Colombia - KPMG

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Film Financing and Television Programming: A Taxation Guide

Now in its seventh edition, KPMG LLP’s (“KPMG”) Film Financing and Television Programming: A Taxation Guide (the “Guide”) is a fundamental resource for film and television producers, attorneys, tax executives, and finance executives involved with the commercial side of film and television production. The guide is recognized as a valued reference tool for motion picture and television industry professionals. Doing business across borders can pose major challenges and may lead to potentially significant tax implications, and a detailed understanding of the full range of potential tax implications can be as essential as the actual financing of a project. The Guide helps producers and other industry executives assess the many issues surrounding cross -border business conditions, financing structures, and issues associated with them, including film and television development costs and rules around foreign investment. Recognizing the role that tax credits, subsidies, and other government incentives play in the financ ing of film and television productions, the Guide includes a robust discussion of relevant tax incentive programs in each country. The primary focus of the Guide is on the tax and business needs of the film and television industry with information drawn from the knowledge of KPMG International’s global network of member firm media and entertainment Tax professionals. Each chapter focuses on a single country and provides a description of commonly used financing structures in film and television, as well as their potential commercial and tax implications for the parties involved. Key sections in each chapter include:

Introduction A thumbnail description of the country’s film and television industry contacts, regulatory bodies, and financing developments and trends.

Key Tax Facts At-a-glance tables of corporate, personal, and VAT tax rates; normal non-treaty withholding tax rates; and tax year-end information for companies and individuals.

© 2015 KPMG LLP, a Delaware lim ited liability partnership and the U.S. m ember firm of the KPMG network of independent m em ber firms affiliated with KPMG International Cooperative (“KPMG International”), a Swiss entity. All rights reserved. NDPPS 382456

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Film Financing and Television Programming: A Taxation Guide

Financing Structures Descriptions of commonly used financing structures in film and television production and distribution in the country and the potential commercial tax implications for the parties involved. The section covers rules surrounding co-productions, partnerships, equity tracking shares, sales and leaseback, subsidiaries, and other tax-efficient structures.

Tax and Financial Incentives Details regarding the tax and financial incentives available from central and local governments as they apply to investors, producers, distributors, and actors, as well as other types of incentives offered.

Corporate Tax Explanations of the corporate tax in the country, including definitions, rates, and how they are applied.

Personal Tax Personal tax rules from the perspective of investors, producers, distributors, artists, and employees.

Digital Media For the first time, we have included a discussion of digital media tax considerations recognizing its growing role in the distribution of film and television content.

KPMG and Member Firm Contacts References to KPMG and other KPMG International member firms’ contacts at the end of each chapter are provided as a resource for additional detailed information. Please note: While every effort has been made to provide up-to-date information, tax laws around the world are constantly changing. Accordingly, the material contained in this publication should be viewed as a general guide only and should not be relied upon without consulting your KPMG or KPMG International member firm Tax advisor. Production opportunities are not limited to the countries contained in this Guide. KPMG and the other KPMG International member firms are in the business of identifying early -stage emerging trends to assist clients in navigating new business opportunities. We encourage you to consult a KPMG or KPMG International member firm Tax professional to continue the conversation about potential approaches to critical tax and business issues facing the media and entertainment industry. Thank you and we look forward to helping you with any questions you may have. Tony Castellanos +1 212-954-6840 [email protected] Benson Berro +1 818-227-6954 [email protected] The following inform ation is not intended to be "written advice concerning one or m ore Federal tax m atters" subject to the requirem ents of section 10.37(a)(2) of Treasury Department Circular 230 as the content of this document is issued for general inform ational purposes only. The inform ation contained herein is of a general nature and based on authorities that are subject to change. Applicability of the inform ation to specific situations should be determ ined through consultation with your tax adviser. © 2015 KPMG LLP, a Delaware lim ited liability partnership and the U.S. m ember firm of the KPMG network of independent m em ber firms affiliated with KPMG International Cooperative (“KPMG International”), a Swiss entity. All rights reserved. NDPPS 382456

Film Financing and Television Programming: A Taxation Guide

Colombia Introduction In Colombia, the film industry is small but is growing. Between the years 1997 and 2003, Colombia produced an average of 4.2 films per year. By 2004 and in the years following, the average number of films produced was 8, thanks to a new law issued in 2003. Presently, Colombia produces the fourth most films in Latin America. 1 Law 397 of 1997 (also known as “The Culture Law”) created the Ministry of Culture. Within this ministry is the Cinematography Bureau, the entity that is in charge of promoting and encouraging the Colombian film industry. Law 397 of 1997 established policies that encourage the production and co-production of Colombian films. A film production fund was created with resources from the state budget and its purpose is to encourage and grant Colombian film production. The Colombian Congress enacted Law 814 of 2003, which created a new tax benefit and a new para-tax contribution called “Quota for Cinematographic Development,” and reorganized the cinematographic industry aiming to induce a progressive development of the Colombian industry and to promote film activities in Colombia. These resources go to the Fund for Film Development, the National Arts and Cinematographic Culture Counsel (the entity that will manage said Fund), and the Cinematographic Information and Registration System (SIREC, a database including producers, exhibitors, distributors, and others involved in similar activities related to the cinematographic industry). Additionally, there are some national entities, such as the Colombian Film Heritage NonProfit Foundation (called, in Spanish, Fundación Patrimonio Fílmico Colombiano [FPFC]), which functions mainly to gather or recover audio and visual records that should be part of the Colombian film heritage, as well as to promote national film production. The television industry is also still small; however, many domestic TV shows (mostly soap operas) have been exported in the past few years and TV stations are coming to film in Colombia due to the low film costs, availability of technicians, and good levels of technology infrastructure that allow production of high-quality series. 2 Currently, there are five television channels (two private, three public) with nationwide coverage and nine regional channels. The National Television Committee (which is the government entity in charge of developing the policies regarding the television service) has opened a public bid in order to allow a third private channel with nationwide coverage. This process has been suspended due to legal matters, since there was only one bidder.

1

Data source: Proexport Colombia, “Film Industry in Colombia”.

2

Data source: Proexport Colombia Colombia © 2015 KPMG LLP, a Delaware lim ited liability partnership and the U.S. m ember firm of the KPMG network of independent m em ber firms affiliated with KPMG International Cooperative (“KPMG International”), a Swiss entity. All rights reserved. NDPPS 382456

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Film Financing and Television Programming: A Taxation Guide

Key Tax Facts Highest corporate income tax rate

25% on the income tax for the taxable year 2014 9% on the income tax for the fairness (8% as from year 2016)

Highest personal income tax rate

33% for the taxable year 2014

Normal nontreaty withholding tax rates: Dividends

0%***

Interest (income tax)

33% for the taxable year 2014*

Film royalties (income tax)

19.8% for the taxable year 2014**

Tax year-end: Companies

December 31

Tax year-end: Individuals

December 31

Financial Transactions Tax – GMF

It is a debit tax at 0.4%

*

For long-term loans, i.e., those granted for a term of one year or m ore, interest is taxable at 14%.

** ***

Rate = 33% over 60% of payment The portion of profits nontaxed at subsidiary level is taxed at the 33% for taxable year 2014

Film Financing Financing Structures There are several corporate structures for doing business in Colombia which all may apply to the film industry as there are not restrictions regarding the kind of entity that is able to develop these activities.

Corporation (Sociedad Anónima S.A.) An S.A. can be incorporated with five or more shareholders, none of which could have more than 94.9% of the total shares of the company. The shareholders are liable up to the amount of their capital contribution. The company is incorporated through a corporation contract that includes the articles of incorporation and the bylaws of the company. These documents must be formalized through a public deed before a local public notary and then registered in the local Chamber of Commerce of its main domicile. The company issues nominative share certificates that are negotiable. The social capital is divided in authorized share capital, subscribed share capital, and paid share capital. At the moment of the incorporation, at least 50% of the authorized capital must be subscribed, and at least 33% of its subscribed share capital must be paid up. If a shareholder owns 95% or more of the total subscribed shares, the corporation falls into a dissolution cause.

Simplified Shares Corporation (SAS) Act 1258 of 2008 introduced a new kind of company, the simplified shares corporation “sociedad por acciones simplificada” (SAS, as its acronym is in Spanish). The SAS is a type Colombia © 2015 KPMG LLP, a Delaware lim ited liability partnership and the U.S. m ember firm of the KPMG network of independent m em ber firms affiliated with KPMG International Cooperative (“KPMG International”), a Swiss entity. All rights reserved. NDPPS 382456

Film Financing and Television Programming: A Taxation Guide

of corporate structure which gives more flexibility to the founders in setting the basic rules of the company. The SAS can be incorporated in Colombia with one or more shareholders and their liability is limited to the amount of their capital contribution; likewise, the shareholders of a SAS are not joint or severally liable for tax or labor liabilities. The SAS can be incorporated with a private document; it is not necessary to grant a public deed before a notary public, except if the shareholders will contribute real property to the SAS. At the moment of the incorporation, the subscription and payment of the capital can be made under the conditions and proportion established by the shareholders. In any case, shareholders have a term of two years to pay for the subscribed shares.

Limited Liability Company (Sociedad Limitada) A limited liability company can be organized by 2 to 25 partners. The partners are liable up to the amount of their capital contributions, except for tax and labor liabilities, in which case partners are severally and jointly liable along with the company according to particular provisions. Capital must be fully paid up at the time of LLC organization and is divided into equal capital quotas of equal amount, which may be assigned in accordance with the provisions in the company’s bylaws and Colombian law. The limited liability company is organized through a social contract that contains the articles of organization and the bylaws of the company; such contract must be formalized through a public deed before a local notary and then registered at the Chamber of Commerce of its main domicile.

Branch of a Foreign Company A foreign company wishing to incorporate a branch to undertake “permanent business” in Colombia must register before a notary public, notarized copies of the bylaws of the head office, a minute issued by the head office governing body deciding the incorporation of a branch in Colombia, and documents evidencing the existence and legal representation of the head office. The public deed incorporating the branch must specify the business to be undertaken, the amount of assigned capital, the duration of business to be undertaken, and the reasons for their termination. The company must appoint a general representative and a Statutory Auditor who must be a Colombian resident. The income tax rate applicable to branches is 33% as of tax year 2014, over the income taxable base (gross income minus costs and expenses) regarding only its Colombian source income and equity. Act of Employment Formalization Incentive Act 1429 of 2010, Law of Employment Formalization (LEF), allows gradual discounts for small companies on the fees regarding the registry and renewal with the Merchants Registry. For the registry with the Merchants Registry, during the first year of the company's activities, there is no payment of the fee required for the Merchants Registry. For the renewal of the Merchants Registry, during the second year of activities, the discount is 50%, then 75% for the third year of activities and 100% for the fourth year. Colombia © 2015 KPMG LLP, a Delaware lim ited liability partnership and the U.S. m ember firm of the KPMG network of independent m em ber firms affiliated with KPMG International Cooperative (“KPMG International”), a Swiss entity. All rights reserved. NDPPS 382456

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Film Financing and Television Programming: A Taxation Guide

Moreover, all companies that hire people under 28 years old or women above 40 years old who during the previous year have not been employed, people with disabilities, displaced people, soldiers having serviced in armed conflict, persons who have left the illegal armed groups, and a person who earns less than 1.5 MW may obtain a tax credit for a discount in payroll taxes and other contributions of the payroll. Additionally, the LEF establishes for small companies 3 a gradual income tax payment obligation and gradual payroll taxes payment obligation from the starting of its activities, according to the following parameters: 

0% of the income tax rate during the first and second taxable year, 25% for the third taxable year, 50% for the fourth taxable year, 75% for the fifth taxable year, and 100% from the sixth taxable year on. Please note that the reduced rates are only applicable to income tax, but not to income tax for the fairness (CREE).

These companies will not be levied with withholding tax and presumptive income during five years from the start of their activities. Distribution or Agency Contracts Foreign companies are able to distribute films in Colombia by signing commercial agency contracts with Colombian companies. Depending on the nature of the contract, the law may require payment to the distributor from the company having its products distributed at the termination of the contract. In these cases, the foreign company does not need to establish a branch in Colombia and thus payments received from exploiting films in Colombia are subject to income tax (as discussed below). Tax and Financial Incentives

Quota for Cinematographic Development Act 814 of 2003 created a tax benefit and a special contribution called “Quota for Cinematographic Development,” which was then modified by Act 1607 of 2012. The tax benefit consists of a tax deduction of 165% of the amount invested or donated to a Colombian film project approved by the Department of Culture per conditions of Decree 255 of 2013, regardless of the activity producing income of the investor or donor. The Department of Culture will issue a Certificate of Cinematographic Investment or Cinematographic Donation. The tax benefit will not be applicable if the investor is a producer or co-producer of the cinematographic project, nor for investment made on advertising films or soap operas.

Quota for Cinematographic Development Rate (Special Contribution Included on Section 5 of Act 814 of 2003) For exhibitors: 8.5% on total income from the exhibition of films. For distributors: 8.5% on total income from the distribution of foreign films.

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Those companies in which staff does not exceed than 50 employees and assets are not greater than 5,000 Minimum Wages (approximately USD 1,6 6 7,000) Colombia © 2015 KPMG LLP, a Delaware lim ited liability partnership and the U.S. m ember firm of the KPMG network of independent m em ber firms affiliated with KPMG International Cooperative (“KPMG International”), a Swiss entity. All rights reserved. NDPPS 382456

Film Financing and Television Programming: A Taxation Guide

For producers of Colombian films: 5% on total income. Exhibitors, distributors, and producers are responsible for the payment of the Quota for Cinematographic Development (special contribution). The withholding tax agent of the quota is the exhibitor and a tax return must be filed monthly. Other Financing Considerations Colombian and foreign financing can be obtained. Foreign indebtedness is subject to a prior deposit with the Colombian Central Bank. However, since the year 2008, said deposit is equivalent to 0% of the total foreign loan; therefore, this requirement is now irrelevant. Foreign investment in Colombian television is allowed. However, according to Law 680 of 2001, a limit of 40% is placed on foreign investment in the capital of companies that have concessions to run channels on Colombian television.

Corporate Taxation Corporate Tax Colombian companies are taxed at a rate of 25% plus a 9% “Income tax for equality” (8% starting in year 2016) as stated on Act 1607 of 2012. Such taxes are calculated on the taxable income, which may differ in both cases (gross income minus costs and expenses). 4 Dividends distributed from profits that have been taxed at a corporate level will be considered as nontaxable income for a foreign shareholder or stakeholder, then withholding tax will not be applicable in order to avoid double taxation. In the opposite sense, if dividends are distributed from profits that have not been subject to income tax at a corporate level, they will be taxable income for a foreign shareholder. In this case, the dividends paid abroad will be subject to a 33% withholding tax. 5 Please note that there may be reduced rates under Treaties to Avoid Double Taxation in force. 6

a. Income Tax on Royalties Paid Abroad The taxable base for the exploitation of films under any legal title, by a foreign individual or company without a domicile in Colombia, is 60% of the total royalties paid a broad. This taxable income will be subject to a 33% tax withholding. Therefore, the total income tax impact will be 19.8% on the total amount of the royalties. In consequence, if a Colombian subsidiary or a foreign branch makes a payment for the exploitation of a film within Colombia to a parent company or head office abroad, such a payment will be subject to the above-mentioned 19.8%. If the licensee is a resident of Spain, Chile, Switzerland, Mexico, or Canada, the withholding tax rate will be 10%.

4

According to section 107 of the Colombian Tax Code, costs and expenses are deductible provided they are necessary, proportional, and have a causality relationship with the income generated by the taxpayer . 5

Sections 48 and 49 of the Colombian Tax Code. Decree 56 7 of 2007. Colombia has Treaties to Avoid Double Taxation with Spain, Chile, Switzerland, Mexico, and Canada and also with the Andean Community countries (Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru). Colombia 6

© 2015 KPMG LLP, a Delaware lim ited liability partnership and the U.S. m ember firm of the KPMG network of independent m em ber firms affiliated with KPMG International Cooperative (“KPMG International”), a Swiss entity. All rights reserved. NDPPS 382456

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Film Financing and Television Programming: A Taxation Guide

b. Property Transfer of Films In the case of property transfer of films, the following rules must be considered regarding payments abroad for this concept: 

If the property transfer of films is executed while the films are inside Colombian territory, the income arising from that payment will be national source income and taxable in the country; therefore, withholding tax will apply at the 14% rate over the gross payment or accrual. In this case, the receiver of such payments (foreigner without residence or domicile in Colombia) will have to file an income tax return, according to the general rules of the Colombian Tax Code; 7 and



If the property transfer of films is executed while the films are not within Colombian territory, the income coming from such payment will not be national source income; therefore, withholding tax will not apply over such payment or accrual.

c. Property Transfer over the Copyrights of the Film In the case of property transfer of copyrights of the films, the following rules must be considered regarding payments abroad for this concept: 

If the property transfer of the copyrights is executed while the copyrights are registered in Colombia, the income from that payment will be national source income, taxable in the country; therefore, withholding tax will apply at the 14% rate over the gross payment or accrual. In this case, the receiver of such payments (foreigner without residence or domicile in Colombia) must file an income tax return according to the general rules; 8 and



If the property transfer of the copyrights is executed while such copyrights are not registered in Colombia, the income from such payment will not be national source income; therefore, withholding tax will not apply over such payment or accrual.

d. Special Deduction of the Income Tax The taxpayers in Colombia (subsidiary or branch office) may take as a deduction the amounts paid abroad for the acquisition or license for showing a film in Colombia, if such payment can be considered as a necessary investment to be amortized ov er more than five years, or in a shorter period of time if the nature of the business demands that the amortization has to be done in a shorter period of time. 9 Municipal Industry and Commercial Tax Colombian companies and branches of foreign companies are subject to a municipal tax called “Impuesto de Industria y Comercio” (Industry and Commerce Tax), at rates from 0.3% to 1.4% on the total revenues. This tax is payable on gross revenues from film exhibition activities.

7

Sections 415 and 592 of the Colombian Tax Code.

8

Sections 415 and 592 of the Colombian Tax Code.

9

Sections 142 and 143 of the Colombian Tax Code. Colombia © 2015 KPMG LLP, a Delaware lim ited liability partnership and the U.S. m ember firm of the KPMG network of independent m em ber firms affiliated with KPMG International Cooperative (“KPMG International”), a Swiss entity. All rights reserved. NDPPS 382456

Film Financing and Television Programming: A Taxation Guide

Indirect Taxation Value Added Tax (VAT) The general rate of VAT in Colombia is 16% on the sale of movable tangible goods, importations, and the rendering of services within Colombian territory. When a foreign company without domicile in Colombia renders services of any type inside the Colombian territory to a Colombian resident, VAT will apply upon the fees or services value; however, the foreign company will not be economically affected by the application of this tax, because the Colombian resident will implement a “reverse charge mechanism” or “hypothetical withholding,” in order to fulfill its tax liabilities before the tax administration (DIAN). 10 VAT at the 16% rate will also apply to the provision of licenses and the authorization to exploit films, in favor of licensees located in Colombia. The VAT will be accrued by the Colombian licensee via reverse charge mechanism. Likewise, commissions or fees charged by agents with residence in Colombia to foreign companies accrue VAT at a 16% rate except in those cases of exportation or service contracts. There is no VAT chargeable on showing films, i.e ., ticket for the cinema (Section 476, subsection 11, Colombian Tax Code); however, the rental of video movies in Colombia accrues VAT at the 16% rate. Tax on the Exhibition of Films In the city of Bogota only, there is a Beneficence Tax at 10% of the price of a ticket to a public spectacle (among them film exhibitions). Stamp Tax As of 2010, the stamp tax rate is 0% when an agreement is signed.

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When a foreign company performs services subject to VAT in Colombian territory, the Colombian company that purchases those services shall self-assess the 100% of the VAT accrued at a rate of 16 %, and pay it to the Colombian Tax Authority by means of a withholding tax return. In other words, the VAT will be accrued ahead of the recipient of the taxable service who will be liable to declare and pay the TAX via a withholding t ax return. Given that the tax will be ahead of the recipient of the service, the withholding does not affect the amount of the payments abroad. Colombia © 2015 KPMG LLP, a Delaware lim ited liability partnership and the U.S. m ember firm of the KPMG network of independent m em ber firms affiliated with KPMG International Cooperative (“KPMG International”), a Swiss entity. All rights reserved. NDPPS 382456

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KPMG’s Media and Entertainment Tax Network Members:

Vicente Javier Torres KPMG Impuestos y Servicios Legales Calle 90 No. 19C – 74 Bogota D.C. Colombia [email protected] Phone Fax

+57 1 618 8108 +57 1 610 3245

Camilo Rodriguez KPMG Impuestos y Servicios Legales Calle 90 No. 19C – 74 Bogota D.C. Colombia [email protected] Phone Fax

+57 1 618 8129 +57 1 610 3245

Jessica Massy KPMG Impuestos y Servicios Legales Calle 90 No. 19C – 74 Bogota D.C. Colombia [email protected] Phone Fax

+57 1 618 8129 +57 1 610 3245

Colombia © 2015 KPMG LLP, a Delaware lim ited liability partnership and the U.S. m ember firm of the KPMG network of independent m em ber firms affiliated with KPMG International Cooperative (“KPMG International”), a Swiss entity. All rights reserved. NDPPS 382456

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Colombia - KPMG

Film Financing and Television Programming: A Taxation Guide Now in its seventh edition, KPMG LLP’s (“KPMG”) Film Financing and Television Programming...

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