Skipreide" organization of Medieval period (Bull, 1917). 520 ± 50 T-2948. Hamn, Kvam From fireplace at entrance of boat house at + 1 m, depth 0.3m at Hamn, Kvam (60° 05' N, 5° 50' F); AD 1385 ± 35*. 980 ± 70 T-2949. Karevik, Stord From oldest part of boat house at +5m, depth 0.5m at Karevik (59° 45' N, 5° 30' E); AD 1000 ± 70*. 1780 ± 50 T-2950. Bjelland, Stord From entrance of boat house at +5m, at Bjelland (59° 45' N, 5° 30' E). Coil 1959 by Erik Hinsch, Hist Mus, Bergen; AD 180 ± 70*. 1580 ± 60 T-3032. Skatun, Fusa From fireplace close to wall of boat house at + 1 Om, depth 0.5m at Skatun (60° 10' N, 5° 30' E); AD 385 ± 95*. 1860 ± 70 T-3033. Lekven, Os From wall of boat house at +5m, depth 0.2m at Lekven (60° 10' N, 5° 20' E); AD 115 ± 65*.

1730 ± 160 T-1067. Stend, Fana 1 Wooden plank of inner end wall of boat house at + 3m, depth 1 m at Stend, Bergen (60° 15' N, 5° 20' E); AD 240 ± 170*. Comment (BM): dates T-1241, -1336 are a few hundred yr older than expected, but fully acceptable.

T-1241. Stend, Fana 2 Wooden plank of inner end wall of boat house; T-1242. Stend, Fana 3 From fireplace close to inner end wall; T-1336. Stend, Fana 4 Wooden plank in W wall;

1810± 60 AD

155 ± 65*.

1680 AD

300

±

±

60

90*. 1790± 110

AD

180 ± 110*.

T-1337. Stend, Fana 5 Fireplace at entrance; AD 475

1520 ± 85*.

70

586

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Cfulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth 1740 ± 70 T-2331. Stend, Fana 6 Charcoal layer under earth wall outside wooden wall; AD 230 ± 90*.

Ullandhaug series, Rogaland Charcoal from house sites at +85m at Ullandhaug, Stavanger, Rogaland (59° 55' N, 5° 40' E). Coll 1968 and subm 1976 by B Myhre. Comment (BM): dates fit well with expected date, to Roman and Migration periods, though some of them are a few hundred yr older than expected (Myhre,1980). T-2249. Ullandhaug 1/6 From House 1, Fireplace 6, depth 0.3m; AD 385 T-2250. Ullandhaug 2/1 From House 2, Fireplace 1, depth 0.3m;

1580 ± 60 ±

95*. 1480 ± 70

AD

500 ± 90*.

T-2251. Ullandhaug 3/3 From House 3, Fireplace 3, depth 0.3m; AD 410 T-2252. Ullandhaug 3/4 From House 3, Fireplace 4, depth 0.5m; 70

1570 ±

± 70

120*. 2020 ± 80

±

130

T-2253. Ullandhaug 3/9 From House 3, Fireplace 9, depth 0.2m; AD 170

BC*.

1800 ± 70 ± 80*.

Haheller series, Rogaland T-3544. Loc 135/SBA-79 3920 ± 90 From Haheller E at +1 2m, depth 0.90 to 0.95m below ground surface in cave containing finds from various archaeol periods at Forsand (59° 03' N, 6° 31' E). Coil 1979 by 0 Kristiansen, P Ethelberg, and S BangAndersen; subm 1979 by S Bang-Andersen, Archaeol Mus, Stavanger. Comment (SBA): dates agree well with site strat and indicate occupation period ca 1000 yr, late Middle Neolithic to late Bronze age. Youngest period (T-3545) is not represented in archaeol finds; 2405 ± 215 BC*. T-3545. Loc 130/SBA-79 2870 ± 60 Animal bones from Haheller E at +1 2m, depth 0.4 to 0.5m in center of cultural layer; 1135 ± 125 BC*. T-3546. Loc 216/SBA-79 4190 ± 90 Charcoal from Haheller W at + 12.5m, depth 0.78 to 0.82m, 0.l m under cultural layer; 2880 ± 180 BC*.

T-3547. Loc 170/SBA-79 3540 ± 90 Charcoal from Haheller W at +1 2.5m, depth 0.42 to 0.45m in charcoal pit in lower part of cultural layer; 2035 ± 75 BC*.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

587

Mountain Settlements

Norway series Charcoal from dwelling sites with finds from Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Iron ages in mt area between Ryfylke and Setesdal, S Norway. Coil and subm 1974 to 1979 by S Bang-Andersen. Comment (SBA): dated to study use of this mt area in prehistory (Bang-Andersen, 1974; 1976). S

Mosvatnet series, Rogaland 1320 ± 70 T-1811. Loc 7/UF4 From depth 0.12 to 0.15m below ground surface in cultural layer of distinct hearth, + 520m at Mosvatnet, Suldal (59° 25' N, 6° 26' E); AD 660 ± 70*.

1120 ± 90 T-2071. Loc 7/SBA2 From depth 0.01 to 0.15m of indistinct hearth in upper part of cultural layer; AD 845 ± 115*.

5040 ± 100 Storemos, Loc 1 Burned nutshells from large concentration of carbonized nutshells (Corylus), charcoal, and fire-cracked flint artifacts at + 245m, depth 0.08 to 0.12m at Store Mosvatnet, Ha (58° 38' N, 5° 47' E). Coil 1978 and subm 1979 by S Bang-Andersen (1979); 3855 ± 125 BC*. T-3304.

Ovre Storvatnet series, Aust-Agder 5960 ± 80 T-2072. Loc 7/SBA3 From depth 0.12 to 0.13m in thin unstrat cultural layer of indistinct hearth at +978m at Ovre Storvat.net, Bykle (59° 20' N, 6° 56' E); 4845 ± 155 BC*.

6100 ± 130 T-2073. Loc 17/SBA4 From depth 0.12 to 0.16m of indistinct part of thick cultural layer. Comment (SBA): date, older than expected, belongs to Mesolithic settlement; 5075 ± 165 BC*. 6870 T-2650. Loc 17/SBA3-77 Depth 0.28 to 0.30m from deepest part of cultural layer.

±

110

4040 ± 50 T-3075. Loc 17/SBA2-78 From depth 0.12 to 0.15m at +978m in charcoal-filled spot of thin, unstrat cultural layer. Comment (SBA): small fragment of projectile point indicates Neolithic occupation; 2 710 ± 130 BC*. 6800 ± 210 T-2074. Loc 12/SBA5 From depth 0.12 to 0.14m of indistinct hearth middle of cultural layer with Stone-age finds at +987m (59° 18' N, 6° 56' E).

588

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

6740± 110 T-3542. Loc 12/F no 10 From depth 0.06 to 0.09m of hearth in upper part of cultural layer at +520m. T-3076. Loc 147/SBA 6-77 6050 ± 60 From depth 0.05 to 0.07m in charcoal layer with flint artifacts at +978m (59° 20' N, 6° 57' E); 4980 ± 70 BC*. T-2360. Loc 147/F-10-III 7020 ± 170 Depth 0.35 to 0.40m in charcoal-filled pit in bottom of cultural layer. T-2652. Loc 183/SBA/16-77 6950 ± 120 Depth 0.12 to 0.13m in middle of cultural layer in indistinct hearth. T-3077. Loc 13/SBA-1-77 4000 ± 70 From depth 0.14 to 0.17m of indistinct hearth with fire-cracked stones. Comment (SBA): T-3077 and -3075 date human activities in Neolithic period; 2710 ± 130 BC*.

Hovassana series, Aust-Agder T-3072. Loc 148/SBA 9.77 5870 ± 70 From depth 0.14 to 0.16m of distinct hearth in lower part of cultural layer at +980m in Hovassana, Bykle (59° 21' N, 6° 58' E); 4760 ± 150 BC*.

T-3073. Loc 150/SBA 12-77 5720 ± 90 From depth 0.08 to O.IOm of indistinct hearth in upper part of cultural layer; 4570 ± 90 BC*.

Vestre Gyvatnet series, Aust-Agder T-3074. Loc 145/SBA 1-78 5670 ± 90 From depth 0.05 to 0.08m of charcoal concentration in lower part of cultural layer +920m at Vestre Gyvatnet, Bykle (59° 17' N, 6° 58' E); 4530 ± 70 BC*. T-3078. Loc 146/H-21-I/II 2550 ± 70 From depth 0.15 to 0.17m of distinct charcoal layer without artifacts superimposing layer at +913m (59° 57' N, 6° 57' E); 750 ± 90 BC*. T-2359. Loc 146/H-23-II/III 6680 ± 80 From depth 0.22 to 0.25m in partly stratified dwelling site with Stoneage finds. Comment (SBA): date proves that oldest settlement on site is clearly Mesolithic. T-2200. Loc 68/SBA 6 1620 ± 120 From open unstratified dwelling site void of archaeol artifacts, depth 0.14 to 0.16m at +995m at Undeknutvatnet, Suldal, Rogaland (59° 23' N,

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

589

60 49' E). Comment (SBA): date proves that this loc has no connection with Stone-age sites in area; AD 370 ± 160*.

Stegaros series, Telemark Charcoal from cultural layers at +1 1 25m assoc with rock shelters in Stegaros at Lake Mar in Tinn (60° 05' N, 8° 17' E). Coll and subm 1973 to 1974 by Lil Gustafson, Univ Oldsaksamling, Oslo (R, 1975, v 17, p 364395; R, 1978, v 20, p 105-133). T-1452. Stegaros 1058/2 2420 ± 140 From depth 0.3m in fireplace in rock shelter. Comment (RN): misprint in earlier age for this sample (R,1975, v 17, p 377); 610 ± 190 BC*. T-1609. Stegaros 1058/3 1730 ± 110 From pit in cultural layer (L4, 99x 99y) ca 0.5m below surface in rock shelter with lithic artifacts. Comment (LG): Loc 1058 was not used between ca 2420-1730 BP. Main habitation period was ca 3810-2420 BP (Gustafson, 1978); AD 250 ± 140*. T-1610. Stegaros 1056 8030 ± 110 From base of charcoal pit (P1, 104x 108y), close to rock shelters, Loc 1006 and 1058, 0.4m below surface. Comment (LG): human occupation not expected at this date. Sample (Pinus) probably represents fossil firewood (Moe,1978b). T-1709. Stegaros 1061 1910 ± 80 From base of cultural layer, 0.4 to 0.5m thick, (L3b, 94x 106y) of open site ca 0.5m below surface, behind rock shelters, Loc 1006 and 1058. Comment (LG): assoc between lithic artifacts and date is uncertain (Gustafson, 1978); AD 45 ± 105*. T-1710. Stegaros 1062 1690 ± 110 From base of cultural layer (L2, 105x 41y) in house site with lithic and iron artifacts, ca 0.5m W of rock shelters, Loc 1058 and 1006 at shore of Lake Mar; depth 0.15m. Comment (LG): assoc between lithic artifacts and date is uncertain; AD 285 ± 125*. T-1648. Stegaros 1063 1510 ± 110 Bone sample from base of cultural layer (11 lx 47y) outside house, Loc 1063; depth 0.20m. Find of iron arrow in bone heap. Coll and subm 1973 by Rolf W Lie, Zool Mus, Univ Bergen. Comment (RWL): connection between house and bone heap is verified, and sample also dates house; AD 460 ± 140*.

Charcoal pit series, W Norway Charcoal from pits from mt loci in W Norway, interpreted as traces of seasonal occupation. Samples coll from base of pit with heated stones. Coll 1978-1980 by L Gustafson and P K Jensen, Hist Mus, Bergen; subm 1978-

590

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

1980 by L Gustafson. Comment (LG): dates correspond well with dates of similar pits in lowland areas (Gustafson, 1981; Myhre, 1980; Farbregd, 1979a). 1940 ± 70 T-3066. Nedre Grndalsvatn IA N, 0.15m; +976m, depth 10' E) at 40' 7° From Ulvik, Hardanger (60° AD

15 ± 115*.

1600 ± 90

T-3284. Nedre Gr, ndalsvatn IIB AD 385 ± 125* T-3882. Upsete 1C From Aurland, Sogn & Fjordane (60° 43' N, 0.15 to 0.30m; AD 285 ± 105*.



1690 ± 80 01' E) at +850m, depth

6850 ± 120 T-3067. Hallingskeid 1, Hordaland 980m, depth Charcoal from cultural layer with Stone-age artifacts at + 0.18 to 0.2m at Hallingskeid, Ulvik (60° 40' N, 7° 10' E). Coll and subm 1978 by L Gustafson. Comment (LG): date corresponds well with assoc microblades (Gustafson 1978, 1981).

Hardangervidda and Ryfylke/Setesdal series This dating program was conducted 1970 to 1980 and is part of two interdisciplinary research projects in cultural history. Samples mainly coll and subm by A B Johansen, 1972-1980, Archaeol Mus, Stavanger. Comment (ABJ): present program consists of settlement history of some mt valleys in S Norway: Ryfylke/Setesdal (58° 15' to 58° 45' N, 6° 30' to 7° 30' E) and Hardangervidda (60° 0' to 60° 30' N, 6° 30' to 8° 30' E). Basic activities in this area were pasturing, animal husbandry, iron production, hunting, and fishing. Samples are from rock shelters, house sites, and bogs. Comment (ABJ):14C results place start of pasturing at ca 2000 yr ago in best grazing areas in Ryfylke Mts. This early date is due partly to archaeol evidence of human activity, such as wooden chips and other remains of forest clearance preserved in bog. Open settlement nearby is dated to 1330 ± 150 and 1210 ± 150 (T-1189, -1190, this list). In less suitable parts of grassland, summer farming seems to start ca 700-800 yr ago (T-3670, -3408, -3671, -2216).

Pasturing series Charcoal from hunting cabins in Hordaland and Buskerud coil and subm 1972-1974 by A B Johansen. Comment (ABJ): dates suggest that inhabitants (farmers from mt valleys?) started to hunt from permanent cabins in treeless mt area ca 800 to 900 yr ago. Main problem is connection between this form of hunting and those of numerous well-known Stone-age hunting settlements in same area, which are open sites, normally with stone artifacts and no organic material left. Sites usually found close to reindeer tracks.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

591

T-1414. Leirvatnet, 22 970 ± 70 From cultural layer in hunting cabin at + 1000m at Leirvatnet, Eidfjord, Hordaland (UTM 1415I/161023), depth 0.05 to 0.20m; AD 1010 ± 70*.

T-1700. Leirvatnet 830 ± 110 From 0.05 to 0.15m depth (UTM 1415I/161022); AD 1130 ± 110*. T-1415. Maurset, 24 780 ± 110 From basal layer of rock shelter in farming area at + 800m at Maurset (UTM 1415I/093987), depth 0.25 to 0.28m. Comment (ABJ): stone was main artifactual material from this period (cf T-1704); assoc finds: arrowheads and quartzite flakes; AD 1175 ± 115*. T-1704. Maurset, 50 Depth 0.22 to 0.25m; AD 1160

800 ± 70 ± 80*.

510 ± 80 T-1639. Langavatn, 48 From cultural layer at + 1225m at Langavatn (UTM 1415I/187804), depth 0.04 to 0.09m; AD 1385 ± 45*. 870 ± 100 T-1500. Lengjedalsvatnet, 23 From cultural layer in hunting cabin at +131 Om at Lengjedalsvatnet, Hol, Buskerud (UTM 141611/276182), depth 0.10 to 0.13m; AD 1110 ± 110 *

640 ± 90 T-1703. Digernes, 49 From cultural layer in deserted hunting cabin at +990m at Digernes (UTM 1515IV/437063), depth 0.03 to Ohm; AD 1310 ± 80*.

Suldal/Rogaland series 1340 ± 190 T-1902. Sandsa Charcoal from fireplace on open living floor at +620m, depth 0.10m (UTM 1313IV/632912). Coll 1975 by Synnove Vinsrygg, Stavanger Mus; subm 1975 by ABJ; AD 645 ± 205*.

540 ± 80 T-2410. Havistol, S51/3 Charcoal from cultural layer in house site on summer farm at + 600m, depth 0.15m (UTM 1314I1/783062). Coll and subm 1976 by Lars Steinvik, Stavanger Mus; AD 1375 ± 35*.

T-3406.

Buarehelleren, 110/79

930

80

820 90 T-3670. Buarehelleren,112/79 Charcoal and twigs from basal layer in rock shelter in summer farm area, depth 0.45m at +900m (UTM 1313I/677888). Coll and subm 1979; AD 1065 ± 105* (T-3406); AD 1140 ± 100* (T-3670).

592

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

810 ± 50 T-3408. Svultanuthelleren, 26/76 Charcoal from thin cultural layer in rock shelter, depth 0.08m at +800m (UTM 13131/657878). Coil 1976 by A M Knudsen, Stavanger Mus; subm 1979 by ABJ; AD 1155 ± 65*.

T-3671. Svultanuthelleren, 42/76 Charcoal at 0.02m depth coil and subm 1979; AD 1165

790 ± 60 ± 75*.

920 ± 50 T-3190. Stolsmyra,1978/S12 Wood, birch root, depth 0.73m, Sandsa (UTM 1313IV/631912). Coil and subm 1978. Comment (ABJ): birch root was from next to last forest cover of bog; AD 1.060 ± 60*.

AD

1910 ± 80 T-3191. Stolsmyra,1978/S24 Part of birch root cut by metal axe, depth 1.20m. Coil and subm 1978; 45 ± 105*.

2310 ± 90 T-3674. Stolsmyra, 23/79 Birch bark at 1.57m depth. Coil and subm 1980. Comment (ABJ): dates last forest cover unexploited by man; 520 ± 120 BC*.

Stolsmyra, 62/79 2280 ± 70 Twigs, depth 1.60m, coil 1979 by Kari Grosfjeld, Stavanger Mus; subm 1979. Comment (ABJ): dates first archaeol detectable traces of man in bog. Assoc finds: twigs and chips from woodworking; 430 ± 40 BC*. T-3407.

T-3410. Stolsmyra,17/79 2500 ± 70 Pieces of wood from basal layer of bog, depth 2.02m at +620m. Coll and subm 1979; 655 ± 145 BC*. Iron Production

Charcoal from slag heaps and charcoal kilns. Comment (ABJ): iron production started ca 2000 yr ago (T-1188, -1676) in mt area of Hardanger, and lasted only short time (T-1507, -1640, -1819). Next production period is characterized by sharp change in technol, hundreds of furnace sites all over mt valleys, and far more extensive production. This second period started ca 1000-1200 yr ago (T-3184, -1416), and peaked at 800-900 yr BP. Most iron smelting ended 600 yr ago.

Vinje/Telemark series T-2733. Kvervesja,1/77 960 ± 70 From basal layer of charcoal kiln, depth 0.2m at +890m, Vinje (UTM 141411/182184). Coil and subm 1977; AD 1015 ± 75*. T-2734. Kvervesja, 2/77 900 ± 70 From top layer of charcoal kiln, depth 0.l m at +890m, coil and subm 1977; AD 1090 ± 90*.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

593

T-2735. Sigurdsbu, 6/77 960 ± 70 From charcoal kiln, depth O.IOm at +890m, Sigurdsbu (UTM 1414II/ 183163), coll and subm 1977; AD 1015 ± 75*.

T-2868. Kyrkjemoen,10/77 650 ± 60 From top layer in charcoal kiln, depth O.IOm at +910m, Kyrkjemoen (UTM 1414II/131135), coil 1977 and subm 1978; AD 1300 ± 60*. T-3187. Nystol,1978/3 880 ± 60 From top layer in charcoal kiln, depth 0. l Om at +920m, Nystol (UTM 14141I/183134), coll and subm 1978 by T E Aanestad, Stavanger Mus; AD 1100 ± 80*. T-3285. Sesvatn,1978/31 830 ± 70 From top layer of charcoal kiln, depth O. l Om at +910m, Ssvatn (UTM 1414II/147146), toll 1978 by T E Aanestad and subm 1979 by ABJ; AD 1135 ± 85*.

Bykle/Rust-Agder series T-3286. Vikvollen,1978/11 970 ± 60 From top layer in charcoal kiln, depth 0.1 Om at +915m, at Vikvollen, Bykle (UTM 141411/115123). Coll 1978 by T E Aanestad and subm 1979 by ABJ; AD 1005 ± 65*. T-2737. Lislefjodd,13/77 720 ± 50 From top layer in charcoal kiln, depth 0.09m at +910m, Lislefjodd (UTM 141411/097094), toll and subm 1977; AD 1240 ± 50*. T-3184. Finnastollia, 1978/20 1380 ± 50 From top layer of slag heap in iron production site, depth 0.05m to 0.10m at +830m, Finnastollia (UTM 1414II/075052). Coll 1978 by TEA and subm 1979 by ABJ; AD 600 ± 50*. T-3188. Finnastollia, 1978/23 860 ± 70 From top layer of slag heap in iron production site, depth 0.03 to O.IOm at +850m (UTM 14 1411/072053). Coll by TEA and subm 1978; AD 1120 ± 90*. T-3287. Finnastollia, 1978/24 730 ± 60 Depth 0.02 to O.IOm (UTM 1414II/073053), coil by TEA and subm 1978; AD 1235 ± 55*. T-3288. Finnastollia, 1978/24 690 ± 50 Depth 0.05 to 0.1 Om (UTM 141411/074051). Coll 1978 by TEA and subm 1979 by ABJ; AD 1255 ± 55*.

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

594

870 ± 60 T-3289. Finnastollia,1978/33 to 0.IOm at site, depth 0.05 iron production in cultural layer From +870m (UTM 1414III/060040). Coil 1978 by TEA and subm 1979 by ABJ; AD 1110 ± 80*. 970 ± 50 T-3183. Brakamo,1978/36 From top layer in charcoal kiln, depth 0.02 to 0.12m at + 720m, Brakamo, Valle, Aust-Agder (UTM 1413I/138745). Coll by TEA and subm 1978 by ABJ; AD 1005 ± 55*.

T-3290. Brakamo,1978/33 From 0.05 to 0.15m depth; AD 1075

910 ± 50 ± 65*.

3050 70 T-3185. Berdalen,1978/39 From top layer in coal pit, depth 0.10 to 0.15m at +870m, Berdalen (UTM 1413I/145905). Coll by TEA and subm 1978 by ABJ. Comment: evidently not related to iron production; 1380 ± 110 BC*. 570 ± 60 T-3186. Botsvatn,1978/32 From top layer in charcoal kiln, depth 0.05 to 0.15m at + 620m, Botsvatn (UTM 1413IV/130807). Coll by TEA and subm 1978 by ABJ; AD 1360 ± 50*.

T-3189. Stavenes,1978/38 690 ± 70 From top layer in charcoal kiln, depth 0.20 to 0.25m at + 71 om, Stavenes (UTM 1413I/080809). Coll by TEA and subm 1979 by ABJ; AD 1265 ± 65*.

Eidfjord/Ulvik series T-1189. Fljodal, 5 1330 ± 150 Charcoal from fireplace in house site on summer farm, depth 0.1 Om at + 1000m in Fljodal, Eidfjord, Hordaland (UTM 14151V/990905). Coli and subm 1971; AD 655 ± 165*. T-1190. Instest, len, 6 1210 ± 150 Charcoal from cultural layer in summer farm house, depth 0.1Om at +930m, Eidfjord (UTM 1415I/140015). Coil and subm 1971; AD 775 ± 165*.

T-1412. Skissete, 20 300 ± 70 Charcoal from cultural layer assoc with summer farm house, depth 0.05 to 0.07m at +940m, Eidfjord (UTM 1415IV/035973). Coll and subm 1972; AD 1545 ± 95*. T-1413. Hadletseter, 21 260 ± 70 Charcoal from cultural layer in house site on summer farm, depth 0.08 to 0.12m at + 1 Ol Om, Eidfjord (UTM 1415IV/034945). Coll and subm 1972; AD 1565 ± 95*.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

595

T-2869. Viveli, 1973/102 700 ± 80 From top layer in charcoal kiln, depth 0.05 to 0.07m at +870m in Viveli, Eidfjord, (UTM 1415IV/981917). Coll 1973 and subm 1978; AD 1260 ± 70*. T-2864. Viveli,1973/101 680 ± 60 From top layer in charcoal kiln, depth 0.05 to 0.07m at + 865m (UTM 14151V/979918). Coil 1973 and subm 1974; AD 1280 ± 60*. T-1820. Storlii, 62 640 ± 70 From top layer of slag heap in iron production site, depth 0.05 to O.IOm at +940m, Storlii (UTM 1415I/112963). Coll and subm 1974; AD 1310 ± 70*. T-1299. Maurset, 14 200 ± 80 From basal layer in charcoal kiln close to existing farm, depth 0.15m at +800m at Maurset (UTM 1415I/092987). Coil 1971 and subm 1972; AD 1660 ± 140*. T-1503. Fetalii, 29 830 ± 70 From basal layer of slag heap in iron production site (see T-2865), depth 0.50m at +795m, Fetalii (UTM 1415IV/056975). Coll and subm 1973; AD 1135 ± 85*. T-2865. Fetalii, 1972/104 From 0.00 to 0.05m depth, coil and subm 1978; AD 1110

860 ± 80*.

±

60

T-1507. Fet, 35 1840 ± 80 From top layer of slag heap in iron production site, depth 0.05m at +730m (UTM 14151V/053984); AD 135 ± 75*. T-1640. Fet, 43 From top layer, 0.05m depth;

1840 ± 70 AD

130 ± 70*.

T-1819. Fet, 60 From top layer, 0.00 to 0.1Om depth; AD 165

1810 ±

110

105*.

T-1188. Fet, 4 2070 ± 110 From basal layer, 0.40m depth at +730m (UTM 1415IV/053984). Coil and subm 1971;170 ± 220 BC*. T-1676. Fet, 40 From basal layer, 0.77m depth; 45

± 145 BC*.

T-1636. Fet, 41 From basal layer, 0.79m depth;

750

AD

± 130*.

1990

100

1240

110

596

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

1800 ± 150 T-1637. Fet, 44 0.30m of reduction furnace, From charcoal layer underlying basal slab depth; AD 190 ± 160*.

470 ± 70 T-1508. Fet, 37 From cultural layer of house in iron production site, 0.10 to 0.15m depth; AD 1415 ± 35*.

T-1298. Fet,12 From charcoal kiln, depth 0.45m;

360 AD

1520

±

60

90*.

Fet,15 880 ± 70 From charcoal kiln, depth 0.13 to 0.22m (UTM 141 51V/056982); AD 1105 ± 85*. T-1300.

740 ± 120 T-1301. Fet,16 From charcoal kiln, depth 0.05 to 0.1 Om (UTM 1415IV/057983). Coil 1971 and subm 1972; AD 1210 ± 120*.

T-1702. Liset, 47 840 ± 70 From top layer of slag heap, depth 0.00 to 0.05m at + 735m, Liset (UTM 1415IV/047002). Coil 1973 and subm 1974; AD 1130 ± 90*.

T-1504. Tveit, 30 270 ± 90 From charcoal kiln, depth 0.20m at +95m, Tveit (UTM 141 51V/ 968987). Coil 1972 and subm 1973; AD 1610 ± 150*. T-2215. Olastolen, Ulvik 2 160 ± 60 Charcoal from fireplace in house site of summer farm, depth 0.08 to O.IOm at +800m, Ulvik, Hordaland (UTM 1416III/909200). Coil 1975 and subm 1976; younger than AD 1630*. T-2216. Klovsteinen, Ulvik 4 760 ± 60 Charcoal from fireplace in cultural layer in house site on summer farm, depth O. l Om at +800m, Ulvik (UTM 1416III/918205); AD 1185 ± 75*.

Hol/Buskerud series T-1416. Lauvvikstolen, 27 1010 ± 80 From top layer of slag heap, depth 0.05m at +995m, Lauvvikstolen, Hol, Buskerud (UTM 1515IV/422067). Coil and subm 1972; AD 970 ± 80*.

T-1417. Lauvvikstolen, 28 From basal layer, depth 0.55 to 0.60m;

990 ± 90 AD

985 + 95*.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

597

T-2866. Ustevatn,1973/100 830 ± 50 From top layer of slag heap, depth 0.05m at +990m, S of Ustevatn (UTM 1515IV/435060). Coil 1973 and subm 1978; AD 1145 ± 75*. T-1506. Ustevatn, 34 880 ± 110 From basal layer, depth 0.60m Coil 1972 and subm 1973; AD 1100 ± 120*.

T-3672. Fekjo, 115/79 190 ± 40 From charcoal kiln, depth 0.04 to 0.08m at + 770m, Fekjo (UTM 1516II/539105). Coil 1979 and subm 1980; younger than AD 1470*. T-3673. Fekjo, 116/79 From 0.05 to 0.15m depth;

AD

1530

T-3409. Fekjo, 117/79 From 0.15 to 0.21m depth;

AD

1550 ± 90*.

340 ± 70 ±

100*. 290 ± 60

T-1501. Borgastolen 740 ± 60 From top layer of slag heap, depth 0.03 to 0.05m at +101 Om, Borgarstolen (UTM 1515I/606027). Co111972 and subm 1973; AD 1235 ± 55*. T-1502. Borgastolen From basal layer of slag heap, depth 0.50 to 0.55m;

AD

750 ± 90 1195 ± 105*.

T-1505. Tuftestolen, 33 300 ± 70 From charcoal kiln, depth 0.05 to 0.1 Om at +860m, Tuftestolen (UTM 15151/560048). Coil 1972 and subm 1973; AD 1545 ± 95*. T-2867. Aslegarden, 1972/105 540 ± 50 From charcoal kiln, depth 0.1 Om at +1 060m, Asiegarden (UTM 1515I/560048). Coil 1972 and subm 1973; AD 1375 ± 35*. T-1701. Ossjoen, 46 700 ± 70 From top layer of slag heap, depth 0.05m at +955m, Ossjoen (UTM 1515I/585942). Co111973 and subm 1974; AD 1255 ± 65*. T-1418. Halne, 31 1610 ± 110 From coal pit, depth 0.15 to 0.20m at + 1140m, Halne (UTM 1415I/ 287986), coil and subm 1972. Comment: sample unrelated to iron production; AD 364 ± 155*. T-1641. Halne, 51 1710± 110 From charcoal pit assoc with house site, depth 0.11 to 0.13m at +11 40m (UTM 1415I/287987). Comment: sample unrelated to iron production; AD 270 ± 130*.

598

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

880 ± 70 T-1638. Kruksetra From top layer of slag heap, depth 0.05 to 0.1 Om at + 980m, Kruksetra, Nore og Uvdal, Buskerud (UTM 1515I/639847). Coil and subm 1973 by Tore Bjorgo, Stavanger Mus; AD 1105 ± 85*.

Mosstrand series, Telemark This series of charcoal samples (R, 1978, v 20, p 126-127) covers time span of ca 700 yr (AD 550-1250) with large-scale iron production from Vinje (59° 50' N, 8° 10' E). Coil and subm 1978 by Irmelin Martens, Univ Mus Nail Antiquities, Oslo. Comment (IM): chronology is mainly based on 48140 dates from 31 sites, comprising four types: 1) slag heaps with bowl furnaces, 2) slag heaps with shaft furnaces, 3) single-room house sites with slag heap and shaft furnaces, 4) larger house sites with slag heaps and shaft furnaces. This is also chronologic series, confirmed by slag composition, several other elements on sites, relations to excavated farm houses, and a few artifacts. Dates agree very well with archaeol dates (Martens, 1977, 1979).

930 ± 50 T-3091. Kulingsli AD 0.20m; From slag heap outside house site at +980m, depth 0.10 to 1045 ± 45*.

T-3092. Bjornefjell From slag heap at + 1030m, depth 0.10 to 0.20m;

AD

880 ± 50 1100 ± 80*.

840 ± 50 T-3093. Sandhaug From area right outside house site with slag heap at +930m, depth 0.10 to 0.20m; AD 1140 ± 70*.

T-3094. Varlistol From slag heap at +960m, depth 0.10 to 0.25m;

1040 ± 60 AD 940 ± 80*.

810 ± 50 T-3557. Halvtekkja 40/52 No. 2 From slag heap outside house site at +925m, depth 0.10 to 0.25m; AD 1155 ± 65*. 850 ± 50 T-3558. Hove 53/34 No.1 From layer right outside house, probably charcoal storage area at + 920m, depth 0.10 to 0.15m; AD 1125 ± 65*. 880 ± 60 T-3559. Liset 40/53 No.1 From slag heap outside house at +917m, depth 0.10 to 0.20m; AD 1100 ± 80*.

Bloomery series During last 20 yr, furnaces were excavated as part of other investigations. They are of great interest as parallels to Mosstrond furnaces. This charcoal series is from different sites in S Norway. Subm 1978 by I Martens.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

599

T-2993. Tangvassosen 900 ± 60 From stone-lined bowl furnace in house site at +960m in Vinje (59° 50' N, 7° 30' E). Coll 1959 by Jo Bleken-Nilssen, Telemark. Comment (IM): dates are 300 yr later than same furnace type at Mosstrond, only ca 35km away (see T-2997); AD 1090 ± 90*. T-2994. Rolleivstad 1700 ± 70 From bloomery furnace, probably with low shaft, depth ca 3m, at + 650m in Fyresdal (59° 15' N, 8° 15' E). Coll 1968 by I Martens. Comment (IM): even if date is far earlier than expected, result cannot be rejected; corresponds well with T-2995; Al) 285 ± 105*. T-2995. Homstolvatn 1830 ± 60 From bloomery furnace with outer stone lining at + 350m, Froland, Aust-Agder (58° 45' N, 8° 0' E), depth 0.4 to 0.5m; AD 140 ± 70*. T-2996. Valldalseter 840 ± 50 From between two layers of slag in furnace hearth at + 700m, Odda, Hordaland (59° 55' N, 6° 55' E). Coll 1964 by J-R Ness and I Martens. Comment (IM): furnace underlay house site dated to 12th century AD; date is fully acceptable (Martens, 1973); AD 1135 ± 55*. T-2997. Tangvassosen From same loc at T-2993; coil 1959 by J Bleken-Nilssen;

910 ± 70 1080 ±

AD

100*.

T-1666. Kvitfeten, Oppland 1020 ± 80 Charcoal (Sample 1) in coarse ground moraine ca 35km from nearest settlement in area with large bogs and scattering patches of mt birch at +980m, depth 0.15m, Kvitfeten cheese farm, Oystre Slidre, Oppland (61 ° 14' N, 9° 20' E). Coil and subm 1973 to 1974 by Bjorn Axelsen, Dept Geog, Univ Trondheim. Comment (BA): charcoal production for bog iron smelting probably removed much of original forest before intensive agric began in Viking period (Axelsen,1975); Al) 950 ± 90*.

Ropptjern series, Oppland Charcoal (birch) from base of charcoal kiln at Lake Ropptjern at +825m, Gausdal (61° 12' N' 9° 59' E). Cobb 1974 and subm 1975 by Jarle Bye, Univ Mus Nail Antiquities, Oslo. Comment (JB): samples date period of iron production in area (Bye, 1978). T-2537. Ropptjern no. 3 Depth 0.I Om; D 1165 ± 75*,.

790

T-2538. Ropptjern no. 4 Depth 0.55m; AD 1250 ± 50.

710 ± 50

T-2539. Ropptjern no. 5 Depth 0.25m; AD 1355 ± 35.

570 ± 40

70

600

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

Agricultural Development

Karlsoy series, Troms Peat (Cyperaceae-Campylium-Depanocladus intermedium) (rich fen) and charcoal from agric development in Karlsoy. Peat samples were separated into two fractions according to particle size: < 1 mm (a, b) and > 1 mm (c). Smaller fraction (<1mm) was divided into soluble fraction (a) in NaOH and insoluble fraction (b). Coll 1976 and subm 1977 by K D Vorren (1979). 1510 ± 80 5'3C= -29. 7%o

(a)

T-2549.

Dafjord II:1 (b)

S13C=

1550 ± 70

- 30.1%o

1420 ± 80 (c) T-2605. Dafjord II:1 From peat layer (H7), 0.8m thick, at + l Om, depth 0.26 to 0.29m, Dafjord (60° 59' N, 19° 25' E). Comment (KDV): dates beginning of Hordeum growing in Dafjord. Coarse remains of fraction of Carex peat (c) shows slight contamination by younger rootlets; (a) AD 490 ± 100*; (b) AD 430 ± 110*; (c) AD 550 ± 90*.

T-2550. Dafjord I:2

4820 ± 80 (a) b13C=

-

(b)

31.0%o 4760 ± 120

5130=

-31.2

o

4410 ± 100 (c) T-2604. Dafjord I: 2 N, 19° 25' E). Peat (H5) from depth 0.59 to 0.64m at +20m (69° 58' (c) show remains Coarse in area. pasturing Comment (KDV): probably dates possible contamination by younger rootlets; (a) 3635 ± 75 BC*; (b) 3545 + 155 BC*; (c) 3165 ± 185 BC*. (b)

3450 ± 40 5'3C=

-30.0%0 T-2547. Vannareid 1 3190 ± 70 (c) T-2606. Vannareid 1 Peat (H5) from peat layer, 0.8m thick, at + 20m, depth 0.27 to 0.32m, Vannareid, Karlsoy (70° 12' N, 19° 05' E). Comment (KDV): younger roots and stolons in Carex-Scirpus caespitosus peat (c) may have influenced result. Dates fit well with general agric expansion during later part of Neolithic period; (b) 1875 ± 165 BC*; (c) 1550 ± 90 BC*. 6450 ± 70 T-2548. Vannareid 2 Depth 0.70 to 0.77m. Comment (KDV): dates local stage rich in Chenopodium and Rumex, and decline in Pinus. 810 ± 60 T-2560. Stornes Charcoal (Calluna stems and roots) at + 1 Om from Helgoy, Karlsoy (70° 12' N, 19° 25' E), depth 0.33 to 0.36m. Comment (KDV): dates late stage in maritime heath burning culture of W and N Norway; AD 1155 ± 75*.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

601

1120 ± 100 T-2221. Helgoy 2 Peat cut out for dating of "pollen horizons" from + 15m, depth 0.43 to 0.46m, at Helgoy, Karlsoy (70° 07' N, 19° 20' E). Dates agric development on Helgoy farm. Comment (KDV): expected age, 1300-1400 BP on archaeol evidence (Vorren, 1980); AD 850 ± 120*. 1960 ± 80 T-3669. Helgoy 6 Twigs/roots of Salix from depth 0.76 to 0.81m in same core as T-2221, concerns rise of Piaceae curve, interpreted as result of fm of early pastures. Comment (KDV): expected age ca 2500 BP due to similar agric development elsewhere (Vorren, 1980); 5 ± 115 BC*.

Hofsoy series, Troms Peat at + 7m from Deggemyra near Hofsoy, Tranoy, Troms (69° 04' N, 17° 05' E). Sample dated in study of agric development as part of archaeol investigations of Iron age and Neolithic settlements. Excavated by 0 S Johansen, Univ Tromso, coil 1977 and subm 1978 by K D Vorren. 1140 ± 70 T-2861. Hofsoy 1(1977) Depth 1.00 to 1.03m. Comment (KDV): dates end of intensive agric assoc with Iron age settlement; AD 830 ± 100*. 1770 ± 50 T-2862. Hofsoy 2 (1977) archaeol on age based expected Depth 1.39 to 1.42m. Comment (KDV): evidence. Dates start of intensive agric; AD 200 ± 60*.

2240 ± 80 T-2863. Hofsoy 3 (1977) Depth 1.93 to 1.95m. Comment (KDV): date seems too young based on expected Bronze age agric; 320 ± 110 BC*.

Bakkemyra series, Troms Peat, sampled with Hiller sampler, ca 7 cores for each 14C sample, from Torsli at + 140m, Tranoy (69° 12' N, 17° 33' E). Samples dated for forest and agric history of area. Coll and subm 1975 by K D Vorren. 2060 ± 120 T-1987. Bakkemyra I Depth 0.20 to 0.23m. Comment (KDV): marked agric expansion, according to alleged Kist data. Date was based on agric event. Mire surface is slightly eroded, hence, small distance from surface to sample; 165 ± 225 BC*.

3420 ± 70 T-1988. Bakkemyra II Depth 0.8 to 0.9m. Comment (KDV): unexpectedly high age due to current assumption that agric was introduced to N Norway during Roman Iron age, Migration period. More recent palynol results from N Norway support this date (Vorren, 1979);1855 ± 165 BC*.

602

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

T-1989. Bakkemyra III 5170 ± 110 Depth 1.9 to 2.Om. Comment (KDV): date indicates that Alnus decline is identical with Atlantic/Sub-boreal boundary; 3995 ± 195 BC*. T-1990. Bakkemyra IV 7790 ± 160 Depth 3.5 to 3.6m. Comment (KDV): later dates from Troms show Pinus and Alnus rise fairly simultaneously ca 7700 BP. T-1991. Bakkemyra V 8760 ± 170 Depth 3.9 to 4.Om. Comment (KDV): basal sediments of mire showing Betula dominated stage, end of Ericales peak.

Bakkan series, Nordland Peat (Sphagnum fuscum-Ericales vaginatum) coil with iron tube, 1 m diam, at +30m from Bakkan, Andoya (69° 01' N, 15° 31' E). Coll 1972 and subm 1973 to 1975 by K D Vorren. Comment (KDV): part of study of "pollen horizons" to date oldest agric in N Norway (Vorren, 1975).

Bakken II, <.5mm (a) 190 Bakken II, <.5mm (b) 110 2360 T-1913. Bakken II,
T-1635. Bakkan IV 3070 ± 80 Depth 1.10 to 1.12m. Comment (KDV): date indicates first marked agric expansion in area; 1390 ± 120 BC*.

Bostad series, Nordland Peat coll with iron tube, 0.1 Om diam, at + 30m, Bostad, Vestvagoy (68° 15' N, 13° 45' E). Coll 1973 to 1975 and subm 1973 to 1976 by K D Vorren (1979).

T-2222. Bostad I 610 ± 90 Depth 0.30 to 0.33m. Sample size, 1 mm after washing and sieving. Comment: dates marked decline, possible temporary end of agric; AD 1320 ± 80*.

T-2223. Bostad II 3740 ± 50 Depth 1.09 to 1.11 m. Comment (KDV): introd of cereal growth; 2220 ± 70 BC*.

T-2224. Bostad III 5510 ± 80 Depth 1.27 to 1.30m. Comment (KDV): probably introd of sheep/cattle and/or transition to permanent settlement; 4420 ± 60 BC*.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

T-2607. Bostad IV Depth 0.43 to 0.45m. Comment (KDV): decline in agric;

603 950 ± 70 AD 1025 ±

75*.

1500 ± 70 T-2608. Bostad V Depth 0.64 to 0.66m. Comment (KDV): most intensive agric phase; AD

495

± 95*.

2430 ± 130 T-2609. Bostad VI Depth 0.97 to 0.99m. Comment (KDV): grassland expansion; 610 ± 190 BC*.

7140 ± 130 T-2610. Bostad VII Depth 1.38 to 1.4m. Comment (KDV): probable start of settlement. Ard share series, W Norway Wood samples were coil from two sites to date Norwegian wooden and shares of Dostrup type. Coil 1953 to 1955 by local farmer; subm 1974 by Bjorn Myhre, Hist Mus, Univ Bergen. Comment (BM): dates fit well with earlier dates of similar wooden shares from Denmark and Germany (Myhre, unpub). 2360 ± 100 T-1771. Taksdal, S-8749 Rogaland (58° 45' N, Time, 50m, Taksdal, From bog, 1.5m deep, at +1 5° 30' E); 570 ± 160 BC*.

1910± 110 T-1772. Os, B-10069 N, 6° 00' E); 55' (61° Fjordane and Sogn Eid, +25m, Os, From bog at AD

35 ± 135*.

Hunting Constructions

Ledsageren/Hirkjolen series, Hedmark Charcoal and wood coll to study construction and period when pitfalls for elk (Alces alces) were used. From + 730m, Ledsageren/Hirkjolen, StorElvdal (61 ° 45' N, 10° 38' E). Coil and subm 1976-1979 by K Barth, Zool Mus, Oslo (Barth, 1981).

800 ± 40 T-2513. P 3c-76 in surrounding surface below 0.40m Charcoal from layer, 0.02m thick, bank, l .2m from old wall of pit. Comment (EKB): represents burned vegetation when pit was restored. Same pit as T-1879 (R, 1978, v 20, p 128) and T-2514; AD 1155 ± 65*. 730 ± 60 T-2514. P 3d-76 Wood from vegetation 0.30m below surface in bank 3.5m from old wall of pit. Comment (EKE): corresponds with charcoal layer of T-2513; AD 1240 ± 60*.

604

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

T-2655. P 10-77 300 ± 60 Wood 0.30m below surface in surrounding bank. Comment (EKB): represents burned vegetation when pit was restored; AD 1550 ± 90*. T-2366. P4-76 90 ±40 From stick of spruce wood, 0.85m long, that originally had iron pike on top, used for impaling animals. Depth 1.6m below basal surface; same pitfall as T-2655. Comment (EKB): date shows that this kind of elk hunting was practiced up to recent times; younger than AD 1670*. T-2812. P 18-77 380 ± 90 Wood from logs, 0.2 to 0.3m thick, horizontally bound together in rectangular pitfall. Depth 2m below surface; pit filled with soil and water. Same pit at T-2366; AD 1510 ± 100*. T-2820. P 2a-77 300 ± 50 Wood from remains of vertical logs 0.3m below surface; in dry pit, 2m deep; AD 1545 ± 85*. T-2656. P 17-77 70 ± 50 Wood set into iron pike, as T-2366, at depth 1.6m below basal surface; younger than AD 1780*. T-3471. P5-79 3040 ± 50 Upper 0.03m of humus deposit, ca. 0.09m thick, 0.7m below surface in surrounding bank, 1.2m from the old wall. Comment (EKE): upper layer of this humus represents organic material of old earth surface when pit was dug out first time. Same pit as T-1879, -2513 and -2514;1365 ± 95 BC*. T-3470. Gorrtjonn P 1-79 580 ± 70 Wood from walls in rectangular/oval pitfall, partly filled with boggy soil and water at + 320m, Storfalldalen, Eidskog (60° 05' N, 12° 13' E). Comment (EKE): date corresponds with occupation period of Ledsageren/ Hirkjolen series; AD 1335 ± 75*. T-3543A. Loc 67/SBA-79 1390 ± 50 Humified peat at +993m, depth 0.35 to 0.36m in subfossil humus horizon in dike encircling reindeer pitfall at Undeknutvatnet, Suldal, Rogaland (59° 23' N, 6° 48' E). Coil and subm 1979 by S Bang-Andersen (ms in preparation); AD 600 ± 40*.

Pitfall series, Hedmark Bark and charcoal from system of 53 trapping pits at + 700m, Roa, Engerdal (62° 28' N, 12° E). Coil 1978 and subm 1979 by G Boistad, Hist Mus, Bergen. Comment (GB): dates agree and confirm successive use of area.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

605

T-3087. Pit no. 27 1620 ± 80 Bark from top cover (branches, etc) from center of base underlying 0.75m of sand; AD 355 ± 95*.

T-3088. Pit no.1 2120 ± 230 Charcoal from plant material beneath podsol profile in mound, ca 0.2m depth; 190 ± 280 BC*. Iron Age Cemeteries

Navlus series, N Trondelag Charcoal pits and iron foundry were also found in Iron age cemetery of Navlus. Chronologic relationships of different activities at site seemed to be of special importance. Charcoal (Alnus, Betula, Pinus) found at ca +1 OOm at Navlus, Snasa (64° 15' N, 12° 28' E). Coll and subm 1976 by 0 Farbregd (1983). T-2341. Pit A 1740 ± 100 From base of pit near grave monuments and slag heap, depth ca 0.5m. Comment (OF): charcoal pits are evidently older than barrows, possibly later than iron production (Farbregd, 1979c, 1983); AD 235 ± 125*. T-2342. Furnace pit 1900 ± 90 From iron slag layer in and around furnace pit below grave monument from 4th to 5th century, depth ca 0.15m; AD 50 ± 110*. T-2343. Pit Ia 1800 ± 80 From bottom of pit older than grave, but probably related to iron production, depth ca 0.5m. Comment (OF): similarity of T-2342 and -2343 supports assumption that Pit Ia is related to iron production; AD 165 ± 95*.

Veiem grave series, N Trondelag Partly leveled round barrow with well-furnished stone cist grave from ca AD 500. In subsoil below was distinct pattern of plow marks, and various pits were found around edge of barrow. Charcoal, wood and bark from +20m at Veiem, Grong (12° 07' N, 64° 28' E). Coll 1976 and subm 19761977 by Oddmunn Farbregd, DKNVS Mus, Univ Trondheim. T-2340. Veiem R9, plow marks 2340 ± 90 Charcoal (Pinus, Betula, Alnus) from bits scattered in grooves made by ard, depth ca 0.8m; 560 ± 160 :BC*. T-2490. Veiem R9, Pit 7 2180 ± 50 Charcoal (Betula) from base of charcoal pit dug into subsoil ca 5m outside barrow, depth ca 0.4m; 305 ± 105 BC*.

606

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

150 ± 60 T-2491. Veiem R9, Pit 9 Decomposed wood (Picea) from previous cover layer in filled rectangular pit ca 3m by 4.5m. Assoc with numerous iron rivets. Depth ca 0.4m. Comment (OF): pit was disturbed boat grave, and date refers to plundering (Farbregd,1979a, b); younger than AD 1640*.

1460 ± 70 T-2492. Veiem R9, charcoal Charcoal from layer 8, ca 2.5m wide and 0.05m thick, overlying subsoil ca 4m outside barrow, partly covering charcoal Pit 7, depth ca 0.3m. Comment (OF): layer may be site of funeral pyre; AD 520 ± 80*. 1500 ± 70 T-2493. Veiem R9, birch bark Birch bark (Betula) placed on planks in stone cist, 4m long, depth ca 1.1 m. Comment (OF): date is presumably quite reliable and suggests that traditional weapon chronology is somewhat too young; AD 495 ± 95*.

T-2494. Veiem R9, Pit 2 2210 ± 70 Charcoal (Pines) from base of pit ca 1.6m wide, depth ca 0.6m; 315 ± 105

BC*.

T-2495. Veiem R9, charcoal 1700 ± 60 Charcoal (Pines) from concentration in soil fill of mound near cist, depth 0.7m. Comment (OF): on basis of stratigraphy, charcoal feature should not be older than cist burial (cf T-2493); AD 280 ± 100*.

T-2639. Veiem R9, Pit 3 2170 ± 50 Charcoal (Betula) from base of pit ca 1.5m wide, depth ca 0.4m; 290 ± 120

BC*.

T-2640. Veiem R9, Pit 4 2080 ± 50 Charcoal (Betula) from base of pit ca 1 m wide, depth ca 0.6m; 195 ± 185

BC*.

T-2883. Human bones, Hordaland 3690 ± 80 Human bones from late Neolithic hunting place, depth 0.80 to 0.90m in sand, at Ruskenesset, Stromme, Bergen (60° 20' N, 5° 15' E). Assoc find: flint dagger of type IX (B6914). Coll 1915 by Haakon Schetlig, Univ Mus Natl Antiquities, Oslo; subm 1978 by Anders Hagen and Rolf Lie, Univ Bergen; 2150 ± 40 BC*.

Human bones, Buskerud 3600 ± 50 Human bones from late Neolithic grave (hellekiste) at Verket, Hurum (59° 40' N, 10° 25' W). Assoc were five flint daggers of Ebbe Lombergs Type IA and IB. Coll 1880 by Univ Mus Natl Antiquities, Oslo; subm 1978 by Rolf Scheen, Univ Mus Nail Antiquities. Comment (RS): until now only these two discoveries of human bones (T-2883, -2990) with assoc flint daggers of type I from late Neolithic have been made; 2090 ± 45 BC*.

T-2990.

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

607

Other Archaeologic Samples

T-2043. Ts 6746 1600 ± 60 Rib of oak, probably part of complete boat from bog at ca + 3m at Boroya, Stokmarknes, Hadsel, Nordland (68° 34' N, 14° 57' E). Coll 1974 by A/S Ivar Bergsmo, Stokmarknes; subm 1975 by Reidar Bertelsen, Univ Tromso. Comment (RB): construction is similar to boat from Barset, Karlsoy, Troms (Gjessing,1941; Bertelsen,1976); AD 370 ± 80*. T-2303. Log boat 590 ± 60 Wood (pine) from log boat from little shallow lake Skrovlingen at + 209m, Hokasen, Brandval/Kongsvinger, Hedmark (60° 15' N, 12° E). Coll 1950 by Georg Flyginn, :Hokasen; subm 1975 by Martin Skaare Botner, Hokasen (Nakkerud,1976); AD 1325 ± 65*. T-2339. Selnes I, S Trondelag 1160 ± 100 Wood (Pinus) from Selnes, Snillfjord, Sor-Trondelag at ca + 20m, depth ca 0.5m (63° 22' N, 9° 19' E). Wooden upright post ends of uncertain function scattered over area ca 50 x 30m wide, found when pond/bog was drained and cultivated (Farbregd, 1978); AD 815 ± 125*. REFERENCES

Andersen, B G, Boen, F, Rasmussen A, and Vallevik, P N, 1979, The deglaciation between Skjerstadfjord and Svartisen, north Norway: Boreas, v 8, p 199-201. Andersen, B G, Nydal R, Wangen, 0 P, and Ostmo, S R, 1981, Weichsel before 15,000 years BP at Jaeren-Karmoy in southwestern Norway: Boreas, v 10, p 297-314. Aukrust, M, (ms), 1983, Vegetasjonshistorie, klima- og jordbruksutvikling i Boverdalen, Lom, Oppland: Cand sci thesis, Univ Trondheim. Axelsen, B, (ms), 1975, Ressursutnyttelse i et fjellomrade-Seterfjellet i Oystre slidre, utnyttelse av og pavirkning pa naturgrunnlaget: Unpub thesis, Dept Geog, Univ Oslo. Bakka, E, 1975, Geologically dated rock carvings at Hammer near Steinkjer in Nord-Trondelag: Arkeol Skr Hist Mus, Univ Bergen, no. 2, p 7-48. Bang-Andersen, S, 1974, Lokalitet 7-en steinalderboplass ved Mosvatnet i Suldalsheiene: Fra haug ok heidni, v 5, no. 4, p 196-202. 1976, Steinalderboplasser i Bykleheiene 1000 meter over havet: Fra haug ok heidni, v 6, no. 4, p 92-100. --1979, SteinalderundersOkelse ved Storamos pa HogJ eren: Fra haug ok heidni, v 7, no. 1, p 189-197. Barth, E K,1981, Construction and use of hunting pit falls in woodland: Norsk Skogbruksmus Yearbook 9, 1978-1981, Elverum, p 272-298. Bertelsen, R, 1976, Viktig funn av batspant pa Boroya, Stokmarknes: Hofdasegl 21, Jour loc hilt, p 391-394. Blystad, P, 1981, An inter-till, organic sediment, probably of Early or Middle Weichselian age, from Setesdal, southwestern Norway: Boreas, v 10, p 363-367. Breien, K, 1932, Vegetasjonen pa skjellsandbanker i indre Ostfold: Nyt Mag Naturvid, v 72, p 131-282. Bull, Edvard,1917, Skipstomter og naustetomter fra vikingtid eller middelalder: Fortidsforen Arb 1917, p 17-23. Bye, Jarle,1978, Skog i sob og skygge: Jubileumsbok Ostre og Vestre Gausdal: Engers Boktrykkeri A/S, Otta, p 45-48. Farbregd, 0, 1978, Funn og fornminne i Selnes i Snillfjord: Arb Fosen, p 31-42. 1979a, Kolgroper-talrike og viktige, men problematiske minne fra var eldste jernalder, in Nydal, R et at, eds, Fortiden i sokelyset: Strindheim Trykkeri, Trondheim, p 131-137. 1979b, Perspektiv pa Namdalens jernalder: Viking, p 20-80. --1979c, Jernvinne og jernalders busetning i Trondelag, ei problemstilling: Varia 4, p 56-58.

-----

-----

608

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth

-----0,

1980, Arkeologi nordafjells: Arb Trondelag, p 52-86. 1983, Steinringar og tidleg jernvinne i Navlusmarka, Snasa: Nord-Trondelag Historielag, Arbok 1983, p 79-104. Feyling-Hanssen, R W, 1971, Weichselian Interstadial Foraminifera from the SandnesJ eren Area: Geol Soc Denmark Bull, v 21, p 72-116. Gjessing, G, 1941, Batfunnene fra Barset og Oksnes. To nordnorske jernaldersfunn: Tromso mus arshefte 58, 1935, p 1,109. Gjessing,J and Spjeldnaes, N,1979, Dating the Grefsen moraine and remarks on the deglaciation of southeast Norway: Norsk geog tidsskr 33, p 71-81. Goh, K M and Molloy, B P J,1972, Reliability of radiocarbon dates from buried charcoals, in Rafter, T A, and Grant-Taylor, T, eds, Internatl radiocarbon conf, 8th, Proc: Wellington, Royal Soc New Zealand, p G29-G45. Gulliksen, S, Nydal, R, and Lovseth, K,1975, Trondheim natural radiocarbon measurements VII: Radiocarbon, v 17, p 364-395. Gulliksen, S, Nydal, R, and Skogseth, F,1978, Trondheim natural radiocarbon measurements VIII: Radiocarbon, v 20, p 105-133. Gustafson, Lil, (ms),1978, Stegaros, et boplassomrade pa Hardangervidda. Ressursutnyttelse i forhistorisk tid: Unpub thesis, Univ Bergen. Kullgroper i fjellstrok: Bergen, Arkeo 1980, p 18-22. Hafsten, U, 1975, Mjosomradets natur- og kulturhistorie-slik avsetningene i myrer og tjern beretter: Norsk Skogbruksmus Arb 7, 1972-1975, p 25-61. 1981, An 8000 year old pine trunk from Dovre, south Norway: Norsk geog tidsskr 35, p 161-165. Shore-level changes in South Norway during the last 13,000 years, traced by biostratigraphical methods and radiometric datings: Norsk geog tidsskr, 37, p 63-79. in press, The immigration and spread of spruce forest in Norway, traced by biostratigraphical studies and radiocarbon datings. A preliminary report: Norsk geog tidsskr 39, in press. Hafsten U and Tallantire P A, 1978, Palaeoecology and post-Weichselian shore-level changes on the coast of More, western Norway: Boreas, v 7, p 109-122. Haga, 0, (ms), 1978, Morenemasser i dodis etter et breframstOt i Van Mijenfjorden, Spitsbergen: PhD dissert, Univ Oslo. Helskog, E, 1983, The Iversfjord locality. A study of behavioral patterning during the Late Stone age of Finmark, North Norway: Tromso Mus Skrifter 19, 162 p. Henningsmoen, K, 1975, Elghornet fra Hov i Loten: Norsk Skogbruksmus Arb 7, 19721975, p 62-63. Holm-Olsen, Inger Marie, 1980,Jernalder i Helgoy, Ottar no. 125-126, p 38-42. Holtedahl, 0, 1924, Studier over isrand-terrassene syd for de store ostlandske sjoer: Vid Selsk Skr I, Mat-naturv kl 14,110 p. 1974, Noen glasifluviale israndavsetninger i den sydlige del av Glomma-vassdagets (nav2erende) dreneringsomrade: Norges geol unders, v 306, 85 p. Indrelid, S and Moe, D, 1982, Februk pa Hardangervidda i yngre steinalder: Viking, Arbok 1982, p 36-71. Jevne, 0 E, (ms), 1982, Vegetasjons-, klima- og jordbrukshistorie i Beistad, Nord-Trondelag: Cand real thesis, Univ Trondheim, 126 p. Johansen, A B, 1973, The Hardangervidda project for interdisciplinary cultural research. A presentation: Norw Archaeol Rev, v 6, p 60-66. Johansen, 0 S, 1979, Jernaldergarder i Nord-Norge, in Fladby and Sandnes, eds, Pa leiting ester den eldste garden: Utg ved Norsk lok hiss cost, Univ-forlaget, Oslo, p 95-115. Kjemperud, A, (ms). 1978, Strandforskyvning pa Frosta, Nord-Trondelag, belyst ved palaeookologiske metoder: PhD dissert, Univ Trondheim. 1981, A shoreline displacement investigation from Frosta in Trondheimsfjorden, Nord-Trondelag, Norway: Norsk geol tidsskr 61, p 1-15. Liestol, 0, 1972, Submarine moraines off the west coast of Spitsbergen: Norsk Polarinst Arb 1970, p 165-168. Mangerud, J and Gulliksen, S, 1975, Apparent radiocarbon age of recent marine shells from Norway, Spitsbergen and Arctic Canada: Quaternary Research, v 5, p 263-273. Martens, I,1973, Gamle fjellgarder fra strokene rundt Hardangervidda: Univ Oldsaksamlings Arb,1970-1971, p 1-84. 1977, Vor- and fruhgeschichtliche Eisenverhuttung in sudnorwegischen Gebirgsgegenden: Wissenschaft Arb Burgenland 59, Eisenstadt, p 47-55. 1979, Overst i Tellemarken have de i gammel tid veldet fern, in Nydal, R et al, eds, Fortiden i sokelyset: Strindheim Trykkeri, Trondheim, p 121-129. Moe, D, (ms), 1978a, Studier over vegetasjonsutviklingen gjennom Holocen pa Hardangervidda, Sor-Norge. II: PhD dissert, Univ Bergen. -----1978b,14C-datering av trekull: Arkeo, Bergen, p 14.

Farbregd,

-----1981,

-------1983, -----

-----

-----

------

Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX

609

Moe, D, 1979, Tregrensefluktuasjoner pa Hardangervidda etter siste istid, in Nydal, R et al, eds, Fortiden i sokelyset: Strindheim Trykkeri, Trondheim, p 199-208. Moe, D, Indrelid, S, and Kjos-Hansen, 0, 1978, A study of environment and early man in the southern Norwegian highlands: Norw Archeol Rev, v 11, p 73-83. Myhre, BjOrn, 1973, I en aker pa Gjerland i Forde: Arkeo, Bergen, p 15-18. Gardsanlegget pa Ullandhaug I. Gardshus i jernalder og tidlig middelalder i SV-Norge: AmS Skrifter 4, Ark mus Stavanger, p 135. Nakkerud, T Bloch, 1976, Report: Univ Mus Nail Antiquities, Oslo. Oyen, P A, 1912, The Quaternary section of Kilebu: Vidensk Selsk Skr Mat Natl Kl I, no. 8, p 1-24. Ramfjord, H, 1982, On the Late Weichselian and Flandrian shoreline displacement in Nroy, Nord-Trondelag, Norway: Norsk geog tidsskr 62, 191-205. Rokoengen, K, 1979, Isens utstrekning og nedsunkne pstrandlinjer pa kontinentalsokkelen, in Nydal, R et al, eds, Fortiden i sokelyset: Strindheim Trykkeri, Trondheim, 249-261. p Rokoengen, K, Bell, G, Bugge, T, Dekko, T, Gunleiksrud, T, Lien, R, Lofaldli, M, and Vigran, 0, 1977, Provetaking av fjellgrunn og losmasser utenfor deter av Nord-Norge i 1976: J IKU pub 91, 67 p. Rokoengen, K, Bugge, T, Dekko, T, Gunleiksrud, T, Lien, R L, and Lofaldli, M,1979, Shallow geology of the continental shelf off North Norway: POAC 79, Port and ocean engineering under arctic conditions, Proc, p 859-875. Rokoengen, K, Bugge, T, and Lofaldli, M, 1979, Quaternary geology and deglaciation of the continental shelf off Troms, North Norway: Boreas, v 8, p 217-227. Salvigsen, 0, 1977, Radiocarbon datings and the extension of the Weichselian ice-sheet in Svalbard: Norsk Polarinst Arb, 1976, p 209-224. 1978, Holocene emergence and finds of pumice whalebones and driftwood at Svartknausflya, Nordaustlandet: Norsk Polarinst Arb 1977, p 217-228. 1979, The last deglaciation of Svalbard: Boreas, v 8, p 229-231. 1981, Radiocarbon dated raised beaches in Kong Karls Land, Svalbard, and their consequences for the glacial history of the Barents Sea area: Geog Ann 63A (3-4), p 283-291. Salvigsen, 0 and Nydal, R, 1981, The Weichselian glaciation in Svalbard before 15,000 BP: Boreas, v 10, p 433-446. Sollid, J I. and Sorbel, L, 1979, Deglaciation of western central Norway: Boreas, v 8, 233p 239. Sorensen, R, 1973, Registrering av kjente skjellforekomster i Marker, Aremark og Rakkestad i Ostfold: Miljoverndept-Landsplan for reg av verneverdige naturomrader og forekoms-

-----1980,

-----------------

ter, rept.

1979, Late Weichselian deglaciation in the Oslofjord area, south Norway: Boreas, v 8, p 241-246. Spjeldns, N, 1978, Ecology of selected Late- and Post-Glacial marine faunas in the Oslo Fjord area: Geol Foren Forhandl, v 10, p 189-202. Stabell, B, (ms), 1976, Den postglaciale strandforskyvning i Telemark undersokt ved hjelp av diatome-analyse: Unpubl thesis, Univ Oslo. 1980, Holocene shorelevel displacement in Telemark, Southern Norway: Nor geol tidsskr 60. Storen, K, 1976, Pa spor etter jernalderbondens utpost i nord: Ottar, v 83, p 34-37. Storen Binns, K, 1978, Jernalderbosetningen pa Kvaloy i Troms: Mag art thesis, Univ Tromso, 216 p.

---

-1978, Rapport fra utgravningen av en flatemarksgrav pa Austein, Tromso k (Ts 7656) Top ark: Ark avd, Tromso Mus. Trillerud, P 0, (ms), 1983, Paleo-okologiske undersokelser i Sor-Trondelag. Granskogens innvandring og etablering: Cand sci thesis, Univ Trondheim. Vorren, K D, 1975, Et pollenanalytisk bidrag til sporsmalet om det eldste jordbruk i NordNorge: Viking, no. 39, p 171-195. Late and Middle Weichselian stratigraphy of Andoya, North Norway: Boreas, v 7, p 19-38. 1979, Anthropogenic influence on the natural vegetation in coastal north Norway during the Holocene. Development of farming and pastures: Norw Archaeol Rev 12, p 1-21. 1980, Pollenanalytiske undersOkelser: Ottar, no. 125-126, 15-22. Vorren, K D and Vorren B, 1976, The problem of dating a palsa-Twop attempts involving pollen diagrams, determination of moss subfossils, and 14-C datings: Astarte 8 (1975), p 73-81.

-----1978,

--- -

[RADIOCARBON, VOL

27, No. 3, 1985, P 610-615]

UNIVERSITY OF GRANADA RADIOCARBON DATES II CECILIO GONZALEZ-GOMEZ, PURIFICACION SANCHEZ-SANCHEZ, and MARIA DOMINGO-GARCIA Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory, Radiochemistry Section CSIC Coordinated Center, Faculty of Science, University of Granada 18071 Granada, Spain Most of the 14C measurements reported here were made between 1979 and 1981. The samples were measured by benzene synthesis and liquid scintillation counting (Pietig & Sharpenseel, 1966; Polach & Stipp, 1967; Tamers, 1969). Sample treatment was reported previously (Gonzalez-Gomez, Lopez14C activity was measured in a Gonzalez and Domingo-Garcia, 1982). spectrometer, with a backscintillation liquid Nuclear Chicago Isocap 300 40K ground of 9 to 1Ocpm for 5m1 benzene samples, using 20m1 low

counting vials. 14C half-life of 5570 years. The The dates were calculated based on a of the NBS oxalic acid activity the of 0.95 as modern reference is taken standard. Calculations and data are processed by a Hewlett-Packard HP-85 computer using BASIC programs made by Gonzalez-Gomez. Results are reported in years before 1950 (BP). 513C values are based on data reported by Stuiver and Polach (1977). Errors quoted with dates are based only on counting statistics and are equivalent to ±1 standard deviation (1o), which includes statistical variations of sample count, as well as background and standard. Efficiency is ca 70%, using the part of spectrum above the end point of tritium. Sample descriptions are based on information provided by submitters. ARCHAEOLOGIC SAMPLES

Spain

Las Angosturas series Charcoal and bone from Las Angosturas (37° 21' N, 3° 50' W), Gor, prov Granada. Samples coll and subm 1981 by M Botella, Diputacion prov to date Eneolithic period and Copper age in E Andalucia. UGRA-17. Bone.

N1524311

UGRA-30. Bone.

Ag 34304

3460

210 140 150

UGRA-84. Ag 35158 Charcoal at 5.5m depth. 610

University of Granada Radiocarbon Dates II

611

UGRA-87. Ag 34856 Bone at 5.3m depth.

4450

±

UGRA-88. Ag 32074 Charcoal at 4.3m depth.

5020

± 190

UGRA-125. Ag 31044 Charcoal at 3.7m depth.

3980

± 160

UGRA-126. Ag 40291 Charcoal at 3.l m depth. General Comment: dates agree with expected ages.

240

4240 ± 120

Cerro de los Infantes series Charcoal from Cerro de los Infantes (37° 16' 02" N, 3° 46' 01" W) Pinos Puente, prov Granada. Samples coil and subm 1981 by F Molina, Dept Prehist, Univ Granada, to date Bronze age in S peninsula Iberica. UGRA-111. CI23479 2.l m depth.

2580 ± 140

UGRA-112. CI23097 40cm depth.

2390 ± 170

UGRA-113. CI-23488 1.9m depth. General Comment: dates agree with expected ages.

2310 ± 160

Cerro de la Encina Charcoal from Cerro de la Encina (37° 08' 16" N, 3° 32' 51" W), Monachil, prov Granada. Sample coil 1970 and subm 1979 by F Molina to date Bronze age in upper Andalucia. UGRA-116. M 1931 bis 3.3m depth.

3360

±

150

Cerro de la Mora Charcoal from Cerro de la Mora (37° 17' 31" N, 3° 59' 07" W), Moraleda, prov Granada. Sample coll and subm 1981 by J Carrasco, Dept Prehist, Univ Granada. UGRA-92. CM 1 11.4m depth.

3250

±

140

Rincon de Olvera series Charcoal from Rincon de Olvera (38° 00,41" N, 3° 19' 05" W), Ubeda, prov Jaen. Samples coil and subm 1979-1981 by J Carrasco to date El Argar in prov Jaen.

612

C Gonzalez-Gomez,

P Sanchez-Sanchez, and M Domingo-Garcia

UGRA-54. R Olvera 2m depth.

1

3380

110

210

UGRA-73. R Olvera 2 UGRA-74.

R Olvera 3

3310

150

General Comment: age for R Olvera 2 is probably too young.

Almizaraque series Charcoal from Almizaraque (37° 18' N, 10 47' W), Cuevas de Almanzora, prov Almeria. Samples coil 1981 and subm by M Fernandez-Miranda, Subdir Gen Arqueol, to date first metallurgy in SW peninsula Iberica. UGRA-83. A 180 Cl

4100

120

UGRA-93.

A 180 C2

4200

110

UGRA-94. A 480 C3 1.03m depth.

4120

140

A 180 C4

4130

140

4090

130

UGRA-95.

UGRA-96. A 180 C5 General Comment: dates agree with expected ages.

Cueva de Nerja Charcoal from Cueva de Nerja (36° 45' 45" N, 3° 50' 55" W), Maro, prov Malaga. Sample coll and subm 1981 by F Jorda-Cerda, Dept Prehist y Aqueol, Univ Salamanca, to date establishment of Upper Paleolithic in E Andalucia. UGRA-98. N C4131 2.9m depth.

12,300

±

200

Morra del Quintanar series Charcoal from Morra del Quintanar (39° 01' 05" N, 1° 14' 05" W), Munera, prov Albacete. Samples coil 1980 and subm 1981 by C MartinMorales, Subdir Gen Arqueol, to date middle Bronze age in prov Albacete.

Q386-80

130

UGRA-103. Q419-80 1.37m depth.

120

UGRA-104. Q 1455-80 0.62m depth.

140

UGRA-102.

I.98m depth.

University of Granada Radiocarbon Dates

II

613

Pena Miel l Bone from Pena Miel 1(42° 12' 59" N, 2° 37' 51" W), Pradillo de Cameros, prov Rioja. Sample coll 1980 and subm 1981 by P Utrilla, Dept Hist Antigua, Univ Zaragoza, to date Upper Paleolithic in Rioja. UGRA-128.

PM 14B 130.5

>28,000

Motilla del Azuer series Charcoal and seeds from Motilla del Azuer (39° 03' 14" N, 3° 29' 48" W), Daimiel, prov Ciudad Real. Samples cull and subm 1979 by F Molina to date Bronze age in S Tableland. UGRA-109. D 37 bis Charcoal at 1.25m depth.

3400

130

UGRA-114. D6016 Seed at 1.l m depth.

3440

130

UGRA-115. D15027 Charcoal at 1.05m depth.

3770

160

UGRA-118. D 15077 Seed at 1.8m depth.

3730

150

UGRA-127. D15114 Seed at 2.15m depth.

3620

100

UGRA-129. D 15173 Seed at 1.9m depth.

3680

100

UGRA-132. D 15358 4030 ± 130 Charcoal at 3.4m depth. General Comment: in general, dates agree with expected ages. Motilla de los Palacios Charcoal from Motilla de los Palacios (39° 03' 14" N, 3° 38' 03" W), Almagro, prov Ciudad Real. Sample coil 1974 and subm 1981 by F Molina to date Bronze age in S Tableland.

UGRA-110. A 2106 3320 ± 130 1.9m depth. Comment: date agrees with expected age. El Raso de Candeleda series Charcoal from El Raso de Candeleda (40° 07' 00" N, 5° 18' 08" W), Candeleda, prov Avila. Samples coil and subm 1981 by F Fernandez, Mus Arqueol, Seville, to date pre-Roman town. UGRA-105. El Raso 4 B4 80cm depth.

2010

±

130

614

C Gonzalez-Gomez,

P Sanchez-Sanchez, and M Domingo-Garcia

UGRA-108. El Raso 5 Cl 70 to 80cm depth.

2100

±

140

Cueva de Arevalillo Charcoal from Cueva de Arevalillo (41° 20' N, 40 00' W), Arevalillo de Cega, prov Segovia. Sample toll 1978 and subm 1981 by M D FernandezPosse, Subdir Gen Arqueol, to date Bronze age. UGRA-99. CA 78 C4 95cm depth.

3510

±

130

Tossal de la Roca series Charcoal from Tossal de la Roca (38° 48' 08" N, 0° 15' 55" W), Vall de Alcala, prov Alicante. Samples coil 1978 and subm 1981 by C Cacho, Mus Arqueol Nacl, Madrid, to date end of Paleolithic in Spanish Mediterranean. UGRA-119. TR 5-3

12,480 ±210

UGRA-120. TR 5-4

12,390 ± 250

UGRA-130. TR 78/9

15,360 ± 1100

Son Fornes series Charcoal from Son Fornes (39° 35' 03" N, 2° 58' 13" E), Montuiri, Mallorca. Samples coil and subm 1981 by V Lull, Univ Auton, Barcelona. UGRA-121. HT 12-2 3.28m depth. UGRA-122. HT 6 5-2 1.54m depth. UGRA-123. T23-2 3.57m depth. General Comment: no expected ages for these samples.

2450

190

130

120

Sota Palou series Charcoal from Sota Palou (42° 13' 50" N, 2° 10' 27" E), Campdevanol, prov Gerona. Samples coil and subm 1981 by E Carbonell, Asoc Arqueol Gerona, to date Upper Paleolithic in Cataluna. UGRA-69. SP 803 1.9m depth. UGRA-124. SP 814 Comment: expected age for SP 803 was too old.

8540 ± 180

380

University of Granada Radiocarbon Dates 11

615

Cova 120 series Wood and charcoal from Cova 120 (42° 17' N, 2° 37' E), Sadernas, prov Gerona. Samples coil and subm 1981 by G Alcalde-Gurt, Mus Olot, Gerona, to date Bronze age in Cataluna.

UGRA-106. C 120 440 ± 160 Wood at 30cm depth. Comment: expected age was ca 3950; sample is probably too young. UGRA-107. Z.A.9.10/7.8.9 3190 Charcoal at 35cm depth. Comment: expected age was ca 3950.

±

130

Cingle Vermell Charcoal from Cingle Vermell (41 ° 56' N, 2° 23' E), Vilanova de Sau, prov Barcelona. Sample coll 1979 and subm 1980 by J Estevez, Inst Bioestrat CSIC, Barcelona, to date Holocene in Cataluna. UGRA-68. CV El C14 60cm depth. Comment: date is as expected.

9760 ± 160

Roe del Migdia Charcoal from Roc del Migdia (41 ° 56' N, 2° 23' E), Vilanova de Sau, Prov Barcelona. Sample coll and subm 1981 by J Estevez and G Alcalde, Inst Bioestrat CSIC, Barcelona, to date Paleolithic-Mesolithic cultures in Cataluna. UGRA-117. RM C141 55cm depth. Comment: date is as expected.

11,520±220

Portugal

Cerro do Castelo de Santa Justa Charcoal from Cerro do Castelo de Santa Justa (37° 29' N, 7° 29' W), Alcoutim, Faro. Sample coll 1980 and subm 1981 by V Goncalves, Centro Hist, Univ Lisboa, to date copper metallurgy in Portugal at S Tajo R. UGRA-131.

G-24

4390

± 150

Comment: expected age: 4150 to 4950. REFERENCES

Gonzalez-Gomez, C, Lopez-Gonzalez, J D, and I)omingo-Garcia, M, 1982, University of Granada radiocarbon dates I: Radiocarbon, v 24, p 217-221. Pietig, F and Sharpenseel, H W, 1966, Altersbestimmung mit dem Fli ssigkeits-SzintillationsSpecktrometer. Ein neuer Katalizator zur Benzolsynthese: Atompraxis, v 12, p 95-97. Polach, H A and Stipp, J J, 1967, Improved synthesis techniques for methane and benzene radiocarbon dating: Internatl Jour App! Radiation Isotopes, v 18, p 359-364. Stuiver, Minze and Polach, H A, 1977, Discussion: Reporting of 14C data: Radiocarbon, v 19, p 355-363.

Tamers, M A,1969, Instituto Venezo!ano de Investigaciones Cientificas natural radiocarbon measurements IV: Radiocarbon, v 11, p 396-422.

[RADIOCARBON, VOL

27, No, 3, 1985, P 616-622]

VIENNA RADIUM INSTITUTE RADIOCARBON DATES XV

HEINZ FELBER Institute fur Radiumforschung and Kernphysik der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Austria Measurements have continued with the same proportional counter system, pretreatment procedure, methane preparation and measurement, and calculation, as described previously (R,1970, v 12, 298-318). Uncer13C/I C ratios were meatainties quoted are single standard deviations. No sured. Sample descriptions have been prepared in cooperation with submitters. Some dates have been calibrated using the correction tables of Klein et al (1982) and are reported with an asterisk (*) in the Comment. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

express my thanks to Ing L Stein for excellent work in sample preparation and for careful operation of the dating equipment. I

GEOLOGIC AND BOTANIC SAMPLES

Austria

Kolbnitz series, Karnten Peat from 5.2m thick profile of Egartermoor, Kilbnitz/Molltal (46° 52' 20" N,13° 17' 46" E), +750m, Carinthia. Coll 1983 by Friedrich Kral and Franz Egarter, subm by F Kral, Univ Bodenkultur, Vienna. General Comment (FK): series dates palynologically determined events. 740 ± 60 VRI-877. 125-135 Heavily decomposed moss peat at 125 to 135cm depth. Comment (FK): dates beginning of human influence on woods.

2870 ± 80 VRI-878. 235-245 Wood peat with Carex at 235 to 245cm depth. Comment (FK): dates beginning of continuous settlement in Lower Moll Valley. 5310 ± 100 VRI-879. 300-310 Wood peat at 300 to 310cm depth. Comment (FK): dates beginning of abundant spread of common beech after glaciation. 8460 ± 110 VRI-880. 470-480 Sandy wood peat at 470 to 480cm depth. Comment (FK): dates beginning of abundant spread of spruce after glaciation.

31,600 ± 1300 VRI-881. Nieselach, Karnten Stem of tree in sand below moraine above lignite layer; Nieselach (46° 36' 30" N, 13° 30' 30" E), Carinthia. Coll 1983 and subm by D van Husen, Tech Univ, Vienna. Comment (DvH): dates coarse sedimentation on lignite horizon (van Husen & Draxler, 1982). 616

Vienna Radium Institute Radiocarbon Dates XV

617

VRI-824. Manhartsberg, NO 2550 ± 70 Gray sandy clay mud at 45 to 50cm depth from layer 13cm thick, above say clay, overlain by clayey Carex peat, Seewiese am Manhartsberg (48° 32' 20" N, 19° 44' E), +475m, Lower Austria. Coll 1983 and subm by Friedrich Kral. Comment (FK): early human influence on surrounding woods are palynologically determined; 815-435 BC*, points to Hallstatt period.

VRI.874. Marchegg, NO 5160 ± 90 Carex peat at 105 to 115cm depth, from peat layer, 60cm thick, overlain by loam, underlain by coarse sand, Nanni Au bei Marchegg (48° 16' 13" N, 16° 53' 48" E), + 145m, Lower Austria. Coil 1983 and subm by Friedrich Kral. Comment (FK): dates time when forests in this area were not influenced by humans, as palynologically proven. VRI-826. Ebensee, 00 11,760 ± 300 Wood at 160m depth below postglacial gravel washed by R Traun into Lake Traunsee, Ebensee (47° 48' 06" N,13° 46' 30" E), Upper Austria. Coll 1983 from boring by Peter Baumgartner, subm by Hermann Kohl, 00 Landesmus, Linz. Comments (HK): date is clue to sedimentation rate. (HF): no pretreatment. VRI-827. Schon, 00 29,800 ± 1100 Fossil peat or peat coal below ground moraine at 6m depth, Schon near Michldorf (17° 51' 30" N, 14° 09' E), Upper Austria. Coil 1981 by boring, subm 1983 by Hermann Kohl. Comments (HK): palynology places sample in interstadial. Riss interstadial is possible because Riss glaciation was last one in area. Date confirms expectation of transposed bog of Wurmian age. (HF): no pretreatment.

Wallersee series, Salzburg Peat samples from Wengermoor bog (47° 55' N, 13° 11' E) near Weng at Wallersee, Salzburg. Coil 1983 by Robert Krisai and Gertrude Friese, subm by R Krisai, Univ Salzburg. General Comment (RK): series establishes Wengermoor chronology.

VRI-842. Wengermoor V/1,1 5470 ± 100 Basal layer of raised bog peat at S part of bog (47° 55' 28" N). Comment (RK): dates beginning of growth of raised bog; with VRI-843, reveals that change to raised bog in whole Wengermoor was not simultaneous but proceeded from N to S. VRI-843. Wengermoor II/2,1 6990 ± 100 Basal layer of raised bog peat at N part of bog (47° 55' 45" N). Comment (RK): same as VRI-842. VRI-844. Wengermoor IV/ 1,5 5260 ± 100 Basal layer of raised bog at center of bog (47° 55' 35" N). Comment (RK): dates beginning of raised bog and supports pollen diagram.

618

Heinz Felber

8160 ± 120 VRI-845. Wengermoor IV/3,1 (RK): Comment N). Basal layer of reed peat at center of bog (47° 55' 35" developof marsh beginning and growth peat reed of dates both beginning ment in Wengermoor; supports pollen diagram. 420 ± 60 VRI-871. Tenneck, Salzburg Humus sample P-Tal 1730 in A-B profile separating underlying ground moraine and overlying moraine material 30cm below recent humus surface, Mt Tennengebirge (47 32 N, 13 12 42 E) near Tenneck, Salzburg. Coll 1983 and subm by Herbert Weingartner, Geog Inst, Univ Salzburg. Comments (HW, HF): date disagrees with assumed contribution to late glacial stratigraphy. HCl pretreatment only. Date may be influenced by non-separable younger humic acids and rootlets, but unrealistic admixture of <90% would be necessary to lower expected late glacial age of this date. 3920 ± 80 Filzmoos, Salzburg Wurzerat long 6.5m Carex peat at 175 to 185cm depth in profile ca Coll Salzburg. N, Filzmoos, near E) 12" 17' 14° 57" alm, +1 360m (47° 38' 1981 by Friedrich Kral and Michael Oberforster, subm by F Kral. Comment (FK): dates early transient pasture activity palynologically recognized.

VRI.873.

6120 ± 120 VRI-914. Bischofshofen, Salzburg Branch wood in ground moraine at base of terrace, +550m, end of Naglgraben valley (47° 23' 45" N, 13° 13' 40" E) near Bischofshofen, Salzburg. Coll 1984 by Heinz Slupetzky and Josef-Michael Schramm, subm by Heinz Slupetzky, Geog Inst, Univ Salzburg. Comment (HS): dates terrace. St Jakob in Defereggen series, Osttirol Wood peat from peat profile, 80cm thick, in bog near Erlsbacher bridge at St Jakob in Defereggen (46° 54' 58" N, 12° 15' 15" E), ;1570m, E Tyrol. Coll 1983 and subm by Friedrich Kral. General Comment (FK): series dates palynologically determined events. 650 ± 60 VRI-875. 38-45 Carex wood peat at 38 to 45cm depth. Comment (FK): dates younger human influence in woods (burning ?) followed by generally unforested area up to present time.

2260 ± 70 VRI-876. 68-75 Sandy wood peat at 68 to 75cm depth. Comment (FK): dates older human influence on woods followed by transitory opening of woods.

Seibersdorf 1 series, Steiermark Cyperaceae peat (contamination with younger roots possible) from middle part of bog profile near Seibersdorf (46 44 N, 15 39 30 E), ca +250m, Steiermark. Coll 1982 and subm by Friedrich Kral. General Comments (FK): dates pollen diagram. (HF): no pretreatment.

Vienna Radium Institute Radiocarbon Dates XV

619

VRI-801. Seibersdorf 30-40 <250 Peat at 30 to 40cm depth. Comment (FK): dates younger human influence.

VRI-802. Seibersdorf 52-60 530 ± 60 Peat at 52 to 60cm depth. Comment (FK): dates older human influence. VRI-803. Seibersdorf 2, Steiermark 960 ± 60 Detritus gyttja (contamination with younger roots possible) from middle part of profile of Attemsmoor (46° 44' 20" N, 15° 38' 10" E), ca +250m, near Seibersdorf, Styria. Coll 1982 by Friedrich Kral and Heinz Otto, subm by F Kral. Comment (FK): dates palynologically determined human influence;1st increase in culturally associated pollen.

Kirchbichl series, Tirol Heavily decomposed peat from bog profile (47° 36' 36" N, 12° 26' 26" E), Strandbad Kirchbichl, Tyrol. Coil 1983 by Burgi Wahlmuller, subm by Sigmar Bortenschlager, Univ Innsbruck. General Comment (BW): dates pollen diagram. VRI-816. 220-223 4970 ± 90 Peat at 220 to 223cm depth. Comment (BW): dates spread of Abies. VRI-817. 357-360 6110 ± 90 Peat at 357 to 360cm depth. Comment (BW): dates beginning of absolute Picea domination.

VRI-818. 520-523 8100 ± 120 Peat at 520 to 523cm depth. Comment (BW): dates end of non-arboreal pollen. VRI.828. Zillertal, Tirol 2920 ± 80 Detritus Radicella peat in topmost layer (10 to 15cm) of bog (47° 01' 33" N, 11 ° 48' 19" E), +1 875m, Waxeckalm, Zillertal, Tyrol. Coil 1982 by H Huttemann, subm by Sigmar Bortenschlager. Comment (HH): dates modern glacial advance. Completes Zillertal series (R, 1984, v 26, p 443). VRI-829. Kuhtai, Tirol 1930 ± 60 Brown moss Sphagnum peat 20 to 25cm deep in bog near Dortmunder but (47° 12' 20" N, 11° 00' 38" E), +1 880m, Kuhtai, Tyrol. Coil 1983 by H Huttemann, subm by Sigmar Bortenschlager. Comment (HF): dates Picea decrease in pollen diagram in assoc with cultural phase. Completes Kuhtai series (R, 1984, v 26, p 443-444).

Heinz Felber

620

4050 ± 110 VRI-832. Telfs, Tirol thick, at 5cm Charcoal splinters (sample 1/83) in burning horizon, 150cm depth separating two secs of deposition in alluvial cone of rivulet Griessbach. Below burning horizon sand are limestone rubble and moraine, Telfs (47° 18' N, 11 ° 04' E), Tyrol. Coll 1983 in dredged ditch by Neuner, I Neuwinger, and G Heiss, subm by I Neuwinger, Forstl BVA, Innsbruck. Comment (IN): dates alluvial cone. 6220 ± 120 VRI-837. Heilig Kreuz, Tirol in alluvial embedded horizon charcoal from Charcoal at 200cm depth silt deposit of R Inn, overlain by 180cm mudflow-debris of R Weissenbach at Heilig Kreuz near Hall in Tirol, from foundation of house Reimichlstrafe 23b (47° 17' 08" N, 11 ° 29' 39" E), + 576m, Tyrol. Colt 1983 and subm by Gernot Patzelt, Univ Innsbruck. Comment (GP): dates time when Inn Valley level was 16m above present one at +560m.

9730 ± 120 VRI-882. Wattens, Tirol Pinus wood ca 500cm below surface of Inn Valley level embedded in ca 1 m thick alluvial clay overlain by 400 to 500 cm Inn gravel. Foundationtrench of Swarovski Works 1 (47° 17' 46" N, 11 ° 36' 00" E), + 551 m, Wattens, Tyrol. Colt 1983 by Weis, Swarovski Co, subm by Gernot Patzelt. Comment (GP): outermost 20 to 22 rings near root stock of large tree was used for dating. Dates both former flood plain of R Inn and beginning of last gravel deposition up to present level.

Kiefersfelden series, Tirol Wood from sediments of R Inn coll by boring in present flood plain with some houses, 500m N Kiefersfelden (47° 37' 28" N, 12° 11' 14" E), Tyrol. Colt 1983 by Gernot Patzelt. General Comment: continues research of valley development and climate history of Inn Valley, begun with VRI-837 and -882, above.

VRI-910. Kiefersfelden Wood at 5.l m depth.

1030 ± 60

1

1090 70 VRI-911. Kiefersfelden 2 Wood from trunk, 1 to 1.5m thick, in same boring as VRI-910 at 6 to 8m depth. ARCHAEOLOGIC AND HISTORIC SAMPLES

Austria 200 ± 70 VRI-833. Villach, Karnten Wood from wooden bishop sculpture, 50cm high, of simple/primitive art. Sample is inventory of Mus Villach, Carinthia, bought 1914, subm by Dieter Neumann. Comment (DN): sculpture is either formal Archaic or Medieval art; AD 1525-1570,1605-1815,1840-1885, 1915-1950*.

Vienna Radium Institute Radiocarbon Dates XV

621

Kamegg series, NO Charcoal from excavation in area of Neolithic circular trench arrangement at Kamegg (48° 36' 34" N, 15° 39' 23" E), near Gars am Kamp, Lower Austria. Coil 1983, subm by Gerhard Trnka, Inst Ur- u Fri hgeschichte, Univ Vienna. VRI-896. Kamegg 1 5700 ± 90 Sample 221 from trench filling, cut 4/24m run/sec H, tr II, N portal; 1.8m depth. Comment (GT): culture of painted ceramics.

4600 38,700 + 2900 Sample 184 in loamy soil development in loess, cut 4/59 to 60m run/ sec F/planum 5-6; 2.1 to 2.2m depth. Comment (GT): dates soil development; important for comparison with Paleolithic sites. VRI-897.

Kamegg 2

-

VRI-823. See/Mondsee, OO 4660 ± 80 Wood remnant (229/1-1983 See/Mondsee) of Neolithic lake dwelling at 2m at base of Mondsee near See (47° 48' 16" N, 13° 27' 00" E), Upper Austria. Colt 1983 by Union-Tauchclub Wets, subm by Johann Ofenberger, Bundesdenkmalamt. Comment: date confirms Neolithic age.

-

VRI-825. Nu[3dorf/Attersee, 00 4310 ± 90 Wood remnant (231/2-1983 NuBdorf) of Neolithic lake dwelling near Nut3dorf (47° 52' 42" N, 13° 31'40" E), Upper Austria. Coil 1983 by UnionTauchclub Webs, subm by Johann Offenberger. Comment: date confirms Neolithic age. VRI-831. Linz, 00 1830 ± 70 Charcoal at 0.9 to 1 m depth, excavated at LessingstraBe 28, Linz (48° 17' N, 14° 20' E), Upper Austria. Coll 1982, subm by Erwin M Ruprechtsberger, Stadtmus Linz. Comment (EMR): tentatively placed in 1st half of 1st century AD by finds of Terra sigillata in same layer that also bore iron slag; AD 20-255` agrees with expectation. VRI-835. Voitsberg, Steiermark 210 ± 60 Wood splinters with soil at cave in altar base of St Hemma church, 12km E of Voitsberg (47° 03' 03" N, 32° E), Styria. Coil 1983 and subm by Ernst Lasnik, Mus Koflach. Comment (EL): date disagrees with possibility that sample is relic of sacred tree in legend of Earl Wilhelm, husband of St Hemma. St Jakob in Defereggen, Series 1, Osttirol Remains of former copper mines, NE part of "Defereggen Knappengruben" area, 5 to 6km NNE of St Jakob in Defereggen (46° 55' N, 12° 20' E), Trogischbach Valley, SE Pregratter Tort, at +2575 to 2739m, E Tyrol. Coil 1983 by W Potacs, subm by Richard Pittioni; Inst Ur- u Fruhgeschichte, Univ Vienna. General Comment (RP): supplement for insufficient historic material.

Heinz Felber

622

80 ± 60 VRI.838. Sample 1 Charcoal at 30cm depth in bldg remains, E path to Pregratter Ton. Comment (HF): AD 1665 to 1940*.

360 ± 50 VRI-839. Sample 2 Fragments of wooden floor in bldg remains at 30cm depth. Comment (HF): AD 1415 to 1645*. 330 ± 60 VRI-840. Sample 3 Textile remains, presumably from ore bags, in dump material. Comment (HF): AD 1420 to 1655*. Africa

Djaba series, Republic of Niger ° Wood from ruins of settlement (Ksar) Djaba (21 04' N, 12° 17' E), built of salt clay at border of Djado plateau, near Chirfa, Sahara. Co111982, subm by H Felber. General Comment (HF): dates phases of construction. No NaOH pretreatment necessary. 280 ± 80 VRI-809. Djaba 1 in presKsar of part in lower opening entrance above of beam Sample ent external wall. Coll 1982 by Dieter Stadclander. 480 ± 70 VRI-810. Djaba 2 Sample of beam in present external wall at base of N part of Ksar exposed by collapse. Coll by Elfriede Felber. Comment (HF): AD 1345 to 1490*. REFERENCES

Felber, Heinz, 1984, Vienna Radium Institute radiocarbon dates XIV: Radiocarbon, v 26, p

441-448.

Husen, D van and Draxler, I, 1982, Zur Ausbildung and Stellung der wurmzeitlichen Sedimente im unteren Gailtal: Zeitschr Gletscherk Glazialgeol, v 16, p 85-97. Klein, J, Lerman J C, Damon, P E, and Ralph, E K, 1982, Calibration of radiocarbon dates: tables based on the consensus data of the Workshop on Calibrating the Radiocarbon Time Scale: Radiocarbon, v 24, p 103-150.

[RADIOCARBON, VOL

27, No. 3, 1985, P 623-634]

LABORATORIES* A

ARIZONA Dr Austin Long Laboratory of Isotope Geochemistry Geosciences Department University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721

AC

INGEIS

Dr. Enrique Linares

Pabellon INGEIS, Ciudad Universitaria 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina ALG

ALGIERS

Omar Rahmouni Bd Frantz Fanon BP 1147

Algiers, Algeria ANL

ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY Mr James Gray, Jr Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, Illinois 60439

ANTW

ANTWERP UNIVERSITY Prof R Vanhoorne Dept of General Botany State University Centre Antwerp Groenenborgerlaan 171 B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium

ANU

AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Henry A. Polach Radiocarbon Dating Research Australian National University PO Box 4, Canberra 2600 Australia

AU

UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA William S Reeburgh and M Springer Young Institute of Marine Science University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska 99701

B

BERN Prof H Oeschger Physikalisches Institut Universitat Bern Sidlerstrasse 5 CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland BRATISLAVA Prof Dr P Povinec, Dr Sc Department of Nuclear Physics

Ba

Comenius University 842 15 Bratislava Czechoslovakia BROOKLYN COLLEGE Prof Evan T Williams Department of Chemistry Brooklyn College Brooklyn, New York 11210

BC

*

Please notify the Managing Editor of staff' or address changes.

623

624 Birm

Laboratories BIRMINGHAM R E G Williams

Department of Geological Sciences, PO Box 363 University of Birmingham Birmingham B15 2TT, England Bln

BERLIN Dr Gunther Kohl Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR Zentralinstitut fur Alte Geschichte and Archaologie 1086 Berlin, Liepziger Str 3/4 German Democratic Republic

BM

BRITISH MUSEUM Richard Burleigh Research Laboratory The British Museum London WC1B 3DG, England

BS

BIRBAL SAHNI INSTITUTE Dr G Rajagopalan Radiocarbon Laboratory Birbal Sahni Institute Paleobotany Post Box 106 Lucknow-226 007 India

CAR

CARDIFF

Quentin Dresser Radiocarbon Laboratory University College Cardiff CFI 1XL, Wales

CRCA

CAIRO Dr Shawki M Nakhla Cairo Carbon-14 Dating Laboratory Center of Research and Conservation of Antiquities Organization of Egyptian Antiquities Midan El Tahrir Cairo, Egypt

CSM

COSMOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY A K Lavrukhina and V A Alexeev VI Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry USSR Academy of Sciences Moscow, USSR

CU

CHARLES UNIVERSITY Jan Silar Department of Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology Charles University Albertov 6 CS-128 43 Praha 2, Czechoslovakia

Dak

DAKAR

Dr Cheikh Anta Diop Directeur du Laboratoire de Radiocarbone IFAN Universite de Dakar Republique du Senegal DAL

DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY Prof J Gordon Ogden, III Department of Biology Dalhousie University Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 3J5

Laboratories DE

UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Dr I C Yang U S Geological Survey WRD Box 25046, Mail Stop 407 Denver Federal Center Denver, Colorado 80225

Deb

DEBRECEN Eva Csongor

Institute of Nuclear Research Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI) Bern ter 18/c, Pf 51 Debrecen, Hungary DIC

DICARB RADIOISOTOPE COMPANY Irene C Stehli DICARB Radioisotope Company 4912 Stonehenge Lane Norman, Oklahoma 73071

F

FLORENCE Dr C M Azzi, L Bigliocca, and F. Gulisano Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory Istituto di Antropologia University di Firenze Via del Proconsolo 12 50122, Florence, Italy

Fr

FREIBERG Dr Klaus Frohlich Sektion Physik Bergakademie Freiberg DDR 92 Freiberg

Fra

FRANKFURT Prof Dr Reiner Protsch Radiocarbon Laboratory J W Goethe-Universitat Siesmayerstrasse 70 6000 Frankfurt am Main West Germany

FZ

FORTALEZA

Prof M F Santiago Departamento de Fisica UFCe, Cx Postal 12 62 60,000 Fortaleza/CE, Brazil GaK

GAKUSHUIN UNIVERSITY Prof Kunihiko Kigoshi Gakushuin University Mejiro, Toshima-ku Tokyo, Japan

Gd

GLIWICE Mieczystaw F Pazdur and Andrzej Zastawny Radiocarbon Laboratory Silesian Technical University Institute of Physics, C-l4 Laboratory ul Bolestawa Krzywoustego 2 P1-44-100 Gliwice, Poland

Gif

GIF-SUR-YVETTE Dr J Labeyrie or Mme G Delibrias Centre des Faibles Radioactivites Laboratoire mixte CNRS-CEA 91190-Gif-sur-Yvette, France

625

Laboratories

626 GrN

GRONINGEN

Prof W G Mook Isotopes Physics Laboratory University of Groningen Westersingel 34 9718 CM Groningen, Netherlands

GSC

OTTAWA Dr Roger N McNeely Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory Geological Survey of Canada 601 Booth Street Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0E8, Canada

GU

GLASGOW UNIVERSITY Dr M S Baxter Department of Chemistry The University Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland

GX

GEOCHRON LABORATORIES Harold W Krueger Division Krueger Enterprises, Inc 24 Blackstone Street Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139

HAM

UNIVERSITY OF HAMBURG Prof Dr H W Scharpenseel and P Becker-Heidmann

Ordinariat fur Bodenkunde Universitat Hamburg

Allende-Platz 2 D-2000 Hamburg 13 West Germany HAR

HARWELL R L Otlet Isotope Measurements Laboratory Nuclear Applications Centre Bldg 10.46 AERE, Harwell Oxfordshire OX110RA, England

Hd

HEIDELBERG Prof K 0 Munnich, D Berdau, and Marianne Mi nnich Institut fur Umweltphysik Universitat Heidelberg Im Neuenheimer Feld 366 D-69 Heidelberg, West Germany

Hel

HELSINKI

HogneJungner Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory University of Helsinki Snellmaninkatu 5 SF-00170 Helsinki 17, Finland

HIG

HAWAII INSTITUTE OF GEOPHYSICS Robert W Buddemeier Hawaiian Institute of Geophysics University of Hawaii 2525 Correa Road Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

Hv

HANNOVER Dr M A Geyh Niedersachsisches Landesamt fur Bodenforschung D-3000 Hannover-Buchholz, Postf 510153 West Germany

Laboratories I

TELEDYNE ISOTOPES James Buckley Teledyne Isotopes 50 Van Buren Avenue Westwood, New Jersey 07675

IRPA

INSTITUT ROYAL DU PATRIMOINE ARTISTIQUE M Dauchot-Dehon, J Heylen, and M Van Strydonck Institut Royal du Patrimoine Artistique 1 Parc du Cinquantenaire Brussels 4, Belgium

ISGS

ILLINOIS STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Dr Dennis D Coleman and Chao-li Liu Section of Analytical Chemistry Illinois State Geological Survey Natural Resources Building Urbana, Illinois 61801

JGS

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF JAPAN Dr Shigeko Togashi Geochemical Section Geological Survey of Japan 1-1-3, Higashi, Yatabe Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan

K

COPENHAGEN Dr Henrik Tauber Geological Survey of Denmark and National Museum DKK-1220 Copenhagen K, Denmark

KAERI

KOREA ATOMIC ENERGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Dr Kyung Rin Yang Radioanalytical Division

Korean Advanced Energy Research Institute PO Box 7, Cheong Ryang Seoul, Korea

KI

KIEL Dr Horst Willkomm and Dr H Erlenkeuser Institut fur Reine and Angewandte Kernphysik Universitat Kiel Olshausenstrasse 40-60 23 Kiel, Germany

KN

KOLN Dr J C Freundlich Universitat Koln, Institut fur Ur-und Fri hgeschichte C14-Laboratorium Koln-Lindenthal Weyerta1125, W Germany

L

LAMONT Dr Tsung-Hung Peng Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University Palisades, New York 10964

LAR

LIEGE STATE UNIVERSITY Prof Dr Jean Govaerts Lab d'application des radioelements Chimie B6, Sart Tilman Liege, Belgium

LE

LENINGRAD Radiocarbon Laboratory Institute of Archaeology (Leningrad Section) Dvortsovaya Nab 18 Leningrad 192041, USSR

627

628

Laboratories

LJ

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Prof H E Suess Mt Soledad Radiocarbon Laboratory S-003 University of California, San Diego LaJolla, California 92093

LOD

LODZ Andrzej Kanwiszer and Pawet Trzeciak Radiochemical Laboratory Archaeological and Ethnographical Museum in Lodz pl Wolnosci 14 91-415 Lodz, Poland

LP

LA PLATA Prof Anibal Juan Figini

Laboratorio de Tritio y Radiocarbono Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo Paseo del Bosque 1900 La Plata, Argentina

Lu

LUND

Prof Bjorn Berglund and Mr Soren Hakansson Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory University of Lund Tunavagen 29 S-223 63 Lund, Sweden

Lv

LOUVAIN LA NEUVE Mr Etienne Gilot Laboratoire de Carbon 14 Chemin du Cyclotron 2 1348 Louvain la Neuve, Belgium

Ly

UNIVERSITY OF LYON Mr Jacques Evin Laboratoire de Radiocarbone Centre de datations et d'Analyses Isotopiques Universite Claude Bernard-Lyon I 43, Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918 69621, Villeurbanne-Lyon France

MC

MONACO Dr Jean Thommeret and Dr Y Thommeret Laboratoire de Radioactivite Appliquee Centre Scientifique de Monaco Avenue Saint Martin Monaco

MGU

MOSCOW Prof P Kaplin and Dr A Schulkov Laboratory of Recent Deposits and Pleistocene Paleogeography Geographical Faculty Moscow State University Moscow 117234, USSR

ML

MIAMI Dr H G Ostlund Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science University of Miami Miami, Florida 33149

Mo

VERNADSKI INSTITUTE OF GEOCHEMISTRY

Vernadski Institute of Geochemistry Academy of Sciences of the USSR Moscow, USSR Address: Prof V L Barsukov Vorobevskoye shosse, d47-A Moscow, USSR

Laboratories MOC

MOST

MRRI

MARINE RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE Thomas D Mathews Marine Resources Research Institute P 0 Box 12559

E F Neustupny Archaeological Institute Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences Letenska 4 Prague I, Czechoslovakia 118 01

Charleston, South Carolina 29412

N

NISHINA MEMORIAL (TOKYO) Dr Fumio Yamasaki The Japan Radioisotope Association 2-28-45 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo Japan 113

NSTF

NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FACILITY C C Thomas, Jr, Director Radiocarbon Laboratory Nuclear Science and Technology Facility State University of New York at Buffalo Rotary Road Buffalo, New York 14214

NTU

NATIONAL TAIWAN UNIVERSITY Yuin-Chi Hsu Department of Physics National Taiwan University Taipei, Taiwan, China

Ny

NANCY

NZ

NEW ZEALAND Dr B J O'Brien

Pr Rene Coppens et Dr Pierre Richard Laboratoire de Radiogeologie ENS de Geologie Appliquee et de Prospection Miniere Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine BP 452 54001 Nancy Cedex, France

Institute of Nuclear Sciences DSIR, Private Bag Lower Hutt, New Zealand

P

PENNSYLVANIA Barbara Lawn Radiocarbon Laboratory University of Pennsylvania Department of Physics, DRL/EI Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104

Pi

PISA

Prof E Tongiorgi Laboratorio di Geologia Nucleare dell'Universita Via S Maria, 22 Pisa, Italy

Pr

PRAGUE Alois Dubansky

Laboratory for Isotopes Geochemistry and Geochronology Geological Institute Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences Prague-8 Na Hrazi 26

629

630

Laboratories

PRL

PHYSICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY Devendra Lal and D P Agrawal Physical Research Laboratory

Navrangpura Ahmedabad-380009, India Pta

PRETORIA Dr J C Vogel Natural Isotopes Division National Physical Research Laboratory CSIR PO Box 395 Pretoria, South Africa

Q

CAMBRIDGE Dr V R Switsur University of Cambridge Godwin Laboratory Free School Lane Cambridge, England CB2 3R5

QL

QUATERNARY ISOTOPE LABORATORY Prof Minze Stuiver Quaternary Isotope Laboratory AJ-20 Department of Geological Sciences University of Washington Seattle, Washington 98195

QU

QUEBEC Dr Louis Barrette and Claude Samson Centre de Recherches Minerales Complexe Scientifique du Quebec 2700 rue Einstein Ste-Foy, Quebec Canada, GIP 3W8

R

ROME Dr Francesco Bella, Istituto di Fisica and Dr Cesarina Cortesi, Istituto di Geochimica Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory University of Rome Citta Universitaria 00100-Rome, Italy

RL

RADIOCARBON, LTD Charles S Tucek Radiocarbon, Ltd Route 2, Box 21E Lampasas, Texas 76550

RT

REHOVOT GEOISOTOPE LABORATORY Dr Aaron Kaufman and Mr I Carmi Geoisotope Laboratory Department of Isotope Research Weizmann Institute of Science Rehovot, Israel

RU

RICE UNIVERSITY J A S Adams Department of Geology Rice University Houston, Texas 77001

S

SASKATCHEWAN Mr A Rutherford Saskatchewan Research Council University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

Laboratories SFU

SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY Dr Erie Nelson Archaeology Department Simon Fraser University Burnaby, British Columbia Canada V5A 1S6

SI

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION Dr W H Klein, Director Radiation Biology Laboratory Dr Robert Stuckenrath C14 Laboratory 12441 Parklawn Drive Rockville, Maryland 20852

SMU

SOUTHERN METHODIST UNIVERSITY Dr Herbert Haas Institute for the Study of Earth and Man Southern Methodist University Dallas, Texas 75275

SRR

SCOTTISH UNIVERSITIES RESEARCH AND REACTOR CENTRE Dr D D Harkness NERC Radiocarbon Laboratory Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre East Kilbride Glasgow G75 OQU, Scotland

St

STOCKHOLM Dr Eric Welin Laboratory for Isotope Geology Swedish Museum of Natural History 5-104 05 Stockholm 50, Sweden

Su

FINLAND Tuovi Kankainen Geological Survey of Finland SF-02150 Espoo 15, Finland

SUA

SYDNEY UNIVERSITY, AUSTRALIA Dr Mike Barbetti

Macintosh Centre Madsen Building F09 University of Sydney Sydney NSW 2006, Australia

T

TRONDHEIM Dr Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, and Knut Lovseth Radiological Dating Laboratory The Norweigian Institute of Technology 7034 Trondheim, Norway

TA

TARTU Evald lives and A Liiva

Radiocarbon Laboratory Institute of Zoology and Botany Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR Vanemuise St 21 Tartu, Estonia, USSR TAM

TEXAS A & M UNIVERSITY Dr David Schink Dept of Oceanography Texas A & M University College Station, Texas 77843

631

632

Laboratories

TB

TBILISI Dr A A Burchuladze Radiocarbon Laboratory Tbilisi University 1 Chavchavadze Avenue Tbilisi, USSR 380028

TK

UNIVERSITY OF TOKYO Dr Naotune Watanabe C-14 Dating Laboratory University Museum (Shiryokan) University of Tokyo 3-I Hongo 7-chome Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113

Japan

Tin

TALLINN

J M Punning Institute of Geology Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR Tallinn, Estonia puiestee 7 ESSR

TUNC

TEHRAN UNIVERSITY NUCLEAR CENTRE Dr A Mahdavi Tehran University Nuclear Centre PO Box 2989 Tehran, Iran

Tx

TEXAS Mr S Valastro, Jr or Dr E Mott Davis

Radiocarbon Laboratory University of Texas at Austin Balcones Research Centre 10,100 Burnet Road Austin, Texas 78758

U

UPPSALA Dr Ingrid U Olsson Institute of Physics University of Uppsala Box 530 5-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden

UB

BELFAST

Gordon W Pearson Palaeoecology Laboratory The Queen's University Belfast, BT71 N N Northern Ireland UCLA

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES

Prof Rainer Berger Institute of Geophysics University of California

Los Angeles, California 90024

UCR

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, RIVERSIDE Dr R E Taylor

Department of Anthropology Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics University of California Riverside, California 92512

UD

UDINE Dr Valerio Barbina, Prof Franco Calligaris, Dr Adriano Del Fabbro, and Dr Alessandro Turello Centro di Ricerca Applicata e Documentazione Viale Leonardo da Vinci 16 33100 Udine, Italy

Laboratories UGa

THE UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA John E Noakes and Betty Lee Brandau Center for Applied Isotope Studies The University of Georgia 110 Riverbend Road Athens, Georgia 30602

UGRA

UNIVERSITY OF GRANADA Dr Cecilio Gonzalez-Gomez Laboratorio de Datacion por Carbono-14 Seccion de Radioquimica Facultad de Ciencias Universidad de Granada Granada, Spain

UM

UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI Dr J J Stipp, G Treadgold, and D Hood Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory Department of Geology University of Miami Coral Gables, Florida 33124

USGS

US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MENLO PARK, CALIFORNIA

Dr Stephen W Robinson US Geological Survey 345 Middlefield Road Menlo Park, California 94025 UW

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Dr A W Fairhall Department of Chemistry University of Washington Seattle, Washington 9$195

VRI

VIENNA RADIUM INSTITUTE Dr Heinz Felber

Institut fur Radiumforschung and Kernphysik

Boltzmanngasse 3 A-1090 Vienna, Austria W

US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Dr Meyer Rubin US Geological Survey National Center, 971 Reston, Virginia 22092 WAT

UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO Dr Peter Fritz Department of Earth Sciences Isotopes Laboratory University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1

WHOI

WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION Dr Ellen R M Druffel Radiocarbon Laboratory Department of Chemistry Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543

WIS

WISCONSIN Raymond L Steventon I>:S Center for Climatic Research University of Wisconsin 1225W Dayton St Madison, Wisconsin 53706

633

634 WRD

Laboratories US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

Dr F J Pearson, Jr US Geological Survey, Water Resources Division Isotope Hydrology Laboratory National Center, MS 432 Reston, Virginia 22092 WSU

WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY Dr John C She pard Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Washington State University Pullman, Washington 99164

X

WHITWORTH COLLEGE Dr Edwin A Olson Department of Earth Science Whitworth College Spokane, Washington 99218

Ya

YALE

Prof Karl K Turekian Department of Geology and Geophysics Yale University New Haven, Connecticut 06520 Z

ZAGREB Dr Adela Sliepcevic and Dr Dusan Srdoc Institute "Ruder Boskovic" 41001 Zagreb, POB 1016, Yugoslavia

INDEX Volume 27, Nos. l to 3, 1985 ARCHAEOLOGIC SAMPLES Date

Culture or Period

No.

or

No. Page

Period

ALGERIA Modern

Ly-3028 2B 417

8600±150 8200 ± 150

7750±130 7550 ± 160

7300±200 7300 ± 150

Ayampitin technol "

Mata Molle fossil man Rio Pinturas level Ayampitin technol Magallanes III level Mata Molle fossil man

AC-0294

Entrerrianian culture

-0293 -0498 -0290-I -0122

Ayampitin technol

-0290-III

2000±120 1930±90

"

1430±80

1420±80 1420±80 1380±90 1340±70

1300±80 1180±90 1150±100 1090±80 990±80 990±80 870±90 830± 100 810±80 790±70 780±90 760±90 730±100 720±70 620± 100 570±80 390±80 350±80

" Saujil culture Ceramic Saujil culture

331

3

-0299 -0499 -0574-I

"

1760±100 1650±70 1640±100 1620±90 1440±80

170

-0573 -0575

"

extinction 195 2B 197 " 196

Age

5700±90

4660±80

4310±90 1830±70

3

-0291 -0290-Il

1

extinction

-0309

-0276 -0292 -0277 -0604 -0577

1

1

assoc

1

3 1

Neolithic

77 3

Age

3

3520±70

3480±90

-896 -823

200±70

-833

-838

80±60

Age

"

" " " "

"

622

Pavlovian Gravettian " Moravian Magdalenian

515

1

Age 3

621 620

622

2B 417

417

Age

3350±70 3200±80

3060±80

3050±70 3010±60

CZECHOSLOVAKIA 12,940±250

"

" "

3190±110

Ly-2687

1

3

COMORES Hagnoundou period

HAR-2216

-2219

3450±150

3330±80 Ly-2528

Bronze Age "

"

CAMEROUN Modern

1

assoc

621

Painted Ceramic Neolithic Neolithic

3

Neolithic

-0330 -0331

210±60

19,640±640

3

-0278

360±50 330±60

22,250±570

3

3

-0593

-831 -839 -840 -835

820±110

1

-0124

AUSTRIA 00 38, 700+46 -29 00

"

Glacial

-0365 -0109 -0366 Patagonienseindustry -0603 Ceramic -0173 " -0172 Riberenos plasticos culture -0187 " -0188 Patagonian technol -0308 Ceramic -0110 Riberenos plasticos culture -0183 Patagoniense industry -0500 Ceramic -0269 Riberenos plasticos culture -0186 Puerta La Paya culture -0272 Agrelo culture -0327 San Jose-Hualfin group -0450 Puerta La Paya culture -0273 Patagonian technol -0307 Ceramic -0112 Puerta La Paya culture -0271 Belen culture -0364 European settlement -0003 Ceramic -0111 Puerta La Paya culture -0270 Inca culture -0329 "

"

-1684

-0497

Ayampitin technol Patagoniense industry Ayampitin technol

Ayampitin technol " Patagonian technol Mata Molle fossil man Ayampitin technol Mata Molle fossil man Casapedrense technol Mata Molle fossil man

2B

3

"

-0574-II

3590±90 3450±110 2770±100 2740±80 2570±100 2550±90 2520±100 2500± 100 2490±90 2430±130 2320±90 2240±100 2190±120 2070±90

Entrerrianian culture

No. Page

-0295

4930±150 4550±110

"

1820±70 1760±70

ARGENTINA 8670±150

No.

ECUADOR

Ly-1303 2B 449 -1999 " -2553 443

635

" Early Bronze Age Age " "

" "

" "

1

-2221

"

3 1

" -1715

-1494

"

" " 3

-2178

" 1

83

79

Archaeologic Samples

Date

Culture or Period

Sample No.

or Period

No. Page

FRANCE (continued)

ENGLAND (continued) HAR-2091

2940±80 2920±60 2900±80

"

2880±310 2880±70

"

2860±90 2180±50

"

2780+80

2770±170

2760±120 2740±30 2340±80 2210±70 2200±70 2200±60 2180±70 2180±70 2130±90

2110±70 2020±80 1980±90

BM-2264 HAR-1952 BM-2204

Molluscan assoc Bronze Age "

Iron Age " " " " "

"

Roman " "

"

" "

1710±80

"

1700±70

Roman

1660±60 1640±70 1640±70 1630±70

" " " Saxon

1590±80

Roman

-1865

HAR-1590

-1842

-1456

-1837 -1652

Saxon Saxo/Norman Saxon

-1666

-1623

80

Magdalenian Solutrean Magdalenian

-1656

-1655

14,200±190

-1788 HAR-1898

Magdalenian Magdalenian

BM-2214 HAR-1658

160

-2010 -1875 -1896 -1787 -2011 BM-2215

Magdalenian Tardenoisian 160

Saxon

-1620

Saxo/Norman Early Medieval

-1657 -1822

870 ± 70

Saxon

-1961

Roman Early Medieval Iron Age Medieval " "

83

Tardenoisian

Sauveterrian

HAR-2264 -1821 -1794

-1689 -1930 -2261 -1690

Post Medieval

100±70

Modern

Misassoc

33,200

Mousterian

82 90

-2262 -2260 BM-2158

31,500 31,000 30,000

29,700±900 29,400±900 29,300±650

Ly-2754 -2526 -3063

Early Aurignacian Early Aurignacian/

-2727

Mousterian

-2343

"

Early Aurignacian

Aurignacian 0 Mousterian

190 160 150

Sauveterrian Castelnovian

7260± 120

6590±140 6550±100

FRANCE 33,000 31,500

VI

Magdalenian

HAR-1728

910±60 900±70

Magdalenian Magdalenian Solutrean

-2209 -1681 -2012 -1897

950±70

270±70

Perigordian Perigordian Magdalenian Magdalenian Solutrean

-1864 -1464 -2006 -1663

1280±80

Early Medieval Saxon " " " " " Early Medieval

Perigordian Perigordian Perigordian

-1868

"

1050±45 1040±60

Perigordian Perigordian Perigordian

-1867

"

" " " "

447

I

Perigordian

1540±70

1140±70 1120±80 1110+70 1110±70

"

Early Aurignacian

-2263

1570±70

"

23,880±750

-2227

-1854

480±60 360±80

Perigordian

80

BM-2157 HAR-2005

-1457

800±70 790±80 790±70 500±70 480±70

Perigordian V

Perigordian

Iron Age

980±50 960±70

80

-1794 -1778

1730±70

1010±70 1000±70 980 ± 70

Perigordian Perigordian IV Aurignacian V

-1953

1740±60

1040±60 1020±70

I

Quina Mousterian

-2668

"

1170±70

1400 1000

513

-2654 -1764 -1950

"

1170±80

513

HAR-1726 BM-2267 -2216 BM-2179 HAR-2620 - 745

1760±60

1260±80 1190±70

513

-1951

1950±70 1950±50 1840±80 1770±80

Aungnacian

-2180

1980±70

1840±60 1800±60

2B

89 78

-2429 -2619

"

No. Page

No.

,-2339

636

"

6390±290

"

100

6200 ± 160

"

-2755

"

-2340 -2338 -2276

"

110

" "

Neolithic

-2677

"

-2651

"

Early Cardial Neolithic Early Neolithic

Neolithic Cardial Neolithic Cardial Neolithic

Rubane Neolithic

448

5990±200

434

Archaeologic Samples Culture or Date

Period

Sample No.

or Period

No. Page

5990±160 5950±120

Cerny Middle Neolithic Late Rubane

5920±260

"

-2717

"

5910±150 5900±140 5870±170

Cardial Early Neolithic Late Cardial Late Rubane Michelsberg Middle Neolithic

-2838 -2826 -2551

"

100

"

100 2150±110 120

5860±140

Ly-3058 2B -2720 "

-3052

Rubane "

-2730

Late Rubane Danubian or Cerny Middle Neolithic

-2552 -2719 -2971

" "

Rubane

-2731

"

Middle Neolithic Epicardial Early Neolithic Middle Neolithic Chassean Middle Neolithic Michelsberg Middle Neolithic Cerny Middle Neolithic

-2684 -2825 -2613 -2824

"

-2972 -2963

"

5390±100

"

-2679

"

5380±220 5330±110

Late Rubane Early Chassean

-2969 -2718

5300±140 5300±260

"

-2970 -3055

5280±140 5270±140 5270±390 5260±180 5240±150 5180±100 5160±360 5110±130

Middle Chassean Chassean Burgundy Middle Neolithic Middle Neolithic

-2966 -3020 -2647 -2706 -2961 -2711 -2823 -2646

5740±130

5730±170 5710±180 5710± 140 5690±180

5680±200 5590±120 5480±130 5460±130 5440±160 5420± 180

5110±250 5060±250 4980 ± 120

4950±160 4820± 150

EarlyChassean Middle Chassean Chassean Burgundy Middle Neolithic

"

4710±110

4640±220 4620± 120 4570±130 4550 ± 160

4500±170 4450 ± 140 4400±400 4330 ± 180

Late Chassean " Ferrieres Late Neolithic Chassean

Late Neolithic

4260 ± 150

4210±170 4170±140 4140±170 4070±170

Late Neolithic Fontbouisse Chalcolithic Chalcolithic Fontbouisse Chalcolithic

4070±170

4040±130 4020± 140 3970±140 3940±160

-2713 -2714 -2968 -2924 -2973

"

-2712 -2967

-2736 -2715

" " " "

" " "

"

" " "

" "

"

3760± 130 3710±200 3650± 190

Early Bronze Age Early or Middle Bronze Matignon Late Neolithic

-2734 -2641 -2683

" "

-2707 -2812

"

3200±120 3100±210 2860±130

Late Bronze Age

"

"

-2739

"

-3041

"

-2801 -2740

" "

"

2790±150 2600±130

"

-3042 -2746

"

2590±120

Early Iron Age

-2678

"

2580±150 2560±110

"

-3053 -2927

"

424

Middle Ages

170 100

"

425

130

Middle Ages

150

439

Middle Ages

Period 429

Paleolithic

1

425 424

"

"

" "

Early Iron Age

-2845

"

-3054

2470±100

Late Bronze Age

-2676

"

2450±140

"

-2698

"

Paleolithic

439

12,450+220

Paleolithic

439

190

"

25/0±/00

2520±140

100

"

"

-2709

-1732

Middle Ages

" "

-2745 -3040

2530±130

120 900±110

" "

Late Bronze Age IIIb Late Bronze Age

2790±160

Middle Ages 442 433

"

"

3390±180

Middle Ages 429 435

"

-2847

3470±130

Middle Ages

"

3860±130

Undetermined potsherds

120

"

"

35/0±/00

150

"

"

-2980

3650±150 3520±110

431

"

-3021 -2708

-2735

High Middle Ages

"

-2800

-2658 -3016 -2846 -3017

Age Roman Empire

Roman Empire 1570± 130

" " "

-3023 -2954 -2689 -2964 -2962

3870±130

150

"

Late Neolithic Chalcolithic Verazian Late Neolithic Les Urnes Chalcolithic Chalcolithic

3900 ± 130 3890 ± 180

2B

Iron Age Tene II & III Iron Age Tene II Iron Age Hallstatt Iron Age Tene II Iron Age La Tene II & III Iron Age Tene III Iron Age

Roman Empire

-2965

-2738

Fontbouisse Chalcolithic

No. Page

-2733

-2550 -2749

Middle Chassean Chassean

No.

FRANCE (continued)

FRANCE (continued)

5870±160

637

Paleolithic Paleolithic (?)

423

Red Ware 424

421

"

100 150

Historic and Cream Ware culture culture

-690

638

Archaeologic Samples

Date

Culture or Period

Sample No.

No. Page

Date

2870 ± 140 2830 ± 140 2780±150 2780±120

2770±140 2620±130 2490±150

24/0±/00

2090±140 2070±120 2070±140 2030 ± 140 1780±140 1750±100 1740±120 1420±100 1160±150 1040±130 950±110 860±130 750±130 690±100 670±110 290±130 230±60 180±130

80±60 10±40

Modern Modern Modern

Malwa culture "

PRL-693

1

97

-691 -730

"

100

Megalithic

Late Harappa culture Malwa culture

-657 -686 -656 -692 -728 -729 -534

Jorwe culture Malwa culture Megalithic "

Late Mesolithic Black and Red Ware Chalcolithic Black and Red Ware Chalcolithic

-866 -669 -867 -932 -727 -732

Megalithic Painted Grey Ware Red Ware Painted Grey Ware Megalithic Medieval

100 "

"

"

96 95 96 100 96 100

-725 -783 -784 -782 -535 -907 -536 -768

"

Late Mesolithic Microlithic Late Mesolithic Chalcolithic Grave deposit Chalcolithic Old Copper Working Historic Zinc Smelting

-549 -545 BM-2223 " PRL-548 " BM-2243 " -2222 PRL-546 Ancient Copper Working -684 " -685

" " "

"

3 1

3

1

99

Yahya Pd VII

5620±80 5580±110 5310±130 5270±90 5230±200 5190±110

Late Mesolithic

PRL-744 -749 -748

" "

96 97 96 99 98 99 98 100 519 100 519 100 98

" " " "

1

102

BM-2228A -2228 -2229 -2229A -2227 -2227A

5/,7

518 517

ISRAEL 1210± 100

Early metallurgy

BM-2242

3

519

Ly-2817 2B 417

MAURITANIA 1620±150 1270±90 1020±150 950 ± 130 880±170 870±140 850±100 810±170 800 ± 100 790 ± 120 780±100 770± 150 750±130 730± 140 720±140 710± 100 530±140 530±100

1st Islamic Period "

2nd Islamic Period 1st Islamic Period " "

" " "

1st Islamic Period 2nd Islamic Period 1st Islamic Period 2nd Islamic Period 1st Islamic Period 2nd Islamic Period 1st Islamic Period 2nd Islamic Period "

Modern

Ly-3147 2B 418 -3146

-2540 -2504 -2537 -2532 -2536 -2505 -2535 -2538 -2508 -2533 -2507 -2534 -2509 -2506 -2510 -2539

" "

5040 ± 100 4820 ±80 4760± 120

4410±100 4240±100 4190±90 4130±230

4120±50

3910±70 3740±50 3730±90 3690±80 3640±120 3600±50 3590±70

"

Ly-2310 2B 420

622

Early metallurgy

BM-2143A 3

520

"

2143B -2142

Early Stone Age " " " " " " " "

" " " "

" Late Stone Age

" " "

" "

" " " " " " " "

T-1991 -1610 -1990 -2610 -2360 -2652 -2650 -3067 -2074 -3542 -2359 -2548 -2073 -3076 -2072 -3072 -3073 -3074 -2224 -1989 -3304 2550(A) -2550(B) -2604

"

"

"

" "

3280±120 3190±70

Bronze Age

-1814

"

-2606 -2880 -2048 -1635 -2351 -3185 -3471 -3545 -2350 -2049 -3078

± 100

3100±70 3070±80 3050±90 3050±70 3040±50 2870±60 2800±110 2600 ± 70 2550±70 2530 ± 190 2500±70

2490± 100

2240±80 2210±70 2180±50 2170±50 2150±80 2120±230 2080±50 2070±110

" " " " "

" " " " " " " " " " "

" "

Early Iron Age " " " "

" " "

ll

600 587 588 587 588 /I

ll

602 II

587 600 11

578 586 579 578 587 588 586 577 602 578 606 578 606 578

-2771

" "

3490

" "

587 570 587 588

-3546 -1815 -2485 -3075 -3077 -3544 -2347 -2223 -2772 -2883

3480±130 3450±40 3420±70 3410±80

3540±90

"

602 589 602 603 588

-2881

-2990 -2487 -2349 -3547 -2348 -2486 -2547 -1988 -2773

3560± 100

2280±70

-2503

1st Human Occupation

6050±60 5960±80 5870±70 5720±90 5670±90 5510±80 5170±110

2430±130 2420±140 2360±110 2360±100 2340±90 2310±90

NEW CALEDONIA 1040±110

6680 ±80 6450 ± 70

3100±80

IVORY COAST 750±160

6950±120

4040±50 4000±70 3920±90

IRELAND "

7020± 170

6100±130

IRAN 6670±150 6650±180 6640±180

8030±110 7790±160 7140±130

6740±110 "

3

NORWAY 8760±170

6800±210

-538 -761

880±240 720±360

6870±110 6850± 120

-671 -731

"

No. Page

NIGERIA 1030±300

"

VRI-810 -809

480±70 280±80

97

-931

Ancientmining

Sample No.

NIGER

INDIA (continued) 3280±100 3200±120 3150±140 3140±100 3110± 140 3050±150 2900± 140

Culture or Period

-1912(A) -3410 -2050 -2609 -1452 -1912(B)

II

/I

601

578 ll II

1I

-1771

-2340 -3674

-3407 -2863 -2494 -2490 -2639 -1673 -3088 -2640 -1188

586 577 578 600

600 579 577 602 578 594 604 586 578 577 588 602 592 577 603 589 602 603 605 592 592 601

II

606 605 606 582 605 606 595

w

.o

o a U

C0

a

0

C.

z v 0.o

z

v

c

Q

-

CC

-

CC

CC)

(C (C

+I

C

+I

.................

o 0o

CC) Cr7

o

CC) C<1

((((CC

(h

ro v

Gv

Cn OV Cv

-+ -+

0

G+7

+I

cC)

0

+I

CV Cr7

CV

+I +I

0

+I

GV Cri CV

C7

CC7

-+ Cv CV V! Cri

+I

0

C

GV

r+ -+

0

+I

4 1

C

..

GV

-+-+ [(- -(CVC1-00(((0.O1Cd GhOCCO00I010VO010000GVCCCOchcDOO100d c+7.( (C((((((C(C((C((000(CC0((CCOCCC((C(COCA-(C(--OOO-00 .Gh (Co(C - c C- (C(1-(0((CC . .Ch (C((C(d (-((((C 4(((C(C r C

r1 Q7Q101Q101Q1C01CI10101O(010 a0(DQ00CIOOOCV. Opp01Q1Q1Q)01p1C QCVtO1C0[(O +r-(ChG4- GVOu d (C(C d (C-t--C(---(C NC00-Q (C(C d CGIC-00 G1Qr1 GVOIcD00(OC 0101 C( (00((00000: 00000100: 1-C: 010000COt-(C(C 0= ((f1(C(C(C CG00100(( i00C71CI1010001Q1OC( c1if1u1f1u1cDc0f1u>nu[3u((C( A(f1uluu .nnun (C(C (an(tlcpcCcCuu) A((t1AUcCC(C 01QQ10001010Q0101010101= rn(C

.

1--pIG01- - 4-c00001'nNOd'} C1-N---(d'C1a (
o

+I +I

(C- (C (C t- c (C (CCO C4 (C-.-(d'-o000(CCOO( C-d (C(CCC4(-(-(l-C(et -(C(C-010000004 0000(C(--(-(C(C 'C(C((C(00O((O(d G4-(((-((C -+ OV Gh OV -+ r+ GV CU CV .+ CV CV -+ CV +-.- Cv .OV Cv GV -+ Cv Cv CV Cv Cv GV Cv C1 -+ GV

CC

v C

+I

+I +I

--------

+I

+I

11

0000o0o.oCOCOCOCCOOOCCCOCOOOCCOOOCOC4COo ooCCOO-.oo---CCCCCCCCO-oOOOCoooCOOOOCOOCoo(OO -(-1-(C(C 1-1-tnTCC(C(Cndt- (-(-(DC-(C(C(C -1-(CO(C1`-O( -(C-1-CT(--00CC(C00(C((C(P-(C(C-1-1--00(C (CT(C00(-(CC--1-C(0(C-(Ct-(C(T( }I +I +I +I tl +I tl +I +I tl tl tl +I }I +I tl +I I }I +I }I +I ti tl }I +I tl +I +I tl +i }I }I ti +I }I }I tl tl }I }I tl }I }i +I +i +i +i }I +I tl tl +i }I +i +I +I }I tl +I +I I }i +I +I +I }I OpOO00CO00000CCCCCOOCCCCO00COCOCO00o00CCCO00CCC(CCCOOOOC(CCC(CC(CC(C(O0(000COOOOCCOOOCC(CC CV1C'(000t((d C(GVCICV-(((d CVCVIG4(((C (CCV-((00(t-C-((((C(( CclcC(((CCCC00Coooo(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCaooorrrr C4--O O(O00 00 00 00 00 00CC((C(C did ((((CJ --OO(((00((C d (C (C CCOOCCC(C(c(((C(C(( (C(c(Cc,crvc,cvcvc,c4CIC'1C

a1((oa

C

C (C(CC(4 ( (C(arc caolocc,.ncnlc cr.nCcnrrocnr( ocu((a(CC(Cao -»crco.nalocnola CCCCCOOCCCOCOroc-(Crooo(C((C CCCCCt-(CCCCC((C(: (CCCCo(CCC( CC(C(C(C(C(Co(C(C(C(C(C(C(C(CC(CC(C(C(CC(C(C(C(Co((C(C o0(CCc(o((000CCCX-(CCCCC(C(CCCCC: C(C(C(C((CC(C(C(CCC(C(C(C(C(CC(C(CC(C(C (C(C(CC(CC(C(CCC(((CC CCC((C(C(( (

GV CV

Gh OV

Cn -+ '-+

CC)

1

Cn

>t

CV GV

GV

---O(C.(--COO((C(OO(d

+I

GV

+I

GV CV

CV CV

+I

+I +I +I

+I

CV

Cn

+I

'1V CV

Cn

+I

Gel LV

+I

CV

11

CV GV CV

+I

+I

GV

0

C

CV CV CV CV

+I

I

Cn CV

+I

.

cvcnroo

oo(lcccn(C_ O(( tcncval(DCVa0lccrolcumlo(r1o11 nc K7chCr7C1C0 coot`o,nocvi`ooc,aonoorooloolnc,aaloooaoaoolouc,cn 0 --OGOi 1C71CVCOCOO00- --OG-d thud c } CV-»C d' OGc101C0 00 -"d-(Caort-(C,n00--1 - cCCVCOcOIOQ d'OdO -d Crib ( y a-00( alclccocoCccorrMo.ncnclooovcccncvxcncnaoocnlococaalrrooooc,alalccooa'c,oowcCcoc,crncacc.ncnc,cloocc --r --i -rN i -r GVNd CDO'Q - --i - - : - - - - -» - -N --r`In'i 6VN - -+ 'V -- -+ -+ ', V

b4

G

Q

H

-i

0 000 0 0 0 0-+OOOO0100OOO 00 00 00 0 0 0 0 000*- OOOCcC*-.(O-OCV'-+OcCOi 0 000 0 00 0 000 O(((OO(C(( LVCVCuOOOOOO-0000000000--»(OOCVOO -+OOCO.AOOOOOOO i-(C(COV(-(CCT-r-. --C-.-,1-1--00C--+000oO(-00i-(C-(C--+001----(C--i1---i,-i--r(C-C---i(C-00---(-00-0100-y 00a(C(C-(C(D1-1-Cr1--+001-rr--1-0000 }I }I }I }I }I tl }I tl }I }I tl }I }I }I }I }I I }I }I tl }I H }I }i }I }I }I }I }I }I I }I }I }I }{ }I }I }I +i }I }I }I H }I I }I }I I }I tl }I }I }I }I }I tl +i }I tl }I }I }I }I tl }I }I }I }I

OOOOOCOOC(CCCCOOOOOCOOOOOC(CCOOp((CCOCO000CO000COOC(CCOOOOCOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO(CCOOC(CCC d CnCC-0001(00 00 00 1--(C(C(C(C VGVCV-r-COOOOO0C(-(C (CCl---OOCI-((C(C4 (C(CCV-(0000(C(Cd wit d d d --(C((00(W((C d d'((C(((C(( Ooo00C010101aCC(01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 0o0000(((-(CC((Cr-(c(C((C((C(C(c((C(C(C(C(C(C(C(C((C(((C(C(C(C(CCCCCC(d

640 Date

Archaeologic Samples Culture or Period

Sample No.

Culture or No. Page

Date

Period

Medieval

T-2737

710±50

-2538

700±80 700±70 690±70 690±50 680±60 650±60 640±90 640±70 610±90 590±60

-2869

580 ± 70

570±60

-3470 -3186

570±40 540±80 540±50

-2539 -2410 -2867

520±50 510±80 480±60 470±70 380±90 360±60 350±50 340±70 300±70 300±70 300±60

-2948 -1639 -1630 -1508 -2812 -1298 -3664 -3673 -1505 -1412 -2655

300±50

-2820

290±60 270±90 260±70 200±80

-3409

2B

-3189 -3288 -2864 -2868 -1703 -1820

591

160±60 150±60 90±40 70±50

-2215 -2491 -2366 -2656

4030±50 4000±150 3900±130 3780±220 2610 ± 120

2210±70

PRL-679 -676

Kot Dijian Early Kot Dijian

BM-2201

591

579 596 604 596 580 597 594 604

597

Kot Dijian

Red Burnished Ware Historic

1890±60 1890±50

Hindu Shahi Gravettian

Copper metallurgy Late Stone Age

PRL-674 -673 BM-2200 -2198 -2199

1

3

130

Potsherd & Microlith Late Stone Age Iron Age Late Iron Age Late Stone Age Potsherd & Microlith Late Stone Age Potsherd

Age

-2196

Bronze Age Age

-2202 3620±100 3540± 130

Ly-2542

UGRA-131

4540±70 4540±70 4500±80

Neolithic

3

3470±120 3460±210

Bronze Age Late Copper Age Bronze Age

Copper Age

UGRA-99

3

3

-103

Age

Ly-2237

-109

3400±130 110

-2235 -2383

Age

Bronze Age

-2384 -2667

3

-2382 -2236 -2668 -2449 -2385 -2450 -2386

130

Age Bronze Age

70

120

140

-2798

Age

130

CAR-253 2B HAR-2406

2450±190 2390±170

-2084 CAR-251 2B

Age

-112

140

1

-249

-127

Middle Bronze Age

110

3510± 130 3500±130

SCOTLAND 5050±90 4710±70

Age

-2195

-2387

Early lron Age Late Stone Age

2020±200 2020±330

Modern

-84

metallurgy

-2541

2620±320

1970±190 1880±170 1380±170 1220±220 1210±160 350±200 Modern

3

180

1

RWANDA 2380±270 2040± 180

3

Magdalenian

5020 ± 190 4450±240

PORTUGAL

3940±320

3

3

-2197

17,480±310

4390±150

Paleolithic Aurignacian

12,480±210

594 595 597 596 606 604

POLAND 21,000±900

>28,000

-675

2140±70

940±30

1

Age

4310±150

Kot Dijian (?) Pre-Kot Dijian

4400±110

1

597 585

PAKISTAN >31,000 4520±100

1

591

-1504 -1413 -1299 -3672

Age

595 602 607 604 594 599

-2222 -2303

190±40

70

599 595 597 594 593 595 593

-1701

Recent

No. Page

SCOTLAND (continued)

NORWAY (continued) 720±50

Sample No.

20/0±/30 Modern

Historic

BM-2002

522

Archaeologic Samples Culture or Period

Date

or

No.

Period

SRI LANKA

1

5, 3 9 0±

1

2, 770± 00

+

3800±80

"

3700±80

570

-856

"

-855

"

-861

"

450

20 Paleolithic

11,910± 410

3610±70

3540±70 3500±70 3500±60 3470±70

SWITZERLAND 2680±170

Late Bronze Age III b

Ly-2922

UNITED STATES 1220±70

Late Woodland

1170±70

WIS-1547 -1546

2800±80 2680±70

SOUTH DAKOTA Middle Plains Archaic

3690 ± 70

WIS-1586 -1577

3590±80

-1591

3480±70

-1594 -1578 -1592 -1590 -1538 -1588 -1540

3410±70

'

3330±80

2670±70

Late Plains Archaic

2490±70 2340±70 1510±70 1390±70

1150±70 990±70 990±70

940±70 920±70 790±70 760±70 640±70 630±70 620±70 600±70 580±70 460±70 390±70 300±70

458

-1570 -1539 -1573 -1566 -1536 -1564 -1535 -1576 -1563

456 457 456 457 456 457 458 457

-1593 -1565 -1589 -1587 -1571

Middle Woodland

WIS-1607 2B -1608 " -1585 " -1522 -1525 " -1523 -1524 -1617 -1584

t.ane Farm

220±50

Historic

Oneota " "

Neolithic

4830±80

Iron Age

4700±80 4590±80 4590 ± 80

4560±80 4540±70 4470±80

1517

4030±80

-527 -393 -114 -282 -272 -273 -600 -275 -528

3990±70

-274

4260±70 4140±70 4130±70 4050±70

Bronze Age

-205

"

371

- 203

"

376

-271

"

"

-289

"

2010±70

Age Age

1550±50 "

1220±60 1180±60

"

1160±60

"

870±60 -113 -392 -525 -394 -116 -397

91

2290±70

890±60

-391

4390±70

4350±70

2600±70 2500±70

1600 70

CAR-118 2B 374

6900±80

4760±70

HAR-1385 1 CAR-207 2B

1570±70

WALES 5050±80

Bronze Age

1660±60

1180 ± 70 520±70 510±70 480±70 430±70 420±70 400±60

380

457

-1572 "

1560±70

" " "

456 457

WISCONSIN 1620±70

"

456 458 456 458

-1574

"

-161 -601

380

2470±60

-1541

"

-164 -277

" "

458

-159.5

Late Prehistoric

1090±70 1060±70

-285 -160 -278

3450±70 3450±70 3380±70

ILLINOIS

4980±70

No.

2B

1

-920

20 150 ± 680

No.

WALES (continued)

Upper Paleolithic

27 700+2090 -1660

641

381

381 374 372 381

372 381

373

377 380 377 373 377

Medieval

v (0

0

z

1

as

cit)

-

cr

on

o

it)

c0

it)

-

O

in or

d

(0(0( 0

0;

o

O

-

o0

0i

c0

W-V

00

c

...................................................................................

CV

it) it)

cn ch

it)

cn

.

it)

O

(C

0

orJ Cv

c cn c

co

00

co

` 0)

ch ch

` O

c

cri

` O

GV

ch

co

...................................................................................

CV

uJWIwvJW or r-C' 00t-0000GVo7 o oor-opo0-cio1e-oco1 ciod+ocoi-oQoo-ooRrcarovJOccc»wc.JV 0»C7d'u)o>`orco -CVor d1-or 0C-GVor 010404040404010404 or or or or or or or or or or 0 tt (0c0(0(00000o0000ooooooc 00 00 00 00 00 00 0000 0)0(00000,00OCCCCCCC ¢ ito it) in id'dd'0it)it)t)it)1-1-i-00 0(0000)0000)0 (0)0(0 0000 00 c0 00 00 (00 c0 00 c0 000)0 00 (00 00 c0 00 c0 c0 c0 00 ) it) it) it) it) it) it) it) it) it) it) it) it) it) it) it) it) it) it) it) rn it) it) it) it) it) it) 00 c0 c0 (0)0 (0)0)0(0 c0 00 00000(0 U

et'f

or

on

z000

.

0

0.0 it)

v

0

z

b0 az

v

z

00

C)

o

in or)

or

r

Cr)

it) : . . . c0 tfJ Ch

C

d'

i

c0

in C

. . . . . .

itJ

C

Gri

t` . . . . . it)

Gh

it)

Gh

O : c0 Q;

Cr;

c0 . . . . . . . in

OV

GC

CO . . . . . . it)

. C Ch

1`

.

it)

^+r)

CV cG

C

it) it)

CC

it) it)

0)00 Cr7

.

t`er c0 c0 OG it) i : Ch Lh C C cD

Gr

c01

it) it) .'7 CrJ

,

...................................................................................

o.-cvcninc0laococvcinc0oooc,cninoroocJocvcainccrooocicninccl`ao0cnwc>`aococvcninc0t`aoaocvcninc0t`ooooclcnw>nccrooa

c0 00 C)

C

C

:

00

.

..: C

.

.

.

0:

.

toCr)

.

Lh

.

O: : CV

.

.

-: Cv

Cn

.

99999

.

.

.

04 or

CV CV

.

C 07

.

:

.

00

C

(0

:

.

.

.

d it) : C

.

. .- . o.

Cn

.

04

CV

Cn

.

=

.

or

GV

C

.

:

.

01 CV

o

.

:

.

ch

CV 0<7

.

Cn

.

.

o)

.

Cn

.

.

it)1` 0004'-+ -+ c1 CV : M

.

999999

.

.

04 CV

on

.

;

.

.

.

-

.

cl : C

.

CO

or)

.

:

.

.

.

i

J

i

i

i

i

i

.

.

.

.

.

o

.

O or :

.

CV CV

.

.

(0100

.

C Cn

.

:

.

.

.

d c1 O : C CV

C7

.

.

.

.

Cr)

(000

Cv

m

0

it) if)

or or

CV CV

`

i!) in

M

1\

C7

04

i

c,c,Una

04

^r

.pit)

d ooooooCor .d

.

UO)r-+.-.--...-.NGIGVGVGV CVOVNGVOr)oCa7c9oCCCot}d'd"dW'd't01niC)u)itiniiniincODcDc0c0c011111111h10000 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0C0%Qi0)0;0;00%OQiO:

0G

-+CVd ic01000 00iOGlcrJ i00 O--CV iAcO1000 c01000 OCV it7c01000O-CV Cheric0t-oCi0^0VC000 a0 ninif)if)it;>ntninininin or

v

az 0

z v 0' 0

z or

CC

it) c0 1` -..- : ,, ; .-

boo.

v

r

az 0

z

i

in[OOOiO)O-+GVCd''uc01000iOGVOOVOd'iicOcOIOCVG'incOo'1OOc0000iO0VCV0h0-+OVOi'c01X000)Oic7c0i000)OCVOrid'icccri!'a'000)OCVCh 00 00 00 00 00DD0000QOr-+.rrCV04CVCVCVClCnCnEhc0t000OO+it)c0c0CndJ'}'d'ddd'derit)it)11if),-.--+...rr-.CVCICVGlCVChChCrJd''if)it)it)c0cD00 -

w 0a w --- a C404040404040404040404040404ooororoooroonororoooronoooooonorororoooroononoooroono or or or 0 rcooc0cCca vCCC-04 z Qoo ooo099999 0000000000000ooooocooocccocooocoooo00000000oooooc999999999

0"0 E cc

v

0

z

z

G

0.o 00

bvo

0

z

az

v

z

a0 td 00

h0 0

0

z

az

v

a

U

00

.

1

0

04 CO

00

:

CO

000CO 0000000 00 00 00

00

o: d

, , , :

a

CO

00 00 00

0000 00000

di

n oo0 00 0

n 000 00

0

00

ono 0 OOO000000 00 0n 00

, , , , , 0

00 CO

00

: 0

-

CO 0NO0 O0 00 0CO0CO 0 00 00

00 00

CO

COO

00

:: c0:

00 O:

00

,

0400

0O

0

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

00 , , , , -CO0 w

00

n

1

1

1

0

1

1

0000 0000 00 00

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

n 000 04 00 0004 , , , , , 00000000 0000000000000000000 00 00 d' eo cn 00 00 00 00 00

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

-0000000

1

00o000O: 00000

1

1

-

1

ago: 00

1

00

1

1

00

1

o: o: 0

1

,

1

0

1

1

o

1

1

1

1

, , ,

1

1

1

n 000

1

1

1

, , ,

1

1

1

00 000

1

1

1

1

o0 ,

1

1

1

, :

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

n-On-O aooovo0 0 00

1

1

1

1

, , , ,

1

1

1

noo0o.cvcaoorc0naoraoaocvcncvcnaoo.nc0ocrOno.-cucnrnc0noo0ocvlnc0nao0cvavuoovocvcnc0roovocvroooocvccnwnorao 00000000000N0000----0404040000d 'd d 000000000000000000oCoc000oCrnrrrrrr000--d d 00000000000000rrrr000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000nrrrrnrrrrrrnrnrrn00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 vcicvccv0vcrcvcrcv0vcvccrcvcvcvcrcvccvcvcvcvcucrcvcvcvccvcrcvcrcuccicvccrcvcrcvccvccvcvcvccvcucvcvccvccrcuccvcrcrcrcvcucvcvccuccvcvcvcicvcvcvcvcvcucrcvcvcu

0000 040004 dl ef+

00

n

O-CVCh00000000Q)nOVCVQ)O-tn000O0V000>cD-i0000-+OOr00cn000PlOOQcDn000OGVCd'
1 1

1 1

, 0000 0400 -

1

1

1

00 .

1

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

0, "0C"

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0,

1

000 , 0000 - - c0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

040004

1

1

(00000 --

1

1

1

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

N. 000.-

1

000000 04 000000 - - (000

1

1

1

1

CO

00

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

n0

'

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

N

1

1

1

1

1

00,

1

-n000000

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

-0000n,

1

n00c000'

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

t

1

00n00n, c000c00

00 00

- - -

1

1

l

1

0, 0

l

1

l

1

l

00

1

l

1

l

1

l

1

0, 4' n,

l

1

l

l

1

l

1

l

1

l

1

0000000

1

- 0000000000

l

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

00

1

0(00 ch

1

1

1

00

,0v

l

l

0C

l

0000

l

l

(0

l

l

00. 0000' 0 ,

l

N.

00

00 00

.

0-00 N.

r nr>n' - uuc0'

l

-

l

1

0 0. c0o

1

l

-

-. ' n'

l

CO

l

0000,

l

n0.

l

-

l

a

n0. 0-

l

1

l

l

1

l

i

cv

--

1

l

1

1

l

l

04

1

pnnn0000

OOtDn00000

n

00

00000

cn a 00: oo: 00

l

000000000000000000000000000000000000000-d e! r+...r+r+OVLVCVGVCVCVGVC`1PILVGVCYCYGVCVCVCYGVPlLVCVCIGVGVGVOVCiCVCVGVCVCVGVOVGVGiCVOVCVCVCVGVCVCVOVCVCVLVGVCYOVC`lGVCVCVOVGVCVPICVCVGVGVOVCVCVCYGVCVCYCY 0400

1

c0 c0

1

1

O 00 n 00 0000 n 00000000 00 n n 00000000000 cn c a7 en

00

c,

n

1

I

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

0000:00:0-*

1 n c0 00 0: o .- c n000vd OCVCcD000D00CcDOGVe tcCn00t cOLV000)OGVCJ,n00^GVICYcDnccD00000VOco 000000n00C0-0 0000n0000 04Gt 'C0 0 ccc0c000nrnn00 00 0000 4 04 4000N000000000--0 0000nnn00000000004000 00 000(0000000000000000 0000000010000OOCV0.4 QDcGcptpcOcptDcOcOnnnnnnnnnnn 00 00 00 00 00 t l l l l l (%+OOOOOOOnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn00000D000C00 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l

pG

X000000)00001-+CVt0n000n000GVC+'tncD00CVC0n'r00000OGVCOCVd'OOGd'+-c0n00c')CVO00+-+GVCOcOn00On0 00000000000000000000N00400 0oOchoOO00000000000000000000----00000000000000nrn000000000000000000000000000000000-0404040 '-rHN N^-~^+-040JNCVNOVCh00000Gh00000 0000(0000000004004004Au00004004000 z X00000000000000'-r+-+-+-+-+^-~ 1, 11

00

ao 0

0

-

z

z

a

c0 ,^

0

z

I

~((C(CIn(

CA

c

(C

o

C

. .

((

aoCO

(C

(('

CA

O

wo

O

(C

-

.naora

Cut-

(

C

1-CO(C

. .

(

.

(CC

1` O

CT.

(

(C

cc,

Ct`ao

O o0

(D

w((

'(C(C(CA.r-CC(((C(((('d

O0 w

d

(C(C

aG

C

w

'

A

c, the o the wow:: cn-crC:: (C::

oar

O

_

_

.

.

_

.. C v': n:

CA-

CD

_

_

(C(C

(C(C(C((((((((C((C((C---NN

Q th

((( d" 00

_

c n: the . o

.. thd'OO^r000J0~CVd'(CDIOOC%OcICOCQO*-Ghi'tC(D1000OCVC07the'hCr+OlGhd'(DT000OOCVCr+ -++CA CA d'd'd f d a' 000CO(D(D(p(DCG(D(D(D(D(D(G(p(p(D(D(pI111111ti1I1Ifl111t(00D000a000a000OG00OCQ)C.00%CrCn aD

(

a cucvcucrcvclclcuvclclc,cvcucrclcvc,cvcuc,cvcvcrclclchchccccncncnc(;c(;cnth.,th,cnchn

aoxrna

Q,1-

GPI

(GC(C

:

C (C:::

cv

o0

oC Cam(::: ono ca ( (: (0(C: (: (C:

~ ~

aD C 1`r cu: 01: cu: : 1cv=

(C

(C(C

GPI

0l(C(C

oaoC . cvch: C uncu:

GPI

C

_

( cthwl`oa'o.ccvclth,n(cl`ool`r

CA CA

ItN10-d'I.?`.'J`.'J(cluCCI'J'K:^rit'' d'GC (C(i d"? d'a d d d d d'ef r(,,,OC00I`....-.r+'-+..-+

aoocooooowaannnnacoaoa.acooocrc,cnchthnncaccoooo ,,(oxocrncarooa;ocncOcrcncccooclchwn(roocowncaocv co aaiaiaoa caac ccoaocc acmac 000000000000000000 ri`aoooooaoooxo ooo nnnn nn cn(oca(o(aca(cnt`ooooo wdwa'wadan.nnnnnnu^(nn.nnn,nr;n,rn.ru(c(c(c(o(c

..........................................

~~~

,n.nun.nnn.nnnnn(ocv(c(a(c(of(a(v(a(a(ccrcccrrcrrcaoooaoaoaoooaoooooaoaaoaoooco.a:aocaoooo0000000..,.,crcvc,c,cnc+ccn ,......+ .-i r.+ .r .-i ~ .r '-..-i .. i-..- .-i .......-i -+ .r .-i .. '-+ ...... .ti i-+ ...- r..-i .....-.-.r .. rr .. r... r... CV LV GV Cpl GV CJ GV GV CV C! CV Gel Gel C! GV GV GV L4 G! CV Gel (C

oocura-nconcch~c1nr(aoaoaococvocvcn(cvuaoornoc,a.ocvcraoa;c,c(n(oococa'ncacaoooocrncvcnnco(ca+n c---CA((C(CAAACAC((C(C(^((C(C(C(C(CACC(d d wd'(CA(C(((wdd (C(C(C(C(C(C(C((C(CC(COO(CCCCOC(P00C(C(C((((CC

.

v ~ t OO-CA(C Dd'0 --ICVCd GICd'CDIOOCOGV000(Dd(((CAA-CACA I000OGheM 0000 ACONGVC1 cDI000 Of71000 OCVCr7Q - NCd100d'c7C0tOcDt000 1-1-00((((CC--CC(CC(OOCCOOOO---CACA((d a (C(C(CCC(CCCCA-AA-A-A-AAA-ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(((C(((C (A-(((C(000(di(CC(OOOO-((C(((C( d d d A-A-AAA---GV(C(. z Hcucrcucrcuccrcvcrcuc,cvcvcrcvcrc,c,cvcvcuccrccrccvc,c,cvcccvcvc,cvclcvclcvccvclcvcclccycucvclcvclcvvcvccvccuc,cvc,ccvcucrcvcvcuc,c,cuccrNCVC,cvc,cucvc,c (((((((((C(ra aa a (n(n(n((n((n((n((n(n(n(((n((n(n(n(n(

a. c

v. 0

z

0

az

v

.

z

as

v

z

0

az

v

(Co (d

z

0

z

h (C

aC)> ,

p

w

ut

v Oo

Cn cat

O

fp

v po

cn cr Cn

w cr

C

Cn

v

Cn Cn

oo

cn

-Cn

C) C3

Cn

:

CoC

cn

Cn

cn

iA

C)

w w c )cnav ) : ao) ) ) : o Cn

Cn

C)

cn vt

ova) : cn)

cn cn cn

C7t

cr cr w

) cn

C)

C) C)

:

Cn

cn cn

C) C) C)

cr )ooooao C

cr, cn

) : Cao cn

ora

cr cn

a

v,v

cn cn cn Ct C)

C

z

0

..

cn Cn cn

..

. .

o000

Cn cn cn vt : ootDCn,P

........+ ...

: :

-+

s

....r

..+

vt : cnv :

....._.

.

.....+

:

. ...+ ...,

cn

:n voooa ocooovO : ocn vtv cn cn Cn cn cn

00

v

: O 1.7

: O

: C7t

Q)

O-' CA

: O : O

: O

: O : O Cu .+ I7

: O

: O

Q)

to C)

v

cnooocn.acv.aroccovao:xocncn;o:oo

cn

w w ;n 00000 covO : crwcn utc,

GO

v Cn

:

00

. 0

:

:

O

0N'

GD

0-+ : 00..+ O v

cn cn cn Cn v : cnvcn : cnCn moo voor.

cn v7

:

00 .A .A

OG

00 00 00 .A C7 GC

Cn

cn

Cn

ov 00 00 00 00 00 C7 00

:

,, .

vov va

: :n w Cn : vt :n :

o

Cn

cn

:

:

cn vt oa o.

;

:

oa Cn

cn

; ut

00

,

0

N'

--: 0rv

:.r0v : 0O : 0:

:

.a

0.

cn

Ov : O :a o :a

Cnvt

:

-o

00

utcnCnwCncncncncnO vo Ov A Ooo Ov Oca Coo O v O

C)

0 owa

0

z

o zw

z 0

0

z

O

00

-

C)

OD

C)

O

-O

C)

C)

A

OO OOOaOOOOOOOOC>CnCRCnCn DOOO00TTCiOQCOQcncn(,nCt(CnC3tC7tCnCnCJtCnJtCnUtCnCJtCnCnUtcCn

C C)

0

z

Cn

z'C )))-'-OOOOOOOCODDOO(7tCi ACa)-OCC)CPC)C)-CCD00CC)C)-O))CD00CC-OCDOOV))

:

C)

ra

x ti - 0 .P -cnan vr t0ooovooovacr vvvvc,:cr.raavcncncncncn c,oraonocoooovacnc,o o GD

crcoovO

cn cn cn Cn cn cn Cn : v : v cnC,tcnoaooo n

Cn Cn cn

.............................................

Cn

A P F.P A P A AFP ACuWWCCa C) C) H 00ODC) C)C7tCJtCatCTtCatUtCnCniP A AiP.AwPC) C) C) C) WCJWWNr..0OOOOOC00000CCc)c)c)ccooocoo)CC)C)C) o))C)C)C) C) C) ovvvv vtccncnoacaacncc:ncnvtwccwcoooooooccvccncncncnnnrn-oooocaoococccacaoooooaoooaaoaoocacacaccaaaa«.ooooocccc zo C)-OCCC)C ACS A- C)) PCC-CC ACC)-O) AC C)CCC) PCC)O)C A)t)-CCCv0))vO AC C)CCv0)CnC C)>C)>CC)> PPC)C)CCCCCn0000C)C .b a aaa as a

cn cn

..................................................................................

z

GCCCCCGCCCstCCCaCC.(tf(CCC(uCCCC(l:Cr+((.7C(UGuGC7oCJCCCCCCGC(GC(CCCCatC1o:C(C(UCGfC17tCc(GC7CauCUCCaC7oCc H vvvvvvv.rvvvooaccirnaoacn:ncncncn.acwcc,nnnrnnrrrnnrrnn....00000OOOOOOOOOOO zo ccnr.rar.ooocooooocnPwrarar.-occcocncncncr.rrannca.rvvaoovvvvvcncncncncncncncno:scnwoooooooccoooxooooooao OcD00iaOD00iO 00OcD0oIQ-OOf7occ YY coovaa;ncr.rcncrcncn;,v."7)C7PCN' OVN'CW' NACN' OCDOOIQCITUI,AGN' OC7AW' N.,.d as aaa aaa

00T

SPECIAL VOLUMES Studies in Metamorphism and Metasomatism

-

(Orville v.) contains

24 papers by outstanding petrologists, 625 p., v. 283-A, $50.00 per copy

prepaid

-

in 2 pts: Part 1 contains Cumulus processes and The Jackson Volume layered intrusions (5 articles) and Ophiolites and related rocks (10 articles). Part 2 contains Mantle xenoliths and their host magmas (11 ar-

ticles) and Hawaiian and other oceanic volcanism (8 articles). 34 articles (868 p.), v. 280-A, 1980. $50.00 per copy prepaid Summary and critique of the thermodynamic properties of by Harold C. Helgeson, Joan M. Delany, H. Wayne rock-forming minerals

- -

Nesbitt, and Dennis K. Bird

-

v. 278-A, 1978 -$25.00 per copy prepaid

Tectonics and Mountain Ranges (Rodgers v.)

Contains 16 papers, from authors all over the world, discussing mountain ranges and tectonic belts throughout the world. 16 articles (516 p.), v. 275-A, 1975. $25.00 per copy prepaid

-

The papers reflect the status of research into problems of Appalachian regional geology at the time of publication. 29 articles (566 p.), v. 273-A, 1973. $15.00 per copy prepaid 28 articles devoted to experimental petrology. The Schairer Volume V. 267-A (582 p.), 1969. $15.00 per copy prepaid Covers the entire breadth of geology. 37 articles, The Bradley Volume v. 258-A (434 p.), 1960. $15.00 per copy prepaid

The Byron N. Cooper Volume

-

-

Theoretical prediction of the thermodynamic behavior of aqueous Parts I through electrolytes at high pressures and temperatures IV

-

-

by Harold C. Helgeson, David H. Kirkham, and George C. Flowers A limited number of bound reprints (585 pages in all) plus Subject Index (39 pages) is available from the office of the American Journal of Science

at $65.00 per copy prepaid. SPECIAL ISSUES

April 1982 Four Articles on Geochemical Cycles of Nutrient Elements

by Michel Meybeck; Robert A. Berner; P. N. Froelich, M. L. Bender, N. A. Luedtke, G. R. Heath, and T. DeVries; and G. Billen $10.00 per copy prepaid

April/May 1984 Mafic and Ultramafic rocks of the Appalachian Orogen (12 articles)

-

edited by K. C. Misra and Harry Y. McSween, Jr. $20.00 per copy prepaid.

GENERAL INDEX

A general index for the years 1976-1980 (volumes 276-280 and including volumes 278-A and 280-A) is available at $ 10.00 per copy prepaid.

Subscribe to The American Journal of Science Now Devoted to the Geological Sciences and to Related Fields 1 volume of 10 issues published per year Subscription on calendar year basis. 1985, institutions, $80.00; individuals, $40.00; postage outside USA--per year, $10.00. Payments Must Be Made in U.S. Currency Checks should be made out to "American Journal of Science" and sent to us at the address below.

American Journal of Science, Kline Geology Laboratory, Yale University, P.O. Box 6666, New Haven, Connecticut 06511

NOTICE TO CONTRIBUTORS TO THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH INTERNATIONAL RADIOCARBON CONFERENCE The editors of RADIOCARBON announce the publication of the Proceedings of the 12th International Radiocarbon Conference held in Trondheim, Norway, June 24-28, 1985. The Proceedings will appear in two of the four numbers of Volume 28, 1986 and will be offered as part of the subscription for that year. Presentation of a paper at the Conference will not guarantee publication in the Proceedings issue. If a paper is accepted but will not fit into the Proceedings, it will be considered for publication in one of RADIOCARBON'S regular issues. Only those manuscripts, submitted in proper form (in three typewritten copies) at the Conference will he considered for publication. Articles may not exceed 10 pages including references, illustrations, and tables. No more than four illustrations per paper are recommended, reducible to no more than two pages. Figures should be reduced as much as possible. It is recommended that the author submit camera-ready tables and drawings. Preference will be given to shorter articles. No discussions will be published. The regular review system will be employed. Style guidelines follow the previous Proceedings issues and the STYLE Gun)E (R, 1984, v 26, p 152158). We will not be using the same method of printing as we did for the last Proceedings issue (Vol 25, no. 2, 1983). The author will not be responsible for final preparation of the manuscript. RADIOCARBON will print the Proceedings in the usual manner. Each institution sponsoring research reported in an article will be asked to pay a charge of $80.00 per printed page. Institutions paying such charges will be entitled to 100 free reprints without covers. Publication of an article in the Proceedings is not conditional on the payment of page charges, as payment can be waived for those institutions unable to pay partially or completely. The Norwegian Institute of Technology has offered

partial support for the publication of the Proceedings. We look forward to this project and our renewed associations. THE EDITORS OF RADIOCARBON

Vol 27, No. 3

Radiocarbon

1985

CONTENTS Historical 14C Measurements from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans AW Fairhall and AW Young ............................................. 473

BM

DATE LISTS Janet Ambers, Keith Matthews, and Richard Burleigh

British Museum Natural Radiocarbon Measurements XVIII .............................................................................. T

508

Reidar Nydal, Steinar Gulliksen, Knut Lovseth, and Fred Skogseth Trondheim Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IX ..... 525

UGRA Cecilio Gonzalez-Gomez, Purificacion Sanchez-Sanchez, and Maria Domingo-Garcia University of Granada Radiocarbon Dates II ................. 610

VRI

Heinz Felber

Vienna Radium Institute Radiocarbon Dates XV .......... 616

List of Laboratories .............................................................. 623 Index to Volume 27 .............................................................. 635

Loading...

Editor Associate Editors Managing Editor - Journals at the University of

VOLUME 27 / NUMBER 3 / 1985 Published by THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Editor MINZE STUIVER Associate Editors To serve until January 1, 1989 STEP...

13MB Sizes 1 Downloads 0 Views

Recommend Documents

Editors-in-Chief Associate Editors Managing Editor Book Review Editor
Dec 5, 2016 - Fleck, L. La génesis y el desarrollo de un hecho científico: Introducción a la teoría del estilo de pensam

Editor-in-chief Choirul Fuad Yusuf. Managing Editor Fakhriati - PDF
Umat Islam tidak menghendaki hukum Islam tegak di Indonesia. Hal ini disebabkan, selain pemerintah tidak menghendaki, ka

Our new Managing Editor - ThaiVIsa
Jan 4, 2016 - There's been a changing of the guard at Hua Hin Today. The General Manager of the past three years, Eleni.

Editor-in-chief Choirul Fuad Yusuf. Managing Editor Fakhriati - PDF
11 Yusuf Qardhawi, for example, gave a clear account, that the word jihad is different from qit±l (war) seen from both

lowongan di detik: Editor In Chief, Managing Editor, Journalist
Reportage, interview and pour it on a good writing. * Doing research and make writings as ... Fresh graduates/Entry leve

editor
Kenegaraan Malaysia : isu-isu dalam pembinaan negara / editor, Zulhilmi Paidi, Rohani Ab. Ghani ... Proses pembinaan neg

editor
... http://bagnenkobijou.com/ebooks/matematicas-de-contacto-curso-3 http://bagnenkobijou.com/ebooks/algebra-lineal-defin

PDF Editor,PDF Editor Download,PDF Text Editor | Foxit Software
Edit PDF files with our feature-rich PDF Editor software. Convert, sign, scan / OCR, edit PDF files, and more. Download

The Photo Editor Application
Aug 6, 2003 - 5.2 Refined Requirements for Online Photo Shop. 117. Figure 5.1 Refined Use Case Diagram for Online Photo

FROM THE EDITOR - aiftp
Tax Rates, Rebates, Reliefs etc. Personal income-tax exemption limit has been increased by Rs. 50,000/- i.e. from Rs. 2.