2nd International Conference of Medical & Health Sciences and The Life Sciences Conference 2016 The Relationship of Fish Consumption to Cognitive Development in Students of SD Saptosari, Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta Rr Dewi Ngaisyah UNRIYO, Indonesia
Abstract The lack of Omega 3 contained food intake is one of the known factors that causes poor nutritional status as well as hinders cognitive development. Fish contains high Omega 3. Cognitive development is related to movement that is affected by such skilled neural activities as learning and thinking skills while absorbing the study materials delivered by the schools (Nurjanah, 2008). This research aims to find out the relationship of Omega 3 intake to cognitive development in students of SD Saptosari, Gunungkidul. This study is an observational study, with Cross Sectional design, that is conducted in SD Saptosari, Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta. The data was gathered in the period of March to September, 2016. The respondents of the study were elementary school students. Bivariate analyzing test used in the study involved Linear Regression testing. The average consumption of Omega 3 was 74.09 ± 7.81 and the average cognitive development was measured through the students’ grade, that was 75.01 ± 7.88. The correlation testing showed an average relationship (r = 0/274) between the two variables. The linier regression testing showed a significant relationship (p = 0/006), with 0.075 determining coefficient. The regression formula was Cognitive Development = 54/563 + 0.276 Omega 3, meaning that the cognitive development reaches 0.276 with every 1 mg Omega 3 consumption. It is concluded that any relationship between Omega 3 consumption and cognitive development in students of SD Saptosari, Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta. It is suggested to improve the potential of the cognitive skills of SD Saptosari students through fish consumption as the source of Omega 3.
Keywords cognitive skills; fish consumption; Omega 3
Name : Rr Dewi Ngaisyah Institution : Universitas Respati Yogyakarta Address : Pesona Harapan F-1 Sidokarto, Godean , Sleman , Yogyakarta. Phone : 0811588078 E-mail address: : [email protected]
I. INTRODUCTION Brain growth and development occur during the prenatal period up to 2 years. Lack of consumption of food containing protein is one of the factors that causes malnutrition and impedes cognitive development. Fish is a source of food that contains Omega 3 (19). Fish is a relatively cheap source of Omega 3's for the community. Based on data from the fishery production, it can be estimated that the average availability of fish per capita per year is 20 kg. When it is calculated, geographically, the availability of fish per capita in Saptosari is somewhat large. However, this large availability of fish is not reflected in real consumption of fish in the community (14) Malnutrition case in Saptosari from year to year is still high. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition, which is stunting, in Saptosari is quite high at 48.2% (13). The impact of malnutrition problem among children is that it can trigger the decrease of intelligence. One of the causes of a high number malnutrition case resulting in such permanent intelligence decrease is the consumption of food which contain less Omega 3. Omega 3 consumption is useful for optimizing the growth and development of children. This is because, theoretically, myelin membrane is formed by fat (EPA and DHA fatty acid). This, if implemented, can provide a support for government programs in health field (3). Data of the prevalence of malnutrition showed that Saptosari still has a quite high number in this phenomenon. Child development is psychophysical changes as a result of the maturation process of both physical and psychological functioning of children supported by environmental factors and learning process within a certain time towards maturity. Child development consists of motoric, language, speech, and social development. Gross motor development associated with movements that are influenced by the skills of large muscles, such as the activities during extracurricular activities. In the other hand, fine motor skills are associated with movements that are affected by the skills of the delicate nerves such as the ability to learn and think in receiving lessons in school (17). Optimal and balanced nutrition is indispensable for the development of the nerves system. Impaired brain development may affect the level of intelligence as well as the quality of Human Resources (HR). Children’s school period is a very sensitive period in which malnutrition can affect the growth of the brain as well as intelligence growth disorders. Human Resources who are physically tough, mentally strong and have a vibrant health determine the success of national development of a nation. A major concern in human resource development is to prepare the young generation through early coaching, through such health efforts from early age (7) Several factors to be considered in an attempt to realize high quality of human resources are nutrition, health, education, information, technology and other services. Among those factors, nutritional factors are most important role in children’s growth process. Omega 3 acts as brain’s fatty acids. Essential fatty acids are nutrients that must be fulfilled (6). II. RESEARCH METHODS This research is an observational study, using Cross Sectional research design. The independent variable is the consumption of fish. The dependent variable is the cognitive development of school children. This research was conducted in the Saptosari sub-district, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta. The data were collected from May to August 2016. The population in this research was students of SD Saptosari, Gunung Kidul, Yoyakarata. It was 435 in total based on the master data of students in SD Saptosari, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta. The samples used were as many as 100 people. The samples in this study is based on Stratified Sampling method. This because SD Saptosari consists of several classes, and the sample was obtained from the representation of each class proportionately.
The primary data in this study is the Omega-3 consumption gained from fish as natural ingredients using Food Frequency Quationare (FFQ). The subject were asked to recall food that had been consumed daily, weekly, and monthly. The results then were recorded by the interviewer. Four Nutritional Sciences enumerator students assisted during the data collection. The school children’s cognitive abilities data measurement was obtained from their learning achievement. Correlation Regression test was used in bivariate analysis to determine the relationship between fish consumption and cognitive abilities.
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The study was conducted from March to October, 2016. This study had the students of SD Saptosari, Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta as the respondents. The respondents were sought based on their age and gender. The measured variables were Omega 3 consumption and cognitive development. The following Table 1 presents the univariant analysis of the respondents’ characteristics. Table 1. The characteristics of respondents on gender Gender male female
n 53 47
% 53 47
This study made use of samples that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most of them were of male gender, with 53 respondents. The imbalance in terms of proportion was obvious, with 47% female respondents as a comparison. Table 2. The characteristics of respondents on age Age
Mean Median 10.19 10.00
Minimum Maximum 9 12
The results of the analysis on characteristics based on the respondents’ age on average was 10 years old (SD 0,787). The youngest respondent was 9 years old, and the oldest respondent was 12 years old. Table 3. The average consumption of Omega 3 and the cognitive development of the respondents Variable Omega3 consumption ( mg) Cognitive development
Mean Median 74.09 75 75.01 77
SD 7.81 7.88
Minimum Maximum 51.98 89 51 89
It is derived from Table 3 that the average consumption of Omega 3 from such natural source as fish that were consumed by the respondents was 74,09 7,81 mg per day. The following Table 5 presents the bivariant analysis of the study. Table 4. Analysis of Correlation Regression of Omega 3 Consumption to Cognitive Development Variable Omega 3
Line Equation Cognitive = 54.563 + 0.276 Omega 3
P value 0.006
The correlation of the consumption of Omega 3 taken from natural food source such as fish to cognitive development showed an average correlation (0.274) and positive outcome, which means that the higher the consumption of Omega 3 that comes from natural food source such as fish, the higher the cognitive development of the respondents. The coefficient value with 0.075 value means that the formulated line equation of the regression could explain the 7.5% of the cognitive development variation or that the line equation was enough to explain the cognitive development variable. In another word, the consumption of Omega 3 that comes from natural food source as fish contributed 7.5% (R2 = 0.075) on children’s cognitive development, while the rest comes from other factors. The statistical analysis showed a significant correlation of the consumption of Omega 3 that comes from natural sources such as fish to the cognitive development of the respondents (p=0.006). As the line equation was formulated, the study then could predict the variable of the respondents’ cognitive development from the Standard Error of the Estimate, with 7.62. The Z value was formulated from table Z with validity points at 95% with Z = 1.96, so the variation was formulated as 1.96 x 7,62 = 14.935. Results of the study showed the average consumption of Omega 3 was 74 g, which predicts the cognitive development as the following: Cognitive Development = 54.563 + 0.276 (74) = 74.987. It means that every 74 g Omega 3 consumption may lead to 60.052 to 89.922. The respondents’ cognitive development was seen through the average grades they get at the school. The average grades of 100 respondents were 75.01 7.88. Based on the standard of passing grade dictated by the Ministry of Education and Culture, the mark have way passed the minimum passing grade of elementary school students’ grades. The data on consumption of Omega 3 coming from such natural food source as fish were gathered from an interview, using FFQ, in which it was confirmed that all the tracked down the kind of fish consumed were of natural food source and were of various kind of fish. The results of the analysis showed that the average consumption of omega 3 taken from natural food souces was 74.09 7.81 mg per day. The data on cognitive development were gathered by observing the students’ cognitive skills performance during the learning process in the school, focusing on the average grades on natural science, mathematics, and bahasa Indonesia subjects. The most recent grades from the report cards, that were gathered with the help of the teachers, are preferred. The most consumed fish were kembung , tongkol and tunas. These fish have much more Omega 3 than any other fish. The results of the bivariant analysis of the correlation regression showed the p-value at 0.006. It was then concluded that there was a correlation of consuming Omega 3 from natural sources such as fish to the cognitive developments of the students of SD Saptosari, Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta. The regression equation showed that cognitive development would mean that the cognitive skills improved by 0.275 in every 1 mg consumption of Omega 3. The linear correlation of the consumption of Omega 3 harvested from natural food sources such as fish to the cognitive development having a positive outcome means that the greater the consumption of Omega 3, the richer the respondents’ cognitive development. Omega 3 helps to form spingomielins and is a structural component of mielins. EPA helps to form the cell membranne. When EPA and DHA constructed enough spingomielins in the brain, the brain would send signals to the axons and then mielins would enhance the speed of the said signals sent by the brain. Then, neutrotransmitter takes over according to the brain’s order, so it results in faster and better motoric development of the body. On the other hand, if there are less EPA and DHA found in the brain, the cell membrannes died, therefore the signals sent by the brain to the axons do not flow fluently. As a result, the neurotransmitter does not work and the body moves slowly, as does the motoric development
of the body. Neurotransmitter functions as the messenger of the nervous system. It is necessary for it gets a food from AA and DHA, especially in the last trimester, postpregnancy and early age of the children. Lack of these two essential fat acid as the child is born correlates with light weight, small heads, and small placentas. As a result, the development of the central nervous system and the cognitive in the future would be affected (6). The consumption of Omega 3 harvested from fish correlates positively to the improvement of cognitive development of school-age children. Morris (2004) stated that consuming fish more than once a week apparently correlates to the fact how one’s body least likely shows the decrease of the cognitive function. Fish consumption most likely correlates to the slow decrease of the body’s cognitive development. Cognitive development covers four aspects. They are maturity, experience, social transmission and equillibration. Gunarsa (1997) had a hypothesis saying that social factors affect the cognitive development. For example, the upbringing and the education they got during the age of childhood. Other factor that also affects the cognitive development of the children is the fat that comes from fish. It is known that fat correlates to the development and the growth of brain cells. The kind of fat that played a role in the process of growth and development of the brain is Omega 3 fat acid (Khomsan, 2004).
IV. CONCLUSION Based on the results of this research, a few conclusions can be made as follows:
Average Consumption of Omega 3 from fish natural ingredients is 74.09 mg (SD ± 7.81) Average childen’s cognitive development seen from the results obtained in school learning achievement is 75.01 mg (SD ± 7.88) There is a positive relationship between the consumption of Omega 3 from natural ingredients like fish with cognitive development (p = 0.006) The consumption of Omega 3 from fish contributed 7.5% in affecting the children's cognitive development.
V. SUGGESTIONS Suggestion aimed at schools is that school should remain intensify the efforts to strengthen the nutrition knowledge of students about Omega 3 from natural materials like fish as outlined in science subjects. This way, students become willing to eat fish. School should also make educational program for parents/students’ guardians about the importance of fish consumption of school-age children to optimize their cognitive development. This is also an act of support for government programs in the field of health promotion.
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