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www.maxpapers.com UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS GCE Ordinary Level

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2011 question paper for the guidance of teachers

2059 PAKISTAN STUDIES 2059/01

Paper 1 (History and Culture of Pakistan), maximum raw mark 75

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners’ meeting before marking began, which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers. Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the examination.

• Cambridge will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2011 question papers for most IGCSE, GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level syllabuses.

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Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version GCE O LEVEL – May/June 2011

Syllabus 2059

Paper 01

By the end of Aurangzeb’s reign the authority of the Mughal emperors was declining. Hindus were not happy with his reign and after his death, Muslim power and influence over India, which had been so strong, began to disintegrate. At this time Shah Wali Ullah was growing up. (a) Describe the achievements of Shah Wali Ullah in reviving Islam.

[4]

Reward each correct statement with 1 mark. 2 marks can be awarded for a developed statement. Candidates might refer to: Promoted his message through writings, translated the Holy Quran into Persian (1) which would enable more people read it(1), emphasised traditional values of their faith, stressed the importance of following teachings of Quran, future developments built upon his teachings. (b) Explain why Britain was so successful in extending its control of the sub-continent between 1750 and 1850. [7] LEVEL 1: Simplistic statement They were better fighters. LEVEL 2: Identifies reasons They captured rich lands and had a better army.

[1] [2–4]

LEVEL 3: Explains reasons [5–7] The battles of Plassey and Buxar gave the British the vast riches of Bengal and favourable trading rights with the local nawabs. This provided massive new resources which Britain could use to consolidate its control. The British also introduced governor-generals into the provinces who administered them along British lines and provided yet more control. The British army, using its vast local resources and superior weapons and skills, was increasingly taking control of more land.

© University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

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Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version GCE O LEVEL – May/June 2011

Syllabus 2059

Paper 01

(c) ‘The spread of Marathan power was the main reason for the decline of the Mughal Empire.’ Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] LEVEL 1: Simplistic statement They were Hindus.

[1–2]

LEVEL 2: Description /identification of reasons [3–6] Aurangzeb’s successors had a decadent lifestyle and the Marathas were able to defeat the Mughal soldiers. LEVEL 3: Explains one reason

[7–10]

LEVEL 4: Explains more than one reason including Marathan power [9–13] There were a number of reasons for the Empire’s decline. The Marathas were skilful Hindu guerrilla fighters who defeated a Mughal army in 1737 and took control of Delhi and eastwards towards Bengal. By 1760 they were the most powerful people in India and nothing could the Mughals do to stop it. However, there were other reasons for the decline. Auranzeb had an intolerant attitude to non-Muslims. He introduced a tax on non-Muslims called the Jizya. He destroyed Hindu temples and tried to ban Hindu practices. Taxation was high as he had to pay for the cost of military campaigns such as the Deccan Wars and he spent highly on luxurious palaces. Because of these he became an unpopular rule. After his death Mughal Emperors were renowned for living an extravagant lifestyle and spending money with little thought to the effect it had on the economy of the Empire. This led to inefficiencies and a lack of interest in the running of the Empire. The absence of a definite line of succession led to a significant amount of in-fighting amongst his successors, which also led to instability and the downfall of the Empire. The British expansion into the subcontinent was rapid and their forces and equipment were no match for the Mughals, who fell into rapid decline as a result. LEVEL 5: As Level 4 – also produces a judgement or evaluation. 2

[14]

In 1857, a number of sepoys refused to use the new cartridges at Meerut, near Delhi. The sepoys were given long prison sentences and this led to a revolt in which their fellow sepoys marched on Delhi and massacred all the British they could find. Things got worse for the British at Kanpur. (a) What happened at the battle of Kanpur?

[4]

Reward each correct statement with 1 mark. 2 marks can be awarded for a developed statement. Candidates might refer to: Troops joined revolt, killed their officers, led by Nana Sahib, British held out for 3 weeks, then surrendered, soldiers and 300 women and children slaughtered, remainder kept as prisoners, reinforcements arrived and prisoners killed, British carried out acts of revenge, Sahib escaped.

© University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

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Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version GCE O LEVEL – May/June 2011

Syllabus 2059

(b) Why did Sir Syed Ahmad Khan found the Aligarh Movement? LEVEL 1: Simplistic statement He was interested in the Muslims.

Paper 01 [7] [1]

LEVEL 2: Identifies reasons [2–4] He wanted to improve relations with the British. He wanted to improve the position of Muslims. LEVEL 3: Explains reasons [5–7] He wanted to improve relations between the British and Muslims by getting rid of British doubts about Muslim loyalty and Muslim doubts about the British. He also wanted to improve the social and economic position of Muslims by getting them to receive Western education and take up posts in the civil service and army. He also wanted them to increase their political awareness to make them aware of the threat to from the Hindu policy of cooperation with the British. (c) ‘Punjabi has been promoted more than any other Pakistani regional language between 1947 and 1999.’ Give reasons why you might agree and disagree with this statement. [14] LEVEL 1: Simplistic statement Punjabi is a regional language.

[1–2]

LEVEL 2: Description of languages [3–6] Punjabi was a popular language amongst Sufi poets. Pushto is spoken in the NWFP. Sindhi is the second major language spoken in Pakistan. LEVEL 3: Explains promotion of at least one language

[7–10]

LEVEL 4: Explains promotion of at least two languages including Punjabi [9–13] Punjabi is the local language of the Punjab. It was a popular language amongst the Sufi poets who used it for their romantic folk poetry. These poems contributed greatly to the popularity of Punjabi. After Independence, steps were taken for the promotion and development of the language in other parts of the province. The Government has ensured its development by giving support to those institutions who are using it. Sindhi was written in ‘Marwari’ and ‘Arz Nagari’ was of writing which was subsequently changed into Arabic. After Independence, steps were taken to promote the language e.g. the Sindhi Literary Board was set up in 1948 which has printed many books and magazines in the language. Pushto literature was boosted after Independence since the poets had contributed a great deal to the freedom struggle. The Baluchi language has also been promoted by its broadcasting on the radio. The establishment of the Quetta Television Station has also helped to promote it. LEVEL 5: As Level 4 – also produces a judgement or evaluation.

© University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

[14]

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Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version GCE O LEVEL – May/June 2011

Syllabus 2059

Paper 01

Towards the end of the First World War the British decided that firm action was needed to keep a grip on India, especially with the threat of renewed violence. During the war the British had the Defence of India Act to help keep order. Once this Act had expired the Rowlatt Act was introduced. (a) Describe the Rowlatt Act.

[4]

Reward each correct statement with 1 mark. 2 marks can be awarded for a developed statement. Candidates might refer to: 1919, people could be tried in private by 3 High Court Judges, no right of appeal, people could be ordered to live in a particular place, stopped from holding meetings or arrested without warrant and kept in prison without trial, fear of a communist style revolution, Indian protests. (b) Why was the Government of India Act of 1935 so important to the future of the subcontinent? [7] LEVEL 1: Simplistic statement It governed India. LEVEL 2: Identifies reasons More people could vote and there was some provincial autonomy.

[1] [2–4]

LEVEL 3: Explains reasons [5–7] Some provincial autonomy was granted which meant that every provincial government was allowed to devise and carry out its own programmes and be responsible for its own legislature. This was the first time that this had been allowed and was seen as an important step forward. Ministers in the provinces could have control over all departments except when governors chose to intervene in cases of public order or to veto a bill they disliked. This was a drawback since it meant that the real power lay with the governors. However, it did provide additional rights for the local population to vote – some five times the previous numbers at 35 million in total. Provisions for a federal government were also established at the centre for the first time, which meant that princely states could decide to participate politically in affairs which concerned the sub-continent. However, key decisions relating to external relations and defence were retained by the British which was a drawback.

© University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

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Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version GCE O LEVEL – May/June 2011

Syllabus 2059

Paper 01

(c) ‘Partition or reversal?’ Were the reasons why Bengal was partitioned in 1905 more important than those regarding its reversal in 1911? Explain your answer. [14] LEVEL 1: Simplistic statement Bengal wanted freedom.

[1–2]

LEVEL 2: Description of partition and/or reversals It was too large and Hindus were in the majority and they didn’t want it.

[3–6]

LEVEL 3: Explains reasons for partition OR reversal

[7–10]

LEVEL 4: Explains BOTH

[9–13

Partition Of the 54 million people in Bengal, 42 million were Hindus. It seemed sensible to divide up the province on religious grounds and also because it was becoming very large and producing significant administrative problems. By doing this it was felt that the province would be easier to administer especially at the time of a new British government in power. The Muslims believed that partition would bring an end to Hindu oppression and that they would enjoy true recognition in a province in which they were in a majority. The Hindus believed that the partition would come about as part of the British ‘divide and rule’ policy which would weaken Hindu unity and its influence in the new East Bengal. Reversal The Hindus’ objection to Partition was so great that it caused the British to reconsider it. The Hindus opposed it by holding meetings and mass rallies which put pressure on the British government. They thought it was a deliberate attempt to ‘divide and rule’ on the part of the British. The Hindus were so angry that they attempted to assassinate Lord Minto and started their boycott of British goods under the ‘Swadeshi Movement’. There was also an outbreak of terrorist activities. LEVEL 5: As Level 4 – also produces a judgement or evaluation.

© University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

[14]

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Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version GCE O LEVEL – May/June 2011

Syllabus 2059

Paper 01

The Congress party decided at its Madras meeting in 1927 to boycott the Simon Commission which faced regular protests in India. Congress met with other parties to make proposals on the future constitution of India. This Conference was chaired by Motilal Nehru and produced the Nehru Report. (a) Describe the Nehru Report.

[4]

Reward each correct statement with 1 mark. 2 marks can be awarded for a developed statement. Candidates might refer to: 1928, constitutional guarantee of fundamental rights including freedom of conscience and liberty, central government responsible for peace and order, Dominion Status, India to become a federation with a 2 chamber parliament, protection of minorities, vote for all men and women. (b) Why did the Gandhi-Jinnah Talks fail in 1944? LEVEL 1: Simplistic answer They didn’t get on with one another. LEVEL 2: Identifies reasons Gandhi wanted independence; Jinnah disagreed.

[7] [1] [2–4]

LEVEL 3: Explains reasons [5–7] Gandhi only wanted to achieve independence first and foremost – partition discussions could follow later, whereas Jinnah wanted to settle the issue of partition first and before the British left. He knew that his bargaining position would be much weaker if he went along with Gandhi’s plan. Gandhi insisted that he spoke for all Indians and couldn’t accept the position of Muslims as being a separate nation. Hence independence for all Indians as a united nation was on his agenda. Jinnah was at odds with Gandhi and accused him of only speaking for Hindus, otherwise he would accept the idea of partition. He accused Gandhi of not accepting the two nation idea of partition. Gandhi also wanted the central government to have control of key areas such as defence and foreign policy, whereas Jinnah wanted these issues to be dealt with by the provinces.

© University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

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Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version GCE O LEVEL – May/June 2011

Syllabus 2059

Paper 01

(c) Was the work of Allama Iqbal more important to the Pakistan Movement than that of Rehmat Ali? Explain your answer. [14] LEVEL 1: Simplistic statement They both went to university.

[1–2]

LEVEL 2: Description of each contribution [3–6] Iqbal was a poet and was knighted by the British. He made a speech to the Muslim League in 1930. Ali came up with the name Pakistan. LEVEL 3: Explains either the work of AI or RA

[7–10]

LEVEL 4: Explains BOTH

[9–13]

AI He was the first important Muslim leader to advocate the partition of India and the creation of a separate Muslim state. As a result of his Allahabad address in 1930 when he put forward this view, separatism was seriously considered by many Muslims during the 1930s. He was also opposed to the British control of India – conquest of others was wrong and went against the Muslim faith. This strengthened his view that Muslims should have a separate homeland, independent of the British. He persuaded many Muslims that the Muslim League had to build an effective mass political party to challenge the domination of the Congress. This argument was adopted by Jinnah who went on to lead the Muslim League as a highly effective political party. His poetry awakened a sense of nationhood among Muslims and he urged them to be active in making progress. This progress needed to be along a distinctive Islamic path and not capitalist in nature. Again this vision was adopted by Muslims as a view of the future. RA In 1933 he and some fellow students produced a pamphlet called ‘Now or Never’ in which he argued in favour of partition and gave the name Pakistan to this new Muslim state that would be formed. This became popular amongst most Muslims during the 1930s. His views were different from AI as he wanted a separate independent state whereas AI wanted just a separate state. However, Ali did attract his critics, especially as he criticised many Muslim leaders especially Jinnah and as such was viewed as less important a figure. He attacked him over abandoning Muslim communities in such places as Delhi as well as accepting a divided Bengal. He was also considered less important than Iqbal since Jinnah took up many of his ideas whereas he refused to meet Ali, but nevertheless his views were adopted eventually. LEVEL 5: As Level 4 – also produces a judgement or evaluation.

© University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

[14]

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Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version GCE O LEVEL – May/June 2011

Syllabus 2059

Paper 01

In August 1990, after accusations of corruption and amid increasing violence, Benazir Bhutto was dismissed as Prime Minister. She had been Prime Minister for less than two years. Following her government’s dismissal, Nawaz Sharif was elected as Prime Minister. (a) What problems did Nawaz Sharif face as Prime Minister during the 1990s?

[4]

Reward each correct statement with 1 mark. 2 marks can be awarded for a developed statement. Candidates might refer to: Divided nation, supporters of BB wanted him to fail, difficult to promote economic progress and religious ideas at same time, lost USA aid, accused of involvement in death of Asif Nawaz, army Commander-in-Chief, dismissed, lost aid and support form other nations in 2nd term of office following nuclear testing, failures in fighting in Kashmir – blamed Musharraf, whom he tried to sack. Overthrown. (b) Why did Zia-ul-Haq introduce his package of Islamic laws between 1979 and 1988? [7] LEVEL 1: Simplistic answer It was necessary. LEVEL 2: Identifies reasons Pakistan needed a strong government.

[1] [2–4]

LEVEL 3: Explains reasons [7] Zia introduced the Islamic laws in an attempt to produce a strong and stable government managed by people committed to Islamic values. He ignored the political process because he felt that Pakistan was weaker as a result of these. He therefore made the Islamic laws very strict in order to produce a strong government by imposing a strict legal code. He also wanted to implement laws which punished people for showing disrespect towards the Holy Prophet and ensured that Islamic education was implemented in schools so as to raise Islamic awareness amongst students. He also wanted to distribute some wealth to the poor and needy by introducing Islamic taxes.

© University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

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Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version GCE O LEVEL – May/June 2011

Syllabus 2059

Paper 01

(c) ‘Political factors were more important than any other factor in the creation of Bangladesh in 1971.’ Do you agree or disagree? Explain your answer. [14] LEVEL 1: Simplistic statement They wanted independence.

[1–2]

LEVEL 2: Description of reasons for creation of Bangladesh [3–6] The Awami League wanted a federal government. East Pakistan was a long way from West Pakistan and it was poorer and had many floods. LEVEL 3: Explains one factor

[7–10]

LEVEL 4: Explains at least two including political factors [9–13] The general election of 1970 saw the Awami League win a majority in East Pakistan. The League wanted a federal form of government, which would leave EP to control everything except defence and foreign policy. It wanted a separate currency and fiscal policy with its own taxation. It wanted to negotiate its own trade agreements with other countries and have its own armed forces. In effect, it wanted separation from Pakistan which was becoming more evident due to the perceived differences between the two. Political parties who emerged in both parts believed in regionalism rather than national sovereignty. However, the demands of the Six Points of the Awami League were rejected by Ayub Khan, and its leader Mujib-ur-Rehman was imprisoned. This caused further discontent and separation began to look inevitable. The intervention of Indian troops in East Pakistan resulted in a swift conclusion to the fight for independence. East Pakistan was a long way from the western half and most of the wealth of Pakistan was concentrated in the west not only of individuals but also in terms of government expenditure. This caused great resentment in East Pakistan. A weaker industrial base and a land ravaged by regular floods led to even more depression in this area which caused further discontent. Also the eastern province saw little return for the wealth created by the growing of jute in the area. Again all the benefits went to the west. LEVEL 5: As Level 4 – also produces a judgement or evaluation.

© University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

[14]

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2059 PAKISTAN STUDIES www.maxpapers.com

www.maxpapers.com UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS GCE Ordinary Level MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2011 question paper for the guid...

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