Capitol Building Prepared For The Of The By The Harrisburg

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REPORT

ON

RELIEF

Prepared For The GENERAL ASSEMBLY

Of The CO:MMON1'VEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA

By The JOmT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION

OF TEE GENERAL ASSEMBLY

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

Capitol Building January J. 1941

JOINT STATE GOVElThl1JJENT cmvnHssIOIif OF THE GENERAL ASSEdBLY

(Oreated in 1937, P.L. 2'60, as amended 1939 P.L. 1084) "A continuing agency of the General Assembly to undertake studies and develop facts, information and data on all phases of government for the use of the General Assembly and Departments and Agencies of the State Government. n Ellwood J. Turner, Speaker of the House Frederick T. Gelder, President Pro Tem of Senate Robert E. Woodside, 'Jr., Representative William E. Habbysha:w, RepresentD.tive

Chairman : Vice-Chairman : Secretary: Treasurer:

SENATE MEMBERS

HOUSE l!1EMBERS

Charles H. En.ly Edward R. Frey James A. Gel-tz Frederick L. Homsher G. Mason Owlett Harry Shapiro George ~-{oodward

Leo .A. _'tchterman Herber-t B. Cohen Edwin C. Ewing Wilson D. Gillette Thomas Lyons Charles W. Sweeney John E. Van Allsburg Edwin ~'finner

Direc-tor, A••\.If'red Wa.sserman

COt~aTTEE

ON RELIEF Of The JOINT ST.tTE GOVEilllJ"J'I]ENT CONliHISSION

John E. Van -l.llsburg, Chairman James .'i.. Gel-t2i Frederick Lt Hamsher George i'Voodward

Leo .i.. Achterman Ellwood J. Turner Robert E. ~oodside, Jr.

37% received relief durinG

ing high earnings during

SOTIO

[l

qunrt·.:;r ',;he"1. earJ1ings 'Iiere ;;;;200 or ;nore, sw:;gcst-

pert of the quarter ·;ii th unenployTJ.ent Conpensat iOl:

and innedinte destitution before or 'lark on the part of the C:1se

20%

~ttcr'high

enrnings, or chiseling, or faulty

inve5tigetor~

received relief prior to 1l..11enployncnt conpcrsntion uhen eligible for the

letter, suggesting thnt the uner.lployncnt conpcnsntion naiting period is too long, or that the DepartI1ent of Pulbic Assistance fur.ctio:1.S l'J.ore rapidly thcm the Bureau of Unenploynent Conpcnsation. 5~

received unenploynent conpensntion during t\;O benefit y·:ars and '.lere grnnt-

cd relief during the intcrin.

FEDERfU, AUTHORITY The

rcl~ti()nship

bcti,cen the Federal Govcrnncnt cnd trLe State pcrnits the So-

cinl Security Board, \lhich controls the distribution of Federal funds for cetegorics, to influence to a considerable degree the thir&ing nnd the nctions of the Pennsylvania Depnrtnent of Public Assi stnnce.

Considerntion should be given to nays in

which to preserve the autonony of the Stnte and to forestall any further centrnlizotion.

The studies by tt.e Connittee also have indicated a ',wefnl need for an exchange of infoI'rJQtion betneen dero.rt::1ents Gnd burcnus in the StClte governncnt dealing l.7ith various phases of the relief proble!:J., such as the Burcc.u

or

Unenployr.~cnt

DC}J[~rtnont

of Public Assistance,

Conpens:ltion rmd S1;:, te Er:Iploynent Office.

Frequently, infor-

nntion required by cne office as a prcrequisite to its operations, such as payroll info~tion,

is not sharcd

~ith

others, so thnt chiscling o.nd obuse \7hich thus [email protected]

becoDe priDD facie is left to chance discovery.

MILK ORDERS The cost of the nilk progrnD should also be considered by the Legislature. Under the existiIlg In11 end regulations I1mc11. require th2.t every child under 16 for u11.ic11. State aid is }':,ovided receive n pint of r.:'ilk :pcr dr.y, tl:e State's nonthly Dilk bill Q':lOunt s to apprcxinDtcly There

~re

:~375 ,000.

other factors thct clso should be considered.

Menbcrs of County

Boards conplo.in that in sane c~ses the gr~ntir.g of nilk hoa beconc nothing

-81-

morc them ['" "milk grab" by SOT:'.e conro.nios.

It "V"ms ,o.lso shmm that mo.ny recipients

of milk trade er sell the milk for other commodities or money.

However, in

thousands of cases the result of the operation of this law ho.s been to build healthier children. This is o.n important factor us tho Fbdernl governnent pays no pa.rt of the cost of milk gro.nts, wheref1s si.":lilur grC'.nts in cash vloulc! be born.e by both the state fmd the Fodor::>.l GovorTi.Dent on nIl .I\.D.C. cases, thereby reducing in seme neo.sure Pelll1sylvnnin' s over-nIl cost for relief. PIERSON WORK RELIEF LCT>:' Considerable evidence ho.s boon presented to the

Co~nittoe

1TI1ich shows tha.t

tho tangible results obtnined through tho rierson 1:!ork Rolief L.ct ho.vo been very v~luQble.

It has been

oSJ~ecio.l1y

effective in keeping track of recipients who night

otheMvise be working and report their enployment. Less than under the

~'\.ct

1%

of tho nmaber of assignees co. lIed upon to report for work

fniled to report, nnd T,j,ore them 150,000 persons have beon called

since the law went into ef~oct. (AugMst 1939). 1:Thile some Boo.rc1s o.re hcwing difficulty in finding enough projects for tho personnel, other Boards have nore projects thnn avC'.ihblo cnployo.blcs. One of tho detorrents to the progrnm ns men's compensation rates charged for the work. adjusted to some extent by

~

subst~ntinl

The progrnm in effect under the

0.

wholo

TlnS

for a

t~e

This situation ho.s since been

cut in the rates.

~ct

is

bonefici~l

because:

1.

It keeps relief recipients in the habit of work.

2.

It is ::'.1: indirect mathed of checking on the recipients who might

othc~,ise

be

onplo~rod.

* - 82 ..

tho work-

GEHERJ.'\.L COMMENT . In reviewing the rncts in

thi~

report, it is important thnt ,re look at

both sides of the situntion which confronts Since

hm~n wolf~re

rennsylv~nin.

obviously should not be 0. politicnl or a

preju~icinl

question, the aren of fairness to 0.11 concerned should bo thoroughly explored. This aren is bounded on onc side by fnirness to these who pny tho taxos and upon tho other by tho hunnn necessities of the situation. It is obvious thnt tho problem hns gotten out of bounds in recent yonrs. It hns reached the proportions vn10re the tnxpnycrs nrc contributing an excessive nmount for the benefit acconplished and those upen relief nrc being frozen into nn

unccon~nicul

and

un-l~.ericnn

stntus.

It is obvious that the relief problem has grovm until todny it is fnr grenter and far more serious in its mnny ramifications than anyone could in the beginning.

~agine

This, unquostionably, is due to the pressure of the situation

from yenr to year, necessitating concentration upon

~uys

and nenns of obtaining

the noney to keep the no..chinery running. No Legislnture hQS hnd n sini1nr opportunity to take n constructive, prnctico.l vievr of the situr.tion the.t hns developed in tho sto.te since 1932. Vk have the opportunity today of removing our thoughts from tho moneyraising problom and centering them on ndninistrntiv0 factors. nrc at a new low. in~ustry. tL~C.

The relief rolls

More and nero une,n'-loyeG. arc nnrching back te work in private

The omphnsis upon the enotionnl side is loss than nt nny previous

The vmy is open for practicnl

ndjus~wonts.

Howovor, thore is a Qnnger in the new situation. tho people of the Stnte and the

nCD~crs

of the

... 83 ...

The danger is that

Lc~islnture

will fall into

tho fr'-lse bolief tho.t tho relief rroblen hus been solved by present ro-emrloJlI:lont under the Defense

proGr~.

Such n conclusion would be a tragic

is going to hnl'Jpen when the Defonse progrun is cenplo'ted? ively

now~

largor than it evor

hQS

been if

'lifO

Tfunt

Unless net construct-

when we hnvo tho opportunity the reliof problo1:1

doorstop in n month, a yenr, or sone other indefinite

Dist~ke.

n~y

tiL~.

bo back on our

lu~ct

it nay be

[1,re remiss now.

In nny o.pproach to constructive nction it is necessary to sernro.te the so-cnlledrol ief pro bIen into its the

bli~d,

t~lles

dependent children,

of rolief.

L~

been in th8 pnst.

nn~

hiO

cmpenent pnrts.

aged.

One phnse ho.s to do with

Thoso have boen nccepted as

pe~nnont

size o.nd scope this phase is little ,:lifferent thnn it

Tho c'iffcrencc is thnt now it is boing

do~lt

with on

0.

h.'1S

stato

bnsis ",;herons forrlorly it vms taken c['.re of locnlly. We Dust reCOGnize

th~t

thoro is littlo lntitude for chance in this field,

oxcept only as ac1.nin:i.strntivo f1.4"'Cctions

D...'l.y

bo inproved.

Under the presont

arro.ngenont whereby tho Fodoro.l Govornnent shares in doternirdng policy and returns tax money to tho sto.te

tro~su~J

the control is rro.ctic[1,lly frozen.

The second pho.se relo.tos to the ['roblon of unonploymont. a state controllod, state fino.nccd nnd sto.te opornted function.

This~

entirely

Re~cnber

tho.t

this is prnctically u bro.nd new funotion of the stQto, 1vithin the lust nine or ten yoars.

In this phnse of tho brond rroblcn considerable improvomont can be brought

ubout, whore so.vings to to.xl'nyors cnn be effectod o.nLl where G,dninistro.tion cun be rlude moro officiant und nore in JeoopinC \vith the intentions of tho peoplo ns oxrrossod throngh tho Legislature. It is hOl'e that '(;ho LeGislnturo cr.n concentrnte rlOst of its attention with the briGhtest prospects of monsurable o.nd imrorto.nt nccomplisrrnents. ~lnost fr~

tho beginning of

t~o nQ~inistrntion

of rolief in rennsylvnniu,

leGisla.tive investiga.ting cCJITl.nittcos [mel other irnTostiGnting comnittoos hc..ve pointed out tl10 2100d for unenployr.'.ont rolief.

0.

cCJ!:';plete cho.nGo of onphnsis in the o.c1ninistrntion of

This Conr.lission

l,-QS

been

- 84 -

110

oxception.

Those who

0.1'0

en-

titled to assistance should receive it and those who are not entitled to assistance should not receive it. To secure the proper expenditure of assistance funds, real investigation of applicants and real reinvestigation of cases are needed. investigators are needed.

In

investi~ation,

To secure this, real

all vielvpoints must

me

subordinated

to the basic questions of vrhether there is need, under the meaningr'of the law, and whether the applicant for assistance, or the person receiving assistance, has presented the full story of his resources or as this report has shmvn.

omplo~aent.

There is much chiseling,

Thoro are cases receiving assistance in which low

standards of morality have boen found to be actually encouraged by the manner in '~1ich

assistance has beon granted, as this report has shown.

There arc many

cases in which the unemployed have lived too long upon tho county of the state, vmen other means of livelihood report has shown.

l~re

open had they desired to use them, as this

However, all these conditions, and many others, arc but by-

products of one basic condition.

Investigation in the Department of Public

Assistance is not investigation but visiting.

Most of the problems rolating

to the administration of assistance in Pennsylvan:1.n will be solved if investigation beco.mcs renl. The criticisms which tho Commisslton has made ef tho administration of relief in Pennsylvania should not be allow'Cd to obscure one importnnt fact that is on the credit side of tho lodger, which cannot be underestimated in importance.

That is the complote absence of politics

j~

tho administration of relief.

That this condition exists was borne out in many discussions with sCOres of porsons throughout tho Stato. tinue.

It is to be hopod that this

co~dition

It is important to every person vnthin the Commonwoalth.

will con-

APPENDIX

RELIEF IN

~NNSYLV ANIA

.AlifD

TEN OTHER STATES

With Supplement on RELIEF

n:r

THREE SOUTHERN STATES

Propared by THE JOTIifT STATE GOVER11.1ENT COMIUSSION

of tho GENERAL ASSEMBLY

With the Assistance of TEE PElIJNSYLVANIA ECONOMY LEAGUE

RELIEF IN PENNSYLVANIA AND TEN OTHER 3TATES TABLE OF CONTF'..J·j'TS

PAGE INTRODUCTION AND SUMMPRY Comparison of Pennsylvania with Other states Other States Studied Treatment of Relief Statistics

1 2

lJ. 5

PART I RELIEF IN PENNSYLVANIA

8

Relief Expenditure in Pennsylvania Cases Receiving Relief in Pennsylvania Persons on Relief in Pennsylvania

9 11 13

PART II MONI'lU.Y COMPARISON OF CASES AND GRANTS ON THREE MAJ"OR RELIEF PROGRAMS IN PENNSYLVANIA AND TEN OTHER SI'ATES All Types of Relief Cases per Thousand Population General Assistance Federal Work Programs Per Cent of Cases on Federal Work Programs Special Categories General Assistanoe Grants Federal Work Program Earnings Spec ial Ca tegory Grant s

~

16 19 22

2lJ.

25

26 27 27

PART III COMPARISON OF ANNUAL STATE AND LOCAL EXPEi'IDITURES FOR RELIEF IN PENNSYLVANIA AND TEN OTHER STATES state and Local Expenditures for All Forms of Relief State and Local Expenditures for Direct Relief Per Cent of State and Local Expenditures for Direct Relief from state Funds Expenditure tor Direct Relief from State, Local and Federal Funds Per Cdnt of Expenditure from State, Local and Ftideral Funds Made from State and Local Funds

29 29

30 32 33

3lJ.

PART IV RELIEF EXPENDITURES IN REIATION TO TAX COLLECTIONS

Per Cent of State and Local Taxes Used for Diract Relief, Special Categories and W.P.A. Sponsorship p;;r CSIl;t of state anq. Local Taxes Used for Direct Relief

36 36 38

LIST OF CHARTS CHART 1 2

3

4 5

6 7 8

9

10 11

12 13

14 15 l~

17 18

TITLE

FOLLO':rING PAGE

Pennsylvania .. Relief in Dollars to Recipients by Categories " Average Number of Cases on Relief by Categories " Average Number of Persons on Relief by Categories All Types of Relief - Cases per Thousand Population General Assistance - Cases per Thousand Population Federal Work Programs .. Cases per Thousand Population P~r Cent of Cases on Federal Works Program Special Types of Relief - Cases per Thousand Population General Assistance Grant per Case Federal Work Programs Earnings per Case Special Types of Relief Grant per Case State and Local Expenditures Per Capita far All Forms of Relief Per Capita State and Local Expenditures for Direct Relief Per Cent of State and Local Expenditure for Direct Relief from State Funds Per Capita Expenditure for Direct Relief from State, Local and Federal Funds Per Cent of Expenditure for Direct Relief from State, Local and Federal Funds Made from State and Local Funds Per Cent of State and Local Taxes Used for Direct Relief, Special Categories and W.P.A. Per Cent of State and Local Taxes Used for Diract Relief LIST OF TABLES IN APPENDIX I

TABLE TITLE I Pennsylvania Relief in Dollars to Recipients by Categories II " Average Number of Cases on Relief by Categories III " " Ii 1; PerSons on Relief by Categories IV All Types of Relief Cases .. Per Thousand Population V General Assi stance Cases - Per Thousand Population VI Federal Work Programs - Cases Per Thousand Population VII " II " Cases As a Per Cent of Total Cases Receiving Relief by States VIII Special Categories .. Cases per Thousand Population IX General Assistance - Grant per Case X Federal Works Programs .. Earnings per Case XI Special Categories - Grant per Case XII . Illinois- Relief to Recipients XIII Indiana "" " XIV Maryland "" " II Ir XV Massachusetts" XVI Michigan "" XVII New Jersey "" XVIII New York "" II II XIX Ohio XX Pennsylvania " II XXI West Virginia " " . XXII Wisconsin "" XXIII Illinois .. Cases Receiving Relief

9 11

13 16

19 22

24 25

26 27

27 29 30

32 33 34

36 38

TABLE XXIV XX!{

XXVI XXVII XXVIII XXIX XXX

XXXI XXXII XlCXIII XXXIV XXXV

x:D::lI XXXVII

TITLE

Indiana - Cases Receiving Relief Maryland " if " Massachusetts " " II Michigan I' " It Naw Jersey" If " N~w York " 1', 1/ Ohio "" II Pennsylvania" " " " " West Virginia " Wisconsin " " II State and Local Expenditures Per Capita for All Forms of Relief State and Local Expenditures for Direct Relief State, Local and Federal Expenditures for Direct Relief Relief Expenditures in Relation to Estimated Tax Collection

APPENDIX II - Sources of Data

SUPPLEMENT RELIEF

I~

THREE SOU'IHERN srATES

COlVil?ARED ';',TITH PENNSYLVANIA

Tft..BLE OF CONTENTS Page All Types of Relief - Cases per Thousand Population

40

General Assistance - Cases Per Thousand Population

41

Federal

~ork

Programs

.... ....

.., .

Per Cent of Cases on Federal Work Programs

42

...

43

Special Categories - Cases per Thousand Population

43

General Assistance Grants

44

Federal Work Program Earnings

..

45

..

Special Category Grants

46

sununary Relief Cases per Thousand PopUlation, December 1939

...

Tables

XXXVIII Alabama - Cases Receiving Relief XXXIX XL

North Carolina - Cases Receiving Relief Texas - Cases Receiving Relief

XLI Alabama - Relief in Dollars to Recipients XLII XLIII

45

NOrth Carolina - Relief in Dollars to Recipients Texas - Relief in Dollars to Recipients

47

RELIEF IN PENNSYLVANIA AND TEN OTHER STATES

nJTRODUCTION MID SUMMARY

Relief (in all its forms) is the largest single item of governmental expenditure in Pennsylvania.

Few people realize its full magnitude.

Looking at

the expenditures of one relief agency it is easy to lose sight of the expenditures being made simultaneously by other agencies.

The following brief tabulation will

perhaps convey some idea of the gross size of relief costs:

~

~

$ 34,335,000

$ 85,309,000

5,746,000

7,842,000

Federal FundsL! 131,998,000 Si?onsor's Share of Fed. Work Programs jg 5,643,000

State Funds County Funds

TOTAL

$177.722,000

~

.ill2.

$109,654 ,000

$130,330,000

-0-

-0:-

205,371,000

208,312,000

157,056,000

12,204,000

32,809,000

$310,726,000

$350,775,000

D.. $317,386,000 .D. 30,000,000

Includes only Federal share of special categories and earnings of relief employes on Federal Work programs -- does not include other costs such as administration, non-relief labor and materials and supplies on work projects. There may be some slight duplication in this figure because some projects are sponsored by the state and their share is included under state funds but the main bulk of sponsor's share is provided by units of local government. 1939 sponsor's share not available. Judging from new W.P.A. regulations reqUiring sponsors to provide E5% of project cost, this item would probably approximate $30,000,000.

In other words relief in Pennsylvania has cost more than $25,000,000 a month in each of the last two years.

In 1938 relief expenditures of $350,775,000

amount to $34.53 per capita and to $41.26 for each of the 8.500,000 residents of Pennsylvania not receiving relief.

This means that for each family of four persons

not on relief approximately $165.00 had to be given up for the support of the unemployed and unemployable. Relief expenditures in 1938 in Pennsylvania amounted to 5.95% of the total income of residents of Pennsylvania in 1937, the latest year for which income figures are available. Looking only at the state's share of the total relief expenditures, the picture is equally dark.

In 1939 the state paid out over $10,000,000 a month for

relief and in the early months of 1940 has paid out only slightly less.

If present

indications materialize, relief will cost the state of Pennsylvania over $240,000,000 in the current fiscal biennium (June 1939 - May 1941), or approximately sixty-five percent of the receipts of the general fund anticipated in the budget for this period. Comparison of Pennsylvania With Other States This study of relief in Pennsylvania and in ten other states was undertaken in order to determine whether the relief problem in Pennsylvania differs materially from that in other states and, if so, whether such differences give any clue as to how the staggering burden of relief in Pennsylvania can be reduced. In relation to its population, Pennsylvania is not out of line with the other states in the over-all number of cases receiving relief, never ranking higher than third nor lower than seventh.

Since the spring of 1938, Pennsylvania has had

relatively more general assistance cases than any of the other ten states and its general assistance case load grew throughout 1938 and the first nine months of

. 1939, while the general trend among the other states was slightly downward.

Through-

out 1936 and 1937 Pennsylvania was high in relation to population in number of W.P.A.

- 2 -

cases, but in the early months of 1938 fell behind most of the other states.

Since

the middle of 1938 Pennsylvania has had a relatively low number of W.P.A. cases accounting in part for the relatively high number of general assistance cases.

The

other factor accounting for the high number of general assistance cases, while the over-all case load is relatively not high, is that Pennsylvania had a relatively low number of cases receiving special types of assistance under the special categories, namely, old age assistance, aid to dependent children, and aid to the blind. Grants per case on general assistance and the special categories and earnings of persons employed on Federal work programs are all relatively high in Pennsylvania, but not excessively so, being generally less than in Massachusetts and New York and only slightly more than in most of the other comparable states. Pennsylvania varies between second and third place among the states compared in per-capita expenditures for direct relief and in per-capita state and local expenditures for all forms of relief.

In percent of state and local taxes used

for direct relief and for all forms of relief Pennsylvania holds a still higher rank, reaching first place in both 1936 and 1938 (the last year for which complete figure s are a VB 11abIe •.) Pennsylvania is the only one of the states studied in which the

~tate,

as contrasted to local government, has assumed the whole burden of both direct relief and the special categories.

There appears, however, to be little or no cor-

relation between per-capita costs and the degree of state participation in the cost in the other states. The sponsorship of Federal work projects is an important part of the total relief expenditures of state and local governments, ranging in 1938 from 21% to

50% of the total. In West Virginia it is such an important factor that the

state and local governments pay in sponsor's share of W.P.A. projects more per case employed than they pay per case in general assistance grants. Viewed solely as a relief program and without any consideration of

- 3-

~he

values produced W.P.A. provides an extremely expensive form of relief, in the cost of which the state and local governments participate substantially.

Pennsylvania

provided $32,809,000 as sponsors share of W.P.A.projects in 1938 and the Federal government paid $180,238,000 to project employes.

These two items together amount-

ed to $72.50 per month for the average of 244,894 W.P.A. employes as compared with an average general assistance grant of less than $30.00 per case per month.

Had

the same number of cases been carried on general assistance at $30.00 a month per case, it would have cost $88,162,000, or $124,885,000 less than it did to support them on W.P.A.

With this great disparity in cost, it might be well to reconsider

the efficacy of W.P.A. as a relief program and to consider other possible forms of Federal participation in relief. Other states Studied The ten states used for comparison with Pennsylvania were selected for one of two reasons; first, that they were in some degree similar to Pennsylvania in industrial development or secondly, that they were physically contiguous to Pennsylvania.

The states used are: Illinois

Massachusetts

Ohio

Indiana

Michigan

West Virginia

Maryland

New Jersey

Wisconsin

New York Five of these states border on Pennsylvania and only one state, Delaware, which borders on Pennsylvania is omitted.

Of the remaining five states, three,

Illinois, Massachusetts and Michigan, are highly industrializedj while two, Indiana and Wisconsin are not so highly industrialized but are included here largely because they were included in a recent study of state tax systems made for the Joint State Government Commission. This group of ten states, however, includes eight of the first twelve states in order of population (excluding Pennsylvania).

- 4-

Among the first twelve,

the four states excluded are California, Texas, Missouri and North Carolina.

These

four states are not as nearly comparable to Pennsylvania as those used here both be,cause of physical remoteness and because of the different nature of their economic resources which cause them to compete less with Pennsylvania than the states used.

The two states included in this study, which are not among the first twelve

in population, Maryland and West Virginia, are contiguous to Pennsylvania and Maryland is fairly comparable in percent of urban population." Six of the ten states used had as great or greater percentage of urban population than Pennsylvania as shown in the following tabulation: STATE

%URBAN ( 1930

Census)

%URBAN( 1930 Census)

STATE

Massachusetts

90.2

Pennsylvania

67.8

New York

83.6

Maryland

59.8

New :rersey

82.6

Indiana

55.5

Illinois

73.9

Wisconsin

52·9

Michigan

68.2

West Virginia

28.4

Ohio

67.8

Treatment of Relief Statistics In the past there has been considerable loose thinking and loose talk

about relief in one state as compared with another, frequently based on arbitrary spot comparisons of isolated factors.

Here for the first time an attempt is made

to make interstate comparisons over a longer period of time and with all three major factors in the relief setup~ considered together as well as separately. Various state and federal agencies treat different relief factors differently in their statistics.

For instance, in its charts and tables the Social Se-

curity Board includes in the following order: 1. Special types of public assistance (OAA, ADO ~

& AB)

The three major factors in relief are: General Assistance, Federal Work programs (C.W.A. and W.P.A.), and special categories (Old Age Assistance, Aid to Dependent Children and aid to the blind).

- 5 -

2.

General Relief.

3. Relief under Special Programs of F. E. R. A. ~.

Subsistence payments certified by the Farm Security Administration.

5.

Civilian Conservation Corps.

6. National Youth Administration - Student Aid.

7.

National Youth Administration - Work Projects.

8.

Work Projects Administration - Projects operated by W. P. A.

9. Work Projects Administration - Projects operated by other Federal agencies. 10.

Other Federal Work and Construction Projects.

11.

Civil Works Administration.

The Pennsylvania Department of PubliC Assistance drops out of its figures some of the items included by the Social Security Board.

Items 3, ~, 6 and 10

are dropped by D.P.A. since eligibility for aid under them is not determined on the basis of need in the

sam~

assistance) is determined.

sense that eligibility for general relief (general

Items 8 and 9 are combined by

D.P~A.

but under the

combined headings D.P.A. includes only wages paid to persons certified as in need of relief, whereas the Social Security Board includes non-relief wages.

Under

item 11 D.P.A. includes only one-third of the amount reported by the Social Security Board since sample studies indicated that only one-third of the Civil Works employes wera taken from relief rolls. In making interstate comparisons in this study, in addition to the items omitted by D.P.A., Civilian Conservation Corps and National Youth Administration expenditures and case aided have been omitted, except in charts 1, 2, and 3, because of the difficUlty of getting comparable figures by states.

This report, therefore,

deals with only the three primary factors in relief - General Assistance (inclUding local and F.E.R.A. work programs), Federal Work Programs (C.W,A. and W.P.A.), and

- 6 -

Special Categories (O.A.A., A.D.C. and A.B.)JL~ The omission from this study of certain kinds of relief and of some non-relief programs closely related to relief does not materially affect the relief picture since the omissions are relatively small in amount.

~

For a detailed statement of sources of data used, see Appendix II.

- 7-

PART I. RELIEF IN PEr\TNSYLVANIA In the first three charts the history of relief in Pennsylvania is

presented from the beginning of 1933

tl~ough

1939.

Relief expenditures in Pennsylvania rose from six and one-half million dollars per month in the first quarter of 1933 to almost twenty-seven million in the last quarter of 1938, the latter expenditure being more than four times the farmer.

During this same period the number of cases rose from 395,746 to 615,704,

an increase of only

55%.

Both increases were more or less gradual and continuous.

Persons relieved, on the other hand, rose only 44,403 - from 1,814,700 to 1,859,103 and the rise was neither gradual nor continuous; the total mounted to 2,017,683 in the second quarter of 1933, declined to a low of 1,241,118 in the third quarter of

1937 and finally advanced rapidly to 1,888,084 in the first quarter of 1939. The rapid rise in expenditures in relation to cases and persons in Pennsylvania can be attributed only partially to the increased general assistance grants. To a much greater extent the risa is due to the advent of W.P.A. which paid more than twice as much per case as general assistance even after general assistance grants had been increased.

A third factor in the rising costs in relation to per-

sons has been the inauguration and continuous expansion of old age assistance and blind pensions where the grant for single person cases is only slightly less than the average grant for general assistance cases which average 2.92 persons per case. The fourth factor in the increase of relief payments in relation to cases has been the steady reduction in the size of cases.

At the beginning of the relief

program in Pennsylvania there was a considerable doubling up of families and a proportionate increase in the number of younger members who, finding no work, stayed at home.

As the result of these tendencies the average size of case was 4.6 persons

in the first quarter of 1933.

As the relief grant was increased to include rent and

- 8 -

other items in addition to food, the tendency toward unnatural doubling up of families was reversed; also older members appeared as single persons on old age assistance, so that the average size of case has steadily shrunk until it reached

3.29 persons in the last quarter of 1939 (including both general assistance and W.P.A. cases).

This trend toward smaller cases causes an increase in relief pay-

ments because it costs more per person to support single persons or groups of two or three than it does to support larger groups living in one household. Similar influences

wer~

at work in the other states so that in a rough

way the composite picture of relief in Pennsylvania presented in these three charts would serve as a picture of the trends and of the relative importance of the various kinds of relief in most of the other states. RELIEF EXPENDITURES IN PENNSYLVANIA (Chart 1 - Table I)

Relief expenditures in Pennsylvania as shown in this chart divide themselves readily into five periods: the first includes 1933, 193~ and the first three quarters of 1935 and covers what might be called the "emergency relief period"; the second includes the last quarter of 1935 and

th~

first two quarters of 1936 which

is a transitional period marked by the introduction and rapid expansion of W.P.A.; the third includes the third quarter of 1936 thrQugh the fourth quarter of 1937 and might be called the "recovery period"; the fourth, whiGh might be called the "recession period" coincides with the yeal" 1938; and the fifth or "post-recession recovery period"

coincides with the year 1939.

Starting at approximately $6,500,000 a month in the first quarter of

1933 relief in dollars to reCip1ent~ in Pennsylvania rose to almost $1'9,000,000 a month in the first quarter of 1935 when the work program of the State Emergency Board was at its height.

As the work program was curtailed in the second and third

'" quarters of 1935, general assistance continued to rise, reaching its all time high

I.!:..

/' Excludes cost ot administration, spec1.:!l programs, non..rel1ef labor and materials •

.,. 9 ...

._-,~~,-.,.., • .,.,..·_,--'I''-'~,:""":.~., ..• ;~,~, ..,..,-.~,,,.,....,r'-'_'' .. "rr-~'--"'~·"-"""'···--'-~--·-"'-"-""-''''·''''''''''·-~·''r

..... _:,_,,:l-·_''--'''''''''_"- '_""''''''''.""""OC'''.~J'''''''-~~~''---'-'-'=''''·,,-,,~,_,,~~,,,,~,~--,-,--,-,,-,,,,,,"~~

h.

..,....,.

PENNSYLVANIA RELIEF IN DOLLARS TO RECIPjlENTS BY CATEGORIES lMONTHLY

AVERAGE

MILLIONS

30

I

I

I

I

I

~

~

25

I~ I. I;88j

I

I

I6ClC4 ~

~

15 1 I

I

I

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i

j

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i

~

FEDERAL WORKS PROGRAM

m

II

.I

SPECIAL CATEGORIES

~ I I I ccc 20 ~

I



NYA

&

LOCAL WORK PROGRAM GENERAL ASSISTANCE

I

I

I

.~:.I~'"

5

o 1933

1934

SOURCE OF DATA: FROM FIGURES SUPPLIED BY DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE BUREAU OF RESEARCH & STATISTICS

1935

1936

1937

-1-

1938

I

1939 PREPARED FOR THE JOINT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION BY THE PENNSYLVANIA ECONOMY LEAGUE AND THE STATE PLANNING BOARD

of $13,752,000 a month in the third quarter of 1935.

At the same time, however,

the overall relief payments had been reduced $1,500,000

8

month and stood at

$17,506,000 a month in the third quarter of 1935. The fourth quarter of 1935

mar~s

the entrance of W.P.A. into the relief

scene, pushing the total relief payments over $18,000,000 a month but at the same time reducing

gen~ral

assistance by $2,800,000.

In the first and second quarters

of 1936 W.P.A. expanded rapidly, reducing general assistance by $5,500,000 a month but pushing up the overall relief payments by $5,000,000 and absorbing a $500,000 shrinkage in C.C.C. and N.Y.A. Starting with the third quarter of 1936 and continuing through 1937, there was a constant reduction in overall relief payments which dropped from

$23,093,000 a month in the fourth quarter of 1937.

se~ond

quarter of 1936 to $18,680,000

8

month in the

General assistance, however, reached its low point of

$4,206,000 a month in the fourth quarter of 1936 and then ran through 1937, varying between $4,677,000 and $4,996,000 a mont1.

W.P.A. dropped from $14,705,000 in the

second quarter of 1936 to $9,457,000 a month in the fourth quarter of 1937.

C.C.C.

and N.Y.A. payments were also reduced in this period by some $300,000, leaVing the special oategories as the only relief programs which were not curtailed in this eighteen months period.

Special categories moved against the general trend and

more than doubled from the second quarter of 1936 at $1,380,000 a month to

$2,987,000 in the fourth quarter of

1937~

Overall relief payments rose rapidly throughout 1938.

General assistance

moved up to $6,306,000 a month in the first quarter of 1938 and held approximately this level throughout the rest of 1938, ending at $6,582,000

B

month.

At least a

part of this increase is accounted for by the taking over of 11,000 outdoor relief cases of the poor boards by the Department of Public Assistance under legislation for this purpose effective January 1, 1938.

W.P.A. expanded greatly during 1938

with relief wages rising from $10,339,000 a month in the first quarter to $16,228,000

- 10 -

in the fourth quarter.

C.C.C. and N.Y.A. increased their

versely the special categories, which increased in were receding, were slightly reduced in

slightly.

Per-

1937 when all other programs

1938 from $2.999,000 a month in the first

$2,841,000 in the last quarter.

quarter to

pa~llents

The overall relief payments reached

their all time high in the fourth quarter of

1938 at $26,976.000 a month and both

the second and third quarters produced monthly averages higher than in any quarter which preceded them. In

1939 the decrease in overall relief payments was just as precipitate

as the increase in

$18.661+,000

8

1938 and in the last quarter overall relief payments averaged

month - almost exactly the same figure as the low point in the second

and third quarters of gram in

1935.

1937 and the lowest since the inauguration of the W.P.A. pro-

In spite of the sharp decrease in overall payments, general assis-

tance payments were higher in each quarter of

1939 than in any quarter of 1936,

1937 or 1938. CASES RECEIVING RELIEF IN PENNSYLVANIA (Chart 2 - Table II) The overall relief case load shows no such advance as the overall relief expenditures.

After reaching an early peak of

465.000 in the second quarter of

1933. the overall case load fell below 400,000 where it stayed until the fourth quarter of

1934, when it turned sharply upward, reaching 515,000 in the second

quarter of

1935.

reached

In the first quarter of

1936, after a slight drop, the case load

519,000 but it will be noted that relief payments per month rose from

$18,350,000 for 515.000 cases

in the second quarter of

519,000 cases in the first quarter of 1936. only Chart

1935 to $22,266,000 for

In the second quarter of

1936. with

492,000 cases, overall relief payments reached their pre-recession peak.

(See

1.) The over-all case load declined steadily from the first quarter of 1936

through the third quarter of fourth quarter of

1937 and then turned very slightly upward in the

1937. when there were 443,000 cases receiving some form of relief • .. 11 -

PENNSYLVAN IA AVERAGE NUMBER OF CASES ON RELIEF BY CATEGORIES THOUSANDS

'

..

-r-,--.,-.,...,-,..--.. .,-.,...,-.-,--.,-.,...,-r-,-"'1,-"""-..-,-"'1,-"""-..-,-"'1,-..,..,-..-,----"..--.. .,-..-,----"..--.. .,-.,...,-.-,--.,-.,...,-.,

700 .-,..-,-.-,--..,-..-,

600 1 I

I

[>QS«1

500 I I

I

ll'XXJI

400 I

IbVA/)~\

I

....

I

I

~F.iJ

200

100 1 1'S'CAI4'S'1<;'S%4%'/,jej'S'SIZ%4'StJ0%'S'Sf,'S'S{.'S'/t:'S'S4-0'C4'S,/'g'/1041'Ss,IJ4'/<'}74'J'S0'1'/4'140144 '1,/014s,-VA '1

o

I

Y((V((~(((Y{I(Y((r((!(((1["(/,!,{(:((
1933

1934

SOURCE Of DATA: fROM fiGURES SUPPLIED BY DEPARTMENT Of PUBLIC ASSISTANCE BUREAU Of RESEARCH & STATISTICS

1935

1936

1937

-2-

1938

I

I

I

I 1

I'

,

,

"

1939 PREPARED fOR THE JOINT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION BY THE PENNSYLVANIA ECONOMY LEAGUE AND THE STATE PLANNING BOARD

It should be noted that the advent of W.P.A. in the fourth quarter of 1935 caused no such upsurge in cases as it did in relief payments.

It should

also be noted that W.P.A. does not carry nearly as large a proportion of the case load as it does of relief payments, because the average earnings of project employes is more than tWice the average general assistance grant.

Special Categories

on the other hand comprise a much larger proportion of the case load than of payments or persons because of the large nUmber of single person cases

receiving

old age assistance and blind pensions. Like the over-all relief payments, the over-all number of cases increased rapidly during 1938.

Unlike the relief payments, however, cases did not reach

their all time high until the first quarter of 1939 when an average of 629,000 cases received relief.

Also, unlike relief payments, the number of cases relieved-

while it did decline - not only did not decline to the lowest point since 1935 but rather was higher in the last quarter of 1939 (493,000 cases) quarter of 1937 and the last three quarters of 1936.

th8~

in any

In the la st quarter of 1939

there were approximately one thousand more cases receiving relief than there were in the second quarter of 1936 when rolief payments reached their pre-recession high of $23,093,000 a month, despite the fact that relief payments in 1939 had fallen to $18,664,000 a month.

This peculiar circumstance - that approximately

the same number of cases should receive almost $4,500,000, or 19%,less in the last quarter of 1939 than in the second quarter of 1936 • is explained by the different internal composition of the case load which in percentages was: 2nd Quarter 1926

4th Quarter 1939

Change

General Assistance

36.0

45.8

t 9.8

W. P. A.

49,0

26.5

- 22.5

3.8

3,0

.8

11.2

24·7

of. 1~.5

100.0

100,0

.0

C.C.C. & N.Y.A. Special Categories

.. 12 ...

In other words, W.P.A., C.C.C. andN.Y.A., each of which pays a high amount per case, were sharply reduced, almost one fourth of the total case load having been moved from these programs to general assistance and special where the grant per case is

approximatel~

cat~gories

one-half to one-third as much.

General assistance cases were high in relation to general assistance relief payments in the early period since relief grants were small and almost the whole case load was on general assistance.

After the third quarter of 1935,

general assistance cases follow approximateiy the same curve as general assistance relief paymentS.

Cases receiving general assistance drop sharply in 1936, reflect-

ing the expansion of W.P.A., and reaching the lowest point in the seven year period covered, at 137,603 cases, in the fourth quarter of 1936.

Throughout 1937 general

assistance cases remained fairly constantj ranging from 1~7,000 to 158~OOO and standing ~t 151;821 in the fourth quarter,

In the fi~st quarter of 1938 general

assistance cases advanced sharply both beCause of the increased need due to the recession and because of the taking over by the local poor boards.

Of

some 11,000 cases previously

~ared

for

During the rest of 1938 general assistance cases grew

gra dua lly to 212,000. With the curtailment of W.P.A., which dropped from 269,000 cases in the fourth quarter Of 1938 to 130,000 in the fourth quarter of 1939, general assistance cases turned sharply upward in the first quarter of 1939 and then dropped slightly in the second quarter.

In the third quarter of 1939 general assistance cases

reached the highest point sinoe 1935 at 265,535 cases. to catch up with the W.P.A. lay-offs in

~he

Busi~ess

recovery began

fourth quarter of 1939 and general

assistance was able to drop an average of 40,000 caSes in the fourth quarter to stand at 225.889 cases which is still higher than in any quarter of 1936, 1937 or

1938. PERSONS ON RELIEF IN PENNSYLVANIA The average number of

(Chart 3 - Table III)

pe~sons

supported by some form of public relief

- 13 -

PENNSYLVANIA AVERAGE NUMBER OF PERSONS ON RELIEF BY CATEGORIES

THOUSANDS

22001

I

I

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iii

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i

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I

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i

I

~ ~~~i~6-RIEs 20001

I

Ai:

1800 1 ~/I"

F9Q
FEDERAL OGRAM WORKS PR

MiN

1400~ 1200 1000 800 600 4001

&0SuSSu0SuS/ASSS~SS~S~SSS~S/ASSSuS/ASSS~SSuS/J0S~SSuSSuSSuSSuSSbSS~0SuSSbSSUSS&SSbSSI

2001

~SSGSSuSSuSSuSSuSSuSSuSSuSSuSSuSSuSSbSSuS4u44GSSuSSuSStSSGSSGSStSStSSGSStSStSSGSS4

I

I

I

I I

rc
,

,

I

!,

0'



........

1933

I

.........

I

1934

SOURCE OF DATA: FROM FIGURES SUPPLIED BY DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE BUREAU OF RESEARCH II. STATISTICS

....

_

1935

~,.

__

~r

.

........

1937

1936

-3-

F .........

1938

i

..........

I

1939 PREPARED FOR THE JOINT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION BY THE PENNSYLVANIA ECONOMY LEAGUE AND THE STATE PLANNING BOARD

reached 1ts all time high in the second quarter of 1933 when 2,017,683 persons were relieved or approximately 2010 of the population.

Like cases, the persons

relieved fell off in the last two quarters of 1933 and then stayed fairly constant until the Ja.st quarter of 1934 when they began a sharp increase, which reached its peak at 1,797,000 persons .in the first quarter of 1935.

From the first quarter

of 1935 through the third quarter of 1937 there was a constant decrease in the persons relieved - interrupted only momentarily by slight seasonal increases in the first quarters of 1936 and 1937 - which carried the number of persons relieved down to 1,2~1.000. Fram this low point persons relieved climbed rapidly reaching a high of 1,888,000 in the first quarter of 1939 and then falling off with equal rapidity to 1,380,000 in the fourth quarter of 1939. Both W.P.A. and general assistance bulk relatively larger in persons relieved than in cases because they carry roughly 3-5 and 3.0 persons per case, respectively, whereas special categories and C.C.C. include for the most part single person cases. The curve of persons receiving general assistance follows rather closely the pattern of cases receiving general assistance except that the early part of the persons curve is relatively higher because of the large size of cases (~.6 persons per case) during the early part of the program, which size has gradually diminished throughout the

wh~e

period covered here.

As was pointed out earlier the decreasing size of case, the advent of WJP.A. with its larger grant per case, the expansion of the special categories, particularly old age assistance and blind pensions with single person cases, and the increase in assistance grants per case to include rent allowances and to meet increasing food prices have all played a part in creating the anomalous situation in which the number of persons supported by public relief programs in the last quarter of 1939 (1,380,000 parsons) is only 68.4% of the number supported at the peak in the second quarter of 1933 (2,017,000 persons) while the monthly relief

- IJt. -

payments in the last quarter of 1939 ($18.66~.000) are 2.3~ t~es as much as in the second quarter of 1933 ($7.971,000).

In other words relief payments per person have

grown from $3.95 a month in 1933 to $13.52, or 3.~2 times the 1933 figure.

- 15 -

PART II

MONTHLY COMPARISON OF CASES AND GRANTS ON THREE MAJOR RELIEF PROGRAMS IN PENNSYLVANIA Ali'D TEN OTHER STATES

CASES PER THOUSAND POPULATION In order to facilitate comparison of case loads in- states of different

size, case figures have been reduced to the number of cases for each one thousand Inhabitants.

Both the cases per thousand population (Tables IV to VIII) and the

aC.tual case load for each state (Tables XXIII to :X:XX:III) by relief programs are presented

1n,Appendi~

I and a statement of the sources of data used in the tables

appears in Appendix II... The tables cover the period from July, 1933 through December, 1939, but in order to make the cherts readable, it was necessary to present only the 1936-1939 deta in the charts. On the basis

of

the combined case load of general assistance, federal "

: I

work programs and special oategories (cbi3ri It), Pennsylvania hes, since January,

1936 j maintained ail al1Jl.ost mEldian posit1bn among the states - never ranking higher than third nor iowe~ than se~enth.

The relief load in Pennsylvania has, however,

been differently disttlbuted among the major

re~ief

programs than in most of the

other st~tes "" pa:rticularly dliritig the last half' of 1938 and all of 1939.

thi~ eighteen month peribd pennsylvania

has

In

b~eb relatively high in ca~es per

thousand population receiving geriere! essista.~be and re1e.tively low in cases per

thous~b.d population o~

the

othet two majo~ prog~amsj federal work programs and

special categories. ALl 1'YPES ,OF RELiEl!'

(Chart It .i.

Tabls

Iv1

Perhaps the most surpris1ng~ if not th~ ~osi tmportant, finding of this study is the high degree of cohfO~itV Of the genersl trends in the over-all case load in Pennsylvania With most

ot

the other states. , .

oi

16 -

This general pattern to which

ALL TYPES OF RELI EF CASES PER THOUSAND POPULATION .........

80 .....

.w. f--

\\ -- , ..

/

70 /

f

,'l

N.V

1>o'ffi5 '.

"\

60

£: "

~

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\

,.-/

~"

/

-1/ ~ -.

1><:

~-

\

~1\

\

W VA\\

~ .... '

"

,/,t.. . r":: ~ 1'\t7 ~ '"'.

MICH.

~

.... >

- --

\

"

,/

--

"

\

/

~

I"--

~,

"

... ....

'"

-

"

I'

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;L.. ~

!/ / ~, .-

~

--

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...........

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A

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r--. -

'"

,.-/

V ......

fiJ

v IV ~'

....... 1/

~-

i,><

-.

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---V

r--- r--.

m/

/

V

,.-/

-

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V

193 6

'--

0.1' .L' \.

~~ rJIIl ~

7 -

--,-

~

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....

:':;:, r-

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.

1937

SOURCE OF DATAl FROM FIGURES SUPPLIED BY DIVISION OF STATISTICS-WPA DIVISION OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE RESEARCHSOCIAL SECURITY BOARD

1\ LL

\ V I". ~ ~ ~ .',\ ~ ~ .,(.IS \

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....-~.......

V~;....--

---::::::---........

~

1938

I

1939

PREPARED FOR THE JOINT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION BY THE PENNSYLVANIA ECONOMY LEAGUE AND THE STATE PLANNING BOARD

-4-

'"

\~ V ~ "1'"

\1/

....- . . . . ....-~~~~~

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30

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. e-1-\I~ p.- ....... .~..., .... if.. ...•... V' t::; - ' i:? \ ..... /

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20

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.

Pennsylvania conforms so closely during the years 1936 to 1939 breaks itself roughly into four periods. The first };ariod covers 1936 and the first t en months of 1937, during which the number at cases receiving relief decreased in every state except Illinois. The number of cases per thousand popUlation in Pennsylvania fell from 55.76 to 43.20 or almost one-fourth.

In rank Pennsylvania fell from third place 1.16 cases ahead

of Massachusetts to fourth place, .18 cases behind New York. started to follow the general pattern but in the months from

In this period Illinois ~uly,

1936 through

March, 1937 it moved up rapidly from sixth place to first place and then proceeded to follow the general pattern not only for the rest of this period but throughout

1938 and 1939 as well. Wisconsin had an upward surge in

over~ll

cases which

carried it from sixth plBce in August, 1936 to first place in November, but by December, 1936 it was back to fifth place. The second period extends from November, 1937 through March, 1939 and covers the "recession" increase in relief.

During the early months of this period

relief cases increased very rapidly in almost every state.

Pennsylvahia, New York

and Maryland, although showing increases, did not increase at as rapid a rate as most of the other states, so that New York, which had been in first and second place in the preceding period. was in eighth plaae by J"anuary~ 1938, and Pennsylvania, which had been in third and fourth place fell to seventh place by Marc):!., 1938. Pennsylvania and New York ended this period in seventh and eighth place, respectively, in March, 1939. Pennsylvania,. however, was separated f'rom third place by less than 2.5 cases per thousand popUlation, having 63,42 cases per thousand, while Indiana had only 65.87 to gain third place in March, 1939. Michigan had a heavy increase in cases in the early part of this period, rising from tenth place in November, 1939 to first place by February and reaChing a peak in July, 1938 with

79.51 cases per thousand, which was almost two and a half' times the November number.

193~

Ohio also showed a disproportionate increase in this period, but Ohio

stayed high throughout the remainder of this and subsequent periods while Michigan, after reaching its peak in July 1938, fell back into a close group with Indiana, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin.

In both Ohio and Michigan the dispro-

portionate rise in relief was apparently caused by reduced employment in the automobile, parts and accessories industries, which are located there. Six of the eleven states, including Pennsylvania, reached their all time

hig~ in case load in March 1939.

In only one state, New York, was the March

1939 case load less than the high point in 1936. Three other states, Michigan, New Jersey and Ohio, reached their highest case load in this period but prior to March 1939. In the third period, from April through September 1939, the case load declined in every state at a very rapid rate.

over~all

There was very little

change in the rank of the states in this period except for Pennsylvania, which in the last two months of the period had a slight rise in cases per thousand population, while all the other states continued to drop except Wisconsin, which had a slight rise in the last month of the period.

Pennsylvania ended this period in second

place instead of seventh where it started, but was only a fraction of a case ahead of Ohio and Indiana. In the fourth period, comprising only the last three months of 1939, there was a general upward movement of cases per thousand population in all states, except Pennsylvania which experienced a sharp drop, thus returning it to seventh place among the states.

This contra-seasonal drop in Pennsylvania was occasioned

--------------------------------------~------------------------------------------

~ In some states the case load in the early months of 193~ was higher because of

large C.W.A. employment but, as was pointed out in the introduction, sample studies indicate that only one-third to one-half of C.W.A. employees were taken from relief rolls so that for practical purposes the full number of C.W.A. cases should not be included in the case load.

- 18

~

in part by the large pickup of employment in the heavy industries coincident with the current war in Europe and in part must be considered a delayed realization of the drop in relief cases experienced in other states in the last two months of the preceding

perio~.

Though not included in this study, the case load in Pennsylvania

is known to have increased in the early months of 1940 which further supports the contention that the contrary action of the Pennsylvania case loea fram August to December 1939 results from a slight difference of timing and that over a longer period the Pennsylvania case load will be found much more nearly in conformity with the general pattern. Attention should be called to the case load in Maryland, which, while it conforms to the general pattern insofar as trends are concerned, is one half as large in relation to population as is the Pennsylvania case load.

Explanations

for this striking difference, include the recent great industrial growth near Baltimore and a slightly different basic approach to relief problems.

HOwever,

any adequate explanation of the differences between one state and another in case load~

or for that matter any adequate justification of the striking similarity

between the states would involve a stUdy of the detailed history of the· social and economic environment of the inhabitants of each state at such proportions as to be practically impossible.

Explanations of differences between states in this study

have, therefore, been confined for the most part to the interaction of relief programs, known differences in eligibility requirements~ orsimiiar definite factors. GENERAL ASSISTANCE

-

(Chart 5 ... Table V)

The general assistance case load in relation to population which is shown

in Chart 5 is SUbject to two major influences: first, the extent of unemployment; and second, the eJl;tent to which other forms of reliet carried the load..

The

general downward trend of general assistance cases in all states dUring 1936 represents both an improvement in general employment, and a fairly constant employment on W.P.A. which oomme:Q.ced in August

1935

and oontinued to expand into March

GENERAL ASSISTANCE CASES PER THOUSAND POPULATION 40

35

.\

30

./ '\ ./ \ '

I 1 1'1.)

25

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1'\

iPA

!

'\1

IJ

\

V

...... +-

r\jj

IJ

IJI\ \

1\

20

10

\

"-

\

.----

5 '\

-

-

~-

l.-~

,-. v

~/

-"

,

\- 1-

-~-

' !==C

_.f--. >-

/'

- -- -',

\ \ l--

-~ ~- '

WVA

--r-.

.-

.-1--

0

1936

I

T

193 7

SOURCE OF DATA: FROM FIGURES SUPPLIED BY DIVISION OF STATISTICS -W PA DIVISION OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE RESEARCHSOCIAL SECURITY BOARD

1938

I

1939

PREPARED FOR THE JOINT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION BY THE PENNSYLVANIA ECONOMY LEAGUE AND THE STATE PLANNING BOARD

5

.-

~

~

1936 and then, after a dropping off in April and May, held fairly constant throughout the rest of 1936.

The levelling off of general assistance cases from July

through October 1937 represents improving employment offset by a reduction in the W.P.A. case load through September 1937.

When the "recession" set in, unemploy-

ment started going up at a faster rate than W.P.A. expanded, so that general assistance cases increased sharply from November 1937 through March 1938.

By March

1938 W.P.A. had gained momentum and general assistance cases dropped in most states. except in Pennsylvania, until October 1938.

W.P.A. continued to increase its rolls

reaching a peak in different states from August to November with the majority in November 1938.

With the downward turn of W.P.A. in the fall of 1938 general

assistance cases rose until February or March 1939 and then started down again. The downward movement continued through July 1939 when general assistance cases started upward to an unseasonal peak in September which coincides with the low point in W.P.A. cases.

In the last three months of 1939. general assistance cases fell back

to about the July 1939 level as

W~P~A.

cases went up again to about their JUly

level. It is interesting to note that there was a very definite winter peak in general assistance cases occuring in every state in each of the three winters of

1936-37;

1937~38 and

1938""39, save only West Virginia. which showed a decided dip

in general assistance cases in the winter months of 1936-37. chart of

over~all

case loads (Chart

~)

Looking back at the

there is an indication of such a winter

peak in the winter of 1935-36, and the increases in the number of cases in the last two or three months of 1939 have set the stage for a similar peak in the winter of 1939~~0. On the chart of general assistance case loads these latter two peaks - those at 35-36 and 39-40 are obscured by the sudden upward movement of W.P.A. cases in both periods which absorbed a large number of general assistance cases. pennsylvania held rougbly to third place among the states in general

asSistance cases per thousand population) running behind New York and Illinois from january 1936 to ~rch 1938.

During this period general assistance eases in

Pennsylvania followed rather closely the general trend in the other states. "After March 1938, however, Pennsylvania departed from the general trend of the other states and moved rapidly into first place in general assistance cases per thousand population - a position which it had not rel!nqulshed through December

1939. In the six month period from April throuSh October" 1938, general assistance cases were reduced in every state except increased W.P.A. activity.

Penn~lvania,

largely as a result of

In Pennsylvania, however, general assistance cases

continued to increase ih this six month period. Most of the other states, starting fram October 1938, had a seasonal increase in general assistance cases, reaching its peak in February or March 1939 and then falUng off again to approximately the October 19381evel by june or july 19396

Pennsylvania experienced a similar seasonal increase in general assistance

cases which reached its peak in March 1939 but unlike the other fall back to 'the October 1938 level.

stat~s

it did not

After a slight drop in April; May and June,

general assistance cases in PennsYlianiei~re~sad~p1dlY" to a peak of 31:~35 cases per thousand popUlation in September 1939. than the 21.34

das~s psr

thousend in April

This peak was approximately 50% higher

1938, whenPennsyl1a~iats

general

assistande CaSEl Iblaa tifstdepe.~tad f±-bin the genet-a 1 ttendiri esther statesl numbet or the cases

bther ~tates ex~a~iehced

fram~uly

ari wisaa80Ml

±lise

A

in general essiatanoe

to Septembar 1939. as pointed out earlier, which resulted from

the very rapid reduction ot W.P.J:. cases in these months.

In the other states,

however I the unseas~nal peak in september 1939 1s SUbstantially below the Aprii 1938 level. In the last three months at 1939 the nUmber of general assistance cases . in Pennsylvania droppad rapidly and

a~

a much faster rate than in any other state

some few ot which even had slight increases,

This reduction in general assistance

"

C~l:ll:l,~.:.results in part 'trom the 'increased empioyment in 'Pennsylw:nla',s :naavy indus.~

'.,,'

, _

:,"~-

. .

·"./;:;,-':~ries

",

- :

_

~



...,

.

-.

10

• • . 'Ill

"

coinaident with the European war and in part trom increased W.P.A.employ-

ment in the 50 months.

In Pennsylvania W.P.A. employment returned to theJ'uly 1939

level while in no other state was this the ease (see Table V). While the high position 01' Pennsylvania in general assistance cases can be laid, in part, to its low position in W.P.A. cases after the spring 01' 1938, one additional factor contributed to that position - namely, the relatively low position ot Pennsylvania in cases per thousand population on the special categories, reSUlting chiefly from -the relatively high eligibility age (70- years) for old age ~ssistance

then in effect.

Had Pennsylvania expanded its old age assistance as did

many of the other states - to the point where the cases per thousand population on special categories would have been twenty or mare, instead of eleven to twelve " ".".' . there would 'have been a sUbste:~tial r~duct1o~ in ge'nera'i ass1stehce :case"s.,. '. A'; .reducJt10l;l;0f ,','

;

':"~;

On;Lyt:b+8~, Qi.1.'o':1r-, .'~ ',:-,. . .:" .

ca,ses per"tbpu,sand populat,ion,on general assista,l1ce ;:,

r·o;.:

'.~

'-~"'.

..'

.,~:".,~:

~~

would have served to bring Pennsylvania below both New York and Illinois in general assistance cases per thousand population throughout most ot the period after the spring 01' 1938. and 1939 the

In other words, Pennsylvania would have maintained through 1938

~e

relative position in general assistance cases that it held

throughout 1936 and 1937, despite its relatively low position in W.P..A. cases per thousand popula;t10n.

Since the tederal government pays one-halt ot old age

assistance;.grants this change would bave probably save some money-tor -'the state. FEDERAL WORK PROGRAMS

(Chart 6 - Table VI)

In number 01' tederalwork program cases per thousand population. Pennsylvania, starting 1n a median position, moved rapidly into a leading position but still not tar ahead ot the other states and held this position through December

1937 _ With the general sharp upward moveme.n,t...ot.. VI ~f.~.J\. ~ emp~oymEm.t· starting at .. ..j

• I. ~

~

• • , •• -.:

:..

-." . ; '

":.

:

~

;

~





that t1nie,· 'perinsyitan1a:'be~'n to tall behind and by August 1938 had fallen into a relatively low position which it bas held since that time..

- 2.e-

Only three stat-es have

FEDERAL WORK PROGRAMS CASES PER THOUSAND POPULATION 45

\

40

\

\

15 ~

10

'"

,\ ........

'_

1....-

-

/'

/ ......... -_1- -

1/ -

v'

5

o 193 6

1

I 9 3 7

I

SOURCE Of DATA I fROM fiGURES SUPPLIED BY DIVISION Of STATISTICS -

193 8

I

1.939

PREPARED fOR THE JOINT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION BY THE PENNSYLVANIA ECONOMY LEAGUE AND THE STATE PLANNING BOARD

WPA

-6-

been relatively lower than Pennsylvania in W.P.A. employment since August 1938, namely: Maryland, which is low throughout all four years; New York, which had until late in 1937 vied wi th Pennsylvania for a leading position; and New Jersey which had been in a low position, ninth of eleven states, for almost the entire four year period. The most startling fact

sho~

up by this chart is that all of the eleven

states follow so uniform a pattern in caSBS per thousand population throughout

1936 and 1937 with nine of the states rather closely bunched - the lowest of the nine being not mare than 20% below the highest.

While still following a similar

general trend throughout 1938 and 1939 these same nine states show

8

variation of

over 50% (from 19.23 cases per thousand in New York to 42.52 cases per thousand in Ohio) in October 1938 and a variation of over

40%

in December 1939 (from ll.~

cases per thousand in New York to 20.62 cases per thousand in Ohio), It should be noted that the change in the relative position of Pennsylvania on W.P.A. cases per thousand population, whioh takes place with the rapid expansion of W.P.A. employment in the early months of 1938, is the reverse of the change of position in Pennsylvania general a ssistance cases per thousand which took place at this same time - Pennsylvania having moved into first place in general assistance cases and from first to eighth place in W.P.A. cases despite its very substantial increase in W.P.A. cases. Pennsylvania, which had more W.P.A. cases per thousand population in October-Decamber 1937 than any other state compared here, bad fewer in December

1939 than all save Maryland and New York. This shift appears to be more important when it is noted that Ohio, which received more than twice the W.P.A. aid received by New York from April 1938 through 1939, he d only 60 odd per cent as many general assistance cases per thousand population as New York in the same period.

The

Michigan curve represents another peculiar situation, in that Michigan received relatively less W.P,A. aid than other states save Maryland through January 1938

and by April 1938 had moved to second place and thence to first place for JUne, July and August 1938 thereafter varying between second and third place with Illinois .. It should be noted, however,. that on general '3.ssistance case per thousand Michig'Bn moved from tenth place in October 1937 to first place in January 1938,. which it continued to hold until July,: thence falling rapidly to tenth place again in October and November 1938.

This extreme movement in both Ohio and Michigan no

doubt results from the unsettled eondition of the a utamobile and parts business and in the case of Michigan the iarge W.P.A. case load is perhaps justified by the high general assistance case load but in the case of Ohio, which never rose above sixth place in general

8

ssistance cases, there is less apparent justification

for the high W.P.A. case load. FER CENT OF CASES ON FEDERAL WORK PROGRAMS

(Chart 7 - Table VII)

In percent of the over-all case loa d carried on federal work programs the story for Pennsylvania is, with minor changes, the same as that in federal work program cases per thousand.

Pennsylvania holds a relatively high place in percent

of federal work programs cases throllgh 1936 and 1937,· slips back in the early months of 1938 and thereafter holds a relatively low position, falling into eleventh or bottom place in July, August and September 1939 but regaining seventh place in December 1939. With the exception of West Virginia and New Jersey, which hold a considerably higher rank in percent of cases on federal work programs than on federal work programs cases per thousand, the states vary very little in either rank or trend on this chart from that shown in the federal work program cases per thousand •. In the period following November 1938 the percent of cases on federal work programs dropped more rapidly in Pennsylvania than in any other state by a small margin and then recovered more rapidly in the last three months of 1939.

- 211- -

PERCENT FEDERAL

OF CASES ON WORKS PROGRAM

W.VA.'

1,/ ... \ .~

. .1 '.. ,

1\ 1\

.

1\

./

\, \

v'·', \ .. ./1- t-I-P;-" ,,,,,.

'j',' I

\ !'\. ....- . . \

!'-.. \

1/

40

30

20

o

_iii '::, ~ 1936

1937

1939

SOURCES OF" DATA: DIVISION OF" STATISTICS - W PA

PREPARED F"OR THE JOINT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION BY THE

DIVISION OF" PUBLIC ASSISTANCE RESEARCH: SOCIAL SECURITY BOARD

PENNSYLVANIA ECONOMY LEAGUE AND THE STATE PLANNING BOARD

-7-

SP~IAL

CATEGORIES

(Cbart 8 - Table VIII)

Special categories - old age assistance, aid to dependent children and aid to the blind - have on the whole Increased rather markedly in the four years covered by Chart 8.

In Pennsylvania the number at cases more than doubled in this

period and at the close at the period are about one-halt at the general assistance case load and two-thirds ot the tederal work case load.

In spite ot this, however,

only three states bid less actual increase in these forms of reliet than Pennsyl... vania and ot these three Ohio ste.rted with almost three times the relative case load of Pennsylvania.

With the clJange in age limit tor old age assistance,

eligibility fram 70 to

65

years and the broadened eligibility tor aid to dependent

children, which went into ettect January I,

1940 and September I, 1938, respective-

ly, the number at cases receiving special types at reliet in Pennsylvania will rise rather sharply both tram new cases taken on and from the transfer ot some 25,000 cases tram general assistance to one of the special types of relief'.

It the other

states continue their present trend when the tull a djustment in the Pennsylvania case load is made sometime in

1940, the Pennsylvania case load will approach that

at Maryland and will occupy a median position among the states. Since the Federal government pays one-halt at old age assistance and aid to the blind/a and one-third ot aid to dependent Children,Ll the practice in some states at Carrying as many cases as possible on special categories and as tew as possible on general assistance may have some merit tram the point of view at holding down state costs.

In Indiana tor instance

41% at the total case· load is on

special categories Bnd only 20~ is on g~neral assistance as compared with Pennsyl. vania with 21~ on special categories and

41%

on general assistance.

------------------------------------------------------_.~-------------------~---

~

In Pennsylvania aid to the blind is not given on a need basis and the tederal government does not pay any share of the cost.

1:2- Increased

to one-halt as of January I,

1940.

SPECIAL TYPES OF RELIEF CASES PER THOUSAND POPULATION

M[

1'-iMr-++-r:J-

-- --

-- -- ---

-- --

-- -- -

1,.;' ~ 1\

~-,

~i-+-+-I--I-__J:P~

--I) -- -- -- --

~

-'

/

/ IT /

/ I

I 936

I

1937

193 8

SOURCE OF DATA: FROM FIGURES SUPPLIED BY DIVISION OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE RESEARCHSOCIAL SECURITY BOARD

I

I 939

PREPARED FOR THE JOINT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION BY THE PENNSYLVANIA ECONOMY LEAGUE AND THE STATE PLANNING BOARO

-8-

NY.

The_grant per case figures shown in charts 9, 10. and 11 have been computed from the case and expenditure figures reported in tables XII to XXXIII • •

As explained in Appendix II the case count figures available are somewhet,over$tated and fluctuate with the rate of turnover of cases, particularly on the general assistance program which accounts for the oscilating nature of the lines in Chart 9. The grant per case charts and the tables from which they are plotted cannot, therefore, be used as an accurate determination of the grant per case, but rather as an indication of' the relative grants from state to state and from time to time. GENERAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS

(Chart 9 - Table DC)

The trend of general assistance grants per case in these states, as shown in Chart 9, is upward in 1933 and 193~. slightly downward in 1935 and practically constant thereafter.

Pennsylvania follows this general pattern but the upward

movement in 1933 and 193~ is sharper than in most states.

Pennsylvania. moved from

eighth place to third place by January 1935 and. since the t t 1me, ha s varied between second and third place with Massachusetts. Starting with a food allowance only in

193~

relief grants in Pennsylvania

were increased from time to time during 1933 and 193~ by the inclusion of allowances for shoes, clothing. fuel. rent and public utility services.

In addition there was

an increase resulting in two peaks, the first coinciding with the taking over of the federal C.W.A. work projects by the local works division of S.E.R.B., followed by a slight drop as the work program was curtailed, and the second coinciding with the starting of the work relief program of S.E.R.B. which entailed a twenty percent bonus over the ordinary relief grant for those who worked.

With the advent of W.P.A.

in the fall of 1935, local work relief stopped and the general assistance grant was stabilized at approximately its present level.

At the end of 1939 New York was high

in grant per case on general assistance at approximately $36.00 a month per case. with Pennsylvania and Massachusetts well behind at from $27.00 to $28.00 a month

- 26 -

GENERAL ASSISTANCE GRANT PER CASE

..

$ 45

I,

I,

I, I,

!\ II ",",

" 1\ ,

I

I I I

,

I I

I I I I

1\

$ 40

I,

j.,

\'

, ,

,

"" I,

I I

,

I

I I ,I I,

1\'

!\

I

,

, I I

I I

, ,

I

I

I

I

lI:,

,,

,,~

$ 30

I

\

,

\U

'i ~I\

/;'

\'/

'

.

1\ \

1\

1\

IJ

N.Y.

1\1/

1\

~

." I ,

, \;.

I

1\

1/

1/

1\

it"~

INY.

1/

1\

I

, ,

I

I

J

\

"

I

IJ

N,.. . .,.. .-"'--' 11"'~'\ J"'l~ .,

I

\. / - , /

.

\

1,I

l , ,

I

\. ... f

$ 20 ...

,,

\

\

$

II

II

\

I

I

I

I I

1\

1/ J\ ..... , 'I , , 1

10

\

1\

I

p.,VI\

, I

\I

I

\

/

"

L."08

!

"..

~S.

N.J. MD.

ILL

I \

WIS.

"

1'1-+f-+-l,hI,iH-l MICH .

........

....;...

..•. OHIO

..... /

1\

I\v 1\

1\

,

I

\ I,' . . '"

".,.' ...

,

.

. ..

,

I

PA.

\

.., ~~ ~

.\

l.\' ~ ".,:/' N \JI '. . -I-- .., I .'.

,.

I/i'

,

IND.

\

"

,

W.VIo

$ 0 1933

1934

1935

1936

SOURCE OF DATA: FROM FIGURES SUPPLIED BY DIVISION OF STATISTICS-WPA DIVISION OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE RESEARCHSOCIAL SECURITY BOARD

1937

1938

1939

PREPARED FOR THE JOINT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION BY THE PENNSYLVANIA ECONOMY LEAGUE AND THE STATE PLANNING BOARD

-9-

per case.

Five states are closely bunched between $20.00 and

$2~.00

a month per

case, while Ohio, Indiana and West Virginia are far behind. Two items should be mentioned. which have had a share in increasing the general assistance grants in Pennsylvania and in many of the other states.

First,

rent has come to be recognized as a relief need and a rent allowance has been included in the relief grant, which was not included in the early months of 1933 in most states.

Prior to the inclusion of rent allowances landlords to a large extent

absorbed the rent loss and in a sense were thereby specially taxed for the support of relief clients.

The second item contributing to the large increase in general

assistance grant per case has been the expansion of old age assistance and aid to the blind which removed substantial numbers of single person cases from the general assistance rolls, leaving the larger and higher grant cases on general assistance. FEDERAL WORK PROGRAM EARNINGS

(Chart 10 - Table X)

The earnings per case on federal work programs are of little interest except to show that the rank of the states is approximately the same as in general assistance grants and that the earnings are on the whole more than twice as much as the general assistance grant per case While the average size of case is only slightly greater.

It should also be noted that federal work program earnings bear

no relation to the size of case so that single persons receive just as much as five and six person cases on this relief program. Pennsylvania ranks roughly fourth in federal work program earnings per case as compared with second or third in general assistance grants and third in grant per case on the special categories. SPECIAL CATEGORY GRANl'S

(Chart 11 - Table XI)

In average grant to cases on the three special categories Pennsylvania ranks third, behind New York and Massachusetts, but is not so far ahead of the states immediately below it on this score as it is ahead of these same states in general assistance grants.

Only two states have an average grant of over $25.00

.. 27 -

FEDERAL WORK PROGRAMS EARNINGS PER CASE

\

$

l.-----

N.Y.

30 t+-I-+-+-+-+-+++-t-++-I-++-+-+-l-+-+-+-+-H-+-+-+-+--l-+-+-+-++-I-+-+-+-+-+-+-H

olli~; i II ~T::;;; i III ~ 193 6

I 9 3 7

SOURCE OF DATA, FROM FIGURES SUPPLIED BY DIVISION OF STATISTICS -WPA

938

1939

PREPARED FOR THE JOINT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION BY THE PENNSYLVANIA ECONOMY LEAGUE AND THE STATE PLANNING BOARD

-10-

SPECIAL TYPES OF RELIEF G RANT PER CASE

$

35

5

$ 2

n~~~f-~t-:rl'-n9==t=N-;;;'F'-'f'-~':to+=H=tM:TfiH:tt:t=tjj:tjj~tH~~~=H=tllti:5' ~ yJl ~' 1\ f /,,\, -'-- k~~ 1. -"-:... '-~--'-'-=I'-:'~",~-'~:: ~HJO

. '. i . . . - I - . . . - - 17" ;::.""_:... -' - ~ -- ;. ~~ I "'~ MOo I.ir....... ~···~'o:+~l\.~H:-~.t.~:+-:~::J:.=..±:-::;j.h,.•. 4--1---+=f~=t=I.:-:::=t-+--+I-+-+-~H-t--+---+\.~---h4=-=+-=+-+-H---+:I'...~+-1-IILL. $ 2 0 HI":' h k i '_.- - ~;? -~I.,j..

~ 11~1/r-. /

:

U\ Ii\

1.4

OH

f

ei --

.- -- ., _.- . ,=.=:.=~- --.- . ..... _...,-'- . ~

_.i~

:.-""'- -: .' 1"--,...."......1---' ,.... /., v"'-

"t-i-r-t-H+++-jf-t-++-H-++-rH-N

$ I 5 t-FF+-t-+-+-t-H-1-/*'.4-1-+/++-H--+--!-+-+-+-+-+-+-J.-l-+-j-++-j~-+-l-l--I-l-l--+-J......+-j

/

~gH.

W.VA.

V

...... /

,/

$ I 0 t-ri-t--r-t-t-i7,."'H-+--Ht--+-+-+-t-t-++-J-+--H-+-+-+-I-I-++-J-++-+-+-+-+-+-I-+-+-+-J 'N,----r--...... '"

$

5tt-t-t--t-t-t-+-+-+-t-f::±-t-+-H-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-1--+--+-l-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-1-+-H1-+-H-H W.'A.

193 6

I 937

SOURCE OF DATA' FROM FIGURES SUPPLIED BY DIVISION OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE RESEARCHSOCIAL SECURITY BOARD

-11-

I 9 3 8

1939

PREPARED FOR THE JOINT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION BY THE PENNSYLVANIA ECONOMY LEAGUE AND THE STATE PLANNING BOARD

a month per case on the speuial

~ategories

while six, including Pennsylvania, have

an average grant between $20.00 and $25.00 per month... The decrease in Pennsylvania , tor arew months during 1939 was due to changes in the state t B payment procedure "

made' during those months and does not represent any real change in the amount ot grants ,to individual ca.ses.•: I;'

-, .,'.

'

.,-:-

. ':.~.:.- ,.'

....-.' ...

,.-

..

~"?-

PART III COMPARISON OF ANNUAL STATE AND IDCAL EXPENDITURES FOR RELIEF IN PENNSYLVANIA AND TEN OTHER STATES

In the following charts an attempt has been made to compare the state and local expenditures for direct relief (including administration, special programs, materials and supplies, non-relief labor and other costs of the emergency relief program) for participation in the special categories and for federal work programs by years from 1933 through 1938.

Comparable figures are unfortunately not yet

available for 1939. STATE AND IDCAL EXPENDITURES FOR ALL

FO~F

REUEF

(Chart 12 - Table XXXIV)

State and local relief activities, including state and local share of expense for direct

relief~

special categories and sponsorship of federal work

programs, cost $~.09 for each man. woman and child in Pennsylvania in 1933.

This

cost has risen constantly since that time; it was $~.62 in 193~; $5.31 in 1935;

$9.35 in 1936; $10.30 in 1937; and

$13.~0 in

1938. In this calculation the cost

of special categories has been excluded in the years 1933.

193~

and 1935, since

comparable data is not available for the other states, but even had it been included there would still have been a sharp increase throughout the period.

High as this

cost may appear - and rapid as has been the rise - Pennsylvania bas never ranked higher than third among the eleven states compared in this report in per capita state and local expenditures for all forms of relief.

New York has throughout

the period had a per capita expenditure from two to six dollars per annum higher than Pennsylvania •. MaS.3achusetts had higher per capita expenditures in five of the six years shown and, over the whole period, averaged two dollars per capita more.

Illinois has bad higher per capita expenditures in three of the six years.

In 1938 five stetes spent more than $13.00 per capita, two being higher then

STATE AND LOCAL EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL FORMS OF RELIEF DOLLARS

SPECIAL CATEGORIES EXCLUDED PRIOR

TO

1936

18 N.Y.

16

14

12

10 , IND.

----- ---

8

6

---------

MD.

2i7L----__If----....:",.",rl~;...<::.---__I----_+----_l_-'----___l

.A------...:....,.r.,,"

0L.-1933

....L-

1934

--l..

1935

....L-

L..-

1937

1936

PREPARED FOR THE JOINT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION BY THE

SOURCE OF DATA: DIRECT RELIEF FIGURES FROM WPA SPECIAL TYPES OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE FIGURES FROM SOCIAL SECURITY BOARD SPONSORSHIP OF FEDERAL WORKS PROJECTS FROM WPA

--l..

1938

PENNSYLVANIA ECONOMY LEAGUE AND THE STATE PLANNING BOARD

-12-

---l

Pennsylvania and two, only slightly less. expense in Pennsylvania is

~ollowed

The sharp upward trend

o~

the per-capita

rather closely by all but four states, one of

which is Massachusetts, which began far above Pennsylvania, the other three being Maryland, West Virginia and Indiana - probably the three states least comparable to Pennsylvania in industrial development. STATE AND LOCAL EXPENDITURES FOR DIRECT RELIEF (Chart 13 - Table XXXV) In per-capita state and local expense for direct relief alone, Pennsylvania ranks relatively higher, indicating chiefly that the other states spent a relatively larger share of their total relief funds for special categories and sponsorship of federal work programs.

This indication is also borne out by the

earlier consideration of cases per thousand population on various types of relief. Pennsylvania never approaches New York in state and local direct relief expenditures per capita and was exceeded in three years by Massachusetts and in two years by Illinois. For all the states the increase in direct relief has been at a much less rapid rate than the for all forms of relief.

increa~e

exp~nditures

per capita

in state-local expenditures

This result reflects the growing importance of the special

categories (considered permanent) in the relief field and the growing proportion of state and local funds for

reli~f

which have gone into the sponsorship of federal

works program. Viewed solely as a relief program - and taking no account of the value of the work done - federal work relief is not the free gift to the states and municipalities which it is so otten considered.

Of the $798,~89.000 state-local expendi-

ture for all forms of relief during 1938 in the eleven states covered by this report. $230.462,000 or 28.8% Was spent for the sponsorship of W.P.A. projects. percentage ot total state-local funds spent for W.P.A. sponsorship in the various states was:

- 30 -

The

PER CAPITA STATE &. LOCAL EXPENDITURES FOR DIRECT RELIEF $12.00 .I"

11.00

V

/

10.00 9.00

","'/ /

5.00

~

4.00

,

/

, "

3.00

.~

..

~",

,

V

~

" -------

~.~

"'

....

.

",

.... ...,.. .... / ,

," '.

... .

/"

/

.r.. . . ...,

-.-::.~

~".

-~

., J/______ //

I--

/ . . . .' /~1 /

...

-

/"

MASS.

f ,,"" / /

Z

N.J.

...........................

"

........... ............. ~7

........

........ .l,...o'-'

......

-'

........

,. ,

,,

,,

' 1----

WIS. OHIO

,,"

---- ----,. ,.

1--_ _ -~--

ILL.

'/"

, '\

,

,,~

/

X

....•. : :..... ~ ....I'~..........

,

/

C:l.......

/-

~",..:.::~':.:--:~

..

2.00 !.t' 1.00

V

~~

//

~:~I:.:~./

/ ....

.

I

;ppENNA.

\\

",

/

6.00

\\

","

~-i--

7.00

--- -

~

~

V

/

8.00

I--..

N.Y.

W. VA. MD.

o 1933

1934

1935

1936

1938

PREPARED FOR THE JOINT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION BY TftE

SOURCE OF DATA: FROM FIGURES SUPPLIED BY DIVISION OF RESEARCH AND PLANNING WORK PROJECTS ADM IN tSTRATtON

1937

-13-

PENNSYLVANIA ECONOMY LEAGUE AND THE STATE PLANNING BOARD

Illinois Indiana Maryland Massachusetts Michigan

New Jersey New York Ohio West Virginia Wisconsin

32.0

~2.8

28.1 27.1

29.9 Pennsylvania

2~.1

~3.l

21.0 36.5

50.~

3~.9

It cost either the state or local governments $11.16 per month for each case receiving federal work relief in Pennsylvania during 1938 as compared with an average general assistance grant of approximately $28.00 ·or roughly it cost the state or local governments forty cents for each dollar of general assistance saving effected by placing cases on federal work relief.

In the states with considerably

lower general assistance grants per case the situation becomes more and more apparent until the final absurdity is reached in West Virginia where the state and local governments pay $10.89 per month for each W.P.A. case and give an average grant of only $9.50 per month to cases on general assistance. by this report spending from 21 to

50%

With the eleven states covered

of the funds available for relief in the

sponsorship of federal work relief, it seems that the time is ripe for a reconsideration of the efficacy of federal work relief as a relief program and that the state as an entity - as well as the federal government - has a vital interest in the conelusions reached.

Such a reconsideration should include: (a) the social, economic

or moral justification for giving those fortunate enough to get on the federal works programs fram two to five times as much relief as is given to similar cases on general assistance; (b) a study of the value of physical assets produced by federal works programs to determine whether the value produced justifies the excess of cost over a reasonable general assistance program; and (c) even though the values produced justify the increased expenditures for work programs in the abstract, whether those values are present necessities or are luxuries that could be done without fot the present in order to pay the butcher, the baker and candlestick maker.

It should

be made clear, however, that there is in this report no attempt at such a reconsidaratton not bas Such data as appears in this report bearing On the SUbject been care·

- 31 -

fully analyzed in respect to any possible use in such a reconsideration.

A subse-

quent memorandum on some of the financial aspects of a choice between general assistance and W.P.A. will be presented. One further consideration. of particular importance in Pennsylvania where the state pays the whole cost of general assistance, is that the sponsor's share of federal works program is for the most part provided by units of local government. With 2~% ot the total state local relief expenditure going for sponsorship it is probable that the local units are through such sponsorship providing at least

20%

of the total state-local relief expenditure rather than none as is widely believed. PlmCENT OF STATl!: AND LOCAL EXPENDITURE FOR DIRECT RELIEF FROM STATE FUNDS (Chart 14 - Table XXXV) ,

Pennsylvania is the only one of the states compared which bas assumed the whole state and local cost of direct relief.

It is not entirely safe, however, to

attempt to draw aocurate comparisons between the states as to the division of di· rect relief costs between state and local governments from the data available because of the effect on the data of relatively unimportant changes of policy from state to state and from time to time.

For instance, Massachusetts, which appears

on the chert to have placed the whole burden of relief on the municipalities, has in fact carried a large share of the burden through a state income tax, the proceeds of which are returnad to the municipalities..

Similarly in Ohio the state

has reduced the proportion of direct relief paid from state subsidies but has at the same time greetly increased both the amount and proportion of state

taxe~

which

are returned to local governments. This chart does not reflect the degree of state control of direct relief. In New YOrk where the state pays

ro~hly

40%

of the cost, relief is locally admlni-

stered but under very strict state Supervision as to eligibility of recipients, amount of grant per case, et cetera, under pain of losing the state reimbursement, In Ohio... on tha ..othe:r:..Jland, where the state has paid much more than

- 32 -

4.0%

of the cost.

PERCENT OF STATE &. LOCAL EXPENDITURE FOR DIRECT RELIEF FROM STATE FUNDS PERCENT

100

,,

1',

90

,

50

-;:;:-~-

.

~ :' i

V



........

"

"'J(.

,,'

r--/-L

\\

,

to-

!

,

\ ........... \

'

i

i

I

, ,

.. .,

.............,:: ~ ..~: .............

,.,

70

60

~.

~. . . . V ~l/<. \ ..............

80

.-./- ".,.

' .....

--

i

I I

------

\

\

.......

30

20

i

......

Y

.

....

.---.....-..,.

N.J. W.VA.

~

\ \

ILL. MICH.

~

.

. \

\

--

----

--- ----

/

".

.

\

i

"

.. ~ -'......................:~:......... .......... .. ~

\ .--"

i

i i

"

'

i

40

rPENNA.

....... ..... ..... ......

.

...........................

.

\

\

\

\

N.Y.

, \

\

\

\

. \

\\

'

'

!

. ....

\

\

\ IMO.

I

'"

........................

i

10

'. j

i

". ".

i 0

1933

'.

'"

OHIO

'. '.

.....

.'.' "

1934

- - - - - - --1935

~ ~-

1936

IND. MASS.

1938

PREPARED FOR THE JOINT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION BY THE

SOURCE OF DATA' FROM FIGURES SUPPLIED BY

PENNSYLVANIA ECONOMY LEAGUE AND THE STATE PLANNING BOARD

DIVISIOr-; OF RESEARCH AND PLANNING WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION

1937

WIS.

-14-

the degree of state control over eligibility and grants appears to be negligible. There is no apparent correlation between the state share and the percapita state and local expenditure for direct relief.

Never. less than five. and

during most of this period. seven states paid a greater share of state and local cost than did New York. which had the highest per-capita cost.

Pennsylvania. how-

ever. which ranks high in state share. also ranks high in per capita. but Massachusetts, which on the whole has a higher

per~capita

expenditure than Pennsylvania.

ranks very low in state share of expenditure. FOR DIRECT RELIEF I!'ROM STATE! LOCAL AIID FEDERAL FUNDS (Cb.art 15 - Table XXXVI)

ElCP~!.r.)!TURE

In chart 15, the per-capita expenditure for direct relief from state local and federal funds is shown.

The sharp rise in direct relief expenditures from 1933

to 1935 reflects the entrance into the direct relief field of the federal government through F.E.n.A. and the sharp drop from 1935 to 1936 results from the withdrawal of the federal government from direct relief coincident with the inaUguration of the present W.P.A. program late in 1935.

During the years 1933-35 the disparity in per-

capita state and local direct relief expenditures (Chart 13) between Pennsylvania, New York and Massachusetts is greatly reduced when federal funds are included, indieating that Pennsylvania in this period received a greater proportion of federal funds than the other two states.

Likewise, when federal

vania exceeds Illinois and Michigan in

per~capita

fund~

are included, Pennsyl-

expendltures for direct relief in

19~ whereas on the basis of state and local funds Pennsylvania was below them in

In per-capita expenditures for direct relief fram state, local and federal funds Pennsylvania starts ip. sixth place among the s1;etes in 1933. moves into third place for 1934 and 1935 and then into second place in 1936. third in 1937 and then moved back into second place in 1938.

1936. 1931 and

19~8,

It fell to a very close For all the states

with only very aUght varia.t~ons. are the same on this chart as ~

33 -

PER CAPITA EXPENDITURE FOR DIRECT RELIEF FROM STATE LOCAL & FEDERAL FUNDS

>8'25.00

22.50

20.00

17.50

15.00

12.50 ~-.N.Y.

10.00 ............

.. ..

PENNA.

'

7.50

..

'

MICH. ILL MASS•

...•.....

.•..•~

5.00

......-

•.•..•• N.J.

/

... - .. .........

2.50

........

0"

o

1933

1934

1935

1936

1937

IND.

W. VA. MD.

1938 .

PREPARED FOR THE JOINT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION BY THE

SOURCE OF DATA· FROM FIGURES SUPPLIED BY DIVISION OF RESEARCH AND PLANNING WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION

_~~::.::::.::.:•••••••.:..-~_ _ -

WIS. OHIO

-15-

PENNSYLVANIA ECONOMY LEAGUE AND THE STATE PLANNING BOARD

the

1936, 1937 and 1938 portion of Chart 13 - "Per Capita Expenditure from state and

Local Funds." The range between the states in per-capita expenditures for direct relief from state, local and federal funds is astonishing.

In New York, ranking first,

the expenditures were from two to eight times as much per capita as the state ranking eleventh in various years and in Pennsylvania expenditures were from one and a half to more than five times as much per capita ·as in the low state. point in

At the high

1935. in three states, New York, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, expendi-

tures were more than twice as muoh per capita as in the two lowest states, Maryland and Indiana. PERCENT OF EXPENDITURE FROM STATE, LOCAL M1) FEDERAL FUNDS MADE FROM STATE .AND LOCAL FUNDS (Chart 16 - TabIe XXXVI) This chart expresses the division of cost between state, local and federal as a percent of total expenditure and at the same time reflects the wide divergence of federal participation in direct relief expenditures from state to state. On this chart Pennsylvania occupies a middle position. year period

Over the three

1933-35 when F .E.R.A. was active, Pennsylvania paid a greater portion

of its direct relier bill than didWeat Virginia, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin and Ohio but paid a smaller portion than Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey and Indiana. The divergence between states is however very substantial. range is from Massachusetts, where state and local governments paid

In

1933 the

82.3% of all

direct relief, to West Virginia, where they paid only ~.6; in that year.

In 19~

Massachusetts again led, state and local governments paying ~.7% and West Virginia is low, state and local governments paying only 1~.2% of all direct relief, a difference of

30.5%. 1935 tells a similar story, but with different states at the

extremes - New York and its political subdivisions provided ~2.7% of direct relief costs, while Ohio and its local units prOVided only

12.6%, or a variation of 30.1%.

PERCENT OF EXPENDITURE FOR DIRECT RELIEF FROM STATE LOCAL & FEDERAL FUNDS MADE FROM STATE & LOCAL FUNDS PERCENT

100 r - - - - I - - - - - r - - - - - - - - g l " " ....-_ ........=-::'.. :....,:::.,..".~_,~= .. _-""'---~--~-~-"--r-------, ~.....,"",,1--_." ~~. ... ..- .. , ~ ,-;::$-' _... ...- ...90 1 - - - - - - - + - - - - - _ + - - - - ..e:",,"=.:''--''-_'''_-_'_''--I------+--------l

~ ~

_-

80 t-"\~----+-----+_---H_-+------+-----+-----__l

\

!

"'"'

/

\MASS. I'~ t-----+\---+-----+--~.'-IH

n--+------+-------+-------l

70

!~

\\

601-----\:---+--------+---r-1fH----..,I--------+--------+----__l "N.J.

/i1,~" r.

\

\",

. \ " \. \. ,

'\ ":--N::

50

iI' .I i!.I,

,.. !~I' f ' ;:

\.

",'

~ ';ND:--~\"''' . \MD.. "

40

_.....~ .- .- .-. II.

..........

,...:....

~.:~HIO ~\' '. ..\I..."

ILL,

,'

'

.........~ i!..i/~'l'hl"f-----+-----+------j------l .......... '/ /

."_.,,_,,._,,_.,,- !I, I

'.'. ,I I :'/'r:::,.....,. - - - ... I f - : - f t - - - - - I - - - - - - - + - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - j ."" /"~I)o...: --:--.""'..,... rl'lI

',~ WiS., ........

30

i

,/x,',~, ~. " . . . . . I,g .............., ~ './1 ""~..',

'1/

AICH. ' , ........ 1-7'''------+--~~-..._+H-----I-------+-----_+----__l

20

,/

10

L

~. . ,

IIi

"

1

./

O~

1933

--l-

1934

--L

1935

I...__

1936

1937

__'_

___l

1938

PREPARED FOR THE JOINT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION BY THE

SOURCE OF DATA' FROM FIGURES SUPPLIED BY DIVISION OF RESEARCH AND PLANNING WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION

.....I_

-16-

PENNSYLVANIA ECONOMY LEAGUE AND THE STATE PLANNING BOARD

There appears to be

DO

reason for the wide differences between the states in the per-

cent of direct relief expenditure made from state and local funds in

1933, 1934 and

1935. Pennsylvania, for instance, paid a smaller percentage of its total

dir6c~

relief cost than either Indiana or New Jersey which had lower per-capita costs but it also paid less than Massachusetts and New York which had higher per-capita costs. The fact that a few of the states continued to spend federal money for direct relief in

1936, 1937 8nd 1938 resulted from balances of previously allocated

funds being available and not from any further contributions by the federal governmanto

- 35 -

PART IV. RELIEF EXPENDITURES IN REIA.TION TO TAX RECEIPTS

In the previous section of this report annual relief expenditures of the states have been compared on a per-capita basis.

In this section the compari-

son is somewhat changed, the states being compared on the basis of the-relation which relief expenditures bear to total tax collections.

Like all computations

based on two variables the peroent or taxes used for relief may be high in any state either because of large relief expenditures or because of small tax colleotions. 'The tax collections used here are the sum of state and local tax oolleotions and the rdlief expenditures include both state and local expenditures. PERC:&W OF SI'ATE. AND .LOCAL. TAXES USED FOR DIRECT RELIEF. SPEC IAL CATEGORIES AND ----vl.P.A~ SPONSORSHIP (Chart 17 ... Table XXXVII} .

The percent of total state and local taxes used for categories and sponsorship of W.P.A. projects has a much smaller variation between the states than does the percent used for direct relief.

As a result the inclusion of categories

and W.P.A. tends to bring the states much oloser together.

%Used

1938

-%.Used tor Direct Relief

:rENNA.

14-.1

N.. Y. Ill.

11.3 8.3 6.5 6.5 6.0 6.0 5.0 2.9

Ind. W. Va.

Maryland

8.9 6.1 10,6 9.8 10.6 11.5 10.3 9.2 12,3 11.9 6.8

9 11 47 5 3 6 8 1 2 10

~

11.0

N. J.

Rank

1 2

11.8

Mich. Mass. Ohio Wise.

Rank

for Categories and W.P.A.

5 6 7 8 9-

10 II

Difference between 1 &

9

%Used Total

23.0 17.9 21.9 20.8 18.9 18.0 16.8 15.2 18.3 16.9 9.7

6.2

8.1 - 36 -

Rank

1 7 2 3 46 9 10 5 8 11

PERCENT OF STATE & LOCAL TAXES USED FOR DIRECT RELIEF, SPECIAL CATEGORIES & W. P. A.

PERCENT SPECIAL CATEGORIES EXCLUDED PRIOR TO Ill3S 25.---=-"=...::::::..:,=.:==--===-.:.r=-=....:.:.:"'-----.,.-----..,.-----....,--------,

PENNA.

20

15

10

5

O'-1933

.....L..._ _--.......L.--------'~---_.....L...

1934

1935

1936

1937

SOURCE OF DATA: TAX COLLECTIONS FROM NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL CONFERENCE BOARD RELIEF EXPENDITURES FROM DIVISION OF STATIS TICS WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION

__L

__l

1938

PREPARED FOR THE JOINT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION BY THE PENNSYLVANIA ECONOMY LEAGUE AND THE STATE PLANNING BOARD

-17-

Th~

rank of the states in percent of taxes used for special categories

and W.P.A. sponsorship in 1938 is almost the reverse of the rank in percent used for direct relief.

The four high ranking states in percent used for Direct Re-

lief have in each case a lower rank in percent used for Categories and W.P.A. and, with the exception of Illinois, all rated in the lower half in percent of taxes for Categories and W.P.A.

Two states hold the same rank at 5 and 8 but all the

others in the lower half in percent used for direct relief have a higher ranking in percent used for categories and W.P.A.

Pennsylvania ranks first in percent of

taxes used for direct relief and ninth in percent used for categories and W.P.A. in 1938, again emphasizing the fact that most of the other states have put proportionately greater emphasis on special categories and W.P.A, sponsorship than has Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania has shown a consistent upward trend in total taxes used for all forms of relief except for the year 1937.

If the shift in fiscal years

in relation to calendar years, discussed in connection with percent of state and local taxes used for direct relief (Chart 18), is made, the sharp upward movement from 1935 to 1936 would be toned down and the slight downward movement from 1936 to 1937 would be eliminated so that the trend would show an almost constant upward movement with some acceleration from 1935 to 1936 and 1937 to 1938. All of the eleven states had an increase in percent of taxes used for direct relief, categories, and W.P.A. from 1933 to 1938 - some at a greater rate than Pennsylvania, and others at a lesser rate. ranked lower than third and in

al~

Pennsylvania, however, has never

but one year ranked first or second.

If, how-

ever, tax collections were adjusted to meet more closely the period for which expenditures are shown, Pennsylvania would probably rank first only·tor the year

1938.

- 31 -

PEROE11T OF STATE Al'ID LOCAL TAXES USED FOR DIRECT RELIEB' (Chart 18 - Ta bIe XXXVII) The rank of any state on this chart may be very greatly affected by fiscal and other policies not involved in relief.

For instance, Pennsylvania may

hold its high rank either because relief expenditure is high or because its tax collections are relatively low.

On the other hand, New York State, which also ranks

high on the chart, is known to have a considerably higher tax collection than PennsylvAnia but its rank is still raised above normal by the policy followed in financing the local shara of relief from bond issues which increases the relief expenditures without increasing the tax collection. The sharp dip in the Pennsylvania curve for the year 1937 needs a further word of explanation.

There are two elements involved - (1) a reduction in relief

expenditure for the calendar year 1937 and (2) a large increase in tax collections for the 1936-37 fiscal year, the first year of emergency taxes.

The fiscal year

1936-37, however, more closely approximates the calendar year 1936 when relief expenditures were high.

If state tax collections are backed up one year - using

1936-1937 state tax collections against 1936 relief expenditures and similarly for other years, we get the follOWing results: PERCENT OF TAXES USED FOR DIRECT RELIEF As plotted in Fiscal years collection Chart 18 As Adjusted USed in adjustment State Local

1933 19341935 193 6 1937 1938

9.2 9.8 11.9 14.9 10.8 14-.1

9.6 9.5 10.9 12.410.7 14-.9

1933-341934--35 1935-36 1936-37 1937-38 1938-39

1933 19341935 1936 1937 1938

In other words, the data for relief expenditures and for taxes ara not for identical periods and some degree of distortion results in every state except Ohio where the fiscal year is the calendar yeer for which relief expenditures are reported. In spite of the limitations on the accuracy of the computations on which

... 38 ...

PERCENT OF STATE & LOCAL TAXES USED FOR DIRECT RELIEF PERCENT

20r------r-------,--------r-----"T-----"T------,

16

12

N.Y. ILL. MICH.

MASS.

8 WIS: OHIO IND. W.VA.

4 MD.

o 1933

1934

1935

1936

1938

PREPARED FOR THE JOINT STATE

SOURCE OF DATA'

GOVERNMENT COMMISSION BY THE PENNSYLVANIA ECONOMY LEAGUE AND THE STATE PLANNING BOARD

TAX COLLECTIONS FROM NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL CONFERENCE BOARD RELIEF EXPENDITURES FROM DIVISION OF STATISTICS WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION

1937

-18-

1933 Pennsylvania has consistently

this chart is based it is apparent that since

spent a large and growing proportion of its total state and local tax receipts for direct relief, in spite of a rapid increase in taxes.

Of the eleven states used

here Pennsy!vania ranked:

1933 - second 1934 - third 1935 - second

1936 ... first. 1937 - ~econd (tie with Illinois) 1938 - first

Nine of the eleven states spent a higher percentage of state and local taxes for direct relief in

1938 than they did in 1933. Four of these nine states,

Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin and New Jfjrsey, had only very slight increases and a fifth one - West Virginia - while it had an increase, made the whole increase from to

1933

1934 and has held constant since that time. All five of these states spent a

cOlllparl'1tively small part of their tax receipts for relief both at the beginning and end of the p0riod.

They ranked, of the eleven states;

.!ill Indiana Ohio New Jersey West Virginia Wisconsin

9

5 7

ill§. 9

6

11

8 10

8

7

indicating that all except Ohio fell in the lower half in both periods. The four relnaining states of the nine which show increases in percent of taxes for direct relief - Pennsylvania, New York, Illinois and Michigan - had relatively sharp increases in the percent of taxes used for direct relief despite the fact that all save Michigan had relatively great increases in tax receipts. Two states, Maryland and Massachusetts, showed an actual decline in percent of taxes used for relief.

In Massachusetts the drop was from first place at

11.8% to fifth place at 8.3% and in Maryland from fourth place at 6.7% to eleventh place at

2.9%.

In both states the reduction of percent of taxes for direct relief

is accompanied by a sharp curtailment of relief expenditure, rather than by any sudden change in tax receipts although both states did have a steady increase of tax receipts throughout the period.

- 39 ...

LETTER OF

TR~JSMITTAL

To the Members of the General Assembly of ithe commonwealth of Pennsylvania In pursuance of House Resolution, Serial No. 134 of the Regular Session of 1939, and under the authority of the Aot of July 1, 1937, P# L. 2460, as fu~ended

by the Aot of June 26, 1939, P. L. 1084 (Act oreating Joint state Govern-

ment Commission), we submit nerewith Report and Reoommendations om the subjeot of Unemployment Relief and the administration thereof. Ellwood J. Turner, Chairman, Joint state Government Commission

January, 1941

FOREWORD

The new public function of affording assistance to those who are unemployed or have no other means of support can no longer be considered escapable, or a temporary or emergency function of government. The Connuittee on Relief approached this task with a keen sense of appreciation of the magnitude and many ramifications and implications of the relief problem as well as its responsibility to render a worthwhile

accQunti~~

of its steward-

ship to the legislature. It is generally easy and popular to be kind.

However, it

is necessary to remember the tremendous burden·that relief has placed on the taxpayers.

It is also important that-both the

recipient of relicf and the taxpayers uho pay the bill should be treated fairly.

The

Comw~ttee

approached this task on a

non-partisan and non-political basis. Its sole aim has been to leUI'n facts about the present system of relief, its organization, its policies and its methods, and 1'inally to evaluate them in terms of efficiency to administer relief to those who, through no fault of their own, arc in need, and at a miniIrn..1D1 cost to those -who pay the bill.

TABLE OF CONTIDTTS RECO:MMEN DAT IONS I.

llTTRODUCTION

A. II.

History and Functions of Joint State Govelnment Commission ••••

1

......................................

3

BRIEF HISTORY OF POOR RELIEF

•..•................................•.

A. Period from 1705 to 1929 B. Period from 1929 to 1940 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

III.

IV.



B. C.

D. E. F. G.

v.

First Talbot Act ••••••••••••••• ••••••••.••••.••••••••

B. C. D. E. F. G.

7 7 7 7

11 12 13 14 15 15

Activities sponsored ••• Survey of administration of Public ~ssistance ••••••••••••••••• Field Investigations by Committee on Relief •••••••••••••••••••

18 18 20

C01~~ITTEE 0

ON

6 7

18

PROGR1~L

OF

3 6 6

•••••••••••••••••••

P~LIEF

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

ASSIST~"J~CE

• ••••••••••••••••••

23

Act creating Department of Public Assistance •••••••••••••••••• Governmental machinery of Department of Public Assistance ••••• Outstanding functions of Department of Public Assistance •••••• Types of Assistance aili2inistered by Department ••••••••••••••••

23 23 23 26

state Employm.ent Board .•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.••••••• " 27 COUIlty Boards •••••••••• 28 , 29 state Board of Public Assistance 0

COST OF RELIEF TIT A.

0.· • • • • •

Woodvmrd Act, creating State Emergency Relief Board •••••••• Second Talbot Aot •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Fiffiergency Relief Sales Tax ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Federal Relief Program ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Legislative Committees formed to study relief •••••••••••••• Goodrich Relief Committee •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Sumwary of Goodrich COffiillittee Experiment ••••••••••••••••••• Department of Peblic Assistance Created •••••••••••••••••••• Relief Survey Committee :~ppointed, 1937 •••••••••••••••••••• Relief Problems, 1932 to 1940 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

ORGANIZATION OF DEPlillTILENT OF PUBLIC .L~.

•••

Pennsylvania Committee on Unemployment, 1930 ••••••••••••••• Baker Committee, 1931 ••••••••••••••••••••• ~ ••••••••••••••••

ORGANIZATION AND A. B. C.

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• I

.

.

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

PENNSYLV~WIA

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

30

As compared to 10 neighboring and competitive states •••••••••• 1. General Assistance" Case Load ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 2. Proportion of cost borne by states •••••••••••••••••••••••••

30 32 33

3. Vf.P.ll. Costs •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

33

4. Expenditures for Reliof ."... •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• As co~pared to 3 southern states •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Special Categories •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Percentage of Taxes for relief •••••••••••••••••••••.•••••••••• 1. Compared to 10 neighboring states •••••••••••••••••••••••••• Centralization Increased Expenditures ••••••••••••••••••••••••• Relief Costs compared to cost of state govermnent ••••••••••••• Total Increase in Tax Collection ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

33 35 35 36 36 37 38 39

(1)

TABLE OF CCNTElifTS ( Continued) VI.

JOB MOBILIZATION A. B. C.

Cm~JITTEE

Purpose for creating co~~ittee •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Program of Cmmnittce •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Results of Co~ittco ••••••••••••.••••••••••••••••••••.••••••

VII. .tJJMnnSTRt..TIVE

Fll.CTORS BE}..RTIW ON

RELillF m

••••••••

45

!..............

45

PEN1~SYLv.l'Jnl'l.

A.

Department of Public Assistance ••••••••••••••

B.

1. Department's f.l.pproach • County Boa.rds •••••••••••••••••

II II ••• II ••••••••••••• " 41

•••••

II

•••••••

•••

•••

II ••• II _.. ••



••••

•••

1. County budgets should be adjusted •••••••••••••••••••••••• No local consciousness •••••••••.•••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Employment Board •••••••••••••••• ~........................... 1. Typo of Examination given •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 2. Type of visitor qualified •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• E. No practical system of invostigatien or reinvestigation of cases F. Morc control of visitors needed ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1. Supervision lax •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 2. Utilizution of visitors' time •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 3. Chn.nge of visiting hours ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• G. Experienced Investigators needed •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• H. Promotion plan for omployes ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• I. Union of Department employes •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• J. "'forker's Alliance ••••••••••••••••••••••••.••••••••••••••••••• C. D.

VIII.

40 43 43

46 47

48 49 51 52 54 55 56 57 57 58 58 59 61 62

OF THE COMMITTEE •••••••••••••••••.••••••••••• ,; •• ,; •••••••

63

D.

Chiseling, one of the ills •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The Philadelphia Story •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Chisoling in Pittsburgh ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1. Reaction of Allegheny County stuff ••••••••••••••••••••••• 2. Results of Allegheny Count~l Investigation •••••••••••••••• Conditions Existing in othor counties •••••••••••••••••••••••

63 64 68 69 70 70

E.

Drun.lconness ••-•.••••.•••• ,.e ••••••••' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

F. G.

Extra-Marital Relations ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Delaware County Survey...................................... 1. Purpose of Survey........................................ 2. Results Accomplished ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Unusual Case of Mrs. "0" •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Auditor General Surveys •••••••••••-.... •••••• •••••• •• • ••• •••• Supplemental Assistance by private agencies ignored •••• •.•••• Medical PrograDl •• •.• • • • •.••• • • • • •• • • • • • • • •.• •• • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • •• Unemployment Compensation-Relief •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Effect of Federal Authority ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Coordination of State Bureaus •••••••••••• ~.................. Milk Orders ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pierson Work Relief Act ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• General Camment •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

72 73 73 75 76 78 79 79 80 81 81 81 82 83

FmDn~GS

1... B. C.

H. I. J.

K. L. M. N. O. P. ~.

(2 )

APPENDL"{ TABLE OF CONTENTS

Reliof in Ponnsylvo.nia and 10 Competing Industrial states (Including 18 Charts and 37 Tablos) Supplement on Rolief in 3 SoutheM1 Sto.tes •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• (Including 6 Tables) Foderal Surplus Eo.rketing "'J,dministro.tion •••••••••••••••• •• ••••• ••••••• Dent Report 1939 (abstract from) ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Legislativo Corn,,":'littoes to Investigate Rolief 1932-1940 ••••••••••••••••• Preliminary Report of Joint COr.1!:'.itteo to Investigo.te Rolief Pursuant to H.R. 110 , 1935 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Comparison Boi;t,veon Loca.lly Supported ~'.re1faro Costs of 1936-1939 •••••••• Copy of I.otter from Ea.rle Survey Cor.unitteo ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• •,. Cost of General 11.3sistance 1932-1939 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Departnent of Pu.blic ':'ss:i.stnnco Classification of "Employable" ••••••••• County Boards of Assistance, Typical Organization Patterns.............. Amninistration of Gcnoro.l Rolief (Methods by states) ••••••••••••••••••• Council on State Gove~~ents (Regional Confororcos on Rolief) •••••••••• Nunbor of ~~loyes in Non-~griculturo.l Establishments, Juno 1940 ••••••• Rccornr::.endations of tho State Job Mobilization COT:'nittee •••••••••••••••• Sunnnry of Turnover of Relief Cases in 1939 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Laws Governing Powers of COQ~ty Boards ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Citizens r COTr'inittees of County Boards of ':l.ssisto.nco Disposition of Applications, Depnrtncnt of Public Assistance 1939 •••••• Costs of 1l.dninistoring Civil Service Exaninatio:1s •••••••••••••••••••••• Laws Governing Powers of Department of Public Assistanco ••••••••••••••• Eligibility Roc!uiromonts for ~'leral 1.ssistanco ••••••••••••••••••••• '... Investigation of Cases in Phi!ndelphia ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Investigation of Cases in Pittsburgh ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ~~alysis of Reports of Co~itteo's Investigation in Pittsburgh ••••••••• (With COMDents) Investigation of Cases in Outlying Counties •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Cases of Habitual Drunke~~css •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Cases in rfuich Extra~5Qritnl Status was Found •••••••••••••••••••••••••• Report of Cases Removed fron Rolief by Dcla1mre County Board ••••••••••• Cases in which Medical Service Received Despite Question8ble '

1 40 48 49 50 52 56 57 58 59 60 62 86 87 88 91 92 94 95 96 97 98 101 103 104 112 114 116 117

Relief Status ••••••••••.•••••••••••••.••••.•..•••••••..•••.•.•••.••• '.

139

Cases Coming from Unomployr.ent Componsation 1rlth Earnings of $800 or norc During Calondar Year •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• One Year of Relicf ~ork Program ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

140 148

RECOMlVENDATIONS

T!1d

I.

Joint State Government COIIlII'.ission makes the following recommendations:

LIBERALIZATION OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT .'

The Federal Sooial Seourity Act should be amended to permit Pennsylvania to make payment to the aged on a more liberal basis •.

B.

The Federal Sooial Security Ac'C should be amended to permit the matohing of Pennsylvania's payments to the blind, which is on a liberal pension basis.

II..

RELATIONS OF THE DEPARnflEITT TO TEE A.,

The

Coun~

COU1~TY

BOlillDS

Boards should be made really autonomous.. They should be

granted full authority to operate their county organizations., B.

The

functi~

of the

Secreta~

of the Department of' Public Assistance

and the State staff should be advisory in character and confined to securing compliance with the Public Assistance law by the County Boards4

1.

Therefore:

All contacts, suggestions, findings, information and advi'ce from the Secretary or the State staff should be made or communicated to the Executive Director and the County Board and to no other person.

C,

Each County Board should>be permit-Ced to set up such organization and establish such methodsof1l1aintaining records as ma.y be deemed essential for

local('o~dit:ions.. subjeot

only to suoh reasonable re ..

qUirementsorpravisions a.s may be prescribed by the Department to 'bring about uniformity.

D.

The Secretary of Public Assistanoeshould set quarterly administrativebudgets for each board and not monthly bUdgets..

Within "bhe

limits of this over-all budget, County Boards should have the authority to determine the number and type of employes required. subject to the civil service lists. E.

Suggestions to County Boards from the Department should be greatly simplified. their number decreased, and made to conform to the above recommendations.

F..

Department field .represontatives should be greatly reduced in number and their qualifications raised.

III.

REUTION OF TEE COlli TY BOllRDS TO TEE EMPLOYMENT BOARD OR CIVIL SERVICE 11.GENCY

A.

The County Boards should deal directly with the Employ.ment Board.

B.

Eligible lists of candidates for all positions shall bo furnished • direct to County Boards.

C.

In the preparation of

e~~inations

and determining the qualifications

of applica.nts for positions of visitors or supervisors, ratings should be ba.sed primarily upon investigatory and supervisory ability nnd experience in the £ield of business rather than upon social servico training. D.

County Boards should have pOTier to terminate tho sorvices of employes for the following reasOns: 1.

lAck of ability to efficiently perform their duties.

2.

Insubordination.

3.

Unpatriotic ac"!:;ivitics.•

4.

Membership in anY-political party or organization designed to. dostroythc

5.

l~erioan

form of government.

Any formQf political activity.

E.

County Boards should have the right to suspend the servioes.of any employes not needed at the time, subject to reinstatement in the ordor of thoir suspension.

IV.

TINESTIGATION OF CASES A.

Tho lnvostigation staff in all counties should be greatly improved. Sound investigation and reinvestigation of cases for.ms the entire basis for effective work in the Department and the County Boards.

B.

~isitors

should ba rotatod and tho practice of checking and ro-

checking oases by the same employe should be discontinued. C. More stringent supervision of visitors' work should be instituted. Thorefore; 1. -Supervisors should direct visitors t work rather than " confer u wi th them re go. rding it.

2.

The number of dai,ly visitations should be increased.,

3.

An offort should be mado to set up time limits for rechecking

recipients of any type of assistance.

Supervisors should

de~~nd

that those time limits be observed. D. Thepapor work required by visitors should be reduced. E. Night checking of many recipients, particularly in the larger cities, should be provided, in order to assul'"O tho County Board that the recipient is not employed on a night shift. F. SpGcial invystignting unitscomposod of employos with Superior invostigatingability than tho average visitor now possesses should be

esta.bli~hed..

G. Independ·:mt

~mrveys

of assist::mce payments should be mo.de poriodically.

H. Any visitnr who knowingly grants relief to a person who is not entitled to

i~

by,lawshovld be penalized.

v.

SA1JlRIES

A.

~'UiID

PROMOTION OF EMPLOYES OF TEE COUlITY BOIJ.R.DS

Msthods should be adoptod to encourage e£ficiency and diligence of the employes o£ the County Boards. 1.

FOwur olassifications £or oxaminations for employment o£ tho staffs o£ tho County Boards should be utilized, .thereby making possible greater salary ranges for cation.

employ~s

'

Within a clo.ss1£i-

This reduction in classifications for examinations 'viII

tend to decreaso the cost of the operation o£ the Employmont Board. 2.

Emploj7es should start at the lowest So.lnl'"'J in their classificntion nnd their salary systematically increased as their of£orts justify_

, 3.

County Boards should haV'e the exclusive power to promote employes nnd to increaso their salaries. subject only to salary rangos established by the Employment Board. take into account

4.

locn~

Such sa.lary ranges should

liVing costs.

Every e£fort should be lIJL\do to roduce tho large turp.over in personnel by promoting c£ficiont employes to highor salo.riod clo.ssif'ioations.

VI.

LOC1...L mTERESTm TEE COST

A.

~\ND

l,JllJilISTRATION OF RELIEF

Tho County Boards should mnkc every ,effort to

do~elop

and foster

Looal Citizens' Committoes provided by law in order that loco.l interest :mo.ybo nrousod nos to tho Booio.l ef£ects o£ unemployment and the costs thereof. B.

Every effort should be mado to oooperate with all agencies engaged in training nndretraining progrnms which will provide skills for theso roceiving nssistanao.

This will rosult in 'individual self'-

OF THE STATE AGENCIESDEALlNG WITH PERSOnS ON lJ.SSIST1iNCE

Thore should be improved coordinat:ionof data pcrtCL:l.ning to tho unemployed betwoen State and County offices of the Department of Public Assistance and the Departmont of Labor and Industry. B.,Considerat1on should be given to the desira.bility of providing gonoml assistance for a porson whose total.

snla~

and unemployment

compensation payments during tho preceding 12 months have equalled 0.

predeterminod figure.

Thoro isevidonce of

0.

cyclical movomcmt

of individuo.ls between omployment" unomployment compensation and geneml assistance, which results in the gra.nting of reliof to many individuals who receivo substo.ntial wage payments during tho pre-ce ding menths. SPECIAL FACTORS RELATIVE TO THE ADMINISTRATION OF PUBLIC ASSISTllNCE

A. . A special survey should be mnde ef tho medical program a.s now con-

B.

The County Bonrq,s shouldbo·givon power to adopt rules and rogulntions rolativo to thodonial ofassistnnco incases Whore: 1.

Rolioffundsaro boing usod for tho p':1rohaso of' intoxicating liquor.

2.

It hasbocn.domonstra.tod ovor a long period of time that no effort .

·c

...

.....•

-

\

has beeIlmadetosocuTC omployment. relationships.

L.'1.W

enacted



D.

No authority should bo givon by any County Boc.rd to the Worker's Allianco# or similar

.org~niz~tions#

to represent applicants or to

nppear in their behalf at any meeting of the Board. applicant neods the services of E.

~ny

No worthy

orgnnization to obtain raliof.

Organizations of employes under civil sorvice should not be affiliated vdth labor unions.

Employes subjoct to oivil service have

tho right to form any organization within their ovm Department. Civil service provides their proteotion. F.

Consideration should begivori to the possibility of effecting greator economies and officiency in the administration of relicf by the counties

participat~ng

sibility.

in same finnncinl and administrative respon-

Tho closer the o.dministration of relief comes to the

people who are benefited t:

3by, the more likely it is to be success-

ful, effective and economical. G.

Provision should bemndc under tho Pierson Work Relief Act for accUlnu1o.ting the credits of

~ecipient

of relicf so thnt he can be

emplQ"\Jed foro. longor period at anyone time.

xxx:xx It is tho considered opinion of the Joint State Governmont COIlLmission that if these recommondai;ionu are adopted, tho administration of a.ssistnnce in the

Commonwoa1th of Pennsylvania. will be raised ton higher love1 and will result in overy needy person within the state recoiving the assistanoe provided for him by the la.ws of·this State; that the morale of those receiving relief will be improved, maintained and strengthenod; and trot tho costs of relief will be matorinlly reduced.

-

PENNSYLVANIA JOINI' STATE GOVERNMENT COlVlI\USS!ON

----.;..,;;,,;------~--

-_.._--

The Pennsylvania Joint state Government Commission was created by Act 439 of the General Assembly in 1937.

Although many temporary com-

mittces had been established to study specific problems, the committee composed of members of the House and

SenQtc~

was the first permanent re-

search agency ever established by the Pennsylvania Legislature to study government and its problems. The primary function of the Commission is research.

Pursuant to

its authority received from the Legislature, to whom it is responsible, the C4lfumssion has as it s pCl'IllDnent vlorlr the study of StG to problems end the prepar~tion

of recommendations for the legislature.

--

Duties of Commission

The duties of the Commission as prescribed

by

the Act include

seven points as follows: 1.

To investigate depc:rtm.cnts, boards, commissions, end officers of the State and local govermllcnts ·:'nd to study their legislative, financial, and other problcroo;

2.

To make studies for the usc of the legislative brcillch of the government. secking to improve the c.drninistrati w organization of the S"t::tc and local governments, to eliminate waste and overlapping fUnctions and to institute economics;

3.

To suggest ways and means of financing the Commonwealth upon a more scientific and equitable basis;

4.

To gather budget information for the usc of the Genercl Assembly;

5.

To make such other investigations und studies rmd to gather such other infor.mntion as may be deemed useful to thc General Ass enilily j

6.

To sit during the intcrim betuecll lcgisLltivc sessionsj

7.

From time to time, to report to the Gcnerccl Assembly such findings and rccommendations ~ccompmlicd with mlch dr~fts of legislntion os it dccma nccessa~J for the inform2tion of and considerntion by the General Assembly. In 1937 the

~~ssion,

under the Choirn,nship of Representative

Herbert B. Cohen of York, completed a study covering thc costs of legislative

printing and a survey of state government departments, which resulted in savings of thousands of

dollars~

The powers and duties of' the prcscnt Commission were outlined on August 16, 1939, following the noming of ncw members incident to chnnges in the 1939 Legislature, the present Chairmen, Representative Ellnood J. Turner, pas then appointed.

At the 1939 session the Commission

TIas granted $30,000 to corry on its nork and at the special session of' 1940 nn additioncl $35,000 vms m.'lde Oovailnble to the Commission. The

Co~~ssion

Ooppointcd nn Executive Committee consisting of'

Hon. Ellwood J. Turner, Hon. Frederick T. Gelder, Hon. G. Mason O;llett, Hon. John E. V:;n AIJs burg, nnd Hon. Robert E. 'i'1oodsidc, Jr. Ir. addition, it set up st:.:mding sUb-conmitteesj all reports ond recommendations mode by the Commission will bo bosed on studies of these sub -c ommit t ee s • In order thQt the lcgislnt ors IJJ:.ly be able to vi crr the present relief situation and time its groTIth from its cnrliest conception, a brief history of public

nssist~ncc

in Pennsylvania has been included as

port of the report.

, \

- 2 -

BRIEF HISTORY OF POOR RELIEF FOR

'lTfL£

PERIOD J.·ltp TO 1929

A brief' review of the events "hich took place to aid the "poor and the di3tressed in Pennsylvania"

bcgin~ling

with the colonial dnys of William PeIl."1 stretching

dmm through the years to our stream-lined J highly-centralized relief system of todny, may well serve

~s Q

fitting introduction to, nnd a background for, this study.

It nas in the year 1705 thnt poor lnns* were first enacted in Pennsylvania. Since that time more than one thousand lnns affecting the poor have been cn8cted. in viel1 of this fo.ct, it should be obvious to the most skeptical th"t poverty connot be entirely eliminated by

legisl~tivo cn~ctlmnt

and that the biblical prophecy

"The Poor Ye Have With You Al,iQys" is true. That

\10

have come for along the

hum}nitnri~n

puth in caring for the poor is

evident, for vie recnll in highlight that in the beginning all unfortunc;tes, r:hcther indolent, fecble-miYlded J infa..'1ts or o.ged, \lere classed nlil\:e and treo.ted nlike. This was the first application of. tho English precept conceived in Queen Elizabethfs era that "The condition of the lO\7est cl':l.sS of industrious laborer should be a more enviq.ble one than that of pauperism." From such beginnings ne proceeded, step by step, to the building of almshouses, the appointment of poor directors, the first SUbsidy of private charity, the inception of the county unit for poor relief, exclusion of children from almshouses and the

estnblislli~cnt

of speciel categories for feeble-minded, insane, aged nnd other

groups t#

•......:,Wllcther properly or not, no no longer hold strictly to the original precept. There is no imaginary lino.

In fact ronny

dord than some of those nho Inbor

porsor~

on relief live at

Q

higher stnn-

industrio~sly.

At tho same time no have improved our

hu~~nitQrinn

approach so that it is

difficult to realize that one time the Inn required that all persons receiving aid,

*

See Page 168 - Poor Relief AdministrC\t ion in Pennsylvania - Department of Welfare, 1934.

even children, must wear upon the right sleeve a large letter

'T, n* signif':'ling '~o.u-

per." Act of 1718 When the General Settlement Act of 1718 TIOS passed the hm-makers believed it necessary to put

G

curb upon relief activities.

cations for relief IIcre enacted, one

0['

IIhich

Provisions for discouraging nppli\18S

the pauper's "P.!!

Strict

requit~

ments for legal settlement, based on cant inued residence and occupntion, specifying providcd~

rates of assessment for relief of the poor, were

Still seeking more cconorr..icaJ. end efficient solutioE to the problem, another important step house.

llOS

taken in 1731 \"Ihen Philadelphia erected its first public nlms-

One of t he primary thought s in this

that ;m clmshousc \; ould prove less

·;-106

attractive to the indolent thon outside relief. Further efforts to relieve the public treasury come in 1749 ,ihen provision

~as

ronde for putting the dependent poor of Philadelphia to nork in order that thcy might contribute something to their o';m support. s~ers

At the same time the poor over-

were authorized to receive don:]tions from private sources.

This process TIas applied, although \lith

Q

change in emphasis in 1751, when

the Pennsylvania Hospital lias incorporated as tho "Contributors to the Pennsylvania Hospital lf under private management "7/ith public subsidy. This was the beginnb.g of the system of public aid for privately

org~mized

charity.

By 1771** the poor I,roblem had increased so 21nrmingly that the assembly again enacted legislntion '.Iith cmph:1sis pnrticulD.rly upon the efficiency of administration. The system of county relicf, replncing small

to~nship

poor districts, TIns in-

augurated in Chester and Lcncnster counties in 1798 "in the interests of economy." Here then, for the first time in the history of poor relicf in Pennsylvnnie) directors of the poor

~erc

chosen by the electorate of the County end financial cam-

pensation (at first only $20 a yeer) Has provided for their services.

~gc 170 - Poor Relie-f- Administrcti·on in Penn-syYvonin ._** Pauperism Qnd vngrnncy were intensified by imprisoIlJl1ellt of debtors and by the continued dumping of shiploads of derelicts from Europe. - 4 -

Hanover, the old tOTInship end borough systerrw of directing poor rolicf in small local units continued for many

ye~1rs

in the mn,iority of cou:c.tics.

Progressive thought concerning poor relicf

in the

TI2S

nsco~dancy

8ftcr the turn

of tho 19th century, and in 1836 the ge!lcrnl poor le1\1 of 1771 wos ta.ken apart, rcvised, c.nd put back to;]ork. During the period from 1836 to 1874 lIDny

lc:',IS

',Jere ennctcd, most of '.I11ich 1.Jere

directed tOYlO.rd spccific counties :1l1d tOi.'nships, thereby nddi:-_g to Qlrcndy e:dsting di versi ty and co nfusi on. (1)

The gerrcral ,::tcts of 1876

(2) :lllle:'.~.dcd

and IB79

severnl times since, simplified

ing in almshouses for more than 60 days normrll children bet"neen the ages of tTJO and sixteen, rnthcr thon cllon them to

Clssoci~\tc

perrili:ll:1cntly '.7ith adult

A thoroughgoil:.g r::ttempt to revise :-:.nd codify

Pcnnsylv~'11in's

po.UPC1~S.

nnss of poor lClilS

\'Ins ffi.'"'.de by the Poor L[m Comm.issior.. of 1890, O-ppoil1t cd by Governor Benver in rcsponse to general

dcm[~:nd,

but the lcgislnturc of 1891 failed to nct upon the Com-

mission's rccorn.lC!ldntions. In 1922, Governor Sproul appointed

~nother

Poor

Ln~

Commission uhose report,

submitted in the lcgislQturc of 1925, led to the pr:sso.ge of the Gencrnl Poor Relief Act. The 1925 Act ained nt carrying to its l::Jgic"l conclusion the trend, inaugurated

a century and

Q

odministrqtion.

quarter before, namely to "l.-::kc the cOQnty the unit of poor !'clicf But

ch~r~cs

mcdc in the nct before passage, and in supplementary

legisl:J.tion, hnve minimized this refcr:-,1 so thc.t h counties using tho county unit systeM thc.n there

(1) ( 2) (3)

Mny 8, P. L. 149 .June 4, P. L. 78 .June 13, P. L. III

- 5 -

1934 there '.lore only seven more

~;erc

in 1925.

RELIEF B.lCOMES

ST~TE

.iND N.tiTION',iIDE PROBLEM

THE Pi:RIUD 1929 TO 1940 The depression of 1929 helped to increase the rising tide of unemployment. The April 1930 census showed that more than 325,000 Pennsylvania wage earners were unemployed. It was not until the fall and winter of 1930-31 that any definite action

was taken regarding what was then referred to as a "trend."

The first important

statewide movement leading up to the relief problem was the Pennsylvania Committee on Unemployment appointed by Governor Pinchot in October 1930.

The re-

port of this committee was transmitted to the General Assembly in February 1931. No action was taken by the General assembly.

In I'Jovember 1930 and January 1931,

two local citizen committees were formed to study the the former being the Philadolphia Committee for was the

~llegheny

County Emergency

unemployn~nt

UnempJ.by~t

situation,

Relief Bnd the latter

~ssociation.

In July 1931 Govarnor Pinchot al)puinted the Baker Comrnittee to ascartain

"•

• • what is the actual situation of une~ploJmant relief and to prepare for

whatever demands may be madu upon the State and estimate the sufficiency or insufficiency of local tax funds • • • "

In submitting its report the Committee

call~d

attention to the June

Bulletin of the State Department of Labor and Industry, which

estimate~

Pennsy-

lvania's unemployed at nearly 1,000,000, or 24.7 per cent of the total wage earners in the $tate,

It called attention to the extent of unemployment in the major

industries and the poverty and dire need which existed in many communities. But mainly it tended to show th8 need of State aid for unemployment relief. On September 23, 1931, the

Committ~e

suggested that $20,000,000 be con-

sidered cs an appropriation by the legislQture for unemployment relief, and that this sum be raised from somo now source of revenue. But Article III, Section 18, of the Constitution of Pennsylvania which provides that

n •••

No appropriation except for PQrsons or gratuities formilltary se:rv

-

~

-

ices, shall be made for charitable, educational or benevolent purposes to any person or community, nor to any denominational or sectarian institution, carporation or sociation." beoame en obstacle.

QS-

rEhe Baker Committee suggested a way of circumventing

the act, but the Attorney General found it unconstitutional. Governor Pinchot then proposed stitutional amendment.

D.

nprosperity Bond Issue" SUbject to a con-

After a stormy session the legisldure rejected the "bona

issue" and enacted the First

T~lbot

Act, which pDovided $10,000,000 to

political subdivisions e
",11(:.

it became

1931; four months later the

0. lu~-:

~e

paid t.

The Governor re-

,/ithout his signa.ture on

28,

De~ember

Supreme Court found the uct constitutional"

st:.~te

The administrction of the Act was through poor directors without state

~uper-

vision. Pennsylvania' s

unemplo~'!llent

relief structur3 began to take shape during the



Second Special session of the Pinchot

Ad;ministr~tion.

At that session the legislature enacted three bills: (1)

51), Second Talbot Act (Act 52)

Tht:l Woodward Act (Act

.

(2)

and the Emergency Relief Sules Tax (Act 53).

The Woodi'7ard Act, alJprovad August 19, 1932, established the St8.te .Emergency Relief Board.

THB

F~DERAL

RELIBF PROGRWM

As the effect of unemployment became more severe, and the needs of the unemployed more acute, it became evident that the local governments with their limited taxing 3nd borrowing pouers could not

be~r

the uhole burden.

It uas then that the

state government found itself obliged to help provide the necessary funds for relief. As unernp1o J'!llont increased, it also becume necessary for the Federal Government to lend aid to the various sta.te governments.

The first official

F~deral

for unemployment relief w:;.s the appointment in 1930 of the "Pre siden t' B

expenditure

Emergency

COIllI!1i ttee for U:r..e:np10yment."

-----_._--(1) AQt, 52

(~ug~st 19~

1932) uppropricted $12,000,000 to the state

~ergency

Relief

Board~

(2) Act 53 (August 19,1932) provided revenue of tangible personal propurty by vendors • .--. ? .. ,

by.~n

emergency sales tax upon salos

A second connittoe was appointed to stululatc eneies to provide relief funds.

On

~hrch

local and charitable ag-

st~te,

7, 1932, by joint resolution; Congress

authorized the Federnl Faro Board to give 40,000,000 bushels of

foderally-m~lod

wheat to the Red Cross, uncI authorized an additional 45,000,000 bushels of wheat and 500,000 bales of cotton to tho same aGency. Tho Act of 1932 authorized Reconstruction Finance Corporation to lend states

~300,000,OOo(l)for reliof

purposes and later authorizod R.F.C. to make loans to the

states and their political subdivisions for solf-liquidating construction projects, and prov;_dod for tho cxpcnditure of f;322,000,000 for FcdoI'al rublic Works. In May 1933 the Fodera.l Emergency Relief gr~nted

to the F.E.R.

~500,000,000

~dministrntion wns

created and the R.F.C.

for rclidf.

This amount Was later increased (2) by appropriations and a.llocations to 02,945,450,000. In an effort to increnso the buying capacity of tho genera.l pUblic tho F.E.R. Program vms

L~terrurted

from November 1933 to

~pril

1934, whon the Federa.l govern-

ment initinted the Civil 1'iorks Administra.tion (C.1"T•.:l,.)

The main purpose of the

C.W.A. WV.s to increase consumor purchasing power a.s quickly as possible, thereby providing business ,nth a needed all other work relief

'~.s

st~~lnnt.

During the Civil Works Administration

suspendod.

In June 1933 Congress enncted tho National Industrin1 Recovery Act, which becnme

)n1mvn

as

N.R.~.,

for

~mich

vvus appropriated

~3,300,000,000.

Under N.R.A.

was created the Tublic 1'forks Administrntion, which had c\s rnrt cf its procrrun: (1) The construction of post offices, hnrbors, nnval construction nnd land rec1nmntions; (2) non-federal roads, schools and slum c1earnnco.

p.rr.i'\..

wns allotted

~~2,mO,OOO,ooo.

Tvro years Inter tho Federn1 gOvernment decidod to expand its work rolief

progrc.::l in em effort to tn1:0 up the entire slnck in unomployr.J.ent o.Ild to this end, by Executive Ordor cf the President, the narks Progress Administratien (17.r.J~.) was created, thus leaVinG the care of unemp10ynblcs to the state. pose of this order, ConGress on Today

".

TI.r.A.

;~pril

To carry out the pur-

8, 1935, appropriated the sum of C4,8a3,000,000.

is supposed to be tho hub of the ontire relief pregram of tho

(1) utatistic0.1 .\bstract of tho United stntes (1939, p. 282) (2) Sta.tistica1 Abstra.ct of tho United Stntcs (1939, p. 170) ~ 8 -

nation \1hichfeo.ture"., federally-administered \lork relief program for n~ejy unemployed employables in need on work projects sponsored by the stetes and loco.l communities who bear a small shore of the cost.

However, W. P• ...:... bo.B nevar been able

to employ all the employQcles on relief. The workers on W. P.

~.

for the most part are taken from 19co.l relief rolls,

certified by local relief uuthorities as being in need.

Thoy o.re paid a monthly

wage, vo.rying in amount from loco.lity to locality, and according to the type of work performed.

The

F~deral

government administers the ·W. P.

A.

progro.m on a basis

whioh compels the local sponsors to contribute some cash, matariul, equipment and non-relief labor.

w.

P.

~.

Up to

The ,;ages of relief labor and administrative costs are paid by

~unuury

1, 1940, there was no statutory requirement as to the amount

of the sponsor's contribution.

NOll

each state must uverQge at least 25 per cent of

the total cost of each project,

~;hich

is more than lOr per cent increase over

Pennsylvania's required contribution of 11 per cent in January 1939. Under the Federal Sociul .5ecuri ty ....ct of

J,.~nuary

9, 1935, the Federal govern-

ment makes grants in aid to the states on a fifty-fifty basis for assistance to the aged, the blind and aid to dependent children.

While Pennsylvo.nia participates

in this Faieral program so far us it applies to the uged and ren, it bears

~one

ai~

the entire cost of pensions to the blind.

refuse aid to our blind

assist~ce

to dependent child-

F~deral

program because they consider it to

authorities ~e

on a pen-

sion basis and not one of need. In addition, the 80cial Insurance System, paved

th~

~curity

way for

4Ct

estQblishe~

n~tion-uide

a long-range Federal Old Age

action by states in setting up

unemployment compensation progrums, end appropriated funds for the extension of state public health, maternal and child TIelfare activities. The other relief agencies

op~rated

directly by the Federal government are:

National Youth ~dministration (NY~); to provide for persons up to 24 yeurs of age.

part-t~e

work

Farm Sdcurity Administration (~); TIUS origina.lly the resettlement administration vli~ch sponsored the construction of over 16a aooperutive, rural resettlement and homesteud projects.

l'

Civilian Gonservation Curps (CCC); the earliest form of direot reliaf activity created by th~ ~ct of March 31, 1933, uas to place in camps young men 17 to 23 yecrs of age whose families were in need. In these camps they devoted themselve~ to trailmaking, forest conserv~t1on, flood control and the like. Furmerly independent, the COO is now part of the Federul Security ~gency.

Federal SUrplus (Cornmod! ties) Marketing ..~dministr(ition:* the purpose of whichisto remove price-1epressing ferm surplus by subsidizing exports and by relief distribution through state and local agencies. In 1932 when Pennsylvania tluda its first appropriation for relief no one anticipate~

that out of this emergency there would develop, within the short period

of eight years, the most pressing problem PennsylvaniA's legislators have had to

~"'u

face since the crisia in which Benjucin Franklin cast the future of the Commonwealth with the new union of

st(ites~

There was no ilay to kno\7 that relief "ould skyrocket, in IQ38, to the level

(1) of $350,000,000. spent in the state for relief in various forms; that in a single :month the relief rolls nould include about 2,000,000 people; that the problem of financing the program would tax the ingenuity of succeeding legislatures; that the re(2)

sulting tax

increase~

would become so great as to lead Dally economists

to '1e-

lieve that business was being impeded and that the CQst of relief, instead of stimulating recovery, SITUATION

BEC~

~as

preventing recovery.

,.CUTE

," .

Within a few short months after the state's initial

vent~e

into augmenting

local funds for the needy, 'it Decame evident to the members of the legislature that they were facing a situution which d~unded

~as

growing more acute --

~

situation

~hich

action,

Like most states, P6J,.nsylvan1a.'s r.eo.rt had been opened by the iesparate knocking of those who were unable to help themselves, and during the first three months of 1933 the State's purse strings were opened to the tune of $19,500 t OOO.

,

'.

* see page oW , ..ci..ppendix (1) See puge 1 • Appendix (2) See ~ge 49 , Report of Dent

COL~ssiQnt

1939

(1 )

From thot moment to the present time

it has cost the .state (excluding

federal fundd) approximately $56,000,000 just to administer relief in Pennsylvania, and while the total monthly outlay for assist&nce has decreased in the Past two months, General

~ssistance

alone is costing approximately $925,000 a week.

in all its forms, inclUding categories and General

~ssistance,

Relief

costs $7,500,000 a

month. LEGISL.~TlVE

COMMITTEES FOH\1ED

~xiety

on the part of the legislature and the mushroom growth of relief and (2)

its attendant costs resulted in many oommittees

being appointed to study the

new trend in taking care of the needy. (3)

During the period between 1932 and 1935 more than 20 legislative tees were appointed. AS

commit-

buch studied end reported on various phases of relief.

eurly as 1935 a Legislative Committee was blazing a trail tOllurd a

ltbo.lunced" relief set-up for Pennsylvenia.

In

th~ir

Committee to Investigate the Distribution of Public

preliminary report, the .Toint Relie~

Throughout the Common-

(3)

wealth (House Res. No. 110,

1935) said, "Relief administrution • • • should be de-

centrolized • • • and local bocrds should be given authority to ronke such rules as >7111 provide reumna.ble relief at a minimum of expense to the taxpayers." ~~d

in reporting on the trend to"ard socializing relief, the Committee found,

"no criticism occurred more frequently th.JIl thut

rel~ting

to the type of employes

administering relief • • • the administration of relief has passed to a large extent into

th~

mony of the

hands of p:cofessional socio.l \;orkers • • • " und o.dded, "the testi-

~ssistQnt ~~~nistrator

of Direct Relief

sh~ed

the large measure

free play given to the rociul influence in thG whole; <:drninistro.tion of

~f

relief~··

Early in 1935, Q committee o.::ppointed under House Resolution No.. 44, to investigo.ta the Allegheny County l!bergency Relief Board pointed out tho.t "local control Wc.s vi tal • • •" and added that "State energen cy Relief Boo rd should determine allotments to various counties • • • but the Llc.nner, orgunizo.tion, eli stri bution and planning of relie f is distinctly u loco.l problom." (1) (Year 1940 esttouted.) (2 ) Pages 50-51 .Appendix ( 3 ) Fugas 52-55 ~ppendix

-11-

In conoenting on the type of rrorkers. the

Co~ttee w~s

most aophatic in

its st:::tement that "use of sociul '.7orkers (is) not essentiol or evon

necess~ry.

Requirentnts for the position of investigator seems to have been drown up to fit sociul

liO rkers."

GENER.~L DIss.~TISF".CTION

Knontng the general dissutisfuctionof the legisl.::tors and the pUblic \;ith the relief problem, which early in 1938 vas costing the taxpayers in state and Federal grant s r.1ore than $20,000,000 a r:lonth, Governor George H. Earle appointed a Coomittee on Public

~ssistnnce ~nd

Relief, headed by Deun Herbert F. Goodrich,

of the University of Pennsylvo.nio, >lhich \;as cOtlplete ,lith spaciul udvisory nittees, a

technic~

st~ff,

reseurch assistants

'rhe Goodrich report which

~as

~nd

COnl-

others.

presented in Deceober 1935 recomnended swaeping

changes in the entire relief set-up, inoluding

0.

new departnent to be known as

the "Departnent of ..ssistQnce." -

-.Jo-~-

.-_ ....

-- -.,..--_ . .-

....

During this perIod cuny persons were

lief to local responsibility. suncer In

~.1pho.sizing

tho need for returning re-

4t the special session of the legislature in the

of 1930, these denands becane especially frequent and urgent. "~ugust

1936 Governor Earle, .lith the approvc.l of the atutemergency Re-

lief Board, announced thc.t an experiment in this direction

~ould

hope of deriving, during the ensuing months, information of value

be nade in the to the legislature

in guiding the formulation of a perounent relief policy. Six pounties were chosen for this experiment, partly because they hud expressed

Q

desire for un increQsed Qeusure

of local udLlinistration, und partly be-

cause they nera representative counties in the._-8t_ilQ. They dare Butler, Curbon, Centre, Chester, eumherland, and Clarion counties. Local bOQrds were selected and they "ere gronted full por;ers to use any method of procedure they thought TIise. under the S. E. R. B.

Prior to this there "ere no local board

Members of the Goodrich Committee visited the various) counties to study their methods and approach to the problems which came up d\lring the experimente SUMMARY OF GOODRICH COMMITTEE ExpERIMENT

Note: All material under Summary of Gbcidrich Committee Experiment to quotes (,,) en page 14 is quoted fram Goodrich Report. "Two general conclusions must be drawn from the study of this experimente

First, despite the unlinlited freedom allowed to the especially

constituted boards in these counties, no drastic change in policy or method of administration was found by them advisable or necessary. Second, it appears, nevertheless, that in these communities there is somewhat increased confidence in relief administration as a Whole, based on public confidence in the local citizens to whom opportunity and responsibility had been given for close scrutiny or administrative policy and action. "The followinl3'facts regarding policies of relief administration are apparent from the study: 1.

There were no drastic changes or reductions of staff.'

2.

Expendi tures were not decreased more rapidly in .!1).§se counties than in other counties of the state.

3.

Cnse loads in tho experimental counties followed practically the same curve as for the rest of the state.

4.

Standards of eligibility for relief were not altered in any substential degree.

The local bo&rds apparently

found little evidence of Widespread chiseling and there wore indications that the new board members, faced with actual individual needs, camG to feel that relief grants should be somewhat greater.

"

)Vhile there are indications that tho mere existence of genuine

local boards, with real responsibilities. strengthened local confi-13-

denee and cooperation, there is also evidence that most of those local communities stUll lack* any deep interest,

o~

even general

undors tanding, in regard to the relief program. II "One of the striking outcomes of the experimont is the demonstration that a state-local partnership in public assistance and relief is

p~dcticeb18

and desircble.

It is clear, in the first p12ce, that

it is possible to enlist the unselfish, intelligent, and diligent services of representative citizens of the local community in the conduc t of those import8.nt functi.ons wi thout any promis e of financial rew&rd.

In no singlo inst8nc0 was there evidence of the slightest

intrusion of rErtistm political activity. (II) Fallowing the report of the Goodrich Committee, the legislature in 1937 set up a

of Public Assistance (Act No. 399, 1937 P. L. 2051) providing

Dep~rtment

for a centrelizcd systom of administrrtien end distribution of assistance end relief. Prior to 1937 the permanent relief load of the unemployables had prosumably been with tho counties; the wi th a temporary State agency.

tempor~ry reli~

lOf.d of the employebles had been

By this 1937 Act they were combined under

Q.

perman_nt

State Egency and no texes wore thoroLftor eollected in £ny county for these purposes but were

colle~te~

by the

St~te

end the proceeds thereof sent into all parts

of tho State ns cppliC&:J.ts were certified for nssist::.ncc and relief. (1)

A survey

co!'l'J.~ tec_

showed that locnlly suppor+-ed

in November, lQ40, by the Pennsylvania Economy League we1f~re

1939 below similr_r costs in 1936.

costs in the

~ountiGS

dropped $6,125,000 in

While this IDLy be en cnswer to the often asked

question "Whrt s,.vings in loc::.l taxes will (The Guodri·Jh Acts) be effected?", it must be

~smGmbered

that there m£.y be Gnd are other contributing factors Which,

while possibly not so importrnt as tho chenge, hLve :1cd some effect on the costs. (II) End q110tes from Goodric1. r81ort.

* \

\

In the opinion of the Reliof Committee this leck of interest was due to the absence of any loc,l finrnciLl bu!'den for the relief loe.d. (1) See p~ge 56 eppondix. -14..

Sffi1VEY C01vlMIT'IEE APIOI1T1J.'ED

It soon becmne Qvidont, however, thn t a istering relief was still in doubt.

For it

W8S

SF.

ti sfcctory formula for admin-

but one year and one day from the

dLte thst the Goodrich Report wes presented, and less than six months cfter the so-called Goodrich P12n was enacted into sary to nppoint

P

l~w,

Rolief Survey Committee*,

th~t

Governor Enrle found it neces-

ch~rgod

with checking the efficiency

of the newly-formed Department's staff, inv>Jstigeting the eligibility of relief C&SOS,

nn annlysis of ellJpsod time bot>7oon visi ts to relief recipients rnd eddi-

tiOllFl compc,rf'.ble dcta. The Survey Commi tteo, consis,ting of D. M. Livingston, Chrdrmt:n, Hr:rry Ml::rgolis, F,nd Willirm A. Sponsler, 3rd, found

th~.t

among other things the "super-

visors in chE1rgc of interviewers Gnd investigLtors did not attempt to check data compiled for relief grrnts •••• pcrmitting tho possibility of collusion or freud bet"een the npplicr:nt E:nd the invostigr tor." They found that the investigrc.tors Vl0ro "spending 25 to 50% of their time in obt&ining irreL)vcnt Illftter on the {\ppliccnt ••• •insteed of finding the fects upon which eligibility

WElS

(cnd is) based."

The Commi ttee also found the whole system of invGstigetion hC1d become classified in the Depr,rtment as follows:

Investig~tors

were knOlm ,<:s 'visitors,"

relief recipients as "clients, 'I E:nd invostigc tions Gnd re-invostigc:.tions "visi ts."

flS

And (dded, "In our jUdgment, this terminology exr.otly describes the

degenore ti on of the Depp.rtment' s most importr nt eoti vi ty."

EIGHT YEARS AFTER During the PI" st eight ycr-.rs commi ttee E.fter oommi ttee has found virtually the SE'me si tuction yerr to yef_r. Whf-t vms true in 1932 '.'ms more evident in 1940. Reports of specirl committeos 2ppoint8d to study relief four end five *November 16, 1937 (Pege 1.)

P~ge

57, Appendix. -15-

yeers I.go reed like ce.rbon copies of much lr-. ter reports. SimilFr cor.rmi ttses found similr.r .condl tions in fl1 pr;rts ('1' the Str. tee !J~ ture lly,

show hew relief

"hS

the figures end trends prosen ted in this sccti on c,f the ropar t effecting our pocketbooks befere the generr.l emplcymcnt

si tup. ti on begl:,n to show improvement. ( 1) The cost of unemployment relief (gonarel E'.ssistl::ncc) hes decrer-.sod from

bn all-time high of $7,057,000 per month in 1939 to F.pproximctely $4,000,000 per mnnth for tho Inst fow mcnths of 1940. Officinl figures show thRt General Assistcnco during the last six months of 1940 cest Pennsylvnnin tr.xprcyers ~ppr0Ximf.tely $26,378,000 or npproximr:~tely

$8,000,000 loss thnn tho C34,719,OOO fer ,the first six mcnths of the year. Thb i

"breathor" thnt the Legislcture needs in order to stand off

t

frcm tho picture and see its true col:lrs·. Eight yeers [',rter str:rting

ell

this course wc ere justifiod in Rsking

ourselves these questions: WhEt has relief

~ccoEplished?

Rbve tho bonefits boon in propcrtion to tho costs?' Have

~busos

and evils developed?

Cen improvements in approach Lnd

~dministr[tiC'n

be brcught about?

In answering the above questions, these problems ere involvod: To

Hh~t

extent should the

Comnon~oelth

obligGte itself to

c~~e

for

those who ere in noed? Is it resV'D.siblc, and if so to whet extent, for the sodel v;alfere of rocipi,mts beyond physicr-l necessi ties for hoclth end docent living? Does tho experience of being a recipiont of gcvernmontaid hc.vo any ill effect upon chpr8cter or citizonship? Should these eonsidorations hcvc poli cies of relief [;dr.1ini s trr:. tion? (1)

See pcgc 58 Appendix

-16-

Q

dofinite plece in the plan end

Tho enswars to those questions do not como properly fram our emotional side.

They depend upon focts, sincerely 2nd honestly studied.

What is done now

in this opportunto poriod flay determine the course of social nnd oconoflic events in our Conmonwe2lth fer n long tine to

co~e.

If after eight ye8rs we cennot sp-

prr:tise our problom Gnd nct as the situntion dictates, >1hat possibility is there thn t

1;1C

shall be better oble to rOf ch e just ond equi teble conclusion ;;fter ten;

fifteen or twonty yecrs? Wh." t the legish. tors hevc n right to know' <'.nd !::lust know is how essistGnco is loing

~dMinistorcd

in Ponnsylv2nie.

ance with tho real intent of tho Act?

Is it being administored in accord-

Aro the oligibility requiror.lOnts s.s pre-

scribcd by In>1 being followod?

-17-

ORG~:NIZATION

JillD PROGR/JJI OF COMMITTEE ON RELIEF

It is the duty of tho Legislature to know the pertinent facts about tho rolief situatien and to bring abeut whatever changes are necessary. Too often in the past eight years the Legislature has lucked all of the necossary facts.

V~thout

knowlodge it has had to proceed upon emotion and under

pressure. The Committeo on Relief of the Joint Stnte Government Commission, with the cooperation of tho Pennsylvania Economy League and othors, hasdoveloped the facts.

This report is the rosult of studies of taxes and of relief, in compari-

son 'vi th 13 ether states, of j.nvostigo.tibr.s and of a genoro.lly constructive ap" proach to the whelequestion.

To support this roport, the

Ce~~ission

has gathered

authentic and specific material. l~IBITIOUS

PROGRfJK

PLi~~~ED

At its first moeting, the Committee adepted an ambitious program of study covering the administration of rolief in Pennsylvania and throughout tho nation.

The Committoe and its sub-conw.ittoe mot regularly between

~ugust

23,

1939, and Decembor 31, 1940. Tho COlumitteo was organized to study the cost of assistanco in Ponnsylvania and has therefore sponsorod the following activities: 1. Recommended and assisted in organizing the State Job Mobilization prr .. grnm to ascortain if unemployment can be reducod by:

2. It

a.

Creating intorest by citir.ons in locnl units throughout tho State.

b.

~rousing

c.

Stimulating re-employmont.

h~s

mado

Assistance

interest of employers in assistance costs.

n comprehensive survey of the cost of the present Public progrc~

in Pennsylvania.

The Committee has surveyed the administration of public assistance by the Department and tho County Boards, vii th particulnr refe renco to: -18-

1.

Scope of the present program of public assistance in Pen!'.sylvania.

2.

Relationship which exists betvreen the Department a.nd the County Boards, their staffs and offices throughout the state, including: a.

Powers, Duties, Personnel and Organization of the County Boards of Assistance.

b.

Rules and regulations imposed on County Boards by the Department.

c.

Regulations regarding eligibility issued by the Department and the effect of reviewing bonrds organized to review locnl determinations of eligibility.

d.

Cooperation and conflicts

be~veen

the Department and the

County Boards. 3.

Extent of interest on the part of the members of the locnl boards and the extent of their activity.

4.

Method of determination

~nd

investigation of eligibility for General

Assistance. 5.

Effect of certain provisions in the law: Milk Family responsibility Citizens' committees Performance of work for relief Medicnl services.

6.

7.

Operation of the Merit System in the follovnng particulars: ~d

a.

Examinations

Rating.

b.

Appointnent.

c.

Promotion

d.

Separation from Service.

Existence of Labor Organizations in the Department of Public Assistance and its effect on administration.

8.

Coordination

be~veen

Department of Public 9.

facilities of State Employment Offices and the ~ssistnnce.

Unemployment Compensation and Relief Payments.

The Committee engaged in a comprehensive study of administration of public assistance and the costs in Pennsylvania contrasted to other selected states.

In securing this 1.

in~~ntion:

It gathered much data on public a.ssistnnce in Pennsylvania. and the laws

and progrnms of

n~inistration

in other states.

It considered reports

on recent investigntions of the administration of Public nssistance in other states. 2.

It socured tho cooperation of the Pennsylvnnia Economy League in preparation of a report wlich includes detailed tables and charts annlyzing the expenditures for public assistance, number of cuses, und number of persons on assistnnce since 1932 in Pennsylvanin und ten other selected corn.parable states, by type of assistance grcmted by Federal, Stute and local governmonts.

In addition, three southern

states wore also studied nnd siQilar comparisons made.

FIELD TIrrVESTIGATIONS The COI:1r.1ittoo conducted hearings and through the personnel of tho Commission made extonsive surveys.

These hearings und surveys have included the

follOWing: 1.

n field investigation in Philadelphia of 777 general assistance cases, taken at reI.ndom, tho majority of 'which Tiere from the "Federnl District", which was a representative aroa, to ascertain whether persons receiving assistance were in need of such nid, to learn the numbor of cnses ineligible and the reasons therefor.

This stUdy was mnde in the period

from October 23, 1939, to Janunry 27, 1940. 2.

"1 field investigation in Pittsburgh of 2;3 general assistance cases,

also taken at random in sovern1 areas to ascertain whether persons receiving assistance

w~re

in need of such nid, to learn the number of

cases ineligible and the reasons therofor.

This study vms made in

the period from February 21, 1910, to

8,

-20 ...

~pri1

19~0.

3.

A field investigation in Delaware County to survey 105 cases to

de~

termine how persons, denied or removed from assistance, were presently liVing without aid.

This included single men, aged 18 to 45, who the

County Board assumed could cam the equivalent of a weekly relief check, and others "who wero on too long and ho.d not made nn honest effort to got into industI"'J." 27, 1940, to April 8, 4.

This study wns mado in the period fron Fobruary 19~0.

Conferences during February, 1910, with members of seven County Boards, to inquire into locnl administration of public assistnncG.

5.

rield mlrveys from Juno 17 to August 9, 1940, of the administration of public nssisto.nce in the offices of eight County .l\ssistance Boards.

6.

Meetings from February 13 to July 24, 1940, 1vith the Enployrwnt Board, tho Department of Public Lssisto.nce, tho Department ef Labor und Industry, and the Auditor General, to discuss the operation of the De-

pnrtmcnt of Public Assistance, tho nerit system and the state Employnont Offices. LIMITED FIDTDS AVLI~\BLE A linitcd npproprintion to the Joint stnte Government COMmission, nnd the need of funds by other Cennittoes of the

COM~ission,

mnde it necessary for

the Committee on Rolief to enrry on its studies and investigations on n proportionate allotnont. This does not monn thnt the findings of the Comoittee's report aro any less pertinent or fino,l. The investigations of tho Conunitteo were based on complaints by citizens und those engaged in the administration of assistance, on obvious noninistrntivo defects in the counties, and objections to tho system which hud boon raisod during the past fow years.

-21..



Eve~

nction of the Co.mmittee 1ms motivated by a desire to lourn the

true, unbiased facts concerning the udministration of relicf in Pennsylvunia. To effect this, the

Co~tteels

staff chose representat.ive loculitios in tho

state and ronde snnplings. All cuses 'NeI'O taken at rundom frOI:l County Board files und no attenpt wns mude to "choose ll

0.

specific cuse which could be considered

CI.

Ilset_up" to

provo a cusoor point either for or against the present system.

In sane cases the staff investigated "conplnint" cases turnod in by citizens who felt that the recipiont vms net entitled to relicf, either Wholly .or in part.

-22-

STRUCTURAL ORGANIZJI,TION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC li.SSIST.'JJCE A comprehensive idea of the governmental machinery of the Department of Public Assistance mny be had frem Organization Charts I and II (pages 24-25). It is the purpose here to

Sl

pplemont these chnrts by briefly outlining

tho main divisions of the DepartMent and their functions and to offer such comments and facts as may be conducive to a workable knowledge of tho Departmont. The Department of Public Assistance vms created by legislative onactment Juno

2~,

1937.

It displaced tho then existing State Emergency Relief Board

and local reliof agencies.

The Department supervises and administers relief

through the Socretary and staff in Harrisburg and the 67 county boards. ~,o

There are

arms of tho Deparunent, nrunely tho state Board of Public Assistance and the

State Employmont Board. The SecretOory is appointed by the Goyernor with the confirmation of the Senate.

He is

the officient

0.

Member of the Governor's cabinet and is responsible to him for

nQ~inistrution

of relief throughout the

Ce~onwoalth.

He is

0.

member of the State Beard of Public Assistance and has joint powers with the State Employnont BOOord relating to salaries, classification of positions and qualifications of the Depo.rtmentfs employes.

*

The State stafr as of December 31, 1910 consisted of 7,060 employes. The number of employos was aruministration of the

COJ:'.si der~,bl:r

so~called

-which will be sa.id lateru

nugmontod by the requirer-lOnts for the

Pierson Act and the Milk Order Law, more about

Its various bureaus and field ngoncios are plainly in-

dicated on Chart II, puGe 25. The outstanding functions of the Department arc: (0.) To a.llocate to the severQI Qssistnnce progrnns (Olu~ - ~DC - AB and GA)

fUI'-ds as may benocessc..ry fron tine to ti7Tle to provic.e assistance as roquisitioned by tho county bonrdso (b) To establish with the approval of the State Board of Assistance rulos *Auditor Generai's figures ..23-

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania DEPj~TMENT OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE Organization Chart state ~9ard

i~srM~aiige

f iSeoretary t I Pllhl~~ I - - - " " " T " i-

_ _....I

Chart No. 1

3mployI!lent Board

Deputy

Seoret'¥"Y , .

Finance

Field Representatives

Unit Offices

Chart No. 2 PENNSYLVANIA

PUBLIC GENERAL

ASSISTANCE

PROGRAM

ORGANIZATION CHART

-'-I

LGoVe:

Federal Security Agency

I

1------------N

at

,.



Security Board

I

I

state Board • Approves Standards & General policies

Social

Department of Public Assistance

Emplo;yment Boa.rd





Merit System-State & Local Employes

State Administration & Supervision

- - - - _-- - ....

.

Auditor General

State Treasurer



Assistance and Administrative Disbursements

Sta.te

- . - _. - -

-

Auditing

---~

--

-

-

I

- _-1

County'Boards of Assistance Local Administration

Prepared by D.P.A. October l 1940

and regulations as to eligibility for assistance and as to its nature and extent.

(0) To supervise locnl boards and establish for them rules, regulations and standards consistent with law. For a complete statement of the powers and duties of the Dopartment see page 97 of the Appendix. 1.

The cost of Old Age Assista.nce granted to persons who are 65 years of ago or over is borne on a 50-50 basis by the stnte and the federnl government.

2.

The Aid to Dependent Children group includos children undor 16 years of age (and those 16 to 18 who are regularly attending school) and anyone relative (as specified by the Fedoral Social Security Bonrd) with whom they are liVing. on a 50-50

3.

b~sis

The state and federnl gevernment jointly

finance this program. (1)

Blind Pensions nre provided for under the Constitution and tho Public Assistance Law. gnrd to need.

A pension is n flnt monthly sum granted without reThis differs from assistcmco granted to other groups

which are on n basis of need. (2) 4.

General Assistance is assistance provided entirely from state funds for those needy porsons who are not eligible for assistance in the other three above-named groups.

This group includes not only employ-

able persons who are out of work but also many persons und family unitfl vlithout income ,mo are unemployable.

From a study Ilk'1,do la.st

October (1940) the Socretary of the Department of Public Assistance stated that approximato1y 49,000(3) or slightly over one-third of the cases on the general assistance rolls contained no members currently able to take employmont. (1) The State is actually paying 61 percent bocause 1n the number of recipients in

A.D.C. is included one responsible relative. The Federal government participates on 0. 50-50 basis for the children only. The Federal government dees not participate in this program. See page 59 Appendix.

.. 26 -

Detailed

i~~ormQtion

regarding the rules and regulations of the De-

pnrtment of Public Assistance relating to eligibility for assistance, which change from time to time, cnn be obtained from the County Board or from the Department of Public Assistance •. STl\.TE EMPLOTIlIEJlTT BOARD The other arm of the Department of Public Assistance is the state Employmcnt BO:1rd. .This board appointed by the Governor with the conser.t of the Senate consists of three members.

They receive per diem compensation not exceed-

ing $25 per day and actual expenses incurred. The duties of this boa.rd l:1.1'e confined exclusively to administering the civil service laws pertaining to omployment in the Departmont of Public Assistanco.

Briefly sketched thoy arc us follows: (a)

Prepare and conduct examinations for employment.

(b)

Grade exnminees and prepo.ro eligibility lists of successful npplico.nts.

(c)

Make rules for fixing the order in which the Dumas of successful npplicants shall be placed on eligibility lists.

(d)

Perform duties a.nd in

so~me

cnses establish rules and regulations re-

garding probation, transfers, suspensions, demotion and removal of department employes. (e)

Has joint powers with tho Department of Public Assistanco to: 1. Classify employment positions 2. Fix minimum o.nd maximum so.lnries, and 3. Establish qmnlifications for ~ny class of

(f)

employm~nt.

To make rules and regulations necessary to carry its proscribed duties into effect. The following tnble gives tho number of employes in the Depnrtment of

Assistance as of May 31, 1939, and May 31, 1910, nnd December 31, 1940, rospoct. ivoly:

- 27 -

Employment Bonrd State Heo.dquartors* County Boo.rds

65 859 6831

7129

108 921 6031

7755

8256

7060

131 996

TYPES OF ASSISTJ.1TCE 1.IMnnSTERED Thore are four general types of assistance administered by the Depnrtment of Public Assistance.

(n) (b) (c) (d) (0)

They nre:

Old Age Assistance (O~~i) Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) Assistance to tho Blind (.t\.B) Genero.l Assisto.nce (GIl.) Specinl progro.ms such as the medical progrnm.

The first throe above for convenience ara referred to o.s "Categoricnl Ass:i.stnnco." COUNTY BOARDS There is one board for each county appointed by the Governor with the consent of the Senate.

~cmbers

of the county bonrds

sh~ll

not 0.11 belong to the

same political party nnd they serve without pay but are nllo"limd actual oxpenses. Each board censists of 7 members except in COU.L'1.tios of the 1st and 2nd clnss whore they hnvo 11 members eo.ch. The structural organization of county bonrds though alike in pattern, vary greo.tly according to

popul~tion.

typical of the organization of

D.

Char~

III page 60 Appendix for example is

populous county while Chart IV on the following

page (61) is typicnl of thnt of smaller counties. The outstcmding P01l'JO!'s and duties of tho county board are:

(0.)

To appoint, trnnsfor, lny off, sU$pend and remove its employes in accordancei'dtIl luw which employos on behalf of the bonrd and under the supervision of the County Executive Director sho.ll provide as-

*

Includes rogional, claims settlemont and Fedoral Surplus Commodity personnel.

- 28 -

sistnnco in tho torritory under its jurisdiction. (b) By far 1 tho most importrmt duty of the Dopartment of Assistnnco is that of determining who l according to law, is entitled to assistance and that grave responsibility, subject to supervision from the stato officc l rests with the For

fI.

co~~ty

bonrds und thoir employes.

complete statement of tho powers und duties of county bourds us

mnendod by tho 1937 sossion of tho logislature it is suggosted the rOGder soe pages 92 und 93 of tho Appondix. STLTE BO!.RD OF' PUBLIC ASSISTAECE

The Stato Board of Public Assistance consists of tho State Treasurer l Attorney General r'.nd 7 other citizens of' the Corrunon,wnlth, appointed by the GovoI'!'.or.

The sale duties of tho Boa.rd nre o.s follows;

(0.) To approve or diso.pI)rovG and ::,.dopt rules, regulCltions cmd sto.ndn.rds recoJJmel1ded by the Dcpc'.!"bnont of eligibility for nssistance

a~d

l~ssistr.nce :~nld

loce,l bourds ns to

as to its nature and extent.

tnb1ish for the Dopc.rtrnont o.nd 100nl bonrds rules

CL~:.d

To es-

regulo.tions

concerning the administration of the Act. (b )To study the ;;vork of the llipnrtmcnt

::\11<1

to ro cormnend chcmges in nd-

ministrfl.ti'1ro :;Jolicics to tho Govornor l r,c1.d (c) To tC'lko any other action nuthorized or roquired by 1nw. pngo 201<1:.

- 29 -

P.L. 1937,

BELfEF-mpErTJlTSYVUJrrJi COMP.ABED TO TEN NEIGHBORTIlG }JND COMPETITIVE STLTES*

Now lot us consider the cost of relief in Pennsylv[mia.

QS

compnrod with

the noighboring a.nd competitive stutes, with some roferonce to the situation in (1) the southern stutos~ Tho fol10vnng stutes were comp~red in u study by tho research staff of tho Pennsylvania EcoEomy League: Illinois, Indiana, Mnrylnnd 1 1'Iassnchusetts, IvIichigo.,nj Now Jersey, Novr York 1 011io, 17est Virginin, nnd Wisconsin. Reliof in nll its forms is the lnrgc st sihglo item of governmental expondituro in Ponnsylvanin.

1<'ew people renlize its full rnugniturle (2) even after

paying the bills for eight yonts.

Looking at the oxpenditures of one relief

ngency , it is CJusy to lose sight of the oxponditures being mnde sirruld:nneously by other o.gc'Jncios. The total cost, excluding some costs such o.s Federo.l ndministro.tion, nonrelief lo.,bor nnd materials and supplies on ·work projects, amounted to $177,722,000 in 1934, rose to nn nll-time high of more thnn

~350,OOO,000

in 1938,

nnd decreased to $317,800,000 in 1939. (3 ) $25,000,000 A MONTH IN 1938 ~'lND 1939 _ In other words relief in Pennsylvania, Stnte and Federnl, cost marc thnn $25,000,000 n month in onch of the lust hvo yeurs.

Tho 1938 relief expend-

ituro of $350,775,000 amountod to $34.53 per cnpitn or n cost of 041.26 for each of the 8,500,000 residents of Ponnsylvo.nia not roceiving any form of rolief. This means that approximately $165.00 had to be given up by euch fnmi1y of four persons not recoiving rolicf for the support of the unemployed and unemployable. It is obvious thnt the localities could not hnvo earned this tremendous cost. Relief expendituros in 1939 in Pennsy1vo.nia amounted to 5.95 percont of tho total income of tho rosidents of the state in 1937, the latest yenr for which income figures c,re nvni1ublo.

*

See pages 62-85, ~ppendix for table showing financial nnd ndministrativo responsibility by States. (1) Soo ~ppendix, puga 1, Rolief in Ponnsylvania .und Ton Other States. (2) Seo pago 86, Appendix (3) Soc pugo 2, Appondix - 30 -,

Looking only at tho state's share of the total relief expenditures, the picture is equally dark.

In 1939 the state paid out over

~10,000,000 0.

month

for relief, including general assistance and spocial categories, and in the early months of 1940 paid out only slightly less.

In

tho pre-proparedness ora the cost

ims running at a rate which would have meant a total of 0240,000,000 in the current biennium, or approximately 65 percent of tho receipts of the genural fund anticipated in the budget for this period. Incrensedemployment * in Ponnsylvania resulting from the efforts of the State Job

~~obilization

Program, (1)

v~r

ordors from Groat Britain and France, and

other activities, brought about seme reduction in the combined relief rolls. Since January, 1910, Goneral Assistance grants have decreased from approximately $4,000,000

D,

~7 ,000,000 0.

month until todny it is costing slightly more than

month.

Special Categories at

~2,451,000,

and administration, inclUding medical

aid and special programs at slightly more them !'n,000,000

0.

month respectively,

bring the tetal cost of General Assistance end Special Categories to o.pproximntely 07,500,000 a month at the presont time. And while tho National Defonse Program has helped to alleviate the situntion for the present, it enn only be termed !ttemporary" because tho fundamental conditions which croatod the relief load have net beon correctod and no preparation mndo for tho timo vmen another recossion reduces tho employment rolls.

*

Soe pago 87, Appendix. (1) See pages 88-90, Appendix.

.. 31 -

GmrERAL ASSISTANCE CASE LOAD HIGH In relation to its population, Pennsylvania is not out of line with certain other states in the over-all number of casos receiving relief of various types, including W.P.A., as noted herein. *

However, since the spring of 1938, Pennsyl-

vania has had relatively more general assistance cases than any of the other ten industrial states, and its general assistance case load continued to grow throughout 1938 and the first nine months of 1939, while the general trend among the other stutes was slightly dmvnwurd. Pennsylvania m1d Maryland lvore the only two states which did not show a substantial decroase in cases per thousand on General Assistance.

Sevoral facters

probably hnve influenced this, one being that throughout 1936 and 1937 Pennsylvania wus high in relation to population in number of 1Y.P.A. cnses but in the early months of 1938, foIl behind most of the other states, and since has had a relatively low number of W.P.A. cases.

Also,

Pe:L~sylv~nin

has had n rolatively low number

of cases receiving special types of nssistance under the special cntegorios. 'Whntever the cause of this high ratio of general o.ssistnnce, it is these cases for which the State pays in Pennsylvnnia, and thus the state ho.s been unduly burdened in relation to competitive states. Grnnts(l) per case on genoral assistance and the specinl categories, and carnings of persons employed on Federal work progrnms, nre 0.11 relatively high in Pennsylvnnin, but not excessively so, being generally less thnn in Mnssachusetts o.nd New York and only slightly more than in most of the other comparable states. · (2) varies bet1'1-oen second and thir d place among the states comPennsy 1vCtn~a

pared in per capita expenditures for direct relief and in per capita state and local expenditures for all formE of rolief.

*

Sec page 2, Appendix (Comparison ~~th other States) (l)See page 26, Appendix (Charts 9-10-11 and Tables XII to XXXIII) (2)800 page 30, Appondix (Chart 13, Tablo ]JC1V)

- 32 -

ONLY STATE STUDIED CARRYThTG nlOLE BURDEN Pennsylv~nin is the only one* of the stntes studied in \~lich the stnte,

o.s contro.stod to loco.l government, has o.ssumed the whole burden ef both direct relief and the special categories. ~':.

P.A. COS TS

The ro.pid rise in expenditures in relation to co.ses and persons in Pennsylvo.nia. cnn be o.ttributed to the o.dvent of

rr.p.A.

which pnid more tho.n twice

as much per cnse as genero.l nssistance o.fter G.A. grunts hnd boon increased. 1'!.P.A. is the "nristocracy of relief" when viewed solely as

'without considero.tion of t he vo.lue produced.

0.

relief progro.m and

; 12 7,000 ) ( 1 ) . t he nmount (<''h,133, Usu:.g

po.id by the Federal government to VI.P.A. project ompleyes in 1939, we find fi(';ure of (;61.91

0.

month for the o.verC'.ge of 179,207 F.P.A. employes

with o.n nvero.ge genero.l nssisto.nce grant ef

C1.S

0.

compnred

~)31.04

per co.se per r,:.onth, o.nd o.n . (2) per month for categories. Hnd the so.mo number of

co.ses been co.rried on public nssist::Ulce at :)31.04

0.

TIonth per cnso, it would

hnve cost 1)66,751,020, or $66,375,980 less them it did to support them on W.P.A. With this grent dispnrity in cost, it efficacy of TI.P.A. o.s

0.

~ight

be well to reconsider the

relief progro.m and to consider othor possible forms of

Federnl po.rticipo.tion in relief. EXPENDITURES FOR I(ELIEF Relief expenditures (Federo.l, State and loco.l) in Pennsylvania rose from six and one-ho.lf million dollars per month in the first quo.rter of 1933 to nlL"tOst twenty-seven million in the Inst quo.rter of 1938, nn incrense of more tho.n four . (3) txmes tho former. During this s~~e period the nUMber of cnses roso from 395,746 to 615,704, nn increnso of only 55 percent.

or loss gro.dunl rmd continuous.

Beth increases wore more

Persons relieved, on tho other ho.nd, rose

*

Seo puge 3, Appendix (1) This dOGS not include PCrL~sylvG~iuls sho.re to sponser ~.P.A. projects. (2) Old Age ~20.44 (single persons only); Aid to Dependent Children $32.34; Blind Pensions ;)29.92. (3 ) See pngo 9, Appendix (Chnrt 1, Table 1). - 33 -

only 44,403

-~ ~rom

1,814,700 to 1,859,103 -- and the rise vms neither gradual

nor continuous; the total amounted to 2,017,683 in tho second quarter

o~

1933,

declined to a low of 1,241,118 in the third quarter of 1937, and finally ndvnnced rapidly to 1,888,084 in the first quarter of 1939. 629,000 CASES

n~

1939

Cases did not rench their all time high until the first ouarter of 1939 'when an nveragc of 629,000* cnses received relief.

In the lust qunrter of 1939

vnth npproxilnnte1y one theusand more casos receiving relief, costs had fullen to 018,664,000 a month, as compnred to

~~23,093,000

0.

month for tho second quartor

of 1936 vmen relief po.y:ments renchod their pre-recession ,high.

This peculinr

circumstnnco -- thnt approxir:lO.tely tr_e srune nunber of cnses should receive almost {i4,500,OOO, or 19 percent, less in the 1o.st quarter of 1939 them in the second quarter of 1936 -- is expla.il"-ed by tho lr\rger nunber on Genernl .\5sist'-:\11ce o.nd Specinl Categories and smnllor nunber on totter effect of TI.P.L.

~.P.A.

Hero is illustrated tho teeter-

As General Assistance rolls declined, due to increases

of 1'T.P.ll.., the tota.l cost of rolicf increasod, without nny ohnnge in the number of cases or persons receiving reliof. One of the ill effects ef the 'Prosol'ltFedoral progrmn is that there is no relv.tion botvroon the prinarily becnuso tho

rr.p.L.• prograM nnd the noeds of tho States for relief;

IT.r.A.

progrnm is controlled only by tho allocations of

tho Fedornl GoveM1nOnt of MoneJ's and jobs Ul"-ct tho sponsoring by loonl and sta.te government of projocts.

Thero mny, thorefore, be no rolation botwoen tho

Fedornl Roliof Progrm:l. ns ovidenced by '.'!.P.A. and the Stnto progrDX1..

.\nother

defect of this plnn is that it is difficult for tho state to appropriate and budget its monoy for rolief beco.uso it hr:.s no assurance as to the amount which

~.P.A.

will curry, ns proven in

Pennsy1v~nin in

1939(1)nt n vory decided offect

upon tho whole cost of relief to the Stnte. * See Chc.rt, pnco 12, AppendiX (Cl1art 2, Table II) (1) See pago 91, Appendix.

TIffiEE SOUTlffiRN STATES STUDIED* The ono ovident siMilarity

be~veen

the three southern states and tho

northern stutos studied vms fOQnd in IT.P.A. cases per thousand population.

Tho

study showed tho.t the southern states followed the goneral pattern very closely, but on u lower lovel. Bocause of the extent und nature of the diversity of relief in the South us conpo.red with tho North,

0.

sUpplor:lOntal study conpC'.ring reliof in Alabama,

North Carolinu and Texas vms o.lso mnde. Tho study shovrod that there vms a greuter variance between the Southern states rmd Pennsylvania in CQSOS per thousand population thnn in over-nIl cuses. This difference lies in the

f~ct

thnt only a sno.11 proportion of the co.ses

0.1'0

on General Assistance nnd the renaindor nre on '!"".P ...i.. and other cntogories. (1) The proportion of General Assistnnce cnses por thousand of population ns conrarcd to Pennsylvnnia is nuch 10Vier tho.n the proportion of cutogoricnl casos pOl' thousc.nd conrc.red to Pel1nsy1vnnin.

This is OCCo.SiOllCc1 nppnrently by

the tro.nsfer of cases to the special categories, and pnrticulnr1y to Old Age Assistance.

Tho number of cuses receiving Genernl issistance in these three

stutes nover exceeded 2.6 after the third quarter of 1937, ns coopnred with u range of from 14.76 to 31.35 cases per thousand popu1o.tion in Pennsylvania during tho sm:le period. SPECIAL

C~TEGORIES

In

Pennsylv~.nin,

Special Cntogorios I b.cluding Old Ago Assistance, Lid

to Dependent Childron, and hid to Blind, have on the whole in tho four years covered by the study.

incre~sed

sharply(2)

(1936-1939).

fQth the breadened eligibility for aid to depondant children which went into effect in Septo:r.lber, 1938, rmd tho cho.ngc in o.ge limit for Old Age Assistnnce oligibility from 70 to 65, which boco."o.e affective in Jo.nufl.ry, 1940, the number of cases receiving speciul t}Tes of re1iof roso.

*

Soo page 40, Appondix. - 35 (1) Seo page 41, Appendix. (2) Soo page 25, Appondix (Cha.rt 8, Table VIII).

It is estinated

that hereafter the State'will occupy a median position amor-g the states studied. The practice of carrying as mnny cases as possible on special categories and as few us possible on General ],ssistunce r:1uy ho.ve of view of holding

d~m

state costs.

SOEO

merit from the peint

(Prinarily becauso the Fedoral

gover~~ont

pays one-half of Old Age Assistance and one-half of Aid to Dependent Children). Special thought should be given to the granting of relief in kinG, such as milk, medicino, etc., as the Federal goverl1ment does not pay any share of such aid.

I'Tith the State paying tho full cost, !1..'\turally each relief COose receiving

nilk grants VQll tond to increase tho total cost of relief to the State. Dlring the month of October, 1940, 52% of Pennsylvania's total case load vr.~s

on specie,l categorios c.nd 48% was on General ;.ssistnnce.

fERCENT OF V"':XES FOR P.ELIEF(l) Pennsylvnnia ranked first in percent ef State and local tnxos usod for direct relief r.nd ninth in porcent used for categories and '7'.P.l.. in 1938, ngain emphasiZing the fnct that nost of the other stntes greater emphasis on special categories nnn

~.P.A.

h~vo

put proportionately

sponsorship than hns Pennsyl-

vnnin. POrLnsylvnniu has

sho~n

a consistent up,mrd trend in total taxes used fer

till forms'ofroliof excopt for the year 1937. All of tho states hud an increase in porcent of total taxes used for direct relief, categories, ::md W.r.A. from 1933 to 1938 -- some at n gronter rate than Pennsylvania, nnd others at a lesser rate.

Pennsylvania, however, has

never rnnked lower than third and in 0.11 but nne yoar ranked first or second. It is apparent thnt since 1933 Ponnsylvnnin ho.s consistently spent u large and growing proportion of its total state and locnl tnx receipts for direct 2 , Sp1.. t 0 0 f a rapHe . ~ 1~1CreaSe . ' to.xes. Of th~e s t D. t OS S t U d'1e d , Pennsy1 , f ( ) 1.n ro 11.e 1U vania ranked:

1933 - second

1936 - first

1937 - second (tic with Illinois) 1935 - second

1938 - first.

Soo page 36, ~prondix (Chart 17, Table XXXVII) (2) See page 39, ~ppendix. - 36 -

TTT

Niiie- of the cloven states spent a liigJ1er perco!.rtnge of state and local taxes for direct relief in 1938 thnn they did in 1933. Tyro states, Marylo.nd nnd Massachusetts, showod an actual decline in per cent of taxos used for relief.

In Hassachusetts the drop 1N'O.s fron first plo.co nt

11.8 percent to fifth place at 8.3 porcent, and in Maryland fron fourth plnco at 6.7 percent to eleventh plnce at 2.9 percent.

In both states the reduction

of percent of taxes for direct rolief is acconpanied by reliof expenditures, beth stntes did

r~ther

h~ve 0.

0.

sharp curtailment of

than by Ctny sudden change in tux roceirts, although

steady incroase of tax receipts thrOUGhout the poriod.

CENTR.lI.LIZATION INCRE.:l,SED EXPENDITUPJ;S

The incre8.sod nctivity of fOl"'JJ.sylvonia' s strite govorm-:,.ent :md tho crentien, centrnlizo.tion o.r:.d en1nrgenent in its ftmctions have

genor~,lly

increased

its expenditures in recent years. Dbvelopmont of the state rolief rrogrnn nnd of the unenployment compensation pregram, and n grent emphasis on expenditures for socio.l services, such o.s public health, welfaro, and public educo.tion, nark recent years. In the 1937-39 bionnilm, Pennsylvania's expenditures

*

fer public health,

welfare, public assistance fron 0.11 state opornting funds, plus ul1employnent benefit

payr.~nts,

ropresented Dore than 50 percent of the state tax collections

for the peri00, whereas in 1927-29, henlth, vrolfnro, [mel the then existent forns of assistance anountod to only 12 percent of the biennial tnxos collected. With

unenplo~ent

conpensation receipts nnd

paJ~~onts

elininatod from the totnls

for the yenr, public assistance costs rerrosented over 40 percent of 1939 tax collections.

In tho Inst year of the 1937-39 bienniun public nssistance n1ono,

exclusive of Fedoral nid, disbursed by tho state, amounted to 0117,649,780.

* \

These figures were taken fron a report propnred by the Ponnsylvania EcononyLougue for Govornor Janes.

, - 37 -

RELIEF COSTS COMPARED TO STATE

GOV~RI,],;1ElJT

Thus the faets show the tromendous increaso in burden added to the backs of Ponnsylvania taxpayers.

~143IOOO,000

spent for the whole

vania gOTernment during the 1927-29 bionnitun.

public assistanoe

They show that this one

function of government during the 1937-39 biennium cost eont more than the

th~

~p207,000,OOO

~perating

or 50 per

cost of Pennsyl-

This rapidly increasing cost of

relief should bl9 a warning flab, if no other data were available. Contrasted with the ccst of relief, educational expenditures by the State represented only 13 per cent of tax collections in the 1937-39 biennium as compared to 27 per cent of biennium tax collections in 1927-29 r.espite the increase of biennial school subsidies. The comparison does not include Federal funds amounting to

~63,OOO,OOO

disbursed for public assistance, education or highway operations. And what is equally important to the individual taxpayer of the State .. the annual tax bill (Federal, state and local) of Pennsylvania residents is $96.63 per person which States by

~6.14.

exc~eds

the average bill of all residents of th. United

Of this bill Pennsylvania residents pay a larger share of taxes

to the State government than the resident of the average st ate.

This

means that a smaller proportionate total is paid to local governments. The rate of tax inorease has been greater in Pennsylvania in the last nine years than in a majority of states, and only Maryland and Illinois have shown a greater comparative increase in the total. During the depression years the tax structure of state governments was subjected first to a period of severe strains when the yields of normal income sources dropped while the demand for relief expenditures increased.

-38-

TOTAL TAX COLLECTION INCREASED 38%

l}Vhile Pennsylvania's total tax bill in 1937 was not far above the average, i t appears evident that the proportion of increase in this state during the depression years was considerably above the average.

Coming up from its

favorable low position in 1929, total tax collections in the state had increased 38.1 per cent by 1937 in contrast with an average increase throughout the country

of 27.3 per oent.

The per-capita incl'ease in Pennsylvrmi'a was ~:;22.27 as against

an average increase of only $14.91. Again the taxes collected ond used by the State government showed the greatest increase over the nine years.

In Ponnsylvania the rate of this in-

crease was considerably above the average throughout the other states.

Federal

taxes incroased at approximately the srune average rate in Pennsyl vonia as in ether states, nnd loco.l taxes followed the srune decreasing trend shol'm on the average by all states.

TAX INCREASE FOLLO'TS NEIN POLICY

The inorease in state

t,~es

in Pennsylvania has followed the policy

pursued in this state whereby the new or increasing functions of government, particularly public assistonco, were assumed Md financed by the state.

In mMy

other states the cost of assistnnce has either been trMsferred to local governments, or shared by the state Md local govornments. In some states, whore the rosponsibility for hMdlinb nll, or

II.

large

part of the relief problem Was loft with the loco.l governments, the stn.tes have levied and collected taxes which wore then returned to the local units to supplement loc 0.1 revenues in meeting increasod expenditures.

In Pennsylvoni a both

the responsibility for these functions and the taxes to pay for them have been retained by the state government.

This has resulted in the concentration of

tax increases in the stats tax system.

-39-

THE STATE ,JOB IAOBILIZATIOlJ COMMITTEE* One of the urgent noeds today is a more "loon.l nttitude" towrlrd assist~~e

in Pennsylvania and while the General Assistance cnse load has generally import~~t

been showing reductions during tho past fow months l it is still an

func-

tion of the Depc..rtment and the taxpayers of the state to find ways fUld mem s of recipients from the rolief' rolls cmd putting thom to work on privnto pay(1) rolls. The first st,'Jt; e-wide movement of this kind wn.s initiated in Ponnsylvrtnia

t~ing

end was origino.ted by tho Joint State Government Commission.

In

0.

fow months"

from November 1939 to May 1940, the program produced job opportunities in private business for probably 100 1 000 men :md women oIong with so.vings of millions of tax dollars.

It was estimated thn.t this pioneer effort of the people stimulated

business to millions of Approxim:1.tely

doll~s

;:~100 ,000 ,000

work waS developed rund millions en~ouraged.

In many

of mOre business.

loc~litics

in new construction and plCUlt mn.intennnco

o~ addition~l

dollars in home modernization Was

an aroused public succeedod in reopening mines

:md factories while .others obt'Jined now industrios.

Most important of all was

the laying of ground work for the future retraining of displaced workers. It is

import~~t

to point out here that under this program the f'irst

emphasis of training and retro.ining on vocationo.l eduon.tion wn.s voiced. this has come the Federal trQining

progr~

From

put into effect in Pennsylvania and

the nQtion. It is significcmt tho.t

Pennsylv~~ians,

states, have been complacent in the ten

ye.~s

generally, like people in other

of the depression about supporting

a large Qnd increo.s:L.'1.g relief lO.'7.d, n.t on avero.ge cost of case, pQid principally out of increased taxes. loc~l

and

~pproQchable,

Pennsylvanians

~ot

~?371.28

But when the problem was

m~de

only, produoed the humane result of

*See page 88 Appendix for Reaommond'J..tions of this Committee. (1) See page 18, this Report -40-

a year per

transferring thousands of families low

~s

b~ck

priv~te

to

to be surprising even to themselves.

payrolls but n.t n. cost so

Jobs wero producod for tho unemployed,

including both those on nnd off the relief rolls 1 at a mo...'(imum expense of

:!tl. each.

TEN THOUSAND MEN AND WOMEN ",'J"ithout detrn.cting from the hummitn.rian purposes Md accomplislunents it is

understand~ble

that there Vlrn.S n. commendable selfishness on the part of

10,000 men Qnd women who were the spe arhe n.d of thi s movemont from November 15,

1939 1 to May 1, 1940.

These people - businessmen l labor leaders, members of

veterans' and civic orgnnizations, represontativQs of

~eligious

and educn.tional

forces and government officials in state, county and town - appreciated fully the economic value to all in relieving tho unemployment situation, Dnd in reversing and reducing the reliof situation.

Without denying the necossity of relief,

these men Dnd women concluded that a job in privo.te business WQS the best possible relief.

They realized thn.t the only WQY to relievo tho burden of taxation which

had become oppressive and destructive was to reduce tho relief rolls.

For

oxpe~i­

ence had shown that additional taxes would produce incren.sed unemployment l thus causing increased relief neoflJs '1Ild increased taxes again, in a cycle of increasing momentum. Thus, this movement becnme a compaign "of the peoplol by the people, and for the people of Pennsylvani~l in which every constructive force and thought WaS marshaled.

An injustice would be dono tho many thousands who cooperated. in

vlU'ious ways were it not stated that the recorded f.l.ccomplishments or e only

0.

smcil. 1

measure of the real benefits obtained and that the seeds which ho.d been planted will beo.r fruit for

0.

long time to come.

The fact that overy constructive force

in the Commonwealth joined hands in this voluntary, non-partisan program is in itself a major n.ccomplishment probably unduplicrttod in

0.

similar campaign.

The Job Mobilization Program ha~ the broad effect of arousing the people of Pennsylvania to the vital necossity of thinking QUd acting realistically about the trinity of unemployment, relief QUd taxation nnd ho.s moulded rm Americon pn.ttern for the futuro.

-41-

PURPOSES AND PLAN vVhen the program was launched, more than 01,700,000,000 had been spent

in Pennsylvania for all relief needs since 1931. had ;risen from

~7,500,()00

1938-39 fiscal year.

The relief cost to the state

for the 1931...,.32 fiscal year to

~?132,000,OOO

During this period taxes had been increased

for the

mater~ally.

By mid-September of 1939, mnre than a million Pennsylvanians wore unemployed; there were 273,129 cases, consisting of 828,195 persons on direct relief alone ::tnd'it was costing

~~8/805,482

0.

month to sustain them.

That Was the situation ""lhen the Joint state Government Corrnnission cmn.e to the oonolusion that the money remaining of the $120,940,000 relief appropriation for the biennium ending May 31, 1941, would carry the relief load only to Morch, 1940.

They agreed upon the need for reduoing the relief burden and also

that inoreased employmont Was the soundest method. The commission, Governor Arthur H. J nmes, :md members of his cn.binet, went even further and

~greed

that the responsibility of any re-emplcyment effort

should rest upon those who wore most familiar with employment f\l1d its factors, i. e., the businessmen of the state. These major prinoiples wore the basis of the progran: 1. That the "grass roots" methods be n.pplied and tho solution found in the local knowledge md responsibility of unemployment, relief' nnd taxation. 2. That business be encouraged ond stimulated in every proper way so as to create jobs in priv:l.te business in contrn.st to temporary expedients such as "Give-a-job" pleas or high-pressure ballyhoo. 3. That no one be misled into expecting a. mirn.cle, but thn.t the cronpaign be on honest :m.d hopeful effort to do o.s much good as possible, in view of the business rocession and other handicaps.

-42-

Thus, the emphctsis wa-s upon re-employment in a broctd sonse rather thun boing restriotod to employctblos on relief. apparent during the cn.mprdgn.

The wisdom of these prinoiples becrume

Avrdlr',blc reliof statistics wero not clear as to

the number that were o.dults, the number

0

f porsons that one "employablo

II

repre-

sented, how m(ll1y "non-omploya.bles" might bo trained or n..idod by vocll.tiono.l oduca-

TI.lREE-PHASE PROGRAlv.I

In the menntimc, broad state-wide committeos were set up.

Those Were

special groups concerned with spacial progrC\JJls for industrial development, retail tro.do stimulus, religL)us ::md educcttional cooporatj_on" women's cooperation" stat c business association cooperation, and for nccessClry final1ce .:md roport activities. As the

progr~n

doveloped" it

WetS

ro-employmont through efforts of business

soen to hQve threo distinct phases ~~d

individual omployers, in which tho

industrial conunittee and sto.to business association cOffi.lJlittee Viera principally active; the renovizing offort, which boca,i'no tho principal re:sponsibility of the women's oonunittoos, md the necessity for occupn.tionn.l training ond retraining to fill

ll.

long-term need. One of the most signific8I1t doyolopmonts was the fact the-t o.t a time when

more them a million PeunsylvfLl1i:ms wore unemployed, 12,000 job opportlmitios were lost from July to December, 1939, the state Employment Service.

boc~use

no qUQlified porson wn.s available through

In somo districts this fQctor

as much QS 74 per cent of all lost-job opportunities.

w~s

responsible for

The studies of the service

indicated a definite shorta.ge of competent workers in ftpproximately 300 occupational classifications, most of them in the skillod trQdes. STATISTICS However, tho fa.ct that with such hnndicaps, ft program, which wa.s initiatac. purely on an oxperinenta.l basis with the philosuphy of doing as much good as possible under existing business mad other conditions, produced case records of 48,513 additional jobs in private business" spanks convincingly for tho success of the -43-

Basod on run estimatod unemploymont total of 957,,097 for November" 1939, tho crumpaign resulted in a dofinite 6 per cent increaso in employment J this figure is not not.

~lthough

It is the judgment ·:)f those who wore most closoly in

touch with the situation, and who therofore have the bost informed opinion, thnt at least 100,000 jobs in private buoines:J resulted in the five md a half-month period of the Job Mobilization efforts. The experience crnnot properly be closed without the benofit of some conclusions, which will be found in the appendix.*

Conclusions are especially de-

sirable since this pioneer effort has beon v/atched nnd studied by more thnn [\. dozen stfltes J including Now Jersey, I,Iassn.chusctts, OkL1homrt"

10';['1,

Ohio, New York,

Georgia, Connecticut" Illinois, Ka..'1s'1s" California '1lld Missouri. Tho COlmnittoe on Relief feels that emphasis should be given to the fact tha.t the extra. outlo.y cf state funds in obtaining the mrtny benofits under Job Mobilization Vias only Q42,,656.

Even though originrtl estimates contempln.ted tho loan

of stl:7te employos cu1d the use of privately-raised funds" the nmount was far balow expectations of officials.

"~'1d

not only ora rosults fa.r beyond those nnticipated,

but their worth and value to .'111 people of Fennsylvfmia arc many" mrny timos the dollars and cents expanded.

All those who coopera.ted in this voluntary, non-

partisDJl effort deserve the thanks fU1d ::pprecia.tion of tho CommonwoCllth as a whole.

*8eo page 88 Appondix

-44-

AIMDJISTRATlVE FACTORS BE.ARDJG ON RELIEF

In the preceding under which the

p~ges

Depart~ent

m

PEI\"!J'JSYLVANIA

we have discussed the rise of re1icf, tho ncts

of Public Assistance was created, its organization,

its functions, the increasing costs of assistnnce, effect of W.I',"',.., o.nd the Job ~ffobi1ization

Program, and now it is essential thnt wo consider the ndministro.tive

fnctors bearing on relief. These factors nre important to the effective direction of assistnnce in Pennsy1va:!1.ia.

They nre not only importnnt to the thousands who receive assist-

Donce but they are doubly important to tho hundrods of thousands who pny the bill. First, let us considor tho Departnent itself. TEE DEPARTMENT

The program of assistance in ronnsylvo.nia is directed by the Secretary of Public

~ssistnnce

nt Harrisburg, through the 67 County Boards.

The Com..."r:littoe on Relief believos thnt the Secretary of Public l\ssistance is sincerely nnd honost1y trying to provide nn efficient ::md tionJ but to do tho job that is necossnrJ in

Pcr~sy1vo.nia,

0.

fnir ad:-:linistro.-

it is esscntinl tho.t

the mombers of the Depnrtmert be wholly in accord vnth tho proper spirit as it affects the recipients o.I'.d the taxpayors who provide the noney. Despite the intent of the net creating it, tho Dopartment since tho boginning has turned

to~~rd

nn aCYlinistro.tion which soems still to be bnsed on

0.

cnse-

work philosophy rather them beins concerned with investignting the applicant I s nctual need.

Intentionally or

~~intentiono.11y,

many sUGgestions intended to

increase the efficioncy of the Departnent havo been stn1onated. THE DELl.RTMENT'S A:TRO.L\CH

The Comnittee questions tho o.pproach of the Dopnrtmont to the nethod usod in building cnse rocords. ies dopended upon socio.1

If eliGibility for Genero.1 Assista.ncc and the categorf~ctors

or sociQl surroundings, or other charo.ctoristics

in which persons or fani1ios live, thon the building up of voluninous cnse records hns its place.

However, duo to the provisions in our mvn law nnd in conplinnco

with tho Federnl regulations or tho Fodornl Act, eligibility is bnscd upon need - 45 -

and upon need only.

V~

simply require infornation, ns to family conposition, in-

come, expenses, and aid from relatives.

Surely, then, tremendous caso records

are not necessary, but proper investigation to determine the need of the person

based uron these facters is necessary. The methed of building case records is not only costly, but also

t~kes

up

a great porconto.ge of the visitor's working hours, thereby detracting from tho efficiency of the Department.

Unless changed the result will be tho.t the people

of the Connonwealth will continue to pay a sto.ggering anount for relief. Thoro must be another approach to Reeting the problem of assistance in Pennsy 1V::'.l1 ia • Thought should be civen to progrm::s dosigned to aid those on the assistance ,

rolls, not only to relieve the financial burdon, but to aid the morale of those nen and WDmen vlho would rnther work tho.n subsist on charity. SOl:l0

There "lill always be

men and 1'1eI:l.On who for one causa or rmother will ho.ve to depend upon some kind

of assistance to exist, but that should be acceptod as the exception and not the rule.

We have alvmys had relief in one forn or another but to opon our arms and admit that

VtO

cnn rIo nctl'ing about it will only serve te perpetuato tho problem

o.nd renovo wl:o.t Iittlo "fight" r01".1ains to reduco the nunbor ef persons en tho rolls

J

This is a challcngo to our lUTI.erican way of thinking. Recent figures releaGed by tho Department assu!:".e that we he.vo as a pemnn-

ent part of the General

Assist~nce

program nearly 50,000 cases of unemployablos

(1)

in Pennsylvrmia • . If we accept 0371 per case pOl' year (the recent

~vornge)

mair-taining those nen and vromen as unenployables, wa assume

as n basis for

i~~ediately

a minimum

permanent general assistance cost of mere than $18,550,000 yearly. This is in addition te the necessary cest of assisting the blind, the aged and dependent mothers, which is

(1)

nvern~i~g

approximately 030,000,000 a year.

See puge 59, Lppondix. - 46 -

The philosophy which has boon developed in the effort to keep step with tho rolief situation in tho yeurs of depression und human needs ignores the vnll of the people as expressed by the lOGislature and does not reflect locnl noeds. COUNTY BOARDS HAMSTRUNG In theory the County Boards of Assistance nre set up as tho fountainhead from which

rr~ans

the Pennsylvania

of solving the relief problon are to flow.

lo.w~l)

That is provided in

In practice, however, this does not cono about.

wishes of tho county boards frequently arc ignored by the Department.

The Frequently

the boards nre circucrvented from bringing about remedial changes and more effic ient pro ccdure • It should be recalled that these county boards are composed of volunteers, who are well known citizens, willingly giving time and effort to a civic purpose. Men and women who serve on these boards must contend with an avalanche of rules and regulations handed down fro.m the Department. rules they have usually had no voice.

In the making of these

Their advice is seldom sought.

They become

acquainted with the changes and new orders after their promulgation and not before. That is a definite discouragement to the type of citizen whose services are important to solution of the problem.

There are others.

One is that the volunteer

citizens group is required to work with and through an Executivo Director who must be a person acceptable to the Department. (2 ) The law provides that the Executive Director shall be appointed by the County Board from those certified by the State Employment Board.

The

~ounty

Board has as one of its main prerogatives the right to remove a director(2) but this right, when exercised, usually results in the Board rather than the Director going on trial.

The result is that only in extreme cases do the Boards seek re-

moval of directors, even

thou~~

the whole relief problem might benefit.

Members

of County Boards feel tho.t they have no direct control because the Executive Director receives his or her instructions, directions, rules and regulations and (1) (2)

See po.ge 92, Appendix See page 93, Appendix

.. 47 ..

policies from the Department and not from them.

This plan cannot but, in the first

instance, make the Board feel that it has no power over or direction of the work. It, therefore, soon becomes discouraged in taking an active interest in the work of the Board. be~veen

In the second place, it does not breed confidence o.nd cooperation

the Boards and the Directors.

Further discouragement comes from the fact

that the Board,. power to appoint a successor is restricted to a list of persons, supplied from the Department, who probably have been previously considered and found

1~nting.

Thus the choice frequently is between the evil of putting up with

em inefficient director or drawing a "pig in a. poke."

And the Executive Director's

immediate supervisory assistants must be taken from civil service lists resulting from exa.minations in which ability to supervise has been subordinated to knowledge of social service history and practice. COUNTY BUDGETS SHOULD BE 11.DJUSTED Members of County Boards, testifying at hearings held by the Committee, have pointed out that .mste and inefficiency result because of the methods of constructing the budget for relief administration. icient flexibility in the budgets.

They say that thero is not suff-

The present procedure prevents adjusting the

budgets to rapidly changing conditions. As nn example one member of a County Board told the Committee that about two WDeks time is taken up with preparing the monthly budget for administration purposes.

Then the budget is surveyed carefully in tho Department and often another

two weeks elapses before the budget is put on an operating basis.

As a result the

bUdget usually is as much as four weeks behind tho conditions in the field, so that either the board is forced to work with a larger stuff of visitors than necessary or has an inadequate staff of visitors. A chairman of another County Board said that if the Boards wero allotted a definite sum for administration they would be able to organize their personnel in a way to produce the best results.

He believed that the Boards should be re-

stricted only by limits of expenditure and the amounts of the grants. tion should not be nurrovred to one month but should cover - 48 -

Q

This limitn-

specific period of time

so that it would not be flux by nonth to

~onth

nocossa~r

to have the organization in

Q

constar-t state of

chnnges duo to Diner fluctuations in the load.

The consensus of opinion soens to be that the Beards should have creater pOwurs to administor the bUdGet t which in turn should bo set up to encompass a longer period than at

Thus the Beards would have increased diroction

~resont.

and control of tho cost of' personnel.

Thoso

"liTho

hnvo had the oxporioI'.ce 'with

actual connitions as faced by tho County Beards are of' the opinion that in this .my there would be brought about a [,oro efficient approach to oach local problen. Menbers of Boards also have beon onphatic in their conplaints before

C~~-

nittoo nC':J.bors over the fact that control over salo.ries rests entirely in HarrisburG.

These Boards which arc bost qualified to coternino the worth of an enploye

under their jurisdiction are entirely in the hands of officiQls in Harrisburg as concerns sc.lary increases.

For cxunplc, if tho Boc.rd is convincod. thnt one or

nore of its cnployes is JoservinG of an il"-crense all it can do is to nnke a recor.l.':1endo.tion.

1l.11c1 i'requently thnt recorJr.'"encbtion is not ncce:,tablo, althouGh

insto.ncos of cross discrUlinntion woro cited to tho Cornittee. nble fOrB of rovmrdinG efficient

an~

neritorious service

soer.~

Sono moro equithiGhly desirable.

NO LOC1\L CONSCIOUSNESS

Experiencos of the County Boards nre not conducivo to doveloping nore local conscious~ess

of the

~roblen,

as has been tho intent of the LeGislature.

The conclusion Dust be drawn that with fow exceptions the tendoncy has beon to renovo local consciousnoss, locnl considcrntion nn0 locnl assistance from solvine the

of relief in Pennsylvania.

~roblen

The result of rcnovins locnl consoiousnoss and loco.l offort has boon to o.ggrnvatc tho relicf rroblen. who could and

wou~d

It follows tho.t an injustice has been done to those

work nnd an injustice has been done to those who ho.vo beon

called on to pay a bill beyond what has been necessary.

This is the price of

bureo.ucro.tic folly. Tho COLtDittee

fin~s

thnt Dost everj\vhore the rank

an~

file of to.xpayers

of the state generally nrc under the delusien that relief either is finnnced by lithe other fell","," or that tho Stato, by BOao sccrctpC'rror te create wealth out 49 ...

of nothing, tnkes cc,re of the money needs.

It is not necessnry to mention that

relicf touches the pocl:etbook norvo of evorJ porson in tho Sta.te, evon to "those .~

~ho

have been forced into idleness by excessive taxo.tion nnc't those 'Who po.y tuxes

indirectly on the food live.

the~r

eut, the clothes they vronr eILc't the homes in vThich they

This divorcement of locnl recognition of the cost of relief removes a

normal ::end !lnturul pressure upon tho o.llovio.tio:o. and possible cure for the problem. Beforo the centro.lizo.tion of relicf 8.clJllinistro.tion in Harrisburg, persons were conscious of the process expendod.

b~r

'\'lhich money for relief purposes vm.s collected o.nd

Since they rco.lized tho dollC\rs o.nd cents cost to themselves o.nd could

mensure the bood being done, tho se indiv:J.dunls ymre a rostre.ining influonce on chiseling, abuses nnd inofficielccics. he.ve

0..

Without this leco.l consciousness tedny we

paro.doxico.l situatioIl in 1'11ich mC'.l1y of tl1 0se who PelY the bill seem to

applaud, or at least

o.po.thetic~'.lly counter~o.)1ce,

their frionds cmd even straT'gors

putting something over on tho relief o.cJministr::'.tion. Evcr~~hinb

possible should be dono to nYmken* not only those who nprlnud

(1) nnd nre apathetic, but o.lso those vrho npply

for c.ssisto.:nce, to the urgent ::leed

of reducing tho cost. This ca:o. only be dono inth the full coopera.tion of tho taxpayers, the Depnrtment, the COU-TJ.ty Boo.rds, the visitors nne. the relief o.}lplicr.nt emd recipient. There should be more "local consciousness" of the cost of assistance, V'There the money

c~es

from, nnd whom it nffects.

EMPLOYMEnT BOARD The problem of holding the Civil Service exnminntions for the TUblic Assistnnce has proved to bo one of

gre~t ma~litude.

Dep~rtment

of

In one examination

alono more thnn 73,000 persors reported to take tests for vo.rious kinds of employment in the Department, out of more them 97,000 npplicrmts.

In another exo.mino.tion

there ,,:ere over 50,000 exa:rninntio'1s :;;iven for clericnl positions.

*

See puge 94,

~ppcndix.

(1) In 1939 the Departmont disposed of 685,826 requests for 0.11 typos of nssisto.nce and nuthorizod assistnnco in 450,464 cnses, or 65.6%. :1. breakdown is shovvn on page 95, Appendix. - 50 -

The Employment Bonrd follows the "rule of three" by certifying t1'.ree membel'S for ench position, and allo,ving tho employer to select nny one of the throe. L research study

m~do

sho~d tlli~t

by tho Employment Bonrd

of junior visitors, appointod by the local boards,

~as

the

~~dinn

ago

26.88 yonrs; that of thoso

names submittod to tho local boctrc.s, 51% wore males and 49% femnlos; that rosult:".\l1t appointments showod a slight preponde'r::mce of fomalos ovor males; thnt CI.mong tho junior visitors, the local bonrds m~do Gppoint~o~ts of 49.42% of those who hnd collego dogroos nnd 50.58% of thoso viho novor hC\d a docroo corJ'orrod on thom. In gonoral, the study showed

C\

dofinito prefornnco by tho local boards for

those applicnnts proviously ornployed in tho DopnrtT:lont.For tho position of junior visitor tlvo-thirds of tho countios showod em 83.27% prefora.nce for incumbonts, :"s 'l,bo.inst non-incumbents. HovlOvor, tho mnn..'1.or in vThich tho Employnont Bonrd hcts clc-.ssified tho positions in the Dopnrtnont h::,.s grently incronscd the number of

indivi(~unl

oxC\mino.tions

vrhich ho.vo h::lc1 to be givon in OJ1clitiol'l to nffectinc; o.::l.versoly the ndministrntivo difficultios of tho County

Bo~rds.

undor tho promotion problems. :11'0

Thuso difficultios will bo discussed lntor

By brea.king

do~n

tho clC\ssifications ro that thoro

a !lunber of clo.ssificntions of suporvisors, tho

E~lploymont

Bonrd

h~~s

reqUired

that individunls to bo eligiblo for o:".\ch of tho positions pCtss tho eXf\I;inntion for that position.

It vmuld hnvo boor. possiblo to simplify tho clnssific::'.tion struc-

turo giving fowor oxnmin0.tions

CJ'd

T:',-,-'1,ldEg oli,c:;iblo for rromotion two higher salo.ry

classifications doponder..t upon rocoT:"Jl!J.ocldo.tio:1. of tho County Boo.rc'. or.. tho bO-sis of proficioncy.

This viould hnvo greatly roduced tho cost of tho ojJerc\tion of tho (1) ~ Enployment Boo.rd v;hich ir.. 1937..39 1\IT'.S ~2642, 929. A1thou;;h the 1m,/2) pertnininc to tho o:mminr-tion of visitors is cloo.r Oond explicit, littlo

atte~pt

lens boon mndo by tho

the spirit of tho act governing such

~nploJnont

Board to cooporate with

ox~~inntions.

Prior to the 1939 exn:"linc.tions for StC\to porsonrJJI tho "socic.l sorvice" anglo (1) (2)

v~s

the accoptod yardstick by vn1ich

Soo pabe 96, Appondix. Soo page 97, Appendix.

npplic~nts

- 51 ..

were

ox~minod.

Sevora1

attempts were made by members of the Commission to get the Board to make such changes in the examination questions vTIlich would rosult in tho seloction of the type of investigators noeded to properly determine the eligibility of applicants for assistance. Shortly before the 1939

ox~,ination

vms held n sub-co.mnittee of the Committ-

co on Relief met with the members of the Employment Board ngnin to insuro that the questions in the After

ex~min~tions

cor~erring

corSormed to the lcgislntive preVisions.

on the qJostions propesed for usa in the forthcoming exam-

ination, the Board agreed t-o prepnrc ::m exo.nirrCl.tion containing questions based on the Gub-comr..itteo's proposals. And while the Board did !'lake seT,CO chc.nges in the questions, the exanino.tion as

0.

whole did very little to chnnge the "socinl service" a.ngle.

It is important that

Tffi

look at the picture objectively.

~ne

examinations

given by the Employnent Board nre in effect our first bulvmrk against inefficient investigating of o.pplicnnts for rolief, and should be insurance agninst many of the present ills of grantil"g a.ssistnnco.

It must be remeabered that the founda-

tion stone of the whole relief setup is investigation. It is importnnt that the Bonrd follow the intent of the Legislature o.nd ~repnre

examinntions ,mich will certify only those persons for positions upon

whose judgnont the people of Pennsylvania cnn rely in determining who shall receive relief, how long they shall romain on the rolls, and how much assisto.nce sho.ll be paid them out of' the public troasury. If tho examinations

~o

not certify the proper type person all other pre-

cautions nrc o.n eXTJensivo WD,sto of tine and money. Hore then is ono of the prine factors in tho ndministrntion of o.ssisto.nce. TYPE OF EXliMINATIO:H GIVEN

Tho is

0.

t~~e

of exo.mination gi_on to prospective employes of tho Department

paramount factor in tho

ndl:li~istrntion

.. 52

of

nssistc.~co.

The Cor.rrnitteo on Relief

found thc.t the exo.minutions given for visitors -- the nen nnd tho thousnnds of applicants for nssistnnce in conductod that only thoso persons vrith

0.

For~sylvanin

who investigo.tc

WOT2E.m

-- nrc so

c~lpilod

r.nd

definito "social servico" educo.tion or

training hr:.vo n chanco for oDployment. Thnt may be n little strong.

athol's do hnve

0.

cho.nco but the ocL-'.saro

For insto.nco, if you ho.vo grnduo.tod fron colloge with credits in

c\(!:,elinst tho'r.1e

psychology, or from n nurs:i.r..g school and belva he-.d five yoars experience res

0.

cnso workor in n lelrgo industry, hospitnl, institution or public ho0.1th nursing, you

~ou1d

rnto 4 tLDOS 5, or

0.

grnde of 20 in oxporionce.

But if you vmro n colle(:o gradus:.to, lend nnjorod j.n business c.dJ:linistro.tion C'.nd you hnd fivo yoo.rs o.r experionce investiGntiJ'S crodit rntiEGs for snc.l1 loo.ns nnd thnt nor.ms you Y;ould hC'.vo to got out on tho stroot r.YJ.c' moot your clionts your rating vmu1d bo 15, or throo tinos fivo in

oxrorj.O~lCO.

1\.:',:1 tho Ch:>'IlCCS c.re

o.bout two-to-o!'.e you i'muld be just the kind of invostig'1tcr noeded to fulfill tho roquiro!7'.ents

CIS

intendod by tho LeGisle.turo.

In othor vlOrds, business exporienco

".11d

judgmont

0.1'0 r8.tO(~

25% below tho.t

of socio.1 service trninins, reGnrc11ess of your ;;rrv10 in the v!ri ttor... test. The studies of the Ccnnittee show tho.t mo.ny of these who he-:vo oc:on cortified

Cll1d

enp10yod a.s visitors by the Dopa.rtncl1t lmdor the

exnninr.tions o.re not properly qunlified for tho ·v10rk.

prese~t

systen of

Thore 8.re, of courso, ex-

ceptiOI,-s, but it is disturbing to knOY! thnt hundrods of nilliol"-s of to.xpnyers' dollars o.re being distributod o.nnunlly by Sto.te enployes, mnny of vnlon in o.be and judg;nent

o.~ld

0.1'0

~mturc:

who ge:1ero.11y lack the exrericncc, tho bn.ck:;r01md, nnd the

point of vie,r nocessa.rJ" for the job. In the

ex~nil1n.tions

for visitors Given in Octobcr, 1939, nn nnalysis of

tho 190 questions indico.tes thnt only 52, or 28 percont, CGuld be nnsvrored by persons I'rith ge11ero.l Imclidodge qunlifying thon for il"-vestigations of tho typo needod.

Soventy-four of the questions, or 39 perco'-:t' definitely required socio.l

service traininG or experionce.

An ndditionnl 24 questions, or 13 percent,

required specin1 oduco.tion or lalowledGo,

cbto.ir~blc

.. 53 -

only through medical

training or special courses usually givan in social service schools.

Thus over

50 percer..t of the questions r:lay dofi!litely be cor.Lsidercd to require spocinl

soeio.l sorvice educntion.

Tho reT;lr.ini.ng 39, or 20 percent, concernod c:otr.ilod

provisions of public nssistanco 1m/iTs D..nd any applicant could lonr.c.

n(~T.1ir..istrCl.tivo

ruli:lgs, v{hich presur:lc.bly

However, rrevicus exporience in the Dopartnent would

be invaluable in being able to n:1SWcr those 39 questions. Here

ViTO

have em :i.nGicntio:r., bordering nt leo.st on evidence thr.t

onorGency nctivity to assist

ul~ortunD.tcs t01~.rd sclf-dope~dency nicht

cone a sto.to-wido exporicor:.t in secin1

a11

have bo-

ocnnc~":'ics.

Tho situation exists in srite of tho definite provision in tho lo.w, eno.oted by the Legis1nture after long

dis~ussion,

thnt no "sreci-nl eduontien" be

re0uired for these positions nnd that the exnminntions "shall relate to those no.tters directly bearinG on o.nd •••• test the relative capacity •••• to discharge the duties." The Connittee en Relief contends thnt exr.T:linntieTls should not be "sooin1 service" in structure.

Sone investigo.tors onp10yed by the Co~r'.ittec

couP, not pass tho "socio.l service" exo.nino.tion ns :'rescribed by the Employr1ont Board, yet they discovered thnt rany of those certified for assistance by the Dopnrtl~ent's

visitors vrore ineliGible for assistnnce.

Thoy found nnny othor thinss Ment's visitors.

th~t

should have been obvious to the Depart-

Of thnt you s1mll hear Inter.

TYPE OF VISITOR QUALIFIED As hns been inferrod beforo, the investigntors, or ns they nre cnlled in the Dopnrtnent, the visitors, nro tho crux of tho uhole nssistnnco progran. True, thero is the Secretnry of the 'Dcrnrtnent I the Depnrtr:ont, tho County Boards, the supervisors, the executive directors, tho typists, tho stenographers, the cnse renders and tho janitors, but the hub around which the D.dP..inistration on ono hand

an~

tho recipients, the to.xpayors

- 54 -

an~

the costs on the

One feature of the administration of assistance which should be considered is the manner of roinvestignting recipients. Under the current setup the Department demands that 0.11 cases returned for investigation must be given to the originul "Visitor" for reinvestigation.

This

is neither efficient nor practical from the Committeo1s vie~oint. And as inves(1) tigatiens in the Allegheny County offico proved, it cannot be assumed that the original "visitor ll is going to re-check a recipient for relief and constantly find he hns made nn error.

In some cases this might be possible, but that is

the exception and not the rule. (2 )

.l\ttempts by County Boards, as in the co.se of the fhilo.dolphio. Board, develop buffed.

0.

special investigating unit

~~thin

to

its own sto.ff, are generally re-

The Committee fails to understand how the Department cnn expoct to

properly administer relief with such an attitude. MORE aONTROL OF VISITORS NEEDED The Committee' s

investL;~:Gion

showed that there is no definite control

of visitors to see that a definite number of cases nre covered daily.

However,

a mechanicnl check is made in district offices ence a month to ascertain those cases which have not been visited. A few D.P.!.. cD,se records which were checked indicate that a.t times tho visitor, upon making a revisit, merely ago.in recorded the snmeinformation reported on n previous visit.

M[my~of

these cusos were the same onos in vvhich the

investigating group easily found facts justifying either a down'vnrd- change in grant or the closing of tho caso.

(1) (2)

Soo Allegheny County Investigations in Findings, page 69, this report. See Philadelphia County Investigations in Findings, page 67, this report.

.. 56 ..

It is possible that the amount of paper work which visitors must handle makes it difficult to accomplish as much in the field as thoy should. SUFERV lSI ON U.Jr A groat part of this neglect falls upon the supervisors whose jab it is to check the work of the "visitors." ~

supervisor, by the very nature of his job, should endeavor to help

the visitors porfonn their work ns efficiently as possible. Instead, supervisors, by lnck of nttention to the way tho work is dono, Q

general fraternizing with the visitors, and in specific cases by telling the

"visitors" they were covering too much ground, have net generally helped to alleviate the situntion. In sarno cnses they mano.ge to to.ke up a grent she.r8 of the "visiters'" time by holding meaningloss table conferences, nnd by individual conferences, ·when the ver-;l thing the "visitor" needs is able o.nd intelligent direction in the field. In somo cases, "Visitors" he-ve comrlained thnt too much of their time is taken up with "talking over ll the cnse histories l'Vith supervisors. Regnrdless of tho caliber of the

lI v isitors",

their work can only be

1'0-

fleeted threugh the help and direction of the supervisors. Tracing the situation back to tho beginning -- oven theugh examinations 0.1'0

not right, nnd tho visitors qualified nre not the rropor tJTo and their

attitude is not conducive to obtaining tho best results in keoping with the intent of the Legislature, the one HOPE for tho taxpayers should bo the supervisors. Unfortunntely, the Committee learned in its invostigntions that instoad of gUiding the visitors mnny supervisors only servo to add more confusion to the alrondy muddled chnr.Lnel of investigation. UTILIZATION OF VISITORS' TTI,m As stated, un important item to consider in the total cost of assistnnce and which is also definitely related to the administration of reliof, is the use 10 S8 misuse of a. greater pnrt of tho visitors I" time • .. 57 ..

Tho gcnornl proceduro for u "visitor" is to muke his visit, write his notes and then ufter working in the field, return to tho office, attend conferences ,nth the supervisor and write up his reports. Add to this the constant cho.nge cmd recho.nge in the ma.terial needed to complete the forms cnd you have a. "visitor" who sponds more than two-thirds of his

t~.e

in conference and writing reports Qnd a variety

othor things

beside investigating the ca.ses on his calendar. Let's take a closer look This is what happens.

~t

tho picture.

It prevents the visitor from making the nortlk'il

nmount of visits he should make,

In turn this o.l1ows many co.ses that should be

discontinued oo.ch month to continue on the rolls i'lhich nnturnlly results in the spanding of many thousands of dollo.rs that othcrvlise could be saved. If the percentage of time utilized for office work could be reduced to 25 percent or less, the visitor presumably could do

~lice

o.s effective work in

Visiting, and, in some cases, the number of visitors could be reduced. C'"rLUTGE OF VISITJHG HOURS

Proper coverage of co.ses cannot be accomplished in a working day us at present dofined. night jobs.

Thore nre many cases whore members of a family unit

mi~~t

have

The only way to tJrove such emplo;yment ie by contacting the recipient

in the evening.

Ylhere it is found thc.t an

emrloy~ble

member is not home, tactful

inquiry should be made in the neighb0rhood to find out whether such member is employed and where.

A contnct should then be mnde with the employer to verify

the employment. As set up now, n person vn10 works ut night is usually at home when the visitor calls in the daytimo and cnn and does give the impression, by his very presence. that he is unnmployod. EXTERIENCED

INVESTIG~TORS

Investigntors en,,;o.ged by the Committee to unearth the faots on the eligibility of those receiving Gcnernl

~ssistance

- 58 -

in ?ennsylvo.nin

w~ro

solected

becnuso or gencrnl experience in business or special aptitude for investignting work. In most cases tho minimum vmge rnid tho Committee's investigntors was ns much or more tho.n ·the maximum amount paid workers in the Department or rublic . s ~s . t Qnce. (1) ii.S

Their invcstigntions were based on tho rolier requirements as set up by (2 ) the Gonoro.I i""sscmbly. Not cor.ter.t l-rith sc.mpling oree Iocftlity, the Committee directed its invest:igQtors to sample Qnd rosamplo ench loco.lity and then checked the work or eC'.ch investigator by assigning invGstigntors te n dirforent territory. One ?ertinent

r~ct

we should weigh carefully is that projocted by the

Cowmittee regnrdb.c; invostigntions •. In tho follo"Vlling puges (ur,der FiDdings) bear in mind tho.t tho fr.cts rroscnted "rere learned by men ""ho the

E~ployment

Bonrd's

oxa~ir.~tions

for D.P.A.

~~

pc.ss

emrlo~~nQnt.

~-------

One noint tho vi(~inG

Le~islature

should consider seriously is the need rer pro-

incentives for emrloyes to ronder their best SOM-rice.

ntic promotion or bottor pay has beon initiated for the $90

:No plan of systomn

month visitor.

Nor is there o.ny effective rlnn of :;rc:notion, vihoreby the c:::tpC'.blo tlnd efficiont enjoy ndvuntages ever t>.o inefficient or the indiff'orcnt visitor.

This has re-

ceI:tly caused the County BonrJs much difficulty 'ni th tho cmploynont oprortunities v~lich

nrc

oreni~6

up bocnuse of the Nntionnl Defense rrogrnm.

Reference hns beon

l~~do

to

t~e

classification instituted by the Employment

Board vmeroby visitors nrc grouped in original examinations into throe (1) Investicnto14s used by tho Cowrdssioll ~;rore selected to perform a specific tJTo of work on a tomrorQ~Y basis, n~d n~re paid n hiGher compcnsntion thnn regular .i... '. lvostiGc.. . to~·~ krJ'",v'.il e.s II v isitors" in the Dopfl.rtmcnt of Public !l.ssisto.ncc. (2) Soc pa 6 cs 98-~OC, Appenc.ix.

- 59 -

clo.ssifico.tions; nrunely, junior visitor, visitor and senior visitor. dono by eo.ch of those clusses of visitors in and yet in ordor to securo

~

promotion

on the job must hnve pussed the on the eligibles to merit

0.

is

essGnti~lly

the

SUBO,

junior visitor who hus done good work

oXD.min~tion

~ppointment.

pr~ctice

The work

for visitor and be sufficiently high

Not only would the cost of exnmination

be fo.r loss if these threo clnssificntions of visitors wero consolidated, but there would bo a real opportunity for promotion on the busis of proved proficiency.

Snlnries for tho consolidated grnde would cover

D.

vndor range o.nd tho

visitor coming into the Dcpnrtment could look for more frequent vnth ultimo.to higher

so.lo.~J,

po.~T

increnses,

if these grades woro consolido.ted o.nd promotion

'.'1ado upon rccoLIDlondutioll of the County Boo.rd.

This would help eliminnte tho ro.pid

turnover now boing oxperienoed. Hero nGD.in the ndvisnbility of the

DepD.r~~nt

giving tho County Boards

o.n over-ull budget cnn be discussod. It is nnturnl to nssune that it would be better to hnve three cble investigators on n Bonrd steff o.nd pny

thel~

good vmges, rnther thnn havo five

visitors who not only o.ren't worth vmnt they nre pnid, but in nddition cost the to.xpnyers money by their indiscriminnte certifying of Co.scs for :J.ssisb.l1.ce. In one specific

inst~nce

n COU!lty bonrd sugGested certnin snlary in-

crenses, and tho Dopnrtment took the stand thnt the Bonrd vro.S not junging the "Visitors" on the right basis, nnd sot up certnin rules to be followed o.nd suggested "if you hf.l.vO o.ny (visitors) 'which fa.ll in this category ••• we shnll bo bla.d to consider them, Qlthough I cnn sive you no indicntion ns to whnt the finnl nction vIill be in rognrd to your

roco~"':l.ondations."

Surely the Bonrd should be c.llmrod to exorcise its judgmont concorlling snlo.ry ndjustnents with tho established scnlo. It should be pointed out here thnt the

Enployr~lent

Bonrd ho.s not followed

the recognized pclicy of tho stnte in referenco to tho depnrtments under the Administro.tivo Code. - 60 -

Section 709, (0.) nnd (1) states, "(0.) In estnblishing such stnndards the Bonrd (Executive Bourd) may: (1) Take into considor~tion tho locution of the "lOrk n:'1d the conditions under 'which the service is to be rendered ••• " UNION OF DEr.t\RTMENT1J.L EMrLOYES

Tho persennel of 0. number of tho County Boards have nffiliatod themselves with labor unions.

TI1is is the cnse pnrticu1ar1y in

~hilndelphiu.

These uniens

huve not proved conduciv-e to effective operntion of the offices, Qnd they hnve endenvorod to take unto themselves tho prerogutives of the County Boards nnd executive directors in policy detorminction.

TI1ey hn7e obstructed the orderly

processes of ndministrntion, their rerresentntivos endoavoring to direct tho Enploytlent Board in the ki..'r1.d of exnmi.na.tiens 'l11ich should be written; tho executivo directors in the ndministrative instructions

~hich

they issuo; tho super-

visors in tho direction which they give to the visitors; nnd the visitors in tho mothod of carrying on their work. Supervisors who must control nnn rnte the work of visitors havo beon found to be mombers of the sumo union ns tho visitors and,

theroforc~

inpropor pressure in their ro1ntionships to their subordinntes. ectors, who should hnve cor£idontin1

rc1~tionships

subject to Executive dir-

with their bonrd members on

problems of ndministrntion must dictnte comments on their problem with enp1oyes' unions to sacrotnrics uho nre membors of the unions. The introduction of e::'.ch f'.mninistrr:\tivc :in.provement must not only be "sold"

~'e'/n representr:\tivo group of nIl the omp1oyes, but to mcnbers.

a. specin1 group of union

Officials hnve been reGularly assai10d by publications of the Philadel-

phin union, in which the nombors not only nudo

den~nds

but

~icketed

the homes

and :r:lnccs of enp10ynent of tho non-paid board l:1enbers ~ in ordor to achieve thoir cnds. ~bi1e ,~believe th~t

the enployes subject to civil servico have n right

to form any organization which they desiro wi. thin their own

depa.rtment~.

nrc opposed to tho affi1ia.tion of such groups "nth lnbor unions us they

- 61 -

we ~ro

c~nonly

termed.

Ciyil Service provides their protectien.

vm RKER ' S 1.LLIANCE One of the

~~ort~nt

problens investigated by the COffirlittee was thnt

projected by the union of reliof recipients Jmevm ns the Worker's l.1.11innce. This orgo.nization was for,r,od primarily for tho purpose of o.iding o.prlicunts and recipients of rolief.

(Muny of the lenders of this ergnnizntion

nrc considered to be Co.mmur.istio.) Tho

COh~ittcc

found that in

tho.t some Boards hnve set o.side

0.

s~o c~sos

Gny ::m::l tir:J.e 't'Then they honr cases nrgued

by representativGs of tho .\llin11co. npplicnnts "')ho hnvo not been nro entitled to ~1o!D.bors

n~0itionnl

they ha70 become so powerful

At these l".loetings mor.,bers arguo for

certif:i.Gd~

nnd for recipients vrho foel that t110Y

assistance.

of vnric.us Boo.rds suy thoy foel thnt setting asido

is the best wny to moot this problom.

0.

specio.l day

Ul1fortunntoly, it only increo.ses tho

grief later on ns it tends te inrress npplicants that the oo.siost o.nd quickest ..my to get on relief is to join the

~llinnce.

~nd

that is wno.t harDened

in sono cnso s. This is only another indication of hour ll:lportant "nttitude 'l is in hnncHing the relief rrebler:J..

It night bo significant to point out

th~t

to (1.o.to

no such organization has been set up by the recipients to help them get off of relief rolls and on to pa.yrolls.

.. 62 ..

A REPORT OF THS FINDnIGS OF TIIE CONIT:IITTEE In the preoeding sootions tho Committee has presented n. genoro.l pioture

;f vrtriuus fo.otors which o.ro a pa.rt of the o.dministration of rolief in

Pennsylvania..

We still need to know more about the people on relief -- the

peoplo who reoeive the benefits of relief spending. The Com."TI.i.ttee on Relief mo.de a. number of samplings of those on Genera.l Assistnnoe rolls.

':.n indopendent investigation YiThich wo.s concerned with but

one thing --- FACTS.

This sromplinC Qnd

re-s~~pling

was the mftjor topic of con-

vcrsa.tion in 35 meetings hold by the Committee; and unbio.sed investigations of more thm 1,000 co.ses made in severftl pn.rts of tho state tmder the Committee's direction provided tho FACTS. Field surveys of the o.d.!ninistrn.tion of public assistonce were made in the offices uf eloven representativo

*

county a.ssistance bonrds.

Hundreds of men

Cilld women ho.ve testified and rocountod information deo.ling with every important pho.se of tho relief problem in Pennsylvmia. "CHISELING", ONE OF THE ILLS These thous,mds upon the)USro1.ds:)f' words ho.vo been tn.intod with one word which has left its stain on ftssistance in "chiseling. l1

Ponnsylvr~io..

Thrtt word is

As the assistance rolls inorea.sed the to.lk o.bout ohiseling 8olso

increased. Nothing could be f'rtrther from the truth to imply thllt most persons receiving a.ssistance arc

l1

c hisolors."

Nothing could do a grca.ter injustice to

those people who have no other manns of sustenance. Nor is it wise to o.SSlL"Tle thflt in such n.

gibc~tic

undertNd.ng tho.t n.d-

ministration 0l1d investigG.ti'jn can be 100 per cent perfect, since so much centrol of tho situn.tion is in tho hnnds of the visitor. The Committeo decided that lief cases w,\s imperative. microscope by

~

fI!l

independont 'md impr..rtia.l study of re-

Obvi')usly every Case could not be put 1.4"1der thA

limited staff' of

investig~tors

and with limited funds.

But

*Montgomery, Berks., Franklin, DQuphin, ~rio, Fc..yctto, Clea.rfield, Somerset, Butler, Venango 8lld L1.ck:x,vanno. Countios.

-63-

evon so, these investigCttors, with llo previous experience in social service work (but with years of business experience) by interviovnng rocipients, talking with businessmen who were ctcquainted vdth the recipicmts and tapping other aVflil... able sources of information (the sQUe sources wInch were ctvailable to the Depar~­ ment's "visitors,") developed sto.rtling facts.

In addition they followed up

letters of complaint written by citizens to the Department of Public Assistcmce and letters from relief reoipients thelMelvos. THE

PHIL~illELPRI~

-~Vha.t

STORY

*

did they find?

~tt

17 per cent, or ftpproxima.tely 150 out of

777 cases token at random fror:J. the filos of tho Philadelphifl Publio Assistance office or from letters of complaint from Ootober 23, 1939 to January 27, which seemed to be

ine~igible

194~,

for relief.

_\nd the facts indiCate plainly thn.t the State employes might have dis.. covered the

s~e

facts, if the visitors had approQched the job as the people in

Pennsylvr.m.ia want it donc. Here is what tho C01:'lIllittee's investigators found. One mnn had been steadily employed since 1935, while his wife WaS receiving $64 monthly for aid to dependent children. other with n. checking aocount of $1,000 in assistance gr~"1t of 06.20 ct week.

Ct.

Tho investigators found rrn-

bonk yet ho WaS receiving

0.

generfll

There W:J.S one Cctse of a mDIl who waS certified to

receive (~19.70 a week of t'J.JCpayers' money on ct general r.ssistnncc grnnt, while earning 52 cents run hour in priVate employment. rolls, one couple purchased These nro but

::t

Four months n.fter leaving the

house, ma1dnga $1,000 daVID payment.

s~~plos

of what the Committee's investigQtions found

in ex~ning Cases "tcrtified for relief by the "visitors" of the Department. Look !It the Case of ltD. N." in Philn.delphia. known as

1m

0.

"snow ball ll business.

He has what is populnrly

He runs his business from a small push cart.

investigator found that he bouGht

3.

houso in June, 1938, prtying ~400 down,

while receiving (~12.10 n. week on rolief,

**

Yet in July his regulCU" visitor allowed

....

-."..------=-=-=--:--:::,-:----~-----.....- --------~---

* Seepages 101-102 ~Lppendix ** The visitor who h':\.d ,)r:i,gin~ly

- 64

co:rtii~ied

"D.N.

1t

for assistance.

-------

him

increase in general assistanco to ;,:;14.10.

nIl

was dofinitely establishGd that he had tor. tr~

But in

~hrch,

fI11

A few months later, when it

incomo, his case

"'iln.S

closed by the visi-

1939, his C'1.se was re-opened, a.lth(jugh he was able to pf1.y his

bill in a.dvAnce for a discount benefit. The investiga.tors

II

~m n.

checked"

pri vats colored school in Philn.delphia.

The repart of the investigator shows that the school wr$ within four blocks of two new city schools, recently erected by the Board of Educn.tion. school charged for tuition.

Tho private

Text books 0l1d school supplies and other essentif:lls

had to be provided by the pupils.

Yet

f~nilios

on active assistance rolls, who

were reoeiving General Assistance .and n.id to dependent children, had children enrolled in tho private school.

Tho woekly genoral assistance grnnt to pnr-onts

sending children to this school totaled ~~330.86 and tho mnnthly aid to dependent children in the

S:JlIJ.O

circumstnncos was ;;748.75.

It should be noted that there is

no provision in the Department's manual covering such abuses. Look at the case \)f "Mrs. G. rmd 11. H.". "visitors" a. merry chase.

But the Corrnnittee's investigators found without much

trouble that "G." was working at the R. C. been working steadily since 1935, 1938.

Thoy led the Department's

~d

'i..

COr.1.pnny in Camden, N. J., rmd had

had missed but one month's work since May,

During the first throe quarters of 1939 he had earned nearly $900.

his wife was receiving an .'... D. C. grant of 064 he wQ.s living with his sister. years.

Co

month.

And

He told his employer

His sister said he had not lived there for

Yet neighbors vorified that "G." was living with his wife.

~~O

Naturally his

wife denied it. Some of thG "chiselers ll use aliasos to hide their identity. " visitors" didn It seem to be able to traco thom. gators did.

She

WEtS

But thQ Co:r:nnittoe I s investi-

In the Case of two sistors, ilL. and C.

on W. P. A. and C. employed under earning $47

0.

~

The

W.,"

thoy found L. working

alias at the Philn.dolphia Genoral HCspital.

m0nth md ho.d boen steadily employed during the period she

Was receiving assistance. Take the case of Ylr.-md Mrs. "C.".

-65..

Thoy first went on rolief in 1932.

Yet five years later they bought a property for a cfJ.sh considercction (1" :)1,160, nnd one week lC1.tcr they were cortifiod for

assistfu~co.

During tho timo thoy wore

sponding more thnn a. ;)1,000, thoy were o.lso applyinc; for o.ssistnnco.

He recei vod

more th:m ;~330 Horkmon's Componso.tion during tho time hB vms receiving Gonero.l Assist.mce. For onother excJJlple let's to..ke IiIr.nnd Mrs. "A. C." of Philndelphio... It wo..s found that he was soIling pretzels during the time he wo.s rocei ving relief. His income rmged from ~~25 to [:~30 weekly. set-up for entire relief poriud,

Jt.l".~O

Hero is one for tho books,

The CQSO WQS closod and rositution WftS

3, 1935, to Jtllle 5, 1939. Tn.ko

Q

~nd

look .1.t liB.

ond had Christmas club savings u.'rJder the name of fl club. (~889.42

C.F. II

He WCLS employod

Rostitution in CIilOtlllt of

for period Septomber, 1936, to September, 1939, covoring tlllropcrtod oarn-

ings and ;$66.22 received as on insur''.llce pc,yment in Ivby, 1939. !

Those

'11"0

just

Cl

few of the

ore fairly represontQtivo of the

CQSOS

Now let's see what lln.ppens. obtained

availr~le

1I

chisoling" cn-ses in Philftdelphir.,

* but

they

investigatod. The next stop

WaS

to

Yilnkc

the informfltion

to membors of the County Bon-rd nnd the Executive Director.

Accordingly the facts wore mn-de available on Februo.ry 7, 1940. The Executive Director i::'l Philadolphi'\. hC\.s consistently shovm the gron.test possible interest in the results of tho plot ely.

inv·ostig;~.tion,

and hn,s cooporrt ed com-

Without indioQting to his staff his rOClSlJl1S, he turned the co.ses fotllld

to bo ineligible over to the staff through reguL'..r \s previously

st~ted

ch't:.~nels

for re-investigcction.

the ostQblished procedure of the Dopccrtmont is for the

!~~o

visitor, who has approved the need for f\ssistn.nce, to investigate f\rly conplnints QS

to the eligibility of the person receiving; o..ssistnnce. The Exocutive Director in Philadelphi::l turned. the results ;,)f those in-

vestigo.tions over to be handled in the regulClr nnnner. The reports ".'I"hich ho roceived

indic~ted

thflt tho stClff did not find

any fflcts different than those they hfld proviuusly fotllld when they declared the *Othors or e included in tho _\ppcndi:x:, pa.gos -66-

161-];02.

cases eligible. In May the Executive Director turned

th~

cases over to a special

investigating unit which he had formed, the personnel of which was taken from his regular staff by reason of refusal of the Department to approve any different personnel. unit.

By August he had not receivJd a comp10te report from this

A preliminary report, however, indicated that, in many cases, they

were merely following the procodure the visitors proviously utilized and had not been able to develop the facts that wero readily ascertained by the Committee's investigators samo months pr8viously. The Executive Director then asked for a investigation of these casos by this special unit. investigation was not oompleted until December.

m~e

complote and prompt

The final rosult of this

1~nifestly

the intervening

period of approximately one year made exact check of the results of the local Board's investigation against the Commission's difficult.

The

re-ch~k

in-

dicated some differences based on information available to the Board's staff from its files, which was not available to the Commission's investigators. However, tho results of the Commission's investigation were definitely upheld by this re-chock, which indicatod that as a direct rosult of the Joint State Government Commission's investigation 44 cases were closed and grants to 18 cases were reduced.

39 cases had been closed prior to receipt of the

information from the Commission, and in 49 cases the information from

t~c

Commission had heen previously known to the Board but, according to the rules of the Department, ill that could bo done was to reduce the grants rather than eliminate the cases.

~67-

C~Ges

Tho tote.l of these cases equals 150, out of 691 by the B08rd, 373 of which had boen reported by the clocrly cligi blc.

8S

ro-checked

Oo~ission's

investigators

In addition to this 150, the Boerd's investig£tors

classified the cmsos in \ihich children ,;:ere

tl tt~Jnding

pri va te school

eligible

c;S

becr.;use the BOLrd feels thnt the pr..ymcnt of tuition to private schools does not :mr:ke the relief recipient ineligiblo under present str:!tutes. situr:·ltion

\70

This

l~~tter

feol is one th[t cr:lls for attention on the pert of tho Legislature.

"CHISELU;G" Hi PIT'ISBURGH

*

A field inv8stigption ucs Generrl Assistrnco.

w~de

in Pittsburgh cf 283 CLSSS roceiving

Those ceS8S -rloro tc·kon r;t rcndoD. from various cror::s to

ascertLin whether persons roccdving assistF,nco wore eligiblo fer such cid. This study

'I"IT.S

ncde freD Fobrur.ry 21, 1940 to April 8, 1940.

The

invGstig~­

tions reverlod [; hck of sincere offort en tho prrt of visi tors to find the real fects.

Ls an instcncc, tr'kG thG cnso of A. A.

His lrnd1ndy reported

to speciel invostig['.t.::-rs of tho Cc:r.JIlitte0 th'.t 11.. A. hEed ,. privets incor;:0, l70re expensive clothes, End

h~d

recontly purchesed c now r(:dic.

The Pittsburgh offic8 insisted thet the men wore clcthes giv'",n to him by friends Gnd the t he hrd bcrro-rmd tho rr dio fron cbtcin their infcrm,ticn?

L

friend.

Thoy t'skod the nc.n tn questi on.

How did they

Is it logical

to expect the recipiGnt tc gi'W(; infcrtll'tion thc,t would be dotrinentcl to hi:ose1f?

1.nd thoro is tho

Cf:SO

of :Mrs. M. P.

The invcstigetors rc::pcrt

indic~,ted

sho hrd f,n incnr:lo Lna. slvings in G Pi ttsburgh bLnk.

Whet did tho Pittsburgh

cfficci of the Deprrtment of Public bssist'nce find?

They didn't find enything

new

*

bec~use

they nrdo nc cttocpt to check \';ith the br,nk.

See pcge 103 bppendix -68-

But it

liES

later brcught

cut thr:t the i,rn: n in questicn h""uso \7ith the n'ney.

a weck.

T~o

t[ king ""66 e n-;nth fr,-'m rOC'r.l0rS, F:nd buying e.

Vir S

Yet sho wes recoiving a Generrl Lssistrnce

gr~nt

of

~:·3.50

visitrr hD.dn't checked ('·n Mrs. P. fer five nonths.

Jmd widc''',' "A. D." oppli.::.d for assistAnce end r.:cntioned receiving $1,500

in insur1nco at the tine of hor husbnnd's dOi.:.th. (!.~d

t'r dug eround

e.J..rc st ·0700 just

fCU:"ld thrt sho hr,d roc0ive:t ('vor $2,500.

An1 she 'It.d roceive:d

nen th bofore she: cppli ad fer roli af '·n tho 29 th ,·f May, 1939.

f

Tc ci te Ie.nethor instlCnco. while hor husbcnd

Yet the COr.Jrlittcets invostign-

'i'i'::-,8

"Miss"

!I.~.

H.

rocoiving i,. D. C. <:-nd G. L.

WF".S

onplcycd end recoiving recr. [.nd bcerd in R.ddi tiC'n to a \ieukly

sc:lery. One cf the r.:ost unusuel instcncQs checking on "M. C." fcund her ',.'C'rking in v;cek at

'i;2

per doy.

tho lcundry. sElr.ry.

i~

~,ccurrGd

';,hen ':nc ::'f the invostig,o.tcrs

Chinos0 lcundry f·--ur or fi va drys a

Miss "C" tcld tho visi tc·r she v;[.s Dare1y doing her own 'imsh c t

The investig-.tc·r wi tnosseclthe 1cundry

opor~tcr

pEying "M. C.' hor

She heel been er.plcyJd in tho ltu:ldry fcl' t,,'7(' yecrs during v,'hich tir18 she

hed beon receiving General 11Ssistc.nco. Ind "1. J ." for

~'nd

plc'yod.

tried to ferco his "luck"

roc3i vee. Uner,p1C'yment He

enplo~Tlcnt

~·n.s

Cor:pons~:tion

just', bit t00 fLr.

Ho

~pplie

d

Lna. Public 1.ssis trnce ,;hilc being en-

using his stepfcthor's truck for hpuling cor.1.

He Lclnitted his

rftor the frets h[d boen prosontod.

RELCTION 9F tL~~~ COUN'IY

SJ..:'.!.! *

In Pittsburgh the steff

knOrl

tho

S0urCO

c-f

infcr.r:~.tion

roletive to the

cr sos investigL to,:! rnd, insto:d. C'f "i lling1y chocking their crses, thEJY propcrec: r c.ofonsi ve r.::,buttLl, ."hich ,;['.s forv;rrdod. by the Executi ve Diroctcr t::: roproscmti tivcs of the

C~nnitteo

unuur

d~t0

cf June 20, 1940.

On July 18 end 19

~

ropre-

sentEti vo of the Cor.rr::i ttee rcvisi tad the Exocutive Director ene'. the persen Vihe prepflred the rebuttrl, r.t nhich tine it becu:w ;.;;vidcnt thLt IT.ny ,-f the ceses in Pi ttsburgh hed net been re-invostigL te~~ ftfter the fr,cts h[::1 beem given to then by

* Sew

peges 10~-105 Appendix

-69-

the

Calli~itteets investig~tors,

but that the visitor in onch caso had

~erely

beon

consulted o.nd 0. roiterntion nr;de of his pro7ious jUc1r;rcent given with the origi110.1 Grantll1G of nssistnnce. in ?ittsburgh,

w~th

A recnpitulation(l)of the cnses deteTI1ined o.s ineliGible cOMr~nts

tho oriGinal

of the Pittsburgh Offico thereon, nnd

- ~tho Inter conT.1onts bused on n further cOllverso.tion hole. with tho Exocutivo Director,

attached.

0.1'0

(Thero r~y be a few borderline Co.sos in which there is a

difference of opinion o.s to eliGibility.) RESULTS OF ALLEGHENY COUNTY mVESTIG1.TIOlT The Conr..itteo's invcstigo.ters found ttat 13.8 rorcont of thoso conto.cted VfCre ineliGible for relief, C\nd

0.

follow-up of

cC~1.J!hint

letters shm.-md that 40

rorcGnt of those cnses wore ineliGible. ~incl

while "chiseling" in its d.irect affoct u:;-,on relief costs is stncr;erinG,

thero still reno.ins srocific incic1.orlts of "chiselinG", v:hich eire both shocking nna degrelding; yet those conJitions nre in effect com1tennnced by the Dernrtnent. Slillm COHDITIONS EJITST Hr OTI1ER COUNTIES (2) l\nd vlh:;,t is true in fhilnc1elrhiu

(~nd ~~11echcny

Counties is just o.s true

in Erie, Fnyotte, or LIontCC'tlory 0.:\'1:-1 'Jelny othor cOtmtios.

The old story of the

rotten apple tainting the bo.rrel is :loubly truo as it concerns "chiseling" in I'ennsylvo.nin. First of r;11 lot t s ta]:e Hon-teonory County. Recipiont "C.iT." receivod n surplenental Gr::mt for

0.

"po.rt-tiT:1e" job.

But when the Conr..ittee's investigo.tors beGo.n to usk questions, his

ffiT.n

chilctren

fdvised thon tho.t their futher ....T.s reGulo.rly onl'loYQd o.nd they ho.d two reamers, ITho po.id them $25 a J:'.onth, while n r::rm fmel his vrife r:-\id thom $8.00 Donthly for o.n nrnrtnont.

1i.:10. to r.lo.ke tho story conrlcto, "17" had a boe,rder who

W1:'.S

bringing

home the "bacon" in tho shc-I'e of fced stnplos. filld hare is nnothor in MontCG~ery Coun~J. by tho wo.y) of TIork on n

(1)

"n.c."

D.r.n.

job.

Cnso histor:r shol'l'S thf',t the sons fe-.iled to reran for Ris I'nfc 1'1o.s o.ccused of. selling

Soc po.ges ~06~111t ~prend~. po.gos l12.11~. nppcnClX.

(2) Sec

It is the co.se (o.n nppoo.l co.se,

70 -

W.f.A.

clothing and

othor corJr.1oditios.

His son wo,s said to be co.ddyinG o,nd selling

notation on the Oo.so o.s of June 4, 1940, states --

"Gr~:nt

In Fn.yetto County the investiGo.tors checl::od on

ro[:~azines.

Assistance."

"P.R."

He had been on re-

lief since 1932 nnd that is o.bout as len G o.s you co.n be on relief in His only rensen for not workinG vms "ho:r.lorrhoicls." discussed his cor"dition on mnny occasions

* See

pages 114-115,

Arpendi~.

"R."

- 71 ..

,"IUS

Tho

rennsylv~nio..

.tl.l1d a.lthough the "visitors" "o.[;in" having em operation.

and three yoars later his racmDnte conplnined that S.L. vms druruc continuously. He vms barrod by the Salvation he yms too drunk to GO te Yv"Ork.

A~y.

The Enploynent office sent hin en a job but

His m"m. brother lnbeled hL"':'l ns "useless."

wouldn't tnke a cure for his chronic habit. jobs while on the rolls.

He panhandled his neals

He isn't n citizen.

iter closed the cnse. but it vms reopened

an~

He

did odd

Finally, in Janunry 1940. the vis-

~~dintely

by another interviewer. tfuy?

f.nd thero is the case of Itll..D." in Pittsburgh.

He Ylorked on

r.e.r.A.

for

n While. artc1 then beGan to operate a roenin G house rrincipnlly for nen on relief. Even though he hus no liquor license,

~.D.

sold liquor to his rOODers, and then

when their relief choc1,:s car-'.e in he undo ther. sign then and gives then 'what is left after deductinG roan rent [mel bill for liquor. l\nd at one hO:r.'.e in Vena.ngo County the Cornittee's investigC\tor found thnt

four recipients "drnnl: up" their relief grnnts. 0.11

their noney for liquor.

~'.nother

had tried [mel

VlC'.S

In fe.ct, they had been sponding

Ono had never attenpted to get his citizenship papers,

refu.sed; yet the Stnte vms J':eeping the:m in "high spirits".

EXTRA-liii.l\RI TAL RElJ'l. TIOllS* Tiliile cases ef habitual drunkenness are frequent and are a flagrant abuse of assistance in Ponnsylvnnin, 0. shocking situntion vms uncovered by tho Connittee's investigntors. They found outright eVidcnco(l)of nen and wonen living tOGether ,vithcut regard to nuritnl status.

Sone of those cases nust have been sanctioned by the

visitors as only n prelL"':'linary investigution by the Connittee's stuff revealed irTIora.l abuses of assistanco. Ta.l::o the cnse of Mrs. M.B. in Thiladelphiu.

It vms found that she w'Us

receivinG $50 a. nonth fer Aid to Dependont Children while living ,nth the brcther of her husba.nd. vms set up for

Each brother "m.s cnployec1 nnd ea.rnil1C porio~

~~25 a.

week.

Restitution

Dece:r.'.ber 22, 1938, to February 2, 1940.

*

Soe pu~e 116, AppendiX. (1) It is tho stated policy of tho Der~~~nt tha.t visitors shQll disregard the question of lo~a.lity of rola.tionship. - 72 ...

In Erie the investigators found tho.t itimate child.

"F.1."

was unr;mrriod ane. had an illeg-

The ifulfare Bureau there advised the Dopartnent of Public Assist-

ance that she ac1nitted she ",u,s liVing with a "boy friond ll • assistance check at her hone.

Assistance

included in tho "boy friend! s" Grant. she had

l~ft

~ns

He

VJUS

receiving his

disoontinued for F.L. but she

\VUS

Shortly aftervmrds he complained that

him for nnother man •. Yet, despite complaints regarding nen Visitors,

parties, women boarding nnd frequent cho.nces in address, tho final notation on the cnse shows that the visitor in May 1940 reconnended that assistance be continued in the In

mnximm~ m~ount.

~Uleghcny

County the Cor.nittee t s investigators founr1 the cnse of

His niece came North \TIlile progllC.ut. b~l L.

"R.L."

In due courso of tllle she bOCffile pregnant

They wnntod to sot up housekoeping so the "visitor" obliGod by certifying

them for assistance. The niece then hud L. arrested.

L.

\VUS

ment of fublic Assistance drew in legal aid gUilty.

adVised to pleaQ guilty.

an~

the 1'100.

VJUS

L. went to jail. Tnlile thore his niece forged his

assisto.nce check.

l'!hen L. Got out he

l ....

changod to not si,~nture

0.

on his

otifiod the Boo.rd thnt he 1l'ms living with

his 2,iece aGain and one month after getting out· of jail his grant to include

Depart-

VJUS

increased

fnmily of four.

Those arc

onl~l 0.

fow of the cO-se historios vrhich DJl1D.zed cnd shocked the

Committee on Relief. DELll.'rJARE COUNTY SURVEY* The survey in Dolnvmro County vms bo.sod on a different prenise thr.n those conducted in rhilndelphin and rhiladolphia

~nd

~lleghony

Counties, the difference beinG that in

Allegheny Counties tho recipients investigated were on the

active lists of tho

Dernrtmon~

of rublic Assistance, wheroas those in

Dol~\~.re

County havo beon removed fron the lists or refused C'.ssistanco by authorizo.tion of tho Delo.wnro County Bonrd of ?u.blic Assistance prior toinvostigations.• Tho purpose of tho Dolnwnre County study wns to ascertain how those

*

See paGes 117-138, Appendix •.

... 73 ...

persons, deprived of assistanoe,

~ere livin~

uithout state aid.

which this stur.y was made vms from February 27, 1940 to

~pril

The period in

8, 1940.

It should

be pointod out that this period enbrnced one of the nost sovere winters in recent yoars. In all cases interviewed, there ,vus apparently sufficient food, clothing, fuel and housing, and in goneral, the in accordance with their ovm

indivi~unls

long~timo

seeDed to be livinG rOUGhly

standards.

ELIGIBILITY STANDARDS Since these cases ,roro elininated from the rolls of the Lecal Board, despite eligibility as clefinec1 by the state Depnrtr_1C11t of :Ublic 1'lssistnnco, and in srite of pressure of recipients, the indication is that Stnte eliGibility sta.::ldnrds should bo T.1aterially cho,nGcd nnc1 the proof' should rest on the individual who applics for assistance. The investiGation uas nude of 105 cnses in Dolnvmrc COill1ty, nIl of which hnd boen removed fran the

relie~

rolls.

EiGhty-seven of the cases were found

to be either employed on regular jobs, e11r;nGed in private enterprise, living with rela.tives nnd friends, or had latter had movod from the sto.te.

~,ovcd ~ror:1

tho locnlity.

Sovernl of tho

There were 16 doubtful cnses, nine of which

had :moved nnd left no forvmrc1inG ac1rlross,

Six vroro neither 101ov,'11 nor could be

located and ono had been receivins relief in ::mother ceunty when c.pplication for relief vms nc..dc in Dclmrmre COtmty. Of the 105 cnsos only 'blvo

o.ctu~lly

noedod relief which had beon r.ivon by

othor uGoncies. DEL'J"TllRE COUNTY BOARD SETS Ex.l'Il,~rLE*

If other county beards throughout tho State would fellow the example of Dela'vure County nnd no.ke n tost by discontinuing uid to those folt to havo boen on too long, and net to hnve Dadenn honest effort to Got into industry, a vory heo.lthy beginninG night bo nudo to,mrd solVing this :lho.so r-f the rrobler.u ~--

*

Seo pages 117-138,

Append~

~

--------------------

74 -

The investigation of

group of 74 of these 105 discontinued cases,

0.

(Rhich Rere supposedly cases of single recipients between the ages of 18 and 25) pro~ded

many interesting

f~cts.

seven supposedly single men Rere m::::.rried and admi Hadly living ui th their wives.

Eleven were married but divorced or separated.

There were, in ad-

ition, ninecases of illicit relations. Four were unknown at addresses given in the Board's case records. In the remaining lDouP, six were found to have faildd to complete their citizenship reqUirements.

There were six eases of conviotion for law Tiolo.tions

of which four seemed to Ie of the criminal type and two of the casual violations of law. Examples af Case standards Picking out

0.

fen of the 105 cases at random the reports show:

S. K. -- Has car, now regUlarly employed. Burned $10 a week.

G. K. -- Wife working steadily.

Came from New

Jersey in

Novem~er.

Rela-

tives in Alabama. ~.

R. -- Steadily employed.

seven years.

Buys

Living vith

~amily ~ho

have been on relllif for

and fuel in lieu of rent payments.

fo~d

M. K. -- Mother of applicant advises he has been steadily employed for over t~70

years.

w.

C -- Employed by Sinclair Oil Company steadily for 12 years•

.E.

"'~.

-- New empllSyed.

Works only

long enough to sO-ve some money, then

qui ts.

E. M. -- Working for and living with ••• Operates a second-hand furniture store and a rooming house. The results of these surveys seem to prove that

~etter

investigation of as-

sistance cases requires persons of maturity and intelligence Hho are able to cope with the many intricute situutions which arise that require initiative and fast thinking.

They should

~e

rotated in assignments. .. 75 ..

og

~.9RD

UNUSUl,.r. CllSE

:r.m. "G" *.

One of the nest ar.nzing crsco in the files of the Dep01'tncnt is that of N..rs. "0" of Philadelphia. Her st cry begcn on the 9th day of SCIJt c'-1ber 1932, ',;hen she first applied for assistance.

She broug.'lt t a the DcpClrtnent c. letter of introduction frOI:l. ,:} City

Councilnnn.

~lnd

fran thct tiDe until late in l>.ugust 1940 (last notntion on record)

Mrs. "O's" record covers SGTle 20 pages of tcstinony, chargcs, countcr-charges, decisions Ql1d nppec.ls, during which t inc she was "on and off" the assist ~:nce rolls so rony ti::1GS that it Tins difficult to detcr::line her exact status at c given noncnt. In order to bring pressure upon the County BoC'.rd she contacted an i::lposing array of business and professional as

Q

non-resident

Q

r~n

and wonen in Novermer, ci'tcr beinG rejected

TIcll-knmlnjurist cGlled on her

beh~lf

and she ues granted

o.ssistance on the basis that Pell...'1sylv nia had accepted her residence l;.erc o.nd had pernittcd her to file suit ag:-'.inst har husbr..nd for support. disc()~~ti:;1UCd

Tllc nonths later c.ssistcnce \las

nIlen it

living at the c.ddrelJs to u11ich her check UCla beir.g nailed. lived there.

(This sho,ls inefficient

During the next t\lO

yc~rs

o.gain in 1935, and again she tigated.

i~wcstig:·tion and

\lQS

found thnt she nas not

In fo..ct she ho..d never

fclloll-up).

she drifted to W:"..shington and the south, but applied

~QS

granted

assist~ncc

uhile her case n8S being inves-

During this investigc'tion and ',"ihilc she 'ors receivi:r.g assistcmce it .1as

leClrned that she

1106

approaching r.dnistcrs for help.

She \7aS o.lso trented at

0.

Philadelphia hospital and uas later offered a job in the Social Service Depnrtnent but refused it ~ Her case TIas closed in April 1936, later she

~QS

laid off the

project~

it TIas difficult to find her.

~hcn

she obtained nark on 0.P.A.

One year

apDlicd for assistance nhich nns Granted.

When they finnlly caught up with

her~

she \"lOnted

t\10 relief checks nt one tine - so she could take a trip to 'Jcshil1Gton.

*

This case history \lCS t~cen fren the files of the Philcdclphin County Board.

... 76 -

But

Assistance

~as

ngain discontinued in November 1937 and in Februury 1938 she

again applied and again she was put on the rolls whilo being investigated.

Before

they could oonplete the investigation she noved, and the vi s1tor :finally learned that sha had gone to

W~shington

and her mail was being forrrarded to her there.

Assistance >las again discontinued. about the discontinuance of

Mr~. lion

v;rote to the visitor complaining

assistance~

She also "lirote to a supervisClr asking her to have things "lined-up" ~ouldntt

have to rrait for her money.

00

she

She didn't apply but the state heard from

her in Ne>l York uhere she had gone and

stranded.

~as

In August 1938, she came

"home" and again applied and again she was granted assistance. uas sent to an address \7hich proved to be a vacant house. ceived but it was later learned tha.t this

~as

Her first check

Another address uas re-

just a mailing address.

In Septem-

per 1938, the case was again closed because they could not contact the recipient. But she trnmediately

re-~pplied

stating she had been assigned to a WPA project and

needed money until she got her pay.

She then

~as

laid off and went again to Wash-

ington, returning in April 1939 and applied for aid which uas granted, but before the first check could reach hor she had

re-mo~ed

to anothor address and uhen the

visitor attempted to check hor residence at the latter address it lias founq that she had gone to Neu York and hud instructed the landlady to foruard her mail. Assi stc.nce ::ras di scant inued. In July 1939 it was decided that should she again apply for assistance a very thorough and careful investigation of

he~

eligibility must be made.

(This

was nearly seven Yclors after she first received assistance.) Four months later she re-applied.

Application

TIUS

rejected.

Less than

one month later her c.pplication 't1as accepted and then rejclcted, after it "as learned that she had been in Philudelphia for more

t~n

e month before

ap~lying

for assist:J.nce. She appealed the decision.

The Steff review comndttee heerd the appeal

.. j.77 ..

e.nd stmnped her case "ineligible." Old Age Assistance. Board of case it

She then appealed to the Count1';,.~ :~ Board heard her appeal and while studying h~r

No £lpplicL1.tion \7aS to-ken.

~ssistance.

HUS

The

I.

Co~~ty

lcurned that she had applied to the salvation JU'my for help to get

to E::u-risburg to see Secretc..ry ",f the Departmont of Public .A.ssistunce. ~us

deny

then

maile~

A

letter

to the Department advising that the County Board had decided to

assistunce~

her appeal.

~r~~c

She was advised und immediately applied

She then requested a state Board hearing.

They also rejected

But they said she could be considered for Old Age

~ssistunce,

on

the basis of income c:nd need o After the passing of many letters and decisions she for General

~ssistunce

and

Old

~~a ~ssistunce.

~gain

re-applied

She presented a letter from the

Secretary of the Depo.rtment sayin.g that her "application might be considered." T~mporury

General

~ssist~ce ~as

granted.

an Old ~..ge .li.ssistunce GrO.llt of $30. ~hen

In

~une

of this yeur she received

&e then decided to go to l;¥ashington and

advised that she would huve to ask for pennission to leav8,

for such pennission

~ere

requir~ents

nc.mely, she did not "shOl; thu t di scontinuance

not met

of our grant uould cause har:1ship." Ther.,; ill moa-e ~ such as .;riting to Governor sper questions, but the above is ho~

she flaunted the

~ill

~
unc refusing to an-

revieg of the amazing story of one

C

~omun

and

of the Legislcture•.

AUDITOR GBN.ffi."L SUffilJilYS

Other spot surveys of relief

recipi~nts

revealed by the Committee's investigators in

confirm the goneral situQtion Philcd~lphia

and

~legheny

counties.

During 1939 and 1940 the 4uditor General developed a special auditing creu to check on relief recipients.

This

cre~

visited several counties anc the

recipients TIera asked to come in and get their relief checks from a representative of the

~uditor

General.

This procedure replaced mailing checks to addresses provided by the

... 78 ...

recipients.

And this simple reversal of the accepted manner revealed that from

eight to fifteen percent of thoo e ':iho TIGre called in either did not come or sent TIord that they no longer required relicf. Arguments \,ere I1dvanced that the Auditor General's findings '.7ere of little value, becnuse those Hho did not come in '.70uld have been dropped from the rolls. rcm~ins

That may be, yet the fact

they Dore on relief Dhcn the auditing creu

conducted their check-up. SUPPLErII~1T.AL .J~I?IST}iNCE

The fact TIns

IGNORED

eGt~blished

that private Qgcncies

sometim~s

issue

supplclT~cntQl

assistance in addition to th,':'.t gl'Qnted by the Dcp,1l"tmcnt of Public AssistGncc flnd no cognizance taken of it in the recipient's grant. There arc cases.:hcre income from insurClnce policies has been rJitheld from D.P.A. in direct

viol~tion

of the InTI.

TF..E :MEDICAL FROGrul1~

Ur...der the act anyone on relief, or included in a fn..rnily on A. D.

c.

and G. A.

grants is ent it led to ;rodical CGre '\,ithout nn offset to the budget. Visitors are not permitted to rccomnend any pQrticulo.r professional person or . institution, but nrc nll0i7cd to mention those doctors Gnd others -.-/ho r:rc already sending invoices to the various ceunty boards, Important to the efficient carrying out of the progro.m is the checking of sienntures on bills for profesnionnl

sC~'ices

uith the signature on the original

grant. Yet in one County Bonrd office in ono month 37 invoices

nctures of recipients, becr':Usc nctive nt time of trcr.t!!lcnt '-nd

p~ticYlts ot~er

v~crc

retur:r..cd for sig-

';1cre not included in gl'rmts, cases 'I7ere not

rensons.

NC'~rly

one-third of the charges for

mcd:'cnl c ':rc '.Icre incurred by pcrsoEs vhc rcqucst;::d D.nd recci vcd trcotmcnt to 1,1hich they

TI

* Sec

c::'c

:1.0G

ent it led.

page 139 - ApDcndix

-79-

The Committee's investigntors physicians, dentists, nurses, etc.,

~lso

found

~ere

th~t

treating

in this scme office 6~~

l~~

of the

of the pnticnts.

And in South Philndclphin the Conrrnittce found that tl/o physicians ':Jere feeding all prescriptions to one pharnacist

~ho QQS

turning in invoices nhich totaled over

$500 a month for five successive mor-ths. Many of the pat ients lived miles from. the pharmacy.

More revealing nas the

fact that in sane cases six to ten items ',ierc charged to a single patient in one . r::onth. It should be pointed out that expeLditu!'cs under this program have exceeded expectatiens and the Legislature should give thought to providing the facilities of stat c-aided hospital alid clinical services, 'o7he!1cvcr pract icable. UNEMPLOYLIE:NT CONIPElJS~"TION - RELI:EF*

In a BUrvey of several hundred cases nhich reached the relicf rolls from the Ullcmployncnt Conpcnsation rolls, the Comr:uttcc found cvidence of persons "\:ho arc empleyed seasonally, yet fail to lay aside mo:r..cy for slack tines.

Instead they

spered their money in full, go on UnCIJ.ployncnt Conpcl1sation until that runs out, and then apply for relief. Local offices of the DCIJsrtl:J.cnt of Public Assistance in Allegheny, PhUadclphia, Schuylkill, Dauphin and Luzerne Counties submittod lists of approximately fifty nar:J.es each taken at rando!"l

fro~l

cases

OIl.

their relief rolls '.ihich had recent ly

cone on relief fran Uncnpluyn.cnt Co:opensaticn. Out of a total of 210 nanes subrlitted, it Has fOU:1.d, after checking, that 94, or 45%, represented cases ~herc earr-ings in a single calendar year had been ~~OO or nore; thus, 55% of all cases ',Jere relatively 10',; rlagc earncrEJ durirrg the period 'Jhen they iJere Qilployed. Of the 45% earning $800 or !:lore, 4~p received relief durir~ a quarter year immediately follOl:ing a quarter ~:ith CGr~1i2gs of $200 or tiore, suggest bg lack of thrift.

Extrene cases sllor/cd eQr:lings up to $800 during the preceding (I~wlu-deS- eli-arts 011 ir.diYidual cases).

*" -Sec pagesMG-147 -:'l.PIlcncllx

- 80 ...

quarter....::.~__

TABLE I.

PENNSYLVANIA REUEF IN DOLLARS TO RECIPIENTS BY CATEGORIES

(Monthly Averages by

~uarter

Years)

(In Thousands of Dollars)

Q,uarY ear ter

A General Assistunce

B Lac.Work Program

C Fed.Works Program

D C.C.C. and N. Y.A.

1 2 3 4-

$ 6,212 6,830 5,839 6,050

1934-

1 2 3 4-

6,625 7,020 7,600 9,4-17

$ 3,9941,633 2,758

1,228 1,173 1,271 1,4-20

1935

1 2 3 4-

11,889 13,251 13,752 10,911

4-,776 2,536 594-

9 3,764-

1,242 1,4441,927 2,154-

1936

1 2 3 4-

6,590 5,4-80 4-,871 4-,207

12,677 14,705 14,261 14-,372

1937

1 2 3 4-

4-,853 4-,677 4-,7444-,997

1938

1 2 3 4

1939

1 2 3

1933

4-

E Special A-B-C-D-E Total Categories a/

A

Percent of Total B C D

$ 6,53 1 7,971 7,24-2 8,122

95·1 85.6 81.0 74-.6

12,14-0 12,4-9410,881 14-,199

54.6 56.1 69.8 66.4-

32.0 15.2 19.3

1,067 1,120 1,22)41,250

18,97418,351 17,507 18,078

63. 0 72.2 78.6 60.3

25.0 13.8 3.4

1,585 1,528 1,372 1,158

1,3141,380 1,5641.84-1

22,266 23,093 22,068 21,579

12,979 12,158 10;117 9,458

1,113 1,058 1,059 1,239

2,222 2,692 2,926 2,-987

6,306 5,962 6,476 6,583

10,340 13,489 15,500 16,229

1,154 1,178 1,342 1,323

7,657 7,436 8,547 6,859

14-,408 12,918 8,786 1,451

1,327 1,293 1,289 1,229

$ 569 4,015

$ 830 1,1341,237

$ 318 311 269 266

10.5 15·5 15.2

4-.9 3.9 3.5 3.3

10.1 9.411.5 10.0

2.3' 2.5 3.5 4-.3

20.9

6.5 7.9 11.0 11.9

5.5 6.1 7.0 6.9

29.6 23·7 22.1 19.5

57.463.7 64.8 66.6

7·1 6.6 6.2 5.4-

5.9 6.0 7.1 8.5

21,166 20,585 18,84-7 18,680

22.9 22.7. 25.2 26.8

61.3 59.0 53.8 50.6

5.3 5.2 5·5 6.6

10.5 13.1 15.5 16.0

3,000 2,94-1 2,858 2,84-1

20,800 23,569 26,175 26,976

30 .5 25.3 24.7 24-.3

4-9.6 57.2 59.3 60.3

5.5 5.0 5.1 4.9

14-.412.5 10.9 10.5

2,917 2,673 3,12'1 3,125

26,309 24-,27 0 21,7+9 18,665

29.4 30.8 39·3 36.7

54-.5 53.2 4-0.439.9

5. 0

11.1 11.0 14-.416.8

272 308 b/ 378 604- E..I

a/ Old Age Assistance, Aid to Dependent Children and Aid to the Blind . c/ Old Age Ass-istance Started ~I Less than 1/10 of one per cent ~/ Blind Pensions Started

E

6.9 33.0

d/

~.3

5·9 6.6

TABLE II PENliSYLVAUIA

AVERAGE NO. OF CASES ON REUEF BY CATEGORIES (Monthly Averages by Q.uarter Years)

Q.uarYear ter

1933

A General Assistance

B

Loc.Work Program

1 2 3 4

~6,797

1 2 3 4

296,067 284,000 311,858 337,992

60,765 26,380 40,313

1 2 3 4

350,419 405,531 415,174 335,557

95,640 42,182 12,123

1 2

4,757 369,962 320,267

C Fed.Works Program

12,717 77,981

E

D C.C.C.

11,858 16,194 17,6Jlt

Special A-B-C-D-E Total Categories a/

A

8,94-9 8,850 7,839 7,698

395,746 465,465 393,995 358,356

97.7 95.6 94. 89.5

7,739

74.2 76.6 84.6 80.2

16.4 7.2 9.6 18.7 8.1 2.4

3·5 3.9 5.4 6.2

8.9 9.2 10.6 10.5

45.4

49. 0 49.6 51.0

4.5 8.8 3.2 2.8

10.411.2 13.1416.4,

33.1 31.9 33.5 314-.2

45.3 42. 36.6 34.9

2.4 2.4 2.7 3.4

19.2 23.7 27.2 27.5

~4.5

615,704-

38.7 33.5 314-.2 34.4

1.8 43.6 . 43.9

2.6 2.4 2.5 2.5

24.2 22.2 19.7 19.2

629,133 592,776 542,161 4-93,235

39.7 41.1 49.0 4-5.8

38.2 35.2 25.5 26.5

2.5 2.6 2.8 3.0

21.1 22.7 24.7

12,151 22,827 !:.,/

36lt78,768

17,739 20,631 27,524 30,767

45,254 47,409 51,166 52,200

509,052 515,753 506,351 497,292

68.9 78.8 81.6 67.5

~

206,336 176,600 159,424 137,603

236,548 240,681 236,415 234,870

22,644 18,826 l5,302 12,856

54,150 56,292 63,914-0 75,716

519,678 492,399 475,081 461,04-5

39.7 36.0 33.8 29.8

1937

1 2 3 4

158,272 148,709 147,006 151,821

215,735 195,822 159,779 \ 154,755

11,732 11,227 12,117 14,897

91,839 110,672 119,157 122,266

4-77,578 466,430 438,059 443,739

1938

1 2 3 14-

198,303 185,1+25 2014-,611 212,414-8

177,315 231,281 261,718 269,741

13,14-86 13,412 15,435 15,380

123,712 121,933 118,895 118,135

512,816 552;051

1 2 3 4

214-9,142 243,483 265,535 225,889

241,289 208,795 .138,156 13°,723

15,320 15,622 14,855

15,5~2

123,180 125,178 122,814-8 121,768

1935

1936

1939

~

"El

Old Age Ass1stan~e, Aid to Dependent Children, and.Blind Pensions bl Blind Pensions Started £I Old Age Assistance Started d/ Less than 1/10 of one per cent

2·3 1.9 1.9 2.1 1.9 2·5

399,330 370,669 368,552 421,418

9,152

3.5

2.5 4.1 4.9

E

4.4 4.5 4.9 4.8

17,543 16,752 18,163 20,286

1934-

Per Cent of Total B C D

600,65~

19.5

Y

15.8

3.~

5.

19~6

TABLE III.

PENNSYLVANIA

AVERAGE NO. OF PERSONS ON RELIEF BY CATEGORIES (Monthly Averages by Quarter Years)

A Quar- General YeaI' ter Assistance 1933

B Lec. Work Program

1 1,779,27° 2 1;971,212 3 1,593,879 ~ 1,34-4-,558

C

D

Fed.Works Program

C·C·C.

E

Special CateA-B-C-D-E gories al Total

Per Cent of Total B C D

11,858 16,19lt 17,67lt

31,04-9 30,286

,81lt ,700 2,017,683 1,6lt1,122 1,4-4-8.558

17,5lt3 16,752 18,163 20,286

30,329 32 jOll.£! 35,357 lt5,986.£1

1,588,86lt 1,435,171 1,398 ,296 1,555,082

75.8 77·3 88.0 8lt.0

19.2 8.3 11.6

68,331

1,369 313,339

17,739 20,631 27,52430 ,767

73,9 13 74,891

1,797,355 1;- 78lt, 33lt 1,710,320 1,637,267

72.5 8lt07 91.0 7lt.3

22·7 10.2 ,3. 1

56,olto

35,4-30

A

3lt~613

:I.

1.0 1.2

2.0 1.7 2.0 2.2

1.0 1.2 1.3 1.2

1.9 2.3 2.lt 3.2

19·2

1.0 1.2 1.6 1.9

3.8 3.9 4.3 It.6

98.0

~6

97~7

97.0

It.O

92~6

E

21.3

1934-

1 2 3 It

1,201,728 1,109,625 1,226,062 1,309,521

276 ,783 118,71lt 179,289

1935

1 2 3 It

1,303,91lt 1,511/035 1,554 ,199 1,218,270

lt07,371 181,968 52,33lt

1 2 3 It

69lt,205 591 ;lt60 511,°72 418,119

912,221 9olt,630 897,977 893,455

22,641+ 18,826 15,3 02 12,856

77,356 79,453 86,673 99,343

1,706,426 1,594-,369 1,511,024 1,423,773

40.7 37.1 33.8 29.lt

53.5 56.7 59.4 62.6

1.3 1,2 LO .9

It.5 5.0 5.8

1937

1 2 3 It

lt85,122 448,602 lt50;lt9lt 468,227

825,728 753,372 617,903 602,912

11,732 11,227 12,117 Ilt,897

119,829 147,171 160,60lt 16lt,896

1,ltlt2,411 1,360,376 1,2ltl,118 1,25°,932

33.6 33.0 ' 36.2 37. 4

57.2 55.lt lt9.8 lt8.2

.8 .8 1.0 1.2

8.lt 10.B 13. 0 13.2

1938

1 23 It

6lt2,288 609,130 661,106

13,lt86 13,lt12 15,435 15;380

167,lt72 166,093 162,354 161,218

1,514,955 1,666,315' 1,830 ,145 1,859,103

lt2.4 36.5 36;1 35.3

lt5.7 52.8 54.2 55.3

.9 .8 .8 .8

11.0 9.9 8.9

~55,573

691,709 877,680 991,250 1,026;932

1

767,329 735,066 804-,790 669,081

925;288 805,667 538,000 506,000

15,522 15,320 15,622 llt,855

179,9lt5 191,566 191,334 190,916

1,888,084 1,747,619 1.5lt9,7lt6 1,380,852

40.6 !j:2:2 51.9 4-8.5

49.0 46.0 31~. 7 36.6

.8

.9 1.0 1.1

9.6 10.9 12.3 13:8

1936

1939

2 3 It

339,26lt

70, TOO

al

Old Age Assistance, Aid to Dependent Children, and Blind Pensions

y

Less than 1/10 of one p'3r cent

hi Blind Pensions Started 01 Old Age Assistance Started

~/

6.9

,8~6

ALL

TYPES

BY

1933

July August September October November December

January February March April May JWle July August September October November December 1935 January February Ma:och April May June July August September October November December 1936 January February March April May June July August Se1}te.:nber October November • December 1937 January February . . _ March April May June July August September October November December 1938 January February March April May June JUly August September October November December 1939 January February March April May June July August September October November December 1934

TABIE IV CASES--PER THOUSAND POPULATION (Including WPA) MONTHS " JULY 1933--DECEMBER 1939 OF

RELIEF

IU.

IND.

MD.

MASS.

MICH.

N".J.

N.Y.

OHIO

PA.

W.VA.

WISC.

34-.87 32.05 30.72 31.31

25.35 23.33 22.60 24-.70 34.45 44.70

18.69 18.15 17.60 18.89 27.88 35.56

23.90 22.07 22.48 22.67 24.4-5 43.43

3 .45 33.81 36 .4-6 50.06 67.93

3~.62

24-.39 22.75 21.17 21.23 25.90 35.67

29.00 28.44 26.26 26.02 37.09 34.51

"36.72 34-.95 33.01 31.97 47.3° 58.64-

45.28 41.58 39.01 37.24 37.61t 44.86

68.89 71. 47 56.4-5 54.98 59.06 69.19

27.04 24.74 23.52 23.56 33.00 71.21

49.01 49.15 1t1t.18 29.63 29.22 28.18 27.95 29.42 31.24 32.55 35.00 37.15 38.43 38.41 37.64 36.08 34.54 32.30 31.09 35.00 39.54 37.62 38.36 39. 43 48.21 49.38 47.97 44.29 40.98 38.58 37.92 38.52 39.33 39.59 4-0.56 40.92 41.76 43.54 43.56 41. 76 39.29 38.03 36.48 35.95 35.95 36.78 39.51 44.09 51.34 57.45 60.29 55.59 62.25 65.91 66.54 62.39 60.91 66.69 60.25 67.25 68.61 60.33 60 30 69.80 60.70 70.4462.15 71.0471.26 . 64.08 71,40 63.23 63.27 71.59 65.69 72.56 72.88 65.87 60.81 69.49 67.69 59.57 59. 01 67·75 57.91 63~57 60~96 55.64 57,61 51+.48 54.51 58.95 55.82 59.16 60.15 56.17

51.35 57.93 54.21 41.13 33.58 30·09 26.81 25.58 24.87 25.12 25.57 26.87 29·37 31.30 30.82 28.63 26.49 22.47 21.01 20.68 20.39 21. 75 25.15 27.28 27.05 26.76 25.56 22.96 22.37 21.40 21.17 21.20 21.13 21.48 21.95 22·70 23.32 24.26 24.36 23.91 21.03 21.38 21.10 21.28 21.36 21.77 22.18 23.69 25.36 26.45 27.10 27·13 26.74 27·15 28.52 28.87 . 29.80 30.;.0 30.23 30.79 31.16 31.53 31. 72 30.37 29.30 27·89 27.15 26.93 26.25 26.98 27.27 28.41

50.11 ~ 48.28 42.26 35.85 33.86 34.58 35.18 35.30 37.39

69.60 57.67

48.20 53.5445.36 43.69 33·90 32.19 31. 73 31.90 "32·35 36.92 39. 45 4-1.33 lJ.0.85 41.21 41.14 39.84 37.82 36.17 35.79 34.86 35.36

44.39 1t7.79 46.39 1t2.15 39.97 38.67 38.71t 39. lt 3 39.56 40.31 41.4-8 43.53 lJ.5.37 46.13 46.07 lJ.5.18 43.95 4-2.78 42.65 50.29 47.32 48.62 51.48 57.38 61.91 62.55 62.62 60.39 57. 08 54.96 52.88 51.86 51.74 51.94 52.02 51.46 50.82 51.26 51.66 49.52 47.76 45.94 43.93 43.07 43.33 43.38 44.17 46.62 48.78 50.25 50.54 50.29 49.70 49.52 49.75 50.45 51.15 51.00 51.81 52.58

63.4-7 60.28 57.89 41.24 38.96 38.22 38.80 41.08 43.22 45.45 4-6.56 48.8450.85

67.59 58.73 56.33 39. 06 42.02 39.42 38.16 39.94 38.76 38.90 40.39 44.17 lJ.6.12 48.05 49.10 48.73 48.89 4-6.46 46.04 47.11 46.46 51.61 57.80

82.49 69. o1t 59.71 31t.32 4-2.16 43.87 44.39 44.33 45.84 47.57 49.22 51.09 53.28 51. 73 51.62 50.25 50.07 4-7.73 48.40 47.61 4-5.64 4-6.68 53.84 58.91

65.°3 48.08 44.82 39.21 36.0436.90 32.92 34.28 36.24 36.8437.83 40.19 42.88 44.07 40.33 39.54 37.2435.22 32.82 31.49 32.25 36.97 47.13 44.28 48.72 50.41 50.28 48.25 45 ..58 42.72 42.04 43.28 4-7. 7~ 52·7 53.46 47.66

~9.56

8.93

56.98 53.73 49.56 38.10 37.86 39.03 38.71 38.73 39.28 39.53 39.84 41.91 43.43 43.61 44.02 42.80 39.76 38.09 36.66 37.26 37.74 38.95 48.19 54.06 50.22 51.19 49.72 46.75 43.84 40.97 4-2.77 45.49 46.70 49.72 52.03 53.81 56.39 57.28 58.23 57.28 54.61 52.11 49.73 50.07 50.13 50.09 51.12 54.11

0

38~4-6

39.23 4-1. 79 42.44 43.15 44.01 43.1lJ. 43.47 41.96 41.45 40.4-4 38.63 37.05 44.96 51.5454.60 53.43 54-~11

52.16 49.35 46.61 4-4.71 43.72 45.23 4-7.83 49.04 48.12 4-9.00 49.11 48.88 47.76 46.50 45.13 42~03

41.63 42.42 43.13 46.02 50.27 54.28 54.98 58.11 59.25 58.16 58.76 60.36 61.52 61..69 61.83 62.55 62.87 64.08 63.73 65.03 61.21 58.05 57.54 55.98 53·80 52.55 52.71 54.00 55.72

5~.85

3 .74 32.74 30.91 32.01 31t .93 ~7. 71 1.98 47.~6

47. 7 45.61 4-2.17 40.27 38.01 35.47 34.30 34.72 34.99 35.67 36.76 41.46 40.78 39.89 43.53 44.18 41.90 38.25 35.97 3~.36

3 .36 35.4-8 '34.94 35.07 34.91 36.4-0 38.77 38.24 35.12 31. 73 29.67 29.02 29.53 30 •02 30.69 32 .70 38.69 52.77 63.70 74.23 71+.23 77.0478.45 79.51 78.99 70 .74 64.43 61.76 61.41 62.24 63.83 64.94 62.11 59.73 58.53 55.70 51.86 4-9.28 50~10

50.99 51.18

~".21

·75 46.76 47.21 47.93 47.10 46.09 39~63

37.28 36.02 36.25 36.46 37.40 38.10 38.26 39.23 39.70 39.81 38.68 37.03 34-.79 33.25 32.35 32.21 33.20 34.68 37.15 42.07 44.80 46.76 49.23 47.5 0 47.18 48.38 49.36 49.69 49.92 50.10 49.72 49.65 49.41 47.80 44.82 36.02 43.98 40.71 38.00 36.93 37.72 35.92 38.27

53.09 53. 65 54. 27 51.61+ 50. 06 48.34 116.27 4-3.56 42.31 1+3.73 43.77 44.03

~0.43

9.lJ.2 48.lJ.7 lJ.7.77 46.96 46.47 48.00 45.97 44.41 54.95 51.58 62.32 62.06 62.15 58.69 55~44

53.67 52.31 52.51 52.26 52.79 52.90 52.40 53.31 53.68 52.10 49.85 46.36 41.38 39.83 39.19 38.4-1 39.13 4-1.02 45.59 51.71 57.95 67.06 69.72 69.57 70.61 73.10 73.24 74.43 73.87 72.43 71.03 70.01 71.31 70.55 66.10 64.00 62.89 . 61.46 57.86 55.08 56.35 55.5455.20

50~95

55.76 55.05 55.29 52.15 49.15 47.96 48.34 49. 0 1 47.4-6 4-7.18 46.70 46.14-

8.05 46.44 42.52 39.26 37.38 36.15 36.09 36.47 37.77 37.78 35.22

4-6.99 47.92 48.50 47.63 46.45 44.68 43.19 43.04 42.73 43.20 43.33 46.33 51.83 54.57 54.16 55.76 56.83 59.05 61.19 60.91 62.37 63.04 62.62 60.91

33.53 35.37 37.83 40.95 4-1.42 40.51 37.61 36.42 35.56 35.70 36.26 38.33 42.66 44.92 47.3447.92 49.33 51.47 51.31 52.13 53.12 53.26 53.23 52.44

61.87 62.57 63.42 59.32 57.88 55.92 53.75 54.79 55.22 53.83 49.99 48.02

51.16 51.20 51.02 48.14 47.11 43.32 40.52 36.54 34.58 34.32 35. 45 37.71

~0.09

4-6.95 49.22 48.66 46.01 43.52 Itl.32 38.85 37.68 37.39. 38.73 40.67 44.93 50.53 53. 62 57.58 58.20 57.54 57.38 58.16 59.20 60.21 62.69 63.60 63.31 64.06 63.79 63.86 61.49 58.55 57.22 55.2452.44 53.00 54.71+ 54.15 56.52

G&NERAL

Year

Month

1933

July August September October November December January February March April May June July August

...

1931t

S~ptember

October November December ~3?. January February . March ;: April ': May June July" August' September October November December 19.36 January FebruaI'y March April May June July August September October November December 1937 January February March April May June ...J:uly /

August

Septem.ber October November December 1938 January February March!; April May June July August September October November, December 1939 January February March April Y..a.y June 'J"uly .AUgust ~pte~ber

October

~ovember

Decemb~r

ILL •

IND.

3lt.87 32.05 30.72 31.31 33.76 32.39 26.88 26.50 30.90 37.9lt 37.81t39·03 38.71 38.73 39.28 39.53 39.8lt 4-1.91 43.l+3 4-3.61 l+4-.02 4-2.80 39.76 38.09 36.66 36.88 37.10 37.3lt 37.15 33.01 24-.87

25·35 23.33 22.60 21t.70 26.61 18.26 18.lt1 20.05 23.79 29.lt7 29.22 28.18 27.95 29.lt2 31.2432.55 35.00 37.15 38.43 38.ltl 37.64 36.08 3lt.5432.30 31.09 29.19 26.60 21.0lt17.71 16.2415.69 15.52 13.71 11·99 10.4-0 "9.55 9.lt49.67 lo.lt-6 10.18 10.20 10.77 12.29 13.26 12.19

TABLE V. ASSISTANCE-..CASES PER THOUSAND POPULATION JULy 1933 - DECEMBER 1939

MD.

MICH.

MASS.

N.J.

21\..39 33.62 22.75 3lt.lt-5 21.17 33.81 21.23 36.1t-6 lt2.86 23.1t-1tlt2.16 22.58 21.0431.86 25.7~ 23.96 30.7 27.09 26.08 37.lt2 29.07 4-2.22 39.03 34-.39 32.72 33.47 33.53 32 .19 30.09 30.90 26.81 32.01 31.73 25.58 31.90 34-.93 21t.87 32.35 7 •71 37.~9 ?t~1.98 38. 6 36.92 25·.12 47.56 39.lt-5 25.57 39.23 ,lt1.33 . 26.87 1\.1. 79 47.47 1+2.1+-4 1+0.85 1t5.61 29·37 4-1.21 31.30 1+3.15 1+2.17 41.14 1+-4.01 30.82 4-0.27 28.63 43.1438.01 39.8426.4-9 37.82 43.47 35.lt7 22.lt7 ltl.96 36.17 3lt.30 21.01 41.4-5 34-.72 35.79 20.68 40 .Itlt 31t.3lt 3lt.75 20.ltlt 38.63 33.80 33.89 20.21 32.lt-3 36.4-0 32.lt3 34.lt4 19.69 28.65 30.87 16.72 24-.98 22.02 25.84 11.61 22.28 16.54 19.58 24-~27 7.81 20.31 19.74 17.73 22.22 6.85 19.45 17·72 19·37 21.44 18.02 5.20 16.17 17.39 20.34lit.14It-.50 13.7l+ 1~.65 18.63 12.33.- . 1 .78 12.73 3.03 18)~5 14-.4-2 12.20 2.95 11.57 12.1+0 18·91 11.4-5 13.99 3.94 11.22 17.lt7 3.18 13.4-9 ,11.77 12.62 , ll.20 17.74 11.lt-9 3.59 12;96' 11.35 18.19 11.87 3.62 12.08 23.19 It-.23 14.09 13.03 1I+.lt-8· 14.88 4.67 21.53 13.87 11t.80 14.92 22.03 15.84 5·.22 ~·5.?0 ' . !l.4.31 14.82 22.51 15.65 13.lt8 21.27 ,lO--lT 5.18 13.17 13.31+ 4.14 11.81 _1B~97 8.34 11.82 10·51 18.36,' . 7.89 10.66 2.82 9.06 11.59 8.24 19.03 10.45 12.29 8.30 2·97 8.41+ 19.66 10.68 . 7.90 12.67 3.09 3.3[1' 12.96 19.83 8.76 1,1.01 7.77 19.78 9.41 11.59 7.85 3.37· 13.4lt 20.37 11.36 12.87 15.64 ~.47 8.9~ .16 23.19 18.45 15.lt1 15.23 13.6 24.57 19.87 4.89 24.38 18.76 19.89 24.81 19.20 19.65 21.73 5.51 30.63 20.26 22.70 25.34 18.92 5.56 33.37 28.82 19.50 19.3C1 5.28 17.63 23.55 -It .62 16.40 22.05 17.68 25.58 17·31 21.21 >.16.13 16.11 4.70 23.52 17.33 11+.8lt 22.68 17.63 20,.75 4.90 15.75 20.88 llJ..12 15.02 20.71 5.07 17.33 11+.16 14-.lt8 14.00 16.76 20.85 5.38 llt.25 5.26 12.19 16.37 20~99 13.75 21.28 16.23 14.05 15.38 12.03 5. 47 22.64. ,~ 16 .hO·17.246.17, 14.98 ...13.68 'j2lt.10 16.02 18.13 IB.09 16.52 6.. 79 18.71 16.27 18.78 25.09 7.12 17.50 17.86 16.68 17.63 25.36 7.15 17.53 llt.62 6.46 ,15.65 16.4-1 24.32 16.37 11t.66. 14.10 14.63 23.83 15.33 5.73 .1,2.81 1lt-.25 23.70 , 13.23 4.50. 14-.26 4.48 '22.83 14-.19 11-.15 13.83 1.2-78 22.17 13.66· " .4.83'- "-14-.73 11.79 13.59 16,30 ' '; 5.01t 15.89 "13.36 ' 14.87 : " ,21.99 •. 21~lt9 . J5.97 llt.C'1 5.04 15.40 13.95 20.68 I 15.10 15.1+6 5.17 13.03 1~.93 1 .20 14.15 12.89 20.55 15.37 5·1+5 18.69 18.15 17.60 18.89 22.1lt21.26

23·90 22.07 22.4-8 22.67 23.29 23·37 19.91 19.76 21.16 35·13 33.86 34-.58 35.18 35.30

~.

0

;

I

N.Y.

29.00 28 .1t-1t26.26 26.02 29·91 19.68 19.3421.72 23.79 4-1.75 39.97 38.67 ' 38.7439.lt3 ~.56

.31 1+1. 11 B lt3.53 4-5.37 4-6.13 4-6.07 45.18 lt3.95 42.78 42.65 lt1.60 35.14 31.91 28.51

OHIO 36.72 3lt.95 33·01 31.97 38.23 28.65 25.50 29.16 33.33 4-0.98 38.96 38.22 38.80 4-1.08 1t3.22 4-5.4-5 46.56 48.84

50.85 50.4-3 lt9.4-2 4-8.lt7 1+7.77 46.96 lt6.1+7 l+4-.91 lt1. 80 38.01 36.4-8 25.61 ~8.05 26.21 21.11 20.60 .126.7 8 27.38 19·93 26.88, 19·15 25.65, 17.lt1 16.16 21+.ltT 22.86 15.4-7 22.13 ;1.5·01 14.66 21.83 21.36 14.29 14.40 .21.01 21.52 15·37 22.38"' 17.09 22.69 17.lto 16.32 22.59 ,20.46 .' 14.58 .1S.Br'- 11.59 8.6l.t17.35 . 9.01+ 17.65 18.38 9·19 8.62 18.57 18.61 ' 9.08 10.69 19.53 21.85 14.39 17.96 23.89 2l.t-.89 20.36 21.50 ~4.6~ 18.26 2}.5 22.36 16.13· 15.51 . 21.49 21.10 15.27 21.11 14.55 21.18 13. 68 12.51 20.57 12.27 21.19 22.2112.88 14.13 23.09 23.97 15.75 24.21 15.08 23.05 13.36 22.55 13.23 21.23 13.36 20.52 llt.19 16.48 20.35 20.69 17.79 16.58 21.• 1~ 20.40 ' llt.89 20.52 13.98 1

PAt lt5.28 It-1.58 39.01 37.2lt 37.08 36.69 35.90 35.99 37.03 38.76 lt2.00 39. lt2 38.16 39.9438.76 38.90 4-0.39 4lt.17 4-6.12 4-8.05 49.10 4-8.73 lt8.89 1+6.lt6 1t6.01t lt7.10 45.55 lt3.77 1t-o.82 .. 29.29 25.81 22.83 21.75 20.81 20.09 19.30 18.81 18.07 16.lj..1 15.61 14.76 15.46 16.27 17.22 17.80 - ~7 .31 16.06 15.27 1.5~72

16.J.9 16.25 16.21 15.80 18.57 22.67 23.43 21.lt9 21.34 21.lt6 22.41 22.72 22.89 23.96 23.75 22.75 23.28 25.61 26.30 27.68 26.92 26.76 25.96 27.lt7 29.52 31.35 28.29 24.05 22.07

W.VA.

WISC.

27.01\. 21+.71\. 23.52 23.56 25.77 ~.85 .20 22.52 18.81 35.3lt 22.16 3lt.75 26.58 39.55 38.68 ~3.75 2.16 36.00 1t3.87 36.90 32.92 4-4-.39 31+.28 44.3~ 36.244-5.8 36.8lt4-7 ..~7 4-9.22 37.83 4-0.19 . 51.09 4-2.88 53.28 l+4-.07 51.73 51.62 4-0 .3~ 50.25 39.5 50.07 37.24 35.22 47.73 48.4-0 32.82 1t7 .56, 31.lt-9 ltlt.ltlt 30.73 It-3.18 31.38 39.15 30.33 31.00 23.63 20.98 19.61 18.92 17.50 15.52 17.7lt14.81 16.15 14-.11 13.99 12.11 13.46 12.90 11.53 12.88 11.•1+1 13.16 11.35 11.78 13.4-5 12.02 12.58 14.07 9.56 15.62 7.77 16.20 9.00 9.86 15.36 11.l+2 13.74 10 •93----l2....2l.t-. 10.50 10.70 8.95 9.67 8.4-1 9.21 8.15 9.1+9 10.66 . 8.15 12.21t 8.25 15.27 9.70 12.13 18.63 12.70 19.60 19.02 12.90 11.66 16.79 12.86 15.21t 14.50 13.27 11.17 13.64 11.55 13.47 11.87 13. lt5 14.60 11.76 11.61 15.32 11.89 16.72 18.01 11,98 12.17 . 18.30 11.50 18.54 10.53 17.62 16.lt7 9.50 7.58 15.29 14.95 5.90 15.12 5.78 5.56 17.02 5.87 17.07 16.87 5.78 6.55 17.29 68.89 71.4-7 56.4-5 5lt.98

Year 1933

1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

Month July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April Uay June July August September October November December

ILL

TABLE VI FEDERAL WORK PROGRAl'S - CASES PER THOUSAND POPULATION 1933-1939 IND. MD. MASS. MICH. N.J. N.Y. OHIO

PA.

W.VA.

WISC.

[

1

I:I. 5. 80 16.53

7.86 26.44

73 1 .29



1.16 20.06

7.20 25.76

2.46 13.09

7.18 14.83

9. 07 29.99

.56 8.17

.21 28.99

7.23 48.69

30.09 27.22 18.65 .15 .01

30.59 29.10 20.38 .16

25.61 27.43 16.79 2.09

30.20 28.52 21.10 .72

37.73 30.57 ·24.84 .35 .02

27.15 29.58 19.29 1.47

25.05 26.07 22.60 .40

31.12 24.56 .26

37~97

31 •6 22.7 19.30 .30 .02

47.15 34.29

46.22 25.92 18.24 .53 .04

.37

5.81 12.93 16.57 20.64 23.19 23.74 24.64 24.77 22.79 20.90 20.05 1').48 19.54 19.66 19.61 19.92 19.05 18.03 18.23 18.78 18.36 17.14 15.92 13.62 12.50 11.91 11.83 12.37 12.81

..65

.10 1.47 3.7 8 13.88 20.91 21.93 22.46 21.86 20.53 19. 86 18.83 17.97 18.01 18.17 10.6a 18.8 17.65 17.08 17.01 17.11 17.21 17.15 16.02 14.65 13.47 12.96 13.31 13.42 13.26

8.69 ~.09 12.18 .17 6.40 16.71 22.')7 18.47 29.33 25.97 28.97 26.~ 29.03 27. 28.51 27.83 26.74 24.96 24.89 23.38 23.90 22.92 23.42 - 21.91 23.02 22.12 23.15 22.17 23.49 22.18 23.59 21.86 22.23 20.24 20.45 19.44 20.11 19.29 20~23 18.58 19,89 17. 85 lCl.48 17. 45 18.99 15.45 16.56 13.44 14.89 12.63 14.89 12.36 14.80 12.60 14.59 12.90 14.61 13.56

.01 .91 7. 84 16.9 8 21.66 24.80 26.82 28.07 25. 85 23.49 23. 08 2~.48 2 .47 24.56 24.61 24.49 22.67

14.75 16.52 17.81

14.64 15.04 15.56 16.35 16.85 17.46 18.02 18.31 18.83 19.23 19.35 18.98 18.52 18.25 18.51 17.08 16.02

16.96 18.99 20.56 22.34

17.22 18.86 21.18 22.88

2~.29

2~.07

.64

1.60 11.03 21.04 23.51 25.10 25.69 23.49 21.60 20.07 19.74 20.42 21.26 21.94 22.22 20.32 19.59 19.13 18.83 18.95 18.75 17.21 14.53 14.00 13.30 13.18 13.43 13.69 15.50 18.11 23.09 25.52 27.02 27.97 30.02 31.11 32.01 32.47 32.33 31.02 29.60 29.39 29.27 26.77

15.27 17.50 23.86 26.35 26.68 27.05 28.29 28.67 28.29 28.79 28.72 26.04

23.93 25.02 25.71 23. 07 25·~9;·'·· 21.93 25.25·':: . . 21.91 21.02 21.86 17.76 19.76 13.82 16.47 14.08 18.16 16.16 19:'06 20.05 17.38

.04

.01 1.53 5.45 10.56 12.37 12.51 11.56 10.03 9.22 8.90 8.60 8.61 8.17 7.88 8.07 7.68 7.60 7.96 7.76 7.34 7.12 6.53 5.72 5.50 5.15 5.20 5.18 5.73 6.44 6.68 7.05 7.22 7.40 7.70 8.76 8.89 9.47 10.00 9.65 9.33 9.00 8.93 9.02 8.26 7.96 7.91 7.35 6.80 5.95 6.67 6.81 7.54

1.37

.65 10.51 26.55 24.98· 25.84 27.24 27.26 26.15 24.18 22.47 21.79 22.16 24.45 25.05 22.55 21.13 20.69 20.57 20.25 20.05

18.60 14.50 13.51 13. 81 13.75 14.10 15.28 17.79 18.74 21.86 24.03 2~.95

2 .60 26.35 28.11 28.57 29.24 29.56 28.60 28.00 27.68 28.34 25.53 22.9 8 22.79 21.18 18.32 15. 80 16.27 17.26 18.94

4.32 12.81 18.76 19. 83 20.34 20.48 19.24 17.32 15.97 15.58 15.68 16.09 15.61 30 1la·.20 13.56 13.66 13.10 12.23 11.53 10.79 9.63 9.12 8.88 8.76 8.84 9.44 11.94 15.76 23.42 28.24 34.29 37.76 39.72 41.30 39.92 35·a5 32. 3 30.37 28.78 28.74 28.94 26.78 25.16 2a· 35 2 .30 20.0') 16.20 16.66 17. 89 18.04

2Q.97

20.88 20.98 22.05 23.30 24.16 24.71 24.95 23.46 22.42 21.33 20.79 19.02 18.18 18.02 17.45 14.93 12.49 14.15 14.22 15.69

1~.58

1 .1~ 11.5 9.91 10.35 11.'+8

11.64

16.09 19.78 27.49 33.15 34.97 36.50 39.13 39. 87 41.86 42.52 41.34 39.36 37.17 36.82 36.64 33.84 31.47 30.11 27.65 21.58 18.22 19.30 18.44 20.62

4

22.13 21.72 21.21 20.10 19.38 18.03 15.92 o14 1a 1 .6415.11 15.51 15.63

2 .7726.70 26.38 26.7 8 27. 68 28.32 2·5. ')"i 24.42 23~67

23.46 21.23 19. 87 17~91

14.20 13.20 11.81 13.52

1~.99

1 .03

20~16

.57

.05 1.20 3.50 14.69 27.91 29.11 30.55 30.92 27.71 25.27 23.92 23.25 23.21 23.31 24.32 24.19 23.05 21.20 20.62 19.8~

19.7 19.50 18.05 15.96 la· 03 1 14. 9 14.89 15.39

.ao

2 .88 26.98 27.52 28~18

28.40 28.48 27.32 25.9.3 25~55

25.92 23.93 23.76 2L73 20~58

16~82

15.13 14.55 16,00 17.50

1.52 5.59 16.80 20.65 22.34 22.79 22.04 20.21 18.61 17.~

16. 17.61. 21.81 26.08 25.74 18.24 16.55 17.36 17.46 16.27 15.24 14.49 12.98 12.17 11.51 11.61 11.80 12.78 14.82 16.74 21.09 2~.76

2 .46 24.85 26.32 27.38 28.23 29.36 29.31 27.35 26;5~

25.7 25.40 23.74 21.77 21.44 19.62 16.42 14.84 16.32 15.72 17.49

r

FEDERAL Year

Month

1933

July August September October November December

1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

January February March April May June July August September October November December

·,'10Ri\:

TABLE VII. PROGRAM CASES AS A PER CENT OF TOTAL CASES RECEIVING RELIEF, BY srATES JULY 1933 TO DECEfliiBER 1939 IND.

1ID.

MASS.

MICH.

N.J.

14.7 33.8

22.7 59.1

20.6 40.2

4.8 46.2

14.4 37.9

9.5 36.7

52.8 50.7 37.6 .4

62.4 59.2 46.1 .5

49.9 47.0 31.0 5.1 .1

60.2 59.0 49.6 2.0

54.2 53.0 46.0 1.0 .1

l.0

.1 7.0 21.7 38.7

1.8 23.5 51.5

1.9 5·2

ILL.

OHIO

PA.

W.VA.

WIse.

19.3 43.0

19.2 51.1

105 18.2

.4 41.9

21.9 68.4

56.3 55.3 42.5 ).4 1.2

56.5 54.5 48.8 .9 .2

59.8 51.6 42.4 .6

46.9 38.7 34.3 .8

57.2 49.7 33.8 1.7

71.1 53·9 40.7 1.4 .1

.3 4.2 10.5 31.0 44.7

17·3 25·7 34.5 44.6, 51.0

6.4 9.1 14.4 33. 6 50.4

2.0 15.2 29.4 42.5

.1 2.6 7·5 27.3 47.4

4.7 15.1 35.6 46.6

4-6.5 46.9 46.5 46.2 50.1

49.4 46.1

42.9 46.7 46.4: 43. 6 45.5 - . 44.7 42.5 44.3 42.2 43.6 42.7 43.5 41.9 44.3 42,1 44.4 42.4 44.S 42.0 45.2 45.4 41.3 38.6 43.2

44.5 48.7 50.S 49.5 47.8 48.1 48.6 49.9 51.7 52.2 52.4 49.1

N.Y.

January February March April May June July August September October November Deoember

1.7 4.1 22.9 38.9

16.6 32 .7 44.1 53.8 58.8

January February March April May June July August September October November December

46.8 49.0 51.7 50.2 49.3 49.0 46.2 44.9 45.5 44.1 42.7 37.S

49.3 49.9 51.6 51.5 51.0 52.0 51.4 50.8 50. 0 49.5 49.1 46.5

45.7 46.7 45.2 43.7 41.2 41.6 40.6 40.7 38.7 36.7 36.8 33.9

45.8 48.450·3 52.2 53.0 52.0 50.2 49.8 49.0 51.2 51.2 46.6

49.7 46.8 46.4 45.9 45.3 44.4

January February March April May June July August September October November December

34 .7 33.4 32.4 33.1

33.0 29.2 27·9 26.5 26.3 26.3 25.3

43. 2 41.9 43·1 44.0 43.6 41.9 37.3 34 . 8 33·1 32•2 31.3 29·1

32.6 32.8 31.9 30.7 30.9 30.6 27.1 25.9 24.1 23·9 23. 4 24.2

43.1 42.2 42.1 42.4 43.4 41.3 34.5 32 . 4 32.7 31.9 30·7 30 .4

37·3 35. 2 34.3 34.8 36.4 36.4 33.2 30.9 29.6 28.5 27. 0 24.4

43. 6 42.8 43,0 4lL5 46.3 46.1 44.1 4107 40.2 40.1 38.7 35·7

40.2 39.2 39·3 40.2 40.S 41.3 37.8 34 . 6 34.4 34 .1 33·1 31.4

36.5 35.9 35·7 35.S 37.6 37·3 33·7 32.2 32.1 32. 2 31.5 29·7

January February March April May June July August September October Noyomber December

27.0 30 .0 35.0 38 . 4 40.5 41.9 ~.8 .6 45.5 45.7 45.4 43.4

29.7 31.5 38 .3 42.2 43. 8 44.9 46.9 47·5 46.6 46.3 44,8 41.2

25.4 25.3 26.0 26.6 27.7 28.4 30.7 30.8 31.8 33. 0 31.9 30.3

32.6 34.1 37·7 40.5 41.441. 7 43.4 45.6 46.2 47.2 47.2 45.7

22.6 24.7 31.6 38.1 44.5 48,1 50 . 0 52 .3 56.4 54.9 52.5 49.4

35.1 36.9

2.6 44.0 44.5 45.5 47.2 48.7 49.5 49.8 47.2

30.0 30.0 30.7 32 .5 33.9 35.3 36.2 36.3 36.S 37.7 37.3 36.1

31.1 34.1 4-1.0 4-7.5 50.2 51.6

January February March April May June July August September Oct::>ber November December

41.3 40.5 40.2 38.5 37. 4 37 3 3it,4 32.4 28.6 30.8 32,2 33.4

37. 8 38.1 39. 0 38.0 36 . 8 37.1 36 . 4 31.9 25. 4 25.8 28.9 31.0

28.9 28.3 28.4 27.2 27.2 28.4 27.0 25·2 22.6 24.8 25·0 26.5

43.8 43.5 43.7 4L8 39·7 39.6 37·8 34.1 3°. 0 30.8 32.0 34.0

46.3 45.1 44.6 43.2 42.1 43.3 43. 6 38.8 32.9 33·3 35. 0 35·3

4Fj.2 43. 2 43.5 42.5 42.4 43.2 42.8 39. 2 33·8 37.5 38.4 41.0

34.9 34.0 34.1 33·1 32.0 32.2 30·5 26.5 23. 4 24.8 26.3 26.4

34~3

li.8

30.9 46.0

44~1

45.6 45. 4 l.j.l~. 7 43. 6 40.7

50·5

49.9 49.7 49,S ~·9.9

~8.1

64.4 64.0 65.4

45.8 45.2 43.8 41.9 40.8 39.9 39.6 40.6 45.7 49.5 48.2 38.3

47.1 45.4 43.7 42.2 41.7 40.3 36.9 35.2 34.3 35.0 35.S 33·7

63.2 58.2 52.4 4S.2 47.1 44.6 42.4 41.3 40.8 40.6 41.0 40.2

35.3 35·3 35·9 35·3 35.0 35·1 33. 4 32.3 30.8 30.0 29.0 28.4

32.7 34.8

54. 56.2 57. 6 57·1 55.4

0.0 41.0 42.0 43.6 43.3 43.0 43.9 45.2 42.6

40.4 42.0 44.7 47.8 46.8 48.3 52.6 52.8 53.1 53·3 53·5 52.1

29.3 31.2 36.6 40.S 4-2.5 43.3 45.3 46.2 46.9 46.8 46.1 43. 2

53·1 51.6 51.9 51.2 49.2 47.9 45.1 37·3 32 .5 34.3 35·9 37·3

39.5 37.8 37.0 35.8 34.3 32.0 26.5 24.1 21.4 25.1 28'.0 29.2

50.7 49.9 50.8 49.7 50.4 5°.2 50.9 46.0 43.7 42.4 45.1 46.4

41.4 40.4 39.8 38.6 37·2 37.5 35·5 31.3 28.0 29.8 29.0 31.2

53.~

~S.O

58.1 63.6 69 ..6 65.2 64.464-.0

64.3 64.3 63~9

'

.

·'~-'t .-

,\~,

...

0

t

TABLE

'lIII

SPECIAL CATEGORIES - CASES PER THOUSAND POPULATION JANUARY 1936 ILL.

UID.

1m.

January February March April May June July August September October November December

1.83 1.82 1.80 1.81 1.90 2.27 4.57 6.16 7.9 6 10.03 11.61 13.46

8.77 9.21 9.48 9.5 0 9.68 8.97 9.00 9.29 9.21 9·79 10.43 11.10

3.06 6.43 7.15 7.72 8.64 9.47 9.62 9.54 9.7 6 10.00 10.25 10.77

7.32 7.27 7.37 7.49 7.54 7.63 7. 81 7.93 9·57 10.75 11.03 11.69

January February March April May June July August september October November December

15.26 16.10 16,,87 17.05 16.88 16.53 16.16 16.41 16.98 17.12 17.32 17.23

12.0 12.59 13.22 13.80 14.21 14.61 14.99 15.26 15.53 15.77 15.04

11.4e

11.04 11.07

12.99 13.61 13.99 1)+.33 14.61 14.93 15.23 . 15.43 15.65 15.93 16.26 16. 51~

8.96 9.26 9.48 9.54 9.68 9.82 11.07 12.50 13.36 1)+,08

January February March April May June July August September October November December

17.36 17.36 17.4B 17.46 17.61 17.83 17.83 17.81 17.56 17.57 17.63 17.73

16.19 16.35 16.54 16.73 16.91 17.06 17.20 17.50 18.25 19.10 19.97 20.59

14.02 14.25

16,81 17.03 17.31

16.43 17.29

January F€bruary March April May June July August September October November December

17.88 18.07 18.24 18.39 18.56 18.Bo 18.89 19.03 19.16 19.29 19.42 19.55

21.20 21.95 22.63 23.11 23,53 23.86 24.11 24.23 24.36 24.46 24.55 24.64

15.36 15.48 15.54 15. 64 15.60 15.47 15.33 15. 29 15. 26 15.26 15.30 15. 42

Year

Month

1936

1937

1938

1939

DECEMBER

11~09

11.38 11.76 12.02 12.39 12.68 12.91 13.19 13.52 13. 80

14~48

14.62 14.71 14.7414.85 14.90 14.9415.03 15.10 15.27

MAS~ v.

17~57

17.81 18.04 18.26 18.37 18.63 18.83 18.93 19.28 19.54 19.77 20.00 20.02 20.27 20.49 20.62 20.75 20.86 21.03 21.28 21.-42

1939

lITCR.

N.J.

N.Y.

OHIO

PA.

3.51 5.45

5.69 5.72 5.80 5.92 6.02 6.11 6.47 6.78 7.06 7.25 7.39 7.56

6.73 6.74 6.73 6.77 6.54 6.59 6.60 6.71 6.76 7.09 7.42 7.7 0

14.48 14.42 14.39 14.58 14.65 14.59 14.93 15.38 15.43 16.32 16.64 16.79

5.15 5.40 5.47 5.49 5.57 5.58 6.05 6.47 6.49 6.94 7.45 8.01

1.57 2.61

6.77 8.70 10.50 11.89 12.86 13.56 13.87 14.26 14.57 14.88 15.14 15.35

7.66 7.77 7. 87 7.98 8.06 8.09 8.13 8.19 8.24 8.29 8 8'4 8. 7

7.99 8.46 8.84 9.17 9.41 9.60 9.72 9.. 80 9,87 9.97 10.05 10.16

16.77 16.99 17.20 17.42 17.32 17.29 17.35 17.37 17.43 17. 45 17 .4 17.64

8.59 8.98 9.49 10.22 11.01 11.38 11.55 11.71 11.84 11.88 12.02 12.13

4.56 5.7, 8.1 9·79 10.99 11.96 12.70 12.98 12.91 13.06 13.12 13.24

14.78 15 a 66 15.84 16.00 16.04 16.13 16.20 16.30 16.39 16.46 16.63 16.88

8.55 8.62 8.68 8:76 8.94 8.86 8.69 8.72 3.76 8.83 8.91 9.00

10.25 10.32 10.35 10,49 10.57 10.63 11.03 11.14 11.20 11.27 11.39

17.66 17. 81 18.07 18.31 18.47 18.60 18.70 18.82 18.89 18.84 18.82 18.79

12.20 12.15 12.11 12.08 12.08 lL87 11.77 11.64 11.63 11.61 11.55 11.66

13.31 13.36 13.33 13.38 13.40 13.32 13.16 13.06 13. 07 13.10 13.14 13. 23

17.oB 17.28 17.47 17.65 17. 84 18. (j3 18.20 18.35 18.53 18.73 18.97 19.24

9.12 9.28

11.48 11.43 11.55 11.51 11.49 11.52 11.60 11.67 11.7 2 11,,77 1L89 11.86

18.71 18.74 18.83 18.9 0 19.30 19,42 19. 62 19. 80 20.07 20.47 20.72 20.75

11.84 12.10 12.28 11.17 11.25 12.05 12.08 12.08 12.06 12.,03 11.95 11.92

13.25 13.48 13. 60 13.68 13. 85 14,,01 14.05 13.94

19.50 19.75 19.92 20.13 20.31 20.50 20.68 20.9 0 21.01 21.35 21.56 21. 74

5~97

6.48 6.78 7.26 7.57 6.27 7.61 8.12 8.40 8.61

14~87

15.61

17~43

17,17 17.16 1715 17~1C>

16.97 16.81 16.89 17.29 17.35 17.43 17.58 18.12 18.91 19.94 20.36 20.24 19.98 19.51 19.45 19.18 18~94

'.~7

9. 1 9.41 9.40 9. 42 9.48 9.5 6 9.61 9.66 9.68

10.4C)

W.VA.

13~90

13,,89 13. 68 13.65

WIse.

TABLE IX GENERAL ASSISTANCE - GRANT PER CASE

TLJLY 1933' - DECEMBER 1939 Year 1933

1931l-

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

Month july August September October November December january February March April May june july August September October November December january February March April May june july August September October November December january February March April May june july August September October . November December january February March April May june July August September October November December january February March April May june july August September October November December january February March April May june JUly

August September Oc~ober

November December

ILL. $18.96 20.ll-6 22·32 2ll-.32 21.42 22.08 20.10 19.70 23.06 20.ll-0 2ll-.72 26.06 26.40 27·37 27.ll-8 27.02 29.34 31.48 33.2430.45 31.95 29.34 17.86 29.66 28.92 31.30 25.87 27.03 25.38 21.32 23.4-6 24-.31 23.61 23.76 22.80 24-.14 15.39 16.21+ 20.28 22.39 25.85 26.6421+.73 24.78 24.61 22.51 22.56 22.63 22.59 23.59 19.51 19·59 23.26 23.27 23·57 22.71 22.72 21.76 19.76 19.51 21.73 24.5 0 .22.82 23.05 24.45 24.25 23.07 23.71 23.80 23.18 21.39 22.05 19.05 20.29

19.68 21.52 24.71 24.63

NlASS.

AIICH.

N.j.

N.Y.

$11.84- $22.07 $29.34 11.82 28.72 30.5ll12.2ll27.21 28.15 1!+.38 28.00 29.75 26.63 12·73 29·71 11·32 24.73 27.53 26.24 11.ll-5 23.72 11.88 25.81 21. 77 12.47 25.36 28.77 14.94 , 2ll-.12 31.66 20.6ll30.07 39.80 20.23 3'+.20 26.57 20.92 26.75 3lJ..43 23.71 41.03 28.33 22.95 30.29 35.68 26.27 29.87 36.95 25.65 4-1.15 29.31 28.86 26.15 39.97 26.21 4-3.52 30.59 23.86 27.05 39.01 28.24 4-1.18 25.38 4-1.00 27.4-7 25.37 24-.4-0 27.10 45.19 40.21 23.02 2ll-.87 28.80 40.82 19.93 15.68 31. olt45.49 26.06 4-0.32 14.83 14-.11 4-2.86 27.82' 29. 00 32.44 13.27 21.62 28.65 13.65 13.4-2 19.4-5 . 26.4-5 18.82 26.83 12.99 23.42 27.14 12·31 11.80 25.26 26.37 10.86 21+.62 24.13 18,.4-8 10.4-6 24.1+8 22.62 25.41 10.52 21.28 10·51 24.59 11.48 ~5.4423.09 26.40 12.81 24-.37 12.86 24-.57 25.59 28.60 25.% 13.91 24.96 26.71 13.29 26.62 12.67 23.99 13.28 29.69 25.97 12.27 27.91 21.57 21.06 26.44 10.98 11.08 26.77 25.52 22.16 11.28 25.93 22.11 26.17 11.31 13.11 22.09 27.21 13.4-1 21.52 27.14 28.26 22.87 13.65 22.12 15.4-9 31.19 22.80 28.82 1~~58 22.34 28.15 1 .85 14.70 29.61 23. 07 21.50 27.16 13.4-2 "26.76 21.56 12.38 27.06 11.76 22.56 26.18 11.06 22.62 22.7427.10 11.15 . 12·72 22·52 27·11 22.64 12.20 26.43 27.24 22.99 13·33 14.00 23.85 29·52 24.00 27.61 13.02 27.23 24.57 13.55 24.00 28.85 13.78 12.60 22.45 25.79 18.56 27.49 12.35 26.28 12.01 22.36 11.82 25.49 21. 71 22.41 26.63 11.96 25.11 21.51 12.29 26.35 13.48 22.35 22.58 13.08 27·51 22.76 28.99 13.13

$18.20 19.8ll20.05 22.08 21.96 15. 11 Ill-. 54 15.62 17.40 19.82 25·52 2ll-.30 25.67 27.11 25.91 29.06 29.9428.58 29.82 27.23 27.47 26.52 27.76 2ll-.51 26.4-8 27.6lt25·37 27·32 22.66 19.06 23.5422.35 22.4-9 21.36 20.27 20.63 21.4-9 20.66 20.16 23.1+8 23.26 2ll-.38 22.15 21.86 20.02 20.80 19.30 19.63 19.49 20.45 23.4-1 24.61 24.92 25.41 22.81 23.55 23·75 21.83 20.63 20.9420.60 18.34 18.18 19.79 20.64 22.43 22.33 22.61 22.51 20.86 20.21 20·33 19.17 20.83 20.40 21.72 22.52 20.22

$18.83 21.31 21.ll-9 22.2423.ll-6 22.8ll23. 03 21.3422.% 28.5ll26. olJ. 25.19 27.97 26.91 28.56 32.87 31. 73 32.63 30.06 29.17 30.55 28.21 28.07 27·53 28.65 29.12 27.83 29.01 26.65 23.35 24.79 24-.97 24-.57 20.62 18.57 19.06 19.51+ 19.4-9 20.11 21.1+5 22.67 24-.24 23.21 23·19 24.35 22.54 22.06 21.95 21.75 21.71 22.3 1 23.26 23.77 24.84 24-.08 23.33 24.olJ. 22.70 21.82 22.54 22.24 22.33 22.82 23.68 24.44 24.84 24-.94 24.20 24.15 22.31 22.06 22.44 22.45 22.66 21.27 22.36 23.55 24.29

$29.68 31.31 32.12 35·72 31.57 29.02

IND.

MD.

29.32 29.51 32.95 38.59 ll-1. 75 ll-l.lB 41.61 41.68 38.61 42.6ll4-1.06 42.08 4-2.93 39.08 4-1.28 4-1.18 41.69 39.~6

4-3. 7. 34 .67 36.47 37.13 33.52 33.82 31.59 32.80 33.11+ 32.75 31.50 31.10 32.30 32.69 33.41 33.66 35. 06 37.27 35.28 35.15 36.14 36 .9435.9ll36 .17 36 .53 38.17 38.79

~8.96

0.9 0 40.20 39.53 38.22 37.04 35.00 34-.1434.84 34 .99 35.17 34.9 0 35.42 36.25 37.61 38 .16 37.61 37.82 36 .32 35.30 35.70 35.36 34.28 34.73 35·30 36 •12 36.43

OHIO

PA.

$14-.67 $15.36 13.ll-7 15.99 16.59 16.53 15.80 17.66 Ill- .16 20.12 16.'+lJ. ' 20.20 11.00 13.10 12.88 16.58 19.3ll-' 19.20 20.78 22.05 20.92 . 20.95 22.99 25.4-8 26.5422.31 22.7422.98 23.58 24.19 26.7422.07 14.85 19.05 20.0417. 09 18.27 21.55 19.1+1 17.57 11.08 16.62 16.78 17..15 16.65 18.40 19.6420.75 19.48 20.16 19.40 19.24 17·13 16.10 17.60 19.60 18.49 18.97 18.19 18.09 17.68 17.36 16.67 16.32 16.23 15.24 14.38 15.95 16.67 16.86 18.60 19.26 18.86 17·59 18.08 17.51 17·37 16.59 16.56 16.18 16.35 16.65 15.99 16.12

18.57 20.23 19.98 28.03 26.0ll23.56 23.29 25.65 21.16 26.13 31.13 33.29 37.92 35.08 32.69 35.51 33.52 30.62 33.4-2 30.23 30.01 32.26 26.65 28.23 28.32 26.2428.4-9 ' 27.12 26. olt27.68 28.83 25.47 26.75 26.4-0 26.20 28.80 27.54 26.78 29.26 28.92 27.4-9 28.58 29.68 27.97 29.48 28.70 27.93 30 .4-8 28.55 25.66 28.27 26.33 26.91 27.57 27.10 27.52 27.73 27.17 27.28 29.26 27.65 27.16 29.66 26.73 28.26 28.16 27. 2430.70 27.60

27.01 27.74 28.68

W.VA. $ 8.9ll8.87 11.60 12·37 10.53 10.28

WISC.

$19·38 20.83 . 20.58 20.81 22.12 1ll-.ll-9

11.28 19.77 10.56 2ll-.79 24.ll-5 9.23 10.17 18.22 22.28 Ill-. 54 14.08 22.00 14.36 31.60 13.21 32.91 14-.4-3 ' 30.60 15.66 33.35 16.81 30.94 15.33 28.93 17.98 31.92 14.31 33·12 16.4-1 3LOO 15.08 29·95 15.19 31.87 12 .4-1 28.69 30.09 12.79 12.86 30 .95 11.53 23.52 14.44 25.84 11.16 21.50 9.10 19.75 21.54 10.97 21.56 "9.27 11.1+4 21.27 8.98 20.36 18.30 9.3419.02 9.36 11.06 18.92 9.12 19.31 11.34- ,19.60 22.40 10.32 22.51 9.95 22.84 10.23 12.76 23.38 12.86 22.68 . 22.88 12.50 10.28 21.17 20.12 9.'+6 10.10 20.48 9.82 19.20 9.81 19.65 20.53 9.93 21.64 10.07 22.24 10.19 23'.19 9.9421.67 9.39 20.49 9.10 8.85 19·96 16.74 9.76 16.33 9.97 10.70 16.95 16.4-2 8.72 16.62 8.87 17.42 9.11 18.11 9.17 9.18 19·75 9.20 20·92 21.64 9.43 20.86 9.41 22.21 9.07 8.62 19·13 8.28 20.43 20.37 7.95 19.08 8.31 20.62 8.4-0 . 8.59 18.43 8.70 21.~ 22. 9.09 8.80 22.79

TABLE X.

FEDERAL WORKS PROGRAIvfS - EARNINGS PER

CASE

JULY 1933 - DECEMBER 1939

Year

Month

1933

July Al:g'.1st Septe:nber

ILL.

IND.

$41. 55 93·57 66 . 40

$44.47 69.34 60.30 47.73 52.35 228.11

MASS.

MICH.

N. J".

N.Y.

$32.10 $113.36 60.73 73.59 60,,71 52.45 47.02 38.78 54-.89 53.~8 64.47 92. 3 49.03

$46.18 77.58 58.79 51.47 55.42 180,86 67.30 63.16

$52.48 84.71 60.67 43.81 59.93 24.86 57,73 54.00

$37.74 80.00 63.18 67.40 176.55 62.98

©.ID.

OHIO

PA.

W.WL

WISe.

$40.56 70 •17 58.32 48.90 54.53 271.&0 127.12 47.25 43.00

$53.91 87·18 45,·84 38.64 49.58 124.22 37.37 58.18 12 OO

$553.21 62.77 45.32 34.49

$7 2.58 76.47 65.95 57.94

O(~tobclr

1934

November TJccember January February Harch April M8Y

JV.ne July llug'.l.st Se:£itE-mber Octu'oer November :;)e:len:ber 1935

1936

Januery February March April May June July l.,.ugust September Occob8r NCVt"'lii·Oo.r December

23.84 20.32 42.32

13.90 39056 43·84 36,36 50,16

10.6)t 45.29 43.7 4 34 .60 5°.28

43.59 45.°3 50.27 52·52 54.28 5)t,99 52.98 52.54 55.30 51~. 46 53. 02 53.00

53.06 55.90 66·93 63.86 f)~ .. 47 66,32 68.89 69,68 66.57 66.41 67.56 71.56

53.24 50.73 52.78 53.56 53.69 54 .76 55,75 56.65 55.56 56.82 55.80 55.54

54.81 57.32 55,32 56.3 1 50,67 58,41 57,31 56.57 56 . 09 55,85 54.88 53.08

50.81+ 51 008 49 . 32 50.844~ p b. ,.3 51.11 51.18 50.07 50,18 49 53 49.58 47,79

67.7 6 63.21 71.76 68.15 7°<25

5~.12

69.21 72"2463,86 69.65 68.33 70 .5 0

52.89 52.40 4-9.7452.70 53,40 53.82 52.87 53,5452.70 54.66 54-.1+3 56.24-

52.59 53·31 52..69 5L93 5.3·39 55.82 52.15 54-.49 5)+'57 54 .19 51[-.75 57.17

47.29 47. 04 45.73 4-7,4-6 46.78 4-7.36 46,76 48.93 45.63 49,21+ 50.32 50.08

67.23 61.89 68.0462.83 68.4-1 65.20 64-,71 67.91 68.01 66,79 70 .4-9 63.16

51.55 52.8452.83 56.02 54.65 56.52 57,25 57. 42

55.0453.16 55.83 57.08 57,74-

51~.OO

49.35 4-9.01 49.63 49;7451.20 4-'1.81 4-9,91 51 13 52·35 54··71 55038 53·11

69.76 58.81 62.23 66,02 70 95 6iL67 68.C9 69.96 61.04 66.04 63.35 59.53

38 . 59 30.16 46.14

23.46 30.63 36.97

50.55 51.52 51011t 53,46 54 ,51 51:..,85 54 ,37 54.54 5)+.47 53.71+ 5Ll .03 56.52

49.67 49.4449.83 50.93 52.23 52.54, 53,39 54.72 55. 65 56.20 56.1456.30

December

53.70 56 . 67 54-,73 53.87 54-. 50 57,.33 58,12 55,59 56.28 55,74 55.5'1 52.94

Jan1lary February March April May June July August September Octeter November December

JaD'.lary ]'ebruary liIa:cch April May J"UILe 1

Sep\~e.'llber

October November Decen~ber

January February March April May June July August September October Nov~mber

1938

77~25

18.56 34.23 43.5° 41;...31 48.84

July AUg 1St

1937

5-r .49

68,44 290,69 81.,84132,57 40040

1939 January February liIarch April MEy

June July August September October November December

16.97 41 91 0

50.21

55.91 59.17 57.58 55.66 55·52 5').98

53·25 5.3.83 5:5,6456.42 5't .26 54-.29 55.0456 .4-5 53,17 51,69 52.06

7°.13

~9.75

68.~

0.75 45.25

113. 117.33 126.11

c

33.92 64.36 76.17 59.30 65.13

19.29 49.30 42.56 ' 42.18 50.40

5.65 34.10 41.93 49.74 53.67

17.33 27·32 19.93 33.83

22.56 38..20 47.31 53.58

54 .79 58.47 60.72 62.25 65.83 66.45 66.77 66.50 66.96 68.28 69,29 70,08

64.66 64.10 68.88 70.61 72·75 71.89 74.80 7'+.37 73.14 77.07 74.58 77.08

52.32 51.43 58.15 61.30 61.70 62.01+ 63·03 61,.42 61.51 59.65 61.53

55.64 55.84 57.83 62.08 64.36 64.1+9 62.86 62.58 63.89 63.31 64.35 64.89

39.35 38.81 40.32 40.10 42.94 42.1+8 43.95) 43.98 11j.85 42.98 1+4 .15 45.00

53.96 54.29 54.81 58.02 59.82 60.85 61.15 59.98 53.82 51.08 54.73 60.22

67.98 69.0463.83 68.99 69,08 7°,3° 70 02 69.43 69,05 68.09 63.90 67.3 2

78.68 72.25 78.26 72.37 77. 00 71+.7471.58 67.03 72,84 75,38 73.59 79·89

56.58 59,37 59.33 61.68 61.59 65.13 61.98 63.79 62,47 62.57 60.71 57.25

62.79 63.27 63.46 65.18 64-.75 65.96 66.40 65.°7 64.29 62.·55 62.98 61.86

1+4 .12' 1+4.31 1+3.50 44.79 43.76 43.75 1+4.22 1+3. 244-3. 13 43. 02 42.76

4.j.16

58.51 57.9458.76 59.20 58.41 61.05 58.69 58.67 59.29 58.95 59.03 57.4-2

58.60 57.6458.59

62.7° 63.7 8 62.22 61.95 64.00 64-.9462.·91 64-.58 62.42 64-.26 64-.22 65.25

69.94 69.24 77.23 74-.38 71.4-7 71+.86 71.12 74-.26 67.97 71.6472.17 76.32

59.48 57.41 55.0+ 56.93 58.6462.39 56 .32 59.81 57.67 59.83 58.9 2 61. 74

60.80 6L 07 59·71 59·99 60.3460.93. 60.81 61.98 61.59 61.4-7 62.42

4-2.63 42.88 41.88 42.32 42.75 42.17 1+2.23 43.33 4-1.97 43.23 1i-2.71 45. 06

56.25 56.01 53.97 54,05 55.39 57.16 52 .33 56.52 55.12 56 .36 56,02 57.62

57.56 56,89 57-37 57.32 62.73 53,7 1 58.01 61.,87

60.96 63,21 67,17 67.52 67. 63 65.85 67.89 72 . 60

62.35 61. 71 61,90 63.4-3 63.3 2 64.68 68.71 64.79 53. 61 59.96 58.64 56.13

57.36 5G.72 56.60

57,o{' 57,65 55. 23

58.82 56.45 60.0;5 58.35 64-.55 58.77 51.07 53.5 6 59.01 56 .85 55.40 5&.78

~.54

61. 71 61.43 58.01

69.60 67·28 79.18 75,88 76.37 76.16 74 .71 82.43 67.61 67.20 65·91 65.54-

52.96 5)+.70 57,68 58.92 59.27 60,,49 55.03 59,18 57.87 58.50 55.32

5~.05

57. L!-)

0

60.7'J

"

60~1+4

63.~6

.19 4-4.49 45.58 41t.5446.12 44<73 4-9.19 5°.34

5n,07 4-9.68 4-8.81

51·72

59.12 55<32 52.946?76 56,53 5"1.55 5b,56 . 55.25

I ! I

!r \ !

I

TABLE XI SPECIAL CATEGORIES - GRANT PER CASE JANUA.ltY 1936 - DECEMBER 1939 v

ILL.

IND.

1ID.

MASS.

MICH.

N.J.

N.Y.

January February March April May J-une July AUgllst September Octobe:::o NO'Tember December

$24-.00 24-.01 24-.• 03 23. 86 23·28 . 21.56 17·10 16.15

$ 8.99

·t28.4-8 23·53 28·37 27·92 28.69 28.50 28·55 28.68 28<93 29·19

~21. 79

t1S.97 19·95

.~24-.11

20.20 19·9° 19. 80 19,68 Ig·75 19.74 19.84

t26.52 26·53 26·55 26.52 26.73 26.68 26.68 2:5.72 26.80 26.72 '25.68 26.53

~15. 54-

9·05 9·17 9·31 8.85 9.66 9·32 10,53 11.81 13.44 l)to 54 15. 23

$17.1lt 21.4-420.86 20.27 19,25 18c67 20.67 20.05 20.28 20.69 20·59 20.1+2

15·56 11).5415.58 15·62 15·67 15·62 24.3 4 24.41 24·51 24-·54 2lt.51

24.37 25·5° 2ll-.62 24-.55 2ll-.66 24·4-5 24.3 8 24.52 24.40 24-.3lt 2lt.23

January FeQIUary March Arrll May June July August September Or,tClber November December

16.68 16,96 17.17 17 ·30 1732 17·35 19,,63

20·9C 21.11 21.17 21.11+ 21.18 21.16 21.1lt 21.22 21.1+3 21.29 21.28 21·55

19·88 20·39 20·59 20·79 20·39 20·3° 20·36 20.7421.32 21·73 21.96 22.10

19.89 19'-89 20.04 20.06 20.11 20.15 20·36 20.4-2 20.5 1 20,79 20·99 21.50

26·30 26.09 26. Ill26.91 25·93 25.91 26.21+ 26.72 26.8427·67 27.99 28.4-9

2lt·3 8 ~lt. 95 23·63 23·25 23.26 23.26 23·28 22.97 22·90 22.4-4 22.4-6 24-.22

2lt.17 21+.18 2lt.23 2lt.26 2lt.29

17, 2 17,l.t4 17 . 51 17.69

15. 89 16·39 16.83 17·27 17.5 8 17.80 18.00 18.17 18.3 1 18,59 18·5lt 18.66

JmlUary February March April May June July August September October November December

17.68 17. 87 18.00 J.8.16 18.26 18.51 18.69 18.78 18.88 18.96 19·06 19·15

18.77 18.86 18·92 18,95 18.96 18.99 19·02 19. 05 19. 00 18.93 18.91 18·9lt

21.67 21.83 21.48 21, 87 21.60 21.53 21.5 2 21.56 21.80 21.69 21.13 21·90

3Lo6 31.21 31. 7~ 31.:)

21.86 21.78 21.8421.lt7 20.89 20.81 19.6e

21.18 21.33 21·35 21.56 21.3lt 21.02 21.49

28·75 28.75 28.85 28.92 28,56 2E·51

2~.94

19)1-9

~~·}55

29·10 29·3°

January February March April May June July August 8eptember Oc-cobcr November December

19.2419.3 1 19.3 8 19. 51~ 19·68 19·71 19.89 19. 88 20.11 20.22 20,35 20.4-8

18.99 19. 05 19·13 19·21 19.28 19.3 2 19·39 19·1J.4 19.4-9 19·57 19.62 19·65

21.89 21.87 21.88 21·59 21.50 21.46 21.36 21.4-0 21·55 21·37 21.4-3 21.1+9

32·29 32·3? 31.56 32.01 32.12 31 .56 31.57 31.72 31. 71+ 31.89 32.20 32.63

Year

Month

1936

1937

193 8

1939

15.8~

15"77 1G·11

16.1+5

17'.'~5

~O.lj9

31.ltlt -', 29·10

29.28 30 .77 29·59 29·lt7 29.96 29·92 30 .29 3 0 •05 3°·36 31.25 31.16

3Ll~0

30 .92 31.1431.69 31.03 3L31 32 .3432.07

19·97 19.9ll19·62 19=57 18.82 18.77 16.4-7 17·99 17.74 19.16 19·55

19~89

20.·03 20.Cj

20,30 20.4-5 20·52 20.71

21,,17 21..;6 21·95 22·1.5

20.63 20.5 8 20.5lt 19.83 19·23 19. 07 19·11 19·.19 19.28 19·66 19·63 19.56

22·35 22.4-6 22·53 22.lt3 22.'+1 22.3 2 22·33 22·35 22·51 22·59 22.67 2~.78

OHIO

PA.

~~Llt2

2~",50

24-.57 24- .60 2ll-.5 8 24-.ltl 24- .31 24-.~

W.VA.

WISe.

$21.59" 20·55 20.21 20.16 19.95 20.03 20.3420.40 20·55 20.98 $ 1+.lt2 21.21 12. lt 5 21~33 12.79 13·25 16.00 16.28 16.4-7 16.60 16.73 16.63 16.18 15.91+ 15. 81 15·75

22.lt3 21.65 21·77 21. 89 21.79 21.83 22.11 22.2422·35 22.7422.86 22.98

29·91 30.00

2 .0 2lt.07 2lt.l1 2lt .16 24-,18 2lt.19 2lt .15 2lt .13 24-.05 23·99 24-.1lt

2lt • 24-.06 2lt.Ol 23. 81 23.9 8 21+.06 2lt.042lt.04 2lt.15 24.01 24-.12

15·70 15. -1415·75 15·72 15·77 15·-(6 15484 15. 68 15.6415·6lt 15. 68 15·71

23.0423.12 23.22 23.28 23.olJ. 23·09 23.16 23.20 23·33 23.62 2(..91 24.01

3°·2430.12 3°.26 30 • 10 29.63 29.4-2 29.56 29·55 29.68 30.16 30 •lt6 30 . 82

23·99 23·91 23·93 23. 89 23. 83 23. 80 23· 77 23.7 8 23.7 8 23. 82 23. 8423. 86

21+.31 21+.68 22.26 21.25 21.60 25.3 8 25.3 8 25·4-5 25·53 25.5 2 25·6lt 25·75

15·79 15· 8lt 15·91 15·95 15. 83 15·69 15·39 14-.81 llt·56 llt.lt3. 14-.4-8 llt.61

2lt .15 2l+.23 24-.3 0 2lt.37 24-.19 2lt".19 24-.242lt·35 24.lt9 2lt.72 24-.76 24-.80

28,f)7

29,3T

Q

TABLE XII. ILLINOIS RELIEF TO-REC1PI~'TS

(Excludes Administration, Special Programs, Non-Relief labor and Materials) Year 1933

1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

Month .July August September October November December .January February March April May .June July August September October November December January February March April .May June .July August September October November December .January February March April May June .July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December .January February March April May June July August September October November December

A General Assistance $5,13 0 ,0345,085.376 5,320,264 5,908,378 5,610,326 5,547.3 00 4,210,725 4,067,909 5,551,741 6,028,912 7,288,5 87 7,922,386 7,964,123 8,257,370 8,4-08,570 8,320,815 9,1 0 5,2 07 10.279,269 ll,288,020 10,381,65410,995,4-66 9,816,611 5,551,0148,831,681 8,288,470 9,024-,618 7,502,594 7,890,567 7,372,977 5,503,072 4,577,417 4-,630 ,062 4,116,850 3,997,155 3,638.886 3.528.916 2,227,547 2,411,177 2,781,664 3.117,245 3,690 ,2 47 4-,184,457 4,195,637 : 4,302,681 4,365,5 04 3,772,143 3,372,463 3,274,642 3.386,784 3,655,354 3,049,779 3,054,570 3,732,961 4,252,469 4,564,042 4,439,405 4,534,689 4-,038,993 3,433,252 3,261,801 3,553,088 4,030 ,065 3,749,326 3,811,515 4-.~ 100,280 4,326,3 14

January 4,379,934 February 4,687,683 March 4,755,659 April 4,441,837 4,016,675 Itay 4,116,626 .June July 3,1:·25,933 August 3,542,993 September 3,408,653 October 3,643,898 4,024,754 November December 3,988,358 a/ Federal participation commences.

1939

B

C

Federal Total Special Work Programs Categories

Special Categories Dependent ·Old Age' . Children Blind

Tc1tal $5,130 ,034 5, 08 5,376 5;320,2645,908;378 7;4-80;922 17,550.342 19,779,057 16,262,4-95 15;498,940 6,390,235 7;299,554 7;925,170 7;964,931

$1.870,596 12,003,04-2 15,568,332 12.194,586 9,947,199 361,323 10,967 2.784 808

8,257;37 0

50,000 210,000 4-85,000 2,603,000 7,59:,000 9,325,000 10,144,000 10,309,000 9,852,000 9.239.000 8,636.000 8,423,000 8.738,000 9,086,000 . 9,251,000 9,420,000 9,013,000

345,~00

183.~OO

460,585 679,712 937,106 1,165,446 1,437,340

181, 00 177.500 175.500 171,600 169.7°0 165,800 158,000 146,300 142,400 140,400 138,5 00

8,287,000 .• 2,005,838 8,543,000 2,151,9548,123,000 .. . 2,282,431 8 ,0~·4 ,000 2,324.6548,067,000 2,304,012 7,774,000. 2.259,795. 6,657,000 2,210,717'- . ' 6,131,000 '. 2,243,113 5,900,000 2,331,237 5,788~OOO 2,353,639 5,882,000 2,389,621 5,712,000 2,400,858 6,462,000 2,419,722 7,4-78,000 2,1t4-4,577 9,05 0 ,000 2,479,232 10,597,000 2,498,700 11.371,000 2,533,824 2,601,270 11,956,000 12,505,000 2,625,838 13,123,000 2,634,724 2,613,668 13,293,000 13,985,000 2,625,531 2,648,280 13,866,000 13,743,000 2,676,69 4

1,668,238 1,816,3541,944,831· 1,982,754 1,947,012 1,902,795'. 1,853,717 1,886,113 1,974,237 1,996,639 2,032,621 . 2,043,858. 2,048,722 2,073,577 2,106,362 2,125,700 2,160,824 2.228,27 0 2,252,838 2,261,724 2,240,668 2,252,531 2,275,280 2,3 03,694

148,600 146,600 148,600 152,900 168.000 168,000 168,000 168,000 168,000 168,000 168,000 168,000 168,000 168,000 168,280 168,000 168,000 168,000 168,000 168,000 168,000 168,000 168,000 168,000

12,836,000 12,312,000 12,890,000 12,039,OCO 11,504,000 11,J.81,000 9,626,000

2,339,4042,377,046 2,411,602 2,457,892 2,5 04,7342,548,267 2,586,61+2 2,607,880 2,661,890 2,7 00 ,847 2,740;658 2,779,040

9,~O9,000

t

34-3, 00 339,500 340,559 347.248 384- , 245·\. 613,804 ·780,585 988,012 1,241,506' 1, 46 7,846 1,737,840

2,712,000 2,750,000 2,785,000 2,831,000 2,878,000 2,921,000 2.960,000 2,931,000 3,035,CGO

7,47 1 ,000 3,o7L~,OOO 7,965,000 3,114,000 8,336,000 8,999,000 3,153,000 ~I Not available.

..

3. 059 13. 648 52,5 45

286,004~

Y Y Y EJ

E.I II EJ EJ El

bl

bl ~I

162.000 162,000 162,000 162.000 162,000 162.000 162,000 162,000 162,000 162,000 162,000 162,000 189,000 189,000 189,000 189,000 189.Q,qO 189,000 189,000 189,000' 189,000 189,000 189,000 189,000 203,000 2~,000

2 ,590 205,000 205,000 205,000 205,000 205,000 2°5,000 205,000 205,000 205,000

Y y Y

E.I EJ EJ

bl

Y

Y bl EI EJ

'8,408,570 8,320,815 9.105;207 10,279.269 11;288,020 10;381.65410,995;466 9,816,611 5,551,014 8,831,681 8,288,4-70 9;074;618 7;712,5948,375,567 9,975;977 13,094 ,072 14,247;717 15;1;1.7,462 14.765-,350 1!t.189,714 13,225;134 12,549; 161

11~26lt-,351

11,929,762

. 1~J855,676 1~ ;.-6°9,751 1 ,578,093 14-,935,297 1~ .!,-8~ l4-75 14,·997,635 14-;770,935 14.,.140,797 13 ,743 ..475 13.308,437 12,254,501 12, 029,4-67 11,281.016 11,1<;6,209 12,004-,582 12,365,327 13,445,76414,561,982 16,063,921 17,134,693 17,338,076 17,819,071 18,683,926 19,787,789 19,655,994 20,422,04-6 20,614~560

20,746,008 19,927,93419,749,683 20,430,659 19,311,837 18,398,675 18,218,626 16,011,933 15,732,993 1~,91lJ-,653

1 ,682,898

,

15,474,75lJ16,140,358 ..'

~

TABUf XIII.' INDIANA

RELIEF TO RECIPIENTS (Excludes Administration, Special Programs, Non-Relief Lebor and Materials) Year \933

1934

1935

:1.936

, 1937

1938

1939

Month july August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December january February March .April May june july August September October November December January February March April May June .July August September October November December .January February March April May june july August September , october November December january February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July

August September Octooer November December

!I Federal

,A B C , General Federal Total Special Assistance Work Programs Categories $1,010,093 927,862 93 0 ,817 1,195,233 $1,172,403 1,139,366 6,168,411 695,531 6,272,320 717,206 4,723,568 809,868 3,629,060 1,008,509 ,1,496,680 124,093 2,051,084 927 1,938,461 1,988,195 2,372,338 2,438,419 2,907,412 3,051,971 3,303,373 3,454,767 3,142,336 3,275,600 3,139,220 2,890,694 2,550,660 2,124,478 37°,000 1,569,893 1,518,000 1,353,113 2,473,000 1,018,509 806,451 3,173,000 3,885,000 760,142 4,080,000 $ 273,018 728,495 4,215,000 288,529 697,734 4,270,000 300,909 ~83,993 4,016,000 306,091 89,579 3,776 ,000 296,343 390,713 3,644,000 299,858 345,939 290,229 3,598,000 343.510 3,700 ,000 33 8 ,57 0 351,633 376 ,466 3,785,000 415,546 3,813,000 451,367 45~,454 52 ,689 3,868,000 453,950 581./, ,813, 3,710,000 518,499 630,894 3,435,000 567, 617 685,672 3,632,000 583,699 3,609,000 736,154562·,774 3,593,000 793,6 23 433,6'68 842,978 ·3,375,000 318,lJ.05 879,034 3,232,000 304,016 2,712,000 913,852 323,293 2,458,000 946,337 332,142 970 ,820 2,322,000 ~99,280 47 2,296,000 1,003,7 38,640 1,016,017 2,360 ,000 539,245 1,039,947 2,363,000 819,913 1,056,468 2,791,000 1,075,400 ' 1,071,6 45 ~,241,000 1,121,639 00 1,087,7 ,285,000 1,159,858 0 1,101,9 4 4,755,000 899,966 1,113,812 5,006,000 74-4,555 1,125,7 1 1 5,247,000 659,194 1,136,639 5,127,000 570,180 1,158,415 5,428,000 4 5 7,201+ 1,204,589 625,815 5,~3,000 1,255,820 5, 21,000 604,237 1,312,246 5,464,000 712 ,696 5,172,000 1.354 ,877 807,29 0 1,398,690 lJ.,490,000 820,000 1,452,594 4,630 ,000 881,000 4,808,000 1,504,322 839,000 4,461,000 1,542,198 640,000 . 605,000 4,300,000 1,576,547 1,602,140 4,130,000 552,000 1,624-,688' 3,968,000 524,802 1,6~,,21t 567,442 3 A57 ,000 1,6 ;882 2;711,000 695,720 2,601,000 1,662~819 747,756 2,903,000 1,673~083 686,235 1,682,058 3,14-3,000 645,733

participation commenoes.

Special Categories Dependen"i 'Old Age Children Blind

Total $1,010,093 927,862 930,817 1,195;233 2;311,769 6,863,942 6,989;526 5~533,436

!t,637,569 1;620,773 2,052,011 1',938,461 1;988,195 2;372~338

2,438;419 2,907;412 3;°51;971 3,303,373 3,454~767

3;142,336 3,275;600 3,139,220 2;890;694' 2,550;660 2;124,478 1~939,893

2;871;113 3,491;509

~,979,451

$ 243,818 $ 29 ..200 29,200 $ 5,441 253,888 '29,200 14;203 257,50 6 19,210 al 29;200 257 ,680~ 29,200 19,035 248,108 19,010 29,200 251,648 18 ~973 29.200 242,056 1.8,787 29,200 290,583 8,838y 17,982 349~646 18,752 20,292 416,410 40,162 21,736 462,791 24,425 63,406 496,982 26,054 86,393 518,447 115,818 27,988 541 ,866 29,169 147,300 559,685 31,204 183,694 578,725 212,864 33,332 596,782 235,061 35,029 608,94-4 622,014256,515 35,323 36,442 276,459 633,436 37,491 289,499 64~,830 301,587 65 ,199 ~8,961 0,016 313,626 662,375 41,236 670,128 328,583 42,103 340,772 673,593 42,533 351,281 677,831 361,103 ,43,377 683,220 44,080 ' 368,508 689,316 45,007 694,480 374,325 46,022 381,374 698,375 46,277 386,58lJ. 703,778 46,620 718,043 393,15~ 400,027 47,157 757,405 402,707 47,551 805,562 409,190 47,750 855,3°6 47,910 417,021 889,946 48,009 424,245 926,436 48, 40 3 430,988 973,203 48,668 4-40,461 1,015,193 4-46,491 48,525 1,047,182 48,604 454,120 1,073,823 48,710 1,093,879 lJ.59 51 464, 78 48,721 1,111,489 1,120,806 48,956 466,45~ 467,68 48,983 1,132~215 48,872 470~404 l,143t543 49,084471,4-42 1,152',557 473,461 49,378 1,159,219

,a

,645,142 5,081,513 5,201, 26 3 5,154,90,2 , 4,811,670 4;463;056

4;289;797 4;231; 739

l+"390,'203

4,577 ;012 4;719,821 4,846,639 4,813,312 4,633~511 4~901,371

4;9°7,928 lJ.,820,291

4;~36,383

lJ., 15~050 3,949,145 3,736,479 3,692;100 3,738,387 3,915,262 4,222,860 4,922;868 5;434;284 6,532,558 6,756,870 6,86lJ.,367 7,03 1 ,905 6,833,819 7,133~6~

7,193;It 7,281,057 7.488,942 7,334,167 6,708,690 6,963,594 7,1~1,322

6,6 3,198 6,481,547 6,284~140

6,11T, lJ.90

5,660,659 5,055,602 5,011,575 5,262,318 5,470,791

i

!

Ir

,~

.~

Year

Month

1933

July August September October November December

TABLE XIV. MA.RYIAND RELIEF TO REe IPIENI'S (Excludes Administration, Special Programs, Non-lelief labor and M3.ter1als) C Spec!al Categories A B Dependent Total Special Federal General _ .. 1l1ind Old Age ChUdren Assistance Work Programs Categories

$ 683,741 863,742 793,633 931,359 1,282,147 2,408,664

1934

January February Narch AprU Nay June July August September October November December

$ 683,741 863,742 793,633 931,359 976,820 .969,765 1,019,584 1,111,622 1,579,158 1,566,956 1,677,932 1,330,531 1,193,320 1,206,330 1,253,675 1,251,274 1,247,351 1,290,647

1935

January February Narch April lVB.y June July August September October November December

1,499,848 1:,413,204 1,452,958 1,312,615 1,198,124 932,941 1,010:,407 1,071,666 886,525 938,668 853,134 603,453

60,000 279,000 652,000

January February lVRrch April Way June July August September October November December

378,095 246,118 268,886 220,154 185,597 93,784 111,799 108,312 123,256 146,535 148,919 180,619

903,000 943,000 972,000 882,000 838,000 820,000 763,000 758,000 757,000 719,000 719,000 682,000

87,912 231,19 2 249,839 262,132 278,562 206,035 332,831 320,277 331,560 346,592 353,639 368,280

January February lVRrch April Nay June July August September october November December

195,953 210:,550 239,956 187,896 146,553 126,937 110,804 114,852 122,566 121,904 133,354 154,627

649,000 683:,000 643,000 617,000 584,000 561,000 492,000 463,000 434,000 433,000 432,000 460,000

387,502 392,464 394,315 403,998 418,361 427,377 440,144 451,850 464,423 471,694 483,196 499,491

1938

Janaury February lVRrch April lVRy June July August September October November December

187,294 206,981 215,502 190,672 167,409 178,211 186,3 03 193,809 203,581 200,182 211,217 247,37 2

1939

January February Narch April Mly June July August September October November December

273,669 293,765 288,388 243,827 178,591 169,000 163,271 181,859 181,932 189,252 195,983 208,152

512,000 528,000 542:,000 576,000 582,000 613,000 688,000 731,000 742,000 827,000 816,000 785,000 746,000 735,000 752,000 690,000 685,000 662,000 616,000 584,000 523,000 613,000 633,000 672,000

510,401 522,487 532·,566 537,006 533,586 532,804 536,763 539,451 547,019 547,638 551,297 561,939 564,864 568,434 571,199 567,157 563,424 557,383 549,975 549,603 552,236 547,521 550,511 556,487

1936

1937

Total

$ 305,327 1,438,899 2,235,883 1,758,238 1,533,980 224,947 3,621

3,255,467 2,869,860 3,113,138 1,791,903 1,681,553 1,330,531 1,193,320 1,206,330 1,253,675 1,251,274 1,247,351 1,290,647 1,499,848 1,413,204 1,452,958 1,312,615 1,198,124 932,941 1,010,407 1,071,666 886,525 998,668 1,132,134 1,255,453 87,912

100,709~

111,514 123,058 132,157 125,125 160,904 168,000 175,084 185,923 192,723 205,499 217,122 220,337 221,478 223,008 234,431 239,23 0 247,861 254,410 259,641

1~369,OO7

130,453 a/ 138,325 139,074 136,409 162,059 161,441 142,679 146,422 150,292 150,418 152,109

9,996 8,851 10,486 9,598 10,054 10,377 10,498 10,672

Y

1,420,280 1,490,725 1,364,286 1,302,159 1,209,819 1, '20'7 , 630 1,186,589 1,211,816 1,212,127 1,221,558 1,230,899, 1,232,455 1,286,014 1,277:,271 1,208,894 1,148,914 1,115,314 1,042,948 1,029,702 1,020,989 1,026,598 1,048,55 0 1,114,118

275,62 283,581

267,27~

192,239 195,659 204,178

10,793 . il,360 11,701 11,870 11,664 11,779 il,855 12,080 12,244 12,182 11,899 11,732

287,660 290,487 291,714 294,006 294,442 296,412 298,760 298,704 299,287 301,282 301,763 303,532

211,247 220,286 228,886 230,893 226,911 223,966 225,427 227,882 234,888 233,346 236,447 245,183

11,494 il,714 11,966 12,107 12,233 12,426 12,576 12,865 12,844 13,010 13,087 13,224

1,209,695 1,257,468 1,290,068 1,303,678 1,282,995 1,324,015 1,4U,066 1,464,260 1,492,600 1,574,820 1,578,514 1,594,311

304,193 304,37 0 305,204 305,868 309,097 307,768 306,384 305,971 305,885 308,122 309,231 310,,797

247,329 250,517 252,484 247,656 240,710 235,814 229,772 229,730 232,552 225,498 227,218 231,505

13,342 13,547 13,511 13,633 13,617 13,801 13,819 13,902 13,799 13,901 14,062 14,185

1,584,533 1,597,199 1,611,587 1,500 ,984 1,427,015 1,388,383 1,329,246 1,315,462 1,257,168 1,349,773 1,379,494 1,4;6,639

159,587 160,7 67 161,136 169,120 172,266 176,368 180,428 185,360 1~2,538

I

i

J .c

";

~

Federal participation cOIlDIl.ences.

t:'

TABLE

xv.

MASSACHUSETTS RELIEF TO REC IPIENTS (Excludes Administration, Special Programs, Non-Relief Labor and Materials) Year 1933

1934

1935

~936

1937

1938

1939

Month .July August September October November December .January February March April May .June .July August September October November December -' " .January February March April May .June .July August September October November December .January February .Maroh _ April May '.June .July . August September October November December .January February March April May .June .July August September October November December .January .February March April May .June .July August September October November December .Jttnuary February March April May,

,J'une July Auguet September Octc>ber November December

Y

A B C General Federal Total Special Assistance Work 'Programs Categories $3,022,629 2,905,8242,727,421 2,734-,817 2,981,898 $ 568,275 2,64-9,326 6,362,819 2,259,762 7,933,84-1 2,206,586 5,802;371 2,634-,4-75 5,474',697 4-,812,019 288,921 5,830,584 3,817 5,116,2245,24-0,653 6,266,132 5,771,4-1+5 6,148,150 6,983,680 7,226,480 " ;'8,080,384' 7,366,459 ' 7,928, 11+47,738,235 8,595,772

Special Categories Depend~nt

Old Age

Children

Blind

$3~022~629 2;905,8~ 2,727~421

2;7~~817

3~550;173

9,012,14-5 10;193~603

8,008;957 8; 109,172 5,100;940

5~834-,401 5;116~2245~24-0,653 6·,266;1~2

5,771,4- 5 6,148,15° , 6;983~680

7.226,480

8~080~~84

7;366~ 59 7;928,144 7;738,225

8;595~772 7,381~973 7,403~261 ' 8 ,050~107

7,~81,973

7, .03,261 8,050,107 6,814-,763 6,825,671 4,889,111 3 ;'l~2 ,.664 2,60B,009' 2,411,5742.336,667 '(2,030 ,573 .1,671,938 .1,602,002 1';£21,669 1,523,241 1,519,820 1,474,699 1,468,033 1,783,033 ... "

I, 759,I~07

1, 74-3,595 1, 880,lt31 1,627,28:;. 1,383,883 l,~09 572 1~ 10,815 l,lt68,771 1,561,355 1,615,071 1,957,272 2, 546,6lJ.6 . 2,538 , 58lt '2,393,330 2,lJ.80,339 2, 119,4-ltO , . 1,9lJ.2,74-1 1,930 ,14-3 1,825,4541,802,453 1,738,573 1,608,988 1,69lt ,8541,957-,8 19 2,019,377 1,961,163 2.129,8 65 1,787,249 1;785,001- " 1,659,000 1,600,9921,736,207 1,766,057 1,796,068 1,882,795 1,971,597 . ~

Federal participation commences.

68,000 • 935.,000 4,917,..000 5,867,.000 . 6.393,000 .8,J76,OOO '7,7 05,000 7,578,000· 7,098,000 6,852,000 6,719,000 '" 6,529,000 . },187 ,000 7,489,000 71;.11-1,,000 .. 6,338,000 5,790,000 6,53lt,000 6,108,000 '. 6,236,000 .

6,814.,763 6,893,671 5,824~111

8,04-9,664

)

~,825,OOO

,444,000 4,322,000

It,209,OOO~

It ,241,000 , lJ.,267,000:; 4- ,]68 ,OOQ. 5;296,000,. 5,135,000' 6,585,000 6,685,000 7,252,000 7,099.000 7~547,OOO

8,450.000 8,'600,000 8,645.000 8,520.000 7.996,000 8,648,000 7,2 0 7,000 7,806,000 7,lJ.Gl,000 7.218,000 6,524,000 6,382.000 5,673,000 4,268,000 4,757,000 1+,884,000 4,990,000

Total

923,775 919,023 929,611 926,072 957,4-28 963,301 987,3041,006,938 1,225,198 1,389,686 1,4-88,065 1,627,565 1,673,391 1,761+,28i 1,906,630 1,877,774 1,906,618 1,980,,210 2,017,827 2,069,139 2,081,571 2,111-1,100 2,249,61+9 2,282,lt38 2,311,235 ·?,353,066 2,1+32,572 2,lt38,660 2,47,,682 2,469,368 2,517,089 .,2,577,878 2,559.4-89 2,610,lt81 2,709,Sllt 2,738,139 ~,793,343

2,829,4-71 2,795,195 2.637.,620 2,881,872 2,861,857 2,8Bo,990 2,913,6lt2 2,931,°92 2,968,750 3,032.038 3, 093, o!tlf.

. 642,502 636,435 636 ~652 ' 650,506 Y 680,857 665,597 698,184719,282 913,671 1,0133,822 1,186,661 .,1,28~,506 't<;-

1,357,6 03 1,1+3/t,B09 ,1,533,586 " 1,520,109 1, 54lt,884 1,580,083 • 1,625,1+76 1,646,677 1,676,110 1,709,711 1,769,643 1,812,981 1,832,lJ.77 1,866,860 1,899,591 1,919,298 1,926,906 1,9lt8~026

1,976',308 1,995.719 2,017,026 2,049,6+2 2,095,255 2,139,422 2,14-8,978 2,181.110 2,174,287 ,2,212,469 2,215,790 2,24-0,949 2,24-7,786 2,267,332 2,277,972 2,305,835 2,34-9,101 2,383,897

264-,473 265,788 275,959 258,567

Y

259,47~. :

280,97 272,374 271,11+~

294,97 . 289,821 285,607 33.0,335 .-.•. ... 299,661 312,902 356,660 340,988 31+4-,626 382,669 371+,381 401+,013 .

~~

~86,663

12,870 4-60,9lt8 449,912 lt58,982 465,525 511,634 lt97,230 526,287 498,809 518, 167 559,133 519,312 537,lt53 590,956 574,960 620,12lJ. 623,721 596,007 599,976 640,869 595,397 607,545 620,576 621,401 636,653 656,369 682,670

. 16;800 9~398;784 16,800 9~723~597 17,000 U;3lf2,278 16,999 a/ 10,661;645 17,098 10,207,366 16,730 9,663;3°3 16,746 9', 46o~ ~373 16,511 9,2i4~179 9,.2',018 16,553 16,04-3 10;051;385 lo~445.,098 15,797 15,724 10,551,598 '. 16,127 9~770,798 16,570 9,297,876 16,38lt 10~321,061 16,677 9~613;057 17,108 9,526,501 9,1l4~782 17,458 7,872,61+2 17,970 18,41+9 7~859~910 7,851,926 18,798 18,519 7,997,171 8,4-73,921 19,058 9,597,081+ 19,545 10,145,819 19,776 20,681 9;881,396 21,3lJ.7 11,4~7~911 1l~2 3,100 22,132 22,4-89 1l~670~423 11,498;511 22,533 22,61411;889,543 23,026 12,830 ,331 12,898,062 23,151 12;864;469 23,416 12,924~668 23,6 03 '.12 ,691,958 23,757 2lJ.,21+1, ·13 t1j.60; 720 2lt,640 '·11;987,63lJ. 12,731;060 2lJ..901 12,085,869 25;175 U;88lt;8'73 25,213 11;04-4-;857 25,511 10,863.982 25,659 10,322,849 25,734 8;965,lltg 25,719 26,262 9,521,818 26,568 9~798,8~3 10,054-,6 ~ 26,4-77

,

..

TABLE XVI. MICHIGAN RELIEF TO REO IPIENTS

(Excludes Administration, Special Programs, Non-Relief Labor hndMaterials) A B C General Federal Total Special Assistance Work Programs Categories

Year _. Month 193~

,

19Yt

. July. Augtlst September . October NQ"VA:nber December

.$2,885:566 3,223.517 3~196;929

June July AUgust

....

1935

1936

1937

1938

NOVi"'l'lb~:r·,

-.

De~~p-,ber

, ......

January FebI'uary March. April May June July Aug'lst .SE'ptember October November Dp.cember January February Mhrch .. April, May June ~ J"uly ~. August September October N0vember December January February M!lrc.h April May June July August september Octe/ber November December JEEll:.ary February March April May June July August September October Noven~ber

1939

December"' Jenuary February March April Mqy June July

August deptember octoner Novarr,ber Dec'3mber ~ Fe~er61

3; 907 ,38 lL 3,514-,04-6 3,845,745 4,431,864 . 4,573,022.• ' 5,710,171 6,663,582 6,350,074 --.·-6 , 4- :'696' ,5;433,973 5, 234-, 24-5 4,769.715 4;658,909 3,978,250 4,;5 0 ,551 4,491.,233 lJ_, OF." :.;0, 281 4,192,07 0 3,072,214' 1,986,326' :

-.

" -

6;008;092 12,432,930

10.383.576 7,253.4536,427.955 302;°37 7;672 1,579

12;552;124 9;233,892 8,794-;756 3;)+52,613 3;915;°56 3·~:J~ . . '''' . . )5 ..... ,t_

~; 8~5, 1!t~

,Lj..)1,86~

4;573,022 5;710,171 6;6E-3,582 6,350,074

irt

1:36;~'9i6'~ .

l.,895 ,583· ':':1,907,517 1,652,4-88 : 1,3-(.1,501 1,255,979 '1,254,088 .;} 1,226,137 1,135,000 .i,258,940 1,263,643 .1,409,521 1,484,015 1,672,764 1,513,687 1.340 ,7 23 980 ,212 859,237 781,7 1} 780,375 878,467 933, 803 1,082,686 1,674 ,3 00 2,686,876 3,485,223 3,829, 209 3,038 ,9 87 2,549,292 2,379,483 2,257,284 1~834-,968

1,229,7 18 1,165,775 1,199,310 1,482,935

i, 728~i4-8 1,911,889 1,943.131 1,653,8641,428,907 l,~58,000

.1~"032, 744

1,186,394 1,316,899 1,469,E,25 1,515,291 1,387.000

participation .commences • .

3;196;929

3~796;739

$1.569.919 9,4-28,457

.

Septemb€.~·

october

3~223.517

.

3~190,576

~1ay

Total $2~885;566

3;796;739 - .4,438.173 3,004,473 2;168.5+8 1;980,439 2,366.801

January February March April

Special C~!~~ries Dependellt Cilildl'etl Blind Old Age

6,4-34-;696 5,4-33,978 5;234;245 4;769;715 4'658'Q09 ' , 3.978,250 4;350 ,557 4-;534 ,:?33 4,406.281 5;089,070 5;276,214 6.439,326 7,280}942 ~

1~3, 000 350,000 897,000 2,204,000 4,453,000

5,052,000 4,936,000 5,171,000 4,931,000 '+, lt 50 ,000 4,185,000 4,156,000 4,251,000 '+,278 ,000 4,2;+3,000 4,085,000 3,77 4 ,000 3,480,000 3,495,000 3~463,OOO

3,4091 000 3,283,000 3,090,000 2,816,000 2,429,0('0 2 i 540,000 2,449-000 2,498~OOO 2,523,000 2,975,000 4,023,000 5,976,000

7:642,000

9/052,000 10,309;000 10,985;000 11,~55 .000 11 1 194,000 10,006,000 9,0 29,000 8,596,000 8,003,000 7/SJOO,OOO 8,021:.000 7,416,000 7,624,000 7,190,000 6,011,000 6,005,000

4,497,000

4,640,000 4,980,000 4,812,009

$ 366,026

$ 166,026

521.159 569,742 608.106 ,63'+,780 653,992 680,404494,05 0 655,158 689,012 770,288 8C5,?64-

321,159

861,228>'~

912,600 91.;.2.968 958,474953,488 '·'963.265 1,089,209 1,252,928 1,376,595 1.477,701 1,5T{ ,550 1.666,9641.735,589 1,819,478 1,839,178 1,781,226 1,732,01lt

1~724,834

1,626,252 1,597,226 1,648,908 1,668,929 1,714,377 1,735,928. 1,136,773 '1,7 47>384 1.795,141 1,810,947 1,852,322 1,875,749 1,868,469 1,852;100 1,836,269 1,846~736

1,817,693 1,789.516

!d

$ 200,000

7,352~742

200 ,000 200,000

7,6J.I.8;259 191~594' - ;456,281 094,971 -, 190 ~!j.92

369,7l!-2 . . 200,000 .408,106, 4-3J+,700'' 2
g' j;

i

l

TABIE XVII

NEW JERSEY RELIEF TO RECIPIENTS

(Excludes Administration, Special Programs, Non-Relief Labor and Materials) Year

Month

1933

July August September October November December January February March April May. June July August September October November December January February' March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December

1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

January February March April May June July August September . October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December

IrIJii.J . '.~.i-."~,~7ti.:~!3.1 :'<:. i.""'" >c,., _'.

ABC General Fede~al Total Special Assistance Work Programs Categories

Special Categories Dependent Old Age Children Blind

$1,929,814

$1,929~814

2~037,656

1,912,130 1,984 ,155 2,311,060 2,167,7 64 2,059,311 2,172;87 6 2,489,799 5,119,493 3,7 08 ,193 3,446,557 3,771,544 3,647,944 3,926,844 5,156,168 5,320,013 5,731,155 5,266,061 5,155,184 5,38 8 :840 4,818,8(')3 4,552 ,523 4,270,368 4,397,523 4,33 8 ,7 87 4,044,207 4,034,37 0 3,527,794 2,588 ,214 2,100,923 2,133,7 41 2,060,214 1,608,000 1,105,000 1,018,000 978,7 01 9 6 5.69 1 , ,-97~.·638 1,066,800 1,164,932 1,367,835 1,460,000 1,503,000 1,568,000 1,319,704 1,131,516 1,016,612 987,922 1,007,604 1,067,052 1,171,446 1,329,252 1,663,278 1,962 ,215 1~991,523

2,115,359 1~922,283

1,675,888 1,697,616 1,7 03,30 9 1,681,469 1,661,290 1,683,869 1,722,804 1,860,252 1,960,000 1,975,000 1,850,000 1,5 86,000 1,469,000 1,3 89,000 1,349,000 1,337,000 1,374,000 1,355,000 1,333,000 . 1,360,000

conun.en~es. __ .'" __,,__ .__ ."__.._.

participation

Total

2,037,656 1,912,130 1,9 84,155 2,854,647 6,827,387 9,060,214 7,680,381 7,399,120

$ 543,587 4,659,623 7,000.903 5,507,5°5 4,9 0 9,321 155,325 960 54

5~274,818

3,709,153

3~446,611

3,771,544 3,647,944 3~926,844

5,156,168 5,320,013 5,731,155 5~266,061

5,000 286,000 710,000 2,060,000 4,510,000 5,202,000 5,686,000 5,745,000 5,533,000 5,660,000 5,417,000 5,195. 000 5,186,000 5,268,000 5,514,000 5,65 0 ,000 5,356 ,000 5,044,000 5,102,000 5,116,000 5,158 ,000 5,147,000 4,894,000 4,457,000 4,064,000 3,887,000 3,93 8 ,000 4,017,000 3,878,000 4,019,000 4,577,000 4,814,000 5,643,000 5,804,000 5,919,000 6,025,000 6,537,000 6,552 ,000 6,897,000 6,960,000 6,650,000 5,938 ,000 5,858 ,000 6,066,000 5,5 80 ,000 5,342,000 5,155,000 5,139,000 4,710,000 3,294,000 3,795,000 3,798,000 3,954,000

5,155,184 5,388,840 4,818,803 4,552,523 4,270,368 4,397,523 4,343,787 4,330,207 4,744~370

492,000 494,279 499,605 513,524 522,249 534,441 557,946 581,601 601,924 619,994 631.894 649,959 662,300 671,449 685,270 696,07G704,318 708,65 8 719,630 726,401 734,027 749,283 764,633 790,997 787,077 799,304 807,018 820,567 828,690 83 0,171 811,967 816,337 82a,504 839,13 0 849,725 866,400 886.062 905,482 916,922 917,59 6 916,010 911,7 27 914,620 920,388 935,412 943,051 952 ,110 95 8 ,218

232;826 23'"-', 204 240,317 243,140

247,175 252,580 272,314 292 ,930 311,857 327,302 338 ,543 351,436 363,145 372,264 382,339 391,930 398,068 401,05 0 406,019 412,845 421,216 431,970 442,855 453.132 45 8 ,3 88 465,270 471,947 477,676 479',511 484,494 489,113 492,495 501,028 507,587 512,7 06 520,775 538,351 552 ,573 561,749 566,216 571,872 576,185 580,521 587,491 599,656 606,795 614,665 620,116

!!I

250,000 250,000 25°,000

261,137 !y

265,636 270,242 275,943 278,977 380,499 282,935 283,691 288,574 289,327 288,959 292,737 293,804 295,967 296 ,977 302,737 302,478 301,541 . 306,086 310,058 325,756 316,721 321,699 322,521 330,206 336,337 332,677 309,947 310,879 314,410 318,239 323,683 332.189 333,963 33 8 ,976 341,301 337.376 330,011 321,247 319,538 318,332 321,153 321,47 8 322,491 323,224

9,174 9,075 9,288 9,247 9,438 9,619 9,689 a/ 9,694 9,568 9,757 9,660 9,949 9,828 10,226

5,5 87,794 7,098,214 7,794,923 8,314,020 8,304,819 7,654,524 7,287;249 6,969,441 6,731,647 6,733,292 6,846,562 7,200,794 7,446,826 7,373,794 7,166,300 7,276,449

10,194

7,369,270

1~,336

10,631 10,874 11,078

7,173,774 6,982,8}4 6,619,270 6,164,.552 5,798,005

11,270

5,688,079

10,283

11,227 11,720 12,109 11,968 12,335 12,550 12,685 12,842 13,000 12,907 12,963

5,858,729 6,110,885 6,332,275 6;768,292 7,367,827

13,304 13,336 13,436 13,748 13,933 13,872 14,004 14,127 14,295 14,561 14,565 14,603 14,778 14,954

9,419,999 9,532,529 9,376,652 8,7 84,062 8,738,482 8,832,922 8,083,596 7,727,010 7,455.727 7,402,620 6,967,388 5,603,412 6,093,051 6,083,110

13,066

7

14._,8__8

7~736,377

8,385,850 8,308,57 8 8~446,787

8,540,276 9,034,806

9,041,794

;~'

i_/;i~

6 ._2_72_.,_2_18. ...

TABLE XVIII. NEW' YORK RELIEF TO RECIPIENTS (Excludes Administration, Special Programs, Non-Reliet Labor and Materials)

Year

Month

1933

July August September October November December January February March April May .Tune July August September October November Decembor January February

1934-

1935

Mf'rch

April May

1936

June .Tu1y August September October Ncvember December January· February March April May June :ru:Ly

1937

1938

August September October November December .January February March April May June J'uly August September October November December January Feb:;:ouary March . April May .Tune J'u1y August September Octoher NOVE'mb~r

1939

DelJember J'anuary February March April May J'une July August September October November December

A B C General Federal Total Special Assistance WOrk Programs Categories $11,010,759 11,391·739 10,789,850 11,889,835 12,081,785 $3,14-67,807 7,304-,656 15,179,192 7,285,961 ' 20,334-,222 8,236,782 18,254 ,985 10,073,550 19,570,117 20,698,919 913,820 21,439,410 8,337 20,4-59,697 20,710,956 21,113,739 19,623,011 22,083.500 2c1,882,4-70 23,531,4-65 25,109,74-3 23,243,561 24-,519,086 23,987;331 23,6]-8,272

Special Categories Dependent Old Age Children Blind

3,800,000 10,108,000 16,4-]2,000 17,565,000 24,626,000 24-,232,000 24,076,000 25,407,000 24,4-30,000 23,4-27,000 22,231,000 22,663,000 22,152,000 21,910,000 9,!~36,559 23,lJ.27,ooo 9,3 00,917 9,528,002 22,759,000 22,172,000 10,376,760 20,858,000 10,235,664 18,838.000 10.339,673 '20,524.000 10,580,369 9,798,180 18 ,6a5 ,000 19,4 1,000 8.791,690 18,395,000 8,136.178 8,358,021 15,367,000 12,94-0,000 9,095,4-16 14-,061,000 9,337,361 14,462,000 9,395,777 13,916,000 10,354-,64-6 11,384,610 15,131,000 13,274-,000 12,239,811 12,332,002 13,4-99,000 11,827,761 15,575,000 15,768,000 10,677 , 71415:613,000 9,894-,3 07 16,94-3,000 9,702,73 1 16 _6J9 , ')00 9,567,24-3 17,6:?{,OOO 9,623,418 16,5911 ,000 9,5 83,132 17,85}+,000 9,44-1,421 18,l()4-,000 9,959,282 10,826,25418, T18 .000 11,4-17,143 -, 16 •7:~9 , 000 15,920,.000 11,684,75419,000,000 11,868,58416,800,000 10,854,4-07 1 10,3 7,385 . 15,858,000 9,823,000 15,378,000 13,697,000 9,404-,556 12,324,000 9.041,357 8,681,000 9,310,57 1 9,447,000 9,660.7949,804,000 9,549,195 9,888,000 9,692,04-0

a/ Federal participation commences.

$2,308,525 2.314;652 2,314,64-7 2,326,018 2,263,311 2,273,7942,280,~7

2,320,095 2,34-4,105 2,451,098 2,560,74-9 2,64-2,749 2,724,093 2,860,948 2,995,548 3,201,466 3,162,569 3,223,794 3,306,5It6 3,397.170 3,435,505 3,576,995 3,64-8,081 3,751,227 3,820.689 3,845,753 3,871,876 3,900g015

3,886,~52

3,905, 043,938,ltn 4-,162,955 4-,230,131 4-,338,191 4-,~70,037

' It, 32,2l.f.O 4,4-99,753 4,4-62.667 4,531,4-32 4-,4-94-,107 4-,412,913 4,393,2744-,444,106 4-.4-67.910 4-,506.026 4,599,812 4,695,137 4,737,756

,

$11~010~759

\

11,391,739 . 10.789,850 1l,889~835

15~54-9,592

22,4-83.84-8 27,620,183 26,491,767

29~643,667

21,612, 7~9 21~447,7 7 20,459;697

20~710,956 21~113,739

19~623~01l

22;083~500

21, 882,~70 23,531,465

25~109~74-3 23,243~561 24~519;O86

23;987;331 23~618,272

21~l07,023

23,902,681 18,592,878 16,522,284 15,275,987 12,324-,296 1l,[-l31 ,132 10,709,263 11,361.1-,924 ll,738,853 11,386.899 10,4-51,925 9. 84-7,447 9,550,496 9,357,057

Total

$1,253,946 $1,020,579 1,255,184 1,025,4-68 1,253,04-4- 1,027.,682 1,262,458 1;029;322 1;202;23~ 1,026.581 1;207.881 1,031,567 1,218.886 1,026.709 1,255,996 1,029,261 1,275,665 1,033.1n1+ 1,386,1+26 1,029,411 1,4-75,504 1,04-9,1+59 1,54-8,687 1,058,320 1,632,036 1,056.213 1,769,126 1,055.771 1,061,433 1, 898 ,1~3 2,106,8,3 1,058,734 2,091;132 1,051, 757~ l,063.52J.i: 2,133,1442,179,748 1,082,978 2.260,266 1,094-,991 1,096,282 2,294 ,908 2,378 ,658 1,151.7°7 2'a99 ,739 1,198,782 2, 54,120 1,245,116 2,4-91,159 2,49 0 ,909 2,4-99,864 2,512,669 2,5 05,566 2,516,1~43

2,535,542 2,54-5,290 2,553;54-6 2,616,247 2,613,061 2,669,986 2,716.769 2,67 0 ,4-74 2,722,822 2;674,087 2,620,005 2,598,333 2,630 ,605 2,664,4-55 2,676,698 2,74-0,967 2,828,080 2,887,5lt8

1,276,4-51 l,300,67lt 1,316,14-1 1,330,256 1,324 ,3lt2 1,331,077 1,341+ ,o6lt 1,557,720 1,615,819 1,660:031 1,693,417 1,697,564 1,718,665 1,721,273 1,74-3.928 1,755.14-41,729,156 ,1,730,608 1, i+7, 988 1,738,096 1,761,761 1,791,516 1,798,521' 1,780,595

$34,000 34;000 33~921

34,238 34 ,500

34.346

34.872 31\.,838 35.026 35,261 35,786 35,742 35,844 36 ,051 35,962 35,889 19, 680a/ 27,12b 4-3,820 41,913 44,315 46,630 4-9,560 51,991 53,079 54,170 55,871 57,090 56,144 5-r ,884 58,8 05 59,945 60,766 61,913 6a ,559 6 ,690 64,319 64-,920 64-,682 64,876 63,752 64,333 65,513 65,359 67,567 67,329 68,536 69,613

21,707;023 23;902,681 22;392,878 26,630,284 31,687,987 29,889,296 351 857,132 37;24-9;788

37,755~576

39,460,500

38,1~2;9J.7

36;142,236

3l+,~2;2lj.l

34.

3;963

33,829,~'52

33,690,6fA. 35, 179~Q15 y\- , all-7 ,75135,191,509 33,817,757 32,038,621 34,099,917 31,654 ,646 31,39~,259

29~75~972 27~031,567

25,432;586 26,83~,866

27,43 ,772 27,918;727 30,266,837 29,334,500 29,676;755 31.2711-,637 30 ,345,729 29,393,859 30 ,551,135 30,114,65431,413,373

30,407~263

31,633~612 32;433,~19

34-,036, 9432,665. 896 32,067,4-21 35~4-00,O16

32,14-8,514 30,588,298 29,594-,27427,545,662 25,853,267 22,4-97;597 23,7 0 7,606 24,olt8;332 24,317,796

TABLE XIX.

OHIO RELIEF TO RECIPIEN'IS (Excludes Administration, Special Programs, Non-Relief Labor and Materials) A

Year

1933

1935

1936

1937

Month .u1y August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June . July August September October November December January February March April May June JUly, August September October November December January February March April May June July August September . October November December

1938

January February March April May June July 'August September October. November December

1939

January F.ebruary March April May June July August September Octo~er

November December

!I Federal

General Assistance

$3,605,770 3, 1lt.9, 522 3, 66lt.,809 3,379,917 3,621,389 3,152,lt.lt.2 1,879,817 2,561,088 2;877,773 4-~552,468

5,olJ-9,968 4,918,368 5,404,066 6,010,527 6,058,705 6,381,784 7,175,411 8,340,429 9,052,537 7,5 47,676 7,537,357 7,4}0 ,677 7,554 ,901 7,620,819 8,335,348 6,647,210 4,163,635 4,856,589 4,902,927 2,934 ,851 2,589,154 2,981;431 2~596,974

2,258,915 1,997,141 1,801+,163 1,743,91+1 1,729,278 1,639,702 1,764,918 1,899,352 2,141,365 2,242,038 2,362,491 2,132 ,575 1,889,000 1,33 8 ,000 937,000 1~072,000

1,213,000 1,074,000 1;161,000 1,310,000 1,753,000 2,139,000 2,380,000 2,414,000 2,006,468 1,763,573 1,592,000 1,474,032 1;562,952 1,53 6 ,153 1,420,553 1,537,278 1,£70,674 1,795,000 1,866,136 1,836,674 1, r;7'+ 1770 1,546,916 1,492,000 1,582,100 1,794 ,9 24 1,957,524 1,859,317 1,602,936 1,517,641

participation commences.

B C Federal Total Special Work Programs Categories

Special Categories Dependent Children Blind Old Age

Total

$3.605.770 3.. 114-9,522 3,661+ ,809 3.379,917 6,08),098 17,234.318 16,720 ,212 12,759,756 11,852,403 5.039,535 5,057 .595 4,920.069 5,404.152 6,070,527 6,058 ,705 6,381,78147,175,411 8,340. 429 9,052,537 7;547;676 7.537,357 7,470,677 7;5514-.901 7,620,819 8,335,34-8 7';ol:l-7 ,21.0 5i542.635 6.•683,589 10.128,927 11,716 ,851 13,491,452 13,824,587

$2,461;709 14,081,876 1lJ-,840,395 10,198,668 8,97lJ-,630 487,067 7,627 1,701 86

400.000 1,379.000 1,8271000 5,226,000 8,782,000 9,391,000 9,336,000 10,864,000 10,272;000 9,687,000 9,51+8.000

$1.511,298 1,507,156 l,501.97lJ1,523,285 1,536,588

9,123,000 9,155,006 8,884,000 8,872,000 8,364,000 7,408,000 7,713,000 7,430,000 7.417,000 7;240,000 6~ 776,000 5,610,000 5,425,000 5,201,00U 5;310,000 5,277,000 5,227,000 6,446,000 L61+9,oOO 10;189,000 12,708,000 13,808,000 15,335,000 14,843,000 16,0r;6,ooo 16,258,000 17,130,000 16,402,000 16,361,000 14,72lJ-,OOO 13,995,000 14,816,000 13;297,000 13,680,000

2,514,129 2,528,879 2,686,428 2,7lJ-2,068 2,763,787 . 2,753 .26lJ2.747,870 2,736,258 2,727,259 2,713,032 2,707,695

9,274~000

11,9]4~OOO

9,508,000 8,507,000 7,238,000 7,388,000 7,432,000 7,883,000

~

1~53lJ-,502 1~565,677

2~719~lJltll.

2,686,888 2,689,055 2,637,005 2,636,776 2,878,288 2,853,675 2,883,lJ-6lJ2,930,007 2,973,30lJ3,005,016 3,029,382 3,045,36lJ3,061,007 3,069,lJ-85 3,052,lJ-77 3,040,149 3,054,767 3,023,532 3;017,188 3,034,506 3,041,133 3,096,899 3;112,457 3,139,697 3,170,626 3,214,194 3,283,205 3,326,234 3,333,362

Federal participation ends.

$1;281,298

1,277,15~

1,271,974 1,288,285 1.301.588 1.299,502 1,331,546 2,274,022 2,269,323 2.404,830 2,441,801 2.436,895 2,1+14.338 2,395,016 2,367.290 , 2 ,346·040 2,323,774 2,313,962 2,319,350 2,276,773 2,269,955 2,205,948 2;193,205 2,416,977 2.384,419 2,1+05,221+ 2,441,974 2,1+77,874 2;503,094 2,523,607 2,538,027 2,554,935 2,564;922 E! 2,544-,566 2,536,121 ~ 2,540,490 2.510,319 2,509,418 2,524-,492 2,539,152 2,599,352 2,624,140 2,661,560 2,695,615 2,74-3, 81 5 2,816,156 2,864,130 2,868,476

$175',000 .175,000 175,000 180.000 180,000 180,000

193.091 208,973 226,499 243,250 268,195 278,660 291.489 306,418 317 ~"363 324,673 327,88lt.

$55,000 55,000 55,000 55.000 55,000 55,000 14-8.672 47,016 50.583 55,099 57 ,017 58,697 60.266 61,365 62,550 63,856 64,585 65,849

3~3'g3601 3 3, 350,430 361,61+6 374,111 390,576 398,667 407,048 415,846 422,909 14-28,211 14-30,567 14-31,765 430,387 14-27,998 430,755 426,995 14-36,884 435,528 14-29,676 431,698 423,685 419,930 14-10,721 400,015 396,962 393,037 389,918 386,3914388,824

67,455 68;670 69,411 69.14-60 70,735 70,589 71,192 72.187 72,521 73,711 75.208 75.572 75,685 76,565 77,126 77,033 77,393 77,685 78.09 4 78,316 78,296 77,617 77,596 78,122 78,049 77,362 77,131 75,710 76,062

185,499~

66~563

114-~962,948 14~0514-,200

!I

13,220.729 12,886.665 12,583,618 13.366;407 13,323,581 13,335;34-6 13.513,lJ-20 13,269.152 12,403.302 12,823,361 12.298.833 12;033,259 11,291,032 10,420;695 9~401,lt.44

9,3214-;888 8,964,055 9,108,005 9,223.776 9.£58 ,288 11,438,675 12;912,14-6415;533,007 17.687,772 18,572,089 19,956,382 19,362;396 a:> ,679,959 20,863,638 21,603;030 20,979'lJ-27 21,086,l+lt-1 19,514-2,532 18,878 ,324 19,687,180 17,912,903 18..323,815 16,518,14-57 11+.2291797 13,14-7 2 ,550 12,409,718 12,573,551 12;361,170 12.734 ,003

TABLE XX. PENNSYLVANIA TO RECIPIENTS (Excludes Administration, Special Programs, Non-Relief Labor REUEF

A B C General Federal Total Special Assistance Work Programs Categories

and

Materials)

Special Categories Dependent Old Age Children Blind

Year

Month

1933

July August September October November December

$6,897,794 6,594,427 6,394,454 6,524,788 7,39 8 ,394 7,352 ,69 8

Janua.ry February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May

6,667,424 7,280,426 7,400,209 10,867,338 10,940,035 9, 28 9,196 8,889,380 10,248,549 8,203,019 10,167,670 12,575,.678 14,705,252 17,606,299 16,97 0 ,727 16,159,814 17,419,498 16,499,781 14,323,47 8

14,530,553 8,587,863 9,570,119 382,984 7,676 640 48

21,197,977 15,868,289 16,970,328 11,250,322 10,947,711 9, 28 9,836 8,889,428 10,248,549 8.203,019 10,167.670 12,575,678 14,705,252 17,606,299 16,970,727 16,159,814 17,419,498 16,499;781 14,323,478

1 ,333~587 13,761,120 14,216,772 10,951,422 8,324,503 7,410,472 6,071,474 6,282,532 5,722,389

1,000 314,000 3,311,000 8,506,000 11,708,000 13,994,000 15,186,000 16,460,000 16,271,000 15,331.000

1 ,334,587 14,075,120 17,527,772 19,457,422 20,032,503

1934

1935

1936

.June

July August September October November December 1937

1938

1939

~

January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October . November December January February March April May June July August September October November December

1~,492,083

5,~03,560

5, 16,116 5,497,567 4,665,012 4.450,913 4,182,948

~,922,224

,514,367 4,562,249 4,694 ,25 8 5,302,081 5,096,780 4,493, 02 5 4,442,283 4,748.485 4,607,919 4,875,961 4,735,923 4,492,348 5,761,904 6,615,274 6,118.947 6,185,060 5,719. 800 5,878,541 6,286,287 6,267,210 6,410,750 6,762,551 6,566,984 6.316,522 6,933,446 7. 20 7,6 05 7,407,372 8,354,657 7,323,634 7,696,860 7,437,725 7,614,571 ,220, 8~1 ,80~,4 2 7,77 ,823 6,789,161 6,443,074

g

Federal participation commences.

$6,897,794 6,594,427 6,394,454 6,524,788 7,699,155 14,424,071

$ 300,761

7,071,373

1~,091,OOO

1 ,962.000 15,525,000 15,912,000 15,795,000 1~,981,000

1 ,916,000 14,141,000 13,990 ,000 13,703,000 13,335,000 12,773,000 12,104,000 10,764.000 10,025,000 9,580,000 9,624,000 9,942,000 9. 842,000 10,494 ,000 11,803,000 12.498,000 1~,641,000

1 .302,000 15,359,000 16.524.000 16,641,000 16,786,000 17,320,000 17,990,000 16,880,000 1~,498,000

1 ,866,000 14,77 8 ,000 13,7 0 5,000 12,809,000 11,788 ,000 9,931,000 8,703,000 6,440,000 8,249,000 8,347,000 8,013,000

Tota.1

1~,492,083

1,258,963 1,335,272 1,358 ,966 1,371,132 1,388 ,02 1,397,07 1,501.100 1.599,056 1,614,189 1,718,891 1,837,950 1,967,215

4

2,115,365 2,210,994 2,339,780 2,524,944 2,721.849 2,828,846 2,882,117 2,929,353 2,966,865 2,972,460 2,9 85,936 3,002,609 2,9 87,525 2.972,591 2,965.291 2,953,246 2,927,456 2,897,935 2,882,913 2,848,440 2,845,648 2,853,747 2,823,621 2,861,572 2,928,528 3,040,305 2,782,010 2,416,956 2,473,663 3,111,929 . 3,119,682 3,124.,7~5

3,13 ,2 2 3,122,684 3,118,404 3,123.324

828,574 831,494 829,274 835,676 8 2,719 8 7,127 942 ,452y 1,031,659 1,039,018

4

1,138,3~8

1,229,3 2 1,346,266

1,471,489 1,541,310 1,629,731 1,768,916 1,913,928 1,972,669

2,009,89~

2,041,17 2,068,674 2,068,281 2,073,722 2,080.842 2,053,176 2,034,547 2,020,296 2,003,4a9 1,970,5 5 1,938,816 1,918,951

1,892,~34

1,892, 51 1,9 02,756 1,872,588 1,872,080 1,863,293 1,853,~03

1,617, 29

1,~14,518

1, ~4,771 1,718,~8

298,208 29 8 ,450 299,689 300,193 299,605 298,876 298,876 29 8 .565Y 301,091 299,419 323,309 332,815 352,423 ~73,615

10,608 451,974 499,477 543,147 557,712 568,822 575,610 580,542 585,133 592,196 601.121 602,534

607,05~

607,98 612,470 611,147 612,846

602,7~3

597,2 1 591,729 591,650 629.715 704.828 823,259 800,259 536,455 654,067 996,966 1,013,631

1,736,6 8 1,726,244 1,0~~'g59 1.717,884 1,0 , 71 1,69 8 ,964 1,048,888 1,6~9,375 1,041,888 1,6 3,321 1,060,062

bl Federal participation ends.

132,181 205,328 230,003 235,263 235,701 251,070 259,772 268,832 274.080 281,134

~

21,6~6.834

285,29~

21,7 1,17 21,397,582 20,818,614

288,13

291,453 296, 069 299,441 304,054 308,444

20,8~,252

21,3 ,861 20,956,724 19,987,874

31~,0)0

19,37~,129

18,39 ,602

31 ,506 319,357 322,581 323,637 327,081 329,571

333,228 335,510 337,942 341,803 344,441 347,972 351,116 353,173 355,956 359,252 359,383 359,777 360,407 36~,743 36 ,322 36~,983

36 ,825 366,385 369,363 371,992 372,527 375,102 377,141 379,941

22,663~4~

22,592,7 24,101,498 23.364,521 22,022,585 21.904,190 21,960;-667 21,789,068 21,977,102

17~562,272

17,422,826 17,332,38~

E!

17,420,28 18,606,513 20,096,799 20,894,538

21;648,~1

22,314.

6

2~,107,997

2 ,543~222 25.674,123 25,900,39 0 26~3~4,199 26~7 O,7~1

27,130,1 3 26,675,018 25,634,133 25,31~,677 25,~ ,667

23, 5,590 22,979, 52 22,337,65

a

20,665,~3

21,051, 6 18,379,764 19,146,507 18,254,56~

17,579,39

TABIE XXI. WEST VIRGINIA

RELIEF TO RECIPIENTS (Excludes Administration, Special Programs, Non-Relief labor and Materials) A General Assistance

Year

Month

1933

$1,100,538 July 1,132,402 August 1,170,011 September 1,214,738 October. 1,106,581 November December 738,213

1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September october November December January February March April

May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April lVlaY

1939

~I

June July August September october November December January February March April May June July August September October November Iecember

718,487 661,120 658,221 618,609 1,105,094 1,113,000 1,148,9841,055,089 1,192,026 1,342'1602

C Total Special Federal Categories Work Programs ;B

Special Categories Dependent Blind. Children. Old Age

Total

$1,100,538 1,132,402 1,170,011 1,214,738 1,320,673 3,988,992 4,569,212 2,792,706 2,102,969 660,828 1,105,456 1,113,000 1,148,984 1,055,089 1,192,026 1,342,602 1,491,084 1,411,717 1,739,618 1,344,634 1,538,334 1,376,053 1,381,073 1,076,120 1,124,658 1,110,518 979,940 1,306,211 1,325,725 2.1 22 7,633

$ 214,092 . 3,250,779 3,850,725 2,131,586 1,444,748 42,219 362

1,491~084

1,411,717 1,739,618 1,344,634 1,538,334 1,376,053 1,381,073 1,076,120 1,124,658 1,110,518 941,940 1,132,211 793,725 512,633 421,208 296,845 324,894 243,308 239,325 230,531 261,246 214,980 273,293 254,113 219,000 179,000 185,000 216,000 230,000 219,000 193,000 198,000 164,000 154,000 151,000 153,000 157,000 180,000 212,452 215,664 213,079 212,372 239,092 265,062 181,673 191,126 201,685 201,137 198,870 204,103 210,894 213,768 194,491 169,428 146,691 112,358 91,425 90,518 89,038 95,308 97,974 107,531

38,000 174,000 532,000 1,715,000 2,097,000 2,170,000 2,282,000 2,034,000 1,986,000 1,860,000 1,870,000 1,868,000 1,871,000 1,913,000 1,955,000 1,898,000 1,745,000 1,704,000 1,609,000 1,649,000 1,592,000 1,541,000 1,345,000 1,240,000 1,170,000 1,166,000 1,195,000 1,228,000 1,369,000 1,509,000 1,655,000 1,806,000 1,840,000 1,957,000 2,125,000 2,224,000 2,206,000 2,290,000 2,269,000 2,296,000 2,106,000 2,106,000 2,151,000 2,035,000 1,974,000 1,869,000 1,717,000 1,543,000 1,420,000 1,359,000 1,482,000 1,593,000

Federal participation commences.

~J518,208

12,721 59,500 108,811 142,197 243,001 297 ,560 337,710 370,483 396,540 402,518 389,900 388,1+39 386,874 389,182 389,984 392,260 391,804 392,440 394,209 391,475 388,942 382,081 381,382 382,058 384,448 387,656 390,415 398,469 403,557 407,092 408,879 410,002 403,067 385,142 377,547 373,935 369,393 372,034

12,721 59,500 106,022 137,438 207,981 240,909 263,145 278,276 293,135 286,762 273,298 266,385 262,083 261,495 259,864 260,129 258,450 258,006 258,069 255,874 253,529 247,322 246,934 246,711 247,032 247,872 247,642 249,189 250,626 250,035 248,132 245,760 240,280 226,868 222,157 218,238 214,398 214,235

Y 2,479 4,073 30,650 49,151 63,827 79,952 90,171 102,275 103,272 109,031 111,576 114,361 116,920 118,990 120,175 121,324 123,074 122,777 122,610 122,291 121,989 122,791 124,608 126,762 129,795 136,053 139,656 143,670 147,341 150,732 149,536 145,324 142,432 142,925 142,273 144,975

Y

310 686 4,370 7,500 10,738 12,255 13,234 13,481 13,330 13,023 13,215 13,326 13,200 13,141 13,179 13,110

13,066 12,824 12,803 12,468 12,459 12,556 12,808 13,022 12,978 13,227 13,275 13,387 13,406 13,510 13,251 12,950 12,958 12,772 12,722 12,824

Y

2,466,845 2,606,8942,277,308 2,225,325 2,090,531 2,131,246 . 2,082,980 2,144,293 2,167,113' 2,186,721 2,136,500 2,038,811 2,062,197 2,082,001 2,165,560 2,122,710 2,109;483 1,905,540 1,796,518 1,710,900 1,707,439 1,738,874 1,797,182 1,971,436' 2,116,924 2,259,883 2,410,812 2,473,301 2,613,537 2,695,615 2,797,209 2,789,067 2,873,195 2,852,318 2,887,759 2,707,309 2,718,237 2,749,048 2,611,520 2,529,570 2,391,360 2,211,492 2,018,660 1,886,585 1,828,243 1,949,367 2,07 2,565

,

Year

Month

TABLE XXII. WISCONSIN RELIEF TO REIJIPIENTS (Excludes Administration; Special Programs, Non-Relief Labor end Materials) C B Federal Totel Special .Work Programs Categories

A Geil~ral"'

1

As.sioi;;".I1'.}9

July .August September OC';;obl;1r November December January February March A.pril May j-une July August September October

1933

1931t

N(lv~mber

DeCP-In.ber January February

1935

Mar'~h

Arril Mey JWla

Jl'ly August Sf.' p+,,,:mber Oc-tol'er

Novell1bar December January February March April May J\me jUly August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October· November

1936

1937

De~ember.

1938

1939

January :'!'eb:euary March April May June July August September Octol)er Nnveliher Dpc8uber J~_lJ.UBry

Fe'hruary Mc.:C'ch

April 1::8:'--

June J'uly ALl~ust

september

Oc-t_icbBr

NO'\(;mOE?r De\~e~'oer

!I

Dep6ndent Chi1dl'en

Old Age

Total Blind $1;528~912

$1, ~.~e, 9:L2 1, 5'·)?- -' O)~9 1:411;530 1,II-}J,473 1 667. 0")1 .952,507 1, 081~313 1,59fj;105 1;890;654 2,050,280 2,332,7'Xl 2;360:955 3,026.076 3;231;391 3,225.·4-70 3,572,866 3,404,961 3,381,652 J

S~l [email protected]'ies

1,5'J3;049

1;41::"~830

1,430,473 3,195,113 11,815,249 9;94-7;460 5;966,534

$1;532~062

~'r

10,862,74-2 8,866,147 4a68 ;429

3,644~588

5~535;242

2~226,344

176,06416;91-3 2,396

2,349;243 2,363,351 3,026,076 3;281;391 3'225470 ' " 3;572.866 3,4c4;961 3,381,652 3;981,422

3~981;422

4,244,764 3,636.521 3;44 i+,r99 3;4-51,569 2,933',502 2;871,591 2,g33,753 2,102.675 2,358, J)1-2 1,891,133 1,357,090 1,228,570 1,186,042 1,097,859 956,971 751,255 670.381

4~2~4;764

3;636;521

-.

6~4,8lt-l

6 0,887 6lJ.7,251 767,9~8

823t597 93~-,5J+O

1,068,821 ·1,°75,533 l,028,5lt-6 851,529 720,725 6lt-l,607 51t-3,576 529,982 570,24-3 675,634-79 6 ,755 1,036,4-67 1,181,3lt-O 1,175,426 1,110,-/52 822,86lJ. 728,5 Cl 719,659 651'.."1 1')-2 ? 6:;5,654685.911 T(3.80J 885,b72. l,025~g52

1, 11+0,6~1 1,1l7,2~3

1,205.336 98() ,40O 985,000 91l.,620

83\,454912,557 917,5 69

1,093~600

1,132,OJO 1,153,1°7

Federal p~rticipetion comme~~es.

-3,444~099

100,000 622,000 2,312,000 3,218,000 3,506,000 3,599.000

3,511~,OOO

3,41J,000 3,238,000 3~C18.000

2,959,000 3,072; 000 3,l;.15~000

;,875~OOO

It-,098,OOO 3,196,000 2,83lt-,000

2,9lt-3~ooo

3,002,000 2,819,000 . 2,606,000 2,589,000 2,230,000 2,090,000 1,998,000 2,0,°3,000 2,°39,000 2,148,000

2,lt-lt-o,OOO 2,745,000 3,33J,OOO 3,758,000 3,965,000 4-,157,000 It-,(;30.000 4- 529,000 4- ~~)', 000 It-.t.:t2,OOO 4-,625,000 It-, (,12 ,000 4- ,II-57 ;000 It-,273,OJO It-,207.000 4-,011.000 3,767,GOO 3,658,,000 3,°37,000 3,J15,COO 2,455;000 2,652,000 2 , 6a.... ,..J , 000 2,827,000

187,!t68 273,008 359,878 It-29,532 It-81,519

425,272 520,254617,446 697,401 7lt-6,529 789,717 820,318 846,200 870,950

517~560

5lt-3,8~ 56lt-.l 584,9~5 607,2 1 626,87 0 640,229 652,919

908~O90

93lt-,461 952,569 970,221 992,39 0 1,009,511 1,025,5lt-o 1,022,982 1,030,508 l,04S,lt-39 1,061,057 1,072,328 1.09):118 1,112,911 1,135,172 1,151,4-22 1,169,282 1,187,383 1,202,517 1,203,018 1,218,658 1,233,607 1,24-5 843 1,265, -(86 ' 1,2>5,008 1,327,508 1,352,092 1,378,188 l,lt-oO,236 1,416 ;1~33 1,435,842 l,lt-38,309 1,4-50,117 1,46E,863 1,488,776 I, 5111- ,1~4-

1,90,787 1,562,538 1,577,3°7

~

,667~633

680,7lt-5 690,477

696~873

702,623 709,938 717,417 724-,335 731,3 69 740 ,735 753,99 1 762,43 0 77~,1~02

785,879 797,312 806,958 813,974831:532 840 ;6::10 853.717

867~860

889,89-;90(,104 923,932 ' 9~8,910

-

9 9,776 962,823 97lt-,4lt-9 987,338 1,000,'-1-76 . 1,015,635 l,O;2,S53 1 ,011.9 , ~K9 ...... 1,064-,471 1,0"14,787 .

~-

198,102 206,134 Y 215 ~ 170 224-,545 221,012 227,5 01 232,236 2~7,172

2 1,737 256,933 26lt-,016 268,872 273,950 281,581 285,582 291,832 283,1142f511-,771 295~233

300,447 3oJ-l,85 0 32C 1 531 328,732 337,422 311-5,688 351,636 358,588 362,15lt352,717 356,lt-lt-O 358,585 361,817 368,lJ.71 383·309 393,6lt-l 4-00,886 It-°9,897' 416,11-76 4-22,322 4-28,581 4-19,109 It-18,294 4-21,002 4-27,558 ~5,875

18,992 It-52,284456,277

39,702 11-1,112 42~398

Y

43,32ltIt-3,998 4lt-;656 44,717 1t4,89ltIt-lt-,258 It-3,916 It-3,575 It-3,l!-68 lJ.3,352 4-3,176 It-3,18lJ. 4-3,231 lJ.2,995 4-3,11443,268 4-3,193 4-3,14-3 It-3,218 _ 4-3,4-4-4 It-3,759 1+3,304 4-3,2lt-lt4-2,916 43,051 4-3,34-3 4-3,21t4 It-3,490 43,lJ.32 4-3,598 It-3,839 lJ.3,9tO It-lt-,102 It-4-,359 It-lt-,850 44,335 44,438' 44,751 It-5,085 ~5,385

It-5,583 45,611 lJ.5,506 It-5,783 1t-6.2lt-3

3;451;569 _ 2,938,602 2,871,591 2;833,753 2,202,675 2;980,142 4;209;133 4,575,09 0 5;159;842 5;305;296 5,229,3°5

.

5~064-;372

4, 735,781t

4~478,O98 It-,lt-llJ.~659

-.

It-,559,OB7 4,933,201 5,551,018 5,856,058 5,083,109 4,873, ()lj.2 5,010,923 5~04-0,057 4-;696~069

4;349;707 It- ,261, 115 3,822,015 3,681,039 3,64-0,571

3,773,T52 ~,9l[.8,666

,3 19,639 lJ.;772,762 5~089;708 5~629,135

5,783,381 5,896 ,519 6,095,317 5,919,159 6~4-30;503

6,5 05,697 6,910,808 7,018,180 6,987,9446,975,829 6~790~lt-89

6,828,769 6,lt-33;242 6,190,309 6,020,337 5,338~317

~~416,333

,887;013 5,289,387

0

,

'

>1

-,-';

, _:

',,,-! ,; '!"?"-

TABLE XXIII. ILLnroIs CASES RECEIVING RELIEF Year

Month

1933

July August September Octoller November December

193~

1935

January February IVlarch April May June July August September Octoeer Novem.er December January February March April May June July August September October November December

A B General Fed.Work Assistance Programs

C Total Spec. Categories

Special Categories Dependent Children Blind Old Me

Total

270,521

270,521 2lt-B ,598

2 2,917 261,851 251,267 209,469

2 2,917 306,873 379,5lt-2

2~8,598 2~8,327

206,~69 2~Oj766

295,574 29~,806

504,055 301,617 201,731

2~8,327

~5,022

128,275 23~,459

212,106 l45,338' 1,243 134 21 20

305,9~lj.

307,9 2 310,377 326,533 339,571 340,908 344,157 334,630 310,834 297,779 286,64~ 288,3~6 290,06~

201 .I , 062 290,455 258,101 195 ,1~9 190,1+31 174,357 168,205 159,591 1~6 ,·179 :..44,78:i. 148,399 137,123 139,204142,756 157,082 169,650 173,630 177,382 167,607 149,479 144-,702 149,952 154,930 156,285 155,904 160,4-78 182,706 193,606 195,503 199,631 185,599 173,777 167,169 163,1+87 164,501 164-,278 165,374 167,701 178,377 189,860 197,688 199,794 191,657 187,789 . ].86,684 179,816 :-"'74-,64-9 173,208 169,319 162 88 1t 161.930 .I

2,9~6

5,011 12,568 86,296 164,526

~3,928

It-18,575 386,104 296,817 294-,940 304-,076 301,637 301,731 305,994 307,942 510,337 326,533 339,571 340,908 344,157 331+,630 310,831+ 297,779 286,644 291,292 295,075 304,530 376,751 422,627

Per Cent of Total B A C

100.0, 100.0 100.0 100.0 85.3 14-.7 66.2 33.8 41.2 52.8 1J.9.~ 50-7 62. 37.6 99.6 0.4100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100,0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1.0 99·0 1.7 98.3 1+.1 95.9 77.1 22.9 61.1 38.9 49.5 46.8 3.7 47.4 lt9~0 3.6 3.6 ~.7 51.7 45.9 50.2 3·9 4-6.4 49.3 4.3 45.5 49.0 5.5 46.2 10.7 4-3~1 41.6. 44.9 13.5 37.1+ 1+5.5 1.1.135.7 1+1+.1 20.2 35.0 42.7 22.3 37.2 37.8 25.0 38.2 34.7 27.1 38.5 33.4 28.1 38.7 32.4 28.9 37.1 3~.1 29.8 34.7 3 .3 31.0 35.2 33.0 31.8 38.3 29·2 32.5 39.3 27.9 32.8 39.6 26.5 33.9 39.5 26.3 34-.2 39.8 26.3 33-9 1+2.9 25.3 31.8 4-2.8 27.0 30.2 4-1.2 30.0 28.8 38.4- 35.0 26.6 35.4 38.4- 26.2 33·1 4-0.5 26.431.5 4-1.9 26.6 30.2 4-3.8 26.0 29·9 lt4-.6 25.5 29.6 1+5.5 24.9 29.5 4-5.7 24-.8 29·9 lt5.l+ 24-.7 31.7 43.4- 24-.9 33.7 41.3 25.0 34.6 4-0.5 21+.9 34-.8 4-0.2 25.0 35.0 38.5 26.~ 35.2 37.4- 27. 35.0 37.3 27.7 35.9 34-.4- 29.7 36.4- 32.4- 31.2 38.2 28.6 32.2 36.5 30.8 32.7 34-.9 32.2 32·9 34-.1 33.4 32.5

18~,470 1~,387 8,:L47 af 6,240 af ~4,006 8,062 - 6,240 1,646 14,302 196,913 6,240 14,129 7,88:; 390~079 201,593 6,240 366,780 7,800 184,300 14,275 235 6,24-0 1,048 14,915 7,627 169,493 343,999 6,240 321,~49 17,819 157,451 ~,037 7,542 6,240 22,286 ~ 7,369 154,929 335,605 ~5,895 6,240 8,311-2 356,946 160,205 35,080 7,022 166,8u6 6,2~ 62,504 366~1+33 49,762 6,50 2 6,2~ 66,167 6,329 172,153 390,093 78,736 408,188 6,240 6,240 171~ ,346 91,086 78,606 6,240 422,184 105,626 6,156 159,476 93,230 44~,249 106,384 7,280 120,259 6,605 154,334 1937 January February 6,516 7,280 It-51,256 126,889 113,093 150,737 7,280 March 148,415 6,605 458,755 119,073 13 2 ,958 April 7,280 4-51,315 120,317 14-9,315 6,796 134,393 May 7,280 4-30,268 118,300 147,742 133,047 7,4-67 June 7,280 130,247 410,556 7,4-67 115,500 135,607 July 114,540 112,607 7,280 391,846 127;354 7,467 August 129,286 7,280 110,293 7,467 114,539 394,509 September 7,280 119,100 104,835 133,84-7 7,4-67 394-,967 October 7,280 394-,681 134,94-2 7,4-67 103,835 120,195 402,802 105,818 November 136,506 7,4-67 7~280 121,759 426,34-8 121,006 December 7,280 1U7,889 7,4-67 135,753 4-52,608 122,167 121,51+8 7,820 1938 January 7,467 136,835 February 11+2,698 121,4-82 7,820 7,4-67 136,769 4-71+,970 March 181,938 7,88l. 122,386 7,1+67 137,734519,303 April 201,067 122 , 20lt 524,231+ 137,568 7,4-67 7,897 May 525,l+60 212,925 138,758 7,4-67 123,3947,897 June 222,158 1l+0,528 125,164 7,4-67 529,855 7,897 July 1lto,521+ 125,160 54-0,536 236,525 7,4-67 7,897 August 11~0 ,310 245,120 124,946 7,4-67 7,897 549,931 September 138,411 554-,928 123,047 252,239 7,4-67 7,897 October 138,44-2 123,078 255,839 7,4-67 7,897 559,655 November 561,4-04 254.759 . -l38,941.17,4-67 7,897 1.23,5 80 124',388 December 244,382 562,511 7,4-67 139.752 7,897 14-0,926 564-,019 125,562 7,467 233,233 1939 January 7.897 14-2,402 February 231,588 126,84-7 8,055 7,500 57:1.,678 March 8,163 230,663 128,04-3 143,725 574-,182 7,519 April 210,930 144,879 54-7,4-66 129,582 7,508 7,7 89 May 14-6,237 7,670 199,252 131,158 7,409 533,278 June 7,808 198,914148,1347,808 132,518 533,732 172,182 July 14-8,802 7,700 500,800 7,500 133,602 August 155,64-2 lt80,2247,700 7,500 149,933 133,933 September 129,756 7,700 150,921 4-53,885 7,50 0 135,721 October 143,091 7,700 4-64,4-03 151,993 7 ~500 136,793 November 150,152 7,700 1+66,051 153,015 7,500 137,815 December ·7,700 7,500 153,976 4-73,84-5 157,939 138,776 ~ Case load estimated through January 1939 by dividing estimated expenditure by the dollars per case average of the five months February to June 1939 for which case data was reported by the State . Emergency Relief Board. July to October 1939 estimated in Social Security Bulletin. November and December 1935 similarly estimated.

1936

January February March April May June July August September October November December

I

E/ Federal participation commences.

TABLE XXIV.

INDIANA CASES RECEIVING RELIEF

Year

A B C General Fed.Work Total Spec. Assistance Programs Categories

Month

.July August September October November December 1934- January February March April :Way June JUly August September October November December 1935 .January February March April May .June .July August September October November December .January 1936 February March April May June July August September October November December 1937 January February March April May June .July August September October November December 1938 .January February March April May June .July August September October November December January 1939 February March April May June .July August September October November December 1933

Y

Estimated.

~

85,295 78,499 76,0lJ-S 83,107 89,529 61,441 62,624 68,182 80,897 100,212 99,351 95,835 95,011-5 100,011-2 106,211-0 110,689 119,005 126,316 131,810 131,709 129,075 123,711-9 118,11-51 110,7811106,612 100,116 91,211-lJ 72,162 60,751155,692 511-,288 53,695 11-7,442 11-1,496 35,978 33,067 32,653 33,11-67 36,191 35,235 35,305 37,265 11-2,725 46,ojlt42,370 35,3lt-5 28,992 27,lt-27 28,660 29,355 30,459 32,709 39,492 52,9lt-3 69,040 75,51.0 78,889 67,058 60,160 56.036 51,555 49,078 49,212 It-9,531 53 ,1~50 57,679 63,000 65:000 60,900 50.800 It-9,OOO It-5.S744-4-, ~.(j7 It-7,451 . 56,621 55,11-35 52,4-55 49,168

Special Categories Dependent Old Age Children Blind

Total 85,295

100.0 100.0

76,0 9 83,107 115,892 150,403 166,648 167,142 150,220 100,756 99,363 95,835 95,011-5 100,042 106,240 110,689 119,005 126,316 131,810 131,709 129,075 123,711-9 118,451 110,784 106,612 120,046 135,590 129,010 131,562 135,2311166,791 304 170,832 165,931 794 1,069b! 153,232 1,068141,761 1,066 133,463 1,066 131,189 133,246 1,°55 1,005 136,069 1,0411136,972 1,203 111-0,302 141,570 1,358 1,lt-64 111-5,105 1,568 151,282 1,633 151,356 145,101 1:748 1,863 136,504 1,911-2 132,131 126,749 1,955 2,008 124,892 2,0 47 12lt-,893 2,118 127,800 2,159 137,287 2~213 153,187 2,247 178,383 2,263 193,136 216,281 2,299 2,328 216,773 211,630 2,373 2,413 209,326 209,613 2~417 2,429 209.491 2,446 210,90112,4611215,916 222,645 2,471 2,11-75 219,683 2,11-79 219,803 228,221 2,lt-93 2,4911228,851 2,480 211,276 2,475 206,974 2,47!l205,002 2:)+69 20l,189 2,11-72 193,297 2~462 189,258 2,11-51 189,37112,l~7 193,906 2,449 195.123

100.0

78,4~9

26,363 88,962 104,024 98,960 69,32~

51112

19,930 411-,350 56,848 70,808 79,542 82,146 85,262 85,687 78,855 72,296 69,358 67,395 67,623 68,009 67,811-3 68,904 65,899 62,669 63,365 65,2lt-2 63,812 59,557 55,333 47,324 43,451 41,11-00 41,111 42,999 4lt-,520 53,Ob7 60,801 82,905 91,570 92,719 94 .003 98,30lt99,607 98,284 100,029 99,792 90,469 83,llt-l 36,952 89.323 80.179 76,218 76 .121 73,009 61,685 4-8,0244-8,919 56,157 60,365

30,357 31,875 32,802 32,881 33,11-87 31,038 31,111-1 32,156 31,869 33,894 36,093 38 ,11-06 39,711 41,843 43,711-4 It-5,944 47,955 lzi.9,371 50,765 52,086 53,034 53,980 54,796 55,724 56,276 56,8 25 57,11-87 58,111-5 58,751 59,287 59,754 60 ,806 63,lt-08 66,356 69,11-03 71,535 73,663 76,269 78~628

80,297 81,756 82,907 83,773 84.161 84-,613 84-,970 85:29485J590

Federal participation commences.

29,414 911-3~ 30 ,628 911-3!J 31,065 943y 30,869 bl 911-3y 31,11-76 911-3y 29,029 911-3a! 29,132 911-3!/ 30,158 911-3~ 30,589 275P.! 623 32 ,227 1,293 33,597 2,078 3lt-,970 2,830 35,lt-17 3,898 36,377 5.011-2 37,069 6:311-1 37,855 7,420 38,672 8.211 39,218 8~981 39,829 40 ,372 9,706 40,816 10,171 10,623 It-l,239 11,062 It-1,575 11,624 It-1,887 12,088 41,911-1 42,0lt-2 12,520 42,250 12 r 938 13,286 It-2,531 13,605 42~773 13,904 42,970 111-,136 43,201 43,978 14,399 14,625 46,337 1lt-,753 11-9,139 14,972 51,960 15,218 53,811-2 15,469 55,715 15,691 58.085 60,118 16,016 61.564 16,253 16,528 62,753 16,721 63~712 16,872 64-.432 611-,768 16,921 65,19416,957 65,502 17.017 65,83417,013 66,058 17,083

Percent of Total A

100.0 77·3 ll-o.9 ~.6 .8 53.9 99.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 83.4 67.3 55.9 46.2 41.2 32.5 31.1128.6 27.1 25.4 24.8 21\..9 25.1 26.6 25.7 25.2 26.3 29.4 30.5 28.0 24.4 21.2 20.8 22.6 23.5 211-.lt25.6 28.8 34.6 38.7 39.1 36.5 30.9 28 .4 26.8 24.6 23.4 23.3 22.9 24.0 26.3 28.7 28.5 26.6 ,2lt-.0 23.7 22.422.1 24.5 29.9 29.3 27.1 25.2

B

C

-22·7 59.1 62.4 59.2 46.1 '0.5

16.6 32.7 '44.1 53.8 58.8 18.2 11-9.3 18.7 49.9 51.6 19.8 21.1151.5 51.0 23.6 52.0 . 23.2 51.1\. 23.7 21\..1 50.8 50.0 . 23.'t 211-.8 49.5 11-9.1 25.7 46.5 27.2 43.2 27 ..lt41.9 21 .6 43.1 28.9 411-.0 31.6 11-3.6 35.2 41.9 37.3 40.1 37.3 3lt-.8 11-1. 7 42.5 33.1 32.2 42.3 31.3 39.9 29.1 36.3 31.6 29·7 31.5 29. 4 25.2 ~8.3 2.2 26.9 27.8 ~.8 28.3 .9 28 .5 46.9 29.1 47 .. 5 46.6 30.1 30.8 >+6.3 44.8 31.2 11-1. 2 32.5 37.8 33.5 38.1 33.1134.1139.0 38.0 38.0 36.8 39.5 11-0.5 37.1 36.4 It-1.5 11-3.6 31.9 25.1111-11-.7 25.8 411-.9 28.9 11-4.0 43.8 31.0

,

r TABlJ!: XXV. i

MARYIAND

CASES RECEIVING .A B C General Fed/,'Work Total Spec. .Asa1frtance Programs Oategories

Year

Month

1933

July August September October No:vember December

30,978 30,079 29,169 31,304 36,688 35,229

January Ft::hruary March April May June July' August September October November December

4-2,825 51,068 62,272 64,960 55,804 50,080 44,612 42.577 41,387 41,884 42,551 44,718

1934

19355 January

1937

1938

Total

Percent of Total B. C

A.

30,978 30,079 29,169

~1,304

9,511 23.695

6,199 58,924

42,631 45,334 27,948 3.489 74

85,456 96,4-02 90,220

68 449 55,878 50,080 44,612 42,577 41,387 41,88442,551 44,718 1

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 79.4 59.8 50.1 .53.0 69.0 94.9 99.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

20.6 4-0.2 49.9 47.0 31.0 5.1 .1

49,029 52,246 51,448 47,787 44,215 37,509 35,080 34,525 34,044 36,302 41,978 45,541

100.0 100.0 100.0 .u>q.O 100.0 100.0 100.0" 99.9 93.0 78.3 61.3

.1 7.0 21.7 38.7

45,286 44,800 42,794 38,444 37,448

45.. 7

35, .8 35,493 35,376 35,965 36,750 38,001

42.9 29.2 26.8 22.7 20.1 14.2 13.9 14-.3 15.1 16.7 16.5 18.7

579 590 602 600 581 587 588 593 595 599 586 578

39,159 40,740 40,908 . 40,149 38,673 35,913 35,432 35,734 35,873 36,568 37,250 39,789

20.0 21.5 22.6 21.7 18.0 13.2 14.1 14.5 15.5 15.5 15.7 17.6

2 .1 .2 3 . 22~..2

March April May June July August September OctJber November December

21 2,557 9,109 17,635

January February March April May June July August September October November December

19 442 13,078 11,480 8,717 7,538 5,074 4,94-2 5,089 5.338 6,012 6,061 7,095

20,716 20,942 19,336 16,795 15,439 14,911 14-,402 14,428 13,689 13,203 13,514 12,868

5,128 10,780 11,978 12,932 14,471 15,853 16,104 15,976 16,349 16,750 17,175 18,038

5,128 5,868 a/ 6,707 7,517 8,369 9,811 10,137 10,543 10,905 11,224 11,668 12,482

4,912 ~/ 5,271 5,415 5,548 5,4945,422 4-,880 4,877 4,955 4,933 4,982

554 a/ 548 545 553 567 571 574 574

12,766 13,370 13,038 12,330 11,960 10,977 9,614 9,247 8,649 8,742 8,713 9,625

18,542 18,594 18,629 19,110 20,195 20,817 21,292 21,676 22,160 22,706 23,175

12,826 12,"860 12,898 12,988 13,595 13,908 14,386 14,772 15,050 15,474 15,955 16,250

5,137 5,144 5,129 5,522 5,578 5,7 00 5,843 5,927 6,031 6,087 6,165 6,34-7 .

35,~8

100.0

46~7

45.2 43.7 41.2 41.6

40.6

40.7 38.7 36.7 36.8 33.9 32.6 32.8 31.9 30.7 30.9 30.6 27.1

-U.424.1 "'- . 28.0 33.6 38.7 ' 44.2

45.5 45.0 It-6.2 It-6.6 46.7 47.4 47.4 45.7 45.5 47.6 51...1 56.2 58.8 59.6 60.4 60.6 60.9 58.2

January February March April May June July August september October November December

7,851 8,776 9,241 8,7 09 6,959 4,741 5,001 5,195· 5,548 5,666 5,831 6,989

January February March April May June July August September October

8,213 9,264 9,340 8,869 7,765 7,901 8,237 8,524 9,041 8,843 9,187 10,374

10,827 11,225 11,852 12,136 12,441 12,94} 14-,715 14-,940 15,912 16,79416,216 15,676'

23,548 23,937 24-,32424,554 -24,706 24,752 24,937 25,021 25,088 25,246 25,369 25,654-

16,41416,515 16,626 16,722 16,829 16,95417,076 17,115 17,106 17,205 17,24-8 17,337

6,579 6,853 7,123 7,2 45 7,284 7,201 7,256 7,290 7,367 7,419 7,4-99 7,69 2

555 569 575 587 593 597 605 616 615 622 622 625

42,588 44,4-26 45,516 45,559 44,912 45,596 4-7,889 48,485 50,041 50,883 50,772 51,704

19.3 20.9 20.5 19.5 17.3 17.3 17.2 17.6 18.1 17.418.1 20.1

25.425.3 26.0 26.6 27.7 28.4 30.7 30.8 31.8 33.0 31.9 30.3

55.3 53. 8 53.5 53.9 55·0 54.3 52.1 51.6 50 . 1 4-9.6

11,405 11,958 12,016 10,863 9.621 7,559 7,522 8,114 8,4-59

15,115 14,996 15,151 13,871 13,378 13,290 12,341 11,4-22 9,990 11,204 11,431 12,652

25,8 03 25,994 26,104 26,269 26,200 25,976 25,747 25,678 25,626 25.627 25,68425,894-

17.365 17,422 17,470 17,702 17,719 17,668 17.64-6 17,618 17,634 17,721 17,786 17,956

7,806 7.937 7,999 7,922 7,835 7,652 7,4447,4-Cl 7."£6 7,24-9 7,230 7,263

632 635 635 645 646 656 657 659 656 657

52,323 52,91t8 53,271 51,003 4-9,199 46,825 4-5,610 45,21444,075 45,299 1t5,794 1t7,692

21.8 22.6 22.6 21.3 19.6 16.1 16.5 18.0 19.2 18.6 19·0 19.2

28.9

49.3 49.1 49.0 51.5 53.2 55.5 56.5 56.8 58.2 56.6 56.0

.Nov~.;;mber

December 1939

Special Categories Dependent Children Old Age Blind

49,029 52,246 51 r 448 47,787 44,215 37,509 35,080 34,525 34,023 33,745 32,869 27,906

Feb~'uary

1936

RELIEF

January FE:bruary March April May

June J"uly August September October November December

8,%8

8,679 9,1lt-6

~ Federal participation connnencea.

19~754

668

675

2~.9

'4

28.~

28. 27.2 27.2 28.427.0 25.2 22.6 2lt-.B 25.0 26.5

~o.o

9. 6

54-.3

-.

TABLE XXVII. MICHIGA..~

CASES

Year 1933

1931f

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

~

Month .July August September October November December January February March April May .June .July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February lYf.arch April May June .July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October N'ovember December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May J-nce Jaly August Sertember October November December

A B C General Fed.Work Total Spec. Assistance Programs Categories

~EIVING

RELIEF

Spec ial Categories Dependent Old Age Children Blind

Total

.'

158,55~ 162,~82

159,45)1 171,':;72 202,130 198,855 149,132 126,811 136,059 160 ,955 153,138 llf4,638 149,838 163,485 176,514 196,lf92 222,589 222,185 215,813 19S,541 190,563 179,826 167,829 162,230 164,266 162,430 159,912 153,~55

135,555 104,203 7g ,130 84 , 826 ' alL 7eo ' . -1;1 77,365 67,645 60,890 58,376 59,335 56,300 53,608 54 ,330 57,817 66,997 76,525 75,595 6~,457

50,781 11-3,771 40 ,116 38,16~

37.,530 37,940 43,440 65,887 117,799 148,006 l61,213 139,207 123,561 113,640 109,562 100,069 67,656 58,896 58.107 66,104 77,405 8lJ.,553 86,30lf 79,291 70,696 61,874 53,869 56,944 6~,546

67,653 67,293 68,600

Federal participation

158,55~

162,482 159,454 171,972 23 6 ,1 23 320,380 325,755 269,90lf

33,993 121,525 176,623 1lf3,09j

252,O~9

115,9~0

1,670 114 25

162,625 1.53,252 ~lf~,663

;i;49,838

163,~85 ~76,51~

196,492 222,589 222,185 215,813 199,541 190,563 179,826 167,829 162,290 164,266 165,573 168,760 173,914 190,171 192,975 190,817 208,229 211,357

3,093 8,8~8

20,459 60;616 88,77 2 94,89 2 <;;7,304 97,979 92,063 82,888

76,~18

74,549 75,03477,004 7lf,670 73,203 67;955 65,51lf 65,997 63,311 59,102 55,720 52,130 ~6,550

44,097 42,918 ~2,318

42,702 45,608 57,708 76,132 113,120 136,lfll 165,626 182,411 191,877 199,506 192,828 170,7~2

156,650 146,712 139,O3~

138,861 139, 82 3 129,390 121,528 122,464 117,401 97,046 78,266 80,444 86,386 87.120

co~~ences.

16,795 26,099 ' 28,579 30,995 32,439 34,7~3

36,241 30,005 36,~10

38,850 40 ,209 41,229 43,31lt 44,75lf lt5,796 ~6,113

9,749 19,053 21,533 23,9~9

25,393 27,697 29,015 29,822 30,588 31,555 32 ,007 32,705 33,~95

34,043 34,435

3~,lf63

lf6,768 lf7,4lf3 53,504 60 ,lf11 64,562 68,011 71,847 75,416

35,,027 35,883 42,029 48,77 4 52,835 56,219 60,077 63,318

79,403 83,544 84,208 82,960 82,922 82,872 82,641 81,972 81,225 81,592 83,556 83,809 84,199 84,913 87,550 91,3 41 96,313 98 ,361 97,783 96 ,509

66,759 70,487 71,310 70,319 70 ,383 70,268 69,890 65,993

95,22~

93,926 92,620 91,482

68,3~2

68,889 70,786 70,872 70,911 70,953 73,277 16 ,999 81,875 83,275 82,516 81,31+1 80,138 79,114 78,256 77,476

~

7,o~6

7,046 7,046 7,0~6

7,046 7,046 -7,046

5,631y 7,037 7,862 8,139 9,387 10,245 10,869 11,112 11,179 10,973 10,888 11,066 11,147 11,227 11,214 11,547 12,104 12,512 12,354 12,083 11,969 12,022 12,15lf 12,364 12,255 12,062 12 t-111 12,262 12,592 13,258 13,549 13,602 13,690 14,329 llf,512 14,408 1~,332

14,054 13,619 13,267

200,~23

180 183 191 258 34<> 385 432 466 49 2 538 563 587 587 571 580 565 556 551 540 545 5lf4 558 570 582 597 615 628 6lfl 659 675 696 702 724 740 748 757 755 760 754 758 745 739

Percent of Total B C

A

rH

182,972 172,051 169,160 164,37lJ. 169,71lt 167,128 16T,7lt-2 167,001 175,825 187,276 184,702 169,672 153,269 1lJ.3,3lt4 140,170 142,672 1~5,O10

148,269 157,9 89 186,911 254,910 307,682 358 ,541 3~8, 578 372,109 378,923 384,080 381,5lf7 341,709 311,230 29 8 ,313 296,626 300,638 308,327 313,677 300,022 288,537 282,699 269,053 250,1+99 238,036 2~2,023

246,299 2lJ.7,202

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 85.6 62.1 lf5.8 ~7 ..0 5)1-.0 99.0 99.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.1 9~.8

88.2 69.1 54.0 41.5

llf.~

37·9 5lf.2 53.0 46.0 1.0 .1

1.9 5.2 11.• 8 30.9 ~6.0

~9.7

~0.7 ~O.l

46.8 4-6.4

38.6 37.0

45.3

35.~

34 .5 36.1 33.2 32.1 32.lt 34.6 38.1 40.9 40.9 38.0 33.1 30.5 28.6 26.7 25.9 25.6 27.5 35.3 46.2 48.1 45.0 -38.8 33.2 30.0 28.F5 26.2 19. 8 18.9 19.5 22.3 25.7 27.lf 27.5 26.~

24.5 21.9 20.0 22.7 27 ...1 27.9 27.4 27.7

~5.9

~.~ 1t4.l-'

It-5.6

45.~ lf~.7

lt3.6 ijo.7 37.3 35.2 34.3 3lf.8 36.4 36.4 33.2 30.9 29.6 28.5 27.0 24.4 22.6

2~. 7

31.6 38.1

4~.5 ~8.1

50.0 52.3 56.lf 54.9 52.5

~9.4

46.3 lf5.1 4~.6

43.2 lf2.1 43.3 43.6 38.8 32·9 33.3 35.0 35,3

8.8 12.5 13·5 15.5 17.7 20.2

2l.~

18.3 21.lJ. 23.2 2lf.0 2~.7

24.6 2~.9

2 .8 27.2 30.5 33.1 38.2 ~2.4

44.5 45.9 45.5 40.3 31.2 27.2 23.4 23.1 22.3 21.9 21.5 21.5 23.8 26.2 28.0 28.3 28.0 27.5 27.9

30.~

33.4 34.8 36.lf 38.5 ~O.O

38 .8 37.6 37.0

,

TABLE XXVIII.

NEW JERSEY CASES RECEIVL\IG-RELIEF Year

1933

1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

~

Month July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February :March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September Oct'Ober November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May JWle july August September October November December ~anuary

February March April May JWle July August September October November December

A B General Fed.Work A3sistance Programs

102,488 95,599 88,997 89,226 98,513 94,907 89~422

101,808 11O,840 179,408 142,420 136,801 134,845

C Total Spec. Categories

Special Categories Dependent Old Age Children Blind

Total

102 t 488 95,599 88,997 89,226 108,870 149,912 204,814 227,531 192,762 185,657 144,083 136,802 134,845

ID,357 55,005 115,392 125,723 81,922 6,249 1,663 1

135,~60

135~~60

137,93 156,886 167,656 175, 62 9 175,167 1-(6,734 176,418 1?0, 845 162,190 155,121 153,501

149,021 145,341 139,074 132,393 110,822 84,759 85,455 83,851 78,000 59,500 53,400 4°,094 9,557 48,570 49,734 51,379 56,431 62,900 64,800 64,400 58,552 51,295 46,313 45,416 46,408 47,830 50,363 55,906 66,952 81,483 85,353 87,991 84,700 76,800 75,300 76,600 75,300 72,800 71,100 7°,500 74,9 00

. 74,767 74,511 69,617 63,653 58 ,532 56,290 57,834 58,300 57,606 64,099 71,765 . 77 ,371 91,095 90,686 91,140 95,765 101,222 104,969 107,33a 108,38 101,916

78,600 81,600 76,600 71,100 66,600 61,900 60,100 59,000 64,600 60,600 56,600 56,000

97,401 92 ,677 90 ,314 82,647 78,9 83 78,288 75,776 64,875 54,263 61,943 61,764 68,157

470 6,315 16,234 59,533 89,696 94,939 97,245 94,612 88,877 85,977 81,520 77,8C2 77,9 89 78,674 80,750 81,~44

76, 2~ 74,202

7~,896

7 ,332

Federal participation commences.

24,641 24,775 25,118 25,642 26,C79 26,4~6

28,0 1 29,377 3('),590 31,399 32,013 32,758 33,297 33,757 34,200 34,692 35,030 35,175 35,342 35,579 35,791 36,032 36,432 36,795 37,167 37,467 37,740 38,052 38 ,839 38,492 37,7 82 37,888 38 ,064 38 ,382 38,704 39, 122 ~9,647

0,312 40.701 40,9 09 4c,881 40,852 40,953 41.188 41,550 41,741 41,994 42,071

14,671 14,820 15,143 15,3 0 7!V

15,592 15,904 17,216 18,504 19,634 20,432 21,040 21,681 22,212 ~2,616

23,060 23,507 23,833 23,960 24,087 24,312 24,559 24, 807 25,121 25,372 25,6)2 25,778 25,956 26,161 26,277 26,442 26,554 26,680 26.807 26,971 27,100 27,332 27,794 28,321 28,656 29,010 29,225 29,417 29,591 29,865 30,130 30,335 30,543 30,661

9,533 9,533 9,533 9,895Y

10,038 10,094 10,~67

10, 13 10,500 10,502 1",513 10,602 10,618 10,658 10,657 10,699 10,715 10,722 10,753 10,75~

10,71 10,709 10,778 10,876 10,996 11,135 11,222 11,322 11.~82

11, t66 10,649 10,626 10,671 10,813 11,008 11,191 11,245 11,~77

11, 34 11,286 11~037

10,808 10,725 10,686 10,781 10,760 10,798 10.761

437

ta~

440 449 458 45 8y 460 456 465 460 475 467 483 483 486 482 493 5°2 508 518 516 533 547 539 554 562 569 580 584 579 582 586 598 596 599 608 614 611 613 619 627 637 637 639 646

~~~

137,493 156,886 167,656 175,629 175,167 176,734 176,418 170,845 162,190 155,121 153,501 149,491 151,656 155,308 191,926 200,518 204,339 207,475 203,581 192,519 171~556

161,376 155,937 156,92~

157,83 161,883 164,936 "165,611 170,399 172,453 172,932 168,011 160,836 151,105 144,411 140,519 1~,911

1 ,229 15 0 ,638 161,353 182,749 194,585 203,102 213,847 206,325 204,932 210,147 214,410 215,833 216,817 217,5 88 215,938 21a,648 21 ,589 207,615 194,656 186,464 181,040 176, 829 165,063 160,413 164,284 160,358 166,228

Percent of Total A B ..... ".

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 90.5 63.3

~.7

9.5 36.7 56.3

.7 57.5 96.6 3~ 98.8 1.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 .3 99.7 4.2 95.8 89.5 10.5 69.0 31.9 55.3 44.7 41.5 46.5 41.2 46~9 41.2 46.5 40.5 46.2 34.7 50.1 33.1 ~0.5 32.1 9.9 31.6 49.7 30.8 49.8 30.7 49.9 31.2 : 49.4 34.1 46.1 36.9 . 43.6 37. 6 42.8 37~2

34.9 31.9 30.6 31.4 3~.0

3 .2 34.9 37.1 41.5 44.6 43.9 43.3 39.6 37.2 36.7 36.5 35.1 - 33.7 32.8 32.4 34.7 36.4 38.0 36.9 36.5 3~.7

3 .2 34.0 35.8 40.2 37.0 35.3 33.7

~:~

4~.0

4 .5 46.3 46.1 44.1 41.7 40.2 40.1 38.7 35.7 35.1 36.9 38:1 42.6 44.0 44~5

45.5 47.2 48.7 49.5 49.8 47.2 45.2 43.2 43.5

42~5

42.4 43.2 42;8 39.2 33. 8

12.0 11.9 12.3 13.3 15.2 16.4 [email protected] 18.7 19:4 19.4 19.4 19.8 19.5· 19.6 19.8 20~6

21.8 23.3 24.5 25.3 25.6 25.0 24.2 22.8 20.3 19~2

18.6 17.8 18~8

18;8 18.0 17.7 17.6 17.7 17~8

' 18.1 18.4 18.8 19.6 21.0 21.9 22~6

23.2 25;0 26.0

37~5

25~5

1.0

25.3

~8~4

26~3

TABLE XXIX. NEW YORK

CASES RECEIVING RELIEF

ABC Special Categories =--General Fed. Work Total Spec. Dependent Year Month _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _"_As_s_i_s_ta_"n_ce ProSr~s_~Ca~egories _ _f>ld Age Children _~~ind

1933

1934

1935

July August Sept.ember OctolJer November December January February March April May June J1l1y August September October NovEillJ.bel' December January February March April Mly

1936

June July August September October November December January F~bruary

1937

1938

1939

March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March Ap!'il May June July August September October Nove."D.ber December January February March April May

J-;.lne July August September October Noyember December ~

370,992 363,876 335,929 332,841 382,657 251,750 248,520 279,117 305,725 536.384

-513~484

496,872 497,766 506,554 508,251j.

91,892 189,747 321,848 334,961 290,353 5,176 132

5l7~866

532,926 559,233 584,9 46 594,731 593)900 582,467 566;543 551.522 549~868

536,289 453;082 411,427 367,593 361,631 339,033 346,525 354,208 347,716 331,831 -316,661 295,706 286,.271 282, Lt09 276 / 347

271,T88 278)L.38 290,123 294,139 292,789 265,249 21'-4,593 224)957 223,822 238)304 240,698 241,186 253,157 283.179 309,652 322,648 319,297 305,084 289,821 278,~05

273,11-67 275,646 274,570 266,582 27 4,701 287,824 299,227 310,692 313,850 298,817 292,272 275,181 265,936 263,751 268,076 273,649 264,365 266,028

112,020 157,062 215,460 296,200 378,098 374,760 375,594 368,871 345,970 322,014 309,248 302,992 297,861 299 , 548 303,965 305,162 287,646 265,097 260,727 262,264 257,784 252,480 246,114 21~-,680 19~,o42

193,028 192,848 189,1.14 189,397 189,&)3 194,950 20J.,668 211,994 218,4.57 226,337 233,5'25 237,360 244,138 249,232 250,867 - 246,041 240,064 236,6i5

239,974 221,402 207,638 201,922 183,326 149,517 128,406 ' 140,571 148,758 150,881

Federal participation commences.

87,058 87,235 87,181 87,69lj. 84,672 85,230 85,488 86,830 87,474 91,746 95,998 99,606 103,594 109,636 114,607 118,961 121,965 124,412 125,997 127,125 128,004 129,259 130,328 131,664 132,916 133)753 134,215 134,857 136;065 136,990 137,828 143,035 144,389 145,216 146;.116 1~-7, 729 148,801 148~.165

149,737 149,286 148,937 149,317 150 ,320 151,223 151,843 152,533 154,143 153,702

60,772 _60,832 60,729 61}135 58,213 58,662 59,005 60,289 60,822 65,176 68,920 72,320 76,352 82,392 87:233 91,656 94,397 96,624 98,377 99,488 100,272 101~152

101,972 102,924 103,801 104,292 104,479 104,807 105,770 106,523 107,132 108,111 108,356 108,644 108,945 110,445 110,976 110,032 111,273 110,505 110,014 110,239 110,994 112,010 112,547 113,232 114,942 114,595

'1'ota1 -

Percent of Total . ABC

370,992 100.0 363,876 100.0 335,929 100.0 332,841 100.0 8o~7 474,549 57.0 441,497 43.5 570,368 614,078 45.4 51.2 596,078 541,560 99.9 513,616 99.8 496,872 100.0 497,766 100.0 506,554 100.0 508,254 100.0 517,866 100.0 532,926 100.0 .559,233 100.0 584,946 100.0 594,731 100.0 593,900 100.0 582,467 100.0 566,5 43 100.0 551,522 100.0 549,868 100.0 82.7 648.309 74.3 610:144 65.5 626,887 55.4 663,793 739,729 - 49.0 42.5 800,851 24,332 1,954 42.8 809,354 24,449 1,954 43.6 810,260 24,502 1,950 44.5 781,380 24,541 1,968 45.0 738,517 ~ 24,476 1,983 44.6 711,139 24,594 1,974 684,186 43.2 24,479 2,004 42.6 670,962 24~539 2,002 42.2 669,!j.31 24,639 2,013 4)..1 672,058 24,543 2,027 40.4 672,9 48 25,021 2,057 41.9 665,690 25,232 2,054 44.1 658,814 25,182 2,060 44.2 664,502 25.172 2,072 43.6 669,660 25:307 2,067 41.2 641,994 25,242 .2,063 39.5 25,215 ~ 2,353 ~ 619,038 37.8 595,483 25,469 2,319 40.1 569,499 25,570 2,050 42.6 558,471 25,667 1,970 42.8 561,730 25,693 2,039 42.8 562,293 25,989 2,118 44.1 572,599 26,157 2,199 46.8 604,240 26,462 2,278 49.0 632,371 26,775 2,340 49.5 651,351 27,079 2,382 48.8 655,180 27,317 2,419 46.8 651,935 27,603 2,447 45.0 644,3 43 27,820 2,475 641,832 43.3 27,971 2,496 42.4 644,820 -28,185 2,511 41.8 654,041 -32,374 2,550 41.4 663,097 33,454 2,579 40.3 661,030 33,984 2,588 40.9 671,684 2,631 34,540 42.2 681,594 34,646 2,638 688,092 43.5 35,188 2,637 44.7 695,472 2,64C 35,493 44.6 703,561 35,820 2,644 44.6 669,505 36,138 2,643 45.0 648,847 36,267 2,656 44.0 626,420 36,420 2,658 44.4 36,642 2,684 599,582 46.7 564,491 36,524 2,689 49.0 548,325 36,590 2,706 48.2 36,587 2,714 566,753 46.5 567,266 36,486 2,715 46.6 570,611 36,375 2,732

19.3 43.0 56.5 54.5 48.8 .9 .2

17.3 25.7 34.5 44.6 . 51.0 46.7 46.4 45.5 44.3 43.6

10.8 10.8 10.9 11.2 11.4-

43.5

11,.9 1.2.5

44.4 44.8 45.2 45.4 43.2 40.2 39.2 39.3 40.2 40.8 41.3 37.8 34.6 34.4 34.1 33.1 31.4 30.0 30.0 30.7 32.5 33.9 35.3 36.2 36.3 36.8 37.7 37.3 36.1 34.9 34.0 34.1 33.1 32.0 32.2 30.5 26.5 23.4 24.8 26.3 26.4

13.0

1+4.'

13.0

13.7 14.2 14.9 15.7 16.6 17.1 18.6 19.7 20.9 22.1 22.8 22.8 23.1 22.8 21.8 21.0 20.5

20.5

20·7 21.1 21.4 21.4 21.9

21.8 22.0 21.8 21.7 21.6 21.3 21.3 22.3 23.0 23.8 25.1 26.8 27.6 27.0 27.2 27.0

(

TABLE

xxx.

OHIO

CASES RECEIVING RELIEF

Year

Month

A General Assistance

July August September October November December

24-5,758 233,856. 220,881 213:924255,836 191,713

January February March' April May June July August September October November December

170 ,885 195,4-51 223,407 274-,657 261,131 256 , 163 260,039 275,289 289,611 304 ,602 312 ,057 327,325

January February March April May June July August September October November tJecember

34-1,053 333,24-2 331,497 325,123 320,402 315,009 311,701 301,249 280,409 254-,985 244-,688 171,771

January February March April May June July August September October November December

14-1,743 138,346 133,809 128,561 116,897 . 108,535 103,907

1937

1938

1933

1934-

1935

1936

1939

al

B

Fed.Work Programs

C Total Spec. Categories

Special Categories Dcpenq.ent Old Age Children Blind

60,696 200,696 254,'-1-65 206,556 164,578 1,792 60 36 2

20,74-1 27,972 4-2,931 123,906 174,252

Total

Per~ent

A

of Total C

B

24-5,758 233,856 220,881 213,924316,532 392,4-09

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 80.8 4-8.9

4-25,350 4-04,007 387:985 . 276,449 261,191 256,199 260,04-1 275,289 289,611 304,602 312,057 327,325

4-0.2 4-8.457.6 99.4100.0 100.0 100.0 100.. 0 100.. 0 100 0 100.0 100.0

34-1,053 338,24-2 331,4-97 325,123 320,4-02 315,009 311,701 321,990 308,381 297,916 368,594:;1+-6,023

100.0 100.0 100,0 100.0 100 0 100.0 100.0 93.6 90.9 85.6 66.44-9.6

6.49.1 14-.433.6 50.4-

4-18,4-76 4-16,74-1 4-17,299 394-,04-3 372,308 360,4-14 351,299 352,657 35 0 ,930 354-,4-90 355,236 351,926

33.9 33.2 32.1 32.6 31.4 30.1 29.6 28.6 28.1 27.1 27.2 29.3

4-2.9 4-3.6 44-.7 42.5 42.2 42.7 41.9 42.1 4-2.44-2.0 4-1.3 38.6

19.2 51.1 59.8 51.6 42.4.6

0

0

96,4-79 95,940 96,708 103,209

179,501 181,535 186,831 167,572 157,010 153,891 1~-7, 136 11~8 ,541 148,84-3 14-8,94-3 146,783 135,939

97,232 96,860 96;659 97.910 98,4-01 97,988 100,256 10 3,311 103,608 109,607 111,745 112,778

8,000 85,500 3,732 85,128 a/ 8,000 3,732 8,000 84-,937 3,732 8,221 85,957 3,732 86,448 8,221 3,732 8,221 86,035 3,732 Y 8,693 a/ .':l:/ ' 67j6 87,927 . 8,918 3,409 90,98490,868 9,225 3,515 3,506 9,563 96,538 3,482 98,504 9,759 3,54499,465 9,769

January February March April May J'une July August September October November December

115,105 117,199 109,94498,200 78,100 58,200 60,900 61,90 0 58,100 61,200 72,000 96,900

130,940 129.911 125,132 120,24-7 117,550 104-,046 90,506 85,051 83,259 84-,859 86,921 91,307

112,917 114-,401 115,818 117,293 116,647 116,4-26 116,831 116,962 117,4-11 117,539 117,406 118,820

99,705 101,233 102,509 103,969 103,301 103,125 103,4-80 103,4341°3,773 103,74-7 103,437 104-,614-

9.631 9,558 9,668 9,656 9,670 9,612 9,6549,809 9,900 10,032 10,200 10,4-4-7

3,581 3,610 3,64-1 3,668 3,676 3,689 3,697 3,719 3,738 3,760 3,74-9 3,759

358,962 361,511 350 ,894335,74-0 312,297 278,672 268,237 263,913 258,770 263,598 276.327 307,027

32.1 32.431.3 29.2 25.0 20.9 22·7 23·5 22.5 23.2 26.0 31.6

36.5 35.9 35.7 35.8 37.6 37.3 33.7 32.2 32.1 32.2 31.5 29·7

31.4 31. 7 33.0 35.0 37.44-1.8 4-3.6 44.3 ~.4.6 42.5 38.7

January February March April May June July August September October November December

120,971 137,134141+,777 122,981 108,638 104,431 102,851 98,012 92,156 84-,278 82,658 86,760

108,367 133,236 185,104223,234235,473 24-5,775 263,529 268,465 281,909 286,333 278,3 67 265,017

118,963 119,969 121,706 12;,34-3 124,398 125,295 125,9J_6 126,732 127,216 126,90 6 126,7(,1 126, 5!-/-9

104,619 105,533 107,129 108,718 10 9.700

10,588 10,686 10,7 89 10,235 10,B76 10,900 10,900 10,865 E.I 10, 82410,796 a/ 10,762 - .10,878

3,756 3,750 3,788 3,790 3,822 3,853 3,871 3,899 3,9 26 3,920 3,9243,935

34-8,301 390,339 1.~51, 587 4-69,558 468,509 l.t75,501 4-92,296 4-93,209 501,281 4-97,517 4-87,776 478,326

34-.7 35.2 32 .0 26.2 23·2 22.0 20.9 19.9 18.4 16.9 16.9 18.1

31.1 34-.1 4-1.0 4-7.5 50.2 51.6 53.5 54-.456.2 57.6 57.1 55.4

34-.2 30·7

J'anuary February March April May J'llne July .August September October November December

95,200 106,087 101,57489,957 89,033 89,958 95,53 2 110,968 119,761 111,638 100,271 94,161

25 0 ,32 2 247,9 25 246,730 227,867 211,94-3 202,707 186,163 145,276 122,657 129,963 134-,163 138,828

126,029 126,184126,804127,318 129,975 130,779 132.°96 133,315 135,141 137,826 139,537 139,688

111,133 111,337 111,985 112,616 115,317 116,275 117,739 119,013 . 120,925 12 3,703 125,525 125,699

3,9443,935 3,941 3,933 3,929 3,928 3,954- . 3,951 3,937 3',931 3,901 3,916

4-71,551 4-80,196 475,108 4-45,14-2 4-30,951 4-23,4-4-4413,791 389,559

20.2 22.1 21.420.2 20·7 21.2 23.0 28.5 31. 7 29.426.8 25.3

53·1 51.6 51.9 '51.2 49.2 4-7.9 4-5.1 37.3 32·5 34-.3 35·9 37.3

100~8()5

Federal participation commences.

bl

110, 5L~2 111, l45

Ill, :;48 112,466

112,190 112,065 111,736

10,902 10,912 10,878 10,769 10,729 10,576 10;4°3 10,351 10,279 10,187 . 10,111 10;073

Federal participation ends.

377,~59

379, 27 373,971 371,677

27.0

26.3 26.6 26.425.6 25.7 25.425.5 26.0 26.5 26.7 26.3 26.7 28.6 30.1 30.9 31.9 34.2 35.8 . 36.3 37.~

37.

-,~. ;i

I

-,

I

TABLE XXXI.

PENNSYLVANIA CASES RECEIVING RELIEF Year

Month

July August September October November December 1934 January February March April May, June July August September October November December 1935 January February March April May June July August September October November December 1936 January February March April May June July August September October November December 1937 January February March April May June July August September October November December 1938 January February March April May June July August September October November December 1939 January February March April May June July August September October November December 1933

~

B A C General Fed.Work Total Spec. Assistance PrOgrams Categories

41t9,103 It-12,477 386,920 369,410 367,802 363,971 359,058 359,915 370,375 387,680 It-20 ,0.51t39lt-,221 381,646 399,lt-92 38L656 389,057 1t-03,958 1t-41,757 461+,31+5 483,792 491+,377 1+90,580 492,271+ 467,737 463,577 1+71+,160 458,599 44-0,693 1+11 ,002 291+,919 261,670 231,415 220,513 211,019 203,689 195,67lt190,718 183,187 166,373 158,448 149,691 156,759 165,660 175,257 181,190 176,240 163,1+5lt155,lt-25 160,003 164,762 165,1+18 165,006 160,838 189,0lt-2 231,685 238,487 218,767 217,238 218,11-67 228,011-5 231,243 232,'991 243,867 211-1,681 231,525 236,937 260,672 272,728 281,708 273,989 272,322 264,153 279.548 3UO,355 319,065 287,872 244,731 2211-,626

Special Categories Dependent Blind Old Age

Total 1149,103 'It-12,lt-77 386,~20

369, 10 ~73 ,ij.o1 45,086 676,010 587,320 563,381 390,763 It-20,271 39lt-,232 381,650 399,lt-92 387,656 389,057 403,958 It-41,757 It-61t-,31t-5

5,599 81,115 316,952 227,405 193,006 3,083 217 11 It-

It-8~,792

177 9,208 78 ,961 171,019 218,11+6 251,lt-95 271,936 2811-,618 262,081 238,199 23l+,Ollt 238,033 2lt-8,084 2lt9,060 21+9,ltn 2lt8,333 229,375 225,211 221,112 215,933 204,582 197,275 183,513 162,lOlt

52,210 5lt-,784 55,457 55,683 56,536 56,651t61,39 4 65,589 65,823 70,433 75,519 81,19lt 87,505 91,1+56 96,576 104,077 112,075 115,861+ 117,62lt119,219 1~lt-,066 1,9,021 . 120 ,628 120,952 153,859 122,3ltl 157,851 159,107 123,505 12lt-,214 i72,598 123,656 193,27lt 123,265 209~310 123,007 227 ,39lt 122,965 237,014 120,828 252,065 119,8ltl 271,716 268;492 118,lt-95 118,3lt8 272,533 118,150 281,773 288,221 117,593 118,660 2611-,3lt3 120 ,4-86 211-8,570 240 .915 123,19; 124,986 23 8 ,731 216,052 113~751 202,281411lt,510 182,2lto 122,606 1114,538 122.905 122,885 134 ,335 120,137 122,755 137,576 122,376 142,311-1 121,620 llt2,762 121,308

Less than 1/10 of one per cent.

39,31+5 39,373 39,157 39,157 39,971 39,59 8 ltlt,042 47,929 It-8,OlO 52,lt-51 56,730 62,036 67,703 70,917 7lt,8S6 81,097 87,623 90,073 91,370 92 ,lt53 93,517 93,607 94 ,68lt 95,50lt 95,775 95,028 94,337 93,871 92,561 91 ;297 90,1lt-7 89,036 88,99lt 88,958 88,lto2 88,311-2 87,837 87,231 89,9ltl 85,805 84,320 81,9lt9 81,496 81,029 80,495 79,916 79,297 73,3711-

E!

8, It-lto 8,539 8,594 8,611-3 8,662 8,651 8,651t-

8,669~

8,634 8,561 9,251+ 9,530 10,06lt 10,647 11,687 12,824 111-,llt6 15,330 15,743 16,09lt16,332 16,531 16,725 16,985 17,298 17,lt-12 17,633 17,714 17,89 6 17;905 17,962 17,656 17,lt60 17,215 17,178 18,290 20 ,601 23,802 22,868 15,713 17,992 28,395 29,073 29,4-11 29,811 29,935 29,73lt 30.24-5

1+,1+25 6,872

7,706 7,878 7,903 8,4t>5 8,69B 8,991 9,179 9,lt-21 9,535 9,628 9,738 9,892 10,003 10,156 10,306 10,lt-61 10,511 10,672 10,779 10,814 10,932 11,016 11,llt-1 11,216 11,295 11,11-22 11,508 11,626 11,732 11.803 11,89lt 11,977 12,013 12,028 12,011-8 12,160 12,177 12,233 12,198 12,262 12,336 12,4lt5 12,4lt9 12,525 12,589 12,689

EJ

£!

It-9 ,377 1+90,580 492,271+ 467,737 463,5n 1+74,337 1+67,807 519,651+ 582,021 513,065 565,375 558,135 560,588 528,7 83 11-98,lt-24 It-86,3lt-2 490,145 lt96,860 1+81,256 It-78,358 lt73,543 lt67,828 lt78,376 1+87,825 1+93,699 1+81+,899 lt72,80lt lt5lt,802 1+39,731 lt38,01+7 It-35,067 It-39,817 ltltl,030 1+71,651+

Percent of Total B A C 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.5 81.8 53.1 61.3 65.7 99.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.0 81+.8 70.6 57·5 1+6.3 It-1.5 39.3 40.0 40.9 40.2 38·9 36.9 34.6 33.1 3L6 33·5 3lt.6 35·9 36.7 36.3 31+.6 3lt-.2 36.1+ 37.6 38.0 37·5 36.5 ·40.1

528,497 555,1+17 551,342

1+3.8 It-2.9 39.7 38.3 567,~9 578, 6 37.8 600,93 8 37.9 622,800 37·1 619,978 37.6 38.lt 634.748 641,604 37.7 36.3 637,339 38.2 619,940 ltl.11629,728 14-2.8 636.836 11-3.6 645.11-25 lt5. lt 603.792 14-6.3 589,116 14-6.14568,999 51.0 546,991 53.9 557,575 56.8 561,957 52.6 547,82lt 14-8.0 508,69 2 11-38,696 . . lt6.0

£! Federal participation commences. £! Federal participation ends.

1.5 18.2 It-6.9 38.7 3lt-.3 .8

~

Y

Y

,y

2.0 15.2 29.4 1+2.5 . 1t-4.5 48.7 50.8 It-9.5 It-7 •8 48.1 1\.8.6 49.9 51.7 52.2 52.lt It-9.1 It-7.1 It-5. 4 11-3.7 1+2.2 1+1.7 40.3 36.9 3~.2

3 .3 ·35.0 35. 8 33·7 32.7 34.8 38.0 40.0 ltl.O 11-2.0 It-3.6

1~3.3

4-3.0 14-3.9 lt5.2 42.6 39.5 37.8 37.0 35.8 34.3 32.0 26.5 24.1 21.425.1 28.0 29·2

9·2 9.8 9·9 10.5 11.3 11.7 12.5 13.2 13.7 1lt-.7 16.0 17.lt18.3 18.7 19. 6 21.5 23.7 25.5 26.7 27.2 27.7 27.5 27.7 26.2 23.5 22.3 22.3 21.7 21.2 20.1 19.3 19·1 18.6 18.1118.5 19·2 19.1 19.1119.1t 18.8 19·4 21.6 22.5 22.0 21.8 22.3 2ll-.0 24.8

",'

,""

,,~,

:

l

i

.,-J"

oj

I

;-

..

TABLE XXXII.

WEST VIRGINIA CASES RECEIVING RELIEF

Year 1933

1934

193.5

1936

Month July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December

123.055 127,653 100.832 98.199

January February March April May June July August . September October November December January February March April

96.760 93.950 93.747 91.259 90.945 86,695 87,908 86,379 81,7 09 75,418 71,097 56,3 07 3fi ,39 8 32.036 28.402 27,108 2a,611 2 ,642 23,624

May

1937

1938

1939

~

C Special Categories B A General Fed.Work Total Spec •. Dependent Assistance Programs Categories Old Age Ohildren Bl1nd

Junc July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December

105,108

71.810 63,684 62,633 71,2 33 60.831 75,9 88

100,832

387 51,79 0 84.976 61,797 36,346 1,036

e

79~058

23~577

~1.664

22,135 22,355 22.714 21,451 19. 646 17.721 14,137 11.000 10,780 10.363 10,956 10~ 775 12,223

98 ,199 105,495 123,600 148,660 124,430 107,629 61,867 75,996 79,05 8 79.995 79. 389 82,619 85,739 88,709 92,°79 96,760 93,9 0 93~ 7 7 91.259 90,945 86,695 87,908 86,479 83,9 02 84,786 97,791 106,996 91,683 87.945 85,003 77,832 71;861 68,432 66.1.77 66,054 66,761 69.134 69.154 64,456 62,559 65,994 70.572

4

100 2,193 6,368 26.69450,6 89 53,2 85 55.909 56.601 50,724 46.250 43,79 0 42.553 42,477 42,67 0 44,513 44.279 42,175 39.552 38.460 36.9 85 36.818 36.3 80 33,682 29,782 28.040 27,057 27,032 27.781 28,716 32.117 35. 18 9 39.513 42,673 43.042 46,411 50.325 51.326 52,563 52.972 53.125 50 ,956 48.365 47 ,6a5 48.3 8 44,645 44.323 40,524 38,3 32 31.371 28,210 27,140 29.831 32,639

Federal participation commences.

2,875 4.781 8,5 07 10.734 15,1 87 18.277 20.503 22.317 23,705 24,211 24,091 24,~7a 24. 7 24.707 24.833 24,920 24.872 24,971 24.995 24,845 24.548 24,372 24.~83

24. 32 24,522 24.67 8 24,7 23 25.151 25.365 25,530 25,637 . 26,131 26.194 26,000 25,925 25.9 06 25.505 25.465

2,875~

4,7 81 8.2"64 10,418 13.589 15.718 17,120 18,128 19.041 18.932 18,687 18.663 18.606 18.659 18,-647 18,649 18,541 18 t 5J~) 18,538 18,393 18,135. 17.933 17,939 17.925 17.925 17,97 8 17.912 17.991 18,032 17.996 18,095 18.168 18,133 17,854 17.796 17.749 17,446 17,362

205~

247 1.355 2.143 2.797 3.526 3.949 4,541 4.661 4.976 5,122 5. 290 5.430 5,520 5,575 5,636 5.704 5.7 08 5.677 5,711 5.718 5.776 5,850 5.940 6.059 6,397 6,567 6.765 6.960 7,162 7,254 7.336 7.314 7.338 7. 245 7.2 89

38a/ 69243 416 586 663 715 738 743 7~6 7 6 758 756 751 756 752 753 744 736 728 726 731 747 754 752 763 766 769 782 801 807 810 815 819 814 814

Percent of Total A

123,055 127,653

79,995 79,889 82,619 85.739 88,709 92,079

24,091 24,621 22,000 17,500 14,500 16.800 18.400 21.3 00 20,400 19.600 16,700 15,700 15,200 15.200 15.400 18,100 22.624 23.688 24,07 8 21,763 23.9 85 24,7 63 20,843 21,556 22,142 21,937

Total

76~395

77,2 83 75,599 70 ,187 67.951 66.348 66,607 67.655 71,523 79.574 83,797 68.463 89,407 92,022 96,019 95.716 97,254 99,088 99.341 99,311 97.819 . 95,443 95.520 95,164 39. 821 87,881 80.792 75.516 68.151 64,498 64,002 66,111 70.327

B

0

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 .4 99.6 58.1 41.9 42.8 ~7 .2 50.3 9.7 66.2 33;8 98.3 1.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 .1 99.9 97,,4 2.6 92.5 7.5 72.7 27.~ 52.6 47. 41.~ 58.1 36~ 63.6 33.4 66.6 34.8 ~.2 ~4 35.6 36.0 64.0

35.7

35.7 36.1 35.6 31.8 27. 2 23.2 25.5 26.1 27~9

26.4 25.9 23. 8 23.1 22.9 22.8 22.8 25.3 28.4 28.3 27. 2 24.3 26.1 25. 8 21.8 22.2 22.3 22.1 21.8 22.7 23.4 23. 8 22.5 21.9 20.2 17.5 14.6 15. 8 16.0 17;1

b4~3

64;3 3 664. 64.0 65.4 63.2 58 •2 52.4

'4

48~2

47;1 44.6 42.4 41.3 40.8 40.6 41.0 40.2 40.4 42.0 44.7 47. 8 46.8 48.3 52.6 52.8 53.1 53.3 53.5 52 .1 50~7

49.9 50.8 49.7 50.4 50 •2 aO. 9 6.0 43~7

42.4 16.~ 45.1 17. 46.4

4.2 7.4 13.6 16.3 21.5 23.9 26.5 29.5 33.8 35.6 36.3 36.6 36.2 34.5 31.2 29~7

2(1.1 27.9 27.1 25.9 25.6 2a·0 2 ~6 24.6 24.7 25.2 24.9 26.3 26.7 23.4 29.4 32;3 34.5 38.2 40.3 40.5 38.6 36.2

TABLE

px;r; II •

WISCONSIN CASES RECEIVING Year 1933

i }934 I

1935

Month July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October 1'J'ovem"8er De oembel" January February March April May June July August September october November December

A

C B Fed.Work Total Spec. Programs Categories

RELIEF

Special Categories Dependent Blind Old Age Children

105,404 107,139 J,.10,038 116,876

78,896 72,173 68,613 68,730 96,298 207,765 189,141 139,863 130,367 114,053 104,838 107,333 95,753 99,700 105,404 107,139 110,038 116,876

Per cent of "Total B C 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 78.1 21.9 31.6 . 68.1t 28.9 71.1 46.1 53.9 ~0.7 59.3 98 ..6 1.4.1 99.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

124,724 128,179 117,298 114,988 108,299 102,4a7 95,4 2 91,573 89,39 1 91,267 88,224 68,71B

124.724128,179 117,298 li4.988 108,299 102,437 95",442 91,573 93,824107,548 137,090 128,774

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 95·3 84.9 64.4 53. 4

14-1,711

40.3 37.5 35·3 33·5 31.0 28.4 27.426.423·8 22.3 23·5 29.5

45.8 4-5.2 4-3.8 41 ..9 40 ..8 39.9 39 ..6 40 ..6 45.7 14-9.5

33·3 32.9 31.6 29.9 28.1 25.9 24.9 24.4 25. 4 27.5 30 •1 34 •0 36 .9 36.6 33. 0 28.9 26.5

35·3 35·3 35·9 35·3 35. 0 35. 1 33. 4 32.3 30•8 30 •0 29. 0 28.4

General Assistance 78,896 . "12,173 68,613 68,730 75,19 0 65,720 54; 705 61+,467

7 ,3 12

11,501 k 104,697 107,314 95,753

21,108 142,045 134,436 75,396 53,055 1,5~2

1 1 19

~9,700

4,433 16,281 48,866 60.,056

Total

A

..

1936

1937

193'8

1939

January Febru,ry March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October No-vember December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April I',1ay June July August September October Nevember DeC3mber

~ Fede~a1

57,043 55,022 . l ,609 6,991 4-1,041 35,240 33,547 33,181 33,016 340,284

a

~6,595

. 0,924 4-5,708 47,425 44,945 40,217 35,818 31,336 28,312 26,971 27,775 31,216 35,824 1t4,688 54 ,517 57,37 2 55,657 49,14-1 44,616 42,452 39,930 39,440 ~9,380

2,727 44,848 48,948

64,971 66,291 64,108 58.773

~4,128

9,594 48,391 51,213 63,453 75,860 74,871 53,069 4-8,440 50,796 51,089 47,621 4-4,616 42,4 05 37,996 35,624 33,698 33,977 34 ,544 37,408 "4"3,3 81 49,011 61,716 69,526 71,589 '72,726 77 018 80,133 82,621 85,917 85,775 80,043 I

52,717 77,703 53,547 75,332 54 ,277 74,33 4 69,485 51,570 48,205 63,714 44,746 62,723 43,733 57,394 44,248 48~037 49,800 43,425 47,744 49,950 45,98.7 49,35° 51,166 5),599 pa~ticipatiQh commences.

19,697 E5,319 30,559 34,586 37,411 39,435 40,347 41,489 42,380 43,292 44-,052 44,653 43,253 45,838 46,370 46,841 46,958 47,210 47,413 47,720 47,975 48,162 48,676 49,393 49,985 50,578 51,_130 51,664 52,218 52,783 53,271 53,709 54,246 54 ,818 55,527 56,325 57,074 57,789 58,292 58,923 59,447 59,970 60,520 61,14461,846 62,463 63,096 63,606

10,86~,

16, 164y 21,100 24,8 0 9 27,402 29~259

30,075 31,118 31,985 32,821 33,4-82 33,992 34-,536 35,004 35, 46 3 35,815 35,936 36,208 36,358 36,594 36,809 36,927 37,310 37,816 38,276 38,784 39,236 39,699 40,190 40,714 41,148 41,5 42 41,997 42,482 43,035 43,659 44,211 44,747 45,163 45,660 46,087 46,566 47,042 4-7,5 60 48,137 l.J.e,709 4-9,257 49,652

6,84-4 7, 145!!1 7, 40 9 7,681 7,893 8,047 8,1~3

8,2 9 8,3 05 . 8,403 8,528 6,627 8,7 17 8,834 8,904 9,031 9,040 9,022 9,076 9,151 9,190 9,263 9,385 9,589 9,727 9,819 9,928 10,001 10,064 .10,110 10,164 10,209 10,288 10,370 10,526 10,701 10,881+11,058 11,168 11,293 11,39° 11,425 11,486 11,588 11,711 11,764 11,841 11,942

1,985

2,OI~

2,050 2,096 2,116 2,129 2,119 2,122 2,090 2,068 2,042 2,0342,017 2,000 2,00} 1,995 1,982 1,980 1,979 1,975 1,976 1,970 1,981 1.988 1,982 1,975 1,966 1,964 1,964 1,959 1,959 1,958 1,961 1,966 1.966 1,965 1,979 1,984 1,961 1,970 1,970 1,979 1,992 1,996 1,998 ' 1,990 1,998 2,012 .

146,632 146,276 14-0,35° 132,580 124,269 122,285 125,883 l38,84-9 153,436 155,518 138,646 137,401 144,059 142,404 134,679 127,392 120,951 113,721 110,315 109,448 113,3~

119,0 131,489 147,883 156,961 168,503 170,331 168,423 167,961 170,219 173,282 176,274 183,462 186,150 185,3 16 187,494 186,668 186,903 179,978 171,366 167,439 161,647 153,429 155,07 1 160,157 153,433 165,371

25.~

23· 22.8 22.3 23·3 24.1 26.4 28.1 28.7 29. 0 .28.7 28.1 26.7 27. 0 28.7 32.0 31.2 31.0 3°·:;

4.7 15·1 ~50.6 6.6

~0.2

38.3

29.3 31 •2 36 •6 40.8 42.5 43.3 45.3 lJ.6.2 4-6.9 46.8 46.1 43. 2 41.4 1+-0.4 39. 8 38•6 37. 2 37·5 35·5 31.3 28.0 29. 8 29. 0 31.2

13,9 17.. 3 20..9

2lj, ..6 2a...~

31.]

~'--

.,

'"

-,~',:I ;.

33.0 ' 33..0 30.5 ',"1 28.2 i:~l 28..} . . ,.i,tli1 32.2 31.4 31.432.5 34.8 36.9 ,~J: 39. 0 41.7 43.3 43.8 ~ ~~

;':..~

:';j,

::::'-"~~

'-,4

4-2~5

40.9 37. 6 33. 8 32.2 30.4 30.3 31 • 0 31.~

31.3 31.0 30.8 29·9 29. 8 30.430.5 30.9 31.2 32.7 34-·7 35. 8 37.5 40.0 40.0 ~9.0

0.0 38.5

J

TABLE -XXXIV •

STATE AND IDCAL Population Estimated Year state .Tu1y 1 (000) 7,756 1933 II.;L. 7,790 19347,817 1.935 7 ,8l~5 1936 7,878 1937 7,8'78 1938 3,364 1933 IND. 3,400 19343,429 1935 3,lt59 1936 3,474 1937 3,47lJ. 1938 1,657 1933 MD. 1,6&4 1934 1,669 1935 1,674 1936 1,679 1937 1,679 1938 4,309 1933 MASS. 4,326 1931t 1935 4,~75 4, 25 1936 4,4-26 1937 It,426 1938 ' 4,716 19~ MICH. 4,680 19 4,731 1935 4,783 1936 4,830 1937 4,830 1938 4,202 193~ N • .T. 4,249 193 4,288 1935 4,328 1936 4,343 1937 4,343 1938 12.791 1933 N. Y. 12,846 ,193412,89° 1935 12,935 1936 12,959 1937 12,959 1938 6,69 1 1933 OHIO 6,701 1931t 6,707 1935 6,713 1936 6,733 1937 6,733 1938 9.918 1933 PENNA. 10,000 1931t 10,067 1935 10,136 1936 lCl,176 1937 10,176 1938 1,786 1933 w. VA. 1,802 19341,816 1935 1,830 1936 1,865 1937 1,865 1938 2,917 1933 WISC. 2,908 1934 2,908 1935 2,908 1936 2,926 1937 2,926 1938 .

Y Est ima ted.

Direct Relief $18,775,538 34-;691,820 22,421,473 48,177,370 49,279,518 53 ,It 82, 961 5,798,79 0 10,764,092 11,958,169 6,324,839 6,182,072 10,414,375 4,896,023 5,130,228 2,54O,4lt7 2,653, -117

2,140,525 2,57°,339 33,299,784 32,768,610 38,416,318 23,580,020 22,539,862 26,916,6448,101,726 19,651,364 16,605,125 20,780,055 17,136,4-90 33,260,692 15,338-,520 15,412,337 19,448,4-37 17,910,626 17,130,498 23,lt58,431 75,087,496 117,838,758 131,771,125 14-3,789,798 138,526,971 149,518,009 16,832,307 21,44-0 097 12,339,620 27,950,011 20,611,797 25,250 ,24439,809,928

P3R CAPITA 1933-1938

l:D"ANDITtJRES

y of Fed.Wrk.

Categories

$ 5,396,553 16,010,490 17,413,060

2,055,283 5~779~828

7,679,000

12,~,646

Programs (000) $ ~,~5 4~2 7 1,087 20,733 26,693 33,395 1,059 2,878 919 6,776 9,013 13,518

9lt

1,795,690 2,886,591 3,027,000

8,011,596 12, 869,24~. 17,708,00

3,974,74-2 8,177,735 10,900,000

3,493,089 5,596,840 6,000.000

23,239,557 24,081,968 30,000,000

13,002.578 16,084,664 19,000,000

40,~17,136

,69411, 12,723,385

FORtIS

Ot'

Sponsorship

Spec~a1

t

52, 03,910 72,762,695 63,283,130 83,549,496 786,278 2,762,397 3,028,197 '3,691,654 2.873,899 3,504-,158 7,849.729 8,419.185 13,963,784

FOR ALL

9,851,992 19,624,584 20,000,000

32,500 1,839,126 2,400,000

4,726,068 6,825,233 8,652,000

428 95 1,164 2,045 2,428 772 3,013 212 9,27lt 13,330 16,624 622 1,916 734 9,161 15,792 18.793 393 1,905 218 4,317 17,111 22,318 2,248 9,lJ.60 4,117 30,9 16 32,570 47,735 1,310 3,768 1,117 14,565 19,19lJ. 25,386 791 5.643 1,076 12,20421,861 32,809 120 387 108 3,238 4,753 5,990 620 1.311 843 8,019 8,798 11,466

Total $19,830,538

38~938,820

2~,508r473

7 ,306,923 91,983. 008 104,291,021 6,8a7,790 13,6 2,092 12,877,169 15,156,122 20,974,900 31,611,375 4,990,023 5,558,228 2,635:447 5,613,4 07 7,072,116 8,625,339 34-,071,78lt 35,781,610 38,628,318 40.865,616 48,739,104 61,248,6lJ.4 8,723,726 21,567,364 17,339~125

33,915~797

4-1,106,225 62,953,692 15,731,520 17,317,337 19,666.437 25,720,715 39,838,~38

51,776.31 77,335,496 127,298,758 135,888,125 197.945,355 195,178.939 227,253,009 18,14-2,307 25.208,097 13,456,620 55,517,589 55,890,lt61 69,636,244lto,600,928 46,160,136 53,479,910 94,818,687 104,768,714 136,358,496 906,278 3,14-9,397 3,136,197 6,962,1549,466,025 11,89't,158 8,469,729 9,730,185 14,806,784 .e4,875,71lf 27.169,927 32,841,385

l
4

°

.-

TMLE XXXV. STATE AND LOCAL EXPENDITURES FOR DIRECT RELIEF 1933-38

Yea.r

Population Estimated State JulY' 1 (000)

State Local Expenditures Expenditures Direct Relief Direct Relief

Total State and Local Expenditures Direct Relief

Local

Per Capita

Per Cent State Local

~tate

Tota.1

$1.78 3.91 2.28 5.50 4.37 4.53

$2.42 4.45 2.87 6.14 6.25 6.79

73.7 87.B 79.6 89.5 69.9 66.7

.01

1.72 3.. 17 3_4~

.03

1.8 1.78 3.00

.2 .2 1.1 .•1 .1 1.1

99.8 98 .9 99-9 99.9 98.9

2.95 3.08 1.52 1.58 1.27 1.53

97.5 85.7 88.3 51.2 44.9 19.9

2.5 14.3 11.7 48.8 55.1 80.1

7,756 7;79° 7,817 7,845 7;87 8 7,878

$ 4,947,314 4,241,800 4,572,208 5,048,636 14,823,496 17,811,164

$13,828,224

$18.775,538

$0.64

17,8 9,265 43,128,734 34,456,022 35.671,797

22,421,473 48,177,370 49,279,518 53,482,9.61

.59 .64 1.88 2.26

3,364 3,409 3,429 3,446 3,467 3,467

5,7 86.153 10.743,603 11,826,659 6,315,961 6,177.888 10,304.19 8

12,637 20,489 131,510 8,878 4,184 110,177

5,79 8 ,79 0 10,764,092 11,958,169 6,324,839· 6,182,072 10,414,375

1.72 3.16 3.45 1.83 1. 78 2.97

1,657 1,664 1,669 1,674 1,677 1,677

124,100 733,871 296,118 1,293,79 8 1,178,616 2,057,310

4,771,923

4,896,023

.07

2,2 4,329 1,359,919 961 ,9,D9 513,029

2,5 0,447 2,653,717 2,140,525 2,57 0,339

.18 .77 .70 1.23

2.88 2.64 1.34 .81 .57 .30

1933 MASS. 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 .

4,309 4,326 4,375 4,425 4,426 4,426

33,008,671 32,619,624 38 ,29B, 541 23,523,000

2 1,093 1 8,986 117,777 57,020 1,310,227 60,000

4

33,299,784 32,768,610, 38,416,318 23,580,020 22,539,862 26,916,644

7.66 7.54 8.75 5.32 4.80 6.07

.07 .03 .03 .01 .29 .01

7.73 7.57 8.78 5.33 5.09 6.08

.9 .5 .3 .2 5.8 .2

99.1 99.5 99.1 99.8 94.2 99.8

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938

MICH.

4,716 4,680 4,731 4,7 83 4,83 0 4,830

2,892,466 7,662,740 7,336,704 8,837,368 6,315,738 12,344,234

5,209,260 11,988 ,624 . 9,268,421 11,942,687 10,820,752 20,916,458

8,101;726 19,651,364 16,605,125 20,780.055

1.10 2.56 1.96 2.50 2.24 4.33

1.72 4.20 ~.51

.34 3·55 6.89

64.3 61.0 55. 8 57.5 63.2 62.9

35.7

33,260,692

.62 1.64 1.55 1.84 1.31 2.56

.~.o .2 42.5 36.8 37.1

193~

N.J.

4,202 4,249 4,288 4,328 4,343 4,343

2.968,023 2.615,55J 4.122.990 5.522,998 4,499,524 5,771,761

12,37 0 ,497 12,796,778 15,325,447 12,387,628 12.630,974 17,686,670

15,338,520 15,412,337 19,448.437 17,910,626 17,130,498 23,45 8,431

.71 .62 .96 1.28 1.03 1.33

2.94 3.01 3.57 2.86 2.91 4.07

3.65 3.63 4.54 4.14 3.94 5. 40

80.6 83.0 78.8 69.2 73.7 75.. 4

1:9.4 11.0 21.2 30.8 26.3

12,791 12,846 12,890 12;935 12,959 12,959

61,515,101 72,171,200 81,916,334 82,183,121 83,026,771 89 ,.-360 •643

13,572,395 45,{)67 ,558 49,854,79 1 61,606,677 55,500 ,200 60,157,366

75,087.496 117,838,758

4.81 5.62 6.35

1.06 3.55

18.1 38.8

~.87

~7.8

6. 1 6.9 0

.77 4.28 4.64

5. 87 9.17 10.22 11.12 10.69 11.54

81.9 61.2 62.2 57.1 59.9 59.8

6,691 6,7 01 6,707 6,713 1:),733 6,733

8,5 6,112 3,5 2,832 3,825,545 2,753,452 9,5 89,636 17.03°.533

8,27 6,195 17,897,265 8,514,075 25.19 6 ,559 11.022,161 8,219,711

16,8~2,307

21,4 0,097 12,339,620 27,95 0 ,011 20,611,797 25,25 0 ,244

1.28 .53 .57 .41 1.42 2.53

1.24 2.67 1.27 3.75 1.64 1.22

2.52 3.20 1.84 4.16 3.06 3.75

49.2 83.5 69.0 90.1 53.5 32.6

50.8 16.5 31.0 9.9

9,918 10,000 10,067 10,136 10,158 10,158

5,174,157 10,451,799 9,346,873 60,943 1,040 64

34.635,771 30,065,337 43,057,047 72,701,752 63,282,090 83,549,432

39,8 09.9 28 40,517,136 52 ,403,910 72,762,695 63,283,13 0 83,549,496

.52 1.04 .93 .01

3.49 3.01 -4.28 7.17 6.23 8.22

4.01 4.05 5. 21 7. 18 6.23 8.22

87.0 74.2 82.2 99.9 100.0 100.0

13.0 25.8 17.8 .1 a/

2,~23

786,278 2,762,397 3,028,197 3,691,654 2,873.899 3,504,15 8

.44 .25 .17 .12 .32 .47

1.28 1.5° 1.89 1.22 1.41

.44 1.53 1.67 2.01 1.54 1.88

.3 83. 2 B9.7 93.9 79.4 75. 0

99.7 16.8 10.3 6.1 20.6 25.0

845.°43 209,351 3,179,9 22 3,041,162 1,881,755 2,023.599

7,849,729 8,419,1 85 13,963,7 84

2.40 2.82 3.71 3.13 3.30 3.66

.29 .08 1.~ 1. .65 .69

2.69 2.9° 4.80 4.17 3.95 4.35

10.8

89.2 97·5 77.2 74.9 83.7 84.1

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938

ILL

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938

IND.

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938

MD.

193 1935 1936 1937 1938 Y.

21,2;;!9,6~

26,856,6

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938

N.

1933 1934 . 1935 ),,936 1937 1938

OHIO

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937

PENNA.

1933 1934

W.VA.

1,7 86 1,802 1.816 1,830 1,865 1,865

783,955 462,93 8 312,991 225,534 591,465 876,038

WISC.

2,917 2,9 08 2,908 2,9 08 2,926 2,926

7,004,686 8,209,834 10,7 83,862

~938·

19~'5

1936 1937 1938 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 ~

Less

than

4

9,0~,484

9,6 ,939 10,699.786

1/10 of one per cent.

30,4~0,020

4,3~6,357

2,299, 59 2,715,206 3,11-66,120 2,282,434 2,628,120

34,691~820

5,1~0,228

17~136,490

1~1,771,125

1 3,789,798 138,526,971 149,518,009

12,1~0,646

11,5 6,694 12.723,385

.54

.44

6.~5

.04

2.9 40.1 40.2

2~5

22~8

25.1 16.3 15·9

26.3 12~2

20.4 10.5 30.1 3J.3 ~9.8

24~6

46.~

67.

Y

TABLE JOOCVI STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERAL EXPENDI'IURES FOR DIRECT RELIEF

"

(Amounts in Thousands)

STATE

Year

Population

ILL.

1933 19341935 1936 1937 1938

7.756 7·790 7,817 7.845 7.878 7.878

{; 4,947 4,242 4,572 5, 04 9 14,823 · 17,811

$13,828 30 ,450 17,849 lt3,129 34,456 35,672

$59.9 43 72,219 100,505 918 376 17

$78,718 106,911 122,927 49.095 49,656 53,500

6.3 4-.0 3.7 10.2 29.8 33.0

17.5 28.5 14.8 88.0 69.467.0

76.2 67.5 81.5 1.8 .8

~o.64­

Y

.59 .64 1.88 2.26

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938

3,364 3,400 3. 429 3,459 3:4-743,474-

5,786 10,744 11,827 6,316 6,178 · 10,304

13 20 132

14,107 31,4-77 34,720 7,002 6,673 10,701

ltl.0 34-.0 ;11-.1 90.3 92.5 96.5

Y y

4 110

8,308 20,713 22,762 678 491 287

59.0 66.0 65.5 9.6 7.5 2.5

1.72 3.16 3.45 1.83 1.78 2.97

1933 1934 1935 1936 . 1937 1938

1,657 1,664 L66J 1,674 1,679 1,679

124 734296 1,294 1,179 2,057

4,772 4-,396 2,2lt41,360 962 513

4,248 14-,717 14,384 58

9,14-4 19,847 16,925 2,712 2,141 2,570

1.1+ 3.7 1.7 47.6 55·3 80.0

46.4

.07 .4-4 .18 .77 .70 1.23

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938

4.309 4.326 4-,375 4,425 4.4-26 4,426

33,009 32.620 38,299 6,316 · 21.300 26,837

291 14-9 118 9 1,310 60

7,157 40,498 67,151 678 16

40,457 73,267 105,568 7,002 22,556 26,917

81.6 44.5 36.2 90.2 94.2

17.7 55.3 63.7 9.7

193~

4,716 4-,680 4-,731 4,783 4,830 4,830

2,892 7.663 7,337 8,C57 6.316 12.344

5,209 11,989 9,268 11,943 10,821 20.,916

;7, 61 7 1+1,185 49,839

45,719 60,837 66,1I-lj.lj. 21,225 17,143 33,261

6.3 12.6 11.0 41.7

2,968 2,616 4,123 5,523 4-,5 00 '-',772

12,370 12.797 15,325 12,}88 12,631 17,687

10,512 34,518 4.3,191 1,913 1

61,515 72,171 81,916 82,183 83,027 89.361

13,572

4-9,855 61,607 55,500 60,157

68,641+ 157,588 177,370 5,689

8,556 3,543 3,826 2,753 9,590 17,031

8,276 17,f397 8,514 25,197 11,022 8,220

HID.

MASS.

MICH.

19341935 1936 1937 1938 N. J.

N. Y.

OHIO

PENNA.

W. VA.

~l:SC.

1933 19341935 1936 1937 1938 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938

12,791 12,846 12,890 12,935 12 ,959 12.959 6,691 6,701 6.707 6,713 6,733 . 6,733

Expenditurp.s for Direct Relief Local state Fed~ra1 Total

1933 19341935 1936 1937 1938

9,918 10.000 10,067 10,136 10,158 10,158

5,17410,452 9,34-7 61

1933 19341935 1936 1937 1938

1,786 1,802 1,816 1,830 1,865 1,865

7844-63 313 226 591 876

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937. 1938

2,917 2,908 2,908 2,908 2,926 2,926

7. 00 5 8,210 10.784 9,089 9.665 10,7°0

1

2/ lass than 1/10 of one per dent

9

Per Cent Local state Fed.

~

.4 .1

1.0

74.0 B5.1 2.1

Y a/

Per Capita ;' Local state Fed. Total

.511-

~

99.8

$1.7 8 3.91 2.28 5.50 4.37 4.53

$7,72 9.28 12.95 .12 ;05 .02

$10.14 13.73 15.82 6.26

2.47 6.09 6.64 .20 .14 .08

4.19 9.26 10.12 2.03 1.92 3.08

2.88 2.64 1.34 .81 .57 .30

2.57 8.84 8.62 .04

5.52 11.92 10.141.62 1.27 1.53

.07 .03 .03 .01 .29 .01

1.66 9.36 15.35 .25

9.39 16.93 24.13 5.58 5.09 6.08

7.97 8.80 10.53 . .09

9.69 13.00 14.04 4.43 3.55

.01 .04 .03

~.30

6.81

37. 0

11.7 19.7 14.0 56.2 63.2 63.0

82.0 67.7 75.0 2.1 a/

.62 1.64 1.55 1.84 1.31 2.56

1.10 2.56 1.96 2.50 2.24 4.33

25,851 1+9,931 62,639 19,82417,131 23,458

11.5 5.2 6.5 27.7 26.3 24.7

11-8.0 25.6 24.5 62.7 73.7 75·3

40.5 69.3 69.0 9.6

.71 .62 .96 1.28 1.03 1.33

2.94- .2.50 8.12 3.01 3·58 . 10.07 2.86 .4-4 2.91 4,07

6.15 11.75 111-.61 4,58

111-3,732 275,1+27 309,14-1 11+9,4-78 138,753 149,554

42.7 26.1 26.6 55. 0 60.0 60.0

9.5 16.5 16.1 1+1.2 40.0 40.0

47.8 57.457·3

4.81 5.62 6.35 6.35 6.41 6.90

1,06 3.55 3.87 4-.77 11-.28 4.64

1l.24 21.4423.98 11.56 10.71 11.54-

29,365 59,138 "85,330 1,136 107

4-6,197 80 578 97,670 29,086 20,719 25,25 0

18.5 4.43·9 9.5 4-6.3 67.4-

17·9 22.2 8.7 86.6 53.2 32.6

63.6 73.487.4

1.28 .53 .57 .41 1.42 2.53

1.24 2.67 1.27 3.7:? 1.641.22

34 ,636 3°,065 11-3,057 72,702 63,282 83,549

47.397 105,643 160,584 151+

87;206 111-6,161 212,988 72,916 63,284 83,5 49

5·9 7.1 4.4-

.52 1.011-

2

16,24-4 16,769 17,681 24-4

17,030 19,531 20! "(10 3,936 2,874 3,504

4.6 2.41,5 5·7 20.6 25.0

.lt4

13,707 30,732 35,22; 1,051 3°7

21,556 39,151 49,188 13.1B2 11,854 12,725

32.5 21.0 21.9 68.9

4~,668

2,299 2,715 3,4-66 2,282 2,628 . 845 209 3,180 3,041 1.882 2,024

.

411-5

7

226

36

2

36.8

2J

~

Y

3.8

!I !I

3·9 .5

39·7 20.6 20.2 .1 99.7 100.0 100.0

81.5

34-.1

.93

.01

11.8 13.1 88.1 79.4 75.0 3·9 .5 6.5 23·1 15.9 15.9

.25 .17 .12

.32 .4-7 63.6 78.5 71.6 8.0 2.-6

2.40 2.82

3.71 3.13 3.30 3.66

1.28 1.50 1.89 1.22 1.41 .29 .07 1,09 1.04 .65 .69

6.89

3.94 5.40

4.38 8.82 12.72 .17 .02

6.90 12.02 14-.56 4.33 3. 08 3.75

4.78 10.56 15.95 .01

8.79 14-.61 21.16 7.19 6.23 8.22

9. 0 9 9.31 9.73 .14

9.53 10.84 11.40 2.15 1.55 1.88

4.70 10,57 12.11 .36 .10

7.39 13.11-6 16.91 4.53 4.05

4.35

, I

i-·

I.

t: ~;~

f

, .~

.~

TABLE XXXVII. RELIEF

EXPENDITURES

IN

RElATION TO ESTIW.TED TAX COLLECTION

(Amounts in thousands of dollars)

Estimated Tax Collection ~/ Total. state Local

state & Loca1 Expenditures for Expenditures for Dir. ReI. plus Categories & Direct Relief state Total Share of WPA Local

state

Year

ILL.

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938

IND.

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938

30 ,897 47,635 51,597 58,686 68,461 74 ,065

104,328 83,200 94,827 91,815 98,463 98,864

135,225 130,835 146,424 150,501 166,924 172,929

9

MD.

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938

21,616 22,813 24,485 29,161 30,281 32,716

50 ,935 50,222 56,335 55,111 56,281 56,281

MASS.

1933 1934 1935 i936 1937 1938

49,325 53,819 58,000 62,407 73,9 00

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938

J.

$79,3 04 $290,661 102,647 280,472 108,836 325,3 11 127,856 292,901 152,589 304,3 43 172,253 303,119

$13,828 $ 4,947 4,242 30,450 17,849 4-,572 43,129 5,049 34,456 14,823 35,672 17,811

$18,776 34,692 22,421 48,177 49,280 53,483

$19,83 1 38,939 23,508 74,307 91,983 104,291

5,786 10,744

4 110

6,316 6,178 10,304-

5,799 10,764 11,958 6,325 6,182 10,414

6,858 13,642 12,877 15,156 20 1 975 31,611

72,551 73,035 80,820 84,272 86,562 88,997

4,772 4,396 2,244 1,360 962 513

124 734 296 1,294 1,179 2,057

4,896 5,130 2,540 2,654 2,141 2,570

233,979 242,718 248,324 255,265 250,458

283,304 296,537 306,324 317,672 324,358

291 149 118 57 1,310 60

33,009 32,620 38,299 23,523 21,230 26,857

33,300 32,769 38,416 23,580 22,540 26,917

50,119 81,375 92,194 99,097 134,853 152,189

207,519 172,006 172,988 169,852 148,741 150,194

257,638 253,381 265,182 266,949 283,594 302,383

5,209 11,989 9,268 11,943 10,821 20,916

2,892 7,663 7,337 8,837 6,316 12,344

8,102 19,651

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938

76,057 71,127 78,576 105,788 92,404 95,370

231,625 240,721 238,120 242,840 248,244 245,876

307,682 311,848 316,696 348,628 340,648 341,246

12,370 12,797 15,325 12,388 12,631 17,687

N. Y.

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938

208,829' 247,437 240,614 318,723 348,927 377,495

747,194 815,245 869,657 877,262 887,527 891,796

956,023 1,062,682 1,110,271 1,195,985 1,236,454 1,269,291

OHIO

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938

51,956 66,160 71,83 0 107,596 149,741 14-8,556

228,302 233,054 254,827 269,794 237,3 09 238,025

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938

139,393 121,209 134,581 173,495 266,899 268,500

193~

15,034 24,530 35,303

11~827

1.7 1.5 1.4 1.7 4.9 5.9

5.1 9.1 5.2 11.4 10.8 11.3

5.4 10.2 5.4 18.4 20.1 21.9

b/

Y.1

5.5 12.9 12.5 6.9 6.3 10.4

4.3 8.2 8.2 4.2 3.7 6.0

5.1 10.4 8.8 10.0 12.6 18.3

4,990 5,558 2,635 5,613 7,072 8,E?25

·22.1 19·3 9.2 4.7 3·1 1.6

.2 1.4 .5 2.3 2.1 3.7

6.7 7.0 3.1 3.1 2.5 2.9

6.9 -7.6 3·3 6.7 8.2 9·7

34,072 35,782 38,628 40,866

.6 ·3 .2

11.8 11.1 12.5 7.4 6.9 8.3

12.0 12.1 12.6 12.9 15.0 18.9

~/

·3

b/

48,7~9

E! 1.8

61,2 9

.1

20,780 17,136 33,261

16,605

8,724 21,567 17,339 33,916 41.106 62,954

10.4 14.7 10.1 12.1 8.0 1.3.7

1.4 4.5 4.2 5.2 4.2. 8.2

3·1 7.8 6.3 7.8 6.0 11.0

3.4 8.5 6.5 12·7 14.5 20.8

2,968 2,616 4,123 5,523 4,5 00 5,772

15,339 15,412 19,448 17,911 17,130 23,458

15,732 17,317 19,666 25,721 39,838 51,776

16.3 18.0 19.5 11. 7 13.7 18.5

5.0 4.9 6.1 5.1 5.0 6.0

5.1 5.6· 6.2 . 7.4 11.7 15·2

13,572 45,668 49,855 61, 60 7 55,500 60,157

61,515 72,171 81,916 82,183 83,027 89,361

75,087 117,839 131,771 143,790 13B,527 149,51B

77 ,335 127,299 135,888 197,945 195,179 227,253

6.5 18.5 20.1 19.3 15.9 15·9

1.3 1.1 1.7 2.3 1.8 2·3 8.2 8.9 9.4 9.4 9.4 10.0

7.9 ILl 11.2 12.0 11.2 11.8

8.1 12.0 12.2 16.6 15.B 17·9

280,258 299,214 326,657 377 ,390 387,050 386,5B1

8,276 17,897 8,51425,197 11,022 8,220

8,5~6

16,832 21,440 12,34-0 27,95 0 20;612 25,250

18,142 25,208 13,4-57 55,518 55,890 69,636

15.9 27.1 11.9 23.47.4 5.5

3.7 1.5 1.5 1.0 4-.0 7.2

6.0 4.8 3.8 7.45·3 6.5

6.5 8.4 4-.1 14.7 14-.418.0

291,897 291,708 304-,379 315,728 319,596 323,500

4-31,290 412,917 438,960 4-89,223 586,4-95 592,000

34-,636 30,065 43,057 72,702 63,282 83,54-9

5,1749,3 7 61 1

39,810 40,517 52,404 72,763 63,283 83,549

40,601 ll-6,160 53,4-80 94-,819 loll-,769 136,358

24.8 24.8 32•0 41.9 23.7 31.1

1.8 3. 6 3.1

9.2 9.8 11.9 111-.9 10.8 111-.1

9.4 11.2 12.2 19.417.9 23.0

11-1,150 26,356 25,791 25,468 25,221 24-,997

56,184 50 ,886 61,094 62,506 68,279 70,225

2 2,299 2,715 3,4-66 2,282 2,628

784463 313 226 591 876

786 2,762 3,028 3,692 2,87113,5oll-

906 3,111-9 3,136 6,962 9,466 11,B94

E!

1.4 5.4 5.0 5.9 4.2 5.0

1.6 6.2 5.1 11.1 13.9 16.9

1.B 5. 0 8,470 158,211 8lJ.5 7,005 7,850 lJ.7,564- 110,647 1933 0 .48,419 20 8,210 lJ.7,248 104,630 151,873 9,73 5·5 1931J. 9 6.8 9.2 14,807 3,180 10,784 13,9641+6,898 106,252 153,150 1935 7.1112,131 164,666 211-,876 3,041 9,090 5.7 1936 53,074 111,592 6.2 1,882 1211-,005 11,5lJ.7 27,170 3.1 61,669 185,674 9,665 1937 6.5 32,841 2,024 10,700 64,111-11- 131,567 12,723 195,711 3·2 1938 1933 to 1937 Estimated by the Industrial Conference Board; 1938 Estimated by Pennsylvania Economy League. Less than 1/10 of one per cent. E! 1937 figures repeated due to 1938 being unavailable.

5,116.4 9.7

PENNA.

W. VA.

193 1935 1936 1937 1']38 WISC.

Y E!

13 20 132

17.4 29!7 16.4 33·7 22.6 20·7

14.1 13.4 15.4 9.2 8.5 10.7

MICH.

N.

$369,965 383,119 434,147 420,757 456,932 475,372

state Taxes for Dir. Relief

Per Cent of state State Local & Loc. & Local Taxes Taxes Taxes for for for Re1.p1us Dir. Dir. CateReRe- gories lief lief & WPA

73,900~/ 250,458~.

~7,038

3,053 45,228

324,358~/

3,5 3 3,826 2,753 9,590 17,031 10,4~2

9.4 7.7 9.4 5·3 5.8

bl

Ybl

1.9 1.8 1.2 .9 2.3 3·5 6.3 7.8 10.1 8.1 7.8 8.1

1~.1 1 .6

16.8

APPENDIX II. SOURCES OF DATA

TABLES I, II, AND III The figures from which these tables were prepared were furnished by the Bureau of Research and Statistics of the Department of Public Assistance.

In the

preparation of these tables we have taken the average of the monthly figures for each quarter in order to simplify the plotting of the charts (Nos. 1, 2 and 3) based on this information. should be noted.

Two inconsistencies in the figures in these tables

Table I includes expenditures on N.Y.A. work projects (but not

student aid) while no corresponding case or person figures are included in Tables II and III.

Table I, under the heading Local Work Programs, includes expenditures

for materials and supplies as well as wages of relief labor in the second and third quarters of

1934, whereas all other figures

in Table I include only the amount re-

ceived by the relief recipient either in cash or in kind.

Since the preparation of

Table I and Chart 1. the Department of Public Assistance has revised its figures on Local Work Programs to show only the relief wages.

This adjustment would reduce

the figures shown in the table for local work programs during the two quarters affected as follows: RELIEF

YEAR

Q,UARTER

FIGURE Q,UOTED

1934

2

3,993.796

2,565,87 2

3

1,632,54-3

1,192,763

WAG~S

ONLY

TABLES IV - XXXIII

Tables IV to XI. inclusive. are based on computations made from the information contained in Tables XII - XXXIII.

Tables XII to XXII show the expendi-

tures by states and by months for General Assistance (inclUding Local Work Programs, .. I -

if any), Federal Work Programs, and Special Categories.

The expenditures used

here purport to be the amount of relief granted, excluding the cost of administration, materials and supplies, burials, medical aid and other incidentals.

Tables

XXIII to XXXIII show by states and by month~ the number of cases receiving relief under any of the programs covered here. General Assistance expenditures for the period, July, 1933 through December, 1935, were taken from an undated publication of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, prepared un4er the direction of T. E. Whiting, entitled tlStatistical Summary of Emergency Relief Activities January, 1933 through December,

1935," Table 6 of which is headed "Amount of Obl1cations Incurred for Emergency Relief Extended to Cases Under the General Relief Program, by States, luly, 1933 through December, 1935."

Case figures for this period were taken from the same

publication Table 4- of which shows "Nwnber of Cases Receiving Emergency Relief under the General Relief Program, by States, July 1933 through December 1935." Data on General Assistance for the period, January 1936 through March 1937, was taken from tabulations prepared by the Division of Statistics, Works Progress Administration, dated June 6, 1939.

The figures in these tabulations are a final re-

vision of those originally pUblished in April 1938 under the title "General Relief Statistics for the Fifteen Month Period, January 1936 through March 1937."

These

tabUlations, entitled respectively, "Obligations incurred for General Relief' Extended to Cases in Individual States, by Sou~es of Funds, January 1936 through March 1937" and "Number of Cases Receiving General Relief in Individual States, by Months, Janl,lary 1936 through March 1937."

It should be noted that these latter

ti tIes say "General Relief" instead of "Emergency Relief Under the General Relief Program," and are therefore somewhat more inclusive than the earlier tables.

For

an explanation of the differences see the foreword to the publication covering the

1933-35 period.

For the period from April 1937 through December 1938, General Ae-

sistance figures were supplied by the Division of Public Assistance Research, - II -

Bureau of Research and Statistics, Social Security Board in the form of typed tables dated September 18,

1939 and apparently on the same basis as the 1936-37 figures

supplied by the Works Progress Administration.

For the year

1939 General Assistance

figures were taken from the monthly tables published in the Social Security Bulletin. a publication of the Social Security Board. Throughout. the expenditure figures are reported on the basis of obligations incurred rather than on the basis of the date the bills were actually paid. The case figures represent in each instance the whole number of cases receiving relief at some time during the month rather than the average number receiving relief during the month.

This causes an overstatement of the relief load at all times and

the degree of overstatement varies with the case turnover. Th~

through July

Federal Work Programs figures for the period from November

1933

1934 were taken from "An Analysis of Civil Vlorks Program Statistics"

published by the Works Progress Administration in June

1939.

The case figures dif-

fer from others used in the accompanying tables in that they are the number of persons employed during the week ending nearest the middle of the month rather than the average number employed during the month or the total number of different persons employed at any time during the month.

This case count is not closely geared

to the earnings of persons employed under the program as evidenced by wide and in some cases preposterous fluctuations of earnings per case per month and in several cases reported earnings with no reported employment.

In this latter case an em-

ployment figure has been supplied by taking average monthly earnings for the state during months where both employment and earnings are reported and dividing it into the reported earnings. For the period from August

1935 through September 1939 the Federal Work

Programs figures were taken from mimeographed tabulations distributed by the Work Projects Administration showing the earnings of persons employed on projects operated by W.P.A. and the average number of persons employed on such projects ... III -

during each month.

Three factors need comment in connection with these figures:

1 - Both the employment and earnings figures include some amount of nonrelief labor which properly should be excluded from the tables but which cannot be segregated from any figures available.

The figures do not, however, include any

administrative personnel or expense. 2 - The figures are restricted to projects operated by W.P.A., whereas there are in most states a few projects operated by other Federal Agencies with W.P.A. funds which should be included in the tables.

It can only be hoped that

this exclusion roughly offsets the inclusion of non-relief labor already mentioned.

3 - The employment or case figures used here are the average number employed arrived at by averaging the number of employes appearing on each payroll for a pay period ending within the month.

These figures are not therefore over-

stated as are the General Assistance and Special Categories cases.

There is, how-

ever, the possibility that more than one person from the same family or general assistance case is employed under the Federal Works Program at the same tbne which would tend to overstate the W.P.A. case load in terms of comparable units and perhaps to some degree offset the known overstatement of the general assistance case load. For the three months, October through December 1939, exactly similar figures were supplied in a typed tabulation dated February 27, 1940, prepared by the Work Projects Administration, Division of Statistics. Special Categories

pa~nents

to recipients were supplied by the Division

of Public Assistance Research, Bureau of Research and Statistics, Social Security Board for the period from January 1936 through December 1938 in the form of typed tabUlations.

During this period payments are reported whether the state plan was

approved for Federal participation or not.

Case figures for the period from

\

February 1936 through June 1938 were taken 'from the appendices to the First, Second, and Third Annual Reports of the Soclal Security Board where, however, cases are ... IV ..

reported only for those states and categories in which there was Federal participation.

Cases from July

1938 through December 1939 and payments for the year 1939

were taken from the monthly tabulations appearing in the Social Security Bulletin published by the Social Security Board.

The Social Security Bulletin reports only

those states and categories approved for Federal participation.

As a result of the

method of presentation by the Social Security Board, payment figures for the year

1939 for some categories in some states are not available •. In another section of the Social Security Bulletin, headed Statistics by States, there is an estimate to the nearest thousand of the cost of all three special categories even though not approved for Federal participation.

This figure has been used as the total for

the special categories where any category was not otherwise reported and if only one category was not otherwise reported, the difference has been taken between this total and the reported categories as the amount of payments for the unreported category except in the case of Pennsylvania where the actual state reported figure for Blind Pensions is used to supplement the categories reported in the Social Security Bulletin.

In the section of the Social Security Bulletin, headed Statistics

by States, are found estimates of the case load on categories not approved by the Social Security Board which have been used for the year for the period February to June

1939 except in Illinois

1939 where what appeared to be a better figure is

found in the State Emergency Relief Board reports,and Pennsylvania where the figures were supplied from tabulations prepared by the Department of Public Assistance. For the period

p~ior

to

1939 wherever case figures are not reported the number of

cases has been estimated by applying to the reported payments the average payment per case of the first six months for which cases are reported, Many states had one or more well-developed categories prior to it was found necessary to exclude all categories prior to

1936 but

1936 since it was found

to be impossible to get any reliable figures by months for either payments or cases in enough states to

rna~e

comparisons of any value. - V -

TABLE :XXXIV. The Direct Relief expenditures used in Table XXXIV were supplied by the Division of Statistics W.P.A. in typewritten tables dated September 11, 1939 and September 28, 1939.

According to the footnote on those tables the figures include

"relief extended to cases under the general relief program, cost of administration and special programs: beginning April 19~ these figures also include purchases of materials, supplies, and equipment, rental of equipment, earnings of non-relief persons, and other costs of the emergency relief program." The Special Oategories expenditures were estimated by taking the total payments to recipients for each year as set forth in Tables XII - XXII and deducting the payments from the Federal treasury for Federal participation in payments to recipients as reported in the Annual Reports of the Social Security Board.

The

annual reports, however, cover only the period down to Jupe 30, 1938 and for the remaining six months the Federal participation has been estimated on the basis of the participation during the first six months of 1938.

For an explanation of the

omission of categories prior to 1936, see the corrunents in this appendix on Tables XII - XXXI II •

State and local expenditures for the sponsorship of Federal Work Projects were furnished by the Bureau of Research and Statistics of W.P.A., in the form of mimeographed tables entitled "State by State Comparison of State and Local Funds Used for Direct and Work Relief ---- ," comprising tables 7 - 12 of a larger but unnamed report, with a covering letter dated September 11, 1939. TABLES XXXV AND XXXVI. The Direct Relief expenditures shown in Tables XXXV and XXXVI were taken from the tabulations supplied by the Division of Statistics W.P.A. used as the source of Direct Relief expenditures in Table XXXIV. TABLE XXXVII. Direct Relief expenditures used in this table are the same as those used - VI -

in Tables XXXIV - XXXVI and the expenditure for direct relief, categories and share of W.P.A. is the amount arrived at in Table XXXIV.

Tax collection figures used

here are estimates published by the National Industrial Conference Board for the years 1933-37, inclusive.

For 1938 tax collections were estimated, based on the

method of distribution between state and local taxes used by the Conference Board applied to collection figures obtained from state financial reports and the December 1938 - January 1939 issue of "Tax Policy" published by the Tax Policy League, 309 E. 34th Street, New York City. (Vol. VI Nos. 2-3).

Collections of local taxes

are not available for the year 1938; from the 1937 local collections reported by the Conference Board, there was deducted the state collected locally shared taxes of 1937 and then the 1938 collections of the same taxes were added back to secure the figure used for 1938 local collections.

For Massachusetts neither state nor local

collections are available for 1938 and the 1937 collections were repeated. GENERAL NOTE ON POPULATION FIGURES Throughout all of the tables wherever population figures are used they are estimates published by the census bureau.

For each of the years 1933-37, in-

Clusive, the estimate as of July 1 of the respective years was used for the whole year.

Since July 1, 1937 the census bureau has made no new estimates by states and,

therefore, the July 1, 1937 estimate was used for all subsequent years.

- VII -

RELIEF IN THREE SOU'IRERN STATES

COMPARED WITH PENNSYLVANIA

In an earlier study. "Relief in Pennsylvania and Ten Other States," a comparison was made of eleven states east of the Mississippi River. land and West Virginia were north of the

~reson-Dixon

line.

All but Mary-

It was the intention

at that time to make the comparison with neighboring and industrially competitive states.

It has often been recognized that the relief problem in the south is not

properly comparable with that in the north,

The question of the extent and nature

of the diversity in relief in the south as compared with the north has been raised and it is in reply to that question that this supplemental study has been made comparing relief in Alabama, North Carolina. and Texas with relief in Pennsylvania. The comparisons made here are similar to those made in Part II of the earlier study.

The sources of data and the treatment of the data are identical

with the sources and methods used in the earlier study. ALL TYPES OF RELIEF - CASES PER THOUSAND POPUIATION In overall case load per thousand population, the three southern states used here follow the general pattern found in the overall case load of eleven northern states but at a lower leval. from the spring of

Texas shows a sharp increase in relief cases

1936 to the spring of 1937 similar to too t in Illinois. but

contrary to the general downward trend. The total case load per thousand population at the low point in the summer and fall of

1937 was

as compared with

~2.7

9.~ in North Carolina,

in Pennsylvania.

At the high point late in

all case loads per thouscnd populntion were: and Texas

12.8 in Alabama. and

North Carolina

38.6. as compared with Pennsylvania which had

population.

26.~ in Texas,

1938. the over-

29.6. Alabama 30 .7,

63.~ cases per thousand

If the three southern states wore added to Chart ~ of the earlier re-

port, both Alabama and NOrth Carolina would appear consistently below the Maryland

- 4G ...

line which was the lowest on that chart, and Texas would appear from 5 to 7 cases per thousand above the Maryland line, but below that of any other state shown in the chart. GENERAL ASSISTANCE - CASES PER THOUSAND POPUINrIOlI

In general assistance cases per thousand population, the southern states show a still greater variance from Pennsylvania than in overall cases per thousand. Alabamn and Texas show sharp decreases in the number of general assistance cases per thousand population during the first six months of

1936, occasioned apparently

by the transfer of cases to the special categories and particularly to old age assistance.

North Carolina shows a similar decrease for the same reason, but not

until the third quarter of

1937. After the special categories got under way in

these three states, the number of cases per thousand population receiving general assistance never exceeded

2.6 as compared with a range of from 14.76 to 31.35 caS8E

per thousand population in Pennsylvania during the same period.

Since July

1936

the general assistance cases in Alabama have exceeded one case per thousand population in only two months -- July and August spectively.

Since August

1937, the general assistance cases per thousand popula-

tion in North Carolina have ranged from Texas was from July

1938 -- when it rose to 1.4 and 1.3 re-

1.4 to 2.2. The range in the state of

1.4 cases to 2.6 cases per thousand population in the period from

1936 through December 1939. The general assistance case loads in all three of the southern states

studied have b8en so small that it is virtually impossible to tell from an ordinary chart whether the minute variations from month to month follow the general trends shown in the comparison of relief loads in the northern states.

Oomparison

on a logarithmic chart showing the rate of change from period to period would establish the similarity or dissimilarity of the trends but such a comparison becomes meaningless when it is realized that an increase of to

2,600 cases, or from 0.4

1.4 cases per thousand population, from August 1937 to August 1938. represents ... 41 ..

more than a trebling of the general assistance case load in Alabama, while in Pennsylvania during the same period there was an increase of than

68,000 cases,or more

6.5 cases per thousand population, but that this increase amounts to only

of the August

~O%

1937 case load.

FEDERAL WORK PROGRAMS """ CASES PER THOUSAND POPUIATION

In W.P.A. cases per thousand population the three southern states conform very closely to the general pattern

fou~d

states, but on a generally lower level.

in the previous study of eleven northern

The W.P.A. cases per thousand in the three

states here under consideration, if plotted on the similar chart (6) in the earlier study, would fall in the area between the Maryland line and and the lowest of the ten other states except for Alabama, which exceeded New York after August and Pennsylvania after July

1938,

1939; and Texas, which exceeded New York after August

1939. The following tabulation shows the W.P.A. cases per thousand population in the three southern states, as compared with Pennsylvania, New York, and Maryland for January of each year since W.P.A. started, plus September point of W.P.A. employment, and December

1939, the recent low

1939:

Jan.

Jan.

Jan.

Jan.

Sept.

Dec.

ill§.

1931

.ill§.

.ill2

1:222.

Alabama

16.8

9.8

9.7

20.6

12.9

l222 17.8

Texas

16.5

12.1

10.0

17.1

10.8

1~.4

North Carolina

12.3

7.9

7.2

13.7

9.1

11.6

Pennsylvania

2~.8

22.1

17. 0

211-.4

11.8

14.0

Maryland

12.4

7.6

6.4

9.0

6.0

1.5

New York

29.0

20.5

Ilt.6,

18.5

9.9

11.6

It must be remembered in connection with this tabulation that both New York and Pennsylvania shifted from top rank to a low rank among the eleven northern states in the early months of

1938. as shown in a previous study. .. 11-2 -

It is not

surprising, therefore, to find states which had been substantially behind Pennsylvania and New York in W.P.A. cases per thousand population catching up with them in

1939, not so much because of an increase in cases in the southern states as be-

cause of the decrease in Pennsylvania and New York. PER CEnT OF CASES ON FEDERAL WORK PROGRAMS

In per cent of the total case load carried by W.P.A •• the three southern states start in a very high position because of the almost complete absence of cases on genaral assistance and the special categories. very high position throughout the years

Alabama continues in this

1936 to 1939 inclusive and exceeds any of

the eleven northern states included in the previous study. ra~id

development of old age assistance in the summer of

vania in per cent of cases on W.P.A. by the fall of

Texas with the very

1936 falls below Pennsyl-

1936 and thereafter follows the

general course of the northern states. catching up with Pennsylvania in the spring of

1938 and going ahead of Pennsylvania in November 1938. North Carolina continued suw_~er

expanded the special categories.

1937. casas on W.P.A. in North Caro-

By December

of

1937 when it very rapidly

high in per cent of cases -on W.P.A. until the

line were less than ~O% of the total case load and thereafter the per cent of cases on W.P.A. follows that of the higher of the northern states, ranging roughly from five to ten per cent higher than Pennsylvania. SPECIAL CATEGORIES - CASES PER THOUSAND POPUlATION In both general assistance and W.P.A. cases per thousand population, the three southern states stay fairly close together. ever. this is no longer true.

Alabama, which had more special category cases per

thousand population than the other two in January had considerably fewer.

In the special categories, how-

1936, has, since December 1937,

The increase in special category cases per thousand popu-

lation in Alabama has been relatively slight. (from December than

3.1 in January 1936 to

8.~ in

1939), and in December 1939 there were fewer cases per thousand population

i~any

of the northern

state~

prevIously

... 4.3 -

studied~

North Carolina had almost

no special category cases prior to July 1937 (0.1 cases but by July 1938 had 11.3 cases per thousand, and in

pe~

thousand population),

Dece~ber

1939 had reached 13.0

cases per thousand population, which is more than the 11.92 in Pennsylvania, 11.86 in New York, and 9.68 in New Jersey.

Texas, like North Carolina, had only 0.1 spe-

cial category cases per thousand population from. January to June 1936, but with the advent of old age assistance in July 1936, jumped to 9.8 cases in 'that month and in· creased rapidly to a peak of 21,1 cases per thousand population in May 1937.

This

peak in May 1937 was more than twice the I'ennsy1vaniafigure of 10.22 cases per thousand population and was considerably above any of tho northern states previously studied.

From the ]eak in May 1937, the nWlilier of special category cases per

thousand population in Texas receded to 18.0 in March, April and 1fuy 1938, to be exceeded by Ohio,Bnd then grew 8€ain slowly to 19.6 cases per thousand in December 1939, which was equalled by Illinois and exceeded by Indiana, Massachusetts, Ohio, and Wisconsin.

The December 1939 number of cases per thousand on special cate-

gories in Texas was approximately 65% larger than the number in Pennsylvania. In all three of the southern states, old age assistance stands out as the most fully developed of the special categories.

The

fol~owing

tabulation illus-

trates the relative development of the various categories, as of December 1939; Old Age Assistance Cases per 100C Population 65 years and over

Aid to Dependent Children Cases pe~ 1000 Population 16 y~ars End under

Aid to the Blind Cases per 100,OOC Population

Alabama

167

16

19

North Carolina

251

16

56

Texas

423

i2..

0

Pennsylvania

126

24

124

~

Not a federally approved program - there are estimated to be only 103 cases Which would be a very small fraction of a case per 1,000 popUlation under 16.

GENERAL ASSI3I'ANCE GR,MlTS

General assistance grants per case in tbe three southern states are relatively low.

Since 1936. when grants in all the states began to be relatively stable

- ~ ...

at or near their present levels, the monthly grants have exceeded one month in one of the three southern states. since January December

$10.00 only in

The grants in North Carolina,

1936, have ranged fram $5.00 to $6.50 per month, ending at $6.17 in

1939.

In Alabama and Texas the fluctuations have been somewhat greater

for the most part between grant in December

$7.50 and $10.00 per month per case, with an average

1939 of $9.11 in Alabama and $7.59 in Texas. The Alabama and

Texas grants approximate those in West Virginia but are slightly less on the whole, and are very considerably less than in any of the other northern states, all but two of which had average grants of over

$20.00 per month.

FEDERAL WORK PROGRAM EARNINGS

In federal work program earnings per case, the three southern states stay very close together on a level substantially below that in any of the northern states.

The earnings per case on W.P.A. have shown a slightly upward trend through-

out the whole period

1936-1939. The following tabuJation shows the earnings per

case in January of each year and December

1939 in the three

south~

states, in

Pennsylvania and in West Virginia, the lowest of the eleven northe1"!l.states previously studied: Jan.

Jan.

Jan.

Dec.

1936

1lli.

ill.§.

.ill2

.!222

$~6.80

$31+.73

$32.65

$35.55

$1+0.12

21+.98

29.1+6

29.82

33.57

1+1.10

Texas

27.98

26.85

29. 62

32.65

1+1. 01

Pennsylvania

55.61+

62.79

60.80

62.35

56.13

West Virginia

39·35

1+1+.12

1+2.63

1+3.51+

1+8.81

Jan. Alabama North

Carol~na

SPECIAL CATEGORY GRANTS Grants per case per month on the special categories are, like general assistance grants and W.P.A. earnings, lower in the southern the northern states.

stat~s

than in any of

Alabama and North Carolina have stabilized their grants at

about $11.00 per month.

In Texas the grants have been approximately $14.00 per

month except for the last three months of

1939 when the average grant fell to $8.60

a month. SUMMARY

In summary it appears that the southern states have fewer cases per thousand population receiving relief than the northern states and that the grants per case are less.

In general assisstance the southern states are far behind the

northern states both in caSdS per thousand population and in grant per case.

In

W.P.A. the southern states are behind in cases per thousand population and in earnings per case, but in per

c~nt

of the total case load carried by W.P.A. they are

higher than the northern states because of the absence of any sizable general assistance program.

Special category grants are lower in the southern states but one

of the three southern states compares favorably with the leading northern states in number of special category cases per thousand population. while another equals Pennsylvania.

In all three of the southern states the emphasis has been on old age

assistance rather than either of the other special categories.

- 46 -

RELIEF CASES PER THOUSAND POPULATION*

December

1939

Pennsylvania Texas North Carolina Alabama Maryland

o

10 20 30 40 Number of Cases Per Thousand Population

50

Legend !6?XfFederal Work tij/::f General

~Projects

* Based

E::::3 Old

Age

~ Dependent

~Assistance I:=:::::tAssistance ~Children

on estimated population ~uly 1,

1937.

- 47 -

0

Blind Assistance

TABLE XXXVIII.

AIABAMA NUMBER OF CASES RECEIVING RELIEF C Total Special Categories General Federal Special Dapendent Assis- Work Catetance Programs ' gories Old Age Children Blind .A

Year Month

B

1933 .Tuly

87,638 10)+,592 September 116,193 102,71;'8 October November 115,831 29,480 December 98 ,542 57,638 .Tanuary 89,508 100,904F8bruary 76 ,924- 112,778 March 88,754- 4.4,398 April 908 108,734May 99,797 .Tune 89,993 .Tuly 95,694 August 109,636 September 113,411 October 84,315 November 63,005 December 60,609 .Tanuary 61,134 February 58,87 1 March 57,851 62,684 April May 64,032 .Tune 64-,133 68,406 July August 66,902 24,4-58 september 39,782 26,065 October 46,563 32,273 November 29,514 ~8,906 16,6148,330 December .Tanuary 8,227 48,095 February 5,629 46,454 March 3,628 42,254 April 3,019 37,212 May 2,865- -3~~.;3-.l.June-3:259 32,926 .Tuly 2,651 31,3 08 August 2,123 31,01+7 2,110 31,211 September 2,062 31,007 October November 2. :q8 ~1,215 December 2,255 30,382 .Tanuary 2,268 28,244, 2,21lJ. 27,955 February 2,114 27,093 March 1,864 26,121 April 1,820 26,887 May .Tune 1,747 23,405 .Tuly 1,4-59 20,731 August 1,256 20,155 September 1,321 18,251 October 1,372 20,°73 November 1,537 21,469 December 2,176 23,93 1 .Tanuery 3,044 27,990 February 1,930 29,354March 2,053 34,5 60 April 2,157 38,[307 41,643 May 2,24~ 2,46 lJ.5,242 .Tune 4,150 46,624 .Tul~J" August 3,839 53,3 81 Septomber 2,469 59,911 2,1+90 61,149 October November 2,523 64,614 2,646 62,131 December .Tanuary 2,733 59,674 February 2,716 59,3°4 March 2,492 58,228 April 2,178 54,077 May 2,047 51,331 .Tune 2,019 49,877 .Tuly 2,067 47,195 August 2,142 4o, T(l September 2,193 37,499 2,175 40,685 October 2,259 38,751 NoveT.lber 2,284 50,174 December

87.638 100.0 10+;592 100.0

A~gust

1934-

1935

1936

.

1937

1938

1939

!/Federal

part1cipa~ion~ommences.

Per Cent of Total Totals A B C

lib , 1().3

9,000 12,346 8,846 11,026 w,B91

13,264 15,096 16,195 15,916 15,757 19,888 16,01+9 16,050 16,158 16,167 15,668 15,737 16,427 16,973 17,382 r{ ,435 18,246 18,829 19,438 19,786 20,119 20,630 20,824 20,690 20,925 21,152 21,108 21,544 21,528 21,739 21,94421,948 22,084 22,212 22,4-0422,565 22,659 23,192 23,404 23,457 23,633 24-,332 24,383

4,000 . 5,000 6,239a/ 6,10"f!/ 4,390- J-.45 5,136 ~B9
100.

°

102.748 100.0 14-5,3:!..1 79·7 20.3 156,180 63.1 36.9 190,4-12 47.0 53.0 189,702 40.6 59.4 133,152 66.7 33.3 109,642 99.2 .8 99,797 100.0 89.993 100.0 95,694 100.0 109,636 100.0 113,411 100.0 84,315 100. ° 63~005 100.0 60,609 100.0 61,134 100.0 58,871 100.0 57,851 100.0 62. 68~· 100.0 61-1-,032 100.0 64,1;.3 100.0 68.406 100.0 91~360 73.2 26.8 65,8 i+7 60.4 39.6 78,836 59.1 4-0.9 68,420 43.1 56.9 64,944 25.6 74.4 65,3 22 12.6 73.6 64-,4-29 8.7 72.1 54,728 6.6 77.2 51,257 5.9 72.6 4R.,287 5.9 71.5 49,449 6.6 66.6 49,055 5.4 63.8 49,365 4.3 62.9 4.3 63.lJ. ~9,237 48,826 4.2 63.5 lJ.9,281 )+.4 6;.~ 48,686 4.6 62. 46,552 4.9 60.7 46,327 4.8 60.3 45.374 lJ..7 59.7 104!V 43,653 4.3 59.9 158 44,44.4 4.1 60.5 192 41,579 4.2 56.3 257 39,163 3.7 52.9 249 38,793 3·2 52.0 269 37,057 3.6 4-9.3 3°3 39,691 3.lJ. 50.6 331 41,835 3.7 51.3 35° lJ.5,545 4.8 52.5 373 50,820 6.0 55.1 385 51,9°3 3·7 57.5 410 57,24-3 3.6 60.4 419 61,788 3.5 62.8 4-20 64,576 3.5 64-.5 431 68,631 3.6 65.9 435 71,926 5.8 64.8 452 78,328 4-.9 68.1 469 83,924 2.9 71.4 467 85:167 2.9 71.8 472 88,876 2.8 72.7 ,474 86,721 3.0 71.6 480 84,355 3.2 70·7 lJ.79 84,104- 3.2 70.5 494 82,932 3.0 70.2 5°2 78,659 2.8 68.7 518 75,943 2.7 67.6 526 7lJ.,555 2.7 66.9 541 72,454 2.9 65.1 548 66,317 3.2 61.4 551 63,1~-9 3.4 59.4 548 66,493 3.3 61.2 549 65,342 3.5 59.3 553 76,841 3.0 65.3

13.8 19.2 16.2 21.5 22.6 26.8 30 .8 32.8 32.3 32.3 32.3 33.0 34.4 34.9 35.6 35.8 35.lJ. 39.5 43.4 44-.8 47.1 46.0 45.0 42~7

38.9 38.8 36.0 33.7 32.0 30.5 29.4 27.0 25.7 25.3 24.5 25.lJ. 26.1 26.3 26.8 28.5 29.7 30.4 32.0 35.437.2 35.5 37·2 31.7

Cases per Thousand Population A B C Total 31.6 37·7 4-1.9 37·1 4-1.8 10.6 35.6 20.8

31.6 37.7 4-1.9 37.1 52.1156.11-

31.9 35.9 27. 4 11-0.2 31.6 15.8 38.7 .3 35.5 32.0 34.1 39.0 40.430.0 22.421.6

67.8 67.6 4-7.439.0 35.5 32.0 34,1

21.5 20.7 20.422.1 22.5 22.6 24.1 23.6 14.0 16.4 10.4 5.9 2.9 1.9 1.3

21.5 20.7 20.4 22.1 22.5 22.6 24.1 32.2 23.2 27.8 24.1 22.9

1~1

1.0 1.1 .9

·7

.7 .7 .8 .8 .8 .8 .7 .6 .6 .6 .5 .4 .5 .5 .5 .7 1.0 .7 .7 .7 .8 .9 1.4 1.3 .8 .9 .9 .9 .9 ·9 .9 .8 .7 .7 ·7 .7 .8 .7 .8 .8

~9.0

0.4 30.0 22.4 21.6

8.6 9~2

11.413.7 17.0 16.8 16.2 14.8 12.9 12.1 11.5 10.9 10.8 10.9 10.8 10.9 10.6 9.8 9.7 9.4 9.0 9.3 8.1 7.2 7.0 6.3 6.9 7.4 8.3 9.7 10·3 11.9 13.4 14.4 15.6 . 16.1 18.420.7 21.1 22.3 21.5 20.6 20.5 20.1 18.7 17.7 17.2

16.3 11+.1 12.9 14.1 13.4 17.3

3.1 4-.3 3.0 3.8 3.8 4.7 5.3 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.4 5.4 5.7 5.8 6.0 6.0 6.3 6.5 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.1 7.2 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.47.4 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.1 8.2 8.48.4

22~8

22.4

19~1

17.8 16.9 17.3 17.1 17.2 17.2 17.0 17.2 17.0 16.1 16.0 15.7 15.0 15.~

14. 13·5 13.412.8 13.7 14-.4 15.7 17.5 17.9 19.7 21.3 22.3 23.7 24.8 27. 0 28.9 29.4 30.7 30.0 29.1 29.0 28.7 27.2 26.2 25.8 25.0 22.9 21.8 23.0 22.6 26.5

TABLE XXXIX. NORTH CAROLINA. CASES REC:EIVING RELIEF A

Year Month

1933 July

August September October November December

19Yt January

February March April May June July August september October November December

1935 January

February March April May June July August September October November December

1936 January

February :March April May June July August September October November December

1937 January

February March April May JuneJuly August September Oct~ber

Ncvember December

1938 January

February March April May

June July August September october November December

1939 JaEliary

February MaI·ch April MA.y June July August September October November December

~Federal

B

C Total General Federal Speclal AssisWork Catctance Programs gories

72,888 61,756 55,05457,512 70,584 . 726 64,240 43,728 75,336 75,606 . 82,329 75,825 96,230 37,154 74,174 1,035 73,111 74 ,413 75,551 80,656 77,105 62,207 67,853 73,813 74,155 69,724 70 ,549 70 ,857 66,149 62,010 59,614 53,91311-9,357 546 4,131 47,545 42,919 25,614 15,161 37,53 0 15,400 42,659 15,4-00 4-4,516 13,700 42,121 12,800 36,763 14,700 33,261 14,400 30,428 14,600 28,817 14,900 30,817 13,300 28,219 13,500 28,865 11,719 28,756 12,395 28,4 03 12 ,541 27,4-88 12,490 27,139 11,983 25,377 12,580 24,938 11,994 24,605 11 ,343 23,177 7,997 20,316 6,715 19,2°7 5,946 18,882 5,516 18,691 5,796 19,5 60 6,858 21,735 7,458 25,011 7,735 27,996 7,099 30 ,5 v-5 6,693 32,877 6,854 31~,566 6,683 -36,833 6,185 1+0,661 5,695 45,069 -48,120 5,~22 4,825 50 ,396 1+,918 54,874 6,111 55,150 6,061+ 47,536 6,681 1+7,087 6.1'74 48,635 6,123 45,618 5,97l 44,204 5,932 41 , 397 -1+,985 39,1 03 5,796 32,382 5.727 31,675 5,840 33,569 5,911 36.512 6,1+04 1+0,360

participation commences.

Special Categories Dapendent Old Age Children Blind

Totals

72,888 61,756 55,05457,512 71,310 107,968 150,942 158,154 133,38lf. 75,209 73,111 74,413 75,551 80,656 77,105 62,207 67,853 73,813 74,155 69,72470,549 70,857 66,149 62,010 59,614 53,913 49,9 03 51,676 68,533 52,691 310 898 866 955 392 330 314 457 455 470 464 471 342 333 336 357 383 355 4,1+37 9,980 15,134 19.091 23,074 26,732 28,868 31.,39 0 34-~238 36~513

38,020 39:189 39,278 33,486 40,081 40: 61+7 41,255 41,p15 1+1,679 42,130 42,238 42,391 1+2.567 4-2)643 43,660 ~-4,250

44,1+84 44.661+ 44,880 1+5,109

310 310 310 310 310 310 314 317 325 350 334 335 342 333 336 357 383 355 3, 417!Y' 53 0§/ 7,689 1,313 2,064 11,760 14,897 2,629 18,051 3,284 20,868 4,043 22,490 4,549 24,234 5,283 26,302 6,051 6,640 27,962 29,029 7,032 29,842 7,375 30 ,066 7,258 30 ,146 7,308 7,401 30 ,69 8 31,193 7,471 3J.,670 7,624 31.934 7,719 31,977 7,759 32,265 7,912 8,006 32,292 32,383 8,075 32,497 8,139 32,580 8,157 8,133 33,594 31+,091 8,129 8,078 34,430 34,651 8,072 8,063 34,859 8,128 35,009

588 556 645 82 20 140 130 120 13° 136

58,36~

60,81 56,687 50,518 48,353 45,158 43,731 46,174 41,974 42,835 40,939 41,269 40,371 39,962

37~596

37,8"15 3-( ,062 34,875 490a/32,75 0 978 35,902 1,310 39,962 1,565 43,298 1,739 48,430 1,821 55,325 1,829 61,337 1,823 67,121 1,885 71,882 1,911 76,083 1,959 73,440 1,972 82,705 1,954 86,124 2,032 90,250 1,982 93,623 1,933 95!868 1,961 101,01+7 1,962 102,876 1,943 95,279 1,953 95.898 1,940 971 6:'1-7 1,933 94-,132 1,931 92 271+2 1,906 89,972 1,933 87, -(4-8 2,°3° 82,428 - 1,976 81,886 1,941 84,073 1,958 87,3 03 1,972 91,873

Per Cent of Total A B C

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.0 1.0 59.4 4-0.6 49.9 ~0.1 52.1 /- 7.9 72.1 27.9 98.6- 1.4100~0

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.9 92.0 62.6 28.8 :26.4 25.3 24.2 25.3 30.4 31.9 33.·4 32.3. 31.7 31.5 28.6 30.0 31.1 31.3 31.8 33.2 32.3 32.5 24.4 18.7 14.9 12.7 12.0 12.4 12.2 11.5 9.9 8.8 8.6 8.1 7.2 6.3 5.8 5. 0 4.9 5.9 6.4 7.0 6.9 6.5 6.1+ 6.6 5.7 7.0 7.0 7.0 6.8 7.0

1.1 8.0 37.4 71.2 73.1 73.2 74.3 72.8 68.8 67.4 65.9 66.7 67.2 67.1;. 70.2 68.8 68.1 67.9 67.3 65.8 66 .. 6 66.462.0 53.4 47.2 43.2 40.4 39.3 40.8 41.7 1+2.5 43.2 43.5 1+1+.5 47.2 1+9.9 51.4 52.6 54.3 53.6 49.9 49.1 49.8

0.5 1.5 1.5 1.9 .8 .7

.7

1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 .8 .8 .9 1.0 1.1 1.1 13.6 27.9 37.9 44.1 47.6 48.3 47. 0 46.8 47.6 48.0 47.9 47.1+ 1+5.6 1+3.8 42.8 42.4 40.8 40.5 43.7 1+3.9 43.3 J~8.5 1+5.0 47.7 1+5.9 46.0 47.4 44.6 49.7 39.2 ~.8 38.7 .3 39.9 53.1 41.8 51.4 43.9 49.1

Cases per Thousand Population A B C Total

21.9 18.5 16.5 17,3 21.2 19.3 22·3 24.428.5 21.9 21.6 22.0 22.lf. -23.9 22.8 18.420.1 21.9 21·7 20.4 20.6 20.7 19.4 18.1 17.4 15.8 14.4 13·9 12.6 4.44.5 4.4 4.0 ~.7

.2 4.2 4.2 4.3 3.8 3·9 3.4 3.6 3.6 3. 6 3.4 3.6 3·5 3.3 2.3 1.9 1.7 1.6 1.7 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.0 1.9 2.0 1·9 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.8 1.7 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.4 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8

21.9 18.5 16.5 0.2 13.1 22.4 22.4 11.0 .3

.2 1.2 7.5 11.0 12.3 12.9 12.2 10.6 9.6 8.8 8.3 8.9 8.2 8.4 8.3 8.2 7.9 7.8 7.3 7.2 7.1 6.7 5.8 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.6 6.3 7.2 8.1 8.8 9.5 9.9 10.6 11.7 13.0 13.8 14.5 15.8 15.9 13.7 13.5 14.0 13.1 12.7 11.9 11.2 9.3 9.1 9.7 10.5 11.6

17~~

21. 32.4 44.7 46.8 39.5 22.2 21.6 22.0 22.4 23.9 22.8 18.4 20.1 21.9 21.7 20.420.6 20·7 19.4 18.1 17.4 15.8 14.6 15.1 20.1 15.40.1 16.9 .3 17.6 .2 16.1.1.3 14.6 .1 13.9 .1 . 13.1 .1 12.6 .1 13.3 .1 12.1 .1 12.4 .1 11.8 .1 ,11.9 .1 11.6 .1 11.5 .1 10.8 .1 10.9 .1 10.7 .1 10.1 1.3 9.4 2.9 10.3 4.4 11.5 5.5 12.5 6.6 13.9 7.7 16.0 8.3 17.6 9.0 19.3 9.8 20.6 10.5 2L9 10.9 22.8 11.3 23.8 11.3 24.8 ·11.4 26.0 11.5 26.9 11.7 27.6 11.9 29.1 11.9 29.6 12.0 27.1+ 12.1 27.5 12.2 28.1 12.2 27.1 12.3 26.7 12.3 25.9 12.6 25.2 12.7 23.7 12.8 23.5 12.8 24.2 12.9 25.1 13.. 0 26.1+

TABLE XL. TEXAS CASES RECEIVING RELIEF A Year Month

1933 July

C

B

General Federal Assis- Work tance Programs

Total Special Categories

Special Categories Dependent Old Age Children£! Blind

February March April May June July August September october November December

1935 January

February March April May June July August September October November December

1936 January

February March April May June July August September October November December

1937 January

February March April May June July August September October November December

1938 January

February March .April May June July August September October November December

1939 January

February March April May June July August September October November December

112,395 129,708 160,538 197,297 201,465 188,347 223,583 248,052 228,640 236.742 254,619 269,276 278,216 271.007 253.890 228,042 203.493 172,794 154,340 149.024 139,206 131,926 133,437 121,451 50,139 48,462 48,238 4-8,962 46,361 45.698 13,39414,09413,337 12,872 11,316 13,04414,416 13,4-89 12,633 11,600 11,400 10,600 10,300 9,200 8,5°0 8,5 00 9,5 00 11,900 14,000 13,426 13,889 12,929 12,807 12,570 11,714 12 ,442 11,637 12,326 12,593 13,534 15,300 15,95 0 16,300 14,720 14,513 13,471 12,295 12,34411,227 12,617 12.100 13,327

~Federal partic~pation

239.264178,209 102,027 2,722

"

24 1,312 7,3 06 43,64-0 73,752 101,210 119,515 112,209 92,867 84,081 80,975 76.76477,387 77,498 76,898 77.911 77,269 74,91475.568 79,238 79,3 08 . 78,588 71,559 60,899 55,021 44-,247 40,852 44-,342 52,892 61,770 68,81+9 74,880 79,850 81,192 81,059 83,799 89,621 91,567 98,43 0 112,687 108,312 105,752 105,194106,614 99,043 93,635 91,102 85,3 89 77,739 66,630 70,982 74,644 88,630

starts.

212 218 217 219 223 223 60,228 75,835 81,499 87,022 90,482 101,537 93,342 103,4-12 121,984 127,988 130.011 128,429 120,492 116,769 115,640 113,736 114,811 113,865 112,652 111,687 111,131 111,173 111,268 111,413 111,689 111,883 112,469 113,4-27 113,107 113,325 113,505 113,899 114,432 115,64-3 116,857 118,162 117,329 118,481 120,632 121,051 121,151 120,728

-b/Estimated

59,999y 75,60481,269 86,792 90,256 101,319 93,126 103,195 121,771 127,772 129,805 128,226 120,293 116,579 115,454 11~,555

11 ,645 113,703 112,576 111,617 111,061 111,103 111,198 111,31+3 111,619 111,808 112,389 113.3'+2 113,017 113,230 113,393 113,786 114,322 115,533 116,737 118,047 117,213 118,369 120,520 120,936 121,042 120,625

212 218 217 219 223 223 229 231 230 23° 226 218 216 217 213 216 206 203 199 190 186 181 166 162 76 7° 7° 70 7° 7° 7° 75 80 85 90 95 112 113 110 110 120 115 116 112 112 115 109 103

Cases per Thousand Population A B C Total

"-

200,944 182,357 103,784 119,196 287,759 290,129 351,659 307,917 262,565 200,019 201,465 188.347 223,583 248.052 228,640 236.742

200,94lt

August 182.357 September 103,784 October 119.196 November 145,582 133,177 December 123,344- 166,785

1934 January

Per Cent of Total Totals A B C

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 ~2.2

2·5 32.0 42.1 61.1 98.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 ~54.619 100.0 269.276 100.0 278,216 100.0 271,007 100.0 253.890 100.0 228,042 100.0 203.493 100.0 172,794 100.0 154,340 100.0 149. 048 99.9 140,518 99.1 139,232 94.8 177,077 75.3 195,203 62.2 151,561 33.1 168.195 28.8 160.664 30.0 142,048 34-.4 130,665 35.11126.896 36.0 150,386 8.9 167.316 8.4172,334- 7.7 176,792 7·3 179,709 6.3 191,850 6.8 182,672 7.9 192,4-69 7.0 213,855 5·9 218,896 5.2 219,999 5.1 210,588 5.0 191,691 5. 4 180,990 5.1 168,387 5.0 163,088 5.2 168,653 5.6 178,657 6.7 188,422 7. 4 193,962 6.9 199,900 6.9 203,952 6.3 205,2 67 6.2 205,042 6.1 207,202 5.7 213,946 5.8 215,673 5. 4 224,183 5·5 238,387 5.3 235,17 1 5.8 234,557 6.5 235, 043 6.8 237,346 6.9 229,406 6.4225,005 6.5 222,735 6.0 215,013 5.7 208,564- 5.9 198,489 5.7 201+,650 6.2 207,895 5.8 222,735 6.0

33·a 30. 17.3 19.9 24.3 20.6 18.6 21.5 26.6 32.7 33. 4 31.2 37.0 41.1 37.9 39.2 42.2 4-4-.6

47.8 57.5 68.0 57.9 38.9 1.4

.1 .9 5.2 24.7. 37.8 66.7 71.0 69.9 65.4 64.3 63.8 51.0 46.2 4-5.0 43.443.3 40.2 41.0 39.2 37.0 36.2 35.7 34.0 31.8 30.4 26.3 25. 0 26.3 29.6 32.8 ·35.5 37·5 39.2 39.6 39.5 40.4 4-1.9 4-2.5 43.9 47.3 46.1 45.1 44.8 44.9 43.2 41.6 40.9 39.7 37.3 33.6 34-.7 35.9 39.8

0~2

.2 .1 ,..2 .3 .2 40.1 45. 4 47.3 49.3 50 •4 53.0 51.1 53.8 57. 1 58.6 59.2 61.0 62.8 64.5 68.7 69.8 68.1 63.7 59.8 57.6 55.6 54.5 54.2 54.453.9 52.3 52.1 50.6 47.4 4-8.1 4-8.4 48.4 48.2 50.4 51.9 53.1 54.6 56.8 60.7 59.1 58.3 54.2

46.3 4-5.1 42.3 38.0 33.9 28.8 25.7 24.7 23.2 22.0 22.2 20.2 8.2 7.9 7.9 8~o

7.6 7.5 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.1 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1·7 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.9 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.9 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.2 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.0 2.0 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.1

33.~

30. 17.3 19·9 46'a 48.

22.2 27.8 39.6 29.5 16.9 .4

.1 .2 1.2 7·3 12.3 16.5 19.5 18.3 15·2 13.7 13.1 12.5 12.7 12.7 12.6 12.7 12.6 12.1 12.2 12.8 12.8

12.7 11.6 9.9 8.9 7.2 6.6 7.2 8.6 10.0 11.1 12.1 12.9 13.1 13.1 13.6 14.5 14.8 15.9 18.3 17.5 17.1 17.0 17·3 16.9 15.2 14.8 13.8 12.6 10.8 11.5 12.1 14.4

58.2 51.0 43.5 33.1 33.4 31.2 37.0 41.1 37.9 39.2 42.2 44.6

. 0.1 .1 .1 .1 .1 .1 9.8 12.3· 13.3 14.2 Ill-. 8 16.6 15.1 16.8 19.8 20.7 21.1 20.8 19.5 18.9 18.7 18.4 18.6 18.4 18.3 18.1 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.1 18.1 18.1 18.2 18.4 18.3 18.4 18.4 18.4 18.5 18.7 18.9 19.1 19. 0 19.2 19.5 19.6 19.6 19.6

46.3 45.1 42.3 38.0 33.9 28.8 25.7 24-.8 23.4 23.2 29.5 32.5 24.8 27.5 26.3 23.3 21.11-. 20.7 24-.5 27.3 28.2 28.9 29.431.3 29.5 31.2 34-.6 35.4 35.6 34.1 31.1 29.3 27.~

26. 27.3 28.9 30.6 31.4 32.433.0 33.2 33.2 33.6 34-.6 34.9 36.3 38.6 -38.1 38.0 38.0 38.4 37.1 36.4 36.1 34.8 33.8 32.1 33.1 33.7 36.1

very roughly through 1938 & 1939 from Social Security Bulletin, statistics . f ...;. by States. ~

-

TABLE XLI.

AlABAMA

RELIEF IN DOUARS TO RECIPIENTS (Excludes Administration) A Year 1933

1934-

1935

Month July August September October November December

$4-41,220 764,026 810,665 1,010,626 1,168,492 811,495

January February March April May June July August September October November December January February

693,306 548,363 754,986 931,596 1,107,728 1,082,607 1,185,210 1,744,144 1,563,658 1,078,836 1,008,779 864,146

March

April May June July August September October November December 1936

1937

1938

1939

General Assistance

January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December

~Federa1

1,059,516 909,447 931,352 1,046,368 1,290,492 1,071,078 1,166,700 1,300 ,780 592,171 715,894 201,710 142,632 34,477 24,539 18,088 17,018 15,887 9,71'} 17,215 llt,69 i+ llt,165 17,218 17,386 17,879 18,219 17,984 16,257 15,2lt6 15,172 llt,763 12,750 11,553 12,758 14,139 15,196 17,586 25,981 17,795 20,123 20,679 21,890 22,848 32,970 28,767 21,526 22,699 23,212 24,424 25,622 24,929 22,62lt 19,436 18,515 18,lt03 19,095 19,597 18,3lt7 21,425 20,621 20,820

participation starts.

B C Federal Total Special Categories Work Special Dependent Programs Categories Old Age Children Blind

Totals $441,220 764,026 810,665 1,010,626 1,851,155 4,006,620

$682,663 3,195,125 4,074,291 3,176,702 1,846,728 89,022 1,080

4,767,597 3,725, 065 2,601,714 1,020,618 1,108,808 1,082,607 1,185,210 1,744,144 1,563,658 1,078,836 1,008,779 864,111-6 1,059,516 909,447 931 ,352

1,046,~68

1,290, 92 1,071,078 1,168,700 .1,475,780 1,205,171 1,442,894 1,247,710 1,316,632

2,000 175,000 613,000 727,000 1,046,000 1,174,000 1,289,000 1,287,000 1,21},000 914,000 1,071,000 1,079,000 1,06lt,000 1,088,000 1,092,000 1,055,000 1,065,000 1,060,000 981,000 985,000 931,000 918,000 91+2,000 897,000 736,000 73lt ,OOO 66lt,ooo 72lt,OOO 747,000 813,000 914,000 1,006,000 1,097,000 1,209,000 1,343,000 1,443,000 1,565,000 1,8"75,000 2,120,000 2,197,000 2,248,000 2,237,000 2,122,000 2,111,000 2,119,000 2,037,000 1,988,000 1,876,000 1,769,000 1,569,000 1,622,000 1,832,000 1,748,000 2,013,000

$87,980 116,423 41,712 79,080 79,547 133,010 152,2ltl 166,125 168,871 171,775 173,516 173,931 171,lt14 171,760 17lt,89B 176,999 172,00lt 179,694 186,870 196,785 200,040 217,581 219,562 226,028 228,620 228,258 233,288 232,074 223,5 09 226,065 255,880 255,588 250,17lt 223,251 22lt,778 226,03lt223,860 223,540 224,922 226,664 227,185 227,592 236,566 24-0,339 227,809 251,040 2lt9,053 248,273

$32,2 03

$55,777

48,446al .67,977el

17,550- 24,16244,219 34,861 43,1.L50 36,097 89,4-76 lt3,53450,847 101,394113,093 53,032 113,617 55,25lt 113,436 58,339 58,881 114,635 '58,908 115,023 111,909 59,505 58,844 112,916 114,93lt 59,96lt 120,103 55,928 53,668 116,758 54 ,801 123,031 128,703 55,508 58,206 136,045 58,696 138,596 149,067 65,325 151,829 64,392 68,000 154,535 69,427 155,544 67,9 lt 8 156,527 69,766 159,473 69,171 158,797 151,932 67~558 70,074 151,925 150,892 10c,892 149,lGlt 102,018 1411-,154 101,911 149,80:;. 69,225 70 150,060 . d+l.j. 70,496 151,257 69,37lt 15°,217 149,764 69,59B 151,389 69,193 153,llt1 69,1 09 68,982 15~,673 68,650 15 ,273 161,255 70 ,5 07 163,502 71,973 65,597 157,536 172,647 73,3 00 70,1J.l9 173,770 70,116 173,238 ,..)

1,411,457 1,427,962 1,272,800 1,010,098 1, 166,43lt 1,221,729 1,233,456 1,268,8191,275,036 1,243,993 1,255,902 1,251,810 1,170,633 1,174,744 1,122,155 968y 1,110,21+5 1,578 1,129,176 1,862 l,091,lt57 2,659 935,620 2,53lt 9lt2,338 2,7lt8 876,798 3,189 955,720 3,3ltl 981,758 3,493 . 1,056,614 3,649 1,168,601 3,783 1,252,053 4,049 1,350,411 4-.106 l,lJ.61,753 1,588,399 lt~019 It,066 1,691,913 1+,096 1,85J,250 1+,326 2,159,355 4,109 2,391,700 1+,223 2,41+2,95 0 1+,174- 2,495,990 4,281 2,487,458 It,269 2,371,482 4,178 2,359,lt69 4,3lto 2,366,5lt6 It,411+ 2,283,100 1+,530 2,233,700 It,669 2,121,995 4,804 2,024,661 4,86lt 1,828,936 4,676 1,868,156 2,104,465 5,09~ It,86 2,017,674 4,919 2,282,093

Dollars per Case A B C $5.°3 7.30 6.97 9.89 10.08 $23.15 8.23 55.43 7.74 40.37 7.12 28.16 8.50 41.59 8.56 98.04 11.09

12.02

12.38 15.90 13.78 12.79 16.01 14.25 17.33 15.4416.09 16.69 20.15 16.70 17. 05 19.4414.88 15.37 6.83 8.58 4.19 4.35 4.98 5.6~ 5.5 2.98 6.49 6.92 6.71 8.35 7.98 7.92 8.03 8.12 7.69 8.17 8.33 8.45 8.73 9.19 9.65 10.30 9.88 8.08 8.53 9.22 9.80 9.58 9.75 9.27 7.947.4-9 B.71 9.11 9.20 9.23 9.37 9.17 9.07 8.92 9.0lt 9.11 9.23 9.148.36 9.85 9.12 9.11

7.15 23·51 22.18 26.88 24.29 26.80 27.70 28.70 2lt.56 31.01 32.77 33.98 35.04 3lt.98 34.02 3lt.11 3lt.88 3lt.73 35.23 3lt.36 35.1lt 35.03 38.32 35.50 36.lt1 36.38 36.06 3lt.79 33.97 32.65 33.69 31.74 31.15 32.25 31.89 33.56 35.12 35.38 35.92 3lt.79 36.00 35.55 35.59 36.39 37.66 38.72 37.61 37.48 ~8.lt8 3.25 45.03 lt5.11

40.12

$9.77 ~.43 ·71 7.17 7·30 10.02 10.08 10.25 10.61 10.90 10.92 10.83 10.68 10.63 10.81 1l.29 10.92 10.93 11.00 11.32 11.44 11.92 11.66 11.62 11.55 11.3411.30 11.1lt 10.80 10.80 12.09 12.10 11.61 10.37 10.33 10.30 10.19 10.12 10.12 10.11 10.06 10.04 10.20

10.26 9.71 10.62 10.23 10.18

T~

Year

Month

A General Assistame

1933

1934-

1935

1936

. 1937

1938

1939

July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December January February March April May June July August September October November December

XLII.

NORTH CAROLINA RELIEF IN DOLlARS TO RID IPIENTS (Excludes Administration) B C Federal Total Special Categories Work Special Dependent Programs Categories Old Age Children Blind

$531,4~

$531,434 43 6 ,731 ~94,984

83,937 $283,64-8 543,358 4-56,414- 2,631,54-7 502,857 3,255,888 531,229 2,502,884764-,4-70 1,200,925 607,4-344-8,273 672,742 1,655 714-,077 756 ,673 925,837 730,4-09 704-,066 978,717 1,009,889 1,078,987 828,324954-,960 964-,888 1,057,1% . 881,283 84-2,737 64-6,185 6,000 626,258 42,000 679,570 44-4-,315 350,000 8 2 830,000 7 ,3 5 79,000 1,066,000 83,000 1,125,000 70,000 1,134,000 69.,000 1,091,000 70,000 995;000 956,000 82~000 89,000 785,000 84-8,·000 79,000 84-9,000 63,000 861,000 63,000 909,000 56 ,373 826,000 59,688 810,000 59,702 809,000 59,232 0 787,000 58,67 798,000 59,901 764,000 55,886 761,000 55,216 656,000 38,l.t-l0 611,000 34,357 591,000 31,523 596,000 30,555 610,000 32,661 667,000 39,746 746,000 43,009 840,000 39,623 900,000 37,693 969,000 34-,928 39,328 1,022,000 39,24-7 1,075,000 33,135 1,265,000 31,106 1,472,000 29,759 1,570,000 26,333 1,639,000 27,594 1,757,000 34-,926 1,805,000 34-,07 0 1,596,000 36,24-5 1,566,000 37,812 1,651,000 34-,800 1,598,000 35,698 1,557,000 38,141 1,482,000 30,822 1,418,000 35,226 1,188,000 35,762 1,306 ,000 38,05 0 1,437,000 37,298 1,527,000 39,553 1,659,000

yFedera1 part icipation commences.

Totals

$5,000 10,496 8,347 7,675 5,1+4-45,368 5.055 7,218 7,214 7,4-25 7,320 7,4-33 5,512 5,366 5,l.t-09 5,755 6,175 5,719 48,903 32 ,102y 68,24-3 104,333 8 106,683 157,3 9 199,471 135,817 243,616 166,779 283,572 193,759 306,032 208,233· 337,218 227,356 369,67 0 24-6,703 399,4-64- . 264-,859 416,44-7 274-,877 430,8l.t-8 283,497 416,033 277,1 07 l.t-19,166 277,978 425,296 283,976 4-31,l.t-08 288,866 438,755 294,332 4l.t-5,061 298,924 4-48,989 301,758 4-56,973 306,399 460,395 307,971 4-63,210 309,349 4-64,90l.t- 311,028 465,763 312,535 487,038 333,525 492,630 3~7,198 l.t-93,207 3 0,817 497,652 346,331 l.t-98,188 3l.t-6,251 503,366 349,762

$5,000 5,000 5,000 5,.000 5,000 5,000 5,055 5,098 5,233 5,632 5,379 5,386 5,512 5,~66

5, 09 5,755 6,175 5,719

9,4-16~

22,14432,888 l.t-2,020 52,478 64,280 72,Oltlt 84,320 96,359 107,348 113,507 119,182 110,971 111,088 112,506 113,521 115,911 117,686 118,676 121,935 123,986 125,653 125,644125,416 125,148 124,051 122,776 122,563 122,861 124,22l.t-

436,731 394,984 483,937 827,006 3,087,961 3,758,745 3,034-,113 1,965,395 655,707 674-,397 714-,077 756,673 925,837 73 0 ,4-09 704-,066 978,717 1,009,889 1,078,987 828,324954-,960 964-,888 1,057,196 881,283 84-2,737 64-6,185 632,258 721,570 794-,315 902,385 1,150,000 1,218,1+96 $5,4-~6 3,3 7 1,212,347 2.675 1.167 4-4-4- 1,°7°, 368 1,04-3,368 879,055 2,120 934-,218 919,2141,981 931,4-25 1,793 1,94-1 972,693 ~,04-7 893,121 875,214873,598 851,079 863. 656 826,061 821,935 7,38~ 74-3,313 749.690 13,94 . 17,818 779,912 826,026 21,63l.t886,277 24-,359 99 0 ,318 25.533 25,755 1,095.041 25,542 1,216,841 26,608 1,3°7,363 27,257 1,4- 03,392 28,063 . 1,l.t-77,775 28,169 1,5l.t-5,095 27,955 1,714-,168 30,100 1,922,272 28,814 2,025,055 29,081 2,096,741 28,512 2,223,349 28,451 2,284,987 28,555 2,079,059 28,639 2,059,218 28,4-38 2,1l.t-9,207 28,208 2,096,010· 28,232 2;057,602 27,812 1,985,90428,365 1,935,860 31,381 1,715,856 29,61l.t- 1,8314-,969 28,758 1,972,702 29,076 2,062,486 29,380 2,201,919

,m

Dollars per Case A B C $7.29 7·07 7.17 8.41 7.69 $390 .69 7.10 60.17 6.67 4-3.06 6.45 33.00 7.94- ~2.32 8.18 6.64 9.20 9.59 10.01 11.4-7 9.47 1l.~1

14-. 2 13.68 14-.55 11.88 13.53 13.61 15.98 14-.21 14-.13 11.98 12.68 14-.29 10.35 4.77 5.12 5.38 5.10 5.39 4-.76 5.69 6.09' 5.30 4.73 . 4.66 4.81 4.81 4-.76 4.7l.t4.89 l.t-.76 4-.65 4.86 4.80 5.11 5.30 5.53 5. 63 5.79 5.76 5.12 5.30 5.21 5.73 5.87 5.35 5.% 5.l.t-8 5.45 5.61 5.71 5.61 5.l.t-2 5.58. 5.68 5.97 6.42 6.18 6.07 6.24 6.51 6.30 6.17

10.98 10.16 13.66 22.11 24-.98 $16.12 25.27 11.68 26.92 9.63 8.03 29.67 29.91 13.88 31.41 16.26 27.24- 16.09 27.51 15.79 30.08 15.85 29.82 15.79 31.61 15.77 29.08 15.78 29.46 16.11 29.80 16.11 31.01 16.09 31.99 16.12 30.94 16.12 32.83 16.10 32.28 11.02 31.81 10.4-5 31.29 10.39 31.88 10.W 31.18 10.55 30.68 10.60 29.82 10.60 30.00 10.7l.t29.4-6 10.79 29.47 10.9l.t29.56 10.95 29.18 10.99 31.11 10.59 32.66 10.61 32.62 10.61 32.52 10.61 32.01 10.63 32.72 10.69 33.57 10.77 33.25 10.8l.t33.94 10.90 35.03 10.92 35.22 10.92 35.79 10.92 36.26 11.15 36.68 11.13 l.t-l.23 11.08 4-2.81 11.14 41.82 lL10 l.t-l.11 11.15

TABLE XLIII.

TEXAS RELIEF IN DOLLARS TO RECIPIENTS (Excludes Administration) A

Year

1933

1934-

1935

Month

General Assistance

B C Federal Total Work Special Programs Categories

$1,324,124 1,373,095 822,118 958,025 1,344,948 $3.023,534 925,640 8,193,047 January 708,665 8,560,654 February 926,156 6,025,729 March 1.067.146 3,930 ,041 April 1,462,142 109,449 May 100 1.980.118 June 1,727.247 July 2.353,419 August 2,902,633 September 2,672,110 October 2,972,197 November 3,820,097 December 3,928,168 January 4,497,902 February 3.927,425 March 3,324,624 April 3,161+,111 May 3.029.197 June 1,9 28 •2 9 July 2.015.8+2 August 1,622,523 Septomber 7,000 1,376.988 October 176,000 1,386,274 668,000 November . 1,154,253 1,904,000 December 891,219 January $ 3.18 7 526,7 88 2,832,000 $ 3,187 3,282 3,282 February 503.3 09 3,211,000 3.264 March 3,264 519.423 3,308,000 3,284 3,284 April 522.600 2,945,000 May 3,349 3,349 383,051 2,542,000 June 3,343 373,539 2,455,0003,343 July 91,111 2,233,000 943,697 $940,267~ 3,43 0 3,462 August 95,487 2,242,000 1,181,214 1,177,752 },453 September 96,932 2,056,000 1,265,925 l,262,472 October 3,447 91,688 2,165,000 1,340,120 1,336,673 November 3,391 94,031 2,296,000 1,375,442 1,372,051 3,275 December 105,734 2.242,000 1,508,957 1,505,682 3.244 January 99,414 2,012,000 1,376,714 1,373,470 February 3.255 96,295 2,459,000 1.4-97.311 1,494,056 3.195 March 102,067 2,327,000 1.700.444 1,697.249 April 3,17° 99.000 2.531.000 1.764.507 1,761.337 3.095 May 92,000 2,523,000 1,769.204 1,766,109 3,0)+5 June 89,000 2,386,000 1,735.638 1,732.593 2.987 July 94,000 2,025,000 1,656,149 1,653,162 2,844 1,799,000 1,606,515 1,603,671 8~,000 August 2,771 80,000 1,489,OOC 1,586,524 1,583,753 September 2,724 84,000 1,377,000 1,559,025 1,556,301 October 2.493 November 93,000 1,465,000 1,574,023 1,571,530 2.424100,000 1,556,000 1,560,671 1,558,247 December 1.139 125,000 1,830,000 1,543,185 1,542,046 January 0 1.01+5 2,051,000 1,531,885 1,53 ,840 4 February 111,7° March 973 115,247 2,291,000 1,525,8 05 1,524,832 April 975 111,571 2,353,000 1,526,831 1,525,856 978 May 106,569 2,503,000 1,528,100 1,527,122 1,088 2,541,000 1,531,200 1,530,112 June 110,398 1,059 July 1°7.761 2,592,000 1,537,223 1,536,16~ 1,058 3,100,000 1,541,704 1,540.646 114-,631 August 1.0l6 },300 ,Ooo 1,552,537 1,551,521 108,149 September 982 112,679 3,317,000 1,567,522 1,566,540 October 1,564",123 1,563,177 3,834,000 November 946 117,894 8Jl1. 3;782,000 1,568,176 1,567,322 131,189 December 655 142,500 3.453.000 1,572,000 1,571,345 January 142,300 3.580,000 1.583,000 1.582.263 February 737 1,386 148,300 3,846,000 1,597,000 1,595,714 March 1,259 April 132,360 3,602,000 1,621.000 1.619.741 401 May 127,246 3.445,000 1,645,000 1,644,599 1,296 104,261 3,350,000 1,673,000 1,671,704 June 982 July 104-,447 3,089,000 1,660,000 1,659,018 641 2,991,000 1,680,000 1,679,359 August 97.547 550 90,806 2.806~000 1,716,000 1,715.450 September 473 October 91,992 3,098.000 1.024,000 1,023.527 423 NOvember 93,000 3.101,000 1.042,000 1,041,577 4 1,306 3,638,000 1.057,000 1,055,69 101,200 December July August September October November December

2

1936

1937

1938

1939

special Categories Dependent Old Age Children Blind

~/Federal

participation commences.

Totals

$1,324,1241,373,095 822,118 958,025 4-,368,4-82 9,118,687 9,269,319 6,951,885 4,997.187 1,571,591 1,980,218 1.727,247 2,353,419 2,902,633 2,672,110 2,972,197 3,820,097 3,928,168 4,497.9 02 3,927,425 3,324-,6243,164,111 3,029,197 1,928,239 2,015,842 1,622,523 1,383,988 1,562,274 1,822,253 2,795,219 3,361,975 3,717,591 3,830,687 3,470,884 2.928,400 2,831,882 3,267,808 3,5l8,701 3,418,857 3,596 ,808 3,765,473 3,856,691 3,4-88,128 4,052,606 4.129,511 4,39~,507

4,334-,2044,210,638 3,775,14-9 3,491.515 3,155,524 3,020,025 3,132,023 3.216,671 3,498,185 3,694,589 3,932,052 3,991,402 4,137,669 4,182,598 4-,236,9844-,756,335 4,960,686 4-,997.201 5,516,017 5,4-81,365 "5,167,500 5,305,300 5,591,300 5.355,360 5,217,246 5,127,261 4,853,4-4-7 4,768,547 4,612,806 4,213.992 4,236,000 4,796,200

Dollars per Case ABC

$6.58 7.52 7.92 8.03 9.23 $22.7° 7.50 4-9.12 6.30 35.77 7.14- 33.81 6.64 38.52 7.41 40.20 9.82 9.17 10.52 11.70 11.68 12.55 15.00 14.58 16.16 14.49 13.09 13.87 14.88 11.15 13.06 10.88 9.89 5.33 10.50 24.08 8.65 15·30 7.33 25.81 10.50 27.98 $15. 03 10.38 26.86 15.05 10.76 29.48 15.0410.67 31.71 14-.99 8.26 30.23 15.01 8.17 30.31 14-.99 6.80 29.08 15.66 6.77 28.97 15.51 7.26 26.52 ·15.53 7.12 28.15 15.39 8.30 29.46 15.20 8.10 29. 0 1 14-.86 6.89 26.85 14-.74 7·13 32.54 14.47 8.07 29.36 13.93 8.53 31.91 13.78 8.07 32.10 13.60 8.39 33.34- 13.51 9.12 33.25 13.74 9.34- 32.69 13.75 9.4-1 33.65 13.71 9.88 33.70 13.70 9.78 33.03 13.70 8.4-0 29.41 13.70 8.92 29.62 13.69 8.31 29.78 13.71 8.29 30·59 13.72 8.62 29.46 13.73 8.32 30.82 13.73 8.78 31.34- 13.749.19 30.93 13.76 9.21 34-.59 13.77 9.29 36. 03 13.80 9."14 33.69 13.81 9.36 34-.02 13.82 9.69 34-.91 13.83 9.31 32.65 13.84 8.92 34-.03 13.89 9.{)9 36.07 13.95 8.99 . 36.36 14-.01 8.76 36.79 14.07 7.73 36.77 14.15 8.49 36 . 1 7 14.14 7.90 38.47 14.17 8.08 42.11 14.22 8.45 7.29 43.64 8.60 7.68 4-1.548.75 7.59 41.02

FEDERAL SURPLUS MARKETING ADMINISTRATION

~orce

When certain types o~ ~arm products are produced in such excess ~s to prices down to extremely low levels, both ~armers and consumers stand to

lose. ~ an e~~ort to bene~it both the ~nrmer, the consumer, and in addition help states yrovide ~or their needy citizens, in Pennsylvnnia the distribution o~ such comrnodlties is handled through tho Department o~ Public Assistance.

The progrOl!l began operation in Pennsylvania in 1933 and during the past three years, 1938, 1939, to"October 31, 1940, ~orty-~our commodities with a"retail value o~ more than $15,000,000 havo been distributed by the Department. Urr':or thin prGGr8D surplus ~oods are purchased by the Federal department at points whero surpluses exist and are transported and furnished ~ree o~ charge to the states ~or distribution to eligible persons certi~ied by the Department. During the same period (1938-1940) the Department spent more than $750,000 to do~ny the cost o~ distribution, with nearly 400,000 D.P.A cases pnrticipatingincluding schools, public institutions, and demonstration projeots. Under the Food stamp plan which is now operating in several Pennsylvania localities, 50 oents worth o~ blue stamps are given ~ee ~or each $1.00 worth o~ orange stOl!lPS purchased by eligible persons. With the single present exception o~ Philadelphia (only D.P.A.), both D.P.A. und W.P.A. eligibles are perTIitted to bUy ~ood under the stamp plan in the ~ious sections where it is operating.

\

48

FROM DElIT REPORT - 1939

"The conolusion the commission draws from this section of its roport is that the burden of corporation stato taxes, and particularly on the capital of

corporat~ons,

is heavier than in

most other states, that this burden adds to tho difficulties of operating industries in Pennsylvania at a profit, tends to eat up the working capital of businoss, retards the development of industries located here, and aets as a deterrent to the location of new industries in this state."

4'

LEGISLll-TIVE C01\J.."JIT'l;.-~i.~S TO n~V.:'.0rl.IGATE RELIE~F 101D FELH:/ 1u);',LHbTRATION PU){bU;J~T TO L"GI2Li,TIVE ;,~SOLUTIONS, 1932-1940

CQ1ll.lldttee to l',Jake an Invc.stigut~on of the Specia.l Poor Districts of

Phil"c.elphia HouiJe Hosolution Serial No. 5G (Not printed), Adopted Aug. 2, 1932. Report p. 7296 of the 1933 Legislative JOUTI1&1. GlJ8cial Cowlni t tee GO Llak~; a 0tucl;y of 1'111 LeGisle.. tion Relative to Unemployment neHef, House H8s01ution No.3, AC,-opted Jun. 17; Je':;ort presented March M., 1933, p. 7281 of 1933 Le[:;isl"Uve Jourm:l. Cm!1inittee to Investigate Unel:lr~loYiLlent anu. Work Holief ~ lIou.J8 Resolu tion

No. 64, Adopted April 12; RePort pr'3sented lilay 1, 1933, p. 5070 of 1933 Le"islative Jourm:l. Co..rmictee to Investigate i'Jecds for Helief and Methods of AclJllinistration, Concurrent Resolution Serid No. 136 (Not PrJ.nted), Adopted by Sena te May /+J by douse May 5.

1933 S18cial to Inves tigate Sj~ill as to No. 15, Adopted Dec. 13, 1933.

COil1IJli tr,ee

r::~'

_ 1)enSeS,

Vlo.ges, etc., House Res.

Investigation of AlleLll2ny County HeUef Board (By S8HB), Concurrent Rbsolution Serial No. 206, AlCopted by Houue Dec. 13, by Senate Dec. 20. 1934 Special Stuc:.y of Conditions 0.ntl CD-uses Resultint:; in the 1I0ver.looked rvian" in the Pro';,lem of UUfJuqloynlGnt Helief, House Resolu tion No. 15, A~opted SOJt. 19 •

•JO.Lllt

L·..; .l~-,l, ..~ive Co _..it,~8C to I~lvostit./ite the D.!.i;.Iy,ri-,:mti01J of Pu'ulic ReJ.ief in Pc.:..} H. R..;s. tJo. l~:_O. Al..'opted in HOUhC A.Jril 4, Senate A~,l'J..l

d;

j1resented JU;Je 19, p. 7637 of 1935 L~,,).s1u.tive JCJurnd. "nd j'jJ. 1620 ,:nO: 1765 of 1936 L:,~iS'1J.tive Journal.

RC")Oi·t

CG_ '" ti'c G~e to Lp.r:,:u t...l,,~~v.te A.u.;J ,.!:l·.';;IJy COUi; ty Eu:.::r.:.:~J..lcy heLef Bo.J.I'd, House

RJ;,olutlon No. :.4, Aliopted F"'E'~...ry 13; R~,lort .l.J:ccl3cn ted M.... y 14, p. 7567 of 1935 L:'uisli:i t,ive Journ&l. GOi.":"li~tec to

Irl,,,-.:;Jt.i;.).. ~t.e jjjl'ks Cvunty t;~.I.l.iJr._)eZ1~~1 R:...:lief B~) :'u.

RJ:.·,ll"tJ.on No. 150, A,:,.,t"u l'lLy 15.

50

HOU-[jEl

12.22

(Contrd) COlmnittee to Investigate In,,,ir County i',mergoncy Rulief Board.

Resolution

~o.

130,

rlQO~ted

House

May 6.

Committee to Invectigate C&,abria County EJOlergency Relief Board, House Resolution No. 59, Adopted lv/arch 5. Comuittee to Investigate Beaver County &uergency Rolief Board. Resolution No. 112, Adopted April 3; Report June 17, p. 7634 of 1935 Legislative Journal.

Houso

COHlli1ittee to Investigate Lhwrence County E lIlcrgency Relief DouI'd, House Resolution No. HI, Adopted April L Comnittee to Investigate Lehi(;h Cuunty iCmergency Heliof Board, House Resolution No. 107, Adopted April 4. COJIlmittee to Investigate Luzerne County Emerg8nc,JT Relief BOard, House Resolution No. 157, Aciol'tecl .,Tune 3.

Committee to Investig':ite NorlJhumpton C01.mty Erl18rgency Relief Board .. House Resolution No. 124, Adopted April 22; RepOl't June 21, p. 7614 of 1935 Legislative Journal and p. 172fl of 1936 Logislb.tive JournaL Committee to Investigate Schuylkill County Emergency Relief Board. House Resolution No. Sel'iCll No. ISO, AC10pted April 18. Committee to Investigate Viashincton imu Greene County Relief Board. House Resolution SO, ACloptsd N~rch 19; Report June 18, p. '7635 of 1935 L8[;isldive JouI'lJal. Committee to Investj.gate Westmoreland County Eme"cency Helief Board. House Resolution No. 97, Adopted April 1; Report June 18, p. '7636 of 1935 Legislative Journal. COil1mittee to Investigate Operation of &ulJl'gency Relief Boards in

Certain Districts, H. Reso 53, Report_ June 21, p.

1936

Aciopted

Feb. 25;

7644 of 1935 Legislative Journal.

S~ecial

Joint LeGislative Cm,1ll1ittec to PrGpare a Plm] of PerrJanent AdministratiolJ of Unemploymont Rolief, Senate Concurl'ent Hesolution SeriQl No. 103 (Not Printed.), Adopted by Sentcte June 21, House .July 23; Approved by Governor July 30, 1936. Join t State Gove"nmslJ t Commission to ,;lake a Study of the Unemployment Relief Problems, ;louse llesolution Serial No. 134, Adopted

May 26, 1939.

,

51

I'F-,

COL .OF T.34TE.

FDS Tllff TO ROUSE

~i:':3CL7nc~~ 1[0.

110 J 1935.

LO:::;,r, COnCtOL. On the chief defects in the present system, is the lack of responsible, efficient control in a local boa..·d or director in each of the several rounties or areas in the State.

]lnployment relief in these areas nasoeen conduci;ed

under various branches such as the Division of :Uirect :t31ief, the 'Jorks Relief Division, the Financial Division, Disbursing Office; the Employment Bureau, etc. In the past there has been a lack of coordination

bet~een

these divisions each

operating separately under various rules and ragulations promulgated

fro~Har-

risburg and Tashigton and "ithout ",nyone locally having '!'uthority to bring them into cooperation.

As the conditions in the several counties and areas differ

",idely it is wholly

L~OBSi',lc

for uniform rules to apply satisfactorily.

The

result is neces"arily confusion, inefficiency and waste, and -",hat was intended for equality becomes gross inequity. illustrate this condition.

One of two examples

~y

"e sufficient to

For instance, relief checks hava been

persons for weeks after such recipients to have been given employ=ent.

t~ve

~iled

to

been reported by employers or others

This is due to the fdct thdt such information

must go around-about course from

syste~

elapses before the paymaster obtains the

of files and cards so that a 10n3 kn~ledge

tL~

Which stops the taxpayers'

money from going where it is not needed. I

Again by reason of the fact that a uniform bUdget system is set up applying to all counties or areas, pcrsons on fams or

s~ll

tracts of land or in other

f'avorable situations Da,T be givcll the sa,IIC relief' as thosc -:1ithout the aid which these ciraIrlanc.es might have afforded if T;lroperl-y used. 52

Even in the same county,

different sections produce different conditions which cannot be met by any standard set of rules. Relief administration, therefore, in the opinion of a majority of the Committee should be decentralized to a much greater extent than at present and the local boards should be given authority to make such rules as will provide reasonable relief at a minimum of expense to the taxpayers.

With such powers thore

would go, of course, a responsibility for which the boards would be held account_ able. CHISELING The sUbject of chiseling was one that was brought to the attention of all the committees appointed to investigate the administration of relief.

This term in its

narrow sense may be limited to those who deliberately accept relief while having money in bank or elsewhore and those who receive relief chocks while fully employed in private business.

In its broader sense it may apply to all those who take

more relief than needed, to those who fail to aid themselves by planting their farms and gardens and those who in work relief fail to render the serviee reasonably to be required for thoir pay. The number of chiselors in the narrower sonso tho Committee feels is not so large as indicated in certain of the testimony.

Howover, it is sufficiently large

to take a considerable amount of money unlaWfully.

A few prosecutions of the flag-

rant offenders in each area should have a wholosome effect in disceuraging this form of choating the pUblic. The othor form of chiseling to which wo have reforred is moro serious in its lasting results. to it. State

The giving of relief in i.tself has demoralizing features attached

The recipient at first reluctant to aocept aid mVDS

s~n

him a living vnthout undue effort on his part.

cemes to feel that tho

~e

feel that the atti-

tude bf tho professional social worlror too efton encouragos the relief worker to assume a position of dopendonce upon tho State. More officiont local control with the employment of investigators

~ho

discourago giving relief to all ,vho can help

'\, thomselves, will have a salutary of.fect in stopping all ferms of chiseling. 53

SOC IAL NOr1Iili"rtS

In the investigation by the Comndttee, no criticism occured more frequently than that relating to the type of employees administering relief.

Under Federal

rules and regulations, the administration of relief has passed to a large extent into the hands of professional social

wor~ers

and conducted from their point of view.

The testimony of the Assistant Administrator of Direct Relief showed the large measure of free play given to the social influence in the whole administration of relief. Unfortunately many of these persons have been salaried men and women who do not have the viewpoint of the taxpayer who conducts a business with great difficulty to avoid insolvency or who only by most strenuous efforts is able to save himself and family from going on the relief rolls.

Everyone desires, of course, to uplift the

standard of 11ving of those in want but the danger today from the enormous increase in the cost of relief, is that the whole of society will be precipitated into the same ruin so that the standard of all will be eventually lowered. The Committee feels that the minimum of' relief that will reasonably support the unemployed and take from the overburdened taxpayer as little money as possible in this emergency is the best solution at this time.

As the comprehensive report of

the House Investigating Cemmittee for Allegheny County puts it "The taxpayer cannot perpetually support ene-fourth of the popUlation as a social workors' experimental lab brat ory. " A common cause of complaint by recipients of relief was the

~lle

requiring that

investigators must have a college or high school education and in some· cases must pass an oral examination by a "social ,"elfarc" supervisor. of those on relief would make better investigators and payers by being taken from the rolls.

The Committee

It was urged that many

~ould

f~els

save money for the tax-

that too much stress has

been laid on the sociul training qualification and that sound judgment in business and family training qualification end that sound judgment in business and family affairs is more important than a course in college, and that a policy should be Sdopted for the administration of relicf on c bosis of sound common sense rather than on -54-

a social basis. WORK RELISF Considerable evidence was presented to'the Committee indicatin,:; that the tsngible results obtained payers' point of view.

thr~lsh

Work Relief were extremely expensive from the tax-

For example, several of the County Relief In'!estigating Com-

mittees presented evidence showing that Public ·'iorlcs Projects in their Counties wcra costing four to five times the amount of money which private contractors would have charged for the same work.

Members of the unemployed groups appearing before the

Committ.,-ecomplained about the method of administering such work and themselves pointing out that many of these projects ncre costing too much money. Some of the reasons for this were pointed out by one of the auditors in the State Auditor General's Department.

He produced evidence to show that on certain

Works Projects in Berks County the overhead was running as high as forty per cent of the total cest of the project and that one of the reasons for this high overhead was the fact that foremen, timekeepers, etc. were on a straight salary basis instead of a per diem basis and were pl;lid whether they worked or not.

As few of those in a

supervisory position come ,:rom the relief rOlls, these high c.'sts seem to be unjustHiable. It is hoped that the Auditor General's Department may continue its audits with reasonable promptness as the moneys spent for relief purposes arc larger in amount than the expenditures for sll other purposes.

~e

reeornT"end that an appropriation

be granted sufficient for this work. The mcmbers of the Committee feel that relief projects would be more eff"etivc in their accomplishment and work don" and in real benefit by submitting the same to contractors to be performed in accordance with general business rules. As heretofore stated in this report, the committee has not completed its work. We submit this report at this time so that the General Assembly may take further action if it so desires on the whole subject at this Session. '~

lli..oII

RespectfUlly submitted,

•·...·01

MILES HORST, Chairman WILLIAM J. saOE, JR.

Harrisburg, Penna., June 18. 1935.

~55-

JOSEPH D1\VID BUSH CHARL]S H. EALY H. B. ROro~

COMPARISON BETWEEN LOCALLY SUPPORTED WELFARE COSTS OF 1936 AND 1939

IN 1936

Counties expended for Welfare

$ 8,577,000

Poor Districts expended

14,082,000

Producing total locally-supported expenditures for welfnre of

.$22,659,000

However, oounties and poor districts earned and received

2,137 ;000

Thus, the welfare cost that vms locally supported amounted tc

$20,522,000

IN 1939

Ccunties expended for welfare

$ 6,655,000

Institution Districts expended

9,808,000

Producing total locally-supported expenditures for welfare of

~16,463,000

However, counties and institution districts earned and received

1,766,000

Thus, the welfare cost that vms locally supported amcunted to

$14,697,000

FROM 1936 TO 1939 LOCALLY SUPPORTED VffiLFARE COSTS DECREASED

56 \.

$ 5,825,000

COpy OF LETTER FROM EARLE SURVEY COMMITTEE

Harrisburg." P.... Decrember 16, 1937 Honor..ble George H. Earle Governor, Commonv,ealth of Pennsylvania Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Sir: Complying with your direotions of November 16, 1937, appointing us as a special committee, we have made an investigation of the Depart~8ntof Public Assistance as to its ad~~n­ istration and the provision o£ relief in accordanoe with the law of the Commonwealth; also to determine if the expenditures of the department will exceed the amount appropriated by the legislature for the biennium ending May 31, 1939 and, if so, the reason therefor. We met the day following recreipt of your instruotions and planned ..s extensive ..n inquiry as the allotted time would permit. We ..ppreoi..te the significr..nc. and importance of this survey, as the administration of relief constitutes one of the most important problems oonfronting Pennsylvania ..t the pr.sent time. Our investigation was conducrted with sincerity and thoroughness ..nd the c.nclusions, based on the findings .f the survey. represent our unbiased and impartial opinion. Respe.tfully submitted, (s) D. M. Livingst"n D. M. Livingston, Chairman Public utility Commissioner (s) Harry Margolis Harry Margolis Deputy Auditor General

(s) William A. Sp)\llsler, III Wiliiam A. Sponsler, III Assistant Budget Secretary

\

57

C03T OF GENERi.\L i\SSIST.AtCE

Source: Department of Public Assist ance, Harrisburg, Pcnn::'1.

1932 to 1939, Inelusi va TIAR

1932

IlJliiOUNT

SOURCE

.~"'cderQl

$7,646,000 3,801,000

St~t8

County

1933

1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

TOTAL

-0-

Federal State County

44,318,000 30,473,000

Federcl State County

70,386,000 21,598,000

Federal St,ct e County

119,448,000 29,961,000

-0-

-0-

-0-

Federal state County

63,44.'3,715

Fedcrc.l State County

37,813,000

F.;deral State County

75,979,000

Federal 8tatc County

91,646,000

$11,,:::' 948

74,793,556

91,983,557

119 ,408,645

-0-

-0-

63,443,715

';"0-

-0-

57,613,215

-0-0-

75,979,000

-0-0-

\ 58

91,646,000

DEPART'-E;TT OF P1JELIC L~nSTAl:CE CLASSIFICATION OF "S- ';:LOY;'BLE"

Relief reci]ients are considered

e~ployable

by the

Department of Public Assistance as classified and registe,-oed as ecployable by the state Er,!ployment Service at the tiQe of their application for assistance.

How-

ever, as pointed out in previous studies of this nature, ecployability does not lend itself to iron clad definitions.

It is virtually impossible to

deter~ine

the

exact peint at which the factors of age tSr.1DSra;'ient or apparent hs,ndicsps pass from relative disadvantages to complete barriers to ecploycent.

In addition, all of

these fpetors which affect a worker's ch?nces of reemployment vary fro:," induscry to indus try 'i:i th cendi tions. dU:'ation of UIlemploy,pen t,

econo'~ic

o}:';;;o~ot':U1ities

retraining and e:"ploy·'·ent r8hs,bili tD,t1.on.

for

Local and

individual characteristics plRyin c, 2D L;port2nt part. Likewise, the elc'ents of supply and de!:'and in specific labor

~arkets,

a factor rapidly

assQ~ing

a large signifi-

cance j,n today's expanding national defense c'acilinery determine to a larte extent the employability of an indi viduc'.l ''lorl-.:er.

Thus, in SOT1e C.re" s a surplus of labor

may make it impossible for elderly persons

~ith

little

or no tTa,ininf; to obtain ec,")loyment, C'!hereas in others e.n expecldins; inQustry absorb the

sa:'~e

;~a,~c

create a de'ancL vihj_cr, will

type cf ".'orkers.

Th2S8 considerations

·'.:ust be ;,e;Jt iI: '11nc in evaluatL'c6 the :possible red.uc-

tion in the stpto's rel.lef roll, incr'2asing eY1ploy _snt

2.ssist~:. ~lce

opportu~lit:r.

59

"iit:-..

COUNTY B01.RDS OF ASSIST!lNCE TYPIC"\L ORGlillIZATIONAL rATTERN CLASS I

Chart No.3

COlliTY BOARD OF ASSISTllNCE

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

r

I r m

o

Personnel

Asst. Exec. Director

.--'

--I

1l

J

Relief' Work Program

-~

I

.

I ,

Manager R.W.P:

1

I

Office Management

,_l~" . County Office Manager

:J. Clerical Staff'

:

-1 --,

j

Statistics

~

~,

__ "

Public Relations

I

Resources Investigation

Social Service

1_--, County Super. Asst.Co.Super

I

Pr1n. County Resources Investigator

District Offices

Supervisors Visitors

Prepared by D.P.A. October, 1940

I

r

ComTY BOARDS OF ASSIST.ANCE

Chart No. 4

TYPICAL ORG.ANIZATIONAL PATTERN CLASS V - VI

ComTY BOARD OF ASSISTIlNCE

t

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

0> f-'

.--1

I /'-Cleri'--cal- ,

__I ..

,

Clerical Supervisor

i

I

..

Clerical Staff

I.

I

Social Service

l

I

County -~-, Supe rvi s or

--:::J

j

Resources Investigation

Jr.Co. Resources Investigator

-,

Supervisor Visitors

?repared by D.P.A. October. 1940

;J)J;!INISIRdI'ION OF G.c.fuJL,L R.o:LL£F

fd

Prepared by COl,nc i l of Sta te Governments Chicago, Ill.

State

Ala.

'i.riz.

State .'gency Financial Responsibility Reporting Stlt e , Dept. of Public WiUfare

State Dept. of Social Securi ty and

Both State and local fLnds used for general relief. sta te and local governDents share expenses for relief to unemployahles and em)loyable' ,:Jer'sons on a 50-50 basis.

State fl',nds ksod for all rolief except hospitalization and medical c,.ro, which must be provided from oounty medif, nds. .'lIIlount of local g.~ral

'h"olfaro,funds u.scd for these ser-

vices not known.

Administrative Responsibility

F(1['m of Relief£!

County departments of pkblic welfare administer 6aneral relief under supervision of State Jepartment of Public

Cash re_ lief predominates

\'ielfare.

State matches only cash pay-

Supervision exer-

cisod tllrough visits by field representatives, audits of accounts, and reql,ired reporting. Standards of personnel are maintained on both State and county Lvel through qkalifications set up by Sta te Board.

since

moots.

Grocery ordel's sometimes given.. '

State Department of Socail Eec- Cash urity and Welfare administers ralief seneral relief through its bran- and oh county units, which are s~p- relief ervisod through visits by fiel~ in kind. representatives. All recerds for reports an.d accditing maintained in Stato Office, State Commissioner approves appointments of personnel made by oo~nty board under merit system. Stato Commissioner" appointed by State Board, soloc~s the Stato staff from the throe highest on merit rating lists~ State prescribes standards of rolief.

iO'onnty boards of supDrvisors administer hospitalization and medical care without St~tG supervisien' These agoncies do not s~bmit reports to the 50SCD.

\

62

(CON'I'IN0;ID ) Sta to

ABKilIJ S.H.S

State l\goncy Financial hosponsib il1ty Roporting State Ibpt. of

State fl,nds used for all gonoral relief paymGnts excopt burials, and, in

Public a fow instances, small Vielfaro amo~nts of rolief paid by county judgos from county f,cnds, ,"mount of local f~nds oxpanded not known. State funds allocated to counties are calC'.11ated roughly at ~

.l
Form of

Relicf.

County departmonts of public wolfare administer genoral relief under supervision of Stato Dopartmont of Public Wolfaro. Suporvision oxercised t~~ough visits by field represontativos audits of accounts, and roqu~ed reporting. Gounty diroctors ap~ pointod by county boards sUbj6ct to approval of Stato Board. County jLa~e3 do not submit re~

bl

Cash mlief to employ~ able. porsons from Stato fL,nds; forms of relief to Ullomploy...

ablo persons vary among

counties.

por caso rocoiving roliof ports on roliGf afuuinistorcd from

during previous month. C,\LIF- Stato ORNL, Roliof :lWministration

local fends.

Both state and local funds State Relief ~dministHation suporisGs and urrministors tlu'OlOg,'l its local branch rolief to omployable p0r- offices all garreral relief sons; only ooG-nty "indiS- te em)loyable persons. Payand ont" funds used for relief monts made from contral ofStato fico. 6uporvision cxercisvd to unemployablo parsons. Dept. tD~'ough visLts by Stato field Mril 19'39: n of S::J c- •State funds-aO represontatives, audits of per CGnt ial accounts, and required roportLocal f.1nds~20 per cent Welfaro of total general rolief inG. County boards of superusod for general relicf. Only Sta~o funds uS0d for

Cash relief to employable persons fran State funds; forms of rolief to L.nomployable persons vary among countiDS.

visors or agoncios Qxtablishod dno supe ivised by thom admin-

Gxtondod to cases.

ister all general rCllief to po:'-"'t>ons :wi tnout State supervision. ~ounty boards of suporvisors exorciso complote authority with respoet to gonoral roliof to unomployalblhe persons tenaor torms of sta to law which prOVide that countios shall bo responsible for aid to "all incompotent, poor, indigont persons and those incapacitated by age,

l ..noml)loJ'a1",,}J

disease or accident."

State Department of 30cial

~elfare

adjusts residonco problams among 00

ntios and collocts reports

from cOL:nty agoncios wl:ich admin-

istor ralief to

63

unem~loyable

porsons.

(C0NTINU..w) State

state Agoncy Financial Rosponsibility Roporting State Dept. ef Public Violfare

.>dministrativo Hosponsibili ty

TICuT

.Jv'

County wolfaro dopartments adCash i l l mini ster general reli of lendor lief, greeery ordCo."ntios levy taxes for 1'0- supervision of Sta te Departlief purpos~s and the fl,nds mont ef Public ,;",lfClI'e. Super- ors, and thus obtainod must first vision oJ'ercised throug~"isits commissary be used for >iliC and _
for sonoral roliof.

Beth S";a te and local fl,mls Lsed for general roli of. Commiss- Only local f·.nds usod for ionor reliof to sottlod cases. of Sta te fends used to re1InWelfare burso cities and tcw ns for relief in casos lacking local sottloment in State. Cities and tomls bill State ,uarteTly for thoso casas. -"-pril 1939: Sta to fc,nds-25 per cent local f,ends-;'5 par cent of tetsl genoral relief oxtended to cases.

of

\ \

Form of Holiof

Eo th Sta te and loc al funds

CON- Office

mc-

-----------_._.-

61

Local units administor r"liof Rolif in thro~gh an eloctod board ef kind prB_ seloctmen, a chlri ty commissdominatos.. ioner, a suporin to ndent of _-J.8 a rule: chari ti08, an clectod ovcrsG~r only rolof the; pper, or an appointed i.e t: in town agent. Offico of tho kind is rE>Commissioncr of '\'wlfarc super1Inbursed vises administration of relief under Sta-re te casos lacking settlement law. In and mus t approve b ills from selID inDities and tovms for reimstances, bLrsomont for these. cases, but cash rooxorcisos no suporvision over liof is local administra tiQIl of reliuf reimbursed to sottlod cases upen specState has no authority over ial appli~tandards ef rolief' and porsennel:ation of in local uni tll'. but Dlany loc sl towns units havo rotained workers and b.cdgots establishod '.ndelr illl"" Which had such standards. Stato staff seloctod under civil sorvicorulcs.

( CONTINUED) state

sin te Agency Financinl Responsibility Report. ing

Administrative Responsibility

DELA- Old-Age Both state ond locol funds stete Old-l.ge rQlfnro ComWl>RE WGlfc..re used fOr general relief on mission administers general relief. No person_ Commis- a 50-50 bosis. sion nel standards for employees are presoribed by State Commission.

FlDR-

IDA

stat" Welfor" Bonrd

Only local funds used for general re lief.

Locnl agencies administer geneI'o.l reliof. In ::'ill.j Ority of counties relief is o.dministered by eleoted ~01L~ty

Form of Relief

Y

Relief in kind in form of grocery orders prodoI:1inntes. Some oosh relief given to u-'lemployable persons. Relief in kind predominates.

commissioners in

somo larger cou-'lties, by city or county ngencies whose administro.tive officers are o.ppointed by city or

cou~ty

comwissioncrsj

in two counties, funds o.re turned over to county 1mit supervisor of state Welfare Board. No standords of relief or personnel are mnin_ tcined. .,."'.

stnte Bonrd collocts general relief reports from local agencies.

DIS~

Bonrd of All funds nre from ConTRICT Public gressionnl approprinOF Welfnr" tion. COLUMEIA

Boo.rd of Public W"lfnre o.dminis tors general rolief through its public assis_ t~nce

division,

Dir3ctor

staff o.re appointed by commissioners of District from Federnl Civil Service ~'ld

Cash relief predominates;

grocery orders sometimes given.

registers.

Only 10co.l funds used GEOR. State GIl, Depo.rt- for geneI'o.l relief. mont of Public Welfo.re

Locnl agencies o.dminister genernl relief. In a mnj_ ori~' of oounties county departments of pUblic w"lfare o.rc responsible. In theso COlliltics personnel

is

appointed by county boards, subjeot to qualifioations set up by stute board ~'ld subjeot to approval by state

Cash relief predoI:1ino.tes; grocery orders sometimes given.

( CONTINUED)

State ,',-I

gtnte Agency Reporting

Form of Administrative Responsibility Relief ~

Financial Responsibility

GEORGIA (Cont1d)

departnent. Standards of relief based on uniform budget are maintained, In other counties relief is administered through county ordinarias. No standards of reliof or personnel are ~nintained, but most of these counties submit reports to stuto Department of Public . Welfnre

IDAHO

Department of Public Welfare

Only local funds to be used for general relief after transfer of rosponsibility to tho counties

Early in 1939 responsibility Caeh relief from for general relief being State funds; transferred to tho counties. emergency Conplote transfer nnd withdrawal of Stato support not relief orders somea.ffected by July, 1939. tiffin given from local funds.

ILLINOIS

Illinois Emergency Relief Commis-

Both State and local funds used for general relief. To qualify for Stato-aid, eaeh local unit must lovy n tax of 30 cents per $100 assessed valuation of all tr,xabl" property for relief purposes. State allooation is based on ass~~ption that nbout 75 per cont of this levy is available for year, but if monthly amount is not sufficient to cover relief neods, which are esti~tod on monthly ''''sis by local QUit, State makes up ns much of deficit as possible from Sto.to funds, tho latter being limited to $2.900,000 per mo.

Local units administer gen. Cash reeral rolief under limited lief presuporvision of Illinois dominates Emorgency Relief Commission. in Chicago; in 84 or 102 countios in relief Stato, thnro arc 1,J~06 town- orders proships in which eleate," township dominate supervisors are rosponin all sible far administ.ntion of other local relief. In 17 COQutios, relief county comT1issiol'.ors are. units, responsiblo, and generally nppoint 01'.0 of their members as overse0r of poor. In Cook County, comrrissionor of relief is Dppointed to administer reliaf in oity of Chicago through Chicago Rolief Administration. In 30 townships of Cook County outside Chicago tovl!1ship supervisors are responsible. State supervision exercised through staff of finDncinl eXaminers who are r~sponsible for fi~uncial and statistical reports to IERC and through stuff of auditors who examine

sion

66

loco.l

ILLINOIS Cont'd)

State

for mecho.nico.l

prepersonnel, or methods of o.drlinistration.

state Agency Report~

rocor~s

iC·:1'·,,.f~ctions IERC does not oori 1)6 sto.ndards of relief,

.

Fi',r.:.loid Rcaponsibility

Form of Administrative Responsibility Relief.!?l

ing INDI-. sto.te Un~Only local funds usod ANA employfor general relief. Alment Re- though 0. $2,000,000 lief State appropriation Commiswas mude, it has never sion been used.

IOWA

Sto.te Board of Social Wolfare

Both State and locul funds used for goncral reliof. As of April, 1939 State Funds_ 32 per eont LOcal FtL~ds-68 por eont of total general rolief exte~ded to cases,

Township trustees udminister general reliaf without State suporvision •. Consultation services on problems of udministration of general relief is avuilable to townships threugh Stete unemployment Rolief Cermnissien •. General relicf reperts are prepared by membors of SURC staff. About July 1, 1939, tho IERA which formorly had rosponsibility for general reliof was combinod with the SDSW. No other information available,

Relief in kind, mestly in form of grocory orders prcdominatos;

fow towns have com0.

missaries.

Reliof in kind, in form ef gr'Jcory orders predominates; some cash relief; largGst

county(Polk) has commissary;. KAN_ SAS

KEN-

TUCKY

\

\ \

st"",

Bonrd of Sociul Welfaro

Both Stato and l~cal funds used for goneral relief. Ceunties advunce all funds for reliof to casos and arc reimbursed for 30 per cent of upproved expenditures from S tato fu-~ds. In addition, .Stute funds allocated to counties for emergency purposos 0.mounting to approximntoly 20 per cent.

Stute De- Only local funds usod pc.rtmont for generc.l relief. of Public Wolfare and Ken. tuoky Emergoncy Relief Administrution (KERA) ~67-

County boards of welfare administer genoral relief under suporvision ef Sto.te Board ef Social Welfaro, Supervisien exercised through visits by fiold roprosontntivGs, Qudits of accounts ,.and roquirod ro_

porting. County dirc)ctors urc c.ppoi.nt0d by eounty boards uno

(;oun~y

C~.Jh

r--:;li)f

r.~".c~ r~li~f ~_:.,_

'-:i...,.(l.

i'~

:"lOst CC'ltr'l_ ti'"J,'J; i-'

.pr t170 C otr".t i : '']..J'' ~."~,,, r-::li"f i--' O'lli

>:i'~':

o:"'.-ly.

porsonnel

is subject tc StQtc approval.

Fiscal courts udJni:1ister general relief in ~ost counties through elootod oounty judges but COQ~ty is not Qlways udministrative u-~it. In largor oitios private agoncies un~ public welftcre departmGnts under direction ef appointed offioers administer relief. A limited number of towns and munioipalities ulso administer relief•. Stato Dc-

Relicf in kind in ferm ef groceries and clothing c.lwUYs given OJ;copt in urbnn arous.

(CONTINUED)

Btnte state

Agency Reporting

Ferm ef Financial Rosponsibility Adnlinistrotive Rosponsibility Roliof

E(

KENlJ1UCKY (Contd)

partmont of Public Wolfaro has, by law, authority to superviso administration of gonoral reliof, but exoroisos this suporvision only by collootion of statistics from most of looal units. Kontuoky Emergoncy Rolief Administration oolleots and oompiles statiwtios from a few solooted leo(\l units.

LOUSt~,~ Only St(\te funds used ISIANA Depart- for general reliaf. ment of Pub l i 0 Welfare

Information not availablo.

MAINE

Cash Relief

Stato Both Stato Qhd 10CQl funds Leo~l units administer genoral reliof through overDopart- used for genoral rolief. ment of Only local funds used for soors of tho poor, welfare Health oases with local sottlodepartments, town managors, ment, oxoept in towns finan- oxcopt in towns finan_ and Welfaro oially unablo tc support cially unable to suppert thoir poor in which Stato their poor, whore state adfQ~ds aro usod, prinministers roliof through ci~nlly for support of un- Emergoncy Aid Commission omploj~blo parsons. Local (Emergonoy Aid Commission units ndv~~oo funds for was ostablishod by ordor of oasos without sottloment Govornor and Counoil for and aro reimbursod quartor- this purposo.) Expondily or monthly by state on turos for unsottlod cases bQsis of rocciptcd bills. whioh arc roimbursod from April 1939; Stnto funds are supervisod State Funds-3D pOl' eont through an audit of accounts Local Funds-70 par cent On basis of which roimbursefor total genoral roliof mont is mado and through extended to casos. visits by fiold staff mombers. No looal standards of rolief or porsonnel arc maintained.

\

-68-

Rolief in kind predominates;

some oash rolief; Q few oi t .. ies have comrnissuries.

Locnl

officials aro olected or appointed Stato personnel is omployed by Commissioner of Health and Wolfare with approval of Governor and Council. Stato Porsonnol Board, ostablished by Legislaturo of 1937, will make up lists from exruninations from which to drc.w futuro omployos. State Departmont of Health and Welfare colleots genoral rolief ropcrts from all local offioials.

( CONTIlWUED)

state

state Agency Reporting

MARY- state

Financial Rosponsibility

Administrative Rosponsibility

Form of Roliof

Both Stato and local funds usod for gonoral reliof.

BcgirtningOctobor 1939, in 'ordor to receive Stnte funds, generai relief 1Jlust -be ,ad;ministered through the local welfaro bo~~ds. undor the supervision of the SDH~.

Cash relief prodominates;grocery orders sometimes given.

y

LAND

Depnrtmont of Public Wolfntoe

MASS.

state Both State and local ~~ds In most local units a select- Cash roDepart- used for goneral relief, man, a member of tho board of lief in ment of locnl funds are used for welfare, or an agent appoint_ cities; Pub'lic granting aid to all casesed by tho board administers grocery orWelfare regardless of legal setgenoral relief. In some larg- ders pretlement status. sto.te funds or cities, a conlL1issioncr is dominato are appropriated annually appointed under Civil service. elsewhere; to reimburse cities and State Department of Public Wol- two cittowns for amounts of aid fare exercises nominal super- ies have provieusly granted to un_ vision ovor eases having legal oommissarsettled onsos. Citics and sottl"mont by collGction of ies. tm~ns also claim roimmonthly and annual roports on bursomont from other operations, State department cities and towns in which re- exercises supervision of cipients of aid have logal cases having no legal settlesettlement. Fiscal yoar mont through cortification onded June 30, 1939; Esand authorization aftor invostimated State funds_23% tigntion and through audit of Estimated Loeal Funds-77% bills submitted annually. for total goneral rolief ox- No attempt is made to GStonded to easos. tablish a standard budget, but One is available to be used as a guide., State personnel and porsonnel in certain citios are under state Civil Service.,

\

\ \

69

(CONTImr-.m) State

State l~cncy Rcporting Financial

!.lICH- State Dep-

IGl;N

artnent of sockl \'1elfore

, Rcsponsibi~ity Admi~in~trative Responsibility

Both Statc and 10e01funds used for genernl nelief. Statc funds for general public rcli~f ere alloce.ted nontl:ly to .the

On the State level, the Depnrtnent of Sociol Welfare, under the supervision of " Stnte director, odrdnisters general public relief. The

cou!ltics on the bosis of

county board has Gs,sumcc1 the

the need for relief funds

po~ere

in the cour..ty durinG the

farmer county cncr"';cncy -.;c1-

Forn of Relief E! Cecsh 3clicf Relic l' in kind.

nnd 'duties of the

psst year, the current fore relief corr.dssio'lS, the financial resources of superintendents of the poor, the county, nnd t:oe "--'Jaunt "n(l s;Ich duties of the counspent by the county for rc-t:' 17elf"re Qr';ents as perte,in lief purposes during the to relief. preceding month. In no The duties of the COU:lty &n~"c~cc· ho"ever, is the boards are to appoint the cOlmty ,oreceivc less heeds of institutions under than it spent cut of' its C,iD funds during the prcceding month fc,'r [;cncrQl

their supcrvisior. such ']8 county illfirl;IDr1cs end juvcr.ilc c1ctC:ltlCiE home; tG '~Ic1-

public relief.

'·.o.inistor, in cooperation "ith the Stnto depnrt!:1C:r_t, relief problens of the county, includinG Genercl public relief; to exteco.d relicf to destitute persons lacking settletwnt; to cssist the probute courts in r~kiDG investigQtions; o~d to extend tcnpornry relief to nonresidcDts. The county beard alsn 1:3$

charbe of cne !"espcnsi bility

for the buricl of

indiGe~t

persons.

3liCibility for public ~s­ sistancc has been rc-dcfincd in the nCTI Got,

insof~r QS

general public relicf inv017ing only oounty ana State fu~cs is concerned. Tc receive relief other th1n tc~­ --c·,r·"1ry cmcZ'Gcncy relief, ''In

applicant ~)f

• \

70

the

~st ~c

St~tc

of

~

rcsidcLt

~;Iichig~n•

_ _ _--;,..,...-,---,

.

~(.::c.::c:;:Jr:;.;;lINI8D.L)

_

State AGency

Stete

Rcport ing

Fil'Gnci.~l

lcsponsi 1,.11it:'

Ad~inistrQtivc ~csponsi~ility

Forn of

::lelief l.'INN:.. "SOrA StQtc DCP8rtr.cnt of Socio.l Security.

Both State and 10e'11

not o.vQiloble

fUllGS used tor gcn-

Rolief in kind

er81 relief. April 1939:

prcdoninntcs.

Inforr~tio~

St~te f~nds-81 per cent LOCQl funds-19 per ccnt Of tot31 ,,;o:lerDl relief

extcr..dcd to

CC.SI2S.

MISSISSIPPI State Dep-

O~ly

ortrxnt of

:L\_l"1

local funds used ~-~encro.l

relicf.

p.,blic Welfare.

County boards of super-visors ndlIlnist2r GcnerQl reLief except in counties 'liJhcr~·. responsibility of disburse:lCut of General relief funds hos boon delegated to privntc ~Gcl:cics •

CQsh relief prec1oru.notcs; groc;3r~J

and merehelIldise orders froquently 6 ivcn •

:",

. ::. ;·'I'Je"!';.~· .

No standards of reliof or pcrso!U1cl nrc Cou:r.ty

Llt..'1 intQn(~:1.

,9- c.pc:::"'J'isors

nrc

cl-

ected; o.clninistr,-::.tGL'" B of pri-

vctc o~eTIci~s arc appointed b~T officers of such cgcncics.

Stete Departr.1er"t of Fublie ;lclf.. ,re eollccets gener,.,l relic f' rGport s. ~-

_I SS-

OURI

\

Relief Count; soeinl security iel kind offices eGLunistcr General relief in t~jorityof fran cCLlnties under supervision of State Funds. State Social Security Commission State eernfnssion excrcizcs supervision throuGh visits by field represer.tntivcs 0nd required ~cporting, prsacribcs sta~dQrGs cf reliaf end lOCQl personnel, and enpoints loee} directors. In SOi~ counties providing loenl feLCh:: , fundr; ere turned over to sooial security offices 1'JU "P?ly rc qu1:'G: c1 m:1.... _.:;b:.:y....:;c::.r:::,u=n~t:.;'-' ..;c:::o;;,-,;:;'r,-t~sJ.i ...,;;i;.:n..;;;c;t;;:h",e~r.::s:JI'_

State Social Both St::tc emu loc~l Security COD-funds used for General ~ssio~. relief. State cnd loeal units are to share cost of ge~eral relief ou 60-40 besis. State sets n~zi~L~ ~~ount ~hieh each eounty may spend tram State funds t a~Q this n~ou~t is 8Xpected to be supplcTIcntcd by nn additional local share of 40 pe~ ccr.t. Ir. r,ctuLl prnetice, .~ll counties e:
71

(CaNT IlTUED)

Sto.te State AGollCy Reporting MISSOURI (Cont'd)

Financial Responsibility

Form of Re~ lief

.y

aunt ond somo counties

supply no local funds. In a few counties, small amounts of loc~l funds ~ro aili~inistored by local officials for goner~l reliof. April 1939: stato funds-97 per cent Loc~l funds-3 pet cent of total general relief extended to cases.

MONT_\NA Stato Department of Public Walfare

Administrative Responsibility

Both State and local funds used for genoro.l relief.

funds are retained by courts to be dr~wn upon by social socurity offices. In a few counties small ~~unts of genoral relief from local funds are administered directly by county courts without supervisLn of either Stato Commission or county offices. These county courts do not submit raports to SSSC.

COlmty departmants of pUblic walfara amninistar ganeral relief under linitad suparvision by St~te Department of Public Welf~re. Statistical reporting is mM-

Cash relief in larger

r8con~ndations

ies, county

countiesj

cash reliof and disbursing orders d~tory and supervision is ex- given in orcised through visits by other counfield ropresentatives. OA~a ties. In workers in sOl7le counties make two countr0gardi~g

oligibility and size of grant cOlnrnissionin others, c·:}unty c():.llTIissiDn- ers grant relief by ers, either directly or through the clerk and record- verbal orer, give relief orders with- ders to merchants. out in"iTostiGaticm or reCQr.lmendntion of trained staff. (Sinco June 1938 all counties grant relief in cash or on

disbursing orders. )

-_.- -------- -- ---- - - - NEBR..\SKA Departmont of Assista.r.('l6 ,md Child Welfare

Only local funds usod for general relief.

\

72

County assistance director, appointed by county assistance committee, administers genoral rclief in nost counties, Department of Assistance and Child Welfare collects general relief reports.

Relief in kind it! form of grocery orders pr... dominate i

some cash relief; the largest ,

(COIITINUED)

-----

-------------St~e-------------------state Agency Financial Rosponsibility Administrative Responsibility Form of ReportRelief ing "'----

:Y

------ ..

Nebraska (Cont'd)

county (Deuglas) ho.s 0. cormnisso.ry •

.'

Nevo.dt\ Both St'1te and local '.Rolief Adfunds used for gontpunistro.tion ero.l relief. Stt\te funds usually usod for relief to o~plo~ able persons, ro,d county funds for reliof to unemployo.ble persons; All Stt\te Funds hnndled through an o.gent of Nevo.da. Emergency Relief Administrt\tion undor general supervision of state Board of Relief, Work Planning, and Ponsion Control. Emergency

county cO~lissioners administor genoro.l relief to uneuployable persons in all counties except three in which 0. superviser of relief, who is appointod b J' cor:u:d BS ionors to repro :lont theIl, is rosponsible. Nevud~ EDcrgoncy Relief Adninistrntion net:Li.nistors

genero.l relief to enployo.ble persons with o.dvice of Sto.te Boo.rd of Relief, :,7crk PI Ollring J and Pension Control which, by lo.w, ho.s power to "supervise the administration of poor rolief-- within the soveral counties of the Sto.te." Representatives of NEfu' in each county co"rdinate with local administro.tors.

Relief in kind in \ foIT.! ef grocery or rent ordors from

Sto.te funds; cash relief from local funds in c.ll but exceptional cases.

NE'N R:''',[l'SHIRE

Sto.te Depo.rt- Only local funds lwnt of Pub- usod for general lic Welfare relief

state

,~ency

ceasod to

exorcise su?ervision us

to standards of personnel and relief upen withdro.wel ef financial participation on Jtme 30, 1936.

-_ - - -------------••

73

Relief in kind prodomino.tos although co.sh grants are oncour-

aged.

( CQ1,TINUED )

State

St.'lte Agency Reporting

NEW JERSEY

Finnncial Assistance

---'--- ..

_~"

Financial Responsibility

-

.1.ssista.ncG COl:ll";:ission

_ _-----,- __ ..

- ..

._.

Adninistrativo Responsibility

Both State. ,md 100'11 funds usod for gonernl Commission relief Tlargely Stnte ·funds). Total collectb'e share to bc Dorne by municipnlities is determined by st ate legislature; individu~l sharo of eilch participating Cluniciprllity is dotermined by Financial through forLlula b'cSed on t.~ collections, and bo.lance is Llet froLl Stilte funds granted to municipality.

-

By law enacted April 30, 1938 local assistance boards appointed by chief executives of municipalities were established. These boards appoint welfare directors, who mayor may not be ovecseers of the poor. Municipalities failing to ostablish such boards are not elisible t~

Form of Relief

Y

Relief in kind dominates; sot1e cash relief.

roceiva Sto..te funds.\ Integration of tho J?~W

with tho State Department of' Insti tuticns nnd ~\gencies is pending.

-------_._----_ _-------------..

NE.W MEXICO

State Department of

Both State and lac 0.1

Relief state Depffi-tmont of Public Wolfare adrJinistors general in Public Wel- relief. State funds kind relief through its branch fare disbursed by State depCOill1ty officos. Supervision artment in accordance exercised through visits by with need and cuse load field representativos and in counties nnd oonount roquired reporting •• Appointof Stnte money avnilnble. monts of local porsonnel are ;,mount of loc"l funds used no.do by Sto.to dopartment, which is sl'l'lll. also disbursos all state funds .\.pril 1939: directly end prescribes plnn Stilte funds- ,,2 per cent under which county funds aro locnl funds- 18 por cent expanded. of total genoral relief funds used for

gencr~l

extonded to cases.

---------------------

74

(CONT INUED ) state state

;1g,mcy

Reporting _ _--..:::;.:E.. NEW YORK state Depo.rtinent of Social Welfare

Financial Responsibility ",dministrative Responsibility Forl'lof Relief

.y

-,-

Both State m1d local fun~ ds used for general relicf, State funds used to reimburse local ~elfare departments for 40 per cent of relief extended to Cases with settlement in m1y welfare district in State and for 100 per cent of following special itoms: (a) cost of relief to cases having no settlement in any welfare district in State, and (b) east of rolief to New York State Indians who live onresorvations. Local funds initially used for all purposes, subject to above reimbursement procedures.

75

Town, city and county welCash fare departments aili
(CONTINUED) ----,=-"'r:-------------~---~-~-------

State

state Agency Financial Responsibility Reporting

Administrative Responsibility

1"Grm of

Rolief

::I

-----"---_._-- -------- -- --_._----- ---- ------------NORTH C/..ROLUL\

Sto.te Boo.rd of Charities and Pub-

:Only locul funds used for genoral rolief.

County depo.rtments of public Reliof in welfare, under diroction of kind in superintondont appointed by form of welfare board and county com- grocery missioners, administer n~st orders general relief. MQ~icipal predol"and private ubonoies administer inutcsj some general relief. state some has no actual supervisory cash powers, but most county depart- relief. ments administering general relief also amninister special typos of public Q.Ssistance afforcling opportunity for State fiolcl reprosentatives to make suggestions and to instruct on methods of handling general relief. State Board of Charitios and Public Walfaro collects general relief reports.

Both Stato end locul funds used for general relief. State funds allocated on basis of formula which considers financial conditions of counties, relief loads, and other fuctors.

County welfaro boards, headed Relief by an exec uti va socretary, in kind administer general relief under in form supervision of State Public of gro-iYelfare Board whon financed in cery, whole or in part by State funds. rent, Supervision exercised through and visits by field supervisors, medical uudits of accounts, and reorders. quired reporting. Board of Cash Public Welfare establishoD relief. and reco~nds standards of rolief end approves 0.11 appointments of professional staff and board members to 10co1 agencies •

lic Wel-

fare

NORTH DAKOTA

State Bo ard of Public -vVolfar",

.--_._---

76

(CONTINUED) State state Agency Reporting OHIO

State DepartDent

Financial Responsibility

A~inistrntive

Beth State and local funds used for GQnoral relief on a 50-50 basis. State funds arc distributed Donthly te each lecul relief aroa in an amount equal to but not cxcooding 50 pOl" cent of the ebligntiens incurred during the preceding menth by each Ie cal reli6f area frem poor relief funds, provided that the tetal atlount of State funds fer any calendar nonth does not exceed tho Donthly percent. ages of the toto.l State· appropriation set up in the Act. In case one-half of the totul unount of obligntions inourred by the local rolief arcus is in excess ef the unount of State funds that nuy be distributed during the Denth, the unount of State funds distributed to euch looul urcu is rcduced proportionately.

77

Respensibility

ForD of Relief

E!

Stato Dopurtnent of Public Welfare collects general relief reports. General reliar administered by ceunties and nunicipalities withcut any State supervisien

Reliof in kind in ferm ef grecory crders predcnina.tes;

whatsoever.

so:r.w cash

Tho county ootlDissioners in reliof and tho county lecal relief areas cetlDissary and thc prepcr board or officer supplies. ef the cities in the city lecal relief a.reas arc responsible for theadninistration of poor reliof. The city Day by agreonent ro~~ite with the ceunty area fer the adDinistraticn and or financing of poor relief. It is al.. pessiblc for a county ~~ city cr cities to enter into an agreemcnt whereby a city adtlinisters relief for other cities and the county loco.l relief area. "The Stato Directer ?ay ~pnduct invcstigQ.tions (~ the eligibility of the rol~ef of recipients, but such investigations do not in any way take the place of rcutino invostigations by tho local rolief authority. The State Direotor in effect is respensiblo for Daintaining a degrco of unifornity in tho reliof progruns boing conductod by all reliof nuthorities in the Stato." (t.nalysis of l",~nded Substituto House Bill No. 675 Previding for tho Administrntion of Poor Reliof preparod by tho Ohio Stato Dopartnont of Public Wolfaro.)

State state

Ag~

~1 Responsibili~J

Administrative Responsibility Form

Fc

at

Relief

y

'J

OKLA- state Both Stnte nnd local HOMA Board funds usod for ~enor­

state Board of Public Welfare supervises and administers of Pub- 0.1 relicf. sto.to funds genoral relicf from Stato funds through its branch lie allocated to counties county welfare beards, Wolfare on basis of nood, ,"'ich is judged by size which nro rondo up of county of case loads for past commissioners and county hoalth officers in 47 month. Countios must, co~~tios ~nd consist of by Inw, levy 0. tax of 0.8 of 0. nill for their administrators in other "poor indigent" fU:1ds. 30 counties. stato supervision of loon 1 brcr. ches oxercisod through visits by field rupresoLtativos, audits of nocounts, o.nd roquirod

Cemmodities from Stato Commissarios and

small anounts of cash to unemployable porsonsj cnsh

for work relief to employable person3.

rcportir~.g.

Stato Board prosoribes standards of relief and employs porsernd1 fer all its 10001 units. (In Oklaho~n county a single Qgcncy administers beth Stnte and loc~l funds. Directer and most of persol'l101 are ompleyed by county co~missioners). Ceunty Co~.issiQners in all counties

nc~inistor

county

fun:ls for ro lief over which State ho.s no :tl;,:l::L.crity_ COWl.ty COIrJ'J.issionors de not

submit reports to SBPff.

"

, \ 78

(CONrInUED)

State

OREGON

State Agency Reporting State Welfare Comm-

ission

Financial Responsibility

Administrativc Responsibility

Both State and local County public welfare deparfunds used for general tments administer general relief. Prior te l&1rch relief under rules and re1939, State and local gulations established by units shared expenses SPJC. Supervision exerfor general relief on cioed through visits by a 50-50 basis in ecfield representatives, cordancc with need and audits of accounts, and reavailable State funds, quir~d reporting. except that relief to SPNC approves all county non-r"sidents, other than administration and prcotransportation and menls cribes local standards en rou~ is paid entirely of personnel. State perfrom State funds. sonnel is appointed by Effective W~rch 1939, full administrator, in nccordpayment of administrative ancc with pUblished stancost of general relief dards, ~ith approval of from State funds; all gen- SPNC. eral rclief oxtended to cones shared equally by Statc and countics. April 1939: State funds-50 per ccnt Local funds-50 pcr cent of t at al general re lie I' extended to cnses.

79

Form ef RelicI' Jd Cosh relicf predominates; some relicf in kind in form of l;"Clief orders.

(CONTlNU'.&D ) state State agency Reporting

Financial Responeibility

Only state funds used PEKNSYL- state for general relief. DepV"NIA artment of Public Assi stance.

80

Administrative Responsibility

Form of Relief bl

County boards of assistance Cash relief. administer general relief as agents of State Department of Public Assistance. state treasurer makes all disburesments of state funds for general relief. state department, with approval of state Board of Public Assistance, established rules, regulations, and standards as to eligibility and nature and amount of relief, prescribas forms, racords and reports, and supervisas local uni ts through field representativus. Emplo~nt board for state Depwrtment of Public Assistance, in accordance with specifications determinad ~CJi.ntly oy Zmployment board and otatc department, conducts civil service examinations and establishes civil service registers from which the secretary of public assistance selocts state personnel and county assistance boards select county executive direct~ ors and other county personnel.

(CONTINUED) State State llgencY .. Form of Reporting Financial Responibility Administrative Responsibility Relief bl RHODE ISLAND Cash'for work State DepBoth State and local Information not availrelief; usually artment of able. This department, funds used for genrelief in kind however, is responsible Social Wel- eral relief. for direct refare for old.age assistance lief. and aid to dependent children under plans approved by the tocial Security Board and also responsible for general relief. Recent can. solidation. SOUTH C.8ROLINA State Department of Public Welfare,

,~, .~

Both State and local funds used for general relief, State and local governments share expenses for relief to unemployable persons on a 50-50 basis in all counties participating in program of State department. State boars entire expense of relief to needy employa~les. In oounties not participating, only local funds used. April 1939; State f~nds-54 per cent Local funds-46 par cant of total gcneral roliof extonded to ceses.

81

In tho SO counties which participate in State program county departments of public weI faro administer general reliof undor supo~vision of Stat" Depar~;llont of Public Welfa.:co. Supervision oxorcised threugh visHs by field re::;>ros"utatives, auditb of accounts and requirod roport~ng. Stato dopartmc.'J.t pro·· scribes sta~dGrds ~f

relief and local personaL In a fow countios elected county cammissioners administer "poor relicf." Those countios submit roports to SDPYl.

Cash relief in counties under State program; cash relief and relief in kind . in other counti '"s.

( CON TIN UED) State Stato Agency Reporting Stato Dak. Dept. of Social Socurity

S.

Financial Rosponsibility

Administrativo Responsibility

Only local funds usod for gonoral relief.

Boards of county commis- ReHof in kind sioners administor gonin form of grooral roliof, oxcopt inso- cery orders profar as thoy have dolega- dominates; very tod thoir authority to H ttle cash roo. county social socurity lief; one county officos. This dolegation has a commissary. of authority varies from reforonco and cloaranco cf applications, to comploto administrativo responsibility, subjoct to approval of the commissioners. state Department of Social Socurity collocts goneral relief roperts.

Only local funds usod for State Department of Public Tenn- State Welfaro colle cts general essee Dept .of genoral relief relief reports from local Public Welfaro agencies which administor public funds •.

Form of ReHof

.Y

Cash relief predominates; some

re lief in kind; Knoxville and Memphis havo commissaries.

Toxas Stato Only local funds used Dept.of for general reliof. Public Welfaro

New dopartment established Relief in kind. in Sept. 1939 to be responsible for the adaptation of policies, rules and rogulations govorning the administration of the special types of publio assistance, general relief and the distribution of Federal surplus commedities •

.,

utah

State Dept.of Public Welfare

DO':;h local & State funds County depts; of pUblic VICl- Cash relief and used for gonoral roliof. fare administer goneral clothing orders State pays total amount reliof undor supervision of to unemployablo expendod by county depts. Stato Dept. of Public Wolpersons; disburof. publio welfaro and is fare. Suporvision exeroised sing orders for later reimbursod for 15% through visits bJ fiold rop- emorgoncy cases of total by counties. Only resentatives; audits of accounts, and to county funds usod for hos- and required reporting. State employable pitalization and modical department prescribes standards/persons. care administorod by county of relief & personnol. County commissionors. commissionors appoint local boards with approval of State board. County commissionors also administor from local funds only same general relief for hospitalization and medical care without supervision of Ste.te dept. These ngoncios submit roports to SDPW•. 82

( CONTnnJED) State Stute Agenoy Finunciul Responsibility Admini.strutivo Responsibility Form of Relief Reptg. Relief in kind Ver- State Only local funds used for Informution not uvailuble. predominutes. mont Dept. genernl relief. Publio Welfare Re lief in kind Vir- State Both State and local funds In 115 lccal units, local in ferm of giniu Dept. of used for general relief • departments of public welgroce ry orde rs Public State allocatiens made faro administer general reliof undor suporvision of prodominates; Vie lfa ro en basis of population. County boards of suporStato Dept. of Publio Welsome cash ravisers, city mnnagers, fare. Supervision exercised lief. er mayors apply to State through visits by field ropDept. of Publio Wolfnre resentatives, audits of fer their proportiennte aoceunts, and required reportshare, at the setr.le time ing. State does not prescribe signifying willingness standards ef reliof, but atte provide sixty oents of tompts to rniso standards by local funds for each doll-~n educationnl program. Local ar ef State funds and to suporintondents aro appointed sot up lecal administra- by lecal govorning bedies, tive unit. April 1939: SUbject to appreval by tho State. State funds 49 percent Superintendents in cities are Local funds 51 percont appointed by oity managors or of total genornl roliof ceuncils, with or without approvnl extended to cases. of State. All superintendents are subject to control by lecal governing bodies, but extent of this oentrol varies 'r.ldoly among counties.

W. VA.

Stato Both State and looal funds Dept.of used for general relief. Public State funds nllooated to Assist. ceunties on busis of need, after local funds of 1510 of total county tux lovies havo been expendod fer welfare and reliof purposos.

83

County departments of public Cash relief ussistnnce administer genor- predominutes; al roliof under supervision Relief in kind of State Dept. of Public in form ef groAssistunoe. Supervision ex- cery orders ercised threugh visits by for emergoncy field represontatives, aud- and short-time its of accounts, und requir- cases. od repcrting. stuto dopt. prescribos standards of personnel. County directors are appointed by county councils from certified registers. Amendment passed in last session of legislature uutherizing SDPA to certify employuble cuses to the Stute Roud Cammission; if employublo person refused work, relief was disco~tinued. (Began operatien July, 1939).

Stato Stato Agency Reptg.

Financial Responsibility

Administrativo Rosponsibility Ferm of Reliof

bl

WASH- Stato INGTON

Both Stato and local funds Counties aro charged with Cash rolief predominates; Dopt.of used for goneral reliof •. tho responsibility, by and Social The counties provido funds through their resppctive rolief in Security by means of a tax upon the boards of county commis~ kind in form assossed valuation of the sionors for the adminisof grocery taxable property at a rate tration of tho 3 spocial orders and not loss than 3 mills to types of public assistothor redischargo thoir responsi- anco and gonoral relief lief ordors. bility for general assist- but they are subjoct to anco. If any oou"ty finds Stato supervision. Tho Dethat proceods of the 3 mill partmont of Social Security levy are inadoquato, tho serves as a singlo Stato county administrator is em- agency to supervise the powered to submit to the administration of public Diroctor and committee a assistance and general roquest for a special relief. In order to segrant-in-aid of State curo gr::mts-in-aid, it is funds. incumbent on tho countios to maintain such rocords pertaining to expendituros and te conform to suoh othor requiremonts in respect thoreto as may be proscribed by tho Departmont of Social Security. (Excerptod from Sooial Security Laws of Stato of Washington as of April, 1939) •

, \

84

(CONTINUED) Stato state Agoncy Reptg.

Financial Rosponsibility

~oth Stato and local funds CON- Dopt. of usod for general rolief. SJN Publio State funds allocated to local units on basis of need and fiscal capacity of looal units to carry their ovm burdens. State appropriatien is ~~de to Emergency Board whioh ' makes monthly releases to Publio 1'10 If'are Dept. for allocation to localities. April 1939: State funds 10 porcent; Loc"l funds 90 percent of total gcneral relief extendod to

WIS- State

cases

WYO- State !.IJNG Dept.of Public Welfare

Both state and local funds used for general relief. State makos up differenco between relief needs and relief funds available in counties.

Administrative Responsibility Form of Relief Local units administer genoral Cash re lief and re lief in relief undor suporvision of State Public Welfare Dept. kind in form in 34 countios rolief is adof grocery ministered by county rolief ordors. depts. with appointod administrators; in 28 ceuntios, by elected tovmship chairmen or overseers; and in.9 couptios, by appointod administrators of groups of to"nships. In 32 counties Stato maintains ~goncy for purposes of cortification and contral application services. State supervision oxercised in all theso local units through visits by field reprosent~ atives "nd required reporting. State law providos that standards of relief shall be locnl responsibility, even when Stato funds aro expended. County depts. of Public Wolfare Cash relief administer general relief under & relief in supervision of Stato Dept. of kind in Public Welfare. Supervision ex- form of groercisod through visits by field cery erders. representatives, who review CUSDS four times n yo~r to dotcrmir-o compliance vnth state standards and te suggest improvements in case vrork methods; audits eZ accounts; and reqUired reporting. Stato prescribes standards of relief und porsonnel.

FOOTNOTES ~ Material in this Table is assembled from information compiled by the Bureau

of Rosearch and Statistics, Division of Public Assistance Resoarch, Social Socurity Board. The information in this column is frem a StUdy completed by the Social Security Beard in Docember, 1937.

.85

THE COUNCIL OF STATE GOVERNl\IENTS Regional Conferences on Subjeot of Relief The Council of state Governments held during the·year 1940 a series· of regional oonferenoes in Chioago, New York, Atlanta, Denver, and San Franoisoo, on the subjeot of relief, attended by State legislators and relief administrators. The relief problem was disoussed from the administrative and legislative points of view. In these oonferenoes information was developed that showed the number of persons Who were dependent in sorno degree on pUblio assistanoe at the end of 1939 was 17,695,000, oomprising 6,183,000 separate households. In more than 43% of these oases, the funds were derived frem federal sourOeS almost exolusively. In about 34% of these oases, federal funds matohed almost dollar for dollar the funds raised within the states fer relief· purposes. In the remainder of the eases, slightly less than 25% of the totnl, tho funds wore entirely from souroes within the states. It was agreed that the geal of the Federal Works Pregrrms -- to provide fer all employable persons on the relief rolls -- had never been ovon approximated. It WaS agreed thut there was threughout tho United States a laok of 00ordinat.ion betweon the W.P.A. and the genoral relief pregrnms within the statos and inasmuoh as these twe pregrams deal with the some greup, that this laek of coordination beoame exooedingly important. Tho conferenoes agreod that the present Federal Works Program and the goneral relief programs should be finanoed by grants in aid to the states and supervised by the Social Seeurity Board or a similar agenoy. The representatives of the states were in general agreement that the whole relief pregram reqUired reconsideration at the present time in order that changes in pelicy and administration may bo clarified. It was agreed that a continuing relief program was inescapable and should be a matter of concern to the state, federal, and local governments, and that all areas of govornment should to somooxtent participate in the planning and financial support of the future program. There was general agreement on the advisability of an over-all relief programwhioh would merge the present publio assistanoe catagories with the work relief and goneral relief programs and provide it solely on the basis of need, and that federal, state, and locnl govornments should partioipate in the finanoing of necessary relief servioes. In general it was agreed that the varieus aspoots of reliof should be administered by these whioh oould manage them most effeotively and effioiently. and a very large number ef those present at the oonferenoe expressed a preferenoe for the administration of general assistanoe at the looal level of government.

86

ESTIMATED J'.J'UMBER OF ]!MFLOraS IN NON-AG:ncULTURAL ESTABLISEMEIITS

Source:

U.S.

Departme~ of

-.J

Lebor, Employment 4Une 1940

&;

Iayroll

Percent

Stete

june 1940

june 1939

Illinois

2,192,000

2,101,000

Indiana

760,000

717,000

Mn·ylrud

497,000

470,000

Mass&chusetts

1,257,000

1,256,000

I-E.!

Michigan

1,336,000

1,250,000

I-

6.9

New jersay

1,145,000

1,087,000

I-

5.3

New York

3,833,000

3,760,000

I-

1.9

Ohio

1,732,000

1,658,000

I-

4.5

Pennsylvania

2,626,000

2,490,000

f: 5.5

Wast Virgini"

368,000

353,000

I-

Wisconsin

619,000

61$,000

f1.1

~

~xc1udos

E.!

Less than 0.1 parcent.

change

I-

4.4

f 6.1 f 5.7

4.0

proprietors, firm members, self-employed persons, casual workors, domostic workors, omployuGs on merchant vessa1s and tha armod forces of the U.S.

87

RECOMdillNDATIONS OF THE S·r••TE JOB MOBILIzaTION COl.l,ITTBE ~.

(The re~Qmrnendations which rollow are those or the Report Cammittee and of the Job Mobilization executi ves. They are presented in the hope that they are of sufficient merit to warrant further study by state officials and the people of Pennsylvania.) . There is a definite need in Pennsylvania for a more complete placement service in the local or county ofrices of the Department of Public Assistance to supplement the work of the state Employment Service. Under the present set-up there is no aGency charged with promoting jobs exclusively for employable relier recipients. These ',",:1 and women frequently surrer in the' labor market competition. The State Employment ~ervice's policy requires that the best fitted person be referred for a job and thus sub-standard registrants may not benefit unless a labor shortage develops. But results could be obtained through local or county placement service, consisting of one or more qualified persons, selected rrom the present staff, where possible, and recei,nng merit rating on the basis of placements made. st,.ess should be placed on securing employment for the re lief recipient rather than focusing major attontion on the purely administrative detail of disbursing assistm1ce funds. It is recommended that the Department of Public Assistance, with cooperation or the Departments of Public Instruction, and Commerce, and the State Employment Service of the Department of Labor a~d Industry, direct immodiate attention to continuing the occupational training and ret"aining programs which are obviously an authentic relief reduction measuro. Seventy requests for Woodside Act vooational training and retraining projec'cs mO.de to the Department of Public Instruction or reported to Job Mobilization headquarters are pendingJ each a possibility for early ,.eduction or relief costs. Because there has been an over-supply or teachors and much criticism has been leveled at the 14 State teachers collages for continued capacity output, it is recommended that tlw Commonwealth consider the inclusion in each of these institutions of onG! a~d ~10 year adv~ccd, technical training courses, so complete as to qualify the t,.ainees for jebs. As an alternative, it is recommended that the State convert rrom three to six of the State teachers colleges into junior vocational colleges. Millersville, California and Cheyney now specialize in the preparation ef industrial arts teuchors ~~d could be so continued. It is suggested that the Governor and the Superintendent or Public Instruction confer on the establishment of a commission to mako an immediate and thorough study and report on this recomnendation. The Department of Labor and Industry should inaugurate a rield service to racilitate and expand the Pennsylvania Apprenticeship Council and to encourage the reopening of apprenticeship traininG opportunities within industry. It is recommended th::>t steps be taken within the Departments of Labor and Industry ond· Public Instruotion better to coordinate the aotivities of the two existing Pennsylvania Apprentioeship Councils (one on standards rund ono on education), or to merge the two cotmcils so there m"y be no confusion in the operiltion of ,m adequate State program or apprenticeship training.

\

It is recommendod that the State Employment Sorvice consider immediately the addition of an occupational information and counseling section to serve youth, a project that should develop into the oetnblishmant sr a Jtmior Employment Se~~~e 88

to function in close cooperation with tho public schools. This service should be equipped to provide current information on occupational trends and epportunities, vocntional training and retraining opportunities, Olld provide for vocational guidance, p12cGlnent Cl1ld follow-up. A complete retr2ining study of employnbles on relief is highly desirable. Also, a study should be mnde of all youth Md adults currently on reliof nnd classified as unemploya' )les (the unemployables representing about two-thirds of the total number of persons on rolief, of which total the number of adults is unknown) in order thnt as m:UlY as possiblo might be reh2bilitated for employment. The Department of Public Instruction is urG"d to take advantage of the headwny that was made in the crunpaign to roduco relief and the great pool of the unmlployed through efforts directed toward:

1.

Appointloent of a chief of an eccupational information and guidnnce service to assist local school districts in hnndling occup"tionnl adjustment problems with the cooperntion of a similnr service recently ostnblished in the Unitod Sto.tes Office of Education; half of tho salary cnn be paid from Federnl funds.

2. Encourngemont of locnl occup,~ional survoys by school districts in cooperation with local representntives of the Stato Employment Service, end application of results to possible revisions of tho school curriculum. 3. Encouragoment of reasonablo expc.nsion of in-school voce-tiono.l training for youth and the tr:dning and rotraining of out-of-school youths and adults undor Stato and Federo.l fin:l..'1cial 'lid previsions.

4. Early attontion to promotien of part-time cooperativo industrial education projocts with industry, particularly in industrial communities where school shops are not now availo.blo; also promotion of retail sales trc.ining under the GeorgeDeen Act of Congress, cl1ld promotion of household service training. 5. Stimulating of school district cooperQtion in providing for voc'ltional education'll f'loilities in ~~y new building oxpansions that are contemplc.tod, and enoouragement of Goneral State Authority and Work Projects Administration cooperation, with the approvC\l of the StC\to Council of Education, in building end financing neW vocation,"l school buildings whoro tho noed exists. Conside,"o.tion should bo givon in such CQSOS to Q rC7ision of tho school curriculum J looking forward to a realloc'ltion of funds now used for less importont phases of oducc.tion. 6. Continuation of efforts to obt,cin tho oooperntion of tho Pennsylvania State Nurse's Association and the Pennsylvoni'l st'lto Board of Examiners for tho Registration of Nursos, to tho end that adequ'lte instructional courses and services be mC\de available for the training of ":.lOusohold aides," workers who are eqUipped to provide elementc.ry care for invalids and cQnvnloscents in low income families.

The problems of unemploo~nt, relief, occupationnl retraining, vocational educ'ltion and tho jlrovidi::;; industry with an 'lvc.ilablo labor supply .o.re so intimately rolatod as to ,"equire for efficient control ru1d direction the ostablishment of a centralized Stateo.dministrativo agency to dotermino poliCY, procedure, and ncccssa.ry i"'(rltl& 1:"1 t~,.ri~~~~:,", .~'. ". :1~'" ~_·.1:l. J:'h:~I.'~lGh n Stnto Employment COWlcil the necessary uniform policies can be dotormined and corrol'ltod with existing services of State departments to moot tho needs of lC\bor end industry~ Such a council could be composed of the Secretcerios of Labor D..'1d Industry, Commerce, Public Assictance ill1d Suporintendent of Public Instruction, who could bo authorized to appoint c0 1:mty and local employmont councils of privato citizens, together with representatives of tho rcspectivo Stato dopartments.

89

The purpose of such a council would be to stimulate empleyment threugh increased busiIiess, the dovolopment of new business and industry, compile and publicize information regarding the available labor supply, develop programs of ec"upatien"l adjustment and tnkc other stops looking tow
90

SUiill:lft.F.Y OI<' TUHNOVm 01' ilE1hJ!' CAStS IN 1939

The total nmabcr of diffl.3rentcaSCf3 (f'urnilics 01' lmattached persons) receiving State gen,Jral tls.'3isU.mce during SOJilO Ilurt of 1939 agGregated D8arly 521,000 a.nd included app:~co:dmacely 1,'111,000 difforent men, \Yor,len~ 8n(;. children or n8&rly 17 per cent of the State populL~tion. At 110 one time, how8ver,did the number aided exclJod .275, aoo CE.;.seS, con taining 835,000 mon, rmillen tl1d chilGren

or ..bou t 8 p8r csn t of tho Stuto popul" tion. Total bro~3S additions to unci. Geparatlons irom gE:meral assistQDCe rolls during' the year excoedcd 81.~8, OUO. 1'ii th tiLl avor&ge ca;"Je lOGe. level durin~~; the yec.r of sliGhtly below ~~j(j,OOO, "GI1C exist.8nce of d. yolums of turnovor of such maGnitude indic8.tus tho rapid.ity 2.nd oxtent of chu...'l;-;oS in the composition of the rolls. Ho.lf of the grosz total of !rJ4,OOO CQS88 going off ;,sol1oral assistance rolls llurint, the year had reuoived a~iGist,anco for le[-3~3 'thaTJ three Hion ths.

H8..1L of IGhe gross tot.<:.l of 1~14,.OUO CU,'3(;S COidiYl[ on t;0nel'8.1 as,'Jisti.~nco rolls Lluring the :'{l:;;:;~r ui ther halt l1evsr bnforo r8C8i vea [~iJ sis tEll1Ce or Vi'3re rocci ving Gran t.s for the _first time in over D. yuu.r.

Only 75,000 casuS (135,000 persuns) ou·c of the year's 521,000 different caoes (1,711,000 p(\rsons) received grG.nts throug>l.out t,ho year. These constituted ubout 15 [)cr cen·t of tne year's clifi\Jront ce,SoS dllQ rGpresGl'lted about one third of the caSes on tho rolls at the ·0oljinl1l.J.1g of 1939. This total of 75, 000 cuses, forming vThat might be b3rmod the lIllaI'd corell o:f 1::.J18 1939 general aSsistciDce load, may bo comp&red vvith un estimated "Gota1 of u.PIII'oximc,.-cely 65,000 caSeS containing no emplo:ro.Jle lfiembcl's ~lhich f3tuuie8 SIt01V to L:.lVC buon a f''--\_irly con3 'want portion of the Chse loud throughout the Y8ar.

In arl,"i tion to elw 75,000 cases stayb,; on the' rolls for the Gn tiro yC[Lr, there were It-46,OOO casas, or 35 per c8nt of the yc:ar's clifferent cases, involved in turnover -- going Drl or off the rolls Due or more times durLrlg the YGar. In short, :Cor overy Co.38 roceiving L,,"tmcral aSsi8tance 1'01' the whole of 1939, there wore six caSes rec8iv-ing aid lor only part of the year. Approximatcly four-fifths of tile 434,000 cases goinG off general assistance rolls durinG the year Wt~r8 tiiscontinued unuer circumstances definitely indicating employubility, such as sGcul'ing emploYlilent or incroased earrlings in

privfLte industry or on WPA projects, or r8ceipt of uncmployment compensation. lJearly seven-eighths of the 414,000 cases coIJ.iing on general ClssistLnce rolls Ci.urinc the; year 'Ive:re G.Gcepted for c.lssistC:U1ce for roasonS directly associuted with employability Qnd rec~nt eillplo~ncnt.

91

APPENDIX GOVERNHTG PO; IERS OF COUNTY BOARDS -_LAW ..... _---- .- -- ---- .- ._-- . -- -_._--. -,-The Act of June 24, 1937, f.L. 2051, as last amended by tho Act of June 26, 1939, P,L. 1091, Section 7, provides: Each county board of assistance shall have t~18 power, anc~ its duty shall be: (a) In accordance Y.rith the lavlS regulating employment in the Departr.1ont of Publio .I'_ssistanoe, to appoint, transfer, layoff, suspend ane1 renoYe its employes, lHhich employes shall,. on behalf of the board and under the sl:pervisiol1 of the Executive jjirector, provide assistance in the territory under its jurisdiction, in accordance with law: Providod, however, That tho county board may reconullend to the Governor that any person employed by it be suspended or removed withol't regard to the la17s regulattng emrloyment in the Department of Public Assista.nce. 'Upon receipt of sl'ch reconu~l.el1dation the Governor shall have pO;jver to sl~spend or" remove such enpl'oye if he deems the Game to the best interests of the public service. (b) To appoint and remo-';e an exec c 'tiv8 director withol't reGard to the laY," regulating employment in the Department of Public Asststance. But every sDch executive director shall be appointed only fro,;' an,ong thoso certified by the Department of 1'U111ic Asststance as havin,: qualified for appointment throi'gh an unassembled examination conducted by t'le Employment Board of the Department of Public Assistance or its successor, (c) To conform to the r,'les, ref;ulr.tions and standarc1,s, established by the Department of Public Assistance" as to accoun·lJin:~~JI and as to fOr!ES" records and reports. (d) To submit as sistance and administrative budc;ots to the Department of Public J'-ssistance as the basis of the allocation of fnnds to the several assistance prosrams and for administrati-v8 costs. (8) To hear anc1. determine a.ppeals from actions or' its employes affecting the right of those <1pplying for or receiving assistance. Any person applying for or receiving assistance of any type covered by t~1e public assist:Jnce provisions of the Federal Social Security Act, may appeal to the Department of Public Assistance from any decision of the board, refusinc; or discontinuing his assistance, in i~hole or in part, in every such appeal, an opportunity for a fair hearing shall be;ranted, and the decision of the department on such appeQl shall be final. All se,ch appeals shall be in accordance 'l'iith rules and regulations established by the department, with the ap'-roval of the state Board of Public Assistance. (f) To supervise the administration of and promote any other publtc function related to assistance, or tc the work of the Dopartment of Public Assistance, of the connty board of assistance, which shall be committed to the board by a political sub-division of the Cow1,onwealth, with the approval of the State Board of Public Assistance; (g) To receive and spend contributions from any source for purposes related to assistance, or to the work of the Deparblent of Public Assistance I (h) To make recommendations to the Department of Public Assistance as to rules, regUlations and standQrds as to eliGibility for assistance, and as to its nature and extent; (i) To study report and interpret its policies, problems Qnd work, to the DepQrtment of Public Assistance, and to the public. (j) To establish policies and practices as to the amounts of assistance granted in individual oases, but no grants may exceed t28 maximum amounts for i'llhich families of a given size and of given circumstances are eligible .. as eStablished by the Department of Public Assistance, with the approval of the State Board of Public Assistance. _.~----

or

92

(k) To appoint COJJllnittees of the oounty board 01" of local citizens in various communities of the county, as circpms':,ances !ilay require, to cooperate with the c.ounty board in (1)slJpplyi11C information as to the eligibility of persons for assistance} (2) reooJllmenclinc; local policies; and (3) stimul2.tin 6 local employme'lt; an:' , on petition of fifty 01' ;nor8 residents of any community, it shall be ;,wndatory upon the board to appoint a comrdttee to functi.on in S'.Cll

cOIImlunity, (1) To encourage employable recipionts of assistance to accept full Dr part-tilne ev.ployment, by pron.ding that slech recipients will a;ain be gr;:mted assistance upon the termination of such employment, i f in need thereof; anel any rule Dr regulation of the Department of Public Assistance Dr of the State BoCtrd of Public Assistance or of the county board of assistance heretofore or hereafter adopted, contrary llereto, is 'lereby avoided, (m) To appoint labor review oomr.:ittees" composed of repr8sent0.tivc, cj_tizens of the county, who shall serve witho\'.t con"-ensation and whose duty it shall be to pass on the eligibility of any applicant for or recipient of general assist-

ance who shall refuse an offer of

enploJ~ent ~nd

whose case shall be referred

to such a ccmn,ittee by the county boarel, (n) As need may reqr'.irs" to employ 'ehe services of comm.ercial credit rating agencies for tho purpose of determininG elicibility for general asS istance, (0) To make available for inspection and 8xnmination durin{~, office h01.'.rs, to any taxpayer, in such manner as the county board of assistance may prescribe, the np~es, addresses, and amount of assjstance granted to all persons then receivin~ general assistance. The Act of June 24, 1937, P ,L, 2003, Sec, 2504A, subsection b-l provides l! examinations for employment which shall be praotic~l in their character and so far as may be possible s11all relate to those l"latters directly bearing on and which shall fairly test the relative capacity and fitness of persons examined to discharge the duties of the service into which they seek to be appointed but no applicant "hall be required to have had any schobstic edt'cation in social service work nor to have had any other special scholastic education Dr

II • • •





'_".~_._,

'

0-- -

, __

-.-~_.

_ _ .- • • . • . . , ,

. _• • . • .

.!E~_~_~_~~ t\~2E..:.n_~ ~~~_~~_p~_~.~.eE:?_e_".,._'.~~__

~

_. __ .

0_ .••

__ •

0



_ .. _

••.•.••.•.._ . _ .

-

93

_

CITIZENS' COl,lMITTm!'.S OF COUNTY BOARDS OF b.SSIST.>tJCE

Act 384, 1939, f. L. 1091, $cc. 7( .. ), uuthorizes county boards "T" appoiut committees of county'bourd or of locul citizens in vurious communities of the county, as circumstancos mny require, to cooperuta uith the county board in (1) supplying informution as to the eligibility of persons for assistance; (2) rocommending local policies; 9nd (3) stimulating local employment; ~d, ou petition of 50 or more residents of any community, it shall be mandatory upon the board to appoint a committee to function in such community. S"c. 7(n:) .;.uthorizes county bO
T~es

of Citizens'

1.

t~kGn

the

Co~ittees

Ci tizens' .l.dvisory Co::...i ttee s Citizens and Bcurd members u.

Community Service Committees - to develop and nk\ke uelfare serv1caa

&vuil~ble

b.

.&lploym':L1t Cl,)oJrdinuting G~;(·.: ..ilitl3es - to coordinate the Gct1 vi ties of such dapurtments ~s CU:,!:..;;~,Jrcc, Lr..::.'bur ;.;..-~d I:1ju:otry ~L(l P'ablic I..~tr1:cti",,~, h COU11ty pl,mning for

job placement and re-training. c.

C0r;iI;-~it.-~e0s c~ses

2.

t~1pas

of

on matters of Gligibility und policics.

.....pJH:Hiln-Cuse RcvL:T7-PJlicy

Board Mcmbors 3.

to provide informution in certc.in

Ravie~ing

~nd

CitizGns

Board

.UI citizens

Adjudicate 4.

L~bor

appe~ls

Revie7

of applicants or recipiunts

Committ~as

11ust have outside citizens and may heve Sec. 7(m) of Act 384, 1939 p. L. 1091

bc~rd

members- Duties

In larger ureas -- Philadelphia und ~leghany Counties -- all types have been utilized. In other areus, functions ure combined or the board members perform the ";lcrk. In mora rural ~r,zns. '1on.J-m~ com:ni ttGO" end farmurs' committees are sometimes appcinted, the first to provide inforIDaticn or eligibility etc., the second to provide inforlllUticn on eligibility und to dssist local recipients. Citizens' committ~es, in generel, have been used extJnsively, some being temporary ad hoc conlmittees, others operating on " continuing b~sis.

9·~

DISPOSITIOH OF

FOR PUBLIC lillSISTlillCE BY TYPES OF ~SSIST.~ICE 1939 TOTAL

lPPLICATI~TS*

". All types of

Apps.Pendingl-1-39 Rec'd During 1939 Total Under Consid. Pending 1-1-40 Total Disposed of

Old ,\go

Gonoral

..lssista.nce

,I.\'ssistanco

34,784 673,135 707,919 22,093 685,826

12,371 584,724 597,095 8,316 588,779

. %App. No. Dis.of

1l.ssist('~nco

6,617 40,645 47,262 5,418 41,844

,\id to Depend. Children 14,B59 42,896 57,755 7,684 50,071

Blind Pensions

937 4,870 5,807 675 5,132

;:t.A:pp. %,App. %App • %1q)p. No. Dis.of No. Dis. of No.Dis.of No. Dis.of

,\pps. Re j. Totl. 235,362 Beforo Form •.J.'\pp. 109,320 After Form.App. In office 45,836 With Fiold Inv. 80,206

34.3 15.9

183,460 95,484

31.2 16.2

25; 695 8,550

6.7 11.7

39,954 48,022

6.8 8.2

1<1,115

6.5 2,736 31.5 16,103

5.5 416 8.1 32.2 1,666 32.5

1.pps.Acc.Totl. ·150,464 In offica 234;685 With Field Inv. 215,779

65.7

105,319 234,685 170,634

68.8 39.8 29.0

16,149 -016,149

38.6 26,357 -0_ ';'038.6 26,357

52.6 2,639 51.4 -0- '-0- -C)52.6 2,639 n.4

34.2

31.5

2,730

61.4 20.4

23,714 /.,875

47.4 2,493 48.6 9.7 411 8.0

* Requests for A.aistanco. Department of Public Assist~nca reports prepared during 1939 used the term "Applications" in a restricted senso to covor only formal applications taken after the initial intorview and did not include all rcquests for assistanco. Department of Public Assistance reports since March, 19'~0 show ALL roquests for assistance as "Applications."

95

COSTS OF ADMINISTERING CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATIONS

Employment Board, D.P.A.

Period Oct. 1937 to May 31 1939 June 1 1939 to Dec~ 30 1939

Total

Cost of Ad- Number ministering of ExaminAppliations cants

Number of Exam-

$432,523.41

82,574

$210,406.49

$642,929.90

Cost per Examinee

Number of Appointees

Cost per Appointee

73,597

$5.88

5,038

$85.85

94,372

74,310

2.83

2,488

84.57

176,946

147,907

$4.35

7,526

$85.43

inees

-------------------------

96

LKI GOVERI'1IlTG pmmns OF DE?ARTlIEHT OF ?UBLIC ASSISTANCE The aat of J~'i4;-ig37;-f':L;·265i;~s lEist-amended -by-th,,-acCoFJune 26, 1939, P,L, 1091, Section 4, provides that the Department of Public Assistance shall have the power, and its duty shall be: (a) To allocate to the several assistanco pro:~,:.~aDls funds 1"rith" VJ1l.ich to provide assistance aXlcl. funds for administro.ti-\'e oxpGnses, and as may b8 needed, from time to time, to keep

r~asonable

emergency funds in the hands of local boards,

which shall be used by the executive c'.irector for tIle furnishing of assistance and pensions respeotivGly in emergency cases" Lipan ap~)lication to him,. Dr ;,,'nc1er direction of any member of the local board; (b) To establish, with the approval of the State Board of Public Assistmlce, rules, regulations and standards, consistent with law, as to eli:;ibiJ.ity for assistance and as to its nature mod extent; (c) To supervise the local boards, alld to establish for such boare'.s, n,les, regUlations and standards consistent with law; (d) To cooperate with other agencies, including moy aC'oncy of the United Statos or of another state, in all matters concerning the pOlrvers an.d d~;ties of the department under this act, and particularly in projects fcr child welfare, for the reHef of persons in areas of special need, "-,'ld for the care of transient and homeless persons, and to m.ake such reports, in such forn: and containin b such information as the Social Security Board of thE! United States Government, or any other agency of the United States may, from time to time, require, and to comply vvith sl.wh provisions as such board or ac;cncy may, from timo to time, find necessary to insure the correctness and verification of s'-loh reports; (8) ~o receive and to supervise the disbursement of funds, provided by the Federal Govermn.ent or from any other sovrce for tlsein this COJ:1Flonvrealth, for as s ist aDcs; (r) To gather and study current inforrl~.atiol1 constantly, and to repol~t, at least annually.. to the Governor, as to tl1e r18.t\~rG :1nd need of assistance" 8.S to the amounts expended under the supervision of each local board, mod o.s to the work of each local board, mod to cause such reports to be published for the information of the public; (g) To report,. at least annually, to the Governor, as to the cost of living in the various counties, as related to the standards of assistanoe and the amounts expended for assistance mle' to cause such reports to be pl'blished for the information of the publio; (h) To collect and report, to the Governor, mod to cause to be pUblished for the information of the pLlblic,. information as to the ·work of the depcLrtl:1entj (i) To dired and supervise the liq'.'idation of the affairs of the Boards of Trustees of the Lathers' Assistmoce Fund, the Boards of Trustees of Pension Fund for the Blind, and the State Emergency TIe lief Board; (j) "~enever the department deems it necessary and advisable to purchase oredit reports and other services, on a fee basis, for the purpose of supplementing the investir;ation of elif~ibility for assistmoce; (k) To rocolTITIend to the Governor that any person employed by the department be suspended or removed from service. Upon receipt of such recoDUnendation the Governor shall have power to suspend or remove s~ch employe if he deems the same to the best interests of the public service,

97

ELIGIBILITY A.

REQUI~[ENTS

FOR GENERAL ASSISTANCE

Citizenship

An alien who applied for assistance on or after June 26, 1939, is ineligible for General Assistance unless he has filed declaration of intention to became a citizen sometime after December 31, 1937. If he filed declaration of intention earlier than that date, he must again file declaration of intention to be eligible for General Assistance.

No alien applicant will be eligible for General Assistance after January 1, 1940, unless he has filed declaration of intention t'o become a citizen. Such declaration must have been filed after December 31, 1937. Accordingly, after January I, 1940, only those alien applicants who have filed declaration of intention between January 1, 1938 and January 1, 1940, will be eligible for General Assistance. The above provisions do not apply to aliens who were active General Assistance recipients as of June 26, 1939. The provisions of the said Act are not retroactive but apply only to persons who filed application on or after June 26, 1939. B.

Age There are no age requirements for General Assistance applicants.

C.

Residence

The DPA may not grant General Assistance to any applicant unless he has a legal settlement in Pennsylvania, and has resided here for two years immediately prior to application. The requirement period of tv,o years residence must be continuous, but short and temporary absences in the nature of visits will not Vitiate residence requirements. The Departmont may continue to authorize return of indigents to Pennsylvania, when legal settlement in Pennsylvania has been established. However, such persons may not reoeive General Assistance unless they satisfy the residence re'l'iremonts of the oonended law, that is, have residence in Pennsylvania for two years immediatoly prior to application, having boen absent only temporarily for short periods ~ The above provi!ions apply only to persons who filed application for General or after June 26, 1939, the effective date of Act 384, amending the Public Assistance Law. They do net auply to active assistance recipients as of that date. ~ssist~ooon

D.

INSTITUTI01J:,LIZATION

An inmate or resident of a public institution other than a hospital Is inol;.&ib10 for assistance while residing in the institution. An individual who is liVing in a "private" institution, and who is eligible in all other respects, is eligible for General Assistance if he is not receiVing

98

maintenance in return for a consideration or contract basis; that is, if as a condition for admission and maintenance in the institution, he paid a sum of money, transferred or conveyed real or personal property, or paid dues to an organization which supports the institution and provides such care for its mem~ bers. A person entitled to such maintenance does not become eligible for assistance by withdrawing so long as the contract remains effective. Note: A "public" institution is an institution supported wholly or in part by funds raised by taxation. County Homes and Institutions receiving subsudies from the Commonwealth are "public institutions." A "private" institution is an inoorporated non-profit institution Which receives no subsidy f~om the Commonwealth or from any political subdivision. E.

INCOME

The "adjusted" income of an applicant may not exceed the "C-D" allowance schedule. ThG total gross income minus all permissible deductions is tcrmed "adjusted" income. Gross income includes any cash roceived by a member of tho applicant group, as earnings, profits, rent from boarders or lodgers, compensation, etc. F.

PROPERTY RESOURCES

An applicant is considered indigent, and may thus be eligible for assistance, if he has no property rrsources which can be converted into cash to providc for subsistence necessarios. Such proporty resources include all types of property (cash, bonds, real estate, etc.) excopt the following:

1. Resident property which is not of substantinl or unusual value so as to raise the question of need.

Household goods and personal belongings which are not of substantial or unusual valuo. This refers to tho usual household articles, (furniture, refrigerator, radio, etc.) and ordinary personal effects.

2.

Automcbiles or similar property required and necessary for employment purposes to transport wator, to market gOOds, or to provide transportation in tho absenoe of other facilities.

3.

4. Frozen assets, which refers to personal property (such as stocks, bonds, mortgages, etc.) on which no cash can be realized, and real property which is actively offered for sale on the open market but oannot be sold for a sum approximating the present value of the property. 5. Trust funds, if, and so long as, the principal of the fund cannot be utilized for current noeds.

Compensation or damages required and speeifically designated for medical caro or treatment, to the extent only that such compensation or damages must aotually be so expended. 6.

IN SURt.}! CE

Insurance may constitute a resourCe which applicants must utilizo within certain limits. The continuation of insurance while receiving assistance consti99

tutos an investment which must not be p3rmitted beyond certain limits.

Therefore of term hundred dollars, and assistance recipients under sixteen years of age, a face value not exceeding approximately three hundred dollars. asr!~tance recipients over sixteen years of age will be allowed policies or~ole life insurance not exceeding a face value of approximately five

EXCEPTIONS TO THE POLICY: ~1en insurance policies other than the types allowed, (term or Whole life) have no ertsh or loan values, assistance may be granted withou~ adjustment of the policios for a period not to exceed one year. Then the adjUstme~t will become mandatory, if the case has not been discontinued. Vfuen a~applicant or recipient can pr.ve that he is uninsurable. Under these conditions, the applicant must agree t" make the 'policy payable to his estate. Adjustment of insursnco is not policy, the policy is unndjustablo. H.

require~

if, under the torms of the

EMPLOYMENT

vVhen it has been determined that an employable member of the applicant or assistance group has, without justifiable cause, refused work or failed to report for work on a governmental project or in private industry, assistance is denied or discontinued. An applicant group is not eligible for assistance if the chiof wageearner is working full-time in privato omp1 oyment, unless the group contains other omployable persons who eithor arc employed part-time or arc unemployed.

All employable persens, (over sixteen years ef age and not in scheol or needed at home) must bo rogistered with the State Empleyment Office befere Assistanco is granted. Every member of an applicant group whe has had earnings since January 1, 1937, from employment in an occupation covered by U.C. Law, must present evidence that ho has filed a claim or compensation before assistance may be granted. Every employable member of an assistance group should have i~ his possession a Social Security C~d and his Social Security Number should be entered in the DPA record. It is Lmportant as a means of identification, espocially in scouring information on UnemploJ~ent Compensation, and in the future, on Old Age Benefits.

100

Investigation of

Cases in ."7ILADELPHIA

A G. H., wife B. was located on the payroll records of R.C,A. Steadily employed since 1935, has missed but one month's work since Lay, 1938, Earnings for first three quarters of 1939 totaled nearly ;,)900. Address given employer that of his sister who advised he has not lived there for two years. Gave 16th Street address as his residence. Neighbors verified Georc;e Hayes residence as the 16th Street address. Mrs. Hayes, receiving a 064.00 monthly A.D.C. grant, denies his being there. Receiving compensation from B, to O. Railroad, Earning ':'5.00 weekly at an Italian-knerican Club, Saving:::3.00 ,veekly in a Christmas Club. Ovms home clear of encumbrances. M. F. receiving G.A. grant of ::;6.20. Other former relief recipients, removed from relief rolls d::ring 1939, and identified by club records and cancelled checks vrere: Name

P. 1:1.-E, & VR G• R.

Amo'mt

Case

Savings

Closed 7/12/39 3/13/39 5/11/39

;)718 350 300

rteason Ncn-legal settlement Private employment W.P ,A.

L, on W,P.A, C. employed, as an A.a, at the Philadelphia General Hospital, earning ::,47.00 mont;,j:y (and so employod steadily since January 1931) during the pe~iod of relief assistmlce. Purchased home for :'A200 (mortgage :.':,3200) four months after leaving relief rolls. A private colored school within about fOllr city blocks of two new schools erected by the Beard of Education ,vithin the last two years, Charges are made for tuition and text books. Carfares are required in many instances, School supplies and stationery must be provided by the pupils. A check of pupils' names, against relief rolls, revealed 39 families on active assistance rolls receiving G,A., A,D,C.,or a combination of the two. In addition, there .vero 12 moro names, cases of which were closed in 1939. The weekly G.A, grant to families sanding children to this private school totaled ()330.86, The monthly A.D,C. grant, in the so_me circumstance, ~'748.75. Has truck for huckstering and push cart for "snow balls." BouGht house, doed shows cash consideration of ',Aoo, on 6/17/38 and on 7/5/38 the visitor granted a G.A. incroaso from ~;12.80 to ':114.10, Caso closed in November, 1938, whon his private enterprises wero definitely established, but case: .vas re-opened in March, 1939, oven thcugh he had been able to pay his tax bill in advance for a disco811t benefit, Case in Legal Dopartment 10/24/39. ,Irs. D. wishes to revoke her reimbursement agreement.

101

One ef a concortod family group, who 1rore certified for rolief at the sruna time, September 1932. Have roeeived clething, bedding, modication and hospitalization" in addition to cash gr[\nts. Title to property in Ilame of G. C., wifo of G., taken in ruaI'ch, 1937, with a cash consideration of (::1l60. One woek later, roquest for re-opening of Case is made becauso of loss of W.P.A. jeb. In Soptembor, the visitor roquested that CaSO be disoentinued "se that future restitutien may be avoided" after learning that C. was reeeiving both G.A. and compensation. 1m A.D.C. grant of :;)49.30. Reoeiv( a ~(;16.00 per month from a tonant. Sen 20, earning ~~12 .00 weekly, ~:10 .00 of whioh is Si ven ,to his mother. Daughter's husband, two in family, earns ~)40.00 to ~)45.00 woekly, l.nothor son, married,

also employod. I',

Was receiving grant fer two but wife left for Virginia. Now expects ,A.80. Is employed "part timo" in South Sevonth Streot stere, several miles from home, ostensibly earning but ~3.00 per woek. Husband's paronts on relief. Caso bogins vnlen T. returns from C.C.C., is marriod, has aehild and bogins heusekoeping in tvro unfurnishod rooms on a G.A. grant of :!)8.20. (Rent ::il1.00 monthly.) In 1935 thoy find ho hod been working while reoeiving roliof. They mOVe to new quarters, aoquiro nQW ~,ituro and now pay ~13.00 monthly rontal. Complaints that he is again ' ong[\god in privnto enterprise. On ~.P.A. In 1936 a new baby is expected [\nd layette is requested. G.A. new 08.80. To new apartment that rents for 014.00 menthly, plus oharge for gas and oloctrio. G.A. is increased to ':,~10.30, later to ;ill.20. 1937 and the family moVe again, rent is now .:;18.00, plus gas and eloctricity eharges of nearly :';3.00 mcntlhly. They buy a car. On 3/12/37 thcy buy a home in the name of Rls father, with a cash consideration of ()300, and begin alterations. l1J1other br.by is expected. Carrying char gos are now (;:20.00 monthly. G.!.. grmlt is now :::13.40. Caught working on a truck. Grant is deoreased for a while but goes back to ')3.40 and so remains _

102

INVESTIGATION OF CASES IN PITTSBURGH Daughter at home and

ompl~d.

D.~.A.

office not advised.

Complaints aro numerous, but little attention has boon paid to them by the Pittsburgh Offi.ce. Wife feLmd working in Chinese Laundry four or five days a week at $~.OO per day salary. Salary paid in presenco of investigator. Caso record shmvs this woman was employed by Georgo Tey during 1937 and 1938, despite which thoro is his denial. At husband's demise she rocoivod insurance totaling $2538.00 as follows: lJotropolitan Life Insurance Co•••••••• $1500.00 John Hancock Lifo Insurnnce 863.00 United stutes Govornment............. 100.00

Co........

Alloghany County., ••••••••,. ••••.•••• •••

75.00

Application for assist~~ce on 5/29/39 mentions only 01500.00. Nearly $700.00 was reooived ene month prier to application, fer which there is no "breakdown" or o.ecounting. Married in Fobruary. Husband employed as a steward, rece1v1ng roem and beard in additien to weekly salary. N~riage net reperted. A.D.C. and G.A. now discontinued. Family received assistanco for which they were ineligible. Complaints that: 2/15/40 Julian receivin$ unempleyment compensatien and pUblic assistance while being empleyed. 2/23/40 using step-father's truck fer ceal hauling. Admission ef employment after investigation. Most recent finding relates to a business partnorship of buying and selling coal. Receivod $500.00 cheok damages fer until after investigatio~.

truc~

injuries that was not reported

Tonant of J.~. Uses aliases of P. and ~., appnrontl,. to avoid detection by relief offices. Found he was employed as S. M. frem 6/27/38 to 3/20/40. Engaged in private enterprise, car washing, since January, 1939, but not "found out" until March, 1940. G.A. gr~~t of S~.·~O. Gets small b"sement apartment froe for services and, in addition, by his own admission, carns ~5.00 te $6,.00 weekly as porter or clean.up I!I!l!l in apartment owner's mec.t market. Obtained job, through S.•E.D. •., as clork for the Surplus Commodities Commission at $82.• 00 a month, but continued to receive relief of ~~4.40 weekly. Reooiving board, room and small salary oaring for invalid sister, whilo on

G:.A. grant. Employed as painter, oarning 75t per hour, working 40 hours a week while on

relio~.

Widower, living with one of his daughters, reooiving $7.50 G.A. in private entorprise as a paintor •

103

Engaged

AFALYSIS OF REPORTS OFCO;","ITTEE'5 DTV'"STIGATOSS IN PITTSBURGH, ;.CTID:{ TAKEX BY PITTSBURGH OFFICE THE-:.Em: A:ID CO:.r:ENTS

18 and 19,

On July

vi~it

TIas made to the Pittsburgh Office of

the Allegheny COlli1ty Board of Public Assistance to: Revie~

supposed discrepancies in the Joint State Government

COl~~ission's

investigation report of April 2, 1940, as expressed

by Executive Director, George P. l,rills, in his letter of June 20,

19401 re. .•lrding follow-up of t.ese cases by his office •. i·

Conferences Discussions \'Iere held ',·i th ;,':essrs. ;'ills ",nd 1\'cCullough (;3n Assistant COlLl1ty Superisorl of the Depar'c,,;ent of Public Assistance, and Hr. Boyle, an operator of the investigating group. ?ino.ings

Contrary to the s te,t ~ ':"It contained in ,r. "ills'

'"e~lOrandum

of June 20, "On ten of the tv?enty-six c ses the District lftad not received information as a result of your investigetion" was Er. "ills I adr.,ission the.t individual reports had been sub",d tted, or thee. Q8.ses personally revie'ded, for each ner:.e as shoFn. The gist of

so~e

findings by the investigators was lost vn1en

the Executive Director's letter to the. visitor failed to take into considerrtion all of the detpils of the investigators' expositions. Visitors, in t;1eir re-investigation, '.:ent no further than usual routine -

inv~riably

exe.:,lining ruestionE.ble si tua tions directly 'iii th

the recipients. Despite the evident L:portance of a letter Director, and the need for promptness,

~uite

a

fro!~, nu..~ber

the Executive of cases are

still in process of re-investigation, even though several ~::'.:e

has elapsed.

~onths'

Even the agi to:tion of a "secone; re:' l inder", via

telephone, failed to elicit response.

At'TALYSIS OF REPORTS OF CO:iLlITT;:;E 'S IlNESTIGATORS rer FITT,S3URGH, ACTION TAKElJ BY PITTSBURGH OFFICE TJ-:'E'lEON Jllm COIli,f.8NTS

Mr, Mills rJsscctcd to this lack of efficiency.

Mills, the Exocuti va Director, 'mt t'",s ' 'or': of fir,

a~Jsist'mt

county

supervisor, whose attitude, in relation to outside investigations and their value, is derisive, inharmonious and factious. Mr, Mills

CO~1cnr8

t,,:>t thoir analysis, by its state'JIents, de-

preciates the work of the investiGators, while setting too high a value on thoir own examinations. Des)i te u fecli,:,,_g that "'.2()2,rrny" was accepted as "factual information", and that the moral aspects of a case were too deeply defined by the investie;ators, the E':3c'-'.+,ive Direc':;ol' adc:llits they accomplished much.

investigators, operating as did the

C011.i:3Gio~: '8 ';.(011) ,

"l10'.lld be

would, in his opinion, overcome the limitations of visitors •.,

developed during survey and still active", or.I:;, t'enty-si:: ','ere compared in the Pitts"ur-,1 offico

'0\'-"'12.1'y,

E:,:')lf1.I'ilt iO"1'O :::-ela,tin,c 'to those recorded in the Mills' ourvey are shown.

Rept.Date Date Date No. Con- llills' Visitact Letter tors Reply

Principal Facts of Join;~ RelJill.rks in 1o.iills' Letter state Govt.Commission 6/20 Relatin o to CowmisInvestigation sion's rleport

How Handled Learned at July Conference bJ Pittsburgh ani from Case Hecords Office

3/30

4/5

4/12

[email protected]

No cIleck-up lid th former employer as to where she might be presently employed. Mother on blind pension.

13 Continued

25

Resulti~

Painting jobs.

Not on D.P.rt. Pittsburgh Office

J1.00~Sis

.Employment reported by re- With the cipient. LaJ.'Xilady reports recipien1.s. employment has been promised S. but he iJ8.s not worked dur ing per1.od of assistance.

on 4/1 (day after investiIt is to be noted gator's c antact) s. reparticulurly that ported lIwrk to start 4/8. even the wife has Case mstor;y shows that hors. questioned SiS S. sued husband even though actUCil earning. not separe.ted, as she thought Also, this reciphe \iaS e
6

3/7

42

3/6

3/11

3/26

washing cars.

CQI"-wasning job verified. T. admi~s that car-washing has been going on since January 1939 , but Cl&:blS .... ~J.J.Li".. ~-";" .,ec~~J.' Over-payment summary covering the period 1/27/39 to 3/29/40 submi tt.ed to claims settlement.

Committed to jail.

A . sordid HE ss. Niece comes North pregnant. Niece pregnant second time by L. L. and M. see visitor~ want to set up own household. 11rs. L aId children continue on assistance. Mr. L on WPA. Mrs. L has her paramour arrested. All arrested on charges of adultery. Goci&l worker in lJoruls Court says moml condition was being sanctioned and encouraged by tlle. D.P...... J·~dvised to plead guilty, the D.P.A. draws in Legal aid when plea is changed to "not guilty". hl1 in jailor detention for 37 days ending 3/13/40. M. back with L. Case record shoWS: 2/29/40 assistance discontinued. 3/14/40 out of jail day befo re. 3/15/40 expected assistance tor himself, M. and their child. M. cashed his check of 2/9/40 after forging signature; assistB.nce resumed for $4.40 and urgent partial requested. 4/19/40 L. reports he and !lira. P. are living together again and want tre ir checks combined. 4/22/40 bUdget increased to inc~de Mrs. and 2 children 4/26/40 •.

Rept. Date Date No. Con- Mills' tact Letter 31

3/13

3/26

Date V'isitor~ Rep~y

4/3

Principal Facts of Joint State Govt. Commission Investigation

Remarks in bills' Letter 6/20 rel~tt~1g to Commission IS Rsp;}rt

Ho\[ Halle! led by Pit.·,.sburgh Office

Usua.l visit. Morula, sellinG lililk ,etc. !I.elati onships wi til S. not.hing I;lO;;'oe them a friend. 1.rs .0. 6t.&te8 th ....t all milk receivE::d is used for the children's needs.

Learned at July Confer~ ence and from Case ReSUlting Comments RecLirds CCise lldS been 2ctlve since 1933. ltrequent reports of her inter~ est in P.S. for severcll years. Juvenile Cou:a."t supervising children at hOlIle. C~sh gr~nt

32

3/18' 3/26

4/3

_Income & savings.

State 1 S interest amply pro- Bank not tectec.l by Reimbursement checked. No Agreerrent. at,tempt to verity son's elli~loyment.

3/29/40. 41

3/28 ,4/4

4116 _ Clerk in "numbers"

store.

13

3/12

Have been ur.-db le t.o establish tIli.. :, ;;. 1,(.,1.k.S there orP~"Oprietor of is en~;F-08:J. :'-11 Il.l-illllxu· l.Jri- st.ore questting himself" Factual in- tioned. forma ti011 very difficult to obtain.

It'aLllily u.p~ arently eligible wi th no i.11dication of' overpc\yLlent

a visit.

Ulcre~sed

without a home visit after birth of P. No visits after 4/3. 6 roams, pays $66 monthly. $55 toHOLC Supposedly living on reJ.na ining $ll :plus G.A. grant of $3.50 v/eekly. No vis it between 11/15/39 and

:No attempt to verity conditions beyond a ,vis it with recipient. Contributions by the various sires should be thoroughly digestea. Isntt there a relb. tionship between P.S. and the child P? Is this family able to live on approximate $22 mon tll1y remainder? Is the son employed to any extent? o

rl rl

COlile to office 3/26/40 ". knO'livn number to report he "las be ing writer's statement investigated. p~, sup- can hardly be exposedly only ccmdy md pected to be true. tobacco for opening stare and sweeping place. Proprietor is kn~m as "numbers" v/rit er or piCk-Up wan. P. not in stare since inves tigation. ~'ias a supplementw. grant V~'Si1:.?r' ~ inveson a salar;y of $30.:33 mo. t1.ga ti. on should contrary to advice of in_have tpne fur~her vestigators' report that than. Just. an l.nmentions *10 weel~l~. No teIV1.e\J liJ1.th the visit between 10/9739 and recipient. 4/9/40.

Rept. Date Date Date Principal Facts of Joint Remarks in Mills' Letter How Handled by Learned at JUly ConferResulting Comments ence and from Case No.' Con- Mills' Viyit- State Govel"'11ment Com. 6/20 relating t.o the . Pittsburgh Records tact Letter ft~~iy Investiaation COillUlission's Re?ort africe ceiving U.C. & assist- being found. ance while employed. 2/23/40 complaint using step-father's truck. 3/7/40 D.P.n. 78 reports earnings of $76.66 for P.J. for period 1/1-1/31/40. This is amount re ported by inv estigators. Req~ested Mills to check employment situation at once GIld lear-ned that Aland 0'1 Pete J. are in partnership of o .... buying m1d selling coal. District has been aware Mother After report Check of 3/?9 D.P.A.did not learn 35 3/26 4/2 4/5 Cash settlement of of possibility of settleattorney 40 was held.Received of settlement until accident claim makes ment. Case probably would located. $500 on 3/8/40 but not after investigator's recipient ineligible. not be settled before SeptrepoI'ted until 4/8/40. report was submitted. ember 1940. 34 3/4 M. in home as roomer .Sep- Reci"Jient 4/4 Re-ap)lication for relief Since only recip4/26 .Paramo u.r & private arute living quarters QI'e & ill.' inter- 2/26/40. Gr&nted 3/4/40. ients were interroincome. maintained. Mrs. L. has a viewed hdmit lease signed in name gated, D.P.A.invesfriend who owns house boat of :Mr.&Mrs.M. but office tigation is not combut would not consider attaches no significance pleted. .also this is livlllg on one herself. to such arrangement. Vis- a too willing accep-titor asked lawyer to eval- ance that W~.&Mrs. uate stock. Had intenied arrangemen t is soleto rent house boat. No ly for purpose of community contacts. renting house. 4/5 Man received ~2.00 for small N. came 2 4/10 Odd jobs.Also regular 4/24 Odd job of Cabin Pie Co. D.P.A.admits to N.'s repair job, di sc overed as verified. As to P., two part-time employment. employment of tenant. todist. result of investigator's' tenants earnings as office in aliases. Found he worked report. as S.M. from 6/22/38 until reported by investiapril 3/20/40.Evidence of pay gators' report, also while on relief. Restitution verified by D.P.A. to be begun at once. (4/19/40) off"ice. aliases appar-ently used to avoid detection by relief offices.

Date Rept.Date Date No. Con- lUlls' Vis. tact Letter itors Heply 3/29 10 3/11 3/26 43

3/11

9

3/11

Using truck fo r hauling coal. No proof thut iAlen were living at this address Employment in Mt. Washington

11 3/18

4

Princi-::>al It'acts of Joint State Govt. Com. Investigation

Remarks in Iolills' Letter of 6/20 relating to CO~llission's Report l~o evidence of incoule froLl truck Ltecipient arre sted panderiD5 12/27/39

1'01'

Her recent marriage.

Hecipient questioned. \fisited

No overpayment discov-No ref'erellces er~d as result of inves- lJlade. tigator's report

Contributions by the No ineligibility father of an illegit- established irnate child

4/2

Learned at July Conference How hcludled by Pittsburgh and from Cc.se Records OI'fice

nothing

I/isits. Marriaue Known and • <:> assistance discont~ued prior to investigator's report

il.dmi ts

hauliIl6 coal solely ~ould a truck be mainfor OVID. use. Trucl,.. n01l1 tained solely for purpose being repaired. of huuling one's O1im fuel. ftecord of recipient not a cro'wid of the same ilk, in office living in a "flop house n • Case record shows that re- ~aploYillent ~entioned in cipient worked while 1'einvestigator's report not ceiving assistance. ~1as followed up) despite prkr getting ~4.40 weekly relief record of income while on and ~l2.50 ."eekly salary relief. plUS room and board. Divorced in 1925. S~)port Here is an emphasis by orner on husband in 1926. the Department on what In 1935 expecting help from may be gr
G.....

20

3/26

3/29

Employment in private Employment r ~ ported by family. To date ~v~ industry able to establish that D.J.and A.J.are same.

Wai ting for e..;.'IO.. ".U..lt in:t"ormat.ion

llesulting Comments

Rept. Date Date Date Principals Facts of No. Con- Mills' Visi- Joint State Govt. tact Letter tors Com. Investigation Reply 18 continued

38

3/8

37

3/15

39

3/9

46

3/20

RerN:lrks in Mills' Letter HoVi Handled by Learned at July Conferof 6/~~C re::"citi:L.Lg to Com- Pittsburgh ence and from Case mi~sion's Report Office Records thoroughly investigated.

Application for 1st No indication of citizenship pctpers overpuymen t. after deadline to qualifY far assistance. 3/29

4/10

4/15

4/16

No remi.:U'ks.

Insurance of $2538

Receipt of other insur- .hpparently ande not reported. FuI'- not at all ther investigation being made.

Naturalization

No indication of overpayment

Immoral activities.

Morals questionable; Neighbors remanagi,nz at:il:L ty of port interest farnily l1Gt v~r.l acin :Mr. A.B .. ceptaLlp. 'IN-I~ n·~ i ndication Cif ins] :5.$ :.l..i :'.1 ty

No remarks.

Resulting Comments

Record shows recipient history. Verification of employed by Toy during employment by Pittsburgh 1937 & 1938 but on Office staff not thorough 8/4/39 he denies her em- enough. ployment durj.ng prior 2 years. Complaints are numerous but little attention has been paid to them. Letter supposedly v~itten by Toy,whcn checked with recipient's signature in case record shows similarity of writing. Mills says tl1ere is no- No follow-up of citizenthing that can be done ship status j.::-, c&se re- b at present but should re- cord after' l.. . t:::· ;;;.:J·,~ice r-l cipient ever go off re- thc:.."t. o~l:?lica1:':'i':; i,;j,J been lief he could not get made..i..n hUgUS'" dud. for back on rolls again. whi:.;'b lIe had. 1,':: l\.,,(:eipt. ...pplic,,~·tion of 5/29/39 ece;;'- h;'.G ::';Jy"·>'c,,'>'l of a 1l1,l;':: JL ',::~" 'b: :''':·:.~·.-'"ler. shows receipt of $1500 only. Nearly :!ii700 was Inc;(·1.'Je,;-:-, .,,!'.,r; ';..,IJ'dnts received 1 month prior det'in:;'t ~.'Jv '.'1'::·~.·~ :~{.I.d acto application for cO\.U1t.ing 0i.' i.w:'l,i,J'ance which no receipts. No funds has been evaded. verification of additional $1038 insurance. Case discontinued 6/5/40 Investigator's comments private employment. dealt wit.b. ~itj7-enship. Mr.A.B.is a recipient. No check-up on son's earnings. Case is one of bad repute.

Sup;,:r;l1r·j·m Si.t;L.h.:vle is st;i.1J Ii ::·C'~:i.-:(;t ~.he mo:'al aspe~ t.'; Ii~~·':.or'5 investig3't.i:,;.:.1 'Ce·;; casual. i.

J.~C.n:PITUk.TI(j.i'j

~teport

OF CaSI::::;

:JETJ':;"LI~~~.u

Il~ill.luIBLE

1.1.\; .PITT.:IDlli1GH, o.;UUliI..-.L COLMEIJTS OF PGI:. O,lt'FICE

No.

Date Date Date Princi")ul l·'aCts of H6i~"c.;rks in Mills' Lettel' How Handled Learned at JUly Contact 1:ills' Visitor's Joint St.:.te Govert:,Jt of 6/20 rehitil1g to tile by the Cont'erence cmd _ _ _--=L'""'e...;:t~ Rep1;,' Com. InvE:st;.;ation COfJlilission's Report Pgh.o:ef'.!ce ,=f.:.r~OlI1=-.=:::C=a:se~:a~c::.d:=s::..:..

14

3/18/40

12

3/11

Landlauy advised an Frequents saloon, old ~ecipient independent inco...:e ~a friend of bCiTtender. consulted r~dio pur-chuae ~ex~en-";ieo.:i:'S lJ.<.illd-o.own clothes; sive clothes, and pol- r;c,dio louned by friend H,ic<:;.l i:.l.II'ili"",tions

3/26/40

Recipientwo:£'king.

Fe el the t landlQ.djy has been "kidded"

Resulting Comments

_

i"ny wasn't the landlady consulted by the visitor? It is not expected that the rec ipient would be detrimentally expressive to himself.

No verii'i- Recipient objects His supposed part-time cution as to too many hours emplo~f~nt not verified. to emplmt on R\1P.Objects to In view of pt"ior t:;;.:perReimbursement Ag- ienc8 as to "ovel'p'lyment" reement. Office should not a mor8 dGtail~ttitude is that ed investigation be made? a~iP employment would keep him from privo ate enterprise. rl Duughte r' was :in home:for ltecipient Visitor advised "We Corr~ission's repm't short period but N.S left.and. daugh- did not know daugh- did show da\\Zl": t.'1r was Possibility of ovel~ayment ter at tel'" was at home". at home,emplcyed and for two \/eeks. Being inves-home and by She has been home still part of t.he tigated. telephone and working sevhousehold. eral weeks. Won't say how she manages. Admittedly,case needs further investigation. 11;;.s been estab1islJed but not blY independent report.

An. overfl~;yme:ilt.

II

(0

1

15

18

4/5

4/10

4/l?

Emoloyed, e.s is daUghter

3/21

3/26

4/5

Employed at pool-room.

3/22

3/21

4/2

Employed in Chinese laW1dry

Previous employment Contact known & verified. Picks . wi t.h poolup chaJ.1ge occasionally room proprietor. but nevel" illOI'e than ~l weekly. laany complaints,all by Recipient futher-in-Iaw;AII in.. « Chinaman formation previously questioned known dIld \i.ui te

Proprietor says earn- Earnings are stated to be within maximum ings don't aver~e over ;Nil weekly. This allowance for relief continuance. inf'orra~tion felt to be sufficient. fuills advises visitors Misrepresentation not capable of further as to employment checking employment.' already in case

01'4E YbU-~ Ob' it., W. P-\,

/

INlnESTIGATIOB OF CASES In OUTLYING COUNTIES

A supplemental Gr::Ult fora "part time" employee. Children advise he is employed reculn.rly from Honday until Fr:i.day. Have tvlO roomers paying $6.50 weekly. A man and his vvife were also paying ;~8.00 {J.Onthly for an apartment. One boarder, 0.. chef, also supplies food. Earning ~14.00 weelcly at woolen mill f:U1.d has Plymouth car. Mother also received assistonc0 while the father vms "c,vmy". Boasts that she woulcln't 'I sign over" her insur.:u:ce for adjustmont and just "strung them along" knowing she viOuldn't need relief D.fter a couple of wooks snYVlD.y. Father is also emplo;yed, oarning (i21.00 weekly. Fo.ther employed by constructio:'l company tU'ld, in addition, earns ~~8.00 as j.mitor in local theatro. S. '~::1l:1 htJr illegitimate son, live with her mother ond father. A surrunn.ry of L1o...rnw.ry 1934 mentions: A very cornpl::dning type. Employer st':l.tes IIhe is not 0. :~ood worker." Doctor remD.rks thQt these people demand unrequired mec~icctl attention. (These remarks arc supplemented in 1937 with "L. not ~U1xious to vlOrk - no serious heQlth condition.)" Rocently; i.e., July, 1940 , it is found that wife is o.wo.y fran home and 0.. tonant, supposedly removed, is still continuing residence. On rolls since 1932.

Onl;y f\.ppo..rent reason for not working is "homl1lorrhoids".

Wall 't ho.ve ·bhe opern.tiol1 thn.t is discus sod mm'ly times. Er.~loyod on truck several dn.ys woekly, receiving nccrim~~ Grrunt of $4.40 weekly. Has completoly furnished five room n.prLrtment~ even thour;h single, rent for which is ~16~00 monthly. On the rolls since 1933 , hn.s enjoyed every form of relief.

Grocercies, clothing, bedding [md fuel, in n.ddition to cash grants since 1932, v::1.rying ftS sons, d':l.ughters nnd mother are .'ldded to household. As cn.rly as 1334 record shows cO'ilplaillts ill1d, too, evidence of son working while included in grant. Fn.ther won't vrork. Mothor len.ves, to live with other relatives, as soon as she receivos old aco n.ssist':'J:lce. Do.U[l1ter and hor child included even though she won't take support from husband. Plf~ning 0. divorco, tho cost of which is to be borne by 0. boy friend. Intends to keep on.rnings for herself if she gets '1. job. Ntunerous instrulces of fr:dlures to report for n.ssignmonts by various members of the f~unily. At time of last applicn.tion for assistance, fo llow'ing iV.P. A. , i t was Ie o.rned tha.t 0. ~~lOOO .00 endowment insurnnce po licy had beon turned over to a friend. A 46 yeo.r old Russian, in Amorica since 1913. No record of citizonship n.pplic'l.tion. Has been on rolief, tho m~l.jority of· timo, since 1930. Montion is mado 4/16/36 "Large part of wookly earnings go for boor". Had rocoi'led, and fn-iled to report, compensation of ;;114.27 vrhile on a G.A. grant. Last entry in case folder, 3/19/40, mentiuns n. f':l.iluro te report for n. rolief work project. Application 11/2/39. Had recoived relief in Mercer County until 11/1/39. Wife failed to repJrt to assignments givon hor by S.E.O. .~ccepted for assistance even though Morcer County roport WQS not receivod. (Hercer County report not f'lvorf.l.ble to the HarshTIk'U1s). Nothing dono about conpla.ints of "sign painting" o..."1d "peddling" while en reliaf, oven though vorified.

112

\

Groceries, pronQtal clinic, shoos, extrrt milk, rent pr..YI:lOnts by outsiders~ bed, spring and mD.ttross, food commodities, and clothing orders~,re additicl1ctl to cash grrmts. Knmm to rolief agoncies since 1930. Mrmy instances of Iaoving. QUD.rrels with lrmdlords. Loft ovdng rent. -ivould not "work out" obligatLms. Constant improvement in surroundings. Wifo's bolon~inb$ sold by, (¥1d clothing orders spent by, the husband. A~sission of occasional odd jobs. Not satisfied with clinical flttention i'or Ifltest pregrln.ncy" wD.nts own I;l,hysician. Fou~d ... working for grocer while. on relief. Claim for restituion. Complaints of drunkenness, thievery, foicned illness, boarders, etc. W.P.A. provides a housekeeper. Case record in Erie County office indic::ttes a II single mnn." A nati vo of has been married 13 years. Visitor has hot been near for several ffiJnths. Recalled by General Electric in July" 1940, but refused job because he wanted something easy to do. Wife has no idea how bad his "hen.rt condition" is, but he goes out all dn.y. Doesn't know whore he goes. She receives Mothers Assistance of $38.30. He receives ~1.60 weekly for his own use. l~f,entil1a,

Old age assist,mce of ~20.00 pOI' month since April, 1939, prior to which the grant was (~17 .50 since March, 1937. Son operates plur:lbing; business and is in posession of $19,000 worth of reC\.l estn.te 'Jith no rocord of encumbrn.nces. Net income froin properties estimn.ted as' ne::trly .~~900.00 and en.rnings $600.00. Son rofused to n.ssign piece of property, where mother rosides, in order for her to sign a reimbursement agreemont. G.A. case - $11.25 weekly. l~tor visitor roquested reimbursement agreement signature, because of property i!lterost, a judGment note wO.s made in fn.vor of a sister and ontered Qbainst E. The agreement Vias then signed. Review Board justified this evasion and permitted the grant to ronain unchanged, even though appe~led by the visitor. Appeal case. Notation of 6/4/40 s:J.ys "g:':4"1.t assistnnco." Case history shows: Failuro of son to report for W.P.A. assignments. Doctor's notation "This fn...'ilily w·il1 resist the idea of wor.k. II Threats of ymrrants against the relief board. Constant writil1t;s "Got busy or I'll go higher, etc." Complaints of the wife selling'lI.P.A. clothing and surplus commodities. Complo.ints of the son caddying and selling masazines. Mother advises thQt C. never asked for or received relief, as his employment, as helper in A. Shoe Repair Shop whore ho has been the past bra years, is sufficient. 1Jn apartment is sub-lot for .::;10.00 monthly. C::tse rocord shows a supplemental grant because of limited earnings. Over-payment reported Juno 1, 1939. Insurance received in amount of $322.20 against which were funern.l expenses of $150.00. No restitution of the difference. Yi[oman works in store and could be regularly employed but for the time consumed in getting rolief. V{on't marry father of illogitimate child for fear relief will cease. Assistnnce finally discontinued 5/11/40.

..

J

113

C~illES

OF fu.,BI TU.AL DRWlCENESS

Proprietress of six houses containing 29 old age assistance oases, 6 W.P.A. workers and 13 physically handioapped G.A. cases. Her biggest problem is "b.o,zing ll • Drinks nre mostly "mocnshine.• II in 1530. Excerpts from tho runnin; case history Show: During reforred to private job but doesn't TIant hoa~J TI~rk. Re-applies for rolief. Advise that Seasock drinks up W.P.a. earnings ~d makes trouble. Grocor says tlAll Sao.sock docs is drink. rl Battorod,drunkon brawl. SistoI' tolls visitor if S. gets rolicf he ~ould drink it all. During 1938 - still spending money for li uor. M. is an habitual drunkard. Upon making several collatoral visits, visitor advised that M. drinks heavily, and is usually drunk.

Case

~3gins

1937 -

'.

Caso begins in 1933 but drinking is not mentioned until 1936. Cclse record shows: 2/4137 Drinks heavily and for this roason has lost his job. 11/1/37 Visitor finds him in d very drunken condition. In surch a drunken stupor they paid no Qttention. BocaLi.seof their boine; intoxicated,. intorviow was not continuod. Case continuod. 9/13/38 'i,'.P.A. earnings paid a bacle store acco,nt, balance for current expenses and drinldng. Caso ro-opunod in offico. 11/19/39 Visitor st:.spccts manufaetcre of "illegal alcoholic 'Devoragos. 1I 9/25/39 Not a citizen. 7/81.40 B. under Lnfluence of liquor. :Mr. B. clas in prostrate condition and could ansv:er no (.uestions. Lives at a tourist hame, where his own ~~Qrters arc prOVided in tho roar. Receives, all his meals. Is c:,retakcr for the laun and chickenc. Only lJurchase he makes for food is for balogna. Hoed ves his relief check on Saturday morning and E~':; ts drt.nk rogularly::.:cn..Saturday. early as 1932 visitor comments It riill sell his grocerios for liquor if tho case is appro ved. i. In 1935: Room mate corq;lains tha t L. has boon drunk almost continuously. Barred at the Salvation ar.my. All omployer has wmrk for him if he stays sobor long ono~gh. Jets $.1.00 ~n hour ~hon employed. Separated from wife who is also on relief. Luter: He thinks he must keep on drinking. E..'TIplo~Jlli... Jlt office sent him to job, electric woldors are needed, but ho is too drunk to g~. Admits oarninss havo boon as much as $121.00 weekly. Not in accord r.' i th theidoa of n taking c. cure. II Brother feels S. is utterly useless. Made no effort to support his family, was li~ing nith an9thcr woman. Not a citizen. Panhandled meals and hauled rubbish and ashos, earning to ::0ct to 75ct daily, \1hile recoi'1:in;s relicf. Visitor closod case 5/1/40 but it was almost immediately ro-openod by an interviower. ~~

Many complaints. Charges and counter-charSos by husband 2nd \Thfe, as to intoxication, disorderly conduct, cashin; mate's relicf chocks, etc. Father-in-lan of S. C. Known to various relicf agancio~, churches, missions, etc., for years. Came in uhile Cr. was boing interviewod, drunk and requestins that his relief chock be cashed. Impressions aro that he is always drunk. Li ves l:;;ith sister.

A habi tunl drunkard.

114

Uses hi.8 money for lit;uor.

Came from Richeyville, Washington County, Pa., in 1936. Is a Slav, married at least twice. Arrested in 1939 on assault and battery charge. Worked on W.P.A. as laborer until year and a half ago. Has since been operating rooming houses, principally for men patrons on relief rolls, at 40 Fernando Street and 1036 Fifth Ave. Usually has betvreen 15 and 20 roomers. Doing volume of business from sale of liquor at Fernando St. address. Sells it by drink or bottle. Has no liquor license. Reliefers at 1036 Fifth ave. admit getting relief checks on Friday A.M., out of ,mich DG. takes room rent, plus whatever amounts are owed him for liquor. D. keeps mail box under lock and key and himself distributes relief checks to tenants. Pays rent for both addresses proolptly by means of properly endorsed relief checks and cash. Patrons are drunk on Fridays and Saturdays. On subsequent days are out on streets panhandling for enough to eat to sustain them until following Friday•. One of 4 residents in the same house. Case record shows: To !~erica 1905, no citizenship papers. Associates with whiskey drinkers. Drunk for days. Buy rubbing alcohol to drink. A bum. Quarrelsome and a trouble maker. Drinks constantly. On relief and W.P.A. for number of years. Kno,Vll also as Gdwish and Gdwrys. Case record shows: Spends scrip for liquor. Prosecuted for "breaking, entering, attempted burglary." Found working' while on relief. Not a citizen - to l~erica 1907. More mention of drinking. As early as 1935 case history m~ntions a ~ro week drinking spree. Shows also: Request for citizenship denied 9/12/38. Drunk. III from drinking. Sick again fram drinking rubbing alcohol. Had priest in to see him. question as to his residence in 1935. Used address to receive scrip. Asks landlady to elope with him. Refused job. Uses scrip for liquor-demands more scrip. Works on project but· still requosts scrip. Woman advises 6/29~6 he is working on her farm, getting room, board and $15,00 monthly pay while on relief. Uses scrip for bootleg liquor. Report again in 1937 as to his employment while on re1ief~ Cross at suggestion he go to work.' "Wants relief". Drinks up all his money. Did not report for review board meeting but food and clothing granted n~b~ithstanding. Never applied for citizenship. Drunk with the rest of the boys.

I ,

115

CASES IN Vm:rCH EXTRl.. MARITAL ST.ATUS WAS FOUND Receiving L.• D.C. grant of ~50.00 monthly •• Living with brother of husband. Both brothers employed steadily by Scott Brothers and each earns nearly $300.00 a quarter year period. Formerly received a G.A. grant of $4.80. Moved in with woman and three small children, supposedly his, and relief grunt is now ~12.l0. Receives $1.70 weekly supplement to laundry work. Is doing just so much and won't look for additional customers. Lives with daughtor and daughter's three illegitimate children. Court order of $2.00 weekly on father of youngest chilC\ Daughter receives $36.70 Mothers' Assistance. Won't take jobs, don't want. "ir grants reduced. Inferred that relief office suggested they not work at all, but stay home and continue on relief, Unmarried, has illegiti!llD.te child. Child Welfare Bureau advises D.P.A. of Lis admission that she is living .nth a boy friend. He too has been receiving his relief chocks at her homo. Rolief is to be discontinued for tho VlOIJlD.n but she ,nIl bo included in tho man's grant. Complaint by paramour that she left him and is living with another man. Despito complaints of frequent male Visitors, parties, women boarding and tho frequent changes of address, the final case message notation, of 5/15/40" reads "Recommends assistance be continued." Maximum budget allow.nco. Ono son, L. now in Morganza Reformatory for theft. Second son apparently headed in samo direction. Interost now centered in an A.B. who is also a relief recipient. Posing as man and wife with a Mr. M. and house lease signed as Mr. and Mrs. Receiving A.D.C. of $48.30 for four children sired by different fathers. Alleged father of youngest child, Paul, is a P. S. employed. Juvenile Court is supervising the children at home. Niece came North while pregnant. Second time pregnant by L. L. and M., the nicc~, want to set up own household. Mrs. L. and children continue on assistance. Mr. L. on V~P.A. Mrs L. has her O'Vll lover arrested. All arrested on charge of adUltery. Social worker in Morals Court says "moral condition was being sanctioned and encouraged by tho D.P~J~." 1l.dvised to plead guilty,. D.P.A. draws in Legal .i'.id and plea is changed to "not guilty". .All in jail or detention for 37 days ending 3/13/40. M~ back with L. Case record shows: 3/15/40 Out .of jail on tho 13th. Expected assistance for himself, 1fumio and child~ M. cashed his check of 2/9/40 after forging signature. Assistance resumed. 4/19/40 L. reports he and 1~s. T. arc living together again. 4/22/40 Budget increased to include Mrs. T. and the two children Son employed by dental laboratory. Unmarried daughter has baby 17 months old. Receiving grant of $9.80.· Daughter has court ordor on child's father, despite which visitor offers A.D.C. gr~~t.

116

sum,TEY OF CASES DENIED OR REMOVED FROM

GENERAL ASSISTANCE IN DEIAWAEE COUNTY

Intro.duction During the calendar period september 1939 to February 1940, the Delawsre County Board of Public Assistance authorized: 1. The cancellation of relief aid to single men between the ages of eighteen Bnd forty-five years without dependents. 2. The rejection of new requests for relief assis-

tance in the same category.

3. The non-acceptance of re-spplication of the same category, The assumption was that these men could, through diligent application, earn an amount equivalent to what a weekly relief check would be. Four hundred twenty-two cases -- September 1, 1939 - February 1, 19~0 were refused after being reviewed, some so evidently undeserving that no office records were kept.

In

25 per cent of thesec8ses, records were keptl. They were

the persistent ones. seventy-four cases, however, were set aside to be investigated for later approval, or disapproval, of the action of refusal. The division of these oases is as follows: No. of Cases

Division 1. Active cases discontinued

Percentage

1

2. New, or first, requests Never before on relief

3. Re-applications 60.8

a. Former recipients b. Previous application but never recipients

5.~

loo.d

Totals

- II? -

These cases were investigated during the period February 27 to March 26, 191tO. In addition, thirty-one more investigations were made during the week

April 1 to April 8, 191tO, inclusive. This second group covered cases, regardless of sex, age, marital status and the like, that had been arbitrarily discontinued because the Delaware County Board felt lithe people had been on too long and had not made an honest effort to get into industry." It is interesting to note that, wbile these cases were on relief rolls for one year or longer, some as long as three years, there has been no reaction of any kind since they were dropped. Results of Survey Group No.1. Of the first group, i.e., seventy-four supposedly single men, eighteen to forty-five years of age: a. Thirty-two cases, or forty-three per oent, were in the City of Chester.

The balance were distributed throughout the

County. A geographical distribution of cases, according to case record addresses, is attached to this report as Appendix I. b. The cases, of which forty-three were of the white race and thirty-one of the colored race, were

~ocated

at residences

graduated from filthy hovels to clean, well-established homes. c. Ten cases showed changed names, to wit: As Recorded

Actual or Other

Miller Tindale Farmer, James Margio Davidson

Mlynarszek Tingle Farmer, Lee Marge Davis

- 118

~

Our Case No.· 96 61t 28 52 76

As Recorded

Actual or Other

J"ohn Templin Pompur

J"ohnson Tempelton Pompey

Our Case No.

56 85 82

No consideration has been given to names of step-parents. d. Saven, supposedly single men, were married and, admittedly, living with their wives: Name

Race

Miller Turner Trawiok Ryder Kennedy Connelly smith

White Colored

Our Case No.

96 11-

5 6 7

" " White "

8

15

Colored

Eleven were married, but divorced or separated. There were, in addition, nine cases of illicit relationships.

e. There were nine men whose ages, edmittedly, were in excess of the forty-five year old maximum as follows:

-Name

11

52 53 39 62 70

f. Seven-, now on relief,

Miller Bowers Collins Hackett Wilson Rooks J"ohnson

60 49 55 50 57 60 63 . 62 60

24 9 75

Schrader Seagraves smith Wilhems Margio Evans Burns Maraz Mac Ivor

Name

Ages in Years

Our Case No.

W.P.A~

or N. Y.A., are:

Our Case No.

-Race

96 97 98 99 100 101 102

White

" It

Colored Wllite Colored

" ... 119 -

Remarks On relief in Scranton W.P.A.

" II

N.Y.A.

" "

g. Four were unknown, at addresses given in Board's case records. Their names follow:.

-

Name

Our Case No.

Race

Orysczak

90

White

Shorts Graves

92 91

Colored

Myers

93

Informants

" "

Tenants in apartment and store at residence address. Present tenant and postma~. Next door neighbor and corner grocer. Tr~ee tenants of same building and white neighbor next door.

Group No.2 The second group, twenty-one of which are residents of Chester, were divided, according to race, as follows: Sex

White

Male Female Totals

Colored

Ilt

Totals

2

8

7

21 10

16

15

31

Here again were instances of: a.,Variances in names As Recorded

Actual or Other

Rush Maguire James Berry Edward Maloney

Szatkowski Higgins Warden Berry Elwood Ma loney

- 120 -

Our Case No.

16

17

20 103

c. There are six cases of conviction for law violations of which four seem to be of the criminal type and two of the casual violations of law. d. Nine cases of illicit relationship are specified in the individual reports. General For individual discussion of the cases, see Appendix II.

The following

summary of the combined results of the two groups investigated is recapitulated as follows: No. of Cases Percentage 1. Not at Present in Need of Relief in Delaware County a. b. c. d.

Employed on regular jobs Engaged in private enterprise Living with relatives Moved from locality 1. To Philade Iphia

87

23 26 11 8

3

(1 with kin) (1 with friend) (1 not known) 2. To Shamokin (With kin)

1

3· To Scranton

1

4. To New York

1

(With friends)

(With kin)

5. To Concordville

1

6. To Georgia

1

(Employed)

(With kin) e. -Not living with relatives, Families able to support f. On W.P.A. or N.Y.A., Arrangements questionable 1. Hackett, landlady would

give no information.

--121 ..

3

6

83

Nc. of Cases

Percentage

16

15

2

2

2. Collins, former inmate of Elwyn Training School living with attendant of the same school.

3. Wilson, grandfather left $1600 insurance.

It. Rooks, does odd jobs, stepfather can provide.

5. Lawrence, quit part-time job for sewing project assignment 6. Johnson, mother refused to assign her house for "widOW's. Pension." g. Living with friends

10

2. Doubtful Cases a. Moved and left no forwarding address b. Were not known or couli not be located c. On relief in Lackawanna County when application was made. (Eligibility there questionable. See Miller Case No.

96)

9 6

1

3. Remainder, both need relief (Bowers on W.P.A. - Maloney in jail, wife receiving Prison Aid)

Appendix III is briefly expres3ive of each of these foregoing classifications, and Appendix IV gives a chronology of the investigation. Remarks This survey of 105 cases divided into the two groups of lit supposedly single person cases and

31 cases arbitrarily discontinued because the Board felt

the recipients had not made an honest effort to get into industry, was made for the primary purpose of answering one question "How were these people presently living?" In all cases interviewed there was apparently sufficient food, clothing,

- 122 -

fuel t and housing and, in general, the individuals seemed to be living roughly in accordance with their own long time standards. In this report no attempt has been made to present personal impressions t

except as to living conditions.

The reports of individual cases record only

what transpired at the time of inquiry.

- 123 -

APPENDIX I. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION ACCOlIDING TO CASE RECORD ADDRESSES Location - Delaware County Group 1 Broomall Bryn Mawr Chester Clifton Heights Collingdale Colwyn Crum Lynn Darby Darby Township Drexel Hill Essington Fernwood Folsom Glenn Riddle Holmes Lansdowne Lenni Lester Linwood Marcus Hook Media Secane Sharon Hill Twin Oaks Upland Upper Darby Totals

1 1 32 2 1

Group 2

21 2 1

1 3 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 3 1 3 3 1

1

1

Combined Total 1 1 53

4 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 3 1

4 1

4

7 3 1

4

1

---2.

74

31

105

- 124 -

APPENDIX: II.

CASE OUTLll{E Case No.

-Name

Remarks

1

Kuble, steve

Has car Now regularly employed Previously earned $10 weekly junking Present landlady, Mrs. Belmont, is for. "mer relief client Was on relief in "coal regions"

2

Peoples, John

Regularly employed Father and brother employed Was on W.P.A. for about two years

3

Radcliffe, Wm. J.

Moved to step-siater's home during August 1939. Was rejected, on relief application, September 18,

1939.

Brother, working, also boarding here. Turner, Cha s. H.

Former relief recipient Now employed Wife probably working

5

Trawick, Garland

Wife working steadily. Came from New Jersey during November. Relatives in Alabama

6

Ryder, John

steadily employed Living with family who have been on relief for seven years Buys food and fuel in lieu of rent payments

7

Kennedy, Montreal

Mother of applicant advises he has been employed by Viscose for over two years

8

Connelly, Wm.

Employed by Sinclair Oil Co. steadily for twelve years

9

Seagraves, Everett

Working several days weekly at the Ford plant, Lives with brother who operates, in addition to regular job, a rooming house

Thomes, John

Employed. Father employed by Sun Oil Company, earning $12 daily which is spent on other than his family

10

~

125 -

Oa se No.

Name

Remarks

11

Wilhems', Harry

A "floater, n now ga infully employed in Philadelphia

12

Simpson, James

To be re-employed by commission merchant

13

Greenberg, Max

Working. Mother provides meals. Brothers able to aid Lived with woman who was on relief, in Philadelphia

llJ.

Algoe, Ellis

Now employed. Works only long enough to save some' money then quits A gambler and "bum"

15

Smith, Moses

Wife employed

16

Rush, Frank P.

Real name Szatkowski A heavy drinker, has a prison record Now working for a mission

17

Maguire, Emma

Working for, and living with, a Roy Meredith Operates a second-hand furniture store and a rooming house

18

Powell, Wm. H.

Employed - and, apparently, has never been entirely idle during the past 10 years

19

Harris, Joe

Working in a restaurant Character report unfavorable

20

Berry, James

Use s name of "Warden." Drives Darby Township School bus. Has an orchestra Father and sister also employed Have aut-omobile

21

Hilliard, Earl

selling life insurance, at moderate salary.

22

Campbell, Chas.

Maintenance man at St, Vincent y s Hospital, Philadelphia Children attend parochial schools Have old ·Packard sedan

23

Williams, Margaret

Wife earning $7 to $8 weekly Husband also employed at Sun Oil Co. at $2lJ. weekly salary

2lJ.

Schrader, Adolph

Lives with other relief recipients, one of whom ~ Casselman - has a wife who is steadily on relief in another locality

- 126 ...

Son employed

Case No.

Name

Remarks

25

McKone, James

Son employed at the Sun Ship Co. Applicant - with substantial family background - now does odd jobs. Admits to earnings of $5 weekly. Has applied for job six times in three months.

26

Mabus, Jack

Drives car. Has occasional work. Family, with whom he has roomed for 15 to 18 years, made no demands for payments of .board.

27

Curtis, Raymond

Lives with grandmother. Father, living in Philadelphia, is on relief. Mother's residence, job, etc. questionable.

28

Farmer, James

Former constable who will not look for work. Meals and rooming quarters supplied by Hotel proprietress.

29

Blow, Wesley

Was on relief on W.P.A. for 5 years. Now doing odd jobs.

30

Carney, Dawson

No evidence as to manner of employment other than driving men to work in own car. Boasts he is living better than when employed in industry.

31

Brown, John

Lives at fire house, rent free. Father pays for meals this son charges at restaurant. Earns $6 to $10 weekly playing pool.

32

Upjohn, Horace

Living with woman employed as school janitress at a salary of $13.50 weekly. He earns about $5 weekly. Part of their apartment is sub-letted for $20 monthly. Woman's son at Broadmeadows.

33

Mitchell, Richard

Got relief as married man while 11ving with woman. Relations live in immediate neighborhood.

34

Scheffmeye, Walter P.

Made request for relief while amployed as cook at the Eddystone Hotel. Compensation was $10 weekly, plUS room and board.

- 127 -

Ca se No.

Name

Remarks

35

Majors, William

~n W.P.A. Wife lives with a "3attnders" at Leipers Quarry. Majors pays no rent, drives car, does odd jobs. Living with woman and her children.

36

Fontaine, Morris

Living on a vacated estate with woman caretaker. Does odd jobs and farming. No definite amount paid for board.

37

Tyler, Howard

Lives with aunt who receives old-age pensio~. Quit his job in Charlottesville, Va., to carne North.

38

sample, John

Has car. Brother, unemployed, came from Virginia for sinus treatments at the Philadelphia General Hospital.

39

Burns, John

On relief since 193~. Has sister who is "well-fixed" - other close relatives nearby who can aid.

~O

Hayward, Malcolm

For.mer C.C.C. enrolee, has been on both relief and W.P.A. assignments. Owes no back rent tor room. Has Postal savings. Doesn't bother to look for a job.

~l

Crawley, Paul

Really lives in Philadelphia. Two brothers and sister, all employed, live in Philadelphia. Does some odd jobs, bU~ is really "laying around."

~2

DePase, Louis

A gambler and heavy drinker. Owns home - taxes are paid Living with woman Two children are in an Italian Home. One child lives with relatives. Rents rooms. Has only 1st citizenship papers.

~3

Nelson, Naomi

Has roomers who pay also tor laundry and cooking. Started on relief in 1932.

~~

Jones, Willie

Lives with his paramour. Junks for a liVing

~5

Jackson, Sylvia

Doing housework few days a week. Never had a day's work, for about ~ years, while on relief.

Son

Ca se No.

46

Name

Remarks

Petryk, John

One son in prison, another is employed as messenger boy, and the third son is epileptic. Not a citizen. Is doing odd jobs paperhanging.

Ruffings, Margaret

Does housework. Williams.

Farrell, William

A "rununy." Does huckstering. Has son, earning $30 weekly, who lives with his mother in Essington. Produce broker .for local merchant.

Miller, Joseph

On relief since 1933. Moving to Philadelphia through the assistance of the Media Community Centre. Combined earnings of Miller and his two sons amount to $13 weekly.

50

Harkness, John

Lives at married sister's home. Father living and pensioned.

51

Traband, Chas.

Mentally deficient. Only employment he has ever had was a two year W.P.A. assignment. Lives at one brother's home. Has another brother and a sister.

52

Margio, Antonio

Has own living quarters adjacent to son's home. Came from Pittsburgh year ago.

53

Evans, Felix

Man of sixty whose sister just recently moved in after 13 years of family separation. Evans has daughter in North Carolina. Owns house.

Wilson, Bradford

Lives with sister. Came from Maryland three years ago. His only jobs were on W.P.A. projects. Brother-in-law works at General Chemical Co. and has son on N.Y.A.

55

Brown, Harry

~~

56

John, William

Correct name Johnson~ Returned to step-father's home. Was living with other relief recipients.

57

0' Ne ill, Leonard

Living with mother who owns her own home ~ has boarders and lets a tworoom apartment.

48

... l29 ...

Living with a Sam

epileptic. Lives with cousins. Was recently in Philadelphia for about five months. Father in the county home, sister's husband is on W.P.A.

Ca se No.

-Name

Remarks

58

Smith, Ella

Son at C.C.C. camp sends $22 monthly. Receives $2 for support of daughter's illegitimate child. Brother, separated from family, lives in same community.

59

Wiggins, J0hn

Left uncle's home to get relief assistance. Now living with aunt since her husband's death. Not trying very hard to find work.

60

Mastracola, Dominick

Has son and daughter liVing at home who are working. Two other adult children Owns own home.

61

Woelfel, Ralph A.

Has good family capable of assisting. Lives, rent free, at firehouse. A painter, he gets odd jobs occasionally.

62

Moraz, Frank

An old man whose family can prOVide for him without inc onvenience to themselves.

63

Sepcich, John

In America for thirty years. Never got second papers of citizenship Rents rooms occasionally Family well able to prOVide for him Arrests in 1919 and 1933 on "speakeasy" charges.

Tindalie, Francis C.

Owes $23 for relief chiseling. work!

Swetko, John

Lost citizenship papers for falsifying marital status. A Russian, he has lived in America for 30 years.

Bradford, Henry

Drives an old DeSoto car. Presently employed by a cleaner. Doesn't hold jobs long. Was pipe fitter on W.P.A. projects.

Meekins, Jacob

Apparently the only man in house full of women. $2.00 room rent also gives him the priVilege of eating with the rest of the guests.

Carter, James

Living with a Hattie Williams. Has a wife at another address, Consort still receiving $1.70 weekly as her relief allowance.

66

68

- 130 -

Won't

Case No.

-Name

Remarks

69

Adams, Ernest

Has lived here since recent release f~om jail. Has a family and a girl friend -- a Pearl Gibbs. Pays nothing for rent and can stay indefinitely.

70

MacIvor, Walter

Living in own basement apartment with a friend who is steadily employed at Brilla. Has two unmarried daughters, and a son, living in St. Louis.

71

Tartaglio, Nicholas

Lived in this country since 1901 but made no application for citizenship until 1937. Stay here, at friend's home, can continue indefinitely.

72

Kanuka, Steve

An alien, from Lithuania, has lived

with Annie Wallen for llj.. years. Have 20 chickens, a cow; and Mrs. Wellen has a son who is working. Too, she owns property. 73

Anderson, Edward

Remained at this address for only a few weeks. Was employed regularly, as garage mechanic, after the first week of residence.

7lj..

Kohn, George

C.C.C. enlistment expired in December 1939. Now living in Philadelphia with the father who is regularly employed.

75

smith, Horace

Recently separated from wife. Now purportedly living in Philadelphia. Was believed, by neighbors, to have some "means.". Didn't work.

76

Davidson, Herbert

Used the name of Davis. Recently separated from wife who is living with another man. Now in Shamokin with married sister. Was liVing with relief recipients.

77

Carie, Lavey

Has moved to New Yo:z:-k City with family. Sister, still livfng at this address, conducts a private school with an enrollment of 58 colored children. Most of the parents of these pupils are on relief. Charge for tuition is 25 cents weekly.

... 131 -

Case No.

Name

Remarks

78

Dugan, :Mary

Moved to Scranton in .June 1939. Planned to continue to New York City. Has e brotheo,:, L~ing in Soranton.

79

.Jillard, Samual

Was on relief from 1933 until December 1938. Has oaen 11ving with a Mr s • Beaumont. Gives five different addresses.

80

Wells, Henry

Family moved b3 ~k to their kin in Georgia.

81

Magee, Howard

Moved after roo''ling at this address about six months. An irresponsible fellow.

82

Pompur, .Julius

Lived with Petterson, a W.P.A. employe. Received unemployment oompensation of $100. Owes credit olothing house for suit on which only two payments were made.

Beck, Irving

Moved from this location several months ago.

81+

D'Ambrosia, Carmen

Left this rooming house reoently, owing for room rent. Would not look for work.

85

Templin, Albert

Name really Tempelton.

86

Tuoker, Hughie

Moved, no forvrerding address.

87

W'ippert, Albert

Former C.C.C. enlistee. Has sister and two aunts living near northeast Philadelphia.

88

Ayres, Alfred

Left this rooming house in Deoember

1.939. 89

DiPaulo, Gaetano

Not a oitizen. Moved the summer of 1939 from this house.

90

Orysczak, William

No one knew of this individual.

91

Graves, Preston

Never heard of.

92

Shorts, Howard

Postman did not kndw, in addition to present tenants.

93

Myers, Elsworth

Does not live he.re and is unknown.

- 132 -

I

I I

Case No.

Name

Remarks

9~

Thomas, Bertha

Il

Information refused by this arrogant woman and her da ughter • Ha s been on relief for 5 years.

95

Johnson, Albert

Duplicate addresses. either house.

f

96

Miller, John

Applied for relief in Chester while on rolls in Scranton. Has been earning, in addition, substantial amounts doing odd jobs. Brother, on W.P.A., rents rooms and sells homemade quilts. Name really Mlynarzyek.

91

Bowers, James

On W.P.A. .Has 18 year-old son. Last job, other than W.P.A., was at Seaford, Delaware, last fall.

98

Collins, Verden

Former inmate of Elyzn Training School. Was. "adopted" by school attendant with. whom he is living. Has been on relief eight or nine years. Has a car which is used to drive fellow W.P.A. workers for which he receives $1. 50 weekly.

99

Hackett, Franc is

Recently started on W.P.A.

100

Wilson, Thomas

Never completed first grade education even though he went to school for nine years. Grandfather left $1600 insurance for his upkeep. Is getting $18 monthly through N. Y. A. Has always been able to earn a few dollars delivering circulars and groceries working at the various markets, etc.

101

Rooks, James

Doing "odd Jobs" and on N. Y. A. Was at a C.C.C. camp for eighteen months. Step-father employed by General Chemical for twenty-six years.

102

Johnson, Russell

On N.Y.A. since October. Mother refused to assign her house to get "widow's pension. "

103

Maloney, Edward

Husband at Broadmeadows on larceny arrest. No steady job since he was married. Wife now.getting $8.00 relief.

I

I I

r

- 133 -

Not located at

Oa se No.

Name

Remarks

10~

Lawrence, Ida

Owns house. Gave up oocasional domestio jobs to go on W.P.A. sewing projeot. Has about 15 chickens.

105

Weaver, John

Living with friends named Soifer.

- 134 -

APPENDIX III.

NUMERICAL AND CIASSIFIED INDEX OF CASES.

1. Employed - regular jobs Case No.

Name

1 2 3 45 6 7

Kub la, steve Peoples, John Radcliffe, W. J. Turner, Charles H. Trawick, Garland Ryder, John Kennedy, Montreal Connelly, William Seagraves, Everett Thomas, John 1!Tilhelms, Harry Simpson, James Greenberg, Max Algae, Ellis smith, Moses Rush, Frank P. Maguire, Ermna Powell, William H. Harris, Joe Berry, James Hilliard, Ear 1 Campbell, Ches. Williams, Margaret

8

9 10 11

12 13 1415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Where·Employed Sol Sidewater's Junk Yard, Chester Paper Container Corporation, Yeadon Giant Tiger Super Market, Darby Sun Ship Company, Chester Domestic service (Wife) Sun Ship Company, Chester Viscose Rayon Corporation, Marcus Hook Sinclair Oil Company, Marcus Hook Ford Motor Company, Chester Pennsylvania Railroad Dixon Machine Shop, Philadelphia Wilkins, Commission Row, Chester Joe Doblitz, Trainer J. Wallsworth Sons, Chester Domestic service (wife) Chester Mission, Chester Roy Meredith, Chester Haley's Sheet Metal Works, Chester Restaurant, Chester School bus driver, Darby Township Sun Life Insurance Co. St. Vincents Hospital, Philadelphia Domestic - Husband employed by Sun Oil Company, Chester

2. Engaged in private enterprise Case No.

21+ 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 3435

36

37 38 39 4-0

Name·

How Employed

Schrader, Adolph McKone, James Mabus, Jack Curtis, Raymond Farmer, James Blow, Wesley Carney, Dawson Brown, John Upjohn, Horace Mitchell, Richerd Scheffmeye, Walter P. Majors, William Fontaine, Morris Tyler, Howard Sample, John Burns, John Hayward, Malcolm

Chopping corn, shoveling show, etc. Carpentry, plastering, etc. Printer or printer's helper Caddying Tap room and the "Eagles" Odd jobs Cheuffering "Shooting" pool Cheuffering Odd jobs Kitchen helper JUnking and odd jobs Farming and chauffering Polishing cars and gardening Junking Carpentry and quarrying Helping around house

... 135 ..

2. Engaged in private enterprise (Cont'd.) Case No. ltl lt2 lt3

4.lt

lt5

%

lt7 lt8 lt9

Name

How Employed

Crawley, Paul DePase, Louis Nelson, Naomi Jones, Willie Jackson, Sylvia Petryk, John Ruffings, Margaret Farrell, William Miller, Joseph

Junking and farming Gambler and landlord Rents rooms JUnking Domestic Paperhanging Housework Huckstering, food brokerage Plumbing and auto repair

3- Living with relatives Name

Case No. 50 51 52 53 5lt 55 56 57 58 59 60

With Whom Living

Harkness, John Traband, Charles Margio, Antonio Evans, Felix Wilson, Bradford Brown, Harry John, William Of Neill, Leonard Smith, Ella Wiggins, .John Mastracola, Dominick

Father and married sister Brother Son Sister Sister Cousin Mother and step-father Mother Daughter Bnd grandchild Aunt Wife, son and daughter

It. Families able to support Case No. 61

62 63

Name Woelfel, Ralph A. Moraz, Frank Sepcich, John

5. Living with friends Case No. 6lt 65

66

67 68 69 70 71

72

105

Name Tindalle, Francis C. Swetko, John Bradford, Henry Meekins, Jacob Carter, James Adams, Ernest MacIvor, Walter Tartaglio, Nicholas Kanuka, Steve Weaver, John

- 136 -

6. Moved from locality Case No.

73

74 75

76

77

78 79

80

Name

New residence

Anderson, Edward Kahn, George Smith, Horace Davidson, Herbert Carey. Lovie Dugan. Mary Jilliard. samuel \fleIls, Henry

Concordville, Pa. Phi la de Iphia , Pa. Philadelphia, Pa. Shamokin. Pa. New York, N. Y. Scranton. Pa. Philadelphia. Pa. Georgia

7. Moved and left no new address CaSe No.

81 82

83 84 85 86 87

88 89

8.

~ere

-Name Magee, Howard Pompur, Julius Beck, Irving D'Ambrosia, Carmen Templin JAlbert Tucker, Hughie Wippert, Albert Ayres, Alfred DiPaulo, Gaetano

not located Case No. 90

91 92

93 94

95

Name Orysczak, William Graves, Preston Short s, Howard Myers, Elsworth Thoma s, Bertha Johnson. Albert

9. On relief agencies Case No.

96

97 98 99 100 101 102 1 03 104

Name Miller, .Tohn Bowers, James Collins, Verden Hackett, Francis Wilson. Thome S Rooks, .Tames Johnson. Russell Ma laney. Edward Lawrence. Ida

- 137 -

Agency On relief in Scranton On W.P.A. On W.P.A. On W.P.A. On N.Y.A. On N.Y.A. On N.Y.A. Prison Aid On W.P.A.

APPENDIX IV.

CERONOLOGY OF INVESTIGATIONS

Investigation Nos.

1 to 19

Datos February 27 to March 5, 194-0

20 to 41

March 6 to March 12, 194-0

4-2 to 61

March 13 to March 19, 1940

62 to 74-

March 20 to March 26, 194-0

Al to A31

April 1 to April 8, 194-0

- 138 -

Cl~ES

IN

~~ICH l~DICj~ SERVICE IS BEING RECEIVED DESPI TE 'lUES TIOlJABLE RELIEF STLTUS

Cuse closed 4/2, re-opened 4/29/40.

Received medical treutment 4/5 to

24.

Application for Qssist~~ce, duted 9/14/39, never signed by ~~s. F. or her husbund. '"

~

Signnturo on medical invoice of ~13.00 is ns L. nnd at varin~ce with signature in the cnse record. (Various spellings of lust nume.) Bondbenrs nn "X" mark without oxposition. Authorization for informntion on fine-nee beurs c.n "Xli and notr:tion "her !2c,rk". Neither are witnessed. Doctor's invoice beurs u signature, us does also the application of 11/28/39.

139

SURVEY OF RELIEF CASES COMING ~la:- UNEMFLOYMENT COMfENSATION WITH EJ..RNINGS OF $800 OR MORE mTIUnG .A SINGLE CALENDAR YEAR

County

Original No. of Selected Cases

Allt:6!lt:ny Philadelphia Schuylkill »auphin I.:itz'3rne

50 37 49 24

TOTAL

Num'ut:r wi th E:...l'uings of $800 or M~re During a Sinsle Calender Yt:~r

Per Cent --.-

50

18 18 35 6 17

36.0 48.6 71.4 25.0 34.0

210

94

44.8

Classification of the 94 Cases with earnings of ~800 or more during a single calendar year

No.

Per Cent

1 - Received relief during a querter ye£r immediately following a quarter with earnings of $200 or more ••••

40

42.6

2 - Received reli ef during a quarter year immedia tely following a quarter wi th earnings plus U.C. totaling $200 or more •••••••••••••••• ~ ••••••••••••••••••••••••

9

1.0

3 - Received U.C. during two benefi t years and granted relief during the interim between the two series of U.C. payments ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

4'7

50.0

III • • • • • • • • • • III • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

19

20.2

*5 - Received duplicate payments (Relief and u.a.) during one or more months of a quarter )it)~r •••••••••••••••••

35

3'7.2

6 - Roceived relict ~uriug Q ~uarte~ yoe~ with earnings of $200 or more .~ ••••••••.••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

35

4 - ReC'eived relief prior to U.G. \'Vmw t:ligibl!:l fur' t.nt: latter, and when only one U.C. benefit year was involved ••••..••••••.••.••••

*Duplications within a single month of any onG quarter for Schuylkill and Dauphin Counties are not determinable from available records. Size of total income fram all three sources during a single quarter, however. sugcasts duplication and is checked as such for those counties.

140

UNE].1PLOYMEN T COrvIPEN SATION-RELIEF Wages for 1937 wore as fol1owst $390 for the first quarter, ~380 for the second quarter; i~460 for the third quarter, $440 for the fourth quarter. Wagos for tho first quarter of 1938 'wore $90 plus U.O. of $50. Wagos for tho second quarter of 1938 woro $340 plus U.C. of $50. ~ngos for the third quarter of 1938 were $275 plus U.C. of $25. I Wagos for the last quarter of 1938 and . for the first three quarters of 1939 averaged i;334. Wages for the last quarter of 1939 were $370 plus U.C. of $25. ~ U.C. vms also received in the first quarter of 1940 amounting to $150 plus wages of (~50. In tho second quarter of 1940 U.O. amounting to ~::;40 vms received, plus relief of ~40. Viorked steadily through 1937, 1938, and 1939. His earnings, however, show progressive docline, varying per quarter from ~~770 to 0250. During the first quarter of 1939, he earned ~(:390. Tho follOWing qnarter his total income of ~230 comprised $110 wages, ~70 U.C .,' and ~)50 relief. During tho fourth quarter of 1939, vmgos plus U.C. amounted to $310. Tho following quarter $90 relief vms granted which, togethor with ¢30 U.C., and (:100 wages, made his income total $220. His rolief grant for the socond quarter of 1940 amounted to ~29.12 and for the first month of the third quarter (July 1940) it iVUS $28.19. In the year 1937 and first half of 1938 he had earned over ~~1400. Earned 0240 during third qunrtor of 1938 and ,rns granted 025 relief during the following quarten Earned over ~~200 in first quarter of 1939 but again roceived relief in that and following qunrter, despite n.c. payments in second qu arter of 1939.

141

4 ~1o.gcs for the yeo.rs 1937, 1938 ond 1939 nveraged?1627 per year, vii th a loa for the three years of ~EO for the first qU',rter of 1937 and a high of $600 for the fourth quarter of 1937. Unemployment compensation of $190 WQs~~~ceived in the .first quarter of 1940. In the second quartcrr of 1940 U.C. nmount ing to ~WJ '.1:\S

rcc-:;ived, together w1'h .~80 relief. In 1937 earned Imges in every qunrter in nmounts rnngin c ' f:t'::m $100 to ~300 total ~nges over $800. Totnl relief pnyments during thnt year nenrly $500. In 1938 earned ','mges in four quartrs. Received relief payuents totnling '3250 in tno qunrters. Total income in 1938 including U.C. payments 81040. In 1939 received over $400 ~agcs in first quarter nnd over ~300 ~nges in second quarter and nas put on relief in third quarter. QuarterlY'iagos ~enrned during 1937 and 193f and the first :,ql~ ~cr of 1939 varied from $190 to ~~440, average about )250. After c~rning ;;;290 during the first quarter of 1939, he ';"IOS gr::mtcd ":,10 reI ief during the fol 1 0\7ing quarter. -"ages -.Jere $140, l'VJJ.king his total ir.ccr!l.c f~E)O far that quarter. During the third quarte:::' of 1939, ,lages plus U.C. ~lmountcd to ~~24:0. he T:\S granted ~~50 relief, nhichraised his inco.me for that quarter to;?290 •. Again, during the fic' st quarter of 1940, inco:r.J.C from three sources tot'llcd ';(220 - 1.~75 iCl U.C. benefits, .~40 in-,inges, and 0105 relief. Relief gr:::nts for the second qu:::-,rtcr of 1940 totaled !.i>68.72. Relicf liCS discontinued May 10, 194).

Ho.s received payments in ten of the last fourt.:cn quarters, despite -.mges c>f ever i~l,OOO in 1937,~880 i1: 1938, Qnd ::~1300 in 1939, and U.C. pnyments of o.pproximntely .,,135 iI: 1938 c.:.:d tl;.c se::c QlllOunt in 1939. During the sccond quarter of 19~7. he carned ~250 ~nd ~2S granted ~150 relief, mQking Q totnl income of'$40'u'I"or trint"'quf'uotcr. Ec.rrdngs for the second qunrtor of 1937 ~orc $290. He ~QS granted $60 relief r~king a total incooo of $350 for that quarter. ~)130 relief ','j·'}s grQl'ltcd for the third quo.rtcr of 1938 after earnings of ~~240for the second quarter of that ye:~r. Durir~g fCt-,~.:'th quarter of 1938 earnings nere $350 and he ~2S grnnte~ $80 relicf, n~king total incorill of $430. The follo~ing quarter, 0agcs ~~ountinc to $290 and U.O. payrr£nts of ~150 brought hiD :E:c..;r.1,C up to ~~440. During thc qunrtcrs imnodintcly follO\-:ing ~~180 rcllcf ,7[',S granted. '1c.ges riC"C only :$20.70':,cs anounting to ~300 plus ~:~130 relief brought hio incorlc up to )430 for the first quarter of 1910. Relief payments fer the second quc.rter llf1940 nmountcd t 0 ;~184 .56, and for the first M.onth of the third quarter (JUly 1940) ';~66.72 in relief ,7Q5 granted. -7nges fer the third qUQrter of 1937, fourth quc.rtcr of 1937, and first quarter of 1938 ';Jcre ~225, ~)375, o:'"'.d :';;325. ~O relic f 'Iia'S grantcd during cech of t Jese quarters. '::;10 relief ',70S also ,;rC1ntcd during the third quo.rter of 1938, -;-Ihich folleiicd ':iC'.gC5 of ~350 11'.lI'ing the preceding quarter. Earned ,f~430 in ';iQ.gcs during the fourth quc.rter of 1937 r:nc. '7-8 granted 1~50 relief during t he first quart cr of 1938, 'Jhich ':J s in ndd it ion t:) ~t50 u.e. and ~1l0 in ';IClges in thnt quarter. Age. in, duriClg the first quo.rt er of 19?9 he earned $300 Gnd secoD,d quarter he c"'\IT_cc1 ":;210 ("nd ,;]",S granted '.;;90 relief thc third '1UQrter, prior to sccuring his U.O. insur8Ilce ,lhich he did not tclcc until the next yeGr. QuarterlY enrnings held consis'~e!ltly nt o.bout ~:j250 per quo.rtcr feT the years 1937 ar..d 1938, c:ld the first helf of 1939. During -:;:.;} second qunrter of 1939 his inco~c fron throe sources, totaliI1-€:;220, \"l8,S ~o.de up "f ~;190 ·.;ages ,1;;510 '-iJ C. and ~~20 relicf. Be is now l'_:·~.:"''91oyc;d ~\lld ',7GS granted ~~128.30 rc.l:icf dur1:~ :.::1,:0';~ .~:, :-.,11i :;:: ••:;; '!.940. During the second quo.rter of 1940 ~;69.72~·lcs granted 142

5 for relief, and during the first month of the third qua.rter (.Tuly 1940) he " I t appcars that U.C. payments ~crc scattered over four quarreceived ~36.06. ters for his first bencfit ycar. He is eligible n~l forU.C. payments covering a second benefit year. Relicf nas discontinued July 31, 1940.

,

.

d

Wnges avero.gcd better than ~~300 'Per quarter for the four quarters of 1937 and e150 for the first quarter of 1938, foll-::ed by U.C. and ::;1200 in TIages (totel) for three quarters in 1938. In first quarter of 19~9 he earned $100 per quarter and ,IUS given relief in excess of $150 during ench of these quarters. Total incoDD for thesc quarters (first and second 1939) wos $290 and $310 respectively. Thlring the third quarter of 1939 he earned 0310 and received C50 relief, totaling;~360. He had no incoI:E during the lost q'larter of 1939 but receivcd u.e. during the first and second quarters of 19·10. He nent on relicf ogain during the latter quarter receiving ~120. This nan's inco~£, 1937 to ~ " .rune 1940, conplcted tTIO cycles in the follo':1ing sequence - wages, U.C., re11ea.'. Wages for the second quarter of 1937 nero ~807, but in spite of that fact he \Jas granted :.:;15 relicf during the follO\ling quarter. Wages during the latter quarter \lere _ _ , making n total q,unrt:rly ir.cOJ:l.c (\70[;6S plus relicf) of ~~170. 'Voges _.'. last q~crte~ :'f: ll'J~C TI ro ~390~ Vins grnnted ~50 reli?f durim 7 that quarter r~lloning kn sPltc of carnkngs durlng that quarter amountlng to ']370. Total inco·':,c for first quarter of 1939 (':'leges plus relicf) TIns $420. Enrncd ~)530 in "\Ul[;CS during the second quarter of 1938. Total i::.c: ne during the follo';~in~; qunrt.::rans ":2,~,0 m~c3 COJ.":lC fronthrcc SJurces - ~110 TIoges, C25 relief, and ~:;105 U.C. Relief ~~unt:i...."1g to ,~20 WGS grnntcd during the third quarter of 19:)9, nhich together \lith ~)275 in ";Iagcs, brought his income up to ~295. Total income for the quarters imn~diotclY preceding and succeeding the above quarter '.Ins 1,a75 nnd (:190 respectivcly. -7ages for second quart~,r of 1938 1"10re ~~:;·10. ';T'ls srnntcd ~25 rcl:icf during the folloning quarter ',lhich, together ;7i th J~225 corned during th.::lt quarter, brought his incom: up to ')250. Enrncd ~)525 for four quarters in succession - last of 1937 ::lnd first, second, and third of 1938. :.7~s grQnted;)20 relief during fourth quarter of 1938 \Jhich together uith ,JoGes of $350, brought his income for thnt quarter up to (~370. Reccivee. ::)195 U.C. first qur.rter of 193'9, fa ll0\1i ng Nhich he \Jont on relief far remainder of the year, follOlJcd by second series of U.C. payments in 1940.

143

CASE NO. 55

CASE NO. 3-3938

S.S.NO. 194-05-7308

8.S.NO. 180-01-3152

I~IN::11_9_3_~ -+--_liiiI_~~9J_~_~40_J 1941_r -~~~1~~938-[_~ 19~~ __

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S.S.NO. 165-09-4720

S.S.NO. 183-01-7369

mcOME DOLLARS

1940

1939

1938

1937

1941

1937

1938

1939

1940

1200 1100_ 1000 ,

900 800

r d 17ages

700 -

~ U.C.

i=i Re1ie~

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1941

SS NO. 163-01-2633

8.S.NO. 182-10-6689

IN com:

DOLLARS

1937

1938

1939

1940

1941

1937

1938

1939

1940

1200 1100 1000 900 I-'

II'>

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800 ~)VTages

700 600 500_ 400_ 300_

~!

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1941

CASE NO. 3-077 S.S.NO. 161-18-3611

CASE NO. 12-1091 S.S. NO. 180-09-8900

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meOME 1937

DOILARS

1200

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1938

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1939

1940

1941

1937

1938

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Capitol Building Prepared For The Of The By The Harrisburg

REPORT ON RELIEF Prepared For The GENERAL ASSEMBLY Of The CO:MMON1'VEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA By The JOmT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION OF TEE GENERAL...

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