2014 Sri Lanka Joint Needs Assessment - United Nations Sri Lanka

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      Published  March  2015     All   rights   reserved.   No   part   of   this   publication   may   be   reproduced,   stored   in   a   retrieval   system   or   transmitted,  in  any  form  or  by  any  means,  electronic,  mechanical,  photocopying,  recording  or  otherwise   without  prior  permission.       Note:   The   tables   and   figures   may   not   sum   to   100   percent   due   to   rounding   and   /or   omission   of   non-­‐ responses.     This  document  is  available  at  the  following  website  http://un.lk/category/publications/un-­‐publications-­‐ sri-­‐lanka/

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Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014    

 

Foreword   Since   the   end   of   the   armed   conflict   in   Sri   Lanka   in   2009,   the   Government   of   Sri   Lanka   (GOSL)   and   its   partners   have   committed  significant  resources  to  help  former  internally  displaced  people  (IDPs)  return  to  their  home  areas  and   rebuild   their   lives   post-­‐displacement.     The   return   process   was   guided   by   the   Government’s   plan   of   action   for   Resettlement,  Development  and  Security  in  the  North.  The  implementation  commenced  with  a  180  day  program  in   2009.  The  Humanitarian  Country  Team  (HCT)  provided  support  for  implementation  of  the  plan  and  in  2011,  a  Joint   Plan  of  Assistance  for  Northern  Province  (JPA)  was  developed  and  agreed  with  the  GOSL.     As  the  humanitarian  phase  draws  to  an  end,  the  Joint  Needs  Assessment  (JNA)  provides  an  important  milestone.   The   present   JNA   was   conceived   and   designed   jointly   in   mid-­‐2013   by   the   (then)   Presidential   Task   Force   for   Resettlement,  Development  and  Security  in  the  Northern  Province  (PTF)  and  HCT.  The  implementation  of  the  JNA   was  overseen  by  a  Steering  Committee,  co-­‐led  by  the  Secretary,  PTF  and  the  UN  Humanitarian  Coordinator  –  on   behalf  of  the  HCT.  The  JNA  intends  to  capture  the  remaining  humanitarian  needs  in  a  context  of  shift  from  pure   humanitarian   response   interventions   to   further   collaboration   with   the   Government   on   durable   solutions   and   longer  term  development  requirements  for  returnees  and  IDPs.  This  will  ensure  that  we  do  not  leave  behind  any   individuals   or   groups   who   need   direct   assistance   and   provide   a   pathway   for   development   planning   and   programming.       The  JNA  is  a  unique  collaborative  exercise  undertaken  between  the  GOSL  and  the  HCT.  At  the  national  level  it  has   included   collaborative   conceptualizing,   planning   and   implementation   with   Government   line   ministries   and   humanitarian   agencies.   At   the   field   level,   forty   five   teams   worked   across   ten   districts   to   interview   almost   seven   thousand   households   over   a   one   week   period.   The   teams   consisted   of   a   team   leader   from   the   Department   of   Census   and   Statistics;   a   Monitor   from   one   of   thirteen   participating   United   Nations   (UN),   Red   Cross   Movement   and   NGO   agencies;   and   group   of   enumerators   who   are   Development   Officers   (DO)   of   the   Ministry   of   Economic   Development   (MED).   The   field   exercise   provided   important   opportunities   for   information   sharing   and   capacity   building,  and  serves  as  a  model  for  future  collaboration.     Data  from  the  JNA  provides  a  doorway  for  future  studies  to  be  conducted  at  district,  provincial,  national,  regional   and   international   levels.   It   has   improved   the   availability   of   accurate,   quantifiable   information   on   residual   humanitarian   and   development   needs.   It   provides   a   baseline   for   information   on   resilience,   development   and   durable   solutions   through   evidence   based   data   to   ensure   targeted   assistance.   It   strengthens   coordination   and   partnership   between   the   Government,   humanitarian   and   development   partners.   Such   accurate   information   will   facilitate  mobilization  of  resources  based  on  evidence  based  request  for  funding;     It  should  be  noted  that  the  JNA  provides  a  rapid  overview  by  sampling  among  the  returned  and  remaining  IDPs.  It   is  not  a  census  of  total  numbers  of  returnees  and  IDP,  which  remains  the  subject  of  other  studies  and  Government   census.   Further,   more   detailed,   assessments   and   studies   may   be   required   in   specific   sectors   and   geographic   locations.  These  are  further  described  in  the  Executive  Summary  and  Recommendations  at  the  end  of  the  report.   We   encourage   you   to   use   the   information   provided   to   target   your   interventions   and   track   improvements   and   developments   among   the   returnee   population   and   those   remaining   IDPs   as   they   find   durable   solutions   in   the   future.   Many   grateful   thanks   to   all   those   who   participated   in   the   JNA   exercise   including   the   donors   who   have   provided  generous  funding  support.    

  Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

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Acknowledgements   A  large  number  of  agencies  and  individuals  contributed  towards  the  development  of  the  Joint  Needs  Assessment.   We  wish  to  extend  our  grateful  thanks  to  the  following:    

Co-­‐Chairs  of  the  JNA  Steering  Committee   · ·

S.B.  Divaratne,  Secretary,  Special  Bureau  of  Reconciliation.   Subinay   Nandy,   United   Nations   (UN)   Resident   Coordinator/Humanitarian   Coordinator   (RC/HC)   and   UNDP   Resident  Representative  (RR)  in  Sri  Lanka.  

 

Members  of  the  JNA  Steering  Committee  (Government  of  Sri  Lanka)   · · · · · · · · · ·

M.  Seneviratne,  Government  Agent/District  Secretary  –  Anuradhapura.   P.  S.  M  Charles,  Government  Agent/District  Secretary  –  Batticaloa.   S.  Arumainayagam,  Government  Agent/District  Secretary  –  Jaffna.   R.  Ketheeswaran,  Government  Agent/District  Secretary  –  Kilinochchi.   M.  Y.  S.  Deshapriya,  Government  Agent/District  Secretary  –  Mannar.   N.  Vethanayahan,  Government  Agent/District  Secretary  –  Mullaitivu.   T.  T.  Ranjith  de  Silva,  Government  Agent/District  Secretary  –Trincomalee.   M.K.  Bandula  Harischandra,  Government  Agent/District  Secretary–Vavuniya.   D.C.A.  Gunawardena,  Director  General,  Department  of  Census  and  Statistics  (DCS).   R.  Wijiyaludchumy,  Chief  Secretary  of  Northern  Province.  

 

Governors   · · ·

Hon.  Rear  Admiral  (Rtd)  M.  Wijewickrama,  Governor  of  the  Eastern  Province.   Hon.  Major  General  (Rtd)  G.A  Chandrasiri,  Governor  of  the  Northern  Province.   Hon.  K.  Divulgane,  Governor  of  the  North  Central  Province.  

  Members  of  the  JNA  Steering  Committee  (Humanitarian  Country  Team)   · · · ·

U.    Mc  Cauley,  Country  Representative,  United  Nations  Children’s  Fund  (UNICEF).   I.  Omer,  Country  Director,  United  Nations  World  Food  Programme  (WFP).   G.  Abbas,  Representative,  United  Nations  High  Commissioner  for  Refugees  (UNHCR).   A.  Asekenye-­‐Oonyu,  Head  of  Office  (former),  United  Nations  Office  for  the  Coordination  of  Humanitarian   Affairs  (OCHA).   · M.    Prasopa-­‐Plaizier,  Head  of  Office,  OCHA.   · S.  Hyun  Park,  Deputy  Representative,  Korea  International  Cooperation  Agency  (KICA).   · D.  Mjos,  Counsellor,  Royal  Norwegian  Embassy.   · K.  Nyflot,  Counsellor,  Royal  Norwegian  Embassy.   · K.  Iwase,  First  Secretary,  Head  of  the  Economic  Cooperation  Section,  Embassy  of  Japan.   · H.  Navaratne,  Chairman,  Seva  Lanka  Foundation.   · T.  Abeywickrama,  Director  General,  Sri  Lanka  Red  Cross  Society  (SLRC).   · G.  de  Vries,  Country  Director,  ZOA.   · E.  Loudon,  National  Director,  ChildFund  Sri  Lanka.   Page      iv   Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

 

Co-­‐Chairs  of  the  JNA  Technical  Working  Group   · · ·  

M.  S.  Wickremarachchi,  Consultant,  PTF.   A.    Asekenye-­‐Oonyu,  Head  of  Office  Former,  OCHA.   M.    Prasopa-­‐Plaizier,  Head  of  Office,  OCHA.      

Members  of  the  JNA  Technical  Working  Group  (Government  of  Sri  Lanka)   · · · · · · · · ·

U.L.M.  Haldeen,  Secretary,  Ministry  of  Agriculture,  Northern  Province.  

· · · · · · · · · · ·

S.  Amunugama,  Deputy  Director  General  (Public  Health  Services),  Ministry  of  Health.  

Dr.  P.  Karthigeyan,  Regional  Department  of  Health  Services,  Kilinochchi.   R.  Umakanthan,  DCS  (Planning),  Northern  Province.   J.  A.  M.  Karunaratne,  Consultant,  PTF.   H.  S.  Ratnakeerthi,  District  Coordinating  Officer.   N.  B.  Liyanarachchi,  District  Coordinating  Officer.   Dr.  N.  Dissanayake,  Additional  Secretary  (Development),  Ministry  of  Agriculture   K.  D.  Ariyapala,  Head,  Livestock  Planning  and  Economic  Division.   J.S.D.M.  Asanka  Abeywardene,  Additional.  Secretary  (Development)  Ministry  of  Fisheries  and  Aquatic   Resources.   A.  R.  Deshapriya,  Additional  Secretary  (Skills  Development),  Ministry  of  Youth  and  Skills  Development.   B.G.S.  Gunatilake,  Additional  Secretary  (Housing),  Ministry  of  Construction  and  Engineering  Services.   H.  Premathilake,  Additional  Secretary  (Education-­‐Development),  Ministry  of  Education.   A.  Alawatte,  Additional  Secretary  (Development),  Ministry  of  Women’s’  Affairs.   M.  Ramamoorthi,  Director  (Planning),  Ministry  of  Social  Services.   W.A.C.  Wijebandara,  Statistician,  Department  of  Census  and  Statistics.   P.A.  Subhawickrema,  Statistician,  Department  of  Census  and  Statistics.   K.  W.  Premasiri,  Deputy  General  Manager,  Northern  Province,  National  Water  Resources  and  Drainage  Board.   Animal  Production  and  Health  Department,  Ministry  of  Livestock  and  Rural  Community  Development.   Ministry  of  Resettlement.  

 

Members  of  the  Technical  Working  Group  (Humanitarian  Country  Team)   · · · · · · · · · · ·

R.    Owen,  Head  of  Donor  Relations,  ZOA,  Livelihood  sector  lead.     L.  Nanayakkara,  Senior  Program  Associate,  WFP.  Food  security  sector  lead.   R.  Jayatissa,  Nutrition  Specialist,  UNICEF.  Nutrition  sector  lead.   A.    Usoof,  Project  Monitoring  Manager,  UN  HABITAT.    Shelter  sector  lead.   H.  Soysa,  Senior  Project  Officer,  World  Vision  Lanka  (WVL).  WASH  sector  lead.   K.  Russell,  Education  Specialist,  UNICEF.  Education  sector  lead.   R.    Bernu,  Policy  Advisor,  Danish  Refugee  Council  (DRC).  Protection  sector  lead.   H.  Abeywardana,  CARE.   S.  Gunasekera,  Child  Protection  Technical  Specialist,  ChildFund  Sri  Lanka.   B.  Werert,  Country  Director,  (DRC).   M.  Hettiarachchi,  Data  Management  Officer,  Food  and  Agriculture  Organization  (FAO).  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

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· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

A.  Nallainathan,  Program  Coordinator,  International  Organization  for  Migration  (IOM).   J.  Rupasinghe,  Administrative  Officer,  JEN.   M.  Fukunaga,  Project  Formulation  Advisor,  Japan  International  Cooperation  Agency  (JICA).   C.  Siriwardhana,  Policy  and  Advocacy  Manager,  Oxfam  Australia.   P.  Joicey,  Country  Director,  Oxfam  UK.   W.  Lynch,  Country  Director,  Save  the  Children  Fund  (SCF).   M.  de  Silva,  Senior  Program  Adviser,  (SCF).   G.    Meegamuge,  Assistant  Program  Officer,  Sri  Lanka  Red  Cross  Society  (SLRCS).   A.  Abeywardena,  Program  Analyst,  United  Nations  Development  Programme  (UNDP).   J.  Abeywickrama,  Humanitarian  Coordinator,  United  Nations  Population  Fund  (UNFPA).   M.  Mohi-­‐us  Sunnah,  Senior  Protection  Officer,  United  Nations  High  Commissioner  for  Refugees  (UNHCR).   I.  Ivancic,  Senior  Protection  Officer,  United  Nations  High  Commissioner  for  Refugees  (UNHCR).   S.    De  Silva,  WASH  Specialist,  United  Nations  International  Children's  Fund  (UNICEF).   K.    Derore,  Head  of  Program,  World  Food  Programme  (WFP).   Dr.  A.  Pesigan,  Technical  Officer,  World  Health  Organization  (WHO).   E.  Wijewickrama,  Senior  Coordination  and  Reporting  Assistant,  United  Nations  Office  for  Project  Services   (UNOPS).    

JNA  Lead  Consultants   · · ·  

Dr.  G.  de  Silva,  (Phases  1-­‐4)     A.  Rajapakse    (Phase  5)   Dr.  L.  Siriwardena  (Phases  6-­‐7)      

JNA  Sector  Consultants     · · · · · ·

M.    Jayamanne,  Sector  Consultant  –  Livelihoods.     Prof.  D.  Fernando,  Sector  Consultant  -­‐  Food  Security  and  Nutrition.   T.    Hewawasam,  Sector  Consultant  -­‐  Shelter  and  Housing.   S.M.F.  Marikkar,  Sector  Consultant  -­‐  Water,  Sanitation  and  Hygiene  (WASH).   P.  Sethunga,  Sector  Consultant  –  Education.     O.  Genova  Alfred,  Sector  Consultant  –  Protection.    

JNA  Secretariat   · · · · · · · · ·

A.    Askenye-­‐Oonyu,  Head  of  Office  Former,  OCHA.   M.    Prasopa-­‐Plaizier.  Head  of  Office,  OCHA.   F.  Rantsiou,  Humanitarian  Affairs  Officer,  OCHA.   K.  Weerakoon,  Information  Coordination  Officer,  OCHA.   W.  Jayamanna,  National  Coordination  and  Donor  Relations  Officer,  OCHA.   S.  Kandiah,  Field  Coordination  Associate,  OCHA.   J.M.A.P.  Mark,  GIS  /  Database  Associate,  OCHA.   A.  Sugirthan,  Program  Associate  Field  Coordination,  OCHA.   K.S.  Warapitiya,  Program  Associate  -­‐  Web/Info  Management,  OCHA    

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Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014    

 

· · · · · · ·

M.S.  Weerasinghe,  Program  Associate  -­‐  Database  Coordination,  OCHA   D.A.  Bandara,  GIS  /  Database  Associate,  OCHA   P.  Indrawimala  Lakmali,  Program  Associate  -­‐  GIS  for  Disaster  Management,  OCHA   U.P.M.  Perera,  Senior  Administrative  Associate,  OCHA.   A.  Dommanige  Iresha,  Administrative  Associate,  OCHA.   A.  P.  Rajkumar,  Administrative  Associate,  OCHA.   WFP  as  managing  agent  for  implementation  and  disbursement  of  funds.    

JNA  Field  Assessment   · · · ·

OCHA  Field  Coordination  staff  (see  above  JNA  Secretariat)   7  Field  Coordinators  from  the  Department  of  Census  and  Statistics.   45  Team  Leaders  from  the  Department  of  Census  and  Statistics.   45  monitors  from  13  agencies  -­‐  CARE,  ChildFund,  FAO,  IOM,  Mines  Advisory  Group  (MAG),  SCF,  SLRC,  UNHCR,   UNICEF,  UNOCHA,  WFP,  WVL,  and  ZOA.  

·

Support  staff  and  vehicles  -­‐  Child  Development  Fund  (CDF),  T-­‐Fields,  Vaunathivu  Development  Organisation   (VDO)  

·

252  Development  Officers  as  enumerators  from  the  Ministry  of  Economic  Development.  

 

Data  Entry  and  Cleaning   ·

Hector  Kobbekaduwa  Agrarian  Research  and  Training  Institute  (HARTI).  

 

Editorial  and  Technical  Support   · · · · ·

R.  Harrison,  Independent  Consultant.   J.  Bose  and  V.  De  Annuntiis,  OCHA  Regional  Office  for  Asia  and  the  Pacific  (ROAP).   M.  Mohideen,  Coordinator,  Office  of  the  Resident  Coordinator   M.  Husni,  Post  2015  National  Consultations  Officer,  United  Nations  Volunteers  (UNV).   N.  Mufthi,  V-­‐Force  Volunteer,  United  Nations  Volunteers  (UNV).    

 

Photographs   · · ·  

M.  Prasopa-­‐Plaizier,  OCHA  Sri  Lanka.   UNICEF  Sri  Lanka  (©UNICEF/SL/Noorani/2014).     PTF  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

 

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  Donors  

  In  addition  to  the  technical,  material  and  personnel  support  of  the  Government  of  Sri  Lanka,  grateful  thanks  is   also  given  to  the  following  for  their  generous  financial  support  to  the  Joint  Needs  Assessment:       · The  Government  of  Japan  through  Japan  International  Cooperation  Agency  (JICA).    

· · · · · · · · ·

The  Government  of  Norway.   The  Government  of  South  Korea.   IOM.   OCHA.   UNDP     UNICEF.   UNFPA.   WFP.   WHO.        

                                       

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Table  of  Contents     Acronyms       Executive  Summary       1.0   Introduction    

   

   

   

   

   

   

   

x   xiii  

 

 

 

   

01   04   06  

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1   1.2    

Overview  of  the  JNA   Methodology    

   

   

   

   

   

   

2.0  

Main  findings  –  Returnees    

 

 

 

 

 

17   19   27   39   51   61   77   89   101   109   119  

2.1   2.2   2.3   2.4   2.5   2.6   2.7   2.8   2.9   2.10    

3.0  

Demographic  Characteristics  of  Returnees       Returnee  Livelihoods             Returnee  Food  Security  and  Nutrition         Returnee  Shelter  and  Housing         Returnee  Water,  Sanitation  and  Hygiene  (WASH)     Returnee  Health  Services           Returnee  Education             Returnee  Child  Protection  and  Women’s  Empowerment     Returnee  Social  Services           Returnee  Legal  Documentation          

                   

                   

3.1     3.2   3.3   3.4   3.5   3.6   3.7   3.8   3.9   3.10   3.11  

IDP  Demographic  Characteristics  of  Returnees   IDP  Livelihoods             IDP  Food  Security  and  Nutrition         IDP  Shelter  and  Housing         IDP  Water,  Sanitation  and  Hygiene  (WASH)     IDP  Health  Services         IDP  Education             IDP  Child  Protection  and  Women’s  Empowerment     IDP  Social  Services         IDP  Legal  Documentation           IDP  Options  for  Durable  Solutions      

Main  findings  –  IDPs          

 

 

                     

                     

 

 

 

125   127   135   149   161   179   199   207   221   231   243   251  

  4.0  

Recommendations    

 

 

 

 

 

 

257   259   261  

 

 

 

267   269   301   Attached  

4.1   4.2  

  5.0   5.1     5.2   5.3        

Returnees   IDPs    

Annexes  

   

 

   

 

Returnees  Questionnaire     IDP  Questionnaire     All  Statistical  Tables    

   

       

   

 

                   

   

 

 

     

     

   

 

     

                     

                     

   

   

     

     

 

Please  note:  Annex  5.3  All  Statistical  Tables  is  included  in  the  attached  compact  disk.   It  is  also  available  at  the  following  website:  http://un.lk/category/publications/un-­‐publications-­‐sri-­‐lanka/     Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

Page      ix      

   

Acronyms   CBOs   CSB   DCS   DO   DPC   DS   DSD   EFA   FAO   FCS   FSU   GAQ   GCE   GN   GND   GOSL   HARTI   HCT   HSZ   IASC   ICRC   IDPs   IFRC   IOM   JICA   JNA   JPA   LOA   MAG   MDM   MED   MOH   MoH   NGOs   NIC   NVQ   PHI   PHM   PHNS   PSU   PTF     RC/HC   ROAP   RR   SLRC   SC   SEZ     SO     Page      x    

 

Community  Based  Organizations   Corn  Soy  Blend   Department  of  Census  and  Statistics     Development  Officer   Damp  Proof  Course     Divisional  Secretariat   Divisional  Secretariat  Division     Education  for  All   Food  and  Agriculture  Organization   Food  Consumption  Score   Final  Sampling  Unit   General  Arts  Qualifying   General  Certificate  of  Education   Grama  Niladari  (village  level  administrative  officer)   Grama  Niladari  Division   Government  of  Sri  Lanka   Hector  Kobbekaduwa  Agrarian  Research  and  Training  Institute   Humanitarian  Country  Team   High  Security  Zone     Inter-­‐Agency  Standing  Committee   International  Committee  of  the  Red  Cross   Internally  Displaced  Persons   International  Federation  of  Red  Cross  and  Red  Crescent  Societies   International  Organization  for  Migration     Japan  International  Cooperation  Agency       Joint  Needs  Assessment   Joint  Plan  of  Action  for  the  Northern  Province   Letter  of  Agreement   Mines  Advisory  Group   Ministry  of  Disaster  Management   Ministry  of  Economic  Development   Medical  Officer  of  Health       Ministry  of  Health   Non  Governmental  Organizations   National  Identity  Card   National  Vocational  Qualification   Public  Health  Inspector   Public  Health  Midwife   Public  Health  Nursing  Sister   Primary  Sampling  Unit   The  Presidential  Task  Force  for  Resettlement,  Development  and  Security  in  the  Northern     Province   UN  Resident  Coordinator  /  Humanitarian  Coordinator   OCHA  Regional  Office  for  Asia  and  the  Pacific   UNDP  Resident  Representative     Sri  Lanka  Red  Cross   JNA  Steering  Committee   Special  Economic  Zone     Statistical  Officer   Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014    

 

SSU   TWG   UN   UN  HABITAT   UNOCHA   UNDAF   UNDP   UNFPA   UNHCR   UNICEF   UNOPS   WASH   WFP   WHO  

 

Selected  Sampling  Unit   JNA  Technical  Working  Group   United  Nations     United  Nations  Human  Settlements  Programme   United  Nations  Office  for  the  Coordination  of  Humanitarian  Affairs     United  Nations  Development  Assistance  Framework   United  Nations  Development  Programme   United  Nations  Population  Fund   United  Nations  High  Commissioner  for  Refugees   United  Nations  International  Children's  Fund   United  Nations  Office  for  Project  Services   Water,  Sanitation  and  Hygiene   World  Food  Programme     World  Health  Organization  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

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Executive  Summary   The   Joint   Needs   Assessment   (JNA)   was   co-­‐designed   by   the   Government   of   Sri   Lanka   (GOSL)   and   the   Sri   Lanka   Humanitarian  Country  Team  (HCT)  as  a  joint  task.  The  needs  assessment  seeks  to  identify  sustainable  livelihoods,   recovery   and   development   needs   of   the   resettled   and   remaining   displaced   persons   in   conflict-­‐affected   districts.   This  Report  presents  an  overall  picture  of  the  large  group  of  more  than  700,000  persons  who  have  been  resettled   1 and  small  group  of  remaining  internally  displaced  persons  (IDPs)  that  awaits  a  durable  solution.  It  reviews  sectoral   areas   where   these   achievements   have   been   made.   It   also   presents   opportunities   and   areas   that   need   further   assessment.         The   JNA   Final   Report   provides   a   comprehensive   overview   at   a   multi-­‐sectoral   level   and   multi-­‐district   level.   It   provides   a   strategic   overview   of   key   trends   and   directions   drawn   from   a   sample   of   the   total   population   of   returnees  and  remaining  IDPs.  The  JNA  utilizes  a  statistically  significant  sample  based  on  available  official  sources.   It   is   not   a   census   of   total   IDP   numbers.   The   JNA   should   create   a   baseline   for   further   study,   assessment   and   programming   in   response   to   needs   and   gaps   identified   at   an   individual   sectoral   and   district   level.     Specific   proposals  are  further  outlined  in  the  recommendations  of  this  report.    

Returnees  

Summary  of  Findings   Internally  Displaced  Persons   Livelihoods  

Most   returnees   possess   a   level   of   basic   resources   sufficient  for  sustainable  livelihoods;  however  income   inequality   remain   a   challenge   across   districts.   Income   levels   below   Rs.10,000   are   substantial   in   all   districts   and  the  remaining  depend  of  grants  such  as  Samurdhi   rather   than   remittances   from   abroad   as   noted   in   the   districts   of   Ampara,   Mannar   and   Trincomalee.     Although   agriculture,   livestock   and   fisheries   remain   key   livelihood   options,   despite   significant   GOSL   and   other   investment,   an   increased   trend   of   employment   for  wages  and  salaries  was  noticed.  This  indicates  that   opportunities   opened   up   due   to   private   sector   investment   attracting   a   substantial   proportion   of   returnees.   However,   returnee   households   remain   vulnerable  to  crop  damage  and  loss  of  harvest  due  to   recurrent  natural  disasters,  i.e.  floods  and  droughts.    

The  percentage  of  IDP  households  within  the  monthly   average   income   range   of   less   than   Rs.   10,000   has   decreased  and  within  the  income  range  of  Rs.  10,000   2 to   Rs.   25,000   has   substantively   increased   since   displacement   occurred   in   most   districts.   IDPs   dependence   on   grants   and   remittances   has   increased   in   most   districts   except   Kilinochchi   and   Mannar.   An   increase   of   vocational   skills   and   physical   resources   among  IDPs  clearly  indicate  their  potential  to  develop   sustainable  livelihood  options.  

Food  Security  and  Nutrition   (45.6   per   cent)   of   families   have   adopted   coping   strategies   to   access   food.   More   than   four   out   of   five   who  adopted  coping  strategies  have  borrowed  food  or   money.   Average   Food   consumption   Score   at   acceptable   level   is   92.8   per   cent.   However,   Vavuniya,   Batticaloa  and  Trincomalee  have  recorded  relatively  a   low   (poor)   Food   Consumption   Score   (FCS),   signaling   that   further   attention   towards   food   security   is   required.  

Almost   all   IDP   households   in   Batticaloa,   Anuradhapura   Polonnaruwa,   Mullaitivu   and   Mannar   districts   reported   acceptable   FCS.   In   Ampara   district   and   Trincomalee   welfare   centers,   FCS   was   relatively   low.   Further  study  is  required.  

                                                                                                                        1

  The   Guiding   Principles   on   Internal   Displacement   (1998)   defines   an   IDPs   as   “Persons   or   groups   of   persons   who   have   been   forced   or   obliged   to   flee   or   to   leave   their   homes   or   places   of   habitual   residence,   in   particular   as   a   result   of   or   in   order   to   avoid   the  effects  of  armed  conflict,  situations  of  generalized  violence,  violations  of  human  rights  or  natural  or  human-­‐made  disasters,   and  who  have  not  crossed  an  internationally  recognized  State  border.”     2  Income  classification  is  based  on  the  Department  of  Census  and  Statistics    

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

Page      xiii      

   

Shelter  and  Housing   The  majority  of  returnees  (93  per  cent)  have  resettled   on  their  own  lands  and  own  the  houses  they  live  in  (82   per   cent)   with   clear   legal   documentation.   In   all   districts,  a  low  percentage  of  returnees  have  obtained   housing  loans,  suggesting  a  need  to  understand  levels   of  access  to  the  loan  schemes.      

There  has  been  a  marked  increase  in  the  proportion  of   IDPs  who  live  in  houses  with  walls  built  using  bricks  /   cement   blocks   compared   to   prior   to   displacement.   Three   quarters   of   IDPs   have   electricity.   District   Level   disparity   of   conditions   was   fairly   high   and   housing   conditions  of  welfare  centers  remains  low.    

Water,  Sanitation  and  Hygiene   The   majority   of   returnees   have   access   to   “adequate”   quality   of   water   for   drinking   and   bathing.   Year-­‐round   availability   of   water   and   adequacy   of   water   supply   is   an   issue   in   the   Batticaloa   district.   Water   quality   is   acceptable   as   (74.3   per   cent)   is   drinkable   without   boiling   or   filtering   and   (23.92   per   cent)   is   drinkable   after   boiling   or   filtering.   (72   per   cent)   has   their   own   toilets   while   16   per   cent   share   neighbors’   toilet   One   in   ten  returnee  households  interviewed  (10.37  per  cent)   does  not  have  access  to  toilets.    

82.34  per  cent  are  reported  to  be  having  safe  drinking   water   sources.   Comparatively   lower   levels   of   safe   drinking  water   were   reported   in  Kilinochchi   (46.67   per   cent),   Mannar   (70.83   per   cent),   Polonnaruwa   (76.47   per   cent),   Ampara   (50.0   per   cent),   and   Trincomalee   welfare   centers   (42.42   per   cent)   districts   requiring   further  attention.  The  majority  of  IDPs  have  access  to,   or  own  permanent  toilets.    

Among  returnees  high  level  of  antenatal  care  exists.    

Among  IDPs  a  high  level  of  antenatal  care  exists.  

Health  Services3   Education  

The   attendance   rate   of   returnees   in   primary   and   secondary  school  is  high,  with  over  90  per  cent  being   able   to   undergo   schooling   without   disruption.   The   majority  of  schools  are  located  within  walking  distance   to  children.      

Among   IDPs   there   are   high   rates   of   primary   and   secondary   school   attendance   without   disruption.   In   Mannar   and   Polonnaruwa   there   is   a   shortage   of   teachers  in  science,  English  and  Mathematics.  

Child  Protection  and  Women’s  Empowerment   Awareness   on   child   protection   and   child   rights   programs   is   widespread   at   over   60   per   cent   amongst   returnees.   Ampara   and   Batticaloa   are   focal   points   for   education   around   child   rights   and   child   protection   programmes.    

Awareness   of   child   protection   programmes   and   child   rights   among   IDP   families   was   significantly   lower.   Only   a  fifth  of  IDPs  are  aware  of  child  protection  and  child   rights   programmes.   There   is   a   need   for   secondary   analysis   of   data   and   in-­‐depth   appropriate   surveys   to   assess  the  situation.    

Social  Services   A   low   number   of   Households   with   people   with   Only   a   tenth   of   IDP   households   with   persons   with   disabilities   are   provided   with   inter-­‐alia   counseling   disabilities   received   counseling   services   and   housing   services,   (10   per   cent)   housing   assistance,   (8.5   per   assistance.   cent)   monthly   allowances,   (7.4   per   cent)   and   self-­‐ employment,   (4.8   per   cent)   assistance.   Furthermore,   35  per  cent  of  the  elderly  returnees  receive  a  monthly   allowance  of  Rs.  1,000.      

                                                                                                                            3

 As  health  sector  data  at  district  level  are  regularly  reviewed  and  updated  by  the  Department  of  Health  JNA  data  on  the  health   services  was  restricted  to  compile  responses  given  by  the  family  members  interviewed.  

Page      xiv    

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

 

 

Legal  Documentation   The   majority   of   returnees   possess   legal   documents   including   birth   certificates   (93   per   cent),   deeds   for   land   they   live   on   (81   per   cent)   and   national   identity   cards  (64  per  cent).  In  each  district,  at  least  9  out  of  10   adults   in   the   family   were   registered   on   the   electoral   role.  

Almost   all   IDPs   eligible   to   vote   are   listed   in   the   electoral   register.   Over   half   of   IDPs   possess   legal   documents   for   their   voluntary   return,   relocation   or   local  integration.  

Options  for  Durable  Solutions   Returned.  

Of   the   three   durable   options   offered,   most   IDPs   selected   the   first   option:   to   return   to   their   places   of   origin.  However,  three  quarters  of  them  are  willing  to   locally   integrate   or   resettle   elsewhere   as   alternative   options.   The   key   reason   for   delaying   their   return   was   that   IDPs   have   better   employment   opportunities   at   the  place  of  displacement  (welfare  centre  or  outside).  

  Returnee  Livelihoods     Farming  is  still  a  key  livelihood  option  in  all  districts,  while  livestock  demonstrates  a  declining  role  in  livelihoods  in   all  districts.  Engagement  in  fishing  activities  is  prominent  only  in  Mullaitivu  and  Trincomalee  districts.  Wages  and   salaries  are  the  main  source  of  income  for  most  returnees,  except  in  Batticaloa  and  Ampara  where  donations  and   grants  are  a  primary  source  of  income  and  in  Mannar  where  self  employment  is  still  the  major  source  of  income.     Within  the  salaries  and  wage  sector,  private  and  informal  sector  employment  for  wages  and  salaries  is  the  main   livelihood  source  of  56.4  per  cent  of  the  returnee  households  in  Kilinochchi,  61.1  per  cent  of  those  in  Jaffna,  and   70.8  per  cent  in  Batticaloa.     A  substantive  portion  within  “donations  and  grants”  stem  from  Samurdhi  grants  (48.47  per  cent).  They  represent   72.7   per   cent   in   Ampara,   61   per   cent   in   Mannar   and   53   per   cent   in   Trincomalee,   Batticaloa   (49.8   per   cent),   Kilinochchi  (44.8  per  cent),  Jaffna  (43  per  cent)  Mullaitivu  (48.2  per  cent)  and  Vavuniya  districts  (34.6).  This  reflects   the  importance  of  Samurdhi  grants  as  a  source  of  income  given  to  poor  families.     Clear   disparities   of   income   levels   across   districts   were   indicated   in   responses   to   the   JNA   survey.   A   considerable   number  of  families  (60.54  per  cent)  have  reported  less  than  Rs.  10,000  monthly  income.  It  is  in  Batticaloa  (76.8  per   cent),   Jaffna   (62.1   per   cent),   Mannar   (61.80   per   cent),   Trincomalee   (57   per   cent),   Mullaitivu   (57.4   per   cent),   Kilinochchi  (52.7  per  cent)  and  Vavuniya  (49  per  cent).  Further  attention  and  study  is  required  to  understand  the   factors  that  lead  to  comparatively  lower  income  and  income  disparities  within  districts.    

Returnee  Food  Security  and  Nutrition  

  In  five  districts  more  than  90  percent  of  the  families  are  within  the  category  of  acceptable  food  consumption  score.   In  three  districts,  namely  Vavuniya,  Trincomalee  and  Batticaloa  around  10-­‐11  percent  are  in  the  borderline  of  Food   4 Consumption   Score   (FCS),   signaling   that   further   attention   towards   food   security   is   required   in   those   districts.     More   broadly,   45.6   per   cent   of   households   have   to   adopt   a   coping   strategy   to   access   food.     Of   the   number   of   households   adopting   coping   strategies,   the   most   commonly   employed   strategy   for   88.6   per   cent   is   “borrowing   food  /money”.  In  all  districts  on  average,  over  18  per  cent  of  households  limit  their  food  intake.  The  percentage   limiting   food   intake   of   the   whole   family   was   (19.44   per   cent).   The   data   further   reveals   a   satisfactory   pattern   of  

                                                                                                                        4

The  FCS  is  a  composite  score  based  on  dietary  diversity,  food  frequency,  and  relative  nutritional  importance  of  different  food   groups.  Information  is  collected  from  a  country  specific  list  of  food  items  and  food  groups.  Those  interviewed  are  asked  about   frequency  of  consumption  (in  days)  over  a  recall  period  of  the  past  7  days.    

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

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consumption   or   meals   in   general,   albeit   with   district-­‐level   variation.   Across   the   districts,   92.8   per   cent   of   households  had  an  “acceptable”  FCS.    

5

All  households  with  children  under  one  year  of  age  were  found  to  have  a  “Child  Health  Development  Record“.  For   those   over   one   year,   the   average   was   98   per   cent   in   every   district.   Overall,   breastfeeding   practices   meet   WHO   guidelines  –  (93.1  per  cent)  of  new  mothers  were  said  to  have  done  so  within  one  hour  of  birth  and  (90  per  cent)   of   pregnant   mothers   had   attended   an   antenatal   clinic.   Participation   in   antenatal   clinics   was   relatively   low   in   Ampara  and  Trincomalee  districts.  Reasons  given  were  the  lack  of  awareness  and  problems  in  accessibility  of  the   service.  Iron  folate  was  available  to  (76.9  per  cent)  of  pregnant  women  who  attended  clinics,  with  (76.3  per  cent)   being  given  Thriposha  as  a  nutritional  supplement.  Access  to  food  and  nutrient  supplementation  among  pregnant   mothers  is  satisfactory.      

Field   level   public   health   staff   are   the   main   source   of   support   for   pregnant   women,   with   (57.2   per   cent)   of   the   respondents   indicating   that   the   Public   Health   Midwife   (PHM)   had   supported   them.   However,   this   figure   was   notably   lower   at   (25   per   cent)   in   Ampara,   and   31.5   per   cent   in   Mannar.   The   World   Food   Programme   (WFP)   provided  food  assistance  to  (62.87  per  cent)  of  households,  with  (24.6  per  cent)  having  accessed  the  Samurdhi  /   Divineguma  programs.    

Returnee  Shelter  and  Housing    

More  than  (77.37  per  cent)  of  former  housing  has  been  “completely  destroyed”  and  more  than  (93  per  cent)  of  the   returnees  have  already  been  resettled  in  their  own  land.  Out  of  the  surveyed  returnees,  (82  per  cent)  now  live  in   houses  that  they  own  with  (47.67  per  cent)  measuring  an  average  450  square  feet  or  more  across  the  ten  districts.   Prior  to  displacement  they  owned  only  (72.41  per  cent)  housing  units.  There  is  a  need  to  review  the  homes  that  fall   below  minimum  acceptable  standards  of  planned  housing  underway.    

 

Only   a   small   percentage   of   returnees   have   obtained   housing   loans   in   all   districts,   suggesting   a   need   to   understand   levels   of   access   to   the   loan   scheme.   It   is,   however,   clear   that   the   ownership   of   some   of   the   housing   units   still   remains  within  the  extended  family.    

Returnee  Water,  Sanitation  and  Hygiene    

The   main   source   of   water   for   cooking,   drinking   and   other   household   needs   are   “own   protected   wells”   (30.3   per   cent).   About   two   thirds   of   all   households   reported   having   an   alternate   source   of   water   during   times   of   water   shortages.    

Less  than  (5.3  per  cent)  of  respondents  have  had  a  water-­‐related  illness  in  the  last  three  months.  Overall,  (83.28   per   cent)   of   the   returnees   indicated   adequate   access   to   water   and   (74.3   per   cent)   to   drinkable   water   without   boiling.    Over  four-­‐fifths  of  the  households  (83.3  per  cent)  described  the  quality  of  water  for  washing  and  bathing   as   “adequate”.   An   adequacy   level   of   (80   per   cent)   to   (90   per   cent)   was   reported   in   Jaffna,   Mannar,   Mullaitivu,   Kilinochchi  and  Vavuniya.  The  majority  of  the  households  (75  per  cent)  reported  that  water  was  drinkable  “without   boiling  or  treatment”.  In  Jaffna,  this  figure  is  as  high  as  9  out  of  10.    

Common   toilets   were   used   by   only   about   (1   per   cent)   of   returnees.   Over   84   per   cent   of   the   households   wash   their   hands  with  soap  prior  to  feeding  an  infant  or  baby,  and  over  (95  per  cent)  of  households  wash  their  hands  with   soap  after  using  the  toilet.  Construction  of  new   toilets   or   rehabilitation   of   damaged   or   temporary   toilets   has   been   undertaken   for   (34   per   cent)   of   returnees.   Conversion   from   temporary   to   permanent   latrines   for   returnees   is   another  priority  area.  About  (71.2  per  cent)  of  them  use  own  toilets,  (16.5  per  cent)  use  their  neighbours’  toilets   and  (11  per  cent)  reported  having  no  toilet  and  therefore  probably  defecate  in  the  open.  Priority  areas  for  toilet   construction  are  in  Vavuniya,  Batticaloa  and  Ampara  districts.    

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The  Child  Health  Development  Record  is  a  book  document  on  growth,  survival  and  development  of  children  from  birth  to  age   fourteen.  

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Returnee  Health     Only   few   health-­‐related   questions   were   included   in   the   JNA   questionnaire,   given   the   comprehensive   availability   of   health  data  in  Sri  Lanka.  Pregnant  women  were  identified  in  3.4  per  cent  of  returnee  households.  Over  four-­‐fifths   (90.3  per  cent)  of  them  have  sought  antenatal  care  and  in  more  than  half  of  all  cases  (57.2  per  cent),  a  midwife   visited.   Child   care   is   most   commonly   received   from   a   Medical   Officer   of   Health   (MOH)   clinic   (62.3   per   cent)   as   opposed  to  a  Government  hospital  (36  per  cent).  (77  per  cent)  of  the  surveyed  returnees  have  vaccination  cards.       Returnee  Education     More  than  96.6  per  cent  of  the  children  going  to  school  were  reported  to  attend  their  classes  without  disruption.   The  condition  of  school  buildings  is  broadly  considered  to  be  satisfactory.  Moreover,  the  Global  Education  for  All   6 (EFA)  Goal  No.  2  has  been  reached  in  all  districts.  The  reasons  for  a  small  number  not  attending  school  are  mainly   financial  difficulties  and  sickness  of  parents.     The  data  shows  that  the  majority  of  students  (77  per  cent)  live  within  1  to  3  kilometers  of  their  schools  in  most   districts,   while   (41   per   cent)   live   within   1   kilometer   distance   and   (59   per   cent)   walk   to   school.   Conditions   of   the   school  buildings  are  quite  satisfactory  although  some  classrooms  are  still  housed  in  temporary  buildings.  Children   have  a  desk  and  chair  in  most  districts,  although  in  Mannar  and  Mullativu  benches  are  shared  with  many  others.   Individual  desks  are  provided  in  secondary  schools  and  benches  are  shared  in  lower  primary  classes.    

Returnee  Child  Protection  and  Women’s  Empowerment    

Information   about   the   child   protection   programmes   and   about   children’s   rights   both   seem   to   be   relatively   widespread.  On  average,  (37.6  per  cent)  said  they  had  not  been  informed  about  child  protection  programmes,  and   (37.2   per   cent)   said   they   had   not   been   informed   about   children’s   rights.   The   JNA   findings   suggest   that   common   variables   related   to   proximity   and   access   to   services   and   information   need   to   be   considered.   Information   about   child  protection  programmes  is  less  widespread  in  Batticaloa  (54.4  per  cent)  and  Ampara  (47.7  per  cent).       On  average,  (38.2  per  cent)  said  that  their  family  had  benefitted  from  a  women’s  empowerment  programme.  Non-­‐ compulsory   pre-­‐school   attendance   of   children  under   five   years   old   is   relatively   low   across   the   10   districts   of   the   assessment,  with  an  average  of  only  (20.1  per  cent).  Attention  should  be  paid  on  Ampara  and  Batticaloa  in  terms   of   coverage   and   access   to   child   protection   and   women   development   services,   information   and   enhanced   pre-­‐ school  coverage.    

Returnee  Social  Services    

Questions  in  this  section  related  to  access  to  services  by  the  disabled,  the  elderly  and  single  parents.  In  households   where  at  least  one  person  was  disabled,  the  assistance  that  the  highest  share  of  households  had  accessed  to  was   “counseling  services”  (10  per  cent).    The  next  most-­‐common  was  “housing  assistance”  (8.6  per  cent),  followed  by   “monthly   allowance”   (7.3   per   cent),   “self-­‐employment   assistance”   (4.8   per   cent),   “vocational   training”   (2.3   per   cent),  “education  assistance”  (2.7  per  cent)  and  “financial  assistance”  (4.2  per  cent).  Far  more  elderly  people  are   receiving  the  monthly  allowance  of  Rs.  1,000  than  any  other  kind  of  support  (35   per  cent).  On  average,  across  the   areas   surveyed,   4.2   per   cent   were   single   parent   families.   However,   single   parent   families   are   more   than   three   times  higher  than  average  in  Ampara  (12  per  cent)  and  Vavuniya  (11.8  per  cent).  

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  EFA   Goal   No.   2:   Ensuring   that   by   2015   all   children,   particularly   girls,   children   in   difficult   circumstances   and   those   belonging   to   ethnic  minorities,  have  access  to,  and  complete,  free  and  compulsory  primary  education  of  good  quality.  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

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Returnee  Legal  Documentation    

Nearly   two   thirds   of   returnees   have   identity   cards   (64.4   per   cent)   and   more   than   9   out   of   10   (93.2   per   cent)   are   in   possession  of  a  birth  certificate.  In  each  district,  respondents  said  that  at  least  9  out  of  10  adults  in  the  family  were   registered   on   the   electoral   role   (94.95   per   cent).   Where   this   was   not   the   case,   the   most   common   reason   (33.6   per   cent)  was  uncertainty  around  knowing  how  to  find  out  whether  the  person  is  already  on  the  list  or  not.   More  than   four  out  of  five  (81  per  cent)  of  the  returnees  have  a  deed  or  documentary  evidence  of  ownership  for  their  housing   allotment  in  their  place  of  return,  relocation  or  integration.  Where  this  is  not  the  case,  the  main  reason  is  that  they   have  applied,  but  face  a  “long  delay  in  getting  the  result”  (41.4  per  cent).  Most  householders  interviewed  (95  per   cent)  believe  that  every  adult  member  of  the  family  had  entered  their  name  onto  the  electoral  register.  

  IDP  Livelihoods    

Livelihood  sources  of  IDPs  changed  substantively  with  displacement.  The  percentage  of  self-­‐employed  households   (engaged  in  farming,  fishing,  livestock  raising,  wholesale  and  retail  trading  and  manufacturing)  decreased  in  Jaffna,   Vavuniya,   Mullativu,   Kilinochchi,   Ampara,   Anuradhapura   districts   and   Trincomalee   welfare   centres   after   displacement.   There   was   an   increase   in   the   percentage   engaged   in   fisheries   activities   in   Jaffna   and   a   marginal   increase   in   fisheries   activities   in   Mannar.   There   has   been   asubstantial   increase   of   livelihood   activities   based   on   wages   and   salaries   in   Jaffna,   Kilinochchi,   Ampara   and   Anuradhapura   districts   and   Vavuniya   welfare   centerssince   displacement.   A   higher   increase   in   grants   and   remittances   was   reported   from   Mullaitivuand   Trincomalee   districts   compared   to   the   level   of   increase   in   Jaffna,   Mannar,   Kilinochchi,   Batticaloa,   Ampara,   Anuradhapura   and   Polonnaruwa  districts.    

The   percentage   of   IDP   households   within   the   monthly   average   income   range   of   Rs.   10,000   to   Rs.   25,000   has   increased   substantively   since   displacement   started   in   most   districts.   However,   monthly   average   income   has   not   risen  in  a  similar  way  in   Mullaitivu,  Trincomalee  (welfare  centers)  and   Polonnaruwa  districts.  There  is  anincrease  in   Jaffna   welfare   centers   and   Vavuniya   welfare   centers.   Percentage   earning   below   10,000   has   declined   and   the   reduction  is  comparatively  high  in  Jaffna  welfare  centers  and  Vavuniya  welfare  centers.      

The  highest  number  of  National  Vocational  Qualification   (NVQ)  Level  1  qualified  IDP  family  members  are  reported   in  Trincomalee  welfare  centres,  followed  by  Kilinochchi.  In  Jaffna  there  are  larger  numbers  of  persons  with  NVQ   Level  4.  IDPs  indicated  that  they  currently  possess  a  more  satisfactory  physical  resource  base  than  before.  From  a   human  resources  perspective,  IDPs  indicate  potential  to  develop  sustainable  livelihoods.  This  implies  that  there  is  a   need  to  study  how  to  promote  vocational  training  for  the  next  generation  of  IDPs.      

IDP  Food  Security  and  Nutrition    

As  noted  with  returnees,  the  main  source  of  support  for  IDPs  was  the  public  health  midwives  (PHM),  with  almost   all   children   receiving   support   from   a   PHM.   All   children   aged   0-­‐59   months   had   been   breastfed.   This   is   wholly   satisfactory  and  in  keeping  with  WHO  guidelines.  For  more  than  nine  out  of  ten  of  children,  breast  milk  was  given   within   an   hour   of   birth,   again   in   line   with   WHO   guidelines.   Anecdotal   comparison   with   research   carried   out   by   UNICEF  in  2009  suggests  a  clear  improvement  in  feeding  practices.  All  pregnant  women  had  received  iron  folate   supplement   during   antenatal   visits.   Of   the   respondents   interviewed,   almost   all   of   the   IDP   households   in   the   districts  of  Batticaloa,  Anuradhapura  and  Polonnaruwa  reported  an  acceptable  Food  Consumption  Score  (FCS).    

The  percentage  of  households  with  acceptable  FCS  was  low  in  Ampara  and  Trincomalee  welfare  centres.  Coping   strategy  to  access  food  were  adopted  by  210  IDP  households  (46  per  cent  of  total  respondents  on  FCS).  The  most   commonly   employed   strategy   was   “borrowing   food/   money”   which   was   practiced   by   a   high   percentage   of   households.   Limited   food   intake   by   adults   was   another   coping   strategy   adopted   by   a   quarter   of   the   reported   households.  Although  a  clear  majority  of  children  had  been  breastfed  on  the  day  prior  to  the  interview,  only  half   had   done   so   in   Mannar   and   Ampara.   Availability   of   “multiple   micronutrients”   varied   widely   between   districts,   ranging  from  a  higher  proportion  in  Mannar  to  a  lower  proportion  in  Ampara.  Apparently,  community  groups  and   Page      xviii    

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NGOs  played  a  limited  role  as  providers  of  support  to  children  to  improve  their  nutritional  status;  this  is  a  matter  of   concern.       More   detailed   information   and   study   is   required   to   determine   the   reasons   behind   the   low   percentage   levels   of   food   consumption   by   households   in   somedistricts.   On   average,   six   out   of   ten   children   received   vitamin   A   and   Thriposha;  half  received  multiple  micronutrients;  a  small  number  received  other  supplementary  foods.  The  reasons   for   adopting   different   coping   strategies   are   not   known.   Similarly,   the   reasons   for   inter-­‐district   variations   are   not   clear.      

IDP  Shelter  and  Housing     Currently,   three   quarters   of   IDPshave   electricity.   This   is   more   than   double   the   proportion   who   had   electricity   prior   to  displacement.  There  has  been  a  marked  increase  in  the  proportion  of  IDPs  who  live  in  houses  with  walls  built   using  bricks  /  cement  blocks.  This  has  increased  compared  to  prior  to  displacement.  Use  of  mud  and  cow  dung  as   floors   has   fallen   from   a   quarter   to   a   tenth.   A   very   small   percentage   of   IDPs   still   needs   to   walk   5   km   or   more   to   the   nearest  bus  route.  Currently,  one  third  of  IDP  families  live  5  km  or  more  from  the  next  town.      

IDP  Water,  Sanitation  and  Hygiene     Nine   out   of   ten   of   the   IDP   households   interviewed   reported   to   have   adequate   water   for   household   needs.   The   majority  of  the  households  reported  that  water  was  drinkable  without  boiling  or  treatment;  remaining  households   reported  that  water  was  “drinkable  after  boiling,  filtering  or  other  treatment”.  In  Polonnaruwa,  every  household   interviewed  had  a  toilet.  The  majority  of  the  IDPs  had  access  to,  or  owned  permanent  toilets.     Whilst   generally   the   quality   of   water   is   good,   standards   were   reported   to   be   low   in   Mannar,   Polonnaruwa,   and   Ampara.   Approximately,   one   in   every   ten   IDP   families   requires   provision   of   a   source   of   clean   and   safe   water   (especially   in   Kilinochchi,   Ampara,   Trincomalee   welfare   centres,   Mannar   and   Polonnaruwa).   In   addition,   households  who  are  currently  using  temporary  or  unsafe  water  sources  should  be  prioritized  for  further  follow  up.   Providing  additional  water  to  IDPs  in  four  districts  with  low  standards  of  water,  and  enhancing  the  quality  of  water   in  five  areas  may  also  be  considered  as  an  opportunity.  In  Mannar,  Trincomalee  and  Vavuniya  districts  the  quality   of   water   for   washing   and   bathing   is   a   challenge.   Moreover,   just   over   a   quarter   of   the   IDPs   now   use   temporary   toilets;  they  should  therefore  be  provided  with  permanent  toilets,  if  feasible.     IDP  health  services      

IDP  Health  Services     Given   the   comprehensive   availability   of   health   data   in   Sri   Lanka,   few   questions   were   included   in   the   JNA   questionnaire.   In   one   out   of   every   50   households   surveyed,   there   was   a   pregnant   woman   at   the   time   of   the   interview.   Among   these   women,   nine   out   of   ten   had   sought   antenatal   care.   The   most   common   source   of   care   was   the   Medical   Officer   of   Health   (MOH)   clinic,   rather   than   government   hospitals.   In   a   clear   majority   of   cases,   a   public   health  midwife  (PHM)  visited  the  pregnant  woman  at  least  once.      

IDP  Education     A   high   percentage   of   children   have   access   to   a   desk   and   a   chair.   EFA   goal   No.2   has   also   been   achieved.   Similar   themes  emerge  from  IDPs  as  did  for  returnees  (i.e.  EFA  Goal  6  -­‐conducive  learning  environment).  In  Mannar  and   Polonnaruwa   there   is   a   shortage   of   teachers   in   science,   English,   and   mathematics.   Opportunities   unique   to   IDPs   include  a  focus  on  achievement  levels,  and  enhancement  in  the  teacher  learning  process.  The  English  literacy  rate   is  low  in  all  districts,  as  is  Sinhala  in  most  districts.      

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IDP  Child  Protection  and  Women’s  Empowerment     Information   about   child   protection   programmes   is   significantly   less   widespread   among   IDP   respondents   than   among  those  in  resettled  populations.  The  average  awareness  is  of  just  a  fifth  among  all  respondents,  and  this  falls   to  a  tenth  in  Jaffna.  Information  on  child  rights  follows  a  similar  pattern.  Overall,  Jaffna  is  a  clear  outlier  for  this   dataset,  with  limited  access  to  services  and  little  awareness  of  child  protection  and  child  rights  services  and  tools.   Pre-­‐school   attendance   is   low   across   the   ten   districts   of   the   assessment.   A   very   low   percentage   indicated   that   their   family  had  benefitted  from  a  women’s  empowerment  programme  across  the  ten  districts  assessed.  For  IDPs  (and   returnees)   it   may   prove   beneficial   to   understand   why   some   districts   have   been   more   successful   than   others   in   disseminating  information  and  awareness  on  child  protection  programmes  and  services.       Pre-­‐school  attendance  is  low  across  the  ten  districts  of  the  assessment.  Polonnaruwa  shows  the  highest  number  of   IDP   children   attending   school.   In   Kilinochchi   this   figure   is   the   lowest.   While   government   is   the   most   significant   provider  of  pre-­‐school  education  for  returnee  populations,  the  private  sector  is  the  largest  provider  among  IDPs,   with  NGOs/CBOs  in  second  place,  followed  by  the  government,  and  with  local  government  providing  the  balance.   Jaffna,   which   has   the   highest   number   of   IDP   children   attending   pre-­‐school,   has   a   similar   profile   of   service   providers,  with  the  private  and  voluntary  sectors  providing  services  to  a  large  number  of  children.     A  very  low  number  indicated  that  their  family  had  benefitted  from  a  women’s  empowerment  programme  across   the   ten   districts   assessed.   In   Mullativu,   the   percentage   was   the   highest,   covering   almost   half   of   respondents.   Mannar   also   reported   the   relatively   high   coverage   of   a   third   of   the   respondents.   However,   in   Anuradhapura   no   respondent  reported  having  family  members  benefiting  from  women’s  empowerment  programmes  and  in  Jaffna   this  was  only  marginally  higher.      

IDP  Social  Services     Less   than   a   tenth   of   households   with   a   disabled   person   have   received   housing   assistance,   and   just   more   than   a   tenth   have   received   counseling   support.   Very   few   among   those   interviewed   have   received   self-­‐employment   assistance,  educational  or  financial  assistance,  or  the  monthly  allowance  of  Rs.  3000.      

IDP  Legal  Documentation     Nearly   all   IDP   adults   are   listed   in   the   electoral   register.   Eight   out   of   ten   indicate   that   they   have   deeds   or   documentary   evidence   of   ownership   for   their   housing   allotment   in   their   place   of   return,   relocation   or   local   integration.  This  is  a  significantly  lower  number  than  the  proportion  observed  among  returnees.      

IDP  Durable  Solutions     Of   the   three   durable   solution   options   for   IDPs,   99.3   per   cent   of   households   that   responded   indicated   a   preference   to  return  to  their  place  of  origin,  whereas  74  per  cent  also  indicated  the  option  for  voluntary  integration,  and  73   per  cent,  the  option  of  voluntary  resettlement  elsewhere  as  alternative  options.     To   date,   the   main   reason   for   not   returning   either   to   their   place   of   origin   or   other   areas,   as   reported   by   the   survey,   is   that   IDPs   have   better   employment   opportunities   in   the   place   of   refuge   (welfare   centre   or   outside).   A   number   of   IDP  families  (374  or  77.4  per  cent)  from  the  ten  surveyed  districts  found  better  employment  opportunities  at  the   place  of  refuge,  compared  to  their  places  of  origin.    

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Introduction

   

 

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1.0  

INTRODUCTION  

The  first  part  of  the  survey  was  designed  to  collect  data  on  the  families  already  resettled  in  the  Northern  and  the   Eastern   provinces.   According   to   the   Ministry   of   Resettlement   the   number   of   families   resettled   is   227,505   with   765,522   persons.   Of   this   number   152,439   families   with   502,957   people   were   resettled   in   the   Northern   Province   and   the   balance   in   the   Eastern   Province.   In   terms   of   the   approach   taken   with   regard   to   resettlement,   in   the   majority  of  cases   displaced  persons  were  supported  to  return  to  their  places  of  origin.  However,  in  cases  where   return   was   not   possible,   alternative   options   have   been   provided   which   have   included   local   integration   or   relocation  to  newly  allocated  land.  Details  of  the  families  resettled  in  each  district  are  given  in  the  table.1.1.       The   second   part   of   the   survey   questionnaire   was   designed   to   collect   basic   data   of   the   remaining   IDPs   to   be   resettled  in  Northern,  and  Eastern  Provinces  of  Sri  Lanka.  They  are  presently  in  the  Northern  and  Eastern  Provinces   and   some   in   the   adjoining   North   Central   Province.     The   number   of   families   in   the   North   Central   Province   is   significant  they  are  also  included  in  the  survey.       As   there   are   many   surveys   conducted   with   regard   to   IDPs   in   Puttalam   District,   mostly   by   UN   and   other   external   agencies,  those  families  were  therefore  not  included  in  this  survey.  In  terms  of  the  number  of  IDPs  in  the  Northern   and   Eastern   Provinces,   since   the   JNA   was   not   a   census,   no   total   figures   were   calculated   in   that   regard.   Instead,   data  from  District  Secretariats  is  used,  which  records  the  total  number  of  IDP  families  yet  to  be  resettled  and  living   in   the   Northern   and   Eastern   provinces   as   8,272   families   with   27,396   persons   (please   refer   to   the   table   1.2).   In   addition  another  1,564  IDP  families  are  reported  in  the  North  Central  Province.  Out  of  the  total  of  8,272  families,   1,612   families   with   5,591   members   are   reported   to   be   living   in   welfare   centers   in   three   districts   namely   Jaffna,   Vavuniya,  and  Trincomalee  .The  balance  majority  is  living  with  relatives  and  friends.     Of   these   IDPs,   some   remain   in   welfare   centers.   Jaffna   welfare   centers   are   temporary   settlements   made   on   private   lands  and  there  were  54  such  locations  in  2009  and  now  it  is  reduced  to  34  by  releasing  a  large  extent  of  land  from   the  earlier  HSZ.  The  majority  of  the  balance  families  are  landless  and  durable  solutions  need  to  be  identified  for   them.   In   Vavuniya   there   were   two   welfare   centers   established   in   mid   1990s   and   the   number   of   families   is   now   reduced  to  301  from  around  17,000  consequent  to  the  resettlement  programs  implemented  since  the  late  1990s.   These   remaining   families   are   landless   and   have   been   offered   alternative   lands   from   Vavuniya   North   DS   division;   the  welfare  centers  are  officially  closed  these  families  continue  to  occupy  the  land  as  they  want  to  stay  close  to   Vavuniya  town.  The  situation  is  similar  in  Trincomalee  welfare  centers.    

   

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1.1    

Overview  of  the  JNA  

1.1.1   General  Background  

  Since  the  cessation  of  armed  conflict  in  Sri  Lanka  in  May  2009  there  has  been  a  substantive  improvement  in  the   lives  of  people  affected  from  the  armed  conflict  and  the  Tsunami  in  Sri  Lanka.  The  Government  of  Sri  Lanka  (GOSL)   planned  and  initiated  a  rapid  large-­‐scale  resettlement  program  of  internally  displaced  persons  (IDPs).  This  has  been   matched   with   an   ambitious   housing   program   in   all   districts.   A   small   residual   group   of   IDPs   remain   with   host   families  on  host  lands,  and  a  smaller  group  remains  in  welfare  housing  awaiting  final  durable  solution.1  Sri  Lanka   continues  to  be  affected  by  small-­‐scale  and  medium-­‐scale  natural  disasters.       This   JNA   Report   presents   an   overall   positive   picture   of   the   large   group   of   more   than   700,000   people   who   have   been  resettled.  It  reviews  sectoral  areas  presented  in  data  where  this  achievement  has  been  made.  It  also  presents   opportunities   and   areas   that   need   further   assessment.   While   efforts   are   underway   to   find   durable   solutions   for   those   who   have   not   returned,   some   work   is   still   required   in   locations   where   people   are   currently   living,   in   particular   in   water,   sanitation   and   health,   food   security,   and   nutrition.   Data   has   been   compared   to   relevant   Sri   Lankan   policy   benchmarks   and   international   policy   standards   including   the   Inter-­‐Agency   Standing   Committee   (IASC)  Framework  on  Durable  Solutions  for  Internally  Displaced  Persons  and  the  SPHERE  Humanitarian  Charter  and   Minimum  Standards  in  Humanitarian  Response.       The  JNA  was  co-­‐designed  by  the  Government  of  Sri  Lanka  (GOSL)  and  the  Sri  Lanka  Humanitarian  Country  Team   (HCT)  as  a  joint  task.  The  JNA  is  a  joint  multi-­‐sectoral  needs  assessment  seeking  to  identify  sustainable  livelihoods   recovery  and  development  needs  of  the  resettled  and  remaining  displaced  people  in  conflict-­‐affected  districts.      

1.1.2   Objectives  

  On  25  March  2014  a  Letter  of  Agreement  (LOA)  was  signed  between  the  GOSL  and  the  HCT  outlining  the  following   objectives:     1. Identify   needs,   gaps   and   priorities   to   be   addressed   for   effectively   connecting   and   fostering   subsequent   development   programs   that   could   be   linked   to   relevant   and   existing   local,   provincial,   and   national   development  initiatives  of  the  Government  of  Sri  Lanka.   2. Provide  the  GOSL  with  supplementary  information  for  future-­‐targeted  programming  and  funding,  and  donors   to  benefit  from  accurate  baseline  data  and  information  for  targeted  funding.   3. Collaborate   and   support   efforts   that   move   toward   durable   solutions   through   providing   a   baseline   of   comprehensive  livelihood  and  economic  restoration  needs  of  the  recently  resettled  and  remaining  displaced   people.     4. Reprioritize  humanitarian  needs,  which  is  necessary  to  support  and  sustain  livelihoods  and  durable  solutions.     5. Provide   a   basis   for   linkages   with   other   development   activities   initiated   locally   in   accordance   with   national   development   plans   and   programs   of   the   GOSL   and   the   United   Nations   Development   Assistance   Framework   (UNDAF).   6. Strengthen  and  sustain  the  relationship  fostered  between  the  GOSL  and  the  partners  in  the  implementation  of   the  JNA.     The  JNA  is  a  unique  collaborative  exercise  which  includes  data  collection  that  has  been  jointly  undertaken  by  field   teams  with  contributors  from  both  GOSL  and  the  HCT.  Support,  personnel  and  funding  from  the  GOSL  and  the  HCT   has   been   greatly   enhanced   with   generous   support   and   funding   of   the   Governments   of   Japan,   Norway,   South   Korea,   non-­‐governmental   organizations   (NGOs),   United   Nations   agencies   and   the   International   Organization   for   Migration  (IOM).  

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Please  note  that  according  to  the  GOSL  the  Vavuniya  welfare  centers  are  officially  closed.  

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Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

The  JNA  survey  was  conducted  in  the  five  districts  of  Jaffna,  Mannar,  Vavuniya,  Mullaitivu  and  Kilinochchi  in  the   Northern   Province,   in   the   three   districts   of   Trincomalee,   Batticaloa   and   Ampara   in   Eastern   Province   and   in   Anuradhapura   and   Polonnaruwa   districts   in   the   North-­‐Central   Province.   The   JNA   survey   interviewed   5,417   resettled   households   after   their   displacement   (hereinafter   returnees)   and   524   remaining   displaced   households   (hereinafter   IDPs).   This   represented   85   per   cent   of   households   targeted   for   surveying,   with   15   per   cent   of   households  absent.      

1.1.3   Parameters  of  the  JNA    

  A   Steering   Committee   developed   and   approved   the   strategic   parameters   of   the   assessment   and   guided   the   process.   It   comprised   the   following:   (1)   Representatives   of   the   Government   of   Sri   Lanka   nominated   by   the   Presidential  Task  Force  (PTF)  (2)  Representatives  of  the  Humanitarian  Country  Team  at  the  Head  of  Agency-­‐level,   donors   and   international   organizations   (IOs)   nominated   by   the   UN   Resident   Coordinator/Humanitarian   Coordinator  (RC/HC).  Participation  in  the  Steering  Committee  was  agreed  in  the  first  instance  between  the  PTF  and   the   Humanitarian   Coordinator.     The   committee   made   decisions   by   consensus.   The   chairing   was   between   the   Secretary  of  the  PTF  and  the  RC/HC.     The  JNA  was  implemented  under  the  guidance  of  the  co-­‐chairs  (PTF  and  RC/HC)  and  was  supported  by   the   United   Nations  Office  for  Coordination  of  Humanitarian  Affairs  (OCHA)  as  a  JNA  Secretariat  and  the  lead  consultants.  At   the   field   level,   the   JNA   was   operationalized   under   the   overall   supervision   and   guidance   of   the   District/Divisional   Secretaries,  the  lead  consultants  and  related  parties  who  carried  out  the  actual  implementation  in  association  with   the  District/Divisional  Secretaries.        

1.1.4   Implementation  Modalities  (System  Coordination  Structure)  

  The   Joint   Needs   Assessment   built   on   existing   data   available   at   the   Divisional   Secretariat   offices,   line   ministries,   the   provincial  ministries  and  from  previous  needs  assessments  and  studies  of  the  UN,  Red  Cross,  IOM  and  NGOs.  These   were  reviewed  at  the  preparatory  stage  of  the  JNA,  as  stipulated  in  the  concept  note  (July-­‐December  2013).     The  implementation  structure  of  the  Joint  Needs  Assessment  was  managed  by  the  District/Divisional  Secretaries   with   support   from   the   lead   consultants.   The   District   /Divisional   Secretaries,   and   Provincial   Secretaries   worked   together  with  the  lead  consultants  in  the  field  assessment,  data  collection,  data  analysis  and  report  preparation.   The  Office  for  the  Coordination  of  Humanitarian  Affairs  (OCHA)  acted  as  a  facilitator  with  an  overall  coordination,   communication,  information  management,  and  facilitation  role,  with  appropriate  representation  and  providing  the   tools   and   services   necessary   for   the   exercise.   The   Steering   Committee   and   all   relevant   partners   were   regularly   updated  by  OCHA  on  the  JNA.      

1.1.5   Role  of  the  Government  of  Sri  Lanka     1. 2. 3.

4. 5.  

Co-­‐chair  the  Steering  Committee  (SC)  and  through  the  SC  provide  necessary  guidance  to  the  JNA  process.   Nominate  Government  officials  for  the  JNA  Steering  Committee.   Nominate  Government  participants  from  relevant  organizations  for  the  Technical  Working  Group  to  support   the  JNA  work.   Organizing   necessary   support   from   the   district/divisional   administration   and   the   line   ministries   to   carry   out   the  JNA  survey.   Provision  of  technical  expertise  to  implement  assessments.  

 

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1.1.6   Role  of  the  Humanitarian  Country  Team     1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  

Coordination  among  the  Humanitarian  Country  Team  for  the  JNA  process.     Hire  of  the  lead  consultant  in  consultation  with  the  Presidential  Task  Force  (PTF).   Design   the   survey   methodology   and   the   development   of   the   questionnaire   in   association   with   technical   expertise  from  the  Government.     Organize  orientation  and  workshops  necessary  to  complete  the  JNA  field  assessment  survey  with  guidance  of   the  co-­‐chairs  (PTF  and  RC/HC)  and  in  association  with  provincial  /  district  /  divisional  administration.   Provide  logistical  support  for  the  field  assessment  survey.   Provide  secretarial  support  and  other  facilities  for  the  JNA  consultants.   Organize   and   manage   funds   necessary   to   conduct   the   survey   and   determine   the   fund   management   by   a   designated  agency  approved  by  the  Steering  Committee.     Assign  WFP  to  act  as  the  managing  agent  for  the  implementation  and  disbursement  of  funds.  

1.2    

Methodology  

 

 

 

 

1.2.1   Overview  

  The  JNA  survey  was  designed  by  the  Humanitarian  Country  team  (HCT)  and  the  Government  of  Sri  Lanka  (GOSL).   The  project  was  a  joint  initiative  designed  to  gather  information  that  would  pinpoint  the  needs  of  ”returnees”  or   resettled   internally   displaced   persons   (IDPs),   and   the   ”IDPs”   yet   to   be   resettled.   Accurate   information   of   this   nature  is  vital  for  decision  makers  and  policymakers,  both  in  the  Government  and  in  the  HCT.     The   research   was   conducted   in   all   five   districts   of   Jaffna,   Mannar,   Vavuniya,   Mullaitivu   and   Kilinochchi   in   the   Northern  Province,  and  in  all  three  districts  of  Trincomalee,  Batticaloa  and  Ampara  in  the  Eastern  Province.  In  the   North-­‐Central  Province,  fieldwork  was  undertaken  in  two  of  the  three  districts;  Anuradhapura  and  Polonnaruwa.   Fieldwork  took  place  in  June  2014.       The   JNA   is   the   first   survey   of   its   kind,   covering   all   returnees   to   the   North   and   Eastern   provinces  and   IDPs   yet   to   be   settled  and  living  in  the  Northern,  Eastern  and  North-­‐Central  Provinces.  It  sought  to  capture  information  across  a   wide  range  of  sectors,  touching  on  vital  issues  such  as  to  living  conditions  and  facilities  required.     Crucially,   this   report   was   designed   to   act   as   a   “baseline”   or   “benchmark”   survey   that   would   allow   others   to   enhance  their  monitoring  and  evaluation  in  years  to  come.  The  hope  held  by  the  HCT  and  the  GOSL  is  that  others   will   use   this   data   as   a   platform   with   which   to   assess   the   progress   and   effectiveness   of   future   activities   undertaken   for  returnees  and  IDP  families.      

1.2.2   Sampling  Units  

  The   final   stage   sampling   unit   chosen   was   the   “family   unit”   instead   of   the   “household   unit”   for   this   particular   survey.  Usually  the  household  unit  is  the  data  collection  unit  for  many  surveys  conducted  by  the  Department  of   2 Census   and   Statistics   (DCS)   in   Sri   Lanka.   The   family   unit   here   is   defined   as“all   members   of   one   house   who   are   living   together”   regardless   of   members   who   are   cooking   separately   who   are   living   in   the   same   housing   unit   Therefore,  the  “family  unit”  is  a  more  extensive  unit  than  the  usual  household  concept.    

                                                                                                                        2

  A   household   is   a   group   of   persons   (or   a   single   person)   who   usually   live   together   and   have   a   common   arrangement   for   eating,   such  as  using  a  common  kitchen  or  a  common  food  budget.    The  persons  may  be  related  to  each  other  or  may  be  non-­‐relatives,   including   boarders,   servants   or   other   employees,   staying   with   the   head   of   household.   Students,   boarders   and   employees   residing  in  and  having  a  common  food  arrangement  with  the  household  are  considered  members  of  the  household  if  they  have   been  residing  in  the  household  or  if  they  have  no  other  place  of  residence.  

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The  reason  for  this  decision  was  that  the  types  of  questions  included  in  the  JNA  were  orientated  towards  families   and  immediately  related  affairs,  rather  than  encompassing  a  broader  household  perspective.  For  instance,  WASH   facilities  are  of  common  service  to  all,  regardless  of  their  living  arrangements  within  the  household.    

1.2.3   Reference  Periods    

  The   term   “Reference   period”   refers   to   the   window   of   time   that   respondents   are   typically   asked   to   reflect   upon   when  asked  about  recent  behavior.  Reference  periods  are  adapted  according  to  the  nature  of  topics  addressed  in  a   given   survey.   Readers   should   note   that   it   was   necessary   to   ask   certain   questions   in   the   survey   using   different   reference   periods.   For   instance,   the   reference   period   mainly   used   in   the   nutrition   and   health   sector   was   for   the   ”last  month”,  while  a  reference  period  used  in  the  livelihood  sector  was  for  the  ”last  12  months”.    

1.2.4   Development  of  the  Questionnaires       In  order  to  fill  the  information  gaps  on  the  humanitarian  needs  of  returnees  or  resettled  people  and  IDPs  b  internal   conflicts   and   natural   disasters,   the   questions   and   data   table   formats   on   returnees   were   firstly   drafted   by   the   respective   sector   consultants.   These   consultants   were   appointed   by   the   HCT.   Inputs   were   obtained   from   the   GOSL   as  this  initiative  is  a  joint  effort  between  the  HCT  and  GOSL.     Meetings  were  held  with  all  sector  consultants,  appropriate  senior  government  officials  and  subject  specialists  on   several  occasions  in  order  to  further  refine  the  questions  and  make  the  JNA  as  relevant  as  possible  to  the  identified   needs   of   the   interviewed   returnees   and   IDPs,   and   to   enhance   the   overall   quality   of   the   questionnaire.   A   lead   consultant   was   engaged   and   asked   to   facilitate   the   process   of   the   questionnaire,   including   preparation   of   the   sample  frame  and  lists  of  targeted  returnees  and  IDP  families,  in  consultation  with  the  GOSL  and  HCT.    

1.2.5   Questionnaire  Overview  -­‐  Returnees  

  After  a  thorough  review  of  the  needs  of  both  returnees  and  IDPs,  the  JNA  Steering  Committee  decided  to  create   two  separate  questionnaires;  one  for  returnees  and  one  for  IDPs.  These  questionnaires  were  individually  adapted   in  order  to  obtain  the  necessary  information  for  each  thematic  sector.  Broadly,  both  questionnaires  contain  similar   questions.  There  are,  however,  important  differences  between  them  since  they  reflect  the  different  situations  that   both  groups  find  themselves  in.  Both  questionnaires  were  originally  prepared  in  English  and  translated  into  Sinhala   and  Tamil  languages  before  being  used  by  the  interviewers.       In   line   with   the   above-­‐mentioned   objectives   of   the   JNA   initiative,   the   returnee   questionnaire   was   structured   around  the  following  eleven  sections:   · Identification  information   · Section  1     Information  on  displacement  or  relocation   · Section  2     Demographic  characteristics     · Section  3     School  education   · Section  4     Shelter  and  Housing   · Section  5     Water  and  Sanitation     · Section  6     Nutrition  and  Health     · Section  7     Food  security     · Section  8     Livelihood     · Section  9     Child  protection  and  Women  empowerment   · Section  10     Social  services   · Section  11     Legal  documentation  and  registration    

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1.2.6   Questionnaire  Overview  -­‐  IDPs  

  The  questionnaire  for  IDPs  consisted  of  the  following  eleven  sections:     · Identification  information   · Section  1     Demographic  characteristics   · Section  2     Education     · Section  3     Shelter  and  Housing     · Section  4     Water  and  Sanitation     · Section  5     Nutrition  and  Health   · Section  6     Food  security     · Section  7     Livelihood     · Section  8     Child  protection  and  Women  empowerment     · Section  9     Social  services     · Section  10     Legal  documentation  and  Registration     · Section  11     Options  for  durable  solutions     A   particular   feature   of   the   IDP   questionnaire   is   its   focus   on   two   time   periods   for   comparisons   of   conditions   of   living,   i.e.   before   and   after   displacement.   It   was   hypothesized   that   questions   designed   around   the   difference   in   living   conditions   before   and   after   would   provide   a   useful   and   tangible   way   of   assessing   progress   within   communities  and  deciding  on  options  for  durable  solutions.      

1.2.7   Target  Population  Counts  and  Lists  of  Selected  Grama  Niladhari  Divisions  

  For   the   purposes   of   selection   of   Probability   Proportional   to   Size   (PPS)   sampling,   the   number   of   families   living   in   each  Grama  Niladhari  Divisions  (GNDs)  was  required.  This  data  was  made  available  by  local  district  administrations.   It   was   found,   however,   that   in   some   divisions   the   data   was   representative   of   the   target   groups   as   well   as   other   returnees   and   IDP   groups   counted   under   other   circumstances.   Lists   of   target   families   (returnees   and   IDPs)   were   compiled   by   the   OCHA   office   in   Kilinochchi   with   the   support   of   the   local   Divisional   Secretariats   and/or   District   Secretariats.    

1.2.8   Geographical  Area  and  Target  Populations  

  Based  on  district-­‐level  information  gathered  from  the  Ministry  of  Resettlement  and  the  relevant  offices  of  districts/   Divisional  Secretariat  Division  (DSD)  (both  at  DS  and  GN  level),  the  returnees  and  IDPs  are  distributed  across  the   three   northern,   eastern   and   north-­‐central   provinces   of   Sri   Lanka.   The   distribution   patterns   are   quite   different   between  returnee  and  IDP  populations.  As  depicted  in  Table  1  the  returnee  population  is  highly  concentrated  in   the   northern   and   eastern   provinces,   with   very   few   living   in   Ampara,   while   the   IDPs   were   thinly   scattered   around   a   small  number  of  districts  with  the  one  exception  in  Jaffna  district,  where  a  high  concentration  of  IDPs  exists.  The   main  focus  of  the  survey  was  on  resettled  families  who  fell  under  the  “returned  to  origin”  category.    

     

 

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3

Table  1.1:  Distribution  of  returnees  population  by  district     District  

Number  of   Families  

Jaffna   Kilinochchi   Mullaitivu   Vavuniya   Mannar   Trincomalee   Batticaloa   Ampara   Total  

Population  

31,188   40,953   39,950   16,158   24,190   35,377   37,273   2416   227,505  

Num  of  Divisional  Secretariat   Divisions   (DSD)  

97,052   131,627   128,042   54,956   91,280   129,097   126,766                  6702     765,  522  

15   4   6   4   5   11   14   20   79  

Source:  Ministry  Of  Resettlement  as  of  01.01.2014     4 Table  1.2:  Distribution  of  IDP  population  by  district     District  

Place  

Families  

Persons  

Jaffna  

Living  in  Welfare  Centers  

1,187  

4,308  

Jaffna  

Living  With  Friends  and  Relatives  

4,927  

16,205  

Mullaitivu  

Living  With  Friends  and  Relatives  

60    

164    

Kilinochchi  

Living  With  Friends  and  Relatives  

100    

296    

Mannar  

Living  With  Friends  and  Relatives  

169  

421  

Vavuniya  

Living  With  Friends  and  Relatives  

133  

405  

Vavuniya  

Living  in  Welfare  Centers  

301  

1,008  

Trincomalee  

Living  With  Friends  and  Relatives  

263  

609  

Trincomalee  

Living  with  Welfare  Centers  

281  

872  

Batticaloa  

Living  With  Friends  and  Relatives  

508  

1,653  

Anuradhapura  

Living  With  Friends  and  Relatives  

1,400  

-­‐  

Polonnaruwa  

Living  With  Friends  and  Relatives  

 48  

 -­‐  

Ampara  

Living  With  Friends  and  Relatives  

610    

1138    

Total  

   

9706  

26207  

Source:  Ministry  of  Resettlement  as  of  31.03.2014    

 

 

                                                                                                                        3

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.1    Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.2  This  table,  dated  31  March  2014,  was  used  to  calculate  the  sample  size  by  the  JNA  Lead   Consultant  team.  Current  figures  quoted  by  the  Ministry  of  Resettlement  are  available  at:  www.resettlementmin.gov.lk   Current  total  IDP  figures  are  being  updated  by  the  GOSL  in  consultation  with  the  United  Nations.   4

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1.2.9   Determination  of  Sample  Size  

  The  determination  of  sample  size  was  a  very  important  task  in  the  survey  process.  Inappropriate,  inadequate  or   excessive  sample  sizes  influence  the  quality  and  accuracy  of  any  such  survey.  A  carefully  selected  sample  size  was   therefore  vital  in  minimizing  variations  and  inconsistencies  which  can  distort  the  true  picture.       Since   an   uneven   distribution   of   affected   families   exists   in   several   districts,   a   decision   was   taken   to   produce   estimates  at  district  level  rather  than  Divisional  Secretariat  Division  (DSD)  level  for  returnees  and  to  produce  the   estimates   only   at   district   level   for   IDPs.   This   was   done   because   the   population   and   sample   sizes   were   comparatively  small  for  the  production  of  divisional-­‐level  estimates.         Another   major   consideration   is   the   decision   as   to   which   variables   will   be   incorporated   into   the   sample   size   calculation.  To  achieve  this,  it  was  necessary  to  determine  if  a“categorical  variable”  would  play  a  primary  role  in   data   analysis   over   ”continuous   variables”.   Where   this   is   the   case,   categorical   sample   size   formulas   should   be   used.   Desk   research   conducted   prior   to   this   survey   highlighted   that   the   most   relevant   data   was   of   categorical   nature.   Therefore,  a  categorical  sample  size  determination  formula  was  deployed  to  determine  the  sample  size.       The   sample   size   was   increased   by   10-­‐15   per   cent   to   account   for   non-­‐response   due   to   untraceable   and   uncooperative   subjects.   Using   an   adequate   sample   along   with   high   quality   data   collection   efforts   results   in   a   more   reliable,   valid   and   inferable   outcome   with   a   significant   saving   of   cost,   time   and   other   resources.  Depending   on   the   exact  location  of  the  families  scattered  among  DSDs  within  the  districts,  some  DSDs  have  a  high  concentration  of   returnees  or  IDPs,  which  was  also  taken  into  consideration.       The  formula  used  for  estimation  of  the  sample  size  for  each  domain  of  estimation  is  as  follows:      

n = ( Z 2σ 2 ) ÷ E 2     Where:   - Z  is  the  normal  quadrant  for  0.05  significant  levels,  which  is  1.96  for  large  samples.   2   σ is  the  variance  of  the  estimate;  variance  of  a  proportion  is  to  have  maximum  variance  when  p=0.5,  where     (p+q)  =1  and  the  value  of  the  product  ‘pq’  denotes  the  variance.   E  is  the  margin  of  error.  

2  

Z  =  1.96;   σ =  0.25;  E=0.03.            

Sample  size  =   n = ( Z 2σ 2 ) ÷ E 2   =   {(1.96*1.96)*(.5*.5)}/(.03*.03).    

  The  tolerance  level  used  is  set  at  e=.03  since  this  ensures  reliable  estimates  at  district  level.  Note:  The  margin  of   error  assumed  for  DSD  estimates  was  0.05.  At  higher  geographical  level,  the  error  should  be  smaller  due  to  larger   sample  size.  An  adjusted  sample  size  is  then  derived  after  applying  the  correction  factor  of  “n/(1+n/N)”.     Note:  Since  the  most  complex  district  is  Jaffna  district  in  terms  of  size  and  composition  of  IDPs  and  returnees  as   well  as  the  large  number  of  DSDs  (15),  this  estimate  was  used  as  the  basis  for  determining  sample  sizes  for  other   districts.         Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

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An   additional   10   per   cent   of   the   sample   (110)   was   added   to   1,100   to   cover   possible   non-­‐response.   Thus,   Jaffna   district,   for   example,   had   a   sample   size   of   1,220   responses.   For   other   major   districts   in   the   north   and   east   the   sample  size  of  1,100  was  pro-­‐rated  to  total  number  of  families  affected  and  to  the  number  of  DSDs  in  the  districts.   Final  sample  size  estimates  are  given  in  Table  1.3  below.    

1.2.10   Primary  Sampling  Units  and  Secondary  Sampling  Units  

  The   required  number   of   Primary   Sampling   Units   (PSUs)   within   districts   was   selected   using   Probability   Proportional   to   the   Size   (PPS)   and   a   random   sampling   method.   Grama   Niladhai   Divisions   (GNDs)   were   treated   as   PSUs   since   census   block   level   data   is   not   available   for   either   returnees   or   IDPs.   The   most   detailed   information   that   can   be   obtained   at   GND   level   was   the   number   of   resettled   families   and   remaining   IDPs.   Accordingly,   the   sample   was   allocated   among   returnee   families   in   the   selected   GNDs   within   districts.   The   GNDs   were   the   PSUs   for   both   sides   of   the  survey,  i.e.  the  returnees  and  IDPs.  The  sample  number  used  was  20  families  from  each  selected  GND  in  the   district  of  Jaffna  in  order  to  get  more  HN  Divisions  included  in  the  sample.  A  sample  number  of  30  were  chosen  for   each   selected   GND   of   all   other   districts   where   DNGs   are   larger   in   size.   Listings   of   the   names   and   addresses   of   returnees  and  the  IDPs  were  separately  undertaken  for  the  selected  PSUs.     The   required   numbers   of   Secondary   Sampling   Units   (SSUs)   were   selected   using   a   systematic   random   sampling   method,  which  means  after  selecting  the  first  sample  family  on  a  random  basis,  and  then  considering  the  size  (and   the  range)  of  the  PSU,  other  families  (SSU/FSU)  were  selected  in  each  GND  for  the  collection  of  information.    

1.2.11   Fieldwork  Organization,  Coordination  and  Supervision  

  There   are   one   or   more   Development   Officers   (DOs)   attached   to   each   DSDs   and   Kachcheri.   The   responsibility   of   data   collection   for   each   GND   is   assigned   to   the   DOs,   who   were   recruited   from   the   same   geographical   area   or   from   DSDs.   The   enumerators   were   assigned   to   a   number   of   PSUs/GNDs.   Each   PSU   included   20   families   from   GNDs   of   Jaffna  district  and  30  families  from  GNDs  of  other  districts  for  enumeration.  The  data  collectors  worked  in  teams   and  were  supervised  by  a  Department  of  Census  and  Statistics  (DCS)  staff  member  and  assisted  by  HCT  members   who  together  were  responsible  for  collecting  information  from  all  sampled  families.       The  DCS  has  its  own  field  officers  covering  the  entire  country  at  district  and  DS  level.  Each  district  has  a  separate   Statistical   Branch   located   in   each   Kachcheri   with   one   Statistical   Officer   (SO)   attached   to   each   Divisional   Secretariat   Division  (DSDs).  These  officers  were  appointed  as  the  district  coordinators/supervision  staff  members  of  the  DOs,   who  served  as  the  enumerators  for  the  JNA  survey.       The   lists   of   returnees   and   IDPs   were   provided   by   OCHA   staff   in   Kilinochchi   for   each   GND   as   of   1   January   2014.   The   available  lists  were  used  in  respect  of  each  selected  sample  PSU/GND,  after  which  the  sample  families/SSUs  were   selected  for  the  data  collection.     A   core   team   of   selected   staff   from   the   Department   of   Census   and   Statistics   was   trained   by   OCHA   and   the   lead   consultant  in  Colombo  prior  to  the  field  activity.  This  team  then  trained  interviewers  in  the  field.  The  training  was   supported  by  a  manual  designed  to  help  interviewers  understand  how  to  administer  the  questionnaire.  It  provided   definitions  and  other  key  information,  including  guidance  on  the  flow  of  the  questions.  The  data  collection  period   of  the  survey  was  from  1  to  7  June  2014.  The  district  level  coordination  was  undertaken  by  the  Head  of  the  District   Statistical   Branch   at   respective   Kachcheri   with   the   guidance   of   respective   Government   Agents   and   Divisional   Secretaries.  OCHA  staff  and  the  lead  consultant  observed  fieldwork,  monitoring  and  assisting  as  required.      

 

 

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1.2.12   Proposed  and  Final  Sample  Sizes  -­‐  Returnees  

  During  the  planning  stage,  it  was  envisaged  that  the  target  sample  would  be  a  total  of  6,500  families  (SSUs).  Prior   sampling   frames   compiled   by   Ministry   of   Resettlement   reports   on   returnees   suggested   a   higher   estimate.   Subsequently,  the  sample  size  was  revised  up  to  6,510.  As  shown  in  Table  3,  the  total  number  of  the  sample  size   (SSUs)  was  6,510  (in  column  5)  while  the  total  number  of  completed  schedules  received  was  5,417  (in  column  7).   Accordingly,   the   difference   was   1,093   schedules   (SSUs)   as   indicated   in   column   10   in   Table   1.3.   Accordingly,   the   coverage  rate  for  the  completed  returnee  questionnaires  was  85%  (5,417/6,371),  which  is  a  highly  satisfactory  rate   of  coverage  for  a  survey.  Generally  if  the  response  rate  is  above  75%  for  a  sample  survey,  the  particular  sample   survey  is  viewed  as  satisfactory  or  acceptable.     When  data  collection  was  carried  out  at  the  field  operational  stage,  it  was  found  that  selected  sample  families  or   SSUs  were  not  available  in  all  districts.  This  was  due  to  the  fact  that  the  total  available  number  of  families  (SSUs)   was  lower  than  the  selected  sample  number  foreseen  in  the  initial  stage.  The  difference  between  these  two  was   139   sample   families   (SSUs),   identified   in   the   districts   of   Jaffna,   Vavuniya   and   Trincomalee.   The   total   number   of   sample   families/SSUs   was   127   after   excluding   12   additional   schedules   submitted   from   the   district   of   Vavuniya.   After   excluding   the   missing   12   schedules,   the   difference   was   115   as   indicated   in   Table   1.3   (column   9).   Table   1.4   indicates  this  sample  difference  between  the  initial  and  actual  survey  in  detail  by  DSD  and  GND  level.      

1.2.13    Proposed  and  Final  Sample  Sizes  -­‐  IDPs  

  The   sample   size   initially   foreseen   for   IDPs   was   560   families   (SSUs).   At   field   operational   stage,   524   completed   schedules   were   received   and   the   difference   was   36.   This   is   due   to   the   same   reasons   as   explained   for   returnees.   Fewer  people  were  living  in  the  relevant  area  than  originally  proposed.       5 Table  1.3:  Initial  and  revised  samples   (Revised)  Initial  sample  size  or   number  

At  Field  operational  stage,  number  of  sample  or  SSUs   Excluded   other   schedulesand add   schedules   reported-­‐ SSUs     (Col.  6-­‐7)  

Sample   Difference   between-­‐ Initial  and   surveyed-­‐ SSUs     (Col.  5-­‐7)  

Survey   stage   GNDs  or   PSUs  

Sample   size  or   Families  or   SSUs  for   each  GND  

Total   selected   sample  size   –Families   or  SSUs  

3  

4  

5  

6  

7  

9  

10  

Jaffna  

61  

20  

1220  

1202  

1200  

2  

20  

Mannar  

25  

30  

750  

750  

748  

2  

2  

Vavuniya  

24  

30  

720  

708  

720  

-­‐12  

0  

Mullativu  

31  

30  

930  

930  

929  

1  

1  

Kilinochchi  

31  

30  

930  

930  

929  

1  

1  

Batticaloa  

31  

30  

930  

930  

929  

1  

1  

Ampara  

31  

30  

100  

100  

100  

0  

0  

Trincomalee    

31  

30  

930  

833  

816  

17  

114  

265  

 

6510  

6383  

6371  

24  

139  

District  

1  

Total  

Actual   survey  No.   of  Families   or  SSUs  

Schedules   received  

*  Sample  Difference-­‐Initial  and  surveyed-­‐SSUs  (Col.  5-­‐7)  is  127  schedules  after  excluding  12  additional  schedules   for  Vavuniya  and  it  is  115  schedules  excluding  12  other  schedules.  

                                                                                                                        5

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.3  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  13  

6

Table1.4:  Initial  and  revised  sample  and  surveys  at  operational  stage  –  returnees  

District  

Selected  DSD  

Initial  Stage-­‐  number   Frame-­‐ Allocated   number   sample  size   of   families  or     Families   SSUs  a   sample  GND  

GND  

4  

At  field  stage   Actual   Sample   surveyed/   Difference   SSUs   Initial  and   surveyed-­‐ SSUs     (Col.  5-­‐6)   6   7  

1  

2  

3  

5  

Trincomalee  

Kuchchaveli  

Casim  Nagar  

401  

30  

19  

11  

Trincomalee  

Kuchchaveli  

Irakakandy  

529  

30  

4  

26  

Trincomalee  

Kuchchaveli  

Pulmoddai  –  II  

545  

30  

7  

23  

Trincomalee  

Kuchchaveli  

Pulmoddai  –  IV  

728  

30  

17  

13  

Trincomalee  

Town  &  Gravets  

Kappalthurai  

22  

30  

18  

12  

Trincomalee  

Kantale  

Peraru  

18  

30  

18  

12  

Sub  Total  

   

   

2243  

180  

83  

97  

Jaffna      

Uduvil                      

Uduvil  South                                          

87  

20  

17  

3  

Jaffna      

Uduvil                      

Punnalaikadd                                          

37  

20  

15  

5  

Jaffna      

Chavakachch            

Kaithady  Nun  

12  

20  

10  

10  

Sub  Total  

   

   

136  

60  

42  

18  

Vavuniya  

Vavuniya  South  

Pirappanmaduwa  

18  

30  

18  

12  

Total  

   

   

2397  

270  

143  

127  

*   Sample   Difference-­‐Initial   and   surveyed-­‐SSUs   (Col.   5-­‐6)   is   127   schedules   after   excluding   12   additional   nil   schedules  for  Vavuniya  and  it  is  115  schedules  excluding  12  other  schedules.     7 Table  1.5:  Sample  distribution  of  IDP's  by  district   Number  of   Welfare   Centres  

No.of  GNDs-­‐ IDPs  with   friends  family  

Final  total   sample  size  or   number  of     SSUs  (revised)  

Jaffna  

3  

7  

200  

177  

Mannar  

   

2  

40  

40  

Vavuniya  

1  

2  

60  

52  

Mullaitivu  

   

1  

20  

19  

Kilinochchi  

   

1  

20  

20  

Batticaloa  

   

2  

40  

36  

Trincomalee  

1  

1  

40  

40  

Ampara  

   

2  

40  

40  

Anuradhapura  

   

4  

80  

80  

Polonnaruwa  

    5  

1   23  

20   560  

20   524  

District  

Total  

Number  of   Schedules   received/  SSUs  

                                                                                                                          6

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.4    Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.5  

7

Page  14    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

1.2.14    Data  Entry,  Edit  Checks  and  Cleaning  

  The   completed   questionnaires   were   collected   and   data   entry   was   undertaken   by   the   Hector   Kobbekaduwa   Agrarian   Research   and   Training   Institute   (HARTI).   The   questionnaires   had   been   designed   mainly   with   pre-­‐coded   questions  in  order  to  ensure  clarity  of  results  whilst  simplifying  the  task  for  interviewers  at  the  editing  and  data   processing   stages.   A   small   number   of   open-­‐ended   questions   were   asked   which   required   coding.   Most   of   these   were“other”  questions,  which  were  offered  where  the  respondent  preferred  to  give  an  answer  other  than  the  pre-­‐ coded  option.  Range  checks  and  frequency  checks  were  undertaken  for  all  the  appropriate  variables  by  HARTI  at   the  data  cleaning  stage.    

  1.2.15   Weighting  

  The   data   appearing   in   this   report   is   unweighted   sample   data.   Although   weighted   (and   inflated)   data   was   considered  for  publication,  it  was  eventually  decided  to  publish  sample  data.    One  key  benefit  of  this  approach  is   that  future  users  of  this  data  will  not  need  to  apply  weights  to  their  own  data  when  attempting  to  compare  with   the  present  data  as  part  of  a  mid  or  end-­‐line  survey.      

1.2.16    Production  of  Data  Tables  

  It   was   decided   to   provide   district   level   data   for  both   the   returnee   and   IDP   surveys,   irrespective   of   the   fact   that   the   sample  size  with  regard  to  IDPs  was  not  considered  beingadequate  enough  to  provide  output  tables  at  that  level.  It   was  further  decided  to  provide  welfare  centers  and  host  families  output  tables  separately  at  the  district  level  for   the  IDP  survey,  as  the  needs  of  these  groups  varied  from  district  to  district.  

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

 

   

Page  15  

Page  16    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Returnees

2.1     Demographic  Characteristics  of  Returnees     The   first   part   of   the   JNA   survey   questionnaire   was   designed   to   collect   basic   data   on   demographic   and   socio-­‐ economic   characteristics   of   the   returnee   population   in   the   northern   and   eastern   provinces   of   Sri   Lanka.   The   purpose   of   this   chapter   is   to   provide   a   descriptive   summary   of   some   demographic   and   socio-­‐economic   characteristics   such   as   age   and   gender   distribution,   marital   status,   economic   activities,   employment   status,   and   occupation  of  the  returnee  population  in  those  provinces.      

2.1.1   Returnee  -­‐  Household  Age  Composition  

  Age  and  gender  are  important  demographic  variables  to  understand  the  nature  of  basic  needs  and  livelihoods  of   the  returnee  population.    In  general,  the  data  suggests  that  the  majority  of  returnees  who  reported  as  the  heads  of   households  are  more  than  30  years  old.    Amongst  returnees,  the  majority  of  the  heads  of  households  in  families   are   aged   between   31   and   40   in   Northern   Province   (25.74   per   cent)   and   22.5   per   cent   in   Eastern   Province.   Moreover,   among   the   heads   of   households   aged   between   31   and   40   in   Northern   Province,   Jaffna   district   recorded   the   highest   percentage   (29.01   per   cent)   followed   by   Mannar   district   (26.68   per   cent).   In   Eastern   Province,   the   same  age  category  is  the  highest  in  Trincomalee  district  (27.25  per  cent),  followed  by  Batticaloa  (19.7  per  cent)  and   Ampara  (13.4  per  cent).    Amongst  the  returnee  population,  15.2  per  cent  in  Northern  Province  and  12.5  per  cent  in   Eastern  Province  recorded  the  most  elderly  people  aged  60  and  above.  As  they  have  survived  30  years  of  armed   conflict,   coupled   with   possible   multiple   displacements,   they   are   among   the   highest   vulnerable   groups   possibly   requiring  special  attention  and  assistance  for  resettlement  and  reintegration  into  society.       Regarding   the   age   distribution   of   spouses   (wife/husband),   it   is   noticeable   that   the   majority   of   spouses   in   Northern   Province  (31.9  per  cent)  and  Eastern  Province  (26.73  per  cent)  are  between  the  ages  of  31-­‐40.  Considerable  district   variations   can   be   seen   on   the   age   categories   of   married   couples   in   the   eight   districts.   About   33.48   per   cent   of   married  couples  in  Jaffna  and  33.68  per  cent  in  Trincomalee  were  in  the  age  group  of  31-­‐40  years,  whereas  31.51   per  cent  in  Ampara  belonged  to  the  age  group  of  51-­‐60  years.  The  age  difference  between  heads  of  households   and   their   spouses   has   different   demographic   and   socio-­‐economic   impacts   for   their   well-­‐being.   For   instance,   the   younger  spouses  have  more  longevity  compared  to  their  head  of  households  and  thereby  may  be  more  likely  to  be   vulnerable  in  the  future.     The   majority   of   children   in   returnee   families   are   below   the   age   of   20   years   in   all   districts;   78.71   per   cent   in   the   North  and  84.02  per  cent  in  the  East.  Kilinochchi  (82.28  per  cent),  Mannar  (81.2  per  cent),  Mullaitivu  (80.99  per   cent),   Batticaloa   (84.27   per   cent)   and   Trincomalee   (84.97   per   cent)   districts   record   the   highest   percentage   of   young  people  among  the  returnee  families.  It  is  important  that  strategic  policies  particularly  targeting  the  needs  of   youth  such  as  education,  skills  development,  employment  opportunities,  recreational  activities,  food,  nutrition  and   health  are  given  high  consideration  in  order  to  improve  the  quality  of  life  of  the  returnee  population.      

2.1.2   Returnee  -­‐  Gender  Composition  

  The   proportion   of   females   among   the   returnee   population   is   compatible   with   the   national   gender   ratio   (51   per   cent   women   to   49   per   cent   men)   except   in   Ampara   (45.45   per   cent   women   to   54.55   per   cent   men)   and   Trincomalee   (49.72   per   cent   women   to   50.28   per   cent   men)   districts.   However,   considerable   proportions   of   females  were  present  in  the  districts  of  Kilinochchi  (52.46  per  cent),  Jaffna  (52.27  per  cent)  and  Mannar  (51.99  per   cent)  in  Northern  Province.      

 

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

 

   

Page  19  

2.1.3   Returnee  -­‐  Marital  Status  

  Nearly   half   of   the   returnee   population   (44.07   per   cent   in   Northern   Province   and   44.73   in   Eastern   Province)   reported   they   were   married   and   only   5.01   per   cent   in   Northern   Province   and   5.02   per   cent   in   Eastern   Province   reported   they   were   “widowed”.   It   is   noted   that   divorces   and   separations   among   married   couples   are   very   low   (0.69  per  cent  in  Northern  Province  and  1.18  per  cent  in  Eastern  Province)  among  the  returnee  population.     The   highest   proportion   of   widowed   returnees   is   discernible   in   Kilinochchi   (5.74   per   cent),   Batticaloa   (5.21   per   cent),  and  Jaffna  (5.44  per  cent).  These  proportions  are  high  compared  with  the  national  proportion  of  widowed   and  could  possibly  stem  from  the  death  of  spouses  during  thirty  years  of  armed  conflict.    

2.1.4  Returnee  -­‐  Employment  Status  

  As  revealed  in  the  JNA  survey  results,  the  majority  of  Government  employees  are  from  Mannar  (12.57  per  cent),   Kilinochchi   (11.21   per   cent),   Mullaitivu   (9.83   per   cent)   and   Ampara   (9.17   per   cent).   The   lowest   percentage   of   returnees   employed   at   the   public   sector   is   reported   in   Batticaloa   district   (2.81   per   cent).     The   data   reveals   an   increasing  trend  of  private  sector  employment  where  20-­‐47  per  cent  of  the  returnees  across  all  districts  reported   engagements  in  the  private  sector.  The  most  popular  type  of  occupation  among  the  returnee  families  was  stated   as  self-­‐employment  (44.37  per  cent  in  Northern  Province  and  51.91  per  cent  in  Eastern  Province).       8

Table  2.1:  Head  of  household’s  age  at  last  birthday  by  province  and  district    

 Province  

District  

Age  

   

   

    Northern   Province  

    Jaffna  

9    

0.99  

88    

9.67  

264    

29.01  

160    

17.58  

   

Mannar  

3    

0.58  

56    

10.75  

139    

26.68  

 118    

22.65  

   

Vavuniya  

8    

1.26  

55    

8.66  

148    

23.31  

133    

20.94  

   

Mullativu  

13    

1.68  

99    

12.77  

195    

25.16  

150    

19.35  

   

Kilinochchi  

12    

1.44  

89    

10.71  

199    

23.95  

156    

18.77  

    Eastern   Province  

Total  

45    

1.23  

 387    

10.54  

945    

25.74  

717    

19.53  

Batticaloa  

20    

2.36  

145    

17.10  

167    

19.69  

177    

20.87  

   

Ampara  

1    

1.03  

9    

9.28  

13    

13.40  

21    

21.65  

   

Trincomalee  

8    

1.16  

89    

12.90  

188    

27.25  

165    

23.91  

   

Total  

29    

1.77  

243    

14.86  

368    

22.51  

 363    

22.20  

11  -­‐  20   Num  

   

21-­‐30   %  

Num  

31-­‐40   %  

Num  

41-­‐50   %  

Num  

%  

 

                                                                                                                        8

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  2.14  

Page  20    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

 

Table  2.1:  Head  of  household’s  age  at  last  birthday  by  province  and  district  (continued)   Province      

   

Num  

Jaffna  

107     20.54   148     23.31  

Mullativu  

   

171     22.06  

Kilinochchi  

    Eastern   Province  

%  

174     19.12  

Vavuniya  

   

   

   

51-­‐60  

Mannar  

   

   

Age  

   

    Northern   Province  

   

District  

160     19.25  

Total  

760     20.70  

61-­‐70   Num  

71-­‐80  

%  

156     71     99     95     137     558    

Num  

17.14  

%  

45     4.95  

13.63  

Num   14    

23     4.41  

15.59  

4    

37     5.83  

12.26  

7    

45     5.81  

16.49   15.20  

above  80  

62     7.46   212     5.77  

7     16     48    

 

Total  

 

   

 

%   1.54  

Num    

%  

910     100.00  

0.77  

 

521     100.00  

1.10  

 

635     100.00  

0.90  

 

775     100.00  

1.93  

 

831     100.00  

1.31  

 

3,672     100.00  

  Batticaloa  

180     21.23  

Ampara  

34     35.05  

Trincomalee  

117     16.96  

Total  

331     20.24  

105     15     85     205    

12.38  

45     5.31  

15.46  

9    

4     4.12  

12.32  

27     3.91  

12.54  

76     4.65  

0   11     20    

1.06   0.00   1.59   1.22  

848     100.00        

97     100.00   690     100.00   1,635     100.00  

Base:  Heads  of  households  who  reported     9 Table  2.2:  Population  by  gender  by  province  and  district   Gender   Province  

District  

Male   Num  

Northern  Province  

Eastern  Province  

Total  

Female   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

1,882  

47.73  

2,061  

52.27  

3,943  

100.00  

Mannar  

1,038  

48.01  

1,124  

51.99  

2,162  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

1,145  

48.72  

1,205  

51.28  

2,350  

100.00  

Mullativu  

1,357  

49.26  

1,398  

50.74  

2,755  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

1,322  

47.54  

1,459  

52.46  

2,781  

100.00  

Total  

6,744  

48.20  

7,247  

51.80  

13,991  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

1,401  

46.36  

1,621  

53.64  

3,022  

100.00  

174  

54.55  

145  

45.45  

319  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

1,437  

50.28  

1,421  

49.72  

2,858  

100.00  

Total  

3,012  

48.59  

3,187  

51.41  

6,199  

100.00  

Ampara  

Base:  All  respondents    

                                                                                                                        9

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  2.13  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  21  

10

Table  2.3:  Marital  state  of  population  by  province  and  district   Marital  status   Province  

District  

Never  married   Num  

Northern  Province  

Widowed  

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

1,989  

51.03  

1,652  

42.38  

212  

5.44  

Mannar  

1,110  

51.94  

919  

43.00  

90  

4.21  

Vavuniya  

1,137  

48.69  

1,048  

44.88  

120  

5.14  

Mullativu  

1,315  

48.74  

1,235  

45.77  

113  

4.19  

Kilinochchi  

1,295  

47.35  

1,229  

44.94  

157  

5.74  

Total  

6,846  

49.60  

6,083  

44.07  

692  

5.01  

Batticaloa  

1,466  

48.67  

1,352  

44.89  

157  

5.21  

140  

44.30  

162  

51.27  

9  

2.85  

Trincomalee  

1,380  

49.18  

1,230  

43.83  

142  

5.06  

Total  

2,986  

48.68  

2,744  

44.73  

308  

5.02  

Ampara  

Eastern  Province  

Married  

  Marital  status   Province  

District  

Divorced   Num  

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya  

Northern  Province  

Num  

0.23  

8  

36  

0.37  

2  

%  

10  

0.09  

0.47  

28  

1.20  

7  

0.26  

28  

1.04  

Kilinochchi  

16  

0.59  

38  

1.39  

Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

42  

0.30  

140  

1.01  

6  

0.20  

31  

1.03  

1  

0.32  

17   24  

Base:  All  who  reported  on  marital  status                              

4  

0.61      

1.27  

37  

0.39  

1.32  

72      

 Total    

   

Num  

   

0.92  

Mullativu   Total  

Eastern  Province  

Separated  

%  

9  

   

1.17      

%  

3,898   100.00    

2,137   100.00  

 

2,335   100.00  

 

2,698   100.00  

     

2,735   100.00   13,803   100.00   3,012   100.00  

 

316   100.00  

 

2,806   100.00  

       

6,134   100.00      

   

   

   

                                                                                                                        10

 Attached  in  Annex  as  Table  2.20  

Page  22    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

 

Table  2.4:  Wife/husband  age  at  last  birthday  by  province  and  district11   Age   Province  

District  

15-­‐  20   Num  

Northern     Province  

Eastern   Province  

21-­‐30  

%  

Num  

31-­‐40   %  

Num  

41-­‐50  

%  

Num  

51-­‐60  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

12  

1.92  

99  

15.84  

228  

36.48  

119  

19.04  

103  

16.48  

Mannar  

10  

2.29  

80  

18.35  

141  

32.34  

93  

21.33  

70  

16.06  

Vavuniya  

15  

3.21  

83  

17.74  

140  

29.91  

84  

17.95  

92  

19.66  

Mullativu  

28  

4.52  

130  

21.00  

171  

27.63  

131  

21.16  

111  

17.93  

Kilinochchi  

21  

3.63  

112  

19.34  

190  

32.82  

106  

18.31  

94  

16.23  

Total  

86  

3.15  

504  

18.48  

870  

31.90  

533  

19.55  

470  

17.24  

Batticaloa  

18  

3.25  

122  

22.02  

122  

22.02  

143  

25.81  

106  

19.13  

-­‐  

0.00  

9  

12.33  

12  

16.44  

21  

28.77  

23  

31.51  

Trincomalee  

18  

3.72  

92  

19.01  

163  

33.68  

117  

24.17  

68  

14.05  

Total  

36  

3.24  

223  

20.07  

297  

26.73  

281  

25.29  

197  

17.73  

Ampara  

  Age   Province  

District  

61-­‐0     Num  

Jaffna   Mannar   Northern     Province  

Vavuniya   Mullativu   Kilinochchi   Total   Batticaloa  

Eastern   Province  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

55   35   44   41   47   222   36   7   24   67  

71-­‐80     %  

8.80   8.03   9.40   6.62   8.12   8.14   6.50   9.59   4.96   6.03  

Num  

%  

9  

1.44  

7  

1.61  

9  

1.92  

6  

0.97  

9  

1.55  

40  

1.47  

6  

1.08  

0  

0.00  

2  

0.41  

8  

0.72  

    above  80     Num   0   0   1   1   0   2   1   1   0   2  

Total  

   

%  

Num  

   

0.00   0.00   0.21   0.16   0.00   0.07   0.18   1.37   0.00   0.18  

%  

625   100.00                    

436   100.00   468   100.00   619   100.00   579   100.00   2,727   100.00   554   100.00   73   100.00   484   100.00   1,111   100.00  

 

Base:  All  who  reported  on  their  birthdays                              

   

   

                                                                                                                        11

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  2.15  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  23  

12

Table  2.5:Son/daughter  age  at  last  birthday  by  province  and  district   Age   Province  

District  

0  -­‐  20   Num  

Jaffna   Northern     Province  

%  

Num  

31-­‐40   %  

Num  

41-­‐50   %  

Num  

51-­‐60   %  

Num  

%  

1,288  

74.75  

304  

17.64  

95  

5.51  

23  

1.33  

7  

0.41  

Mannar  

855  

81.20  

168  

15.95  

25  

2.37  

4  

0.38  

1  

0.09  

Vavuniya  

796  

75.81  

202  

19.24  

39  

3.71  

11  

1.05  

0  

0.00  

Mullativu  

1,048  

80.99  

208  

16.07  

30  

2.32  

7  

0.54  

1  

0.08  

994  

82.28  

158  

13.08  

44  

3.64  

6  

0.50  

3  

0.25  

Total  

4,981  

78.71  

1,040  

16.43  

233  

3.68  

51  

0.81  

12  

0.19  

Batticaloa  

1,109  

84.27  

159  

12.08  

33  

2.51  

8  

0.61  

5  

0.38  

Kilinochchi  

Eastern   Province  

21-­‐30  

Ampara  

97  

72.39  

33  

24.63  

2  

1.49  

1  

0.75  

0  

0.00  

Trincomalee  

1,108  

84.97  

151  

11.58  

27  

2.07  

12  

0.92  

4  

0.31  

Total  

2,314  

84.02  

343  

12.45  

62  

2.25  

21  

0.76  

9  

0.33  

  Age   Province  

District  

61-­‐70  

71-­‐80  

Num   Jaffna   Mannar   Northern     Province  

0  

Num  

0.35  

0  

0.00  

0  

above  80   %  

Num   0   0  

0   0  

%   0.00  

1  

0.10  

0  

0  

1  

0.10  

Mullativu  

-­‐  

0.00  

0  

0  

0  

0.00  

Kilinochchi  

2  

0.17  

0  

0  

1  

0.08  

Total  

9  

0.14  

0  

0  

2  

0.03  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

1   0   2   3  

0.08  

1  

0.00  

0  

0.15  

0  

0.11  

1  

Base:  Respondents  on  their  children’s  birthdays  

0.08   0.00   0.00   0.04  

-­‐   1   0   1  

       

0.00  

Vavuniya  

Batticaloa   Eastern   Province  

%   6  

   

0.00   0.75   0.00   0.04  

Total   Num  

%  

1,723   100.00                      

1,053   100.00   1,050   100.00   1,294   100.00   1,208   100.00   6,328   100.00   1,316   100.00   134   100.00   1,304   100.00   2,754   100.00  

                           

                                                                                                                        12

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  2.16  

Page  24    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

13

Table  2.6:  Marital  status  of  adult  respondents  by  province  and  district   Marital  status   Province  

District  

Never  married   Num  

Northern     Province  

Eastern   Province  

   

Married  

%  

Num  

Widowed   %  

Num  

   

%  

   

Jaffna  

1,989  

51.03  

1,652  

42.38  

212  

5.44  

Mannar  

1,110  

51.94  

919  

43.00  

90  

4.21  

Vavuniya  

1,137  

48.69  

1,048  

44.88  

120  

5.14  

Mullativu  

1,315  

48.74  

1,235  

45.77  

113  

4.19  

Kilinochchi  

1,295  

47.35  

1,229  

44.94  

157  

5.74  

Total  

6,846  

49.60  

6,083  

44.07  

692  

5.01  

Batticaloa  

1,466  

48.67  

1,352  

44.89  

157  

5.21  

140  

44.30  

162  

51.27  

9  

2.85  

Trincomalee  

1,380  

49.18  

1,230  

43.83  

142  

5.06  

Total  

2,986  

48.68  

2,744  

44.73  

308  

5.02  

 

 

 

Ampara  

                   

 

Marital  status   Province  

District  

Divorced   Num  

Jaffna   Mannar   Northern     Province  

Vavuniya   Mullativu   Kilinochchi   Total   Batticaloa  

Eastern   Province  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

9   8   2   7   16   42   6  

 

Separated   %  

Num  

0.23   0.37   0.26  

28  

0.59  

38  

0.30   0.20  

1  

0.32  

4  

1.27  

0.61  

37  

1.32  

0.39  

Base  :  All  who  reported  on  marital  status  

72  

   

100.00  

2,698  

100.00  

2,735  

100.00  

13,803  

100.00  

3,012  

100.00  

     

1.17  

   

2,335  

 

1.03  

17   24  

 

1.01  

31  

100.00  

 

1.39  

140  

2,137  

 

1.04  

   

%   100.00  

 

1.20  

 

3,898    

0.47  

28  

Num  

 

0.92  

10  

0.09  

 

%  

36  

  Total  

     

316  

100.00  

2,806  

100.00  

6,134  

100.00  

   

                           

                                                                                                                        13

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  2.20  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  25  

14

Table  2.7:  Employment  status  (main  occupation)  by  province  and  district     Main  Occupation    

Province  

Northern     Province  

District  

 Semi  government    

 Employee    

   employee    

   employee    

   (private  sector)    

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

 Employer    

%  

   

   

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

71  

6.67  

14  

1.31  

507  

47.61  

14  

1.31  

Mannar  

72  

12.57  

8  

1.40  

120  

20.94  

35  

6.11  

Vavuniya  

53  

6.54  

9  

1.11  

261  

32.18  

5  

0.62  

Mullativu  

82  

9.83  

13  

1.56  

269  

32.25  

48  

5.76  

Kilinochchi  

88  

11.21  

12  

1.53  

308  

39.24  

55  

7.01  

366  

9.00  

56  

1.38  

1,465  

36.01  

157  

3.86  

Batticaloa  

24  

2.81  

4  

0.47  

360  

42.11  

20  

2.34  

Ampara  

11  

9.17  

-­‐  

0.00  

50  

41.67  

-­‐  

0.00  

Trincomalee  

53  

7.02  

2  

0.26  

232  

30.73  

23  

3.05  

Total  

88  

5.09  

6  

0.35  

642  

37.11  

43  

2.49  

Total   Eastern   Province  

 Government    

  Main  Occupation  

Province  

Northern     Province  

Eastern   Province  

 Own  account     worker     Num   %   434   40.75  

District   Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullativu   Kilinochchi   Total   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

     Total    

    Contributing   family  worker       Num   %       25   2.35  

322   382   364   303   1,805  

56.20   47.10   43.65   38.60   44.37  

16   101   58   19   219  

2.79   12.45   6.95   2.42   5.38  

426   41   431   898  

49.82   34.17   57.09   51.91  

21   18   14   53  

2.46   15.00   1.85   3.06  

Base  :  Respondents  older  than  15  who  reported  on  their  occupation  

Num   %   1,065   100.00                      

573   811   834   785   4,068  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

855   120   755   1,730  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                        14

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  2.23  

Page  26    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Returnee Livelihoods

2.2    

Returnee  Livelihoods    

The  Livelihood  section  of  the  questionnaire  broadly  addressed  the  following  issues:   · Income  by  profession   · Assets   · Constraints   · Skills  and  training   · Engagement  with  livelihood  organizations   · Natural  disasters    

2.2.1   Income  by  Profession  

  Wages  and  salaries  has  become  the  main  livelihood  source  of  returnee  households  in  all  the  eight  districts  except   for   Mannar,   Batticaloa   and   Ampara.   In   Mannar   (43.77   per   cent)   reported   that   self   employment   was   their   main   livelihood  source.  In  Batticaloa  and  Ampara  the  main  source  of  livelihoods  was  donations  grants  and  remittances.     Private  sector  employment  has  become  the  main  livelihood  source  in  wages  and  salaries  sector  for  the  returnee   households   in   Jaffna   (61.08   per   cent),   Kilinochchi   (56.38   per   cent),   and   Batticaloa   (70.8   per   cent).   This   would   indicate  that  opportunities  have  opened  up  due  to  private  sector  investment  attracting  a  substantial  proportion  of   returnees.  In  addition,  it  reflects  a  significant  shift  particularly  from  the  conventionally  known  livelihood  sources   namely   agriculture/farming   in   Jaffna   to   private   sector   employment.   Farming   remains   the   dominant   livelihood   source  in  Vavuniya  (22.9  per  cent)  and  Mullaitivu  (18.5  per  cent).       15 Meanwhile,  Samurdhi  grants  are  an  important  source  of  income  in  Ampara,  Mannar  and  Trincomalee.  In  these   three  districts,  Samurdhi  is  a  key  source  of  livelihood  in  26.3  per  cent,  19  per  cent,  and  14.7  per  cent  of  homes,   respectively.       Less   than   1   in   10   households   depends   on   remittances   from   overseas.   The   highest   proportion   of   households   receiving   remittances   was   found   in   Batticaloa   (9.6   per   cent)   while   the   lowest   was   reported   in   Mullaitivu   and   Ampara  (4  per  cent  in  each).    Fishing  is  a  less  significant  source  of  livelihoods  among  returnee  households  whereas   public  sector  employment  is  the  fourth  most-­‐common  type  of  work  in  Kilinochchi,  Mannar  and  Mullaitivu  districts.   Livestock  is  a  marginal  livelihood  opportunity  for  returnees.       The  percentage  of  returnee  households  that  reported  a  monthly  average  income  of  less  than  Rs.  10,000  a  month  is   substantial  in  all  districts.  The  lowest  percentage  of  households  earning  under  Rs.  10,000  a  month  is  49  per  cent  in   Vavuniya,  while  the  highest  reported  was  in  Batticaloa  (76.8  per  cent).  The  proportion  of  households  with  monthly   average  incomes  ranging  between  Rs.  10,000  and  Rs.  25,000  is  the  highest  in  Vavuniya  (47.2  per  cent).  The  highest   percentage   of   returnee   households   with   an   average   income   of   more   than   Rs.   25,000   per   month   is   reported   in   Trincomalee  compared  to  4.6  per  cent  for  the  total  number  of  returnees.    The  lowest  percentage  reported  was  in   Batticaloa  with  (0.7  per  cent).      

2.2.2   Assets  

  Just  under  a  third  of  returnee  households  (31.2  per  cent)  said  that  they  were  involved  in  farming,  and  9  per  cent   said  they  were  involved  in  fishing.  Those  who  were  involved  in  these  sectors  were  asked  what  assets  they  own.       In   Jaffna,   returnees   engaged   in   farming   on   average   own   0.16   acres,   whereas   in   Mannar   district   an   average   of   2.14   acres  was  recorded.  In  other  districts  the  size  of  land  owned  by  farming  households  varied  from  a  low  0.55  acres  in   Ampara   to   a   high   1.55   acres   in   Batticaloa.   Irrigable   land   owned   by   returnee   households   was   found   to   be   the  

                                                                                                                        15

 Samurdhi  grants  are  given  to  families  who  are  selected  as  absolute  poor  (the  selection  criteria  is  the  income  of  Rs.  1,000  or   less  per  family  of  5  persons  or  more).  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  29  

smallest   in   Jaffna   (0.48   acres)   and   highest   in   Ampara   district   with   an   average   extent   of   five   acres.   The   second   highest  average  of  4.83  acres  of  irrigable  land  was  reported  in  Kilinochchi,  followed  by  Batticaloa  with  an  average   extent  of  2.67  acres.  Returnee  households  in  Jaffna  own  an  average  of  5.39  acres  per  household  (under  rain-­‐fed   cultivation)  while  those  in  Mannar  own  the  smallest  plots  at  1.6  acres.  After  Jaffna,  the  largest  average  size  of  rain-­‐ fed  land  owned  by  returnee  households  was  reported  in  Vavuniya  with  3.15  acres  per  household.       The   average   size   of   lift-­‐irrigated   land   owned   by   returnee   households   is   5.36   acres   per   household   in   Mullaitivu,   while   Kilinochchi   reported   the   lowest   extent   of   1.62   acres   per   returnee   household.   The   average   extent   of   lift-­‐ irrigated   land   held   by   returnee   households   as   tenants   in   Kilinochchi   is   6.31   acres   per   household,   indicating   the   presence   of   tenant   farmers   with   relatively   large   land   holdings.     The   presence   of   returnee   households   as   “share-­‐ croppers”   is   significant   in   Mannar   with   an   average   size   of   3.25   acres   per   household   in   irrigable   land,   Kilinochchi   with  4.25  acres  in  rain-­‐fed  land  and  Mullaitivu  with  2  acres  per  household  in  lift-­‐irrigated  land.     Fisheries  are  the  fourth  most-­‐common  source  of  revenue  in  Jaffna,  the  fifth  in  Mannar  and  Trincomalee,  sixth  in   Mullaitivu   and   seventh   in   Batticaloa.   When   asked   what   fishing   equipment   they   own,   about   one-­‐third   (29.9   per   cent)   of   those   involved   in   fishing   in   returnee   households   said   they   own   inland   fishing   nets,   indicating   that   a   significant  number  of  returnees  is  engaged  in  inland  fishing  activities.             All   families   were   asked   what   equipment,   tools   and   machinery   they   own.   The   main   kind   of   transport   owned   by   returnees  is  the  motorcycle  (above  20  per  cent  in  all  areas),  followed  by  three  wheelers  (2-­‐7  per  cent).  So  far  as   agricultural   tools   and   equipment   are   concerned,   items   such   as   water   pumps,   power   sprayers   and   hand   sprayers   are  commonplace  in  Jaffna,  Mannar,  Vavuniya,  Mullaitivu  and  Kilinochchi  districts.      

2.2.3   Skills  and  Training  

  Over  1  in  20  returnee  families  (5.1  per  cent)  recorded  at  least  one  person  in  the  household  who  possessed  “special   skills  or  vocational  training”.    This  figure  was  the  lowest  in  Kilinochchi  (2.8  per  cent)  and  highest  in  Jaffna  (8  per   cent).   Among   these   families,   the   most   common   skill   was   found   to   be   masonry   (48.9   per   cent),   twice   as   conventional  as  any  other  skill.  Beyond  this,  18.8  per  cent  of  families  have  somebody  with  carpentry  skills  and  21   per  cent  have  at  least  one  welder  in  their  family.  A  large  percentage  of  masons  were  reported  in  Mullaitivu  (65  per   cent),  Mannar  (55  per  cent),  Kilinochchi  (54.6  per  cent),  Batticaloa  (52.4  per  cent)  and  Trincomalee  (48.7  per  cent).       Slightly  more  families  (5.5  per  cent)  had  received  some  form  of  training.  Where  this  was  the  case,  the  Government   had   most   commonly   been   the   provider   (on   35.9   per   cent   of   occasions)   ahead   of   NGOs   (26.5   per   cent)   and   the   private  sector  (24.8  per  cent).  Out  of  those  household  individuals  that  have  received  such  training,  44.3  per  cent   did   not   receive   a   certificate.   In   all   districts,   however,   some   returnee   families   had   obtained   National   Vocational   16 Qualification  (NVQ)  Level  1  Certificates.    (A  total  of  16.3  per  cent  of  returnee  households  have  at  least  one  family   member  with  the  NVQ  Level  1  in  all  districts.  The  highest  percentage  of  NVQ  Level  1  prevalence  was  reported  in   Mannar   (46   per   cent),   followed   by   Trincomalee   (21.7   per   cent),   Batticaloa   (18.5   per   cent),   Mullaitivu   (13.5   per   cent),  Vavuniya  (9.4  per  cent),  and  Jaffna  (4.9  per  cent).  Kilinochchi,  Batticaloa  and  Mullaitivu  districts  have  at  least   one   NVQ   Level   7-­‐qualified   household   member   in   3.9   per   cent,   3.7   per   cent   and   2.7   per   cent   of   households   respectively.          

                                                                                                                        16

 This  qualification  leads  to  higher-­‐level  vocational  qualifications  including  a  degree  at  Level  7.  

Page  30    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

2.2.4   Constraints    

  Households   engaged   in   different   sectors   were   asked   what   constraints   they   face,   if   any.   Returnee   families   engaged   in  farming  are  faced  with  three  main  constraints:”climate  is  not  favorable,  i.e.  droughts  and  floods”  (as  high  as  82   per   cent   in   Batticaloa),”no   water/irrigation   facilities”   (as   high   as   60.7   per   cent   in   Kilinochchi)   and   “stray   animal   damage”  (highest  in  Vavuniya  at  42.8  per  cent).         Those  who  are  engaged  in  fisheries  said  that  the  one  clear  key  constraint  affecting  them  was  that  “fishing  gear  is   too  expensive”.  This  affects  91.9  per  cent  of  people  in  Kilinochchi.     In  the  livestock-­‐rearing  environment,  the  biggest  constraint  was  found  to  “not  [have]  enough  grazing  land”.  More   than   100   livestock-­‐owning   people   were   interviewed   in   Batticaloa,   Jaffna   and   Mullaitivu.   Over   48.2   per   cent   of   livestock-­‐owners   felt   this   constraint   in   Batticaloa,   59.3   per   cent   in   Jaffnaand   63.5   per   cent   in   Mullativu.   Other   constraints  included  “poor  stock”  with  the  highest  exposure  in  Vavuniya  (53.9  per  cent),  and  “poor  reproduction”   17 mostly  in  Batticaloa  (50.5  per  cent).      

2.2.5   Engagement  with  Livelihood  Organizations  

  The   engagement   of   returnee   households   in   community   organizations   is   generally   low,   except   in   Samurdhi   societies.  People  in  Mullaitivu  are  particularly  likely  to  be  engaged  in  a  livelihood  organization  (48.3  per  cent).  With   the  exception  of  Trincomalee  (39.2  per  cent),  the  figure  stands  at  15  per  cent  in  all  other  towns.  However,  in  Jaffna   nearly   a   quarter   (24.5   per   cent)   of   the   returnee   households   is   actively   engaged   in   Rural   Development   Societies   (RDS)  and  co-­‐operatives.      

2.2.6   Natural  Disasters  

  When  asked  which  natural  disasters  returnees  had  encountered  since  their  return  and  resettlement,  two  factors   were  found  to  have  had  particular  impact.  Across  districts,  typically  between  half  and  two-­‐thirds  of  those  surveyed   had   experienced   flooding   (as   high   as   75.6   per   cent   in   both   Vavuniya   and   Trincomalee)   and   even   more   (as   many   as   94.6  per  cent  in  Vavuniya)  had  experienced  drought.  When  asked  about  the  nature  of  damage  caused  by  natural   disasters,  most  families  in  all  districts  said  that  they  had  endured  crop  damage  and  over  a  quarter  had  experienced   crop  failure  (as  high  as  67.2  per  cent  in  Mannar),  which  is  a  typical  trait  of  the  region.       Storm  surges  particularly  affect  returnees  in  Jaffna  (23.3  per  cent)  and  Batticaloa  (15.2  per  cent),  while  in  Jaffna   and  Mannar  over  1  out  of  10  returnees  is  exposed  to  cyclones.  Wild  animal  attacks  are  fairly  common  in  Mannar,   Vavuniya,   Mullaitivu   and   Batticaloa.   Pest   attacks   are   a   serious   issue   in   Jaffna,   Ampara,   Kilinochchi,   Mannar,   Mullaitivu  and  Batticaloa  districts.     Shocks  and  difficulties  experienced  by  families  were  also  explored.  Those  that  had  experienced  any  of  these  were   asked  to  think  of  the  three  most  common.  The  two  that  were  found  to  be  most  common  were  “debt  repayment”   (49   per   cent)   and   “loss   of   equipment”   (54.4   per   cent).   Over   1   in   10   households   had   also   experienced”   a   disturbance   in   the   community”   (19.7   per   cent)   and   “death   in   the   family”   (13.6   per   cent).   Although   only   a   small   number   of   families   (less   than   one   quarter)   have   experienced   a   “disturbance   in   the   community”,   Ampara   is   the   exception  with  55  per  cent  said  of  such  cases.        

                                                                                                                        17

More  comprehensive  tables  with  data  by  districts  are  attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Tables  8.28  a.  and  b.  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  31  

18

Table  2.8:  Availability  of  person  with  special  skills  by  district     Total      

Availability  of  person  with  special  skills   District       Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya  

Yes  

No  

Num   71     30     31    

%   7.96     5.69     4.78    

Num   821     497     617    

%   92.04     94.31     95.22    

Num   892     527     648    

%   100.00     100.00     100.00    

Mullativu  

38    

4.91    

736    

95.09    

774    

100.00    

Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee  

23     30     3     48    

2.81     3.45     3.23     6.71    

795     839     90     667    

97.19     96.55     96.77     93.29    

818     869     93     715    

100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00    

274    

5.13    

5,062    

94.87    

5,336    

100.00    

Total  

Base:    All  who  reported     19 Table  2.9:  No.  of  households  by  livelihood  sources  -­‐  self-­‐employed   District  

Farming   Num  

Fishery   %    

Livestock  

Num  

%    

Num  

   

   

   

   

   

   

       

       

%    

Jaffna  

                 86    

       24.29    

               112    

         31.64    

             24    

           6.78        

Mannar   Vavuniya  

             161                  236    

       46.67            62.60    

                   57                            4    

         16.52                  1.06    

             58                  37    

   16.81                9.81        

       

       

Mullativu   Kilinochchi  

             183                      84    

       53.82            31.94    

                   47                        39    

         13.82              14.83    

             29                  29    

       8.53            11.03        

       

       

Batticaloa   Ampara  

             172                      21    

       45.38            42.00    

                   46                            3    

         12.14                  6.00    

             32                      5    

       8.44            10.00        

       

       

Trincomalee  

             106    

       32.22    

                   94    

         28.57    

             16    

       4.86        

   

   

Total  

       1,049    

       43.04    

               402    

         16.50    

         230    

       9.44        

   

   

   

   

  District  

Wholesale  &   retail  trade   Num  

Manufacturing  /     Handicraft  

%    

Num  

%    

   

Other   Num  

Total  

    %    

   

Num  

%    

Jaffna   Mannar  

                 34                      27    

           9.60                7.83    

                   36                        11    

         10.17                  3.19    

             62                  31    

   17.51                8.99        

             354                  345    

100.00     100.00    

Vavuniya  

                 22    

           5.84    

                   32    

             8.49    

             46    

   12.20        

             377    

100.00    

Mullativu  

                 33    

           9.71    

                   15    

             4.41    

             33    

       9.71        

             340    

100.00    

Kilinochchi  

                 36    

       13.69    

                   34    

         12.93    

             41    

   15.59        

             263    

100.00    

Batticaloa  

                 35    

           9.23    

                   39    

         10.29    

             55    

   14.51        

             379    

100.00    

Ampara  

                     5    

       10.00    

                       3    

             6.00    

             13    

   26.00        

               50    

100.00    

Trincomalee  

                 50    

       15.20    

                   19    

             5.78    

             44    

   13.37        

             329    

100.00    

Total  

             242    

           9.93    

               189    

             7.76    

         325    

   13.34        

     2,437    

100.00    

Base:  Respondent’s  income  sources  

 

 

                                                                                                                        18

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  8.01    Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  8.02  

19

Page  32    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

20

Table  2.9:  No.  of  households  by  livelihood  sources  –  other   District  

Gift  donations  

Remittances  

   

Num  

Jaffna  

                   20                    5.24    

Mannar  

                     13    

             4.64    

Vavuniya   Mullativu  

                   13                            4    

Kilinochchi   Batticaloa  

                   19                        16    

Ampara   Trincomalee  

                     0                                0                                6                      16              5.54                      66    

Total  

         101    

       

%    

Num  

Pension  

%    

Num  

Samurdhi  

%    

%    

             4.94                1.58    

     19.11                      32               14.29                        21                          40               23.95                        29                        63                        39            15.42                        13    

     11.03                        91                34.60              5.14                  122                48.22    

             5.04                  2.36    

                   67            17.77                        37                    152            22.42                        20    

       9.81                169                44.83            2.95                  338                49.85    

3.92    

                     73    

Num  

 506    

     10.91                            1          22.84                        13          19.64    

         8.38    

           165                43.19    

         7.50    

           171                61.07    

         1.82            4.50    

     166    

     6.44    

                 40                72.73                153                52.94          1,249    

   48.47        

  District  

Livelihood  grants  

   

Num  

Jaffna  

                 21    

           5.50    

                   71            18.59        

           382      100.00    

Mannar  

                 21    

             7.50    

                   14    

         5.00        

           280      100.00    

Vavuniya   Mullativu  

                   27                      19    

       10.27                7.51    

                   40            15.21                          56            22.13        

           263      100.00                  253      100.00    

Kilinochchi   Batticaloa  

                 44                      53    

       11.67            7.82    

                   41            10.88                          99            14.60        

           377      100.00                  678     100.00    

Ampara   Trincomalee  

                     6                      14    

       10.91                4.84    

                     2                3.64                          27              9.34        

                   55      100.00                289      100.00    

Total  

           205    

         7.95    

               350    

Other  income   sources  

%    

Num  

   

%    

   

Total  

   

Num  

     13.58        

%    

     2,577      100.00    

Base:  Respondent’s  income  sources     21 Table  2.10:  Livelihood  assets  -­‐  total  land   Homestead   District    

Acres  

Irrigable  land  

Acres/   H-­‐Hold  

Acres  

Rain  fed  land  

Acres/   H-­‐Hold  

Acres  

Acres/   H-­‐Hold  

Lift  Irrigated  land   Acres  

Acres/   H-­‐Hold  

Jaffna  

22.61    

3.23    

52.55    

0.66    

178.80    

5.42    

8.00    

2.67    

Mannar  

17.50    

2.19    

393.75    

2.42    

59.50    

1.61    

14.00    

2.33    

Vavuniya  

218.70    

1.16    

638.00    

3.08    

278.25    

3.61    

164.25    

1.91    

Mullativu  

114.65    

1.04    

480.20    

4.00    

256.30    

2.37    

145.00    

3.92    

Kilinochchi  

67.40    

1.50    

218.25    

4.55    

322.00    

2.88    

46.25    

2.72    

Batticaloa  

20.75    

1.60    

191.00    

2.69    

366.50    

2.33    

118.00    

2.62    

Ampara  

12.00    

0.55    

25.50    

2.83    

34.25    

2.63    

0    

0    

Trincomalee  

27.62    

0.86    

163.25    

2.30    

168.50    

1.94    

55.00    

3.06    

2.81     1,664.10    

2.67    

550.50    

2.60    

Total  

501.22    

1.18     2,162.50    

Base:  All  reported  for  extent  occupied  

                                                                                                                        20

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  8.04    Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  8.07  

21

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  33  

22

Table  2.11:  Livelihood  assets  by  own  land   Homestead  

Irrigable  land  

Rain  fed  land  

Lift  Irrigated  land  

District          

Acres      

Jaffna  

 Acres/     H-­‐hold    

Acres      

 Acres/     H-­‐hold    

Acres      

 Acres/     H-­‐hold    

Acres      

 Acres/     H-­‐hold    

0.61    

0.15    

19.20    

0.48    

113.13    

5.39    

8.00    

2.67    

Mannar  

17.50    

2.19    

244.25    

2.28    

57.50    

1.60    

7.00    

3.50    

Vavuniya  

204.70    

1.12    

432.00    

2.81    

185.75    

3.15     156.00    

1.95    

Mullativu  

105.15    

1.01    

149.70    

1.89    

166.80    

2.28     107.25    

5.36    

Kilinochchi  

64.40    

1.50    

116.75    

 4.03    

216.25    

2.77    

21.00    

1.62    

Batticaloa  

18.75    

1.56    

155.50    

2.68    

328.50    

2.33     108.00    

2.70    

Ampara  

12.00    

0.55    

5.00    

5.00    

30.25    

2.52    

0  

0  

Trincomalee  

24.87    

0.83    

81.00    

2.13    

110.00    

1.69    

18.00    

3.60    

447.97    

 1.11    

1,203.40    

2.38    

1,208.18    

2.49     425.25    

2.61    

Total  

Base:  All  who  reported     23 Table  2.12:  Availability  of  a  person  with  special  skills     District  

Availability  of  person  with  special  skills  

   

Yes  

Total  

No    %    

 Num    

Jaffna  

                       71                7.96    

821  

92.04  

892  

       100.00    

Mannar  

                       30                5.69    

497  

94.31  

527  

       100.00    

Vavuniya  

                       31                4.78    

617  

95.22  

648  

       100.00    

Mullativu  

                       38                4.91    

736  

95.09  

774  

       100.00    

Kilinochchi  

                       23                2.81    

795  

97.19  

818  

       100.00    

Batticaloa  

                       30                3.45    

839  

96.55  

869  

       100.00    

Ampara  

                           3                3.23    

90  

96.77  

93  

       100.00    

Trincomalee  

                       48                6.71    

667  

93.29  

715  

       100.00    

Total  

                     274                5.13    

5,062  

94.87  

5,336  

       100.00    

Base:  All  respondents      

Num  

%  

Num  

 

   

 %    

 

                                                                                                                        22

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  8.08    Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  8.25  

23

Page  34    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

24

Table  2.13:  Number  of  persons  by  special  skill  category   Special  skills   District    

Masonry   Num  

Carpentry  

%  

Num  

Aluminum   Fabrication  

Welding  

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

Baking  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

16     39.02    

12    

29.27    

 9     21.95    

 1    

2.44    

1    

2.44     0    

Mannar  

11     55.00    

2    

10.00    

4     20.00    

1    

5.00    

Vavuniya  

11     45.83    

5    

20.83    

3     12.50    

 2    

8.33    

0     0    

Mullativu  

13     65.00    

2    

10.00    

3     15.00    

1    

5.00    

0    

0     0    

0    

Kilinochchi  

6     54.55    

2    

18.18    

1    

9.09    

2    

18.18    

0    

Batticaloa  

11     52.38    

3    

14.29    

6     28.57    

0    

0    

0    

0    

 2    

100.00    

0    

0    

0    

0    

0    

0    

0    

0    

Trincomalee  

0       18     48.65    

5    

13.51    

11     29.73    

1    

2.70    

Total  

86     48.86    

33    

18.75    

37     21.02    

8    

4.55    

1    

0.57    

Ampara  

0    

   

Special  skills   District    

Cookery   Num  

Jaffna   Mannar  

2     1    

%   4.88     5.00    

Vavuniya  

3    

12.50    

Mullativu  

1     0    

5.00     0    

Batticaloa   Ampara  

0    

0    

0    

0    

Trincomalee  

2    

5.41    

Kilinochchi  

Total  

9    

5.11    

Base:  All  who  reported      

Num   0    

Total    

 

Tour  Guide  

 

%  

Num  

%  

0    

 

41    

100.00    

1     0    

5.00     0    

 

20    

100.00    

 

24    

100.00    

0    

0    

 

20    

100.00    

0    

0    

 

11    

100.00    

4.76     0     0    

 

21     2    

100.00     100.00    

37    

100.00    

1.14    

 

176    

100.00    

1     0     0     2    

   

 

                                                                                                                        24

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  8.26  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  35  

25

Table  2.14:  Provision  of  training     District      

Training  provided  by   Government   Num  

%  

Private   Num  

NGO  

%  

Num  

Total    

Other   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%    

Jaffna  

27    

31.03    

33    

37.93    

12    

13.79    

15    

17.24    

87    

100.00    

Mannar  

17    

43.59    

8    

20.51    

11    

28.21    

3    

7.69    

39    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

11    

33.33    

6    

18.18    

10    

30.30    

6    

18.18    

33    

100.00    

Mullativu  

17    

44.74    

5    

13.16    

14    

36.84    

2    

5.26    

38    

100.00    

Kilinochchi  

13    

54.17    

4    

16.67    

5    

20.83    

2    

8.33    

24    

100.00    

Batticaloa  

6    

21.43    

4    

14.29    

13    

46.43    

5    

17.86    

28    

100.00    

Ampara  

2    

100.00    

0    

0    

0  

0    

0    

0    

2    

100.00    

14    

29.79    

14    

29.79    

14    

29.79    

5     010.64    

47    

100.00    

107    

 35.91    

74    

24.83    

79    

26.51    

38     012.75    

298    

100.00    

Trincomalee   Total  

Base:  All  who  reported     26 Table  2.15:  Households  by  vulnerability  to  natural  hazards  and  other  shocks  

District  

Natural  Hazard   Storm   Floods   Drought   surge   Cyclone   Lightning        204        281     130          66     8    

    Num    

Jaffna  

 %     Num    

36.56        324    

   50.36        419    

23.30          20    

11.83          49    

1.43        30    

Mannar  

 %     Num    

68.35     489    

   88.40     612    

   4.22        4    

   10.34        24    

   6.33        3    

Vavuniya  

 %     Num    

   75.58     340    

   94.59        682    

0.62        42    

3.71            39    

     0.46     41    

Mullativu  

 %     Num    

44.10     408    

88.46     696    

5.45        35    

   5.06          9    

   5.32        35    

Kilinochchi  

 %     Num    

54.40     758    

92.80        613    

   4.67     131    

1.20        20    

4.67        42    

Batticaloa  

 %     Num    

87.94        33    

71.11     88    

   15.20     0  

2.32        3    

4.87          2    

Ampara  

 %     Num    

35.87     433    

95.65     338    

0      48    

     3.26     40    

2.17     24    

 %    

75.57    

58.99    

   8.38    

6.98    

4.19    

Num    

   2,989      

3,729    

     410    

     250    

185    

Trincomalee   Total    

                                                                                                                        25

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  8.27    Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  8.31  

26

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Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  2.15:  Households  by  vulnerability  to  natural  hazards  and  other  shocks  (continued)  

District   Jaffna  

    Num    

Fire   damages   1  

 %    

Natural  Hazard   Affected   Affected   by  sea   by   water   disease   0   0  

    Damaged   by  Cattle   0  

0.18  

0  

0  

0  

Mannar  

Num      %    

0   0  

0   0  

0   0  

0   0  

Vavuniya  

Num      %    

0   0  

0   0  

0   0  

2   0.31  

Mullativu  

Num      %    

0   0  

0   0  

0   0  

0   0  

Kilinochchi  

Num      %    

0   0  

0   0  

4   0.53  

0   0  

Batticaloa  

Num      %    

0   0  

3   0.35  

1   0.12  

0   0  

Ampara  

Num      %    

0   0  

0   0  

0   0  

0   0  

Trincomalee  

Num      %    

0   0  

0   0  

0   0  

0   0  

Total  

Num    

1  

3  

5  

2  

   

Total   558  

 

474    

   

647    

   

771    

   

750    

   

862    

   

92    

   

573    

   

  4,727  

Base:  All  respondents.  Percentages  and  totals  are  based  on  respondents.      

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  37  

 

 

Page  38    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Returnee Food Security and Nutrition

2.3    

Returnee  Food  Security  and  Nutrition    

Uniquely,   this   section   of   the   report   includes   data   from   two   sections   of   the   questionnaire   —   the   “food   security”   section  and  the  earlier  part  of  the  “nutrition  and  health”  sector.  The  relevant  aspects  of  these  two  sections  were   broadly  divided  as  follows:       Food  security:   · Household  food  consumption   · Food  assistance   · Coping  strategies     Nutrition:   · Focus  on  children  up  to  age  five   · Care  of  the  last  child  born  (including  breast-­‐feeding)   · Vaccination    

2.3.1   Food  Security  -­‐  Household  Food  Consumption  

  27 For  children  under  the  age  of  five,  the  (mean)  average  number  of  meals  consumed  in  a  day  was  measured  at  4.1.   In  almost  all  districts,  the  average  number  of  meals  was  between  3  and  4  except  in  Trincomalee,  where  this  value   was  as  high  as  5.4.         The  average  number  of  meals  taken  by  the  household  members  in  the  other  age  groups  was  3.2,  with  marginally   higher   values   in   the   6-­‐15   and   16-­‐30   years   age   groups   and   the   lowest   values   being   in   the   61   +   age   group.   Inter-­‐ district   variations   were   minimal,   with   marginally   lower   values   reported   in   Batticaloa   in   all   age   groups   above   6   years.  The  average  (mean)  number  of  meals  consumed  of  those  aged  6-­‐15,  is  3.24,  3.04  for  those  aged  16-­‐30,  2.96   for  those  aged  31-­‐60,  and  2.90  for  those  aged  61+.       The   Food   Consumption   Score   (FCS)   is   a   composite   score   based   on   dietary   diversity,   food   frequency   and   relative   nutritional   importance   of   different   food   groups.   The   score   developed   is   used   to   categorize   the   FCS   as   poor,   borderline  or  acceptable.  As  the  first  step  in  this  assessment  the  food  consumption  score  was  calculated  for  each   household.  Subsequently,  each  household  was  categorized  into  the  FCS  categories  and  the  percentile  distribution   of  households  belonging  to  each  category  was  assessed  at  the  district  level.       For  all  districts,  92.8  per  cent  of  households  had  an  “acceptable”  FCS  while  6.6  per  cent  were  in  the  ‘borderline’   category   and   0.6   per   cent   belonging   to   the   ‘poor’   category.   In   two   districts,   Mannar   and   Mullaitivu,   at   least   98   per   cent  of  the  households  had  acceptable  FCS.  Jaffna,  Kilinochchi  and  Ampara  had  an  acceptable  FCS  from  90  to  98   per   cent   of   cases.     However,   in   three   districts,   Vavuniya,   Trincomalee   and   Batticaloa   were   found   to   have   a   considerable   number   of   families   in   the   borderline   Food   Consumption   Score   (FCS),   10.48   percent,   11.33   percent   and  10.24  per  cent  respectively,  signaling  that  further  attention  towards  food  security  is  required  in  those  districts.         Respondents  were  shown  a  full  range  of  food  types,  such  as  meat,  fish,  rice  and  bread,   and  were  asked  to  indicate   how   frequently   over   the   previous   week   anybody   in   the   household   had   eaten   each   kind   of   food.   One   key   observation  is  that  meat  consumption  varies  significantly  by  district.  The  percentage  of  households  who  reported   no   meat   consumptions   was   as   low   as   3.9   per   cent   in   Mannar,   but   as   high   as   61.5   per   cent   in   Batticaloa,   with   other   towns  spread  in  between.  To  some  extent,  this  large  difference  may  be  explained  by  broader  social  issues  including   faith  and  livelihoods.        

                                                                                                                        27

 The  extent  to  which  milk  feeds  are  included  in  this  figure  based  on  current  data.  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  41  

2.3.2   Food  Security  -­‐  Food  Assistance     Multiple  forms  of  assistance  were  reported  from  households.  Of  all  households,  (75.1  per  cent)  received  assistance   from   WFP   food   distributions   along   with   35.2   per   cent   benefitting   from   the   Samurdhi/Divineguma   programmes.   Approximately  (27  per  cent)  received  Government  assistance  and  school  meals  and  about  23  per  cent  benefitted   from  NGO/community  based  food  aid  programmes  and  cash/food  for  work  programmes  (see  Table  1.7.3).     The   percentages   of   households   that   received   benefits   from   different   assistance   programmes   varied   widely   between   districts.   Those   that   benefitted   from   WFP   ranged   from   a   high   percentage   of   (90.5   per   cent)   in   Kilinochchi   to   a   low   percentage   of   19   per   cent   in   Ampara.   The   incidence   of   benefitting   from   Samurdhi/Divineguma   programmes  was  the  highest  in  Ampara  (75.4  per  cent).      

2.3.3   Food  Security  -­‐  Coping  Strategies  

  Nearly  half  of  the  households  (45.6  per  cent)  reported  adopting  a  coping  strategy.  Among  those  households,  the   most   commonly   employed   strategy   was   “borrowing   food/money”   which   was   practiced   by   88.9   per   cent   of   all   households   practicing   coping   strategies.   Limiting   food   intake   by   adults   was   another   coping   strategy   adopted   by   18.1   per   cent   of   all   households,   and   was   relatively   more   common   in   Jaffna   (28.9   per   cent)   and   Mullaitivu   (25.6   per   cent).  The  practice  of  limiting  food  intake  of  the  whole  family  was  practiced  by  19.4  per  cent  of  the  households.   Assistance  from  the  Government  or  agencies  was  received  by  only  5.4  per  cent  of  the  households.    

2.3.4   Nutrition  -­‐  Focus  on  Children  up  to  Age  Five  

  Nearly  3  out  of  10  (29.1  per  cent)  of  all  households  surveyed  had  a  child  under  the  age  of  five.  Almost  all  (99.4  per   cent)  of  these  children  have  a  Child  Health  Development  Record.  In  9  out  of  10  cases  (90.1  per  cent)  these  families   received  some  support  from  outside  the  family.       Questions   were   asked   about   sources   of   support   to   improve   the   nutrition   of   young   children.   Overall,   field-­‐level   Public  Health  Midwives  (PHMs)  were  found  to  be  the  main  source  of  such  support,  with  57.2  per  cent  of  families   with   children,   in   the   age   range   up   to   5   years   old,   indicating   that   the   PHMs   had   supported   them.   Public   Health   Nursing  Sister  (PHNS)  had  supported  27.7  per  cent  of  all  households,  and  medical  officers  had  supported  16.6  per   cent  of  the  households.       Differences   across   districts   were   clear.   For   example,   PHMs   had   given   support   to   most   households   in   Jaffna   (79   per   cent),   Batticaloa   (60.4   per   cent)   and   Trincomalee   (71.1   per   cent).   However,   only   to   31.5   per   cent   received   support   in   Mannar.   In   Mannar   and   Ampara,   the   PHNS   had   provided   support   to   37.7   per   cent   and   58.3   per   cent   respectively.      

2.3.5   Nutrition  -­‐  Care  of  the  Last  Child  Born  (including  Breast-­‐Feeding)  

  Practices  related  to  breast-­‐feeding  were  assessed  for  the  youngest  child  age  up  to  five  years.  Across  districts,  (85.1   per  cent)  of  children  had  been  breast-­‐fed  at  least  once  in  the  past.  The  percentage  of  children  from  0  to  59  months   who  had  been  breast-­‐fed  at  least  once  was  over  (90  per  cent)  in  Mannar,  Ampara  and  Vavuniya  and  over  (80  per   cent)   in   Jaffna,   Batticaloa   and   Trincomalee.   The   lowest   percentage   reported   was   (73   per   cent)   in   Mullaitivu.   Feeding  within  one  hour  of  birth  had  been  practiced  by   (93.1  per  cent)  of  families;  a  satisfactory  level  according  to   the  World  Health  Organization  (WHO)  guidelines.  The  methodology  used  in  this  survey  which  was  agreed  by  the   joint  TWG  and  Steering  Committee  is  slightly  different  from  that  of  the  Department  of  Health  Services.             Page  42     Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

Nutritional   supplementation   during   pregnancy   was   explored.   Among   the   pregnant   women,   (90.7   per   cent)   had   attended  an  antenatal  clinic.  This  was  the  case  in  over  90  per  cent  of  all  districts  except  Ampara  (66.7  per  cent),   Kilinochchi   (77.8   per   cent)   and   Vavuniya   (88.2   per   cent).   Nutrient   supplementation   with   iron/folate   had   been   available   to   (85.2   per   cent)   of   the   pregnant   women   who   attended   the   clinics   with   85.8   per   cent   being   given   Thriposha  as  a  nutritional  supplement.  Iron/folate  is  given  only  after  12  weeks  of  pregnancy.  Variations  between   districts  showed  a  high  level  of  coverage  with  iron/folate  in  Mannar  (92  per  cent)  and  Ampara  (100  per  cent)  and   comparatively   lowervalues   in   Kilinochchi   (76.2   per   cent),   Batticaloa   (80.8   per   cent)   and   Vavuniya   (80   per   cent).   Thriposha   was   made   available   to   85.8   per   cent   of   the   pregnant   women.   The   lowest   percentage   was   in   Jaffna   district  at  (63.3  per  cent).     Pregnant  women  were  only  members  of  3.4  per  cent  of  all  households  at  the  time  of  the  interviews.  Almost  1  in  10   (9.7  per  cent)  of  them  had  not  attended  an  antenatal  clinic  at  the  time  of  the  interviews.       28 Table  2.16:  No.  of  meals  eaten  per  day  by  household  members  by  age  groups     Age  groups   00  -­‐  05   No.  of  meals  

District   1   Num  

2   %  

Num  

3   %  

Num  

4+   %  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

0  

0.00  

1  

0.33  

171  

57.19  

127  

42.47  

299  

100.00  

Mannar  

1  

0.52  

0  

0.00  

116  

60.42  

75  

39.06  

192  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

1  

0.54  

7  

3.76  

121  

65.05  

57  

30.65  

186  

100.00  

Mullativu  

0  

0.00  

2  

0.97  

111  

53.88  

93  

45.15  

206  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

1  

0.49  

1  

0.49  

119  

58.62  

82  

40.39  

203  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

1  

0.40  

3  

1.20  

159  

63.86  

86  

34.54  

249  

100.00  

Ampara  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

5  

50.00  

5  

50.00  

10  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

1  

0.41  

6  

2.44  

37  

15.04  

202  

82.11  

246  

100.00  

Total  

5  

0.31  

20  

1.26  

839  

52.73  

727  

45.69  

1591  

100.00  

  Age  groups   06  -­‐  15   No.  of  meals  

District   1   Num  

2   %  

Num  

3   %  

Num  

4+   %  

Num  

Jaffna  

0  

0.00  

7  

1.51  

429  

92.46  

28  

Mannar  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

239  

90.87  

Vavuniya  

1  

0.38  

6  

2.26  

227  

85.34  

Mullativu  

0  

0.00  

4  

1.18  

258  

Kilinochchi  

0  

0.00  

7  

2.14  

Batticaloa  

1  

0.24  

12  

2.93  

Ampara  

1  

3.85  

2  

Trincomalee  

2  

0.50  

Total  

5  

0.20  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

6.03  

464  

100.00  

24  

9.13  

263  

100.00  

32  

12.03  

266  

100.00  

75.88  

78  

22.94  

340  

100.00  

261  

79.82  

59  

18.04  

327  

100.00  

316  

77.26  

80  

19.56  

409  

100.00  

7.69  

23  

88.46  

0  

0.00  

26  

100.00  

16  

4.01  

217  

54.39  

164  

41.10  

399  

100.00  

54  

2.17  

1970  

78.99  

465  

18.64  

2494  

100.00  

Base:  All  who  reported  number  of  meals  -­‐  Q.1.1  

                                                                                                                        28

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  7.01  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  43  

Table  2.16:  No.  of  meals  eaten  per  day  by  household  members  by  age  groups  (continued)  

Age  groups   16  -­‐  30   No.  of  meals  

District   1  

2  

Num  

%  

Num  

3   %  

Num  

4+   %  

Total  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

2  

0.40  

21  

4.15  

482  

95.26  

1  

0.20  

506  

100.00  

Mannar  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

333  

97.94  

7  

2.06  

340  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

1  

0.31  

7  

2.17  

309  

95.96  

5  

1.55  

322  

100.00  

Mullativu  

0  

0.00  

5  

1.20  

384  

92.53  

26  

6.27  

415  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

0  

0.00  

16  

4.41  

330  

90.91  

17  

4.68  

363  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

0  

0.00  

23  

4.39  

450  

85.88  

51  

9.73  

524  

100.00  

Ampara  

1  

1.96  

5  

9.80  

45  

88.24  

0  

0.00  

51  

100.00  

6  

1.43  

21  

4.99  

329  

78.15  

65  

15.44  

421  

100.00  

10  

0.34  

98  

3.33  

2662  

90.48  

172  

5.85  

2942  

100.00  

Trincomalee   Total    

 

Age  groups   31  -­‐  60   No.  of  meals  

District   1   Num  

2   %  

Jaffna  

1  

0.13  

Mannar  

0  

Vavuniya  

2  

Mullativu  

Num  

3   %  

Num  

4+   %  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

61  

7.99  

700  

91.74  

1  

0.13  

763   100.00  

0.00  

5  

1.20  

407  

97.60  

5  

1.20  

417   100.00  

0.39  

21  

4.05  

490  

94.41  

6  

1.16  

519   100.00  

0  

0.00  

13  

2.30  

547  

96.99  

4  

0.71  

564   100.00  

Kilinochchi  

2  

0.34  

31  

5.31  

542  

92.81  

9  

1.54  

584   100.00  

Batticaloa  

4  

0.63  

77  

12.16  

527  

83.25  

25  

3.95  

633   100.00  

Ampara  

1  

1.25  

7  

8.75  

72  

90.00  

0  

0.00  

80   100.00  

Trincomalee  

9  

1.58  

30  

5.28  

494  

86.97  

35  

6.16  

568   100.00  

19  

0.46  

245  

5.94  

3779  

91.55  

85  

2.06  

4128   100.00  

Total  

Base:  All  who  reported  number  of  meals  -­‐  Q.1.1      

 

Page  44    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  2.16:  No.  of  meals  eaten  per  day  by  household  members  by  age  groups  (continued)   Age  groups   61  +   No.  of  meals  

District   1   Num  

2   %  

3  

Num  

%  

Num  

4+   %  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

0  

0.00  

24  

8.36  

263  

91.64  

0  

0.00  

287  

100.00  

Mannar  

0  

0.00  

2  

1.94  

99  

96.12  

2  

1.94  

103  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

3  

1.73  

9  

5.20  

161  

93.06  

0  

0.00  

173  

100.00  

Mullativu  

1  

0.75  

6  

4.51  

125  

93.98  

1  

0.75  

133  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

1  

0.52  

11  

5.70  

181  

93.78  

0  

0.00  

193  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

4  

2.47  

44  

27.16  

112  

69.14  

2  

1.23  

162  

100.00  

Ampara  

0  

0.00  

3  

23.08  

9  

69.23  

1  

7.69  

13  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

0  

0.00  

11  

7.97  

125  

90.58  

2  

1.45  

138  

100.00  

Total  

9  

0.75  

110  

9.15  

1075  

89.43  

8  

0.67  

1202  

100.00  

Base:  All  who  reported  number  of  meals  -­‐  Q.1.1     29 Table  2.17:  Average  number  of  meals  eaten  per  day  by  household  members  by  age  groups     Age  groups   No.   of   HH  

00  -­‐  05   Total   No.  of   Meals  

Avg.  

No.   of  HH  

06  -­‐  15   Total   No.  of   Meals  

Jaffna  

300  

1126  

3.75  

464  

1416  

Mannar  

192  

716  

3.73  

263  

Vavuniya  

186  

681  

3.66  

Mullativu  

206  

808  

Kilinochchi  

203  

752  

Batticaloa  

249  

District  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

No.  of   HH  

16  -­‐  30   Total   No.  of   Meals  

3.05  

507  

1494  

2.95  

816  

3.10  

340  

1027  

3.02  

266  

832  

3.13  

322  

967  

3.00  

3.92  

340  

1121  

3.30  

415  

1275  

3.07  

3.70  

327  

1063  

3.25  

364  

1093  

3.00  

952  

3.82  

409  

1323  

3.23  

524  

1620  

3.09  

10  

39  

3.90  

26  

74  

2.85  

51  

146  

2.86  

247  

1325  

5.36  

399  

1444  

3.62  

422  

1336  

3.17  

1593  

6399  

4.02  

2494  

8089  

3.24  

2945  

8958  

3.04  

   

Avg  

Avg  

 

                                                                                                                        29

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  7.02  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  45  

Table  2.17:  Average  number  of  meals  eaten  per  day  by  household  members  by  age  groups  (continued)   Age  groups   No.   of   HH  

31  -­‐  60   Total   No.  of   Meals  

Jaffna  

763  

2227  

Mannar  

417  

1251  

Vavuniya  

519  

Mullativu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa  

District  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

No.   of  HH  

61  +   Total   No.  of   Meals  

No.  of   HH  

Total   Total   No.  of   Meals  

2.92  

288  

837  

3.00  

103  

309  

2.91  

2322  

7100  

3.06  

3.00  

1315  

4119  

3.13  

1546  

2.98  

173  

504  

2.91  

1466  

4530  

3.09  

564  

1686  

2.99  

585  

1729  

2.96  

133  

393  

2.95  

1658  

5283  

3.19  

194  

566  

2.92  

1673  

5203  

3.11  

633  

1842  

2.91  

162  

436  

2.69  

1977  

6173  

3.12  

80  

231  

2.89  

13  

38  

2.92  

180  

528  

2.93  

Avg  

Avg  

Avg  

568  

1705  

3.00  

139  

406  

2.92  

1775  

6216  

3.50  

4129  

12217  

2.96  

1205  

3489  

2.90  

12366  

39152  

3.17  

Base:  All  who  reported  number  of  meals  -­‐  Q.1.1     30 Table  2.18:  Foods  or  other  assistance  received    

District  

WFP  food   distribution   Num  

%  

Jaffna  

555  

73.51  

Mannar  

244  

Vavuniya  

550  

Mullativu  

Type  of  Food  Assistance   NGO/   Community  based   food  aid   School  meals  

Govt.  assistance   (Dry  rations)  

Num  

Num  

%  

Num  

20  

2.65  

57.28  

52  

90.46  

103  

550  

86.75  

87  

Kilinochchi  

685  

92.94  

Batticaloa  

514  

61.12  

13  

18.84  

21  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

%  

%  

319  

42.25  

49  

6.49  

12.21  

86  

20.19  

133  

31.22  

16.94  

165  

27.14  

61  

10.03  

13.72  

271  

42.74  

98  

15.46  

13  

1.76  

255  

34.60  

90  

12.21  

588  

69.92  

82  

9.75  

583  

69.32  

30.43  

9  

13.04  

27  

39.13  

295  

63.71  

183  

39.52  

112  

24.19  

175  

37.80  

3406  

75.14  

1067  

23.54  

1299  

28.66  

1216  

26.83  

 

 

                                                                                                                        30

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  7.03  

Page  46    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  2.18:  Foods  or  other  assistance  received   Type  of  Food  Assistance   District      

Samurdhi/   Divineguma   (Rs.)   Num  

 

Cash/Food  for   work  (Rs.)  

%  

Num  

Total      

Other  

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

Jaffna  

266  

35.23  

128  

16.95  

20  

2.65  

755.00  

Mannar  

212  

49.77  

44  

10.33  

8  

1.88  

426.00  

Vavuniya  

125  

20.56  

188  

30.92  

22  

3.62  

608.00  

Mullativu  

208  

32.81  

185  

29.18  

28  

4.42  

634.00  

Kilinochchi  

254  

34.46  

144  

19.54  

10  

1.36  

737.00  

Batticaloa  

297  

35.32  

212  

25.21  

76  

9.04  

841.00  

52  

75.36  

9  

13.04  

0  

0.00  

69.00  

182  

39.31  

92  

19.87  

19  

4.10  

463.00  

1596  

35.21  

1002  

22.10  

183  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

4.04  

4533.00  

  Base:  All  reported  food  assistance  -­‐  Q.2.1.Percentages  and  totals  are  based  on  respondents.     31

Table  2.19:  Food  Consumption  Score   Food  Consumption  Score   District  

Poor   Num  

Borderline   %  

Num  

Acceptable  

%  

Num  

Total  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

0  

0.00  

49  

5.40  

859  

94.60  

908  

100.00  

Mannar  

0  

0.00  

8  

1.52  

520  

98.48  

528  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

3  

0.46  

68  

10.48  

578  

89.06  

649  

100.00  

Mullativu  

0  

0.00  

15  

2.02  

727  

97.98  

742  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

3  

0.38  

30  

3.78  

761  

95.84  

794  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

9  

1.04  

89  

10.24  

771  

88.72  

869  

100.00  

Ampara  

0  

0.00  

9  

9.68  

84  

90.32  

93  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

18  

2.55  

80  

11.33  

608  

86.12  

706  

100.00  

Total  

33  

0.62  

348  

6.58  

4908  

92.80  

5289  

100.00  

Base:  all  respondents    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                        31

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  7.05  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  47  

32

Table  2.20:  Coping  strategies  (multiple  responses)   Coping  Strategy   District  

Borrowing   food/money  

Assistance  from   Govt.  or   agencies  

Limiting  food   intake  of    adults  

Limiting  food   intake  of  the   whole  family  

Total  

Jaffna  

388  

88.18  

15  

3.41  

127  

28.86  

71  

16.1  

440  

Mannar  

191  

87.61  

6  

2.75  

25  

11.47  

29  

13.3  

218  

Vavuniya  

165  

86.39  

7  

3.66  

22  

11.52  

39  

20.4  

191  

Mullativu  

250  

91.58  

26  

9.52  

70  

25.64  

50  

18.3  

273  

Kilinochchi  

376  

89.95  

55  

13.16  

64  

15.31  

86  

20.6  

418  

Batticaloa  

426  

84.52  

11  

2.18  

76  

15.08  

120  

23.8  

504  

47  

95.92  

0  

0.00  

8  

16.33  

8  

16.3  

49  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

344  

91.49  

14  

3.72  

54  

14.36  

77  

20.5  

376  

2187  

88.58  

134  

5.43  

446  

18.06  

480  

19.44  

2469  

Base:  All  who  reported  on  coping  strategies.  Percentages  and  totals  are  based  on  respondents.     33 Table  2.21:  Availability  of  child  development  record  cross  tabulation   Availability  of  child    development  record   District  

Yes  

No  

Num  

%  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

380  

98.96  

4  

1.04  

384  

100.00  

Mannar  

216  

98.63  

3  

1.37  

219  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

220  

99.55  

1  

0.45  

221  

100.00  

Mullativu  

228  

100.00  

0  

0.00  

228  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

249  

99.20  

2  

0.80  

251  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

275  

99.64  

1  

0.36  

276  

100.00  

15  

100.00  

0  

0.00  

15  

100.00  

288  

100.00  

0  

0.00  

288  

100.00  

1871  

99.42  

11  

0.58  

1882  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

Base:  All  children  who  counted  for  Sec.6  -­‐Q.1.2                              

                                                                                                                        32

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  7.07    Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  6.03  

33

Page  48    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

  34 Table  2.22:From  whom  did  you  get  support    

District  

Public  Health   Midwife   Num  

Jaffna  

%  

Public  Health   Nursing  Sister   Num  

Medical  Officer  Of   Health  

%  

Num  

%  

Staff  From  a   nongovernmenta l  agency   Num  

%  

256  

79.01  

60  

18.52  

32  

9.88  

4  

1.23  

Mannar  

41  

31.54  

49  

37.69  

35  

26.92  

1  

0.77  

Vavuniya  

64  

39.26  

54  

33.13  

42  

25.77  

2  

1.23  

Mullativu  

87  

47.03  

60  

32.43  

51  

27.57  

2  

1.08  

Kilinochchi  

88  

44.44  

48  

24.24  

61  

30.81  

2  

1.01  

Batticaloa  

142  

60.43  

77  

32.77  

12  

5.11  

1  

0.43  

3  

25.00  

7  

58.33  

2  

16.67  

0  

0.00  

Trincomalee  

165  

71.12  

55  

23.71  

10  

4.31  

2  

0.86  

Total  

846  

57.20  

410  

27.72  

245  

16.57  

14  

0.95  

Ampara  

      District  

Mothers  Group   Num  

%  

Any  Other   Community   Num  

%  

   

   

Any  Others   Num  

%  

   

   

Total  

   

Num  

Jaffna  

2  

0.62  

1  

0.31  

5  

1.54      

324  

Mannar  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

4  

3.08      

130  

Vavuniya  

0  

0.00  

1  

0.61  

0  

0.00      

163  

Mullativu  

1  

0.54  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00      

185  

Kilinochchi  

1  

0.51  

2  

1.01  

1  

0.51      

198  

Batticaloa  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

3  

1.28      

235  

Ampara  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00      

12  

Trincomalee  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00      

232  

Total  

4  

0.27  

4  

0.27  

13  

0.88      

1479  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Sec.6  -­‐  Q.1.4Percentages  and  totals  are  based  on  respondents.  Each  child  has  a   separate  code                              

                                                                                                                        34

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  6.05  –  NGOs  deliver  nutrition  support  through  the  government  system  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  49  

35

Table  2.23:  When  was  the  child  first  introduced  to  breast  milk     District  

Less  than  one  hour   after  birth   Num  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Total   Num  

%  

Jaffna  

257  

90.81  

14  

4.95  

7  

2.47  

5  

1.77  

283  

100.00  

Mannar  

161  

93.60  

8  

4.65  

2  

1.16  

1  

0.58  

172  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

175  

94.59  

7  

3.78  

2  

1.08  

1  

0.54  

185  

100.00  

Mullativu  

189  

96.92  

2  

1.03  

0  

0.00  

4  

2.05  

195  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

182  

86.26  

19  

9.00  

4  

1.90  

6  

2.84  

211  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

230  

94.65  

10  

4.12  

3  

1.23  

0  

0.00  

243  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

   

%  

When  the  breast  milk  introduced  first   Within  one  day   More  than  one   of  birth   day  of  birth   Do  not  know  

7  

53.85  

5  

38.46  

1  

7.69  

0  

0.00  

13  

100.00  

228  

97.85  

4  

1.72  

1  

0.43  

0  

0.00  

233  

100.00  

1429  

93.09  

69  

4.50  

20  

1.30  

17  

1.11  

1535  

100.00  

Base:  All  who  reported  on  Sec.6-­‐Q.2.2  

   

   

   

   

   

   

 

                                                                                                                        35

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  6.07  

Page  50    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

   

Returnee Shelter and Housing

2.4  

Returnee  Shelter  and  Housing  

  The  “shelter  and  housing”  section  of  the  questionnaire  broadly  covered  four  aspects:     · Basic  information  on  the  housing  unit   · Assistance   · Logistical  aspects  (such  as  proximity  to  other  towns  and  bus  routes)   · Condition  of  accommodation      

2.4.1   Basic  Information  on  the  Housing  Unit  

  The   average   number   of   households   living   in   one   housing   unit   is   1.1.   The   average   number   of   people   in   one   housing   unit   is   3.9.   Across   districts,   on   average,   59   per   cent   of   homes   have   an   inside-­‐kitchen,   although   far   fewer   do   in   Ampara  (37  per  cent).  The  average  number  of  bedrooms  in  a  housing  unit  is  1.2.       Just  over  half  (54  per  cent)  of  the  returnees  live  in  homes  with  electricity.  The  highest  incidence  of  electricity  at  a   district  level  was  observed  in  Trincomalee  (81  per  cent)  and  the  lowest  in  Kilinochchi  (37  per  cent).       The   average   floor   area   of   returnees   housing   units   is   432   square   feet.   In   half   of   the   eight   districts,   i.e.   Jaffna,   Kilinochchi,   Ampara,   and   Trincomalee,   the   average   lies   above   this.   However,   in   the   other   four   districts,   Mannar,   Vavuniya,   Mullativu   and   Batticaloa,   the   average   falls   below   this.   The   location   with   the   lowest   average   of   355.7   square  feet  is  Vavuniya.       In   addition   to   district-­‐level   variations,   some   disparity   was   also   observed   at   the   demographic   level.   The   average   floor  size  of  a  home  in  which  a  single  male  is  the  head  of  the  household  is  439  square  feet.  The  average  floor  size   where  a  single  female  runs  the  household  is  414  square  feet.  In  homes  where  at  least  one  disabled  person  resides,   the   average   size   is   407.8   square   feet,   and   in   homes   with   an   elderly   person   in   the   household,   the   average   was   measured   at   446   square   feet.   Homes   managed   by   single   parents,   however,   fall   above   the   average   at   469.4   square   feet.  Those  aged  18-­‐29  live  in  homes  measuring  375  square  feet,  which  is  notably  smaller  than  homes  of  30-­‐55– year-­‐olds  (442.7  square  feet)  or  over-­‐55-­‐year-­‐olds  (434.2  square  feet).     In  general,  about  20.7  per  cent  of  housing  units’  walls  are  made  out  of  ”bricks”  (up  to  58  per  cent  in  Batticaloa)  and   nearly  half  of  ”cement/  blocks”  (49.1  per  cent).  Meanwhile,  nearly  half  of  all  roofs  were  built  using  ”tiles”  (47.9  per   cent)   and   just   over   a   quarter   (27.7   per   cent)   using   ”tin   sheets”,   although   tin   sheets   are   far   more   common   in   Vavuniya   (41.7   per   cent).   Over   three   quarters   (76   per   cent)   of   floors   are   made   of   cement.   Floors   in   Vavuniya   differ   by  being  far  more  likely  to  be  made  of  “mud  and  cow  dung”  (35.3  per  cent).     Similar   to   materials   for   housing,   significant   geographic   variation   was   observed   in   the   materials   used   for   the   “nearest  access  road”.  While  overall  nearly  half  (44  per  cent)  live  the  closest  to  a  ”gravel”  road,  around  a  quarter   rely  on  an  “earth”  access  road  (26.3  per  cent)  and  a  fifth  (20.6  per  cent)  on  ”metal  and  tarred”.       Over   four-­‐fifths   of   the   returnees   (82   per   cent)   have   settled   in   housing   units   that   are   now   owned   by   them.   The   highest  level  of  ownership  was  recorded  in  Vavuniya  district  (92  per  cent)  and  the  lowest  in  Jaffna  District  (66  per   cent).          

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  53  

2.4.2   Assistance  

  Support   for   housing   has   been   offered   in   various   forms.   Around   a   fifth   of   the   households   have   received   both   “tarpaulin  sheets”  (45.87  per  cent)  and  “Rs.  25,000  cash  grant”  (55.53  per  cent).  Similarly,  35.762  per  cent  have   received   ”permanent   housing”,   while   just   around   1   in   10   has   received   ”cement   bags”.   Considerable   geographic   variation  is  seen  across  these  forms  of  support.       Nearly  1  in  20  (4.4  per  cent)  of  the  returnee  families  have  obtained  housing  loans.  However,  far  more  (14.8  per   cent)   of   returnees   in   Jaffna   district   have   obtained   a   loan   for   their   house   development.   In   all   other   districts,   less   than  10  per  cent  have  obtained  a  loan.        

2.4.3   Logistical  Aspects  

  The  distance  to  the  nearest  bus  route  for  most  of  the  returnees  (56  per  cent)  is  less  than  1  km  and  the  average   distance  from  the  housing  units  to  the  nearest  bus  route  is  1.5  km.  A  total  of  5.8  per  cent  of  the  returnees  have  to   walk  more  than  5  km  to  reach  the  nearest  bus  route.  The  average  distance  to  the  nearest  town  is  9.3  km.  Only  13.8   per   cent   of   the   returnee   housing   units   are   located   within   1   km   of   the   nearest   town.   Those   in   Batticaloa   and   Trincomalee  live  further  away  than  others  (16.9  km  and  15.3  km  respectively).      

2.4.4   Condition  of  Accommodation    

  During   displacements   due   to   Sri   Lanka’s   armed   conflict,   over   three-­‐quarters   (77   per   cent)   of   the   returnees’   former   homes  have  been  “completely  destroyed”.  Returnee  families  whose  houses  are  under  construction  were  asked  to   say  how  far  into  the  process  of  construction  they  felt  they  were.  Naturally,  different  families  are  at  different  stages   of  completion.  About  11.1  per  cent  said  that  construction  has   “just  started”,  8.6  per  cent  said  that  it  is  completed   “up  to  the  damp  proof  course  (DPC)  level”,  18.7  per  cent  said  that  the  “superstructure  is  completed”,  25.9  per  cent   said  that  the  “roof  is  completed”,  19.1  per  cent  said  that  the  “doors  and  windows  are  fixed”,  and  16.6  per  cent  said   36 that  “the  plastering  is  completed”.     In  total,  15  per  cent  of  their  homes  are  still  under  construction.  Moreover,  there  is  very  little  geographic  variation   in   each   district,   less   than   20   per   cent   are   under   construction.   Where   a   house   is   yet   to   be   completed,   the   expected   time  of  completion  is  2014  across  districts  (except  of  2016  in  Trincomalee).       Table  2.24:  Average  floor  area  of  housing  unit   District  

Average  

   

   

 Floor  area  

   

Jaffna  

526.21  

   

Mannar  

370.79  

   

Vavuniya  

355.72  

   

Mullativu  

420.94  

   

Kilinochchi  

455.37  

   

Batticaloa  

391.78  

   

Ampara  

476.68  

   

Trincomalee  

456.01  

   

Total   432.02       Base:  All  who  reported  on  Sec  4-­‐1.7      

                                                                                                                        36

 DPC  level  is  the  foundation  level  of  a  building.  

Page  54    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

37

Table  2.25:  Average  No.  of  HHs  and  persons  living  in  one  HU    

District       Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullativu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Average  

HHs  in   one    HU  

Persons   in  one    HU  

1.08     1.09     1.06     1.06     1.24     1.04     1.06     1.15     1.10    

No.  of   bed   rooms    in  one   HU  

Persons  in     one  HH  

4.53     4.39     3.65     3.63      3.92     3.57     3.62     4.08     3.92    

4.19     4.03     3.43     3.41     3.15     3.44     3.40     3.53     3.57    

HUs   without     inside   kitchen  

HUs  with   inside    kitchen  

1.79     1.13     0.96     1.25     1.18     1.02     0.71     1.49     1.19    

0.76     0.69     0.48     0.61     0.68     0.52     0.37     0.63     0.59    

0.23     0.31     0.51     0.38     0.31      0.47     0.63     0.37     0.40    

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Sec4  -­‐1.1/1.2/1.6/1.8     38 Table  2.26:  Present  status  of  construction   Status  of  construction   District         Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullativu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

Construction   just   started  

Completed  up  to   DPC    level  

Num   12     11     21     11     19     4     1     12    

%   10.08     13.75     22.34     8.46     12.58     2.70     20.00     13.19    

Num   9     7     6     2     22     16     0     8    

91    

11.12    

70    

Superstructure   completed  

%   Num   7.56     26     8.75     21     6.38     20     1.54     23     14.57     33     10.81     20     0   1     8.79     9     8.56    

153    

Roof   completed  

%   Num   21.85     24     26.25     30     21.28     13     17.69     35     21.85     38     13.51     48     20.00     2     9.89     22    

%   20.17     37.50     13.83     26.92     25.17     32.43     40.00     24.18    

18.70    

25.92    

212    

  District        

Status  of  construction   Doors  and   Plastering   windows  fixed   completed   Roof  completed   (party/fully)   (partly/fully)   Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullativu  

24     30     13     35    

20.17     37.50     13.83     26.92    

36     6     6     34    

30.25     7.50     6.38     26.15    

12     5     28     25    

10.08     6.25     29.79     19.23    

Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee  

38     48     2     22    

25.17     32.43     40.00     24.18    

22     30     1     21    

14.57     20.27     20.00     23.08    

17     30     0         19    

11.26     20.27     0         20.88    

212    

25.92    

156    

19.07    

Total  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Sec4  -­‐1.11  

136    

16.63    

   

Total    

 

Num                    

%  

119     80     94     130    

100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00    

151     148     5     91    

100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00    

818     100.00    

 

                                                                                                                        37

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  4.04    Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  4.11  

38

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  55  

39

Table  2.27:  Type  of  housing  assistance  received  

   

Type  of  housing  assistance  received   Rs.25,000  Cash   Grant  (From  GOSL)    

District  

Rs.25,000  Cash   Grant    (From  Indian  Govt.)    

Tarpaulin  Sheets  

Jaffna   Mannar  

Num                              609                                154    

%                27.13                  14.92    

Num                        175                              16    

%                    7.80                      1.55    

Num                        463                          112    

%                20.62                  10.85    

Vavuniya  

                           319    

             14.21    

                         56    

                 2.49    

                     440    

             19.60    

Mullativu  

                           587    

             23.13    

                     120    

                 4.73    

                     612    

             24.11    

Kilinochchi   Batticaloa  

                           497                                200    

             19.48                  23.28    

                     113                              13    

                 4.43                      1.51    

                     638                              46    

             25.01                      5.36    

Ampara  

                               23    

             18.25    

                             2    

                 1.59    

                         15    

             11.90    

Trincomalee  

                           121    

             14.86    

                             3    

                 0.37    

                     159    

             19.53    

Total  

                   2,510    

             20.23    

                     498    

                 4.01    

             2,485    

             20.02    

  District  

Cadjan   Num  

%  

Type  of  housing  assistance  received   Roofing  Sheets   Num   %  

Cement  Bags   Num   %  

Jaffna   Mannar  

                                     7                                    50    

                 0.31                      4.84    

                     300                          227    

             13.36                  22.00    

                     329                          195    

             14.65                  18.90    

Vavuniya  

                               54    

                 2.41    

                     461    

             20.53    

                     365    

             16.26    

Mullativu  

                               64    

                 2.52    

                     359    

             14.14    

                     156    

                 6.15    

Kilinochchi  

                               23    

                 0.90    

                     617    

             24.19    

                     182    

                 7.13    

Batticaloa  

                               15    

                 1.75    

                     160    

             18.63    

                         66    

                 7.68    

Ampara  

                                     1    

                 0.79    

                         26    

             20.63    

                             2    

                 1.59    

Trincomalee  

                               19    

                 2.33    

                     101    

             12.41    

                         58    

                 7.13    

Total  

                           233    

                 1.88    

             2,251    

             18.14    

             1,353    

             10.90    

  Type  of  housing  assistance  received   District  

Transition   Shelter   Num  

Jaffna  

%  

Permanent  House   Num  

%  

   

Technical     Assistance   Num  

%  

67  

2.98  

268  

11.94  

27  

1.20  

Mannar   Vavuniya  

71   145  

6.88   6.46  

190   286  

18.41   12.74  

17   119  

1.65   5.30  

Mullativu   Kilinochchi  

223   105  

8.79   4.12  

362   353  

14.26   13.84  

55   23  

2.17   0.90  

Batticaloa   Ampara  

69   24  

8.03   19.05  

240   33  

27.94   26.19  

50   -­‐  

5.82   -­‐  

121   825  

14.86   6.65  

203   1,935  

24.94   15.59  

29   320  

3.56   2.58  

Trincomalee   Total  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Sec4  -­‐2.1    

Total  

        Num  

                     

%  

2,245  

100.00  

1,032   2,245  

100.00   100.00  

2,538   2,551  

100.00   100.00  

859   126  

100.00   100.00  

814   12,410  

100.00   100.00  

                                                                                                                        39

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  4.13  

Page  56    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

40

Table  2.28:  Obtaining  housing  loans    

   

   

Obtained  a  loan   District  

Yes  

No  

Num   Jaffna  

Total  

%  

Num  

    %  

Num  

%  

134  

14.79  

772  

85.21  

906  

100.00  

Mannar  

18  

3.43  

507  

96.57  

525  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

18  

2.81  

623  

97.19  

641  

100.00  

Mullativu  

75  

9.64  

703  

90.36  

778  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

64  

7.86  

750  

92.14  

814  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

51  

5.92  

810  

94.08  

861  

100.00  

1  

1.09  

91  

98.91  

92  

100.00  

31  

4.40  

673  

95.60  

704  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Sec4-­‐2.2/2.3     41

Table  2.29:  Purpose  for  obtaining  housing  loans     District  

Num   Jaffna  

   

Purpose   Construction  of     new  house   Repair/Improve   %  

Num  

Total      

%  

Num  

%  

110  

84.62  

20  

15.38  

130  

100.00  

Mannar  

14  

53.85  

12  

46.15  

26  

100.00  

Vavuniya   Mullativu  

9   60  

37.50   84.51  

15   11  

62.50   15.49  

24   71  

100.00   100.00  

Kilinochchi  

44  

66.67  

22  

33.33  

66  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

16  

33.33  

32  

66.67  

48  

100.00  

4  

100.00  

-­‐  

-­‐  

4  

100.00  

13  

50.00  

13  

50.00  

26  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Sec4-­‐2.2/2.3     42 Table  2.30:  Average  distance  from  the  housing  unit   District   Jaffna  

(Km)   0.81  

Mannar   Vavuniya  

0.93   2.02  

Mullativu  

1.15  

Kilinochchi  

1.84  

Batticaloa   Ampara  

2.51   2.82  

Trincomalee  

0.88  

Average  

1.49  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Sec4-­‐2.5    

                                                                                                                        40

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  4.14    Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  4.14   42  Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  4.17   41

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  57  

43

Table  2.31:  Distance  to  the  nearest  bus  route  (km)   District      

Distance  to  the  nearest  bus  route   Less  than  1  km   Num  

1  to  5  km  

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

Jaffna  

579    

63.49    

327    

35.86    

Mannar  

337    

62.18    

200    

36.90    

Vavuniya  

314    

48.23    

261    

40.09    

Mullativu  

490    

61.71    

270    

34.01    

Kilinochchi  

297    

35.83    

486    

Batticaloa  

492    

56.29    

29    

30.85    

497     3,035    

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

Total    

5  km  or  above   %  

6    

Num  

%  

0.66    

912    

100.00    

5    

0.92    

542    

100.00    

76    

11.67    

651    

100.00    

34    

4.28    

794    

100.00    

58.62    

46    

5.55    

829    

100.00    

278    

31.81    

104    

11.90    

874    

100.00    

33    

35.11    

32    

34.04    

94    

100.00    

68.93    

211    

29.26    

13    

1.80    

721    

100.00    

56.03    

2,066    

38.14    

316    

5.83    

5,417    

100.00    

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Sec4-­‐2.5     44

Table  2.32:  Availability  of  electricity     District     Jaffna  

 

   

   

Availability  of  electricity   Yes   Num  

Total  

No   %  

Num  

    %  

Num  

%  

618  

68.06  

290  

31.94  

908  

100.00  

Mannar  

329  

62.08  

201  

37.92  

530  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

311  

47.85  

339  

52.15  

650  

100.00  

Mullativu  

359  

45.39  

432  

54.61  

791  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

311  

37.70  

514  

62.30  

825  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

371  

42.55  

501  

57.45  

872  

100.00  

40  

43.01  

53  

56.99  

93  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

585  

81.25  

135  

18.75  

720  

100.00  

2,924  

54.26  

2,465  

45.74  

5,389  

100.00  

Base  :  All  who  reported  on  Sec  4-­‐2.4  

 

   

   

   

 

                                                                                                                        43

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  4.16   Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  4.15  

44

Page  58    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

45

Table  2.33:  Type  of  housing  assistance  received  

   

Type  of  housing  assistance  received   Rs.25,000  Cash   Grant  (From  GOSL)    

District  

Rs.25,000  Cash   Grant    (From  Indian  Govt.)    

Tarpaulin  Sheets  

Jaffna  

Num                              609    

%                27.13    

Num                        175    

%                    7.80    

Num                        463    

%                20.62    

Mannar   Vavuniya  

                           154                                319    

             14.92                  14.21    

                         16                              56    

                 1.55                      2.49    

                     112                          440    

             10.85                  19.60    

Mullativu   Kilinochchi  

                           587                                497    

             23.13                  19.48    

                     120                          113    

                 4.73                      4.43    

                     612                          638    

             24.11                  25.01    

Batticaloa   Ampara  

                           200                                    23    

             23.28                  18.25    

                         13                                  2    

                 1.51                      1.59    

                         46                              15    

                 5.36                  11.90    

Trincomalee   Total  

                           121                        2,510    

             14.86                  20.23    

                             3                          498    

                 0.37                      4.01    

                     159                  2,485    

             19.53                  20.02    

  Type  of  housing  assistance  received   District  

Cadjan   Num  

Roofing  Sheets   Num  

%  

Cement  Bags  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna   Mannar  

                                     7                                    50    

                 0.31                      4.84    

                     300                          227    

             13.36                  22.00    

                     329                          195    

             14.65                  18.90    

Vavuniya   Mullativu  

                               54                                    64    

                 2.41                      2.52    

                     461                          359    

             20.53                  14.14    

                     365                          156    

             16.26                      6.15    

Kilinochchi  

                               23    

                 0.90    

                     617    

             24.19    

                     182    

                 7.13    

Batticaloa   Ampara  

                               15                                          1    

                 1.75                      0.79    

                     160                              26    

             18.63                  20.63    

                         66                                  2    

                 7.68                      1.59    

Trincomalee  

                               19    

                 2.33    

                     101    

             12.41    

                         58    

                 7.13    

Total  

                           233    

                 1.88    

             2,251    

             18.14    

             1,353    

             10.90    

  Type  of  housing  assistance  received   District  

Transition   Shelter   Num  

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullativu  

%  

67  

2.98  

71  

6.88  

145  

6.46  

223  

8.79  

Permanent  House   Num   268   190   286   362  

%  

   

Technical     Assistance   Num  

11.94   18.41   12.74   14.26  

%  

27   17   119   55  

1.20   1.65   5.30   2.17  

105  

4.12  

353  

13.84  

23  

0.90  

Batticaloa  

69  

8.03  

240  

27.94  

50  

5.82  

Trincomalee   Total  

24  

19.05  

33  

26.19  

-­‐  

-­‐  

121  

14.86  

203  

24.94  

29  

3.56  

825  

6.65  

1,935  

15.59  

320  

Num  

   

Kilinochchi   Ampara  

Total  

       

2.58  

               

%  

2,245  

100.00  

1,032  

100.00  

2,245  

100.00  

2,538  

100.00  

2,551  

100.00  

859  

100.00  

126  

100.00  

814  

100.00  

12,410  

100.00  

 

Base:  All  who  reported  on  Sec  4-­‐2.1    

                                                                                                                        45

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  4.13  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  59  

46

Table  2.34:  Obtaining  housing  loans    

   

   

Obtained  a  loan   District  

Total  

Yes   Num  

Jaffna  

No   %  

Num  

    %  

Num  

%  

134  

14.79  

772  

85.21  

906  

100.00  

Mannar  

18  

3.43  

507  

96.57  

525  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

18  

2.81  

623  

97.19  

641  

100.00  

Mullativu  

75  

9.64  

703  

90.36  

778  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

64  

7.86  

750  

92.14  

814  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

51  

5.92  

810  

94.08  

861  

100.00  

1  

1.09  

91  

98.91  

92  

100.00  

31  

4.40  

673  

95.60  

704  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee  

Base:  All  who  reported  on  Sec  4-­‐2.2/2.3   47

Table  2.35:  Purpose  for  obtaining  housing  loans    

   

Purpose   District  

Total  

Construction  of    new  house   Num  

Jaffna  

Repair/Improve  

%  

Num  

    %  

Num  

%  

110  

84.62  

20  

15.38  

130  

100.00  

Mannar  

14  

53.85  

12  

46.15  

26  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

9  

37.50  

15  

62.50  

24  

100.00  

Mullativu  

60  

84.51  

11  

15.49  

71  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

44  

66.67  

22  

33.33  

66  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

16  

33.33  

32  

66.67  

48  

100.00  

4  

100.00  

-­‐  

-­‐  

4  

100.00  

13  

50.00  

13  

50.00  

26  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee  

Base:  All  who  reported  on  Sec  4-­‐2.2/2.3        

                                                                                                                        46

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  4.14    Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  4.14  

47

Page  60    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Returnee Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

2.5    

Returnee  Water,  Sanitation  and  Hygiene  (WASH)  

This  section  of  the  questionnaire  was  broadly  divided  into  the  following  sections;     · Water  supply  and  use  –  drinking  and  cooking;     · Water  supply  and  use  –  bathing  and  washing;     · Sanitation  facilities;   · Hygiene  practices.      

2.5.1   Water  Related  Illness  

  Water  is  essential  for  life,  health  and  human  dignity.  In  most  cases,  health  problems  are  caused  primarily  by  poor   hygiene   due   to   insufficient   water   intake   and   by   the   consumption   of   contaminated   water.   The   amount   of   water   related   illness   is   an   important   initial   indicator   of   the   quality   of   WASH   services.   Almost   all   respondents   who   answered   questions   on   water   related   illness   reported   no   such   incidences   in   the   last   three   months   (94.71   per   cent)   indicating  that    WASH  program  is  effective  in  all  the  districts.Batticaloa  had  the  highest  incidence  (8.58  per  cent)   and  Mannar  the  lowest  (1.70  per  cent)  amongst  returnees.    

2.5.2   Water  Supply  and  Use  –  Drinking  and  Cooking  

  Water,   Sanitation   and   Hygiene   (WASH)   is   a   sector   in   which   a   number   of   international   standards   exist.   With   reference  to  water  supply  and  usage,  the  following  standards  provide  the  relevant  context:   48 · Water  supply  standard  1 recommends  that  everyone  should  “have  safe  and  equitable  access  to  a  sufficient   quantity  of  water  for  drinking,  cooking  and  personal  and  domestic  hygiene”  and  that  “public  water  points  are   sufficiently  close  to  households  to  enable  use  of  the  minimum  water  requirement.”     · Water   supply   standard   2   calls   for   water   to   be   “palatable   and   of   sufficient   quality   to   be   drunk   and   used   for   cooking  and  personal  and  domestic  hygiene  without  causing  risk  to  health”.   · Water   supply   standard   3   states   that   “people   have   adequate   facilities   to   collect,   store   and   use   sufficient   quantities  of  water  for  drinking,  cooking  and  personal  hygiene,  and  to  ensure  that  drinking  water  remains  safe   until  it  is  consumed”.     · Excreta   disposal   standard   1   calls   for   an   “environment   free   from   human   faeces”   requiring   that   “the   living   environment  in  general  and  specifically  the  habitat,  food  production  areas,  public  centers  and  surroundings  of   drinking  water  sources  are  free  from  human  faecal  contamination”.       This  section  looks  at  the  supply  and  use  of  water  for  drinking  and  cooking  and  washing  and  bathing.  For  each,  the   issues  of  quality  and  quantity  were  assessed.       Regarding  the  water  supply,  the  JNA  assessment  sought  to  establish  the  main  source  of  water  supply  for  drinking   and  cooking  purposes.  For  most  returnees,  the  most  common  sources  of  safe  water  are  wells  –  either  one’s  “own   protected   well”’   (30.3   per   cent)   or   a   “common   protected   well”   (23.7   per   cent).   Less   than   one   in   ten   have   their   “own  tap”  (5.6  per  cent)  or  a  “common  tap”  (7.5  per  cent).  Just  over  one  in  ten  (13.8  per  cent)  said  that  their  main   source  of  water  is  their  neighbor’s  house.  A  higher  proportion  of  households  in  the  18-­‐29  year  age  group  (29.8  per   cent)  obtained  water  from  common  protected  wells  compared  to  the  average  household.       In  relation  to  the  quality  of  the  water  for  drinking  and  cooking  purposes,  nearly  three  quarters  (74.3  per  cent)  of   households   reported   that   water   was   “drinkable   without   boiling”.   This   finding   was   most   prevalent   in   Jaffna   (89.5   per   cent),   and   least   prevalent   in   the   Batticaloa   district   (60.8   per   cent).   A   total   of   23.9   per   cent   of   households   reported  that  water  was  drinkable  “after  boiling  or  filtering”.    

                                                                                                                        48

 Humanitarian  Charter  and  Minimum  Standards  in  Humanitarian  response  –  The  Sphere  Project  (2011)  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  63  

When   asked   if   there   was   adequate   supply   of   water   for   drinking   and   cooking,   (83.3   per   cent)   replied   in   the   affirmative.  High  adequacy  (which  is  measured  between  80  per  cent  and  90  per  cent)  was  reported  in  Mullaitivu,   Mannar,  Jaffna,  Kilinochchi  and  Vavuniya.  Between  75  per  cent  and  80  per  cent  of  households  reported  adequacy   in  Batticaloa,  Ampara  and  Trincomalee  districts.       Nearly   one   quarter   (24.9   per   cent)   reported   that   water   was   not   available   “through   the   year”.   In   Batticaloa   and   Ampara  the  percentages  are  39.38  and  36.17.  Out  of  these,  just  over  a  third  (36.1  per  cent)  also  said  that  there   was   no   alternative   source,   meaning   that   around   one   in   ten   families   at   times   have   no   source   of   safe   water   for   drinking  and  cooking  purposes  at  some  point  in  a  typical  year.       For   the   nearly   two-­‐thirds   (63.9   per   cent)   of   people   who   do   have   an   alternative,   the   solution   more   commonly   comes   from   the   government   (24.7   per   cent)   with   (15.3   per   cent)   shared   by   NGOs.   Around   three   quarters   of   returnees  reported  the  availability  of  alternative  water  sources  in  Jaffna,  and  Mullaitivu.  The  lowest  proportions  of   households   reporting   availability   of   alternative   water   sources   was   in   Mannar   district   (30   per   cent)   followed   by   Ampara  district  (38  per  cent),  while  60  per  cent  to  (70  per  cent)  reported  availability  of  alternative  water  sources  in   the  other  districts.     The   average   distance   to   the   main   source   of   drinking   water   was   101.8m.   People   were   found   to   walk   relatively   similar  distances  in  all  districts,  with  the  smallest  distance  being  Mullaitivu  at  73.5m,  and  the  longest  being  Mannar   at  141m.       People  were  asked  if  they  had  received  assistance  for  the  improvement  of  their  domestic  water  supplies.  One  third   (34  per  cent)  said  they  had  received  some  form  of  assistance;  the  prevalent  form  of  assistance  was  a  permanent   latrine  –  which  85.8  per  cent  had  benefitted  from  (all  other  forms  of  assistance  recorded  at  less  than  ten  per  cent).   About  43  per  cent  of  the  returnees  reported  that  they  owned  a  domestic  well  prior  to  displacement.    

2.5.3   Water  Supply  and  Use  –  Washing  and  Bathing  

  The   most   common   sources   of   water   for   washing   and   bathing   purposes   were   similar   to   those   reported   for   drinking   (38.5  per  cent  for  “own  protected  well”  and  19.6  per  cent  for  “common  protected  well”).  However,  for  washing   and   bathing,   a   higher   proportion   of   returnees   use   water   from   tanks,   rivers   and   springs   (between   1   and   10   per   cent).       In  relation  to  the  quality  of  water  for  washing  and  bathing,  nearly  9  out  of  10  respondents  (87.3  per  cent)  said  that   this  water  was  “suitable  for  washing  and  bathing”.       The   average   distance   for   fetching   water   for   washing   and   bathing   was   found   to   be   102m   -­‐   very   similar   to   the   101.8m   previously   outlined   figure   for   “drinking   and   cooking”.   Moreover,   at   the   district   level,   the   figures   were   very   similar.      

2.5.4   Sanitation  Facilities  

  Standards  of  relevance  for  this  section  are:     · Excreta  disposal  standard  2  calls  for  appropriate  and  adequate  toilet  facilities;  i.e.  that  “people  have  adequate,   appropriate   and   acceptable   toilet   facilities,   sufficiently   close   to   their   dwellings,   to   allow   rapid,   safe   and   secure   access  at  all  times,  day  and  night.”     · Hygiene  promotion  standard  1,  pertaining  to  hygiene  promotion  implementation,  requires  that  “affected  men,   women  and  children  of  all  ages  are  aware  of  key  public  health  risks  and  are  mobilized  to  adopt  measures  to   prevent  the  deterioration  in  hygienic  conditions  and  to  use  and  maintain  the  facilities  provided”.     Page  64    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

A   key   question   asked   in   this   section   was   related   to   toilet   ownership.   In   total,   71.3   per   cent   of   returnees   have   their   own  toilets  in  their  houses.  Therefore,  over  a  quarter  (28.7  per  cent)  does  not  have  their  own  toilet.       The   highest   proportion   with   their   own   toilets   was   in   Jaffna   (79   per   cent),   followed   closely   by   Mullaitivu   (78   per   cent),  Kilinochchi  (77  per  cent),  and  Trincomalee  (75  per  cent).  The  equivalent  figure  in  Mannar  was  70  per  cent,   and  in  Vavuniya  was  65  per  cent.  In  Ampara  (58  per  cent)  and  Batticaloa  (55  per  cent)  toilet  ownership  decreased   almost  to  half  of  the  households.  At  a  demographic  level,  one  key  finding  was  that  fewer  younger-­‐led  households   own  toilets  (58.3  per  cent  aged)  than  is  the  case  in  households  led  by  people  aged  30-­‐54  (74.4  per  cent).     Across   districts,   16.6   per   cent   of   households   share   their   toilets   with   other   households.   The   highest   level   of  sharing   was  22.9  per  cent  in  Trincomalee.  The  lowest  level  of  sharing  (8.9  per  cent)  was  in  Ampara.     The   number   of   families   (approaching   one   tenth   of   the   sample)   reported   having   no   toilets   and   not   sharing   one   was   628.  Therefore,  the  assumption  is  that  they  probably  defecate  in  the  open.  The  highest  levels  of  Open  Defecation   (OD)  were  found  in  Batticaloa,  and  Vavuniya.       The  predominant  type  of  toilet  owned  by  returnees  was  the  “permanent  water  sealed  without  flush”  type  (71.6   per  cent).  Nearly  one  in  five  (17.3  per  cent)  owned  a  “permanent  pit  latrine”  and  3.9  per  cent  owned  temporary   toilets.       Over  three  quarters  (75.6  per  cent)  of  returnee  households  reported  that  the  quality  of  the  toilets  was  adequate.   The   highest   proportion   (85.2   per   cent)   was   reported   from   Jaffna;   the   lowest   proportion   (61   per   cent)   from   Ampara.       Of   the   24.4   per   cent   of   households   that   reported   that   the   quality   of   toilets   was   not   adequate,   the   main   quality   issue   was   the   lack   of   toilets   (65   per   cent   of   households).   Other   factors   included   the   need   for   toilets   to   be   repaired   (30   per   cent),   water   availability,   and   health   issues   (5   per   cent).   A   higher   proportion   of   toilets   (over   40   per   cent)   needed   to   be   repaired   in   Jaffna,   Kilinochchi   and   Trincomalee.   Between   20   and   30   per   cent   of   households   reported   that  toilets  needed  to  be  repaired  in  the  other  districts.      

2.5.5   Hygiene  Practices    

  In  terms  of  broader  hygiene  behavior,  over  (84  per  cent)  of  households  wash  their  hands  with  soap  prior  to  feeding   infants   or   children.   The   highest   proportion   was   found   in   Trincomalee   (93   per   cent,   followed   by   Ampara   (91   per   cent).  The  lowest  was  in  Vavuniya  (68  per  cent).  In  other  districts  it  varied  from  75  per  cent  to  (88  per  cent).       Over   (81   per   cent)   wash   their   hands   with   soap   after   cleaning   a   baby’s   toilet   waste.   Over   95   per   cent   of   the   households  wash  their  hands  with  soap  after  toilet  use.  Over  (73  per  cent)  of  all  households  have  attended  hygiene   training  programmes.      

 

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

 

   

Page  65  

49

Table  2.36:  Water-­‐  related  illness  in  last  3  months   Contacted  any  water  related  illness   District  

Yes   Num  

No  

Total  

Jaffna   Mannar  

32   9  

%   3.55   1.70  

Num   870   520  

%   96.45   98.30  

Num   902   529  

%   100.00   100.00  

Vavuniya   Mullativu  

38   32  

5.87   4.09  

609   750  

94.13   95.91  

647   782  

100.00   100.00  

Kilinochchi   Batticaloa  

44   74  

5.43   8.58  

766   788  

94.57   91.42  

810   862  

100.00   100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee  

8   45  

8.51   6.36  

86   663  

91.49   93.64  

94   708  

100.00   100.00  

282  

5.29  

5052  

94.71  

5334  

100.00  

Total  

Base:  All  reported  for  Sec.5-­‐Q.2.8     50 Table  2.36:  Main  source  of  water  supply  (for  drinking  and  cooking)   Source  of  Supply   District  

Own  Tap   Num  

Common  Tap   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

45  

4.95  

Mannar  

85  

15.95  

53  

Vavuniya  

9  

1.40  

110  

Mullativu  

10  

1.31  

36  

Kilinochchi  

27  

3.37  

Batticaloa  

16  

Ampara   Total  

8.79  

Num  

%  

Common  Protected   well   Num  

%  

358  

39.34  

232  

25.49  

9.94  

89  

16.70  

157  

29.46  

17.08  

165  

25.62  

115  

17.86  

4.71  

248  

32.42  

143  

18.69  

12  

1.50  

247  

30.84  

162  

20.22  

1.85  

65  

7.51  

260  

30.02  

242  

27.94  

35  

37.23  

6  

6.38  

7  

7.45  

26  

27.66  

73  

10.35  

39  

5.53  

239  

33.90  

184  

26.10  

300  

5.64  

401  

7.54  

1613  

30.33  

1261  

23.71  

Trincomalee  

80  

Own  Protected  well  

  Source  of  Supply   District  

Own  Unprotected   well   Num  

%  

Tank  /  Stream  /  River   Num  

%  

Bowser   Num  

Rainwater   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna   Mannar  

10   7  

1.10   1.31  

1   0  

0.11   0.00  

81   40  

8.90   7.50  

0   1  

0.00   0.19  

Vavuniya  

46  

7.14  

2  

0.31  

17  

2.64  

12  

1.86  

Mullativu  

166  

21.70  

1  

0.13  

3  

0.39  

1  

0.13  

Kilinochchi   Batticaloa  

106   12  

13.23   1.39  

1   19  

0.12   2.19  

57   1  

7.12   0.12  

3   0  

0.37   0.00  

4   31  

4.26   4.40  

2   9  

2.13   1.28  

0   11  

0.00   1.56  

0   1  

0.00   0.14  

382  

7.18  

35  

0.66  

210  

3.95  

18  

0.34  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

                                                                                                                        49

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  5.18    Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  5.01  

50

Page  66    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  2.36:  Main  source  of  water  supply  (for  drinking  and  cooking)  (continued)   Source  of  Supply   District  

Neighbors  House       Num  

%  

Common  Unprotected   well       Num  

%  

Private  well       Num  

Relations  well      

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

35  

3.85  

5  

0.55  

10  

1.10  

48  

5.27  

Mannar  

79  

14.82  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

8  

1.50  

Vavuniya  

80  

12.42  

27  

4.19  

2  

0.31  

17  

2.64  

Mullativu  

123  

16.08  

1  

0.13  

1  

0.13  

22  

2.88  

Kilinochchi  

159  

19.85  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

24  

3.00  

Batticaloa  

175  

20.21  

7  

0.81  

2  

0.23  

59  

6.81  

Ampara  

14  

14.89  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

Trincomalee  

71  

10.07  

0  

0.00  

14  

1.99  

29  

4.11  

736  

13.84  

40  

0.75  

29  

0.55  

207  

3.89  

Total  

   

   

   

Source  of  Supply   District  

Tube  well       Num  

Buying      

%  

Num  

Friends  house  well       %  

Num  

%  

Public  water  tank       Num  

%  

Jaffna  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

Mannar  

0  

0.00  

9  

1.69  

1  

0.19  

4  

0.75  

Vavuniya  

40  

6.21  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

Mullativu  

7  

0.92  

0  

0.00  

1  

0.13  

1  

0.13  

Kilinochchi  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

1  

0.12  

0  

0.00  

Batticaloa  

8  

0.92  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

Ampara  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

Trincomalee  

1  

0.14  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

2  

0.28  

56  

1.05  

9  

0.17  

3  

0.06  

7  

0.13  

Total  

 

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  67  

Table  2.36:  Main  source  of  water  supply  (for  drinking  and  cooking)  (continued)   Source  of  Supply   District  

Sand  well       Num  

Hospital  tap      

%  

Num  

Temple  well      

%  

Num  

School  well      

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

4  

0.44  

1  

0.11  

Mannar  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

Vavuniya  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

Mullativu  

0  

0.00  

1  

0.13  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

Kilinochchi  

2  

0.25  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

Batticaloa  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

Ampara  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

Trincomalee  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

Total  

2  

0.04  

1  

0.02  

4  

0.08  

1  

0.02  

  Source  of  Supply  

District  

Pump  tap      

Num  

Police  Station      

%  

Num  

%  

 

Irrigation  Institute      

Num  

%  

   

   

Total   No.of  HH   Reporting       Num  

Jaffna  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00      

910  

Mannar  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00      

533  

Vavuniya  

0  

0.00  

1  

0.16  

1  

0.16      

644  

Mullativu  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00      

765  

Kilinochchi  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00      

801  

Batticaloa  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00      

866  

Ampara  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00      

94  

Trincomalee  

1  

0.14  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00      

705  

Total  

1  

0.02  

1  

0.02  

1  

0.02      

5318  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Sec  5-­‐Q.1.1.  Percentages  and  totals  are  based  on  respondents.      

Page  68    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

51

Table  2.37:  Quality  of  water     Purpose   Drinking  and  Cooking   Quality   District  

Drinkable   without  boiling   Num  

Drinkable  after   boiling  and   filtering    

Drinkable  after   boiling  or  filtering  

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

Jaffna  

807  

89.47  

78  

8.65  

Mannar  

394  

73.78  

135  

Vavuniya  

441  

68.37  

176  

Mullativu  

584  

74.21  

Kilinochchi  

619  

Batticaloa  

528  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

Other  

%  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

16  

1.77  

1  

0.11  

902  

100.00  

25.28  

4  

0.75  

1  

0.19  

534  

100.00  

27.29  

28  

4.34  

0  

0.00  

645  

100.00  

188  

23.89  

14  

1.78  

1  

0.13  

787  

100.00  

76.61  

172  

21.29  

16  

1.98  

1  

0.12  

808  

100.00  

60.76  

334  

38.43  

7  

0.81  

0  

0.00  

869  

100.00  

75  

79.79  

18  

19.15  

1  

1.06  

0  

0.00  

94  

100.00  

529  

74.19  

179  

25.11  

5  

0.70  

0  

0.00  

713  

100.00  

3977  

74.31  

1280  

23.92  

91  

1.70  

4  

0.07  

5352  

100.00  

    Purpose   Washing  and  Bathing     Quality   District  

 

Suitable  for   washing  and   Bathing   Num  

Saline  or     muddy  

%  

Num  

Total        

Other  

%  

Num  

 

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

757  

83.10  

153  

16.79  

1  

0.11  

 

911  

100.00  

Mannar  

467  

87.45  

60  

11.24  

7  

1.31  

 

534  

100.00  

6.00  

 

650  

100.00  

0.76  

 

790  

100.00  

2.06  

 

827  

100.00  

0.69  

 

874  

100.00  

0.00  

 

94  

100.00  

0.70  

 

718  

100.00  

1.50  

 

5398  

100.00  

Vavuniya   Mullativu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

565   750   707   759   83   623   4711  

86.92  

46  

94.94  

34  

85.49  

103  

86.84  

109  

88.30  

11  

86.77  

90  

87.27  

606  

7.08  

39  

4.30  

6  

12.45  

17  

12.47  

6  

11.70  

0  

12.53  

5  

11.23  

81  

Base:  All  reported  to  Sec  5  -­‐Q.1.3  &  Q.1.8        

   

   

 

   

   

 

                                                                                                                        51

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  5.06  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  69  

52

Table  2.38  -­‐  Adequacy,  availability  and  alternate  supply  of  water  cross  tabulation   Adequacy,  Availability  and  Alternate  supply  of  water   Water  supply  inadequate  

District  

Yes  

No  

Num  

%  

Total  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

788  

86.59  

122  

13.41  

910  

100.00  

Mannar  

463  

86.70  

71  

13.30  

534  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

531  

81.82  

118  

18.18  

649  

100.00  

Mullativu  

698  

88.47  

91  

11.53  

789  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

711  

86.08  

115  

13.92  

826  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

665  

76.17  

208  

23.83  

873  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

68  

74.73  

23  

25.27  

91  

100.00  

563  

78.63  

153  

21.37  

716  

100.00  

4487  

83.28  

901  

16.72  

5388  

100.00  

  Adequacy,  Availability  and  Alternate  supply  of  water   Available  throughout  year  

District  

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

Jaffna  

775  

85.16  

Mannar  

447  

Vavuniya  

491  

Mullativu  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

135  

14.84  

910  

100.00  

84.02  

85  

15.98  

532  

100.00  

75.89  

156  

24.11  

647  

100.00  

603  

76.62  

184  

23.38  

787  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

630  

76.64  

192  

23.36  

822  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

528  

60.62  

343  

39.38  

871  

100.00  

60  

63.83  

34  

36.17  

94  

100.00  

503  

70.55  

210  

29.45  

713  

100.00  

4037  

75.09  

1339  

24.91  

5376  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

   

 

                                                                                                                        52

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  5.07  

Page  70    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  2.38  -­‐  Adequacy,  availability  and  alternate  supply  of  water  cross  tabulation  (continued)   Adequacy,  Availability  and  Alternate  supply  of  water   Availability  of  Alternate  source  of  water  

District  

Yes   Num  

Jaffna  

No   %  

Total  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

106  

79.70  

27  

20.30  

133  

100.00  

Mannar  

25  

29.07  

61  

70.93  

86  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

112  

69.57  

49  

30.43  

161  

100.00  

Mullativu  

145  

74.74  

49  

25.26  

194  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

143  

65.60  

75  

34.40  

218  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

191  

59.32  

131  

40.68  

322  

100.00  

Ampara  

13  

38.24  

21  

61.76  

34  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

132  

63.46  

76  

36.54  

208  

100.00  

Total  

867  

63.94  

489  

36.06  

1356  

100.00  

  Adequacy,  Availability  and  Alternate  supply  of  water   District  

Type  of  source   Local  Govt.   Num  

NGO  

%  

Num  

Other   %  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

35  

22.44  

33  

21.15  

88  

56.41  

156  

100.00  

Mannar  

11  

34.38  

5  

15.63  

16  

50.00  

32  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

10  

8.13  

12  

9.76  

101  

82.11  

123  

100.00  

Mullativu  

45  

21.95  

49  

23.90  

111  

54.15  

205  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

37  

25.87  

4  

2.80  

102  

71.33  

143  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

66  

23.57  

54  

19.29  

160  

57.14  

280  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

1  

6.25  

4  

25.00  

11  

68.75  

16  

100.00  

68  

45.03  

8  

5.30  

75  

49.67  

151  

100.00  

273  

24.68  

169  

15.28  

664  

60.04  

1106  

100.00  

Base:  All  reported    

 

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

 

   

Page  71  

53

Table  2.39:  Ownership  and  type  of  toilet  facilities  

   

Toilet  Facilities   Have  a  toilet?   District  

Yes  

No  

Num  

%  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

719  

79.36  

187  

20.64  

906  

100.00  

Mannar  

374  

70.30  

158  

29.70  

532  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

428  

65.85  

222  

34.15  

650  

100.00  

Mullativu  

615  

77.75  

176  

22.25  

791  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

635  

76.78  

192  

23.22  

827  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

481  

55.03  

393  

44.97  

874  

100.00  

55  

58.51  

39  

41.49  

94  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

536  

74.55  

183  

25.45  

719  

100.00  

3843  

71.26  

1550  

28.74  

5393  

100.00  

  Toilet  Facilities    Sharing  with  another  HH   District  

Yes  

No  

Num  

%  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

95  

12.86  

644  

87.14  

739  

100.00  

Mannar  

67  

17.91  

307  

82.09  

374  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

75  

17.28  

359  

82.72  

434  

100.00  

Mullativu  

72  

11.45  

557  

88.55  

629  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

136  

21.22  

505  

78.78  

641  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

72  

14.66  

419  

85.34  

491  

100.00  

Ampara  

5  

8.93  

51  

91.07  

56  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

128  

22.86  

432  

77.14  

560  

100.00  

Total  

650  

16.56  

3274  

83.44  

3924  

100.00  

       

 

                                                                                                                        53

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  5.13  

Page  72    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  2.39:  Ownership  and  type  of  toilet  facilities   Toilet  Facilities   Type  of  Toilet   District  

Permanent,   water  sealed  with   flush   Num  

Jaffna  

%  

Permanent,   water  sealed   without  flush   Num  

Permanent  pit   latrine  

%  

Num  

%  

51  

6.99  

662  

90.68  

4  

0.55  

Mannar  

4  

1.05  

254  

66.84  

88  

23.16  

Vavuniya  

8  

1.87  

397  

92.97  

1  

0.23  

Mullativu  

50  

8.09  

81  

13.11  

416  

67.31  

Kilinochchi  

18  

2.73  

433  

65.71  

122  

18.51  

Batticaloa  

10  

2.07  

471  

97.52  

0  

0.00  

8  

14.29  

42  

75.00  

1  

1.79  

41  

7.44  

455  

82.58  

44  

7.99  

190  

4.87  

2795  

71.59  

676  

17.32  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

  Toilet  Facilities  Type  of  Toilet   District  

Water  sealed   with  temporary   super  structure  

Pit  latrine  with   temporary  super   structure  

 

Temporary  latrine  

   

Num  

%  

   

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

3  

0.41  

5  

0.68  

5  

0.68  

Mannar  

6  

1.58  

6  

1.58  

22  

5.79  

 

Vavuniya   Mullativu  

7   14  

1.64   2.27  

1   18  

0.23  

13  

2.91  

39  

Total         Num  

%  

730  

100.00  

380  

100.00  

3.04  

 

427  

100.00  

6.31  

 

618  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

16  

2.43  

10  

1.52  

60  

9.10  

 

659  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

1  

0.21  

0  

0.00  

1  

0.21  

 

483  

100.00  

8.93  

 

56  

100.00  

551  

100.00  

3904  

100.00  

Ampara  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

5  

Trincomalee  

3  

0.54  

0  

0.00  

8  

1.45  

 

Total  

50  

1.28  

40  

1.02  

153  

3.92  

 

Base:  All  reported  for  Sec.5  -­‐  Q.  2.1/2.2/2.3    

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

 

Page  73  

54

Table  2.40:  Hygiene  practices     Hygiene  practices   Wash  hands  with  soap  before  feeding  infant/baby?  

District  

Yes  

No  

Num  

%  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

478  

76.11  

150  

23.89  

628  

100.00  

Mannar  

460  

87.95  

63  

12.05  

523  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

393  

67.53  

189  

32.47  

582  

100.00  

Mullativu  

565  

86.66  

87  

13.34  

652  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

552  

84.40  

102  

15.60  

654  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

710  

87.44  

102  

12.56  

812  

100.00  

Ampara  

73  

91.25  

7  

8.75  

80  

100.00  

619  

92.80  

48  

7.20  

667  

100.00  

3850  

83.73  

748  

16.27  

4598  

100.00  

Trincomalee   Total    

Hygiene  practices   Wash  hands  with  soap  after  cleaning  of  baby's  toilet   waste?  

District  

Yes  

No  

Num  

%  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

441  

68.69  

201  

31.31  

642  

100.00  

Mannar  

459  

88.10  

62  

11.90  

521  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

421  

70.28  

178  

29.72  

599  

100.00  

Mullativu  

595  

90.56  

62  

9.44  

657  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

546  

83.74  

106  

16.26  

652  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

646  

79.46  

167  

20.54  

813  

100.00  

12  

16.67  

60  

83.33  

72  

100.00  

640  

95.81  

28  

4.19  

668  

100.00  

3760  

81.31  

864  

18.69  

4624  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

   

 

                                                                                                                        54

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  5.17  

Page  74    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  2.40:  Hygiene  practices  (continued)   Hygiene  practices   District  

Wash  your  hands  with  soap  after  using  toilet?   Yes   Num  

No   %  

Toilet  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

806  

96.53  

29  

3.47  

835  

100.00  

Mannar  

487  

92.06  

42  

7.94  

529  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

571  

88.12  

77  

11.88  

648  

100.00  

Mullativu  

764  

97.57  

19  

2.43  

783  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

766  

93.87  

50  

6.13  

816  

100.00  

Batticaloa   Ampara  

714   20  

94.95   100.00  

38   0  

5.05   0.00  

752   20  

100.00   100.00  

Trincomalee  

693  

98.16  

13  

1.84  

706  

100.00  

4821  

94.73  

268  

5.27  

5089  

100.00  

Total    

Hygiene  practices   Participated  in  Hygiene  Awareness,  Training?  

District  

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Jaffna  

558  

67.80  

Mannar  

435  

Vavuniya  

434  

Mullativu  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

265  

32.20  

823  

100.00  

82.70  

91  

17.30  

526  

100.00  

67.71  

207  

32.29  

641  

100.00  

563  

72.37  

215  

27.63  

778  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

639  

78.60  

174  

21.40  

813  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

565  

75.53  

183  

24.47  

748  

100.00  

19  

95.00  

1  

5.00  

20  

100.00  

495  

71.22  

200  

28.78  

695  

100.00  

3708  

73.51  

1336  

26.49  

5044  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

All  reported  for  Sec  5-­‐Q.2.9/Q.2.10.  Percentages  and  totals  are  based  on  respondents.          

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  75  

 

 

Page  76    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Returnee Health Services

2.6  

Returnee  Health  Services  

  This  section  focused  specifically  on  the  health  of  the  last-­‐born  child.  Given  the  comprehensive  availability  of  health   data  in  Sri  Lanka,  only  a  few  questions  were  included  in  the  JNA  questionnaire.  The  ten  questions  asked  by  the  JNA   survey  explored  two  main  themes:   · Antenatal  care  for  the  mother;   · Care  during  and  after  birth.    

2.6.1   Antenatal  Care  for  the  Mother  

  Across   districts,   90.30   per   cent   of   households   where   a   child   was   born   claimed   that   the   mother   had   received   antenatal   care.   Most   commonly,   this   care   was   provided   by   Medical   Officer   of   Health   clinic   (62.3   per   cent   of   the   1,334   households   answering   this   question).   In   over   a   third   of   cases   (36   per   cent),   a   government   hospital   had   provided   care.   Private   hospitals   and   municipal   clinics   provided   care   in   less   than   one   per   cent   of   cases.   During   pregnancy,   in   four   out   of   five   cases   (79.5   per   cent),   a   midwife   visited   the   mother.   Where   this   was   the   case,   the   midwife  tended  to  visit  twice  (69.9  per  cent  of  cases).      

2.6.2   Care  During  and  After  Birth  

  A  clear  majority  of  births  happened  in  government  hospitals  (85.6  per  cent).  Nearly  one  in  ten  of  the  most  recent   births   (8.3   per   cent)   had   taken   place   in   the   individuals’   own   houses.   However,   slightly   more   (4.2   per   cent)   had   given  birth  in  “another  home”.  Every  other  possible  type  of  place  for  child  birth  accounted  for  less  than  two  per   cent  of  all  births.       The  delivery  itself  was  handled  by  doctors  in  nearly  two-­‐thirds  (62.1  per  cent)  of  cases,  and  by  a  nurse  /  midwife  in   28.3   per   cent   of   cases.   No   other   type   of   person   was   involved   to   any   significant   extent,   although   “relatives   /   friends”   did   support   in   3.4   per   cent   of   cases.   In   every   single   case   –   all   of   the   1,528   births   –   a   public   health   midwife   checked  on  the  health  of  the  mother.       Finally,   mothers   were   asked   what   their   broad   preferred   sources   of   information   on   health   were.   Three   broad   categories  were  offered:  “Personal”,  “Place”  and  “Mass  Media”.  A  higher  number  of  mothers  chose  “Place”  (1,450)   than  “Mass  Media”  (1,334)  was  selected;  “Personal”  (735  responders)  ranked  third.  Mothers  were  then  asked  for   more  details  on  the  specific  sources  of  interest  to  them  within  these  broad  areas.  Within  the  “Place”  option,  two   specific  types  of  information  were  of  interest;  “MOH  Clinic”  (54.5  per  cent),  and  “Government  Hospital”  (40.6  per   cent).  Within  “Mass  Media”  three  sources  were  of  interest  to  more  than  a  quarter  of  mothers;  “radio”  (26.1  per   cent),   “television”   (30.3   per   cent)   and   “newspapers”   (34.6   per   cent).   Within   “Personal”,   the   one   clearly   most   important  specific  source  was  “doctor  (western)”  (88.7  per  cent).    

2.6.3   Vaccination  

  Over  three  quarters  of  households  said  that  the  children  and  women  living  there  had  vaccination  cards.  However,   in  one  district  –  Mannar  –  only  a  minority  of  families  (44.3  per  cent)  stated  the  same.          

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  79  

55

Table  2.41  Information  related  to  pregnant  women   Information  related  to    pregnant  women   District  

Was  she  given   iron/folate   supplement?  

Visited  antenatal   clinic?   Num  

%  

Num  

Was  she  given   Thriposha?  

%  

Num  

Total  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

19  

95.00  

17  

85.00  

12  

60.0  

48  

100.00  

Mannar  

25  

92.59  

23  

85.19  

23  

85.19  

71  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

15  

88.24  

12  

70.59  

13  

76.47  

40  

100.00  

Mullativu  

19  

100.00  

17  

89.47  

18  

94.74  

54  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

21  

77.78  

16  

59.26  

17  

62.96  

54  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

26  

92.86  

21  

75.00  

22  

78.57  

69  

100.00  

2  

66.67  

2  

66.67  

2  

66.67  

6  

100.00  

22  

91.67  

19  

79.17  

19  

79.17  

60  

100.00  

149  

90.30  

127  

76.97  

126  

76.36  

402  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Sec.  6-­‐Q.3.2.1/3.2.2/3.2.3     56

Table  2.42:  Reasons  for  not  attending  antenatal  clinic   Reasons  for  not  attending  clinic   District  

Clinic  situated  too   far  

Did  not  know   Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Total   Num  

%  

Mannar  

1  

100  

0  

0  

1  

100  

Mullativu  

1  

100  

0  

0  

1  

100  

Kilinochchi  

0  

0  

1  

100  

1  

100  

Ampara  

1  

100  

0  

0  

1  

100  

Total  

3  

75  

1  

25  

4  

100  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Sec.6-­‐Q.3.3    

 

 

                                                                                                                        55

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  6.10    Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  6.11  

56

Page  80    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

57

Table  2.43:  Information  with  regard  to  the  last  child  birth  

   

Information  with  regard  to  child  birth   Seen  anyone  for  antenatal  care   District  

Yes  

No  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

279  

93.31  

20  

Mannar  

181  

92.82  

Vavuniya  

183  

80.97  

Mullativu  

197  

Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

Total   Num  

%  

6.69  

299   100.00  

14  

7.18  

195   100.00  

43  

19.03  

226   100.00  

81.74  

44  

18.26  

241   100.00  

204  

94.01  

13  

5.99  

217   100.00  

282  

85.45  

48  

14.55  

330   100.00  

13  

86.67  

2  

13.33  

15   100.00  

249  

62.09  

152  

37.91  

401   100.00  

1588  

82.54  

336  

17.46  

1924   100.00  

  Information  with  regard  to  child  birth   Where  received  care   District  

MOH  office   clinic   Num  

Jaffna  

Govt.  hospital  

%  

Num  

%  

Municipal   clinic   Num  

%  

Private   hospital   Num  

%  

Total   Num  

%  

168  

61.54  

100  

36.63  

3  

1.10  

2  

0.73  

273  

100.00  

Mannar  

82  

47.95  

87  

50.88  

2  

1.17  

0  

0.00  

171  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

123  

72.35  

46  

27.06  

1  

0.59  

0  

0.00  

170  

100.00  

Mullativu  

83  

43.23  

108  

56.25  

0  

0.00  

1  

0.52  

192  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

130  

65.00  

68  

34.00  

2  

1.00  

0  

0.00  

200  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

223  

82.90  

35  

13.01  

5  

1.86  

6  

2.23  

269  

100.00  

6  

46.15  

7  

53.85  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

13  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

136  

56.90  

98  

41.00  

2  

0.84  

3  

1.26  

239  

100.00  

Total  

951  

62.28  

549  

35.95  

15  

0.98  

12  

0.79  

1527  

100.00  

Ampara  

 

 

                                                                                                                        57

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  6.12  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  81  

Table  2.43:  Information  with  regard  to  the  last  child  birth  (continued)   Information  with  regard  to  child  birth   Weeks  pregnant   District  

1   Num  

2   %  

Num  

3   %  

Total  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

23  

8.24  

74  

26.52  

182  

65.23  

279  

100.00  

Mannar  

34  

19.10  

37  

20.79  

107  

60.11  

178  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

38  

20.77  

49  

26.78  

96  

52.46  

183  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

32  

16.24  

60  

30.46  

105  

53.30  

197  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

45  

22.06  

71  

34.80  

88  

43.14  

204  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

14  

4.96  

88  

31.21  

180  

63.83  

282  

100.00  

0  

0.00  

3  

23.08  

10  

76.92  

13  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

35  

14.06  

83  

33.33  

131  

52.61  

249  

100.00  

221  

13.94  

465  

29.34  

899  

56.72  

1585  

100.00  

  Information  with  regard  to  child  birth   Visits  of  midwife   District  

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

Jaffna  

278  

93.60  

19  

Mannar  

171  

91.44  

Vavuniya  

171  

76.34  

Mullaitivu  

216  

Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

6.40  

297  

100.00  

16  

8.56  

187  

100.00  

53  

23.66  

224  

100.00  

89.63  

25  

10.37  

241  

100.00  

208  

95.85  

9  

4.15  

217  

100.00  

234  

70.91  

96  

29.09  

330  

100.00  

10  

66.67  

5  

33.33  

15  

100.00  

231  

57.61  

170  

42.39  

401  

100.00  

1519  

79.45  

393  

20.55  

1912  

100.00  

Base:  All  reported  for  Sec.6-­‐Q.4.1  to  4.10        

Page  82    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  2.43:  Information  with  regard  to  the  last  child  birth  (continued)   Information  with  regard  to  child  birth   Number  of  Times  visited   District  

1   Num  

2   %  

Total  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

49  

17.63  

229  

82.37  

278  

100.00  

Mannar  

54  

31.58  

117  

68.42  

171  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

46  

26.90  

125  

73.10  

171  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

51  

23.61  

165  

76.39  

216  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

36  

17.31  

172  

82.69  

208  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

142  

60.68  

92  

39.32  

234  

100.00  

3  

30.00  

7  

70.00  

10  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

76  

32.90  

155  

67.10  

231  

100.00  

457  

30.09  

1062  

69.91  

1519  

100.00  

  Information  with  regard  to  child  birth   Assisted  by   District  

Doctor   Num  

Nurse/Midwife   %  

Num  

%  

Asst.Midwife   Num  

%  

Jaffna  

212  

71.86  

66  

22.37  

11  

3.73  

Mannar  

106  

56.99  

56  

30.11  

8  

4.30  

Vavuniya  

115  

62.16  

62  

33.51  

3  

1.62  

Mullaitivu  

109  

48.23  

81  

35.84  

23  

10.18  

Kilinochchi  

130  

60.47  

69  

32.09  

9  

4.19  

Batticaloa  

212  

65.63  

74  

22.91  

12  

3.72  

11  

84.62  

1  

7.69  

1  

7.69  

161  

62.65  

72  

28.02  

18  

7.00  

1056  

62.12  

481  

28.29  

85  

5.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

 

   

Page  83  

Table  2.43:  Information  with  regard  to  the  last  child  birth  (continued)   Information  with  regard  to  child  birth       Assisted  by   District  

Birth  Attendant  

Relative/Friend  

Num  

Num  

%  

  Total      

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

1  

0.34  

5  

1.69  

295  

100.00  

Mannar  

1  

0.54  

15  

8.06  

186  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

3  

1.62  

2  

1.08  

185  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

7  

3.10  

6  

2.65  

226  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

0  

0.00  

7  

3.26  

215  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

5  

1.55  

20  

6.19  

323  

100.00  

Ampara  

0  

0.00  

-­‐  

-­‐  

13  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

4  

1.56  

2  

0.78  

257  

100.00  

21  

1.24  

57  

3.35  

1700  

100.00  

Total  

  Information  with  regard  to  child  birth   Delivery  at   District  

Your  home   Num  

Jaffna  

Other  home  

%  

Num  

%  

Govt.  hospital   Num  

%  

17  

5.76  

10  

3.39  

264  

89.49  

Mannar  

7  

3.78  

2  

1.08  

173  

93.51  

Vavuniya  

15  

8.02  

7  

3.74  

164  

87.70  

Mullaitivu  

15  

6.67  

12  

5.33  

194  

86.22  

Kilinochchi  

20  

9.26  

16  

7.41  

179  

82.87  

Batticaloa  

42  

13.00  

10  

3.10  

260  

80.50  

1  

7.69  

0  

0.00  

12  

92.31  

24  

9.30  

15  

5.81  

211  

81.78  

141  

8.28  

72  

4.23  

1457  

85.61  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

   

 

Page  84    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  2.43:  Information  with  regard  to  the  last  child  birth  (continued)    

Information  with  regard  to  child  birth     at  Delivery   District  

Jaffna  

   

Rural  hospital  

Peripheral  Unit  

Maternity  home  

Num  

Num  

Num  

%  

1  

Mannar  

 

3  

0.34  

2  

1.62  

0  

%   0.68  

1  

0.00  

   

%  

Total     Num  

%  

0.34  

 

295  

100.00  

0  

 

185  

100.00  

0  

Vavuniya  

1  

0.53  

0  

0.00  

0  

0  

 

187  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

1  

0.44  

3  

1.33  

0  

0  

 

225  

100.00  

0  

 

216  

100.00  

Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

1  

0.46  

0  

0.00  

0  

11  

3.41  

0  

0.00  

0  

0  

 

323  

100.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0  

0  

0  

 

13  

100.00  

0  

 

258  

100.00  

0.06  

 

1702  

100.00  

8   26  

3.10  

0  

1.53  

5  

0.00  

0  

0.29  

1  

  Information  with  regard  to  child  birth   Check  on  her  health   District  

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

282  

100.00  

0  

0.00  

282  

100.00  

Mannar  

173  

100.00  

0  

0.00  

173  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

176  

100.00  

0  

0.00  

176  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

201  

100.00  

0  

0.00  

201  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

206  

100.00  

0  

0.00  

206  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

249  

100.00  

0  

0.00  

249  

100.00  

10  

100.00  

0  

0.00  

10  

100.00  

231  

100.00  

0  

0.00  

231  

100.00  

1528  

100.00  

0  

0.00  

1528  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

 

 

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

 

   

Page  85  

Table  2.43:  Information  with  regard  to  the  last  child  birth  (continued)   Information  with  regard  to  child  birth   Health  personell   District  

Doctor   (Western)   Num  

%  

Specialist   (Western)   Num  

Doctor   (Ayurwedic)  

%  

Num  

%  

Total   Num  

%  

Jaffna  

78  

91.76  

6  

7.06  

1  

1.18  

85  

100.00  

Mannar  

59  

92.19  

5  

7.81  

0  

0.00  

64  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

72  

86.75  

11  

13.25  

0  

0.00  

83  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

146  

89.57  

16  

9.82  

1  

0.61  

163  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

121  

90.30  

13  

9.70  

0  

0.00  

134  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

101  

90.99  

8  

7.21  

2  

1.80  

111  

100.00  

6  

85.71  

1  

14.29  

0  

0.00  

7  

100.00  

69  

78.41  

17  

19.32  

2  

2.27  

88  

100.00  

652  

88.71  

77  

10.48  

6  

0.82  

735  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

  Information  with  regard  to  child  birth   Place   District  

MOH  clinic   Num  

Jaffna  

%  

Ayurwedic   Hospital  

Govt.Hospital   Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Total   Num  

%  

169  

59.09  

111  

38.81  

6  

2.10  

286  

100.00  

Mannar  

76  

41.99  

96  

53.04  

9  

2.10  

181  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

107  

61.49  

53  

30.46  

14  

2.10  

174  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

58  

41.73  

66  

47.48  

15  

2.10  

139  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

97  

57.40  

67  

39.64  

5  

2.10  

169  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

179  

59.67  

113  

37.67  

8  

2.10  

300  

100.00  

7  

53.85  

5  

38.46  

1  

2.10  

13  

100.00  

97  

51.60  

77  

40.96  

14  

2.10  

188  

100.00  

790  

54.48  

588  

40.55  

72  

4.97  

1450  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

   

 

Page  86    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  2.43:  Information  with  regard  to  the  last  child  birth  (continued)   Information  with  regard  to  child  birth   Mass  Media   District  

Newspaper   Num  

Jaffna  

Magazine  

%  

Num  

Radio  

%  

Num  

Television  

%  

Num  

%  

Total   Num  

%  

138  

54.98  

19  

7.57  

33  

13.15  

61  

24.30  

251  

100.00  

Mannar  

46  

27.71  

26  

15.66  

63  

37.95  

31  

18.67  

166  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

53  

32.12  

10  

6.06  

59  

35.76  

43  

26.06  

165  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

62  

49.60  

14  

11.20  

21  

16.80  

28  

22.40  

125  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

78  

48.15  

17  

10.49  

47  

29.01  

20  

12.35  

162  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

52  

18.64  

26  

9.32  

66  

23.66  

135  

48.39  

279  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

6  

54.55  

0  

0.00  

3  

27.27  

2  

18.18  

11  

100.00  

27  

15.43  

8  

4.57  

56  

32.00  

84  

48.00  

175  

100.00  

462  

34.63  

120  

9.00  

348  

26.09  

404  

30.28  

1334  

100.00  

Base:  All  reported  for  Sec.6-­‐Q.4.1  to  4.10     58

Table  2.44:  Availability  of  vaccination  card     Availability  of  vaccination  card   District  

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Total  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

386  

86.35  

61  

13.65  

447  

100.00  

Mannar  

317  

44.27  

399  

55.73  

716  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

240  

76.92  

72  

23.08  

312  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

255  

87.93  

35  

12.07  

290  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

249  

99.60  

1  

0.40  

250  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

289  

90.60  

30  

9.40  

319  

100.00  

16  

100.00  

0  

0.00  

16  

100.00  

283  

96.92  

9  

3.08  

292  

100.00  

2035  

77.02  

607  

22.98  

2642  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

Base:  All  individuals  reported  about  Vac.  Card  -­‐  Sec.6  -­‐  Q.4.11    

 

 

                                                                                                                        58

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  6.13  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  87  

 

 

Page  88    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Returnee Education

2.7  

Returnee  Education    

  The  Education  section  of  the  survey  explored  the  schooling  experiences  of  all  young  people  aged  between  5  and  20   years  old  among  returnees.  It  assessed  the  following  nine  broad  areas:     · Disruption  in  education;   · Grade;   · Distance  to  school;   · Time  taken  to  get  to  school;   · Means  of  getting  to  school;   · Condition  of  school  buildings;   · Availability  of  desks  and  chairs;   · Access  to  teachers;   · Reasons  for  non-­‐attendance.    

2.7.1   Disruption  in  education  

  Almost   all   young   people   (96.6   per   cent)   were   reported   to   be   “currently   attending   school   without   disruption”.   Only   just  over  one  in  fifty  (2.2  per  cent)  said  that  the  young  people  in  the  household  were  “currently  attending  school   but  with  disruption”.  Even  fewer  said  they  had  “attended  in  the  past”  (1.1  per  cent)  and  the  proportion  who  had   “never  attended”  was  just  (0.1  per  cent).       Among  the  104  children  who  had  experienced  disruption,  for  the  majority  (75  per  cent)  that  disruption  lasted  over   six  months  —  although  it  is  not  possible  to  say  for  how  much  longer  than  six  months.  Of  the  36  children  who  had   never   attended   school,   exactly   a   quarter   (nine   children)   said   it   was   because   their   parents   had   been   sick.   Ten   children  (27.8  per  cent)  said  that  it  was  due  to  “financial  difficulties”.      

2.7.2   Grade  

  Respondents   were   asked   what   grade   their   children   were   currently   in.   The   ratio   of   children   in   each   grade   was   distributed   very   evenly   between   grades   1   and   12   (from   the   lowest   share   of   (7.1   per   cent)   for   Grade   12,   to   the   highest   of   (8.7   per   cent)   for   Grade   2).   However,   fewer   were   found   to   be   in   Grade   13   (2.3   per   cent)   or   in   a   “special   education  unit”  (0.1  per  cent).    

2.7.3   Distance  to  School  

  The  average  distance  between  home  and  school  is  3.6km.  Almost  half  of  all  the  children  (41  per  cent)  live  less  than   one  kilometer  away;  however,  (4  per  cent)  live  at  least  ten  kilometers  away.  The  journey  to  school  is  the  furthest  in   Vavuniya  (5.3  km)  and  Ampara  (6.2  km).  The  shortest  distances  were  observed  in  Batticaloa  (2.7  km)  and  Mannar   (2.8  km).      

2.7.4   Time  Taken  to  Get  to  School  

  The  average  time  taken  to  get  to  school  is  21.4  minutes.  Relatively  speaking,  time  taken  to  get  to  school  is  far  more   consistent   across   districts   than   is   the   distance.   Children   in   each   district   take   on   average   between   a   minimum   of   20.4  minutes  (Mannar)  and  a  maximum  of  23.4  minutes  (Kilinochchi).      

 

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

 

   

Page  91  

2.7.5   Means  of  Getting  to  School  

  Most   students   walk   to   school   (58.7   per   cent)   (although   far   more   children   walk   in   Mannar   (70.7   per   cent)   and   Batticaloa  (81.7  per  cent).  However,  nearly  a  quarter  cycle  (24.3  per  cent).  Cycling  to  school  is  especially  common   in  Mullaitivu  (45.3  per  cent)  and  Kilinochchi  (37  per  cent).  The  only  other  mode  of  transport  scoring  above  the  five   per  cent  mark  is  “bus”  (8.9  per  cent).      

2.7.6   Condition  of  School  Buildings   When  asked  about  the  condition  of  the  building  of  the  school  attended,  nearly  half  (48.6  per  cent)  said  that  the   building   was   a   “new   /   renovated   permanent   building”   and   nearly   as   many   (47.7   per   cent)   indicated   that   the   building  was  an  “existing  permanent  building”.  Only  1.4  per  cent  described  the  building  as  a  “damaged  permanent   building”;   only   1.6   per   cent   described   their   school   as   “temporary”,   and   (0.7   per   cent)   described   it   as   “semi-­‐ permanent”.     At  geographic  level,  some  differences  were  observed.  Two  thirds  of  children  in  Mannar  (66.8  per  cent)  said  that   they  were  attending  a  school  in  a  “new  /  renovated  permanent  building”.      

2.7.7   Availability  of  Desks  and  Chairs  

  On  average,  86.4  per  cent  of  students  across  the  region  have  their  “own  individual  desk  and  chair”.  This  figure  is   somewhat   lower   in   Ampara   (78.3   per   cent).   Of   those   who   have   a   bench,   this   is   mainly   a   “desk   and   a   bench   shared   with   another”   (9.3   per   cent)   as   opposed   to   sharing   with   “two   others”   (1.4   per   cent)   or   “many   others”   (2.9   per   cent).  In  the  schools  in  Sri  Lanka,  for  grades  1,  2  and  3,  every  two  students  have  to  share  a  desk.  There  are  long   desks  suitable  for  two  students.      

2.7.8   Access  to  Teachers  

  Although  98  per  cent  of  students  have  a  ”class  teacher”,  less  than  nine  out  of  ten  have  other  types  of  teacher.  The   ratio  who  have  a  “language  teacher”  is  (89.8  per  cent),  the  ratio  who  have  a  ”Math  teacher”  is  (87.2  per  cent),  and   the   ratio   who   have   an   ”English   teacher”   is   86.1   per   cent.   Less   than   eight   out   of   ten   have   a   “science   teacher”   (78.3   per  cent).       It  should  be  taken  into  consideration  that  not  all  the  students  between  the  age  of  5  and  20  may  be  studying  in  such   a   way   that   requires   them   to   have   access   to   all   these   categories   of   teachers.   Therefore,   further   analysis   may   be   needed  to  explore  this  issue  further.        

2.7.9   Reasons  for  non-­‐attendance  

  According  to  the   Education   for   All   (EFA)   final   report   compiled   by   the   EFA   Branch   of   the   Ministry   of   Education   in   2014,   the   required   EFA   goal   No.2   was   reached   in   all   districts   including   the   districts   selected   by   the   JNA   sample.   According  to  these  findings,  supported  by  the  JNA  study,  there  is  no  such  thing  as  a  gap  in  school  enrolment.       A   gap   has   been   identified   in   the   achievement   of   EFA   Goal   6   -­‐   Improving   all   aspects   of   the   quality   of   education   and   ensuring  excellence  of  all  so  that  recognized  and  measurable  learning  outcomes  are  achieved  by  all,  especially  in   literacy,  numeracy  and  essential  life  skills.  The  finding  is  that  in  the  Northern  and  the  Eastern  provinces  there  is  low   achievement  in  the  subjects  of  English  and  Mathematics  among  students  in  grade  4  in  the  year  2013,  as  follows;     · For  the  subject  of  English:  Northern  Province  42.1  per  cent;  Eastern  Province  44.2  per  cent  -­‐(All  Island  51.7  per   cent);   · For   the   subject   of   Mathematics:   Northern   Province   53.95   per   cent;   Eastern   Province   52.66per   cent-­‐   (All   Island   60.32  per  cent).     Page  92    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

These   findings   are   based   on   a   National   Study   on   the   Achievement   of   Students   in   Grade   4   in   the   year   2013   conducted  by  the  National  Education  Research  and  Evaluation  Centre  (NEREC),  University  of  Colombo.     59 Table  2.45:  Level  of  education  –  all  returnees     District  

Jaffna  

Passed  Grade   1  

Passed  Grade   2  

Num  

Num  

%  

%  

Passed   Grade   3  

Passed  Grade   5  

Passed  Grade  4  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

109  

3.14  

109  

3.14  

177  

5.09  

239  

6.88  

322  

9.26  

Mannar  

54  

2.89  

82  

4.39  

91  

4.88  

110  

5.89  

181  

9.70  

Vavuniya  

92  

4.55  

91  

4.50  

100  

4.94  

154  

7.61  

182  

9.00  

Mullaitivu  

108  

4.42  

120  

4.91  

106  

4.34  

151  

6.18  

221  

9.04  

Kilinochchi  

98  

3.94  

114  

4.59  

110  

4.43  

143  

5.75  

223  

8.97  

Batticaloa  

200  

7.63  

257  

9.80  

217  

8.28  

247  

9.42  

213  

8.12  

18  

6.19  

29  

9.97  

30  

10.31  

24  

8.25  

27  

9.28  

Trincomalee  

137  

5.59  

164  

6.69  

157  

6.41  

188  

7.67  

181  

7.39  

Total  

816  

4.62  

966  

5.47  

988  

5.60  

1,256  

7.11  

1,550  

8.78  

Ampara  

  District  

Passed  Grade   6  

Passed  Grade   7  

  Passed  Grade  8  

  Passed  Grade  9  

Num  

Num  

Num  

Num  

%  

%  

%  

193  

5.55  

240  

6.90  

243  

6.99  

268  

7.71  

Mannar  

123  

6.59  

152  

8.15  

157  

8.41  

169  

9.06  

Vavuniya  

110  

5.44  

150  

7.41  

160  

7.91  

171  

8.45  

Mullaitivu  

133  

5.44  

151  

6.18  

183  

7.48  

193  

7.89  

Kilinochchi  

128  

5.15  

157  

6.32  

226  

9.09  

181  

7.28  

Batticaloa  

137  

5.23  

170  

6.48  

188  

7.17  

191  

7.28  

18  

6.19  

27  

9.28  

22  

7.56  

16  

5.50  

Trincomalee   Total  

 

 

%  

Jaffna  

Ampara  

 

180  

7.35  

197  

8.04  

183  

7.47  

200  

8.16  

1,022  

5.79  

1,244  

7.04  

1,362  

7.71  

1,389  

7.87  

  District  

Passed  Grade   10   Num  

%  

Passed   G.C.E.(O/L)  or   equivalent   Num   %  

Jaffna  

845  

24.31  

322  

9.26  

Mannar  

327  

17.52  

203  

Vavuniya  

321  

15.87  

227  

Mullaitivu  

476  

19.47  

Kilinochchi  

398  

16.02  

Batticaloa  

326  

12.43  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

Passed   Grade   12   Num  

Passed  G.C.E.(A/L)  or   equivalent   %  

Num  

%  

166  

4.78  

134  

3.86  

10.88  

93  

4.98  

69  

11.22  

124  

6.13  

63  

357  

14.60  

103  

4.21  

397  

15.98  

135  

5.43  

164  

6.25  

41  

1.56  

Passed  GAQ     /GSQ   Num  

%  

22  

0.63  

3.70  

6  

0.32  

3.11  

11  

0.54  

66  

2.70  

9  

0.37  

81  

3.26  

9  

0.36  

27  

1.03  

3  

0.11  

26  

8.93  

15  

5.15  

6  

2.06  

9  

3.09  

1  

0.34  

329  

13.43  

206  

8.41  

79  

3.22  

30  

1.22  

1  

0.04  

3,048  

17.26  

1,891  

10.71  

747  

4.23  

479  

2.71  

62  

0.35  

                                                                                                                        59

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  2.06  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  93  

Table  2.45:  Level  of  education  (continued)   District  

Obtained   Degree   Num  

%  

Obtained  post   Graduate   Degree   Num   %  

Special   Education  unit   Num  

%  

   

No  Schooling   Num  

Total  

   

%  

Num  

   

Jaffna  

34  

0.98  

7  

0.20  

3  

0.09  

43  

1.24  

Mannar  

18  

0.96  

4  

0.21  

0  

0.00  

27  

1.45  

Vavuniya  

9  

0.44  

1  

0.05  

2  

0.10  

55  

2.72  

Mullaitivu  

9  

0.37  

3  

0.12  

3  

0.12  

53  

2.17  

Kilinochchi  

22  

0.89  

9  

0.36  

3  

0.12  

51  

2.05  

 

Batticaloa  

6  

0.23  

4  

0.15  

5  

0.19  

226  

8.62  

 

Ampara  

3  

1.03  

-­‐  

0.00  

-­‐  

0.00  

20  

6.87  

 

Trincomalee   Total  

0.65  

6  

0.24  

5  

0.20  

191  

7.80  

0.66  

34  

0.19  

21  

0.12  

666  

3.77  

 

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

A/Level   Num  

100.00  

2,445  

100.00  

2,485  

100.00  

2,622  

100.00  

291  

100.00  

2,450  

100.00  

17,658  

100.00  

 

Level  of  Education  of  CHH   Passed  O/L  

100.00  

2,023  

 

16  

Up  to  O/Level  

1,866  

 

117  

Base:  All  who  reported  on  education  status     60 Table  2.46:  Level  of  Education  of  Head  of  HH  by  district   District      

100.00  

 

 

%  

3,476  

%  

Total    

Higher   Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

275    

42.77    

225    

34.99    

129    

20.06    

 14    

2.18    

643     100.00    

Mannar  

170    

47.75    

89    

25.00    

   88    

24.72    

         9    

2.53    

 356     100.00    

Vavuniya  

193    

49.74    

 105    

27.06    

   87    

22.42    

3    

0.77    

388     100.00    

Mullaitivu  

224    

44.53    

153    

30.42    

119    

23.66    

7    

1.39    

503     100.00    

Kilinochchi  

249    

44.07    

142    

25.13    

161    

28.50    

13    

2.30    

565     100.00    

Batticaloa  

136    

53.54    

73    

28.74    

44    

17.32    

1    

0.39    

254     100.00    

22    

66.67    

   3    

9.09    

 8    

24.24    

0  

185    

58.73    

71    

22.54    

 51    

 8    

2.54    

315     100.00    

1,454    

47.56    

861    

28.16    

687    

16.19                 22.47    

 55    

1.80    

3,057     100.00    

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

0        

33     100.00    

Base:  All  Head  of  HH  reported  level  of  education      

                                                                                                                        60

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  2.09  

Page  94    

   

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61

Table  2.47  Grade  (students  in  current  year)  

   

District  

Primary   Grades  1  to  5  

Secondary   Grades  6  to  13  

Special  Education   Unit  

Not  relevant  

Num  

Num  

Num  

Num  

%    

%    

%    

%    

Total   Num  

%    

Jaffna  

 435    

41    

631    

59    

1    

 0.09    

3    

0.28    

1,070    

100.00    

Mannar  

233    

 40    

350    

60    

1    

0.17    

3    

 0.51    

587    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

233    

42    

310    

56    

2    

0.36    

7    

 1.27    

 552    

100.00    

Mullaitivu  

288    

42    

 397    

58    

1    

0.14    

4    

0.58    

690    

100.00    

Kilinochchi  

229    

43    

298    

56    

1    

 0.19    

5    

 0.94    

 533    

100.00    

Batticaloa  

322    

 41    

460    

59    

0        

0  

4    

0.51    

 786    

100.00    

27    

 44    

 34    

56    

0        

0  

0  

0  

 61    

100.00    

354    

41    

498    

58    

1  

0.12    

2    

0.23    

855    

100.00    

2,121    

41    

2,978    

58    

7    

0.14    

28    

0.55    

5,134    

100.00    

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

Base:  Col  3=1  or  2  and  Grade  >0     62

Table  2.48:  Average  distance  from  home  to  school     District  

Num  

Mean  

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi  

           693                323                452                564                351    

         4.01              2.77              5.25              2.76              3.55    

Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

           374                  38                371          3,166    

         2.70              6.21              3.87              3.64    

                                       

Base:  Col  3=1  or  2  and  distance  reported      

                                                                                                                        61

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  3.02    Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  3.04  

62

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  95  

63

Table  2.49:  Availability  of  a  desk  and  a  chair  for  the  child  

District  

 Individual  desk   and  chair       Num  

 Desk  and  a  bench   shared  with  another      

%    

Num  

%    

 Desk  and  a     bench  shared     with  two   others     Num  

Jaffna   Mannar  

981   494  

90.33   81.38  

66   68  

6.08   11.20  

7   12  

Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara  

509   560   460   657   47  

89.14   80.92   86.63   84.02   78.33  

49   69   50   99   8  

8.58   9.97   9.42   12.66   13.33  

2   25   9   9   5  

777   4,485  

90.14   86.40  

75   484  

8.70   9.32  

2   71  

Trincomalee   Total  

%     0.64   1.98   0.35   3.61   1.69   1.15   8.33   0.23   1.37  

  District  

 Bench  shared  with   many  others      

 Total        

Num  

%    

Num  

   

Jaffna  

32  

2.95  

Mannar  

33  

5.44  

Vavuniya  

11  

1.93  

 

Mullaitivu  

38  

5.49  

 

Kilinochchi  

12  

2.26  

 

Batticaloa  

17  

2.17  

 

-­‐  

-­‐  

 

8  

0.93  

 

151  

2.91  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

 

 

%    

1,086  

100.00  

607  

100.00  

571  

100.00  

692  

100.00  

531  

100.00  

782  

100.00  

60  

100.00  

862  

100.00  

5,191  

100.00  

Base:  Col  3=1  or  2  and  availability  of  desk  and     chair  is  reported    

 

 

                                                                                                                        63

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  3.09  

Page  96    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

64

Table  2.50:  Availability  of  teachers  

 Yes     Num  

Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

   

   

 Availability  of  teacher      Class  teacher    

District  

Jaffna  

   

 No     %    

Num  

 Total     %    

Num  

%    

1,063  

98.15  

20  

1.85  

1,083  

100.00  

608   571   736   729   776  

98.70   95.97   98.53   99.32   98.35  

8   24   11   5   13  

1.30   4.03   1.47   0.68   1.65  

616   595   747   734   789  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

60   846   5,389  

96.77   96.91   98.00  

2   27   110  

3.23   3.09   2.00  

62   873   5,499  

100.00   100.00   100.00  

     

   

   

 Availability  of  teacher      Science  teacher    

District  

 Yes     Num  

 No     %    

Num  

 Total     %    

Num  

%    

Jaffna  

944  

89.14  

115  

10.86  

1,059  

100.00  

Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa  

545   367   627   489   557  

88.76   62.52   84.84   70.16   70.87  

69   220   112   208   229  

11.24   37.48   15.16   29.84   29.13  

614   587   739   697   786  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

37   624   4,190  

60.66   76.94   78.26  

24   187   1,164  

39.34   23.06   21.74  

61   811   5,354  

100.00   100.00   100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

      District  

 Yes     Num  

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

   

   

 Availability  of  teacher      English  teacher      No     %    

Num  

 Total     %    

Num  

%    

1,007   570  

94.38   92.53  

60   46  

5.62   7.47  

1,067   616  

100.00   100.00  

428   670   620   634   40  

72.54   90.05   85.28   80.35   65.57  

162   74   107   155   21  

27.46   9.95   14.72   19.65   34.43  

590   744   727   789   61  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

717   4,686  

84.35   86.08  

133   758  

15.65   13.92  

850   5,444  

100.00   100.00  

   

   

 

                                                                                                                        64

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  3.10  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  97  

Table  2.50:  Availability  of  teachers    Availability  of  teacher      Mathematics  teacher    

District  

 Yes     Num  

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

 No     %    

Num  

 Total     %    

Num  

%    

992   564   431   687  

93.32   91.71   73.17   93.09  

71   51   158   51  

6.68   8.29   26.83   6.91  

1,063   615   589   738  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

599   682   38   732   4,725  

82.96   86.66   62.30   86.73   87.19  

123   105   23   112   694  

17.04   13.34   37.70   13.27   12.81  

722   787   61   844   5,419  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

   Availability  of  teacher      Language  teacher    

District  

 Yes     Num  

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

 Total    

 No     %    

Num  

%    

Num  

%  

1,029   594  

96.71   96.59  

35   21  

3.29   3.41  

1,064   615  

100.00   100.00  

511   647   670   667   43  

86.46   88.87   92.41   85.40   72.88  

80   81   55   114   16  

13.54   11.13   7.59   14.60   27.12  

591   728   725   781   59  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

691   4,852  

82.36   89.82  

148   550  

17.64   10.18  

839   5,402  

100.00   100.00  

Base:  Col  3=1  or  2  and  availability  of  teacher    is  reported      

   

   

 

Page  98    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

65

Table  2.51:  Period  of  disruption  in  months   District  

 Period  of  disruption(Months)      Two      Three    

 One     Num  

%    

Num  

%    

Num  

 Four    

%    

Num  

%    

Jaffna   Mannar   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa  

2   -­‐   1   1   1  

12.50   -­‐   6.25   10.00   2.94  

-­‐   -­‐   -­‐   -­‐   2  

-­‐   -­‐   -­‐   -­‐   5.88  

1   -­‐   -­‐   -­‐   -­‐  

6.25   -­‐   -­‐   -­‐   -­‐  

-­‐   -­‐   1   1   3  

-­‐   -­‐   6.25   10.00   8.82  

Trincomalee   Total  

1   6  

5.26   5.77  

1   3  

5.26   2.88  

-­‐   1  

-­‐   0.96  

1   6  

5.26   5.77  

  District  

 Period  of  disruption(Months)      Six      More  than  six     Num  

Jaffna   Mannar   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Trincomalee   Total  

%    

Num  

%    

2   -­‐   1   1   5  

12.50   -­‐   6.25   10.00   14.71  

11   9   13   7   23  

68.75   100.00   81.25   70.00   67.65  

4   13  

21.05   12.50  

12   75  

63.16   72.12  

  Num              

%    

16   9   16   10   34  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

19   104  

100.00   100.00  

 

Base:  Col  3=2  and  period  of  disruption  is  reported  

 

 Total    

       

 

                                                                                                                        65

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  3.11  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  99  

 

 

Page  100    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Returnee Child Protection and Women’s Empowerment

2.8  

Returnee  Child  Protection  and  Women’s  Empowerment    

  This  section  addressed  a  range  of  questions  which  can  be  separated  into  two  main  themes:     · Awareness  and  engagement  with  child  protection,  child  rights  and  other  services;   · Engagement  with  women’s  empowerment  programs.      

2.8.1   Awareness   and   Engagement   with   Child   Protection,   Child   Rights   and   Other   Children’s   Services  

  Returnees  were  first  asked  whether  they  had  any  children  below  the  age  of  five  who  were  currently  attending  pre-­‐ school.  In  families  with  a  child  under  the  age  of  five,  pre-­‐school  attendance  was  measured  at  an  average  of  20.5   per  cent.  It  should  be  noted  that  children  who  were  still  too  young  to  attend  pre-­‐school  have  not  been  excluded   from  this  estimation,  which  may  overly  reduce  the  attendance  levels.       In   comparison   with   the   overall   20.5   per   cent   figure,   Jaffna,   the   district   which   houses   the   largest   urban   population,   was  measured  with  the  highest  number  of  children  (36.2  per  cent)  attending  pre-­‐school.  In  Ampara  this  figure  fell   to  just  11.4  per  cent.       Government   is   the   most   significant   provider   of   pre-­‐school   education   in   six   of   the   eight   districts.   However,   in   Batticaloa   just   under   4   per   cent   attend   government   supported   services,   and   in   Ampara   none   of   the   returnees   reported   having   children   attending   pre-­‐schools   supported   by   the   government.   In   Batticaloa,   NGOs   are   the   main   providers   of   pre-­‐schools   (52.9   per   cent),   while   in   Trincomalee;   community-­‐based   organizations   (CBOs)   are   the   most   commonplace   service   providers   (36.6   per   cent).   In   Ampara,   where   the   numbers   attending   pre-­‐school   are   already  low,  the  private  sector  is  the  major  service  provider  (however,  the  number  of  children  accessing  pre-­‐school   in   Ampara   is   negligible).   With   the   exception   of   Jaffna   (15.3   per   cent),   local   government   has   relatively   little   involvement  in  the  management  of  pre-­‐schools.     Nearly  two-­‐thirds  (62.4  per  cent)  of  respondents  said  they  had  been  informed  about   child  protection  programmes.   In  Mannar  this  figure  was  as  high  as  69  per  cent.  Indeed,  information  about  child  protection  programmes  seems  to   be  relatively  widespread,  with  the  exceptions  of  Batticaloa  (54.4  per  cent)  and  Ampara  (47.7  per  cent).       In   relation   to   the   source   of   this   information,   most   people   received   this   information   by   local   authorities;   Public   Health  Inspector  (PHI)  (64.6  per  cent)  and  GS  (51.6  per  cent)  were  the  most  quoted  sources  of  information  about   child   protection   programmes.   NGOs   ranked   as   the   third   most   important   source   of   information   (38.1   per   cent).   However,  in  Batticaloa,  PHI,  then  NGOs  are  the  most  important  sources  of  information,  followed  by  the  GS  Ampara   is  again  different  with  almost  half  of  the  respondents  receiving  information  from  NGOs,  followed  by  DS  Officials   and   then   Grama   Niladari   Division   Schools,   PHM   and   the   news   play   a   smaller   role   in   informing   about   child   protection.       A  total  of  62.8  per  cent  of  returnees  said  they  were  aware  of  child  rights.  This  is  within  a  fraction  of  one  per  cent  of   the   ratio   who   had   been   aware   of   child   protection   programs.   Indeed,   the   data   for   both   child   rights   and   child   protection  programmes,  including  the  source  of  awareness  of  information  on  child  rights,  followed  a  very  similar   pattern.     Just  under  half  (49.5  per  cent)  of  respondents  said  they  were  aware  of  the  Child  Helpline.  However,  this  number   was   significantly   lower   (35.9   per   cent)   in   Batticaloa   and   just   35.5   per   cent   in   Ampara.   In   Jaffna,   where   information   about  child  protection  programmes  and  child  rights  is  relatively  widespread,  only  40.6  per  cent  are  aware  of  the   Helpline.  It  may  be  relevant  to  note  that  landline  telephone  connections  are  limited  in  certain  areas.           Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  103  

Returnees  were  then  asked  if  they  were  aware  of  child  protection  committees  in  their  children’s  schools.  Over  one   third  (38  per  cent)  said  that  they  were  aware  of  the  presence  of  a  committee  in  their  child’s  school.  Awareness  is   highest   in   Kilinochchi   (45   per   cent),   followed   closely   by   respondents   in   Mannar   (44   per   cent).   The   least   well   covered  were  Jaffna  (30.7  per  cent),  Ampara  (29.7  per  cent)  and  Vavuniya  (22.2  per  cent).  Further  research  could   be   done   to   explore   the   relationship   between   the   actual   numbers   of   such   committees   in   each   location   and   the   related  levels  of  awareness  described  above.       Awareness  of  counseling  services  for  children  was  also  explored.  Far  more  parents  (over  half,  55.9  per  cent)  said   that  they  were  aware  of  such  counseling  services.  Kilinochchi  (66.47  per  cent)  and  Mannar  (65.8  per  cent)  reported   the   highest   levels   of   awareness,   with   Vavuniya   (44.9   per   cent)   and   Ampara   (38.3   per   cent)   reporting   the   lowest   levels  of  awareness  of  such  counseling  services.        

2.8.2   Engagement  with  Women’s  Empowerment  Programs    

  Respondents  were  asked  if  anyone  in  their  family  had  benefited  from  Women’s  Empowerment  Programmes.  On   average,   38.2   per   cent   said   that   their   family   had   benefitted   from   a   women’s   empowerment   programme.   The   highest   numbers   of   families   benefitting   were   found   in   Mannar   (48.3   per   cent),   Kilinochchi   (42.9   per   cent)   and   Mullativu   (42.3   per   cent).   The   fewest   numbers   benefitted   in   Vavuniya   (28.4   per   cent),   followed   by   Jaffna   (30.1   per   cent).  Ampara  is  again  among  the  outliers,  though  this  may  be  partially  due  to  the  far  smaller  sample  base.       In  the  northern  districts,  with  the  exception  of  Mullativu,  government  (15.8  per  cent)  has  been  the  most  significant   provider  of  women’s  empowerment  programmes,  with  NGOs  being  the  second  and  only  other  major  implementer   of   such   programmes   (12.7   per   cent).   In   Batticaloa   and   Ampara   this   trend   was   reversed,   with   significantly   higher   numbers   benefitting   from   NGO-­‐implemented   programmes   than   government-­‐implemented   programmes.   In   Mullativu   and   Mannar   the   private   sector   appears   actively   more   engaged   in   the   implementation   of   Women’s   Empowerment  Programmes.       The  nature  and  type  of  Women’s  Empowerment  Programmes  which  families  benefitted  from  varied  significantly.   More  than  two  thirds  of  those  who  had  benefitted  had  gained  knowledge  ofwomen’s  rights.  With  the  exception  of   Vavuniya  (where  only  5.52  per  cent  had  benefitted  from  financial  programmes),  a  significant  number,  ranging  from   31.64  per  cent  in  Mannar  to  12.42  per  cent  in  Trincomalee,  had  benefitted  from  financial  programmes.       Respondents  were  asked  if  they  were  aware  of  Women  and  Child  Desks  at  police  stations.  There  are  41  Women   and  Children’s  Desks  at  police  stations  in  the  northern  districts  and  45  in  the  eastern  districts.  The  overall  incidence   of  awareness  (47.3  per  cent)  of  these  desks  was  found  to  be  similar  to  those  who  are  aware  of  the  Child  Helpline.   This   may   or   may   not   infer   that   information   about   both   is   disseminated   together.   Those   in   Jaffna   are   the   least   informed  (35.5  per  cent),  followed  by  Batticaloa  (40.3  per  cent)  and  Ampara  (44.4  per  cent).          

Page  104    

   

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66

Table  2.52:  Children  below  5  yrs  of  age  attending  preschools   Attend  pre-­‐school-­‐  below  5yrs  

District      

Yes   Num  

Total    

No   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

168    

36.21    

296    

63.79    

464    

100.00    

Mannar  

103    

19.58    

423    

80.42    

526    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

87    

21.07    

326    

78.93    

413    

100.00    

Mullaitivu  

134    

20.43    

522    

79.57    

656    

100.00    

Kilinochchi  

96    

27.43    

254    

72.57    

350    

100.00    

Batticaloa  

112    

14.25    

674    

85.75    

786    

100.00    

5    

11.36    

39    

88.64    

44    

100.00    

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

98    

14.61    

573    

85.39    

671    

100.00    

803    

20.54    

3,107    

79.46    

3,910    

100.00    

Base:  All  reported  HH  for  Sec  9-­‐1.1   67

Table  2.53:  Management  of  pre-­‐school   District   Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

Government   Num   %    

   

CBO   Num   %    

Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

%  

29.94   29.47   57.14   53.85  

44   14   13   24  

28.03   14.74   16.88   18.46  

13   27   11   17  

8.28   28.42   14.29   13.08  

44   4   -­‐   21   258  

49.44   3.85   -­‐   22.58  

16   35   1   34   181  

17.98   33.65   20.00   36.56  

11   55   1   19   154  

12.36   52.88   20.00   20.43  

 

Jaffna  

Num  

47   28   44   70  

  District  

    NGO  

Local   Government   Num   %  

  Private   Num  

%  

24  

15.29  

29  

18.47  

4   2   1   0   4  

4.21   2.60   0.77   0   3.85  

22   9   19   20   6  

23.16   11.69   14.62   22.47   5.77  

0   1   36  

0   1.08  

3   18   126  

60.00   19.35  

     

Total  

   

Num  

%  

157   100.00                  

95   77   130   89   104  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

5   100.00   93   100.00   750   100.00  

    totals     are  based  on  respondents   Base:  All  reported  HH  for  Sec  9-­‐1.2.Percentages   and      

                                                                                                                        66

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  9.01    Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  9.02  

67

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  105  

68

Table  2.54:  Information  on  child  protection/rights/helpline   District  

Child  protection   Aware   Unaware   Num   %     Num   %    

Total       Num  

%    

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya  

502   362   363  

62.36   68.95   59.70  

303   163   245  

37.64   31.05   40.30  

805   525   608  

100.00   100.00   100.00  

Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee  

477   345   442   42   451  

66.43   67.12   54.43   47.73   63.61  

241   169   370   46   258  

33.57   32.88   45.57   52.27   36.39  

718   514   812   88   709  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

2,984  

62.44  

1,795  

37.56  

4,779  

100.00  

Total  

  District  

Child  rights   Aware   Unaware   Num   %     Num   %    

Total       Num  

%    

Jaffna  

493  

61.01  

315  

38.99  

808  

100.00  

Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa  

368   341   491   367   462  

69.70   56.46   68.01   71.12   56.76  

160   263   231   149   352  

30.30   43.54   31.99   28.88   43.24  

528   604   722   516   814  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

39   450   3,011  

43.82   63.29   62.83  

50   261   1,781  

56.18   36.71   37.17  

89   711   4,792  

100.00   100.00   100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

  District  

Child  helpline   Aware   Unaware   Num   %     Num   %    

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

Total       Num  

%    

327   324   296   442  

40.57   61.36   48.68   62.25  

479   204   312   268  

59.43   38.64   51.32   37.75  

806   528   608   710  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

336   292   33   321   2,371  

65.12   35.87   35.48   45.08   49.53  

180   522   60   391   2,416  

34.88   64.13   64.52   54.92   50.47  

516   814   93   712   4,787  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

Base:  All  Reported  HH  for  Sec  9  -­‐1.3/1.5/1.7        

                                                                                                                        68

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  9.03  

Page  106    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

69

Table  2.55:  Awareness  about  the  child  protection  committee  in  the  school   District      

Awareness  about  the  child  protection   committee   Yes  

Total    

No  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

339    

42.11    

466    

57.89    

805    

100.00    

Mannar  

295    

56.30    

229    

43.70    

524    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

220    

36.36    

385    

63.64    

605    

100.00    

Mullaitivu  

360    

50.78    

349    

49.22    

709    

100.00    

Kilinochchi  

286    

55.86    

226    

 44.14    

512    

100.00    

Batticaloa  

348    

42.86    

464    

57.14    

812    

100.00    

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

29    

30.85    

 65    

 69.15    

94    

100.00    

399    

56.60    

306    

43.40    

705    

100.00    

2,276    

47.75    

2,490    

52.25    

4,766    

100.00    

All  reported  HH  for  Sec  9  -­‐1.8     70 Table  2.57:  Availability  of  child  protection  committee  in  the  village   District      

Availability  of  child  protection  committee   Yes  

Total    

No  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

247    

30.72    

557    

69.28    

 804    

100.00    

Mannar  

229    

44.04    

291    

55.96    

520    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

135    

22.20    

473    

77.80    

608    

100.00    

Mullaitivu  

 278    

39.15    

432    

60.85    

710    

100.00    

Kilinochchi  

230    

45.01    

281    

54.99    

511    

100.00    

Batticaloa  

331    

40.66    

483    

59.34    

814    

100.00    

27    

29.67    

64    

70.33    

91    

100.00    

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

333    

47.30    

371    

52.70    

704    

100.00    

1,810    

38.01    

2,952    

61.99    

4,762    

100.00    

All  reported  HH  for  Sec  9  -­‐1.9                          

                                                                                                                        69

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  9.05    Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  9.06  

70

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  107  

71

Table  2.58:  Women  empowerment  benefits  

District  

Women  empowerment  benefits   Received   Not  received   Num   %     Num   %    

Total     Num  

%    

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi  

273   258   183   329   345  

30.10   48.31   28.37   42.29   42.86  

634   276   462   449   460  

69.90   51.69   71.63   57.71   57.14  

907   534   645   778   805  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee  

341   30   284  

39.56   31.91   39.61  

521   64   433  

60.44   68.09   60.39  

862   94   717  

100.00   100.00   100.00  

Total   2,043   38.24   Base:  All  reported  HH  for  Sec  9  -­‐  2.1      

3,299  

61.76  

5,342  

100.00  

 

 

                                                                                                                        71

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  9.08  

Page  108    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Returnee Social Services

2.9  

Returnee  Social  Services  

  This  section  was  designed  to  assess  the  nature  of  service  provision  offered  to  three  main  vulnerable  groups:   · The  elderly;   · People  with  disabilities;   · Single  parents.     For  each  of  the  three  above  mentioned  groups,  questions  focused  on  the  forms  of  support  and  assistance  that  they   had  received.       Sphere  standard  2  is  relevant  to  this  topic.  This  standard  states  that  all  citizens  have  “access  to  impartial  assistance   –  in  proportion  to  need  and  without  discrimination”.  It  also  sets  out  the  responsibility  to  ensure  that  humanitarian   assistance   is   available   to   all   those   in   need,   particularly   those   who   are   most   vulnerable   or   who   face   exclusion   on   political  or  other  grounds  and  requires  ”access  for  all  parts  of  the  affected  population  to  Humanitarian  Assistance”.   Finally,  it  calls  for  “affected  people  (to)  receive  support  on  the  basis  of  need  and  are  not  discriminated  against  on   other  grounds  -­‐  here  ensuring  non-­‐discrimination”.       The  most  common  of  these  three  groups  was  found  to  be  elderly  people  (21.6  per  cent  of  families),  followed  by   people  with  disability  (13.8  per  cent  of  families).  The  incidence  of  single  parent  families  was  (4.2  per  cent).  These   sections  are  now  explored  in  more  detail  below.      

2.9.1   The  Elderly  

  The  incidence  of  elderly  persons  does  vary  by  district.  Indeed,  the  degree  of  variance  might  be  seen  as  high;  with   the  range  being  from  a  minimum  of  6.8  per  cent  in  Ampara  to  a  maximum  of  34  per  cent  in  Jaffna.  Far  more  elderly   people  are  receiving  the  “monthly  allowance  of  Rs.  1000”  than  any  other  kind  of  support.  Over  a  third  (35.1  per   cent)  of  households  with  elderly  people  received  this  monthly  allowance,  whereas  fewer  than  one  in  ten  received   every   other   form   of   support.   It   is   also   noteworthy   that   exactly   20   per   cent   of   households   with   elderly   people   believe  they  are  not  eligible  for  the  monthly  allowance.      

2.9.2   People  with  Disabilities  

  The   proportion   of   households   including   at   least   one   person   with   a   disability   ranged   from   a   minimum   of   9.8   per   cent  in  Batticaloa  to  a  maximum  of  17.9  per  cent  in  Kilinochchi.  Questions  were  asked  about  the  types  of  disability   experienced   in   the   household.   The   most   common   form   of   difficulty,   by   some   margin   is   “walking”,   which   over   a   third   (35   per   cent)   of   such   households   reported.   Under   a   quarter   reported   having   “seeing   difficulties”   (21.9   per   cent),   ”holding   difficulties”   (13.3   per   cent),   and   ”hearing   difficulties”   (11.8   per   cent).   Nearly   three   in   ten   households  with  a  person  with  a  disability  reported  “other”  types  of  disability.     Respondents   were   asked   if   they   had   received   various   kinds   of   devices   to   help   them   with   their   disability.   Half   of   them   had   received   crutches,   nearly   a   quarter   (23.8   per   cent)   had   received   wheelchairs,   18.8   per   cent   had   received   eye  lenses  and  15  per  cent  had  received  walkers.  Further  analysis  could  be  undertaken  to  cross-­‐tabulate  receipt  of   these  devices  against  disabilities  experienced.     When   exploring   assistance   beyond   physical   devices,   the   form   of   assistance   that   the   highest   ratio   of   households   benefited  from,  was  “Counseling  services”,  at  10  per  cent.  The  next  most  common  was  “Housing  assistance”  at  8.6   per   cent,   followed   by   “Monthly   allowance”   at   7.4   per   cent,   and   “Self   employment   assistance”   at   4.8   per   cent.   Falling   below   5   per   cent   were;   “Vocational   training”   (2.3   per   cent),   “Education   assistance”   (2.7   per   cent)   and   “Financial   assistance”   (4.2   per   cent).   The   geographic   variation   for   “Housing   assistance”   is   considerable;   in   Kilinochchi  as  many  as  20.5  per  cent  of  households  claimed  to  have  received  this  assistance,  whereas  less  than  10   per  cent  said  the  same  in  most  other  districts.     Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  111  

People  were  also  asked,  in  an  open-­‐ended  question,  what  other  kind  of  assistance  they  might  require,  i.e.  above   and  beyond  the  types  that  were  specifically  outlined  in  the  questionnaire.  Of  those  who  gave  any  answer  to  this   question,  the  more  common  responses  were  “livelihood  assistance”  (56.7  per  cent),  ”medical  expenses”  (33.5  per   cent)  and  ”financial  assistance”  (18.4  per  cent).      

2.9.3   Single  Parents  

  Less   than   one   in   twenty   (4.2   per   cent)   of   returnee   households   are   “single   parent”   families.   However,   in   two   districts  —  Vavuniya  and  Ampara   —  this  is  as  high  as  11.8  per  cent  and  12  per  cent  respectively.  The  proportion  of   single  parent  families  receiving  support  ranged  from  a  minimum  of  5.8  per  cent  for  “micro-­‐enterprise  training”  to  a   maximum  of  33.7  per  cent  for  “self-­‐employment  assistance”.         ”Self-­‐employment  assistance”  is  reaching  most  single  parent  families  in  Vavuniya  (58.6  per  cent)  and  Ampara  (60   per  cent).  However,  less  than  one  in  ten  said  that  they  had  received  it  in  Jaffna  (8.3  per  cent)  and  Kilinochchi  (5.3   per   cent).   Meanwhile,   14.2   per   cent   of   single   parent   returnee   families   across   the   country   have   received   “counseling  services”,  and  22.3  per  cent  have  received  “educational  assistance”.       72 Table  2.59:  Presence  of  disabled  members  in  the  family   Availability  of  disabled  members  in  the  family   District  

Yes   Num  

Jaffna  

No   %  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

137  

15.12  

769  

84.88  

906  

100.00  

Mannar  

68  

12.78  

464  

87.22  

532  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

89  

13.80  

556  

86.20  

645  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

124  

15.84  

659  

84.16  

783  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

147  

17.88  

675  

82.12  

822  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

85  

9.75  

787  

90.25  

872  

100.00  

Ampara  

11  

11.70  

83  

88.30  

94  

100.00  

Trincomalee   Total  

81  

11.28  

637  

88.72  

718  

100.00  

742  

13.81  

4630  

86.19  

5372  

100.00  

All  reported  households  for  Sec.10-­‐Q.1        

                                                                                                                        72

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  10.01  

Page  112    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

73

Table  2.60:  Type  of  disability     Type  of  Disability   District      

Hearing   difficulties   Num  

Seeing   difficulties  

%  

Num  

Walking   difficulties  

%  

Num  

%  

Holding   difficulties   Num  

%  

Other   Num  

Total   %  

Num  

Jaffna  

16  

12.70  

27  

21.43  

46  

36.51  

13  

10.32  

38  

30.16  

126  

Mannar  

11  

17.74  

15  

24.19  

19  

30.65  

7  

11.29  

16  

25.81  

62  

Vavuniya  

8  

12.12  

14  

21.21  

25  

37.88  

9  

13.64  

19  

28.79  

66  

Mullaitivu  

10  

10.42  

30  

31.25  

34  

35.42  

10  

10.42  

18  

18.75  

96  

Kilinochchi  

12  

11.11  

12  

11.11  

42  

38.89  

21  

19.44  

38  

35.19  

108  

Batticaloa  

7  

9.59  

15  

20.55  

25  

34.25  

11  

15.07  

23  

31.51  

73  

Ampara  

1  

11.11  

1  

11.11  

3  

33.33  

2  

22.22  

2  

22.22  

9  

Trincomalee  

6  

9.52  

18  

28.57  

17  

26.98  

7  

11.11  

21  

33.33  

63  

71  

11.77  

132  

21.89  

211   34.99  

80  

13.27  

175  

29.02  

603  

Total  

All  reported  for  Disability  type  -­‐  Sec.10  -­‐  Q.2.  Percentages  and  totals  are  based  on  respondents.     74 Table  2.61:  Type  of  assistance  –disability     Type  of  assistance   Monthly  allowance  of  Rs.  3000   District   Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

%  

Not  Eligible   Num   %  

Applied  and   Pending   Num   %  

Total   Num  

%  

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu  

11   5   4   8  

7.64   7.58   4.71   6.61  

128   60   74   112  

88.89   90.91   87.06   92.56  

4   0   6   1  

2.78   0.00   7.06   0.83  

1   1   1   0  

0.69   1.52   1.18   0.00  

144   66   85   121  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

5   10   0   6   49  

5.68   12.35   0.00   8.57   7.37  

80   69   10   62   595  

90.91   85.19   100.00   88.57   89.47  

1   1   0   1   14  

1.14   1.23   0.00   1.43   2.11  

2   1   0   1   7  

2.27   1.23   0.00   1.43   1.05  

88   81   10   70   665  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

 

 

                                                                                                                        73

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  10.03    Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  10.05  

74

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  113  

Table  2.61:  Type  of  assistance  –  disability  (continued)   Type  of  assistance   Housing  assistance   District   Yes   Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

No  

Not  Eligible  

Applied  and   Pending  

Total  

Num   8   7   2   10  

%   5.56   10.61   2.35   8.33  

Num   134   59   81   110  

%   93.06   89.39   95.29   91.67  

Num   1   0   2   0  

%   0.69   0.00   2.35   0.00  

Num   1   0   0   0  

%   0.69   0.00   0.00   0.00  

Num   144   66   85   120  

%   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

18   6   0   6   57  

20.45   7.41   0.00   8.57   8.57  

70   75   11   63   603  

79.55   92.59   100.00   90.00   90.68  

0   0   0   1   4  

0.00   0.00   0.00   1.43   0.60  

0   0   0   0   1  

0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.15  

88   81   11   70   665  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

  Type  of  assistance   Self-­‐employment  assistance   District   Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

%  

Not  Eligible   Num   %  

Applied  and   Pending   Num   %  

Total   Num  

%  

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi  

2   5   0   8   11  

1.39   7.58   0.00   6.61   12.50  

140   60   82   112   76  

97.22   90.91   96.47   92.56   86.36  

1   1   3   1   1  

0.69   1.52   3.53   0.83   1.14  

1   0   0   0   0  

0.69   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00  

144   66   85   121   88  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

2   0   4   32  

2.47   0.00   5.71   4.81  

77   10   64   621  

95.06   100.00   91.43   93.38  

2   0   1   10  

2.47   0.00   1.43   1.50  

0   0   1   2  

0.00   0.00   1.43   0.30  

81   10   70   665  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

  Type  of  assistance   Educational  assistance   District  

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

Yes   Num   %   2   1.39   1   1.52   2   2.38  

No   Num   140   62   79  

%   97.22   93.94   94.05  

Not  Eligible   Num   %   2   1.39   3   4.55   3   3.57  

Total   Num   %   144   100.00   66   100.00   84   100.00  

2   4   5   0   2  

1.65   4.55   6.17   0.00   2.90  

118   80   76   10   65  

97.52   90.91   93.83   100.00   94.20  

1   4   0   0   2  

0.83   4.55   0.00   0.00   2.90  

121   88   81   10   69  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

18  

2.71  

630  

95.02  

15  

2.26  

663  

100.00  

   

 

Page  114    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  2.61:  Type  of  assistance  –  disability  (continued)   Type  of  assistance   Financial  assistance   District   Yes   Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

No  

Not  Eligible  

Total  

Num   5   3   1   1  

%   3.47   4.55   1.23   0.82  

Num   138   63   78   121  

%   95.83   95.45   96.30   99.18  

Num   1   0   2   0  

%   0.69   0.00   2.47   0.00  

Num   144   66   81   122  

%   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

4   7   0   7   28  

4.55   8.64   0.00   10.00   4.22  

84   74   11   63   632  

95.45   91.36   100.00   90.00   95.32  

0   0   0   0   3  

0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.45  

88   81   11   70   663  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

  Type  of  assistance   Counseling  service   District  

Jaffna   Mannar  

Yes   Num   %   7   4.93   11   16.67  

No   Num   134   55  

%   94.37   83.33  

Not  Eligible   Num   %   1   0.70   0   0.00  

Total   Num   %   142   100.00   66   100.00  

Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara  

8   8   13   11   0  

9.76   6.61   14.77   13.58   0.00  

72   113   75   70   10  

87.80   93.39   85.23   86.42   100.00  

2   0   0   0   0  

2.44   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00  

82   121   88   81   10  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

Trincomalee   Total  

8   66  

11.59   10.02  

61   590  

88.41   89.53  

0   3  

0.00   0.46  

69   659  

100.00   100.00  

Base:  All  reported  for  Sec.10-­‐Q.3.2/3.3/3.4/3.5/3.6/3.7/3.8        

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  115  

75

Table  2.62:Presence  of  elderly  people  in  the  household   Elderly  people  in  the  household   District  

Yes   Num  

Jaffna  

No   %  

Total  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

307  

33.96  

597  

66.04  

904  

100  

Mannar  

96  

18.08  

435  

81.92  

531  

100  

Vavuniya  

155  

23.99  

491  

76.01  

646  

100  

Mullaitivu  

116  

15.01  

657  

84.99  

773  

100  

Kilinochchi  

214  

26.13  

605  

73.87  

819  

100  

Batticaloa  

107  

12.33  

761  

87.67  

868  

100  

6  

6.82  

82  

93.18  

88  

100  

155  

21.71  

559  

78.29  

714  

100  

1156  

21.64  

4187  

78.36  

5343  

100  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

Base:  All  reported  for  Sec.10-­‐Q.4     76 Table  2.63:  Assistance  for  elderly  people  :  status  of  assistance   Assistance  for  elderly  people   Monthly  allowance  of  Rs.  1000  

District  

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

Yes  

No  

Not  Eligible  

Pending  

Total  

Num   72   33   59   49  

%   23.68   35.11   40.14   42.61  

Num   132   44   60   51  

%   43.42   46.81   40.82   44.35  

Num   97   16   28   15  

%   31.91   17.02   19.05   13.04  

Num   3   1   0   0  

%   0.99   1.06   0.00   0.00  

Num   304   94   147   115  

%   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

65   61   3   44   386  

33.85   58.65   50.00   31.88   35.09  

99   33   3   58   480  

51.56   31.73   50.00   42.03   43.64  

26   6   0   32   220  

13.54   5.77   0.00   23.19   20.00  

2   4   0   4   14  

1.04   3.85   0.00   2.90   1.27  

192   104   6   138   1100  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

   

 

                                                                                                                        75

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  10.07    Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  10.08  

76

Page  116    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  2.63:  Assistance  for  elderly  people:  status  of  assistance  (continued)   Assistance  for  elderly  people   Self-­‐employment  assistance  

District  

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

Not  Eligible   Num   %  

%  

Pending   Num   %  

Total   Num   %  

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi  

10   10   14   12   17  

3.29   10.64   9.46   10.43   8.85  

290   83   127   102   174  

95.39   88.30   85.81   88.70   90.63  

4   1   6   1   1  

1.32   1.06   4.05   0.87   0.52  

0   0   1   0   0  

0.00   0.00   0.68   0.00   0.00  

304   94   148   115   192  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

6   0   8   77  

5.77   0.00   5.67   6.97  

97   6   130   1009  

93.27   100.00   92.20   91.39  

1   0   2   16  

0.96   0.00   1.42   1.45  

0   0   1   2  

0.00   0.00   0.71   0.18  

104   6   141   1104  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

  District  

Assistance  for  elderly  people   Financial  assistance   Yes   Num   %  

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

No   Num  

Not  Eligible   Num   %  

%  

Pending   Num   %  

Total   Num   %  

2   0   4   0   3  

0.66   0.00   2.70   0.00   1.56  

298   92   135   114   187  

98.03   97.87   91.22   99.13   97.40  

4   2   9   1   2  

1.32   2.13   6.08   0.87   1.04  

0   0   0   0   0  

0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00  

304   94   148   115   192  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

2   0   7   18  

1.92   0.00   4.96   1.63  

99   6   131   1062  

95.19   100.00   92.91   96.20  

3   0   2   23  

2.88   0.00   1.42   2.08  

0   0   1   1  

0.00   0.00   0.71   0.09  

104   6   141   1104  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

  Assistance  for  elderly  people   Counseling  services  

District  

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

Not  Eligible   Num   %  

%  

Total   Num   %  

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi  

17   9   9   5   13  

5.61   9.57   6.08   4.35   6.77  

282   84   129   109   177  

93.07   89.36   87.16   94.78   92.19  

4   1   10   1   2  

1.32   1.06   6.76   0.87   1.04  

303   94   148   115   192  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee  

8   0   17  

7.69   0.00   12.06  

95   6   123  

91.35   100.00   87.23  

1   0   1  

0.96   0.00   0.71  

104   6   141  

100.00   100.00   100.00  

Total  

78  

7.07  

1005  

91.12  

20  

1.81  

 

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

1103   100.00  

 

   

Page  117  

Table  2.63:  Assistance  for  elderly  people:  status  of  assistance  (continued)   District  

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

Assistance  for  elderly  people   obtained  services  for  grievances   Yes   Num   %  

No   Num  

%  

Not  Eligible   Num   %  

Pending   Num   %  

Total   Num  

%  

1   2   3   1   6  

0.33   2.13   2.05   0.87   3.13  

295   91   131   111   183  

97.68   96.81   89.73   96.52   95.31  

5   1   11   3   3  

1.66   1.06   7.53   2.61   1.56  

1   0   1   0   0  

0.33   0.00   0.68   0.00   0.00  

302   94   146   115   192  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

3   0   6   22  

2.88   0.00   4.29   2.00  

100   6   130   1047  

96.15   100.00   92.86   95.27  

1   0   4   28  

0.96   0.00   2.86   2.55  

0   0   0   2  

0.00   0.00   0.00   0.18  

104   6   140   1099  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

Base:  All  reported  for  Sec.10-­‐Q.4.1/4.2/4.3/4.4/4.5     77 Table  2.64:  Existence  of  single  parent  families   Existence  of  single  parent  families   District  

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

25  

2.81  

866  

97.19  

891  

100.00  

Mannar  

17  

3.31  

496  

96.69  

513  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

75  

11.76  

563  

88.24  

638  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

28  

3.79  

711  

96.21  

739  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

22  

2.71  

789  

97.29  

811  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

22  

2.57  

835  

97.43  

857  

100.00  

Ampara  

11  

11.96  

81  

88.04  

92  

100.00  

Trincomalee   Total  

23  

3.23  

690  

96.77  

713  

100.00  

223  

4.24  

5031  

95.76  

5254  

100.00  

Base:  All  reported  for  Sec.10-­‐Q.5        

                                                                                                                        77

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  10.11  

Page  118    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Returnee Legal Documentation

2.10   Returnee  Legal  Documentation       This  section  sought  to  understand  the  extent  to  which  people  own  key  documents.  The  five  broad  areas  it  explored   were:   · Ownership  of  birth  certificates  and  identity  cards;   · Listing  in  the  electoral  register;   · Evidence  of  deeds  for  house;   · Marriage  certificates.    

2.10.1   Ownership  of  Birth  Certificates  and  Identity  Cards  

  The  clear  majority  of  people  own  a  birth  certificate  (93.21  per  cent).  Across  districts,  this  hardly  varies,  with  at  least   nine  out  of  ten  family  members  owning  a  birth  certificate.  JNA  data  indicates  that  64.39  per  cent  of  the  returnee   people   are   in   possession   of   National   Identity   Cards   (NIC).   It   must   be   noted   that   in   Sri   Lanka,   a   NIC   can   be   obtained   only  after  the  age  of  16  years-­‐old,  whereas  all  citizens  are  issued  a  birth  certificate  at  birth.  A  43.74  per  cent  of  the   returnees  interviewed  reported  that  they  have  lost  their  birth  certificate;  30.85  per  cent  had  lost  NICs  and  15.51   per  cent  had  lost  marriage  certificates  during  displacement.  A  total  of  5  per  cent  of  the  Returnees  reported  having   lost  passports,  pension  card,  motor  license,  insurance  policy  and  death  certificates.     The  JNA  data  indicates  a  slow  retrieval  rate  for  the  lost  documentation  of  birth  certificates  (41.27  per  cent),  NICs   (35.16   per   cent)   and   marriage   certificates   (16.24   per   cent).   However,   a   51.50   per   cent   has   indicated   “already   applied”  for  birth  certificates  and  30.49  per  cent  for  NICs.  Only  10.13  per  cent  has  applied  to  recover  lost  marriage   certificates.   The   main   barriers   to   recovering   lost   documents   were   reported   to   be:   “lacking   the   necessary   supporting  documentation”  (38.23  per  cent)  and  “having  no  interest”  (29.61  per  cent).      

2.10.2    Listing  in  the  Electoral  Register    

  The   majority   of   the   returnee   households   reported   as   having   enlisted   in   the   electoral   register   (94.95   per   cent).   Across   all   districts,   this   figure   was   over   90   per   cent.   In   households   where   there   was   a   lack   of   clarity   about   being   or   not  on  the  register,  the  main  reason  was  “not  knowing  how  to  check  whether  their  names  were  already  on  the  list”   (33.57   per   cent).   One   in   five   (20.71   per   cent)   explained   that   they   “do   not   know   when   it   is   published”.   Fewer   reported  that  they  “do  not  know  the  importance”  (17.14  per  cent),  have  “no  access  to  see  the  electoral  register”   (15  per  cent)  or  that  they  “have  no  interest”  (13.57  per  cent).    

2.10.3   Evidence  of  deeds  for  house  

  On  average,  81  per  cent  of  households  interviewed  reported  that  they  ”have  a  deed  or  documentary  evidence  of   ownership  for  [their]  housing  allotment  in  the  place  of  return,  the  place  or  relation  or  local  integration”.       Where  such  deeds  were  not  owned,  the  most  common  reason  given,  by  over  one  third,  was  that  the  family  had   ”applied,  but  there  was  a  long  delay  in  getting  the  results”  (41.41  per  cent).  Nearly  as  many  (31.38  per  cent)  said   that  the  “deeds  are  not  provided  yet”.  A  minority  of  the  Returnees  interviewed  said  that  the  reason  was  a  “delay  in   registration”  (12.63  per  cent)  or  “dispute  in  fixing  the  ownership”  (11.33  per  cent).      

 

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Page  121  

2.10.4   Marriage  Certificates  

  Within  the  selected  sample,  79.30  per  cent  of  households  reported  to  have  at  least  one  married  couple.  In  Jaffna   district,  this  figure  was  (94.93  per  cent),  whereas  in  Batticaloa  district  was  42.40  per  cent.  Nearly  nine-­‐tenth  (87   per  cent)  of  married  couples  were  said  to  have  marriage  certificates.  Of  those  who  did  not,  just  over  half  (54.15  per   cent)  did  not  possess  a  certificate  due  to  the  fact  that  the  marriage  was  not  legally  registered,  with  variations  in   Jaffna   (61.19   per   cent),   Batticaloa   (71.62   per   cent),   Vavuniya   (55.77   per   cent)   and   Mullaitivu   (55.10   per   cent)   districts.       78 Table  2.65:  Type  of  identification  documents     Type  of  document   Birth  certificate  

District  

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Jaffna  

3782  

93.99  

Mannar  

2043  

Vavuniya  

2177  

Mullaitivu  

Num  

Not  applicable   %  

Num  

%  

Total   Num  

%  

236  

5.86  

6  

0.15  

4024  

100.00  

95.65  

91  

4.26  

2  

0.09  

2136  

100.00  

92.95  

156  

6.66  

9  

0.38  

2342  

100.00  

2509  

92.24  

209  

7.68  

2  

0.07  

2720  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

2570  

91.43  

240  

8.54  

1  

0.04  

2811  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

2953  

93.72  

198  

6.28  

0  

0.00  

3151  

100.00  

295  

92.77  

23  

7.23  

0  

0.00  

318  

100.00  

2750  

92.72  

214  

7.22  

2  

0.07  

2966  

100.00  

19079  

93.21  

1367  

6.68  

22  

0.11  

20468  

100.00  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

  Type  of  document   Identity  card  

District  

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

2537  

66.26  

230  

6.01  

1062  

27.74  

3829  

100.00  

Mannar  

1304  

66.73  

173  

8.85  

477  

24.41  

1954  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

1497  

66.15  

187  

8.26  

579  

25.59  

2263  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

1674  

67.55  

331  

13.36  

473  

19.09  

2478  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

1732  

65.93  

223  

8.49  

672  

25.58  

2627  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

1892  

60.25  

269  

8.57  

979  

31.18  

3140  

100.00  

Trincomalee   Total  

Num  

%  

Total  

Jaffna  

Ampara  

%  

Not  applicable  

Num  

%  

217  

68.89  

24  

7.62  

74  

23.49  

315  

100.00  

1619  

58.57  

260  

9.41  

885  

32.02  

2764  

100.00  

12472  

64.39  

1697  

8.76  

5201  

26.85  

19370  

100.00  

All  household  members  who  reported  for  Sec.11  -­‐  Q.1.1            

                                                                                                                        78

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  11.01  

Page  122    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

79

Table  2.66:  Reasons  for  not  being  listed  in  the  electoral  register   District  

Reasons   Don’t  know   how  to  find  out   whether  our   names  are  in   the  list   Num   %  

No  interest  

Num  

No  access  to   see  the   electoral   register     Num   %  

%  

Do  not  know   the  importance   of  registration   for  voting  

Do  not  know   when  it  was   published    

Total  

Num  

Num  

Num  

%  

%  

Jaffna  

2  

18.18  

3  

27.27  

2  

18.18  

2  

18.18  

2  

18.18  

11  

Mannar  

6  

37.50  

0  

0.00  

8  

50.00  

1  

6.25  

1  

6.25  

16  

Vavuniya  

20  

50.00  

7  

17.50  

4  

10.00  

6  

15.00  

3  

7.50  

40  

Mullaitivu  

5  

15.63  

2  

6.25  

4  

12.50  

10  

31.25  

11  

34.38  

32  

Kilinochchi  

6  

35.29  

4  

23.53  

0  

0.00  

3  

17.65  

4  

23.53  

17  

Batticaloa  

4  

40.00  

1  

10.00  

3  

30.00  

1  

10.00  

1  

10.00  

10  

Ampara  

1  

50.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

1  

50.00  

2  

Trincomalee  

3  

25.00  

2  

16.67  

0  

0.00  

1  

8.33  

6  

50.00  

12  

47  

33.57  

19  

13.57  

21  

15.00  

24  

17.14  

29  

20.71  

140  

Total  

Base:  All  reported  forQ11.2.2     80 Table  2.67:  Reasons  for  not  having  documentary  evidence   Reasons   District  

Deeds  are  not   provided  yet   Num  

Dispute  in  fixing   the  ownership  

%  

Num  

%  

Delay  in   Registration   Num  

%  

No  interest  in   getting  the   deed   Num  

%  

Do  not  know   from  whom   we  have  to   claim   Num  

%  

Jaffna  

39  

50.00  

20  

25.64  

3  

3.85  

0  

0.00  

3  

3.85  

Mannar  

14  

32.56  

9  

20.93  

3  

6.98  

2  

4.65  

1  

2.33  

Vavuniya  

35  

30.70  

9  

7.89  

11  

9.65  

3  

2.63  

0  

0.00  

Mullaitivu  

71  

48.30  

10  

6.80  

22  

14.97  

1  

0.68  

0  

0.00  

Kilinochchi  

23  

17.29  

16  

12.03  

19  

14.29  

1  

0.75  

3  

2.26  

Batticaloa  

13  

18.84  

9  

13.04  

14  

20.29  

14  

20.29  

0  

0.00  

6  

50.00  

3  

25.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

40  

23.26  

11  

6.40  

25  

14.53  

2  

1.16  

3  

1.74  

241  

31.38  

87  

11.33  

97  

12.63  

23  

2.99  

10  

1.30  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total      

 

                                                                                                                        79

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  11.07      Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  11.09  

80

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Page  123  

Table  2.67:  Reasons  for  not  having  documentary  evidence  (continued)  

District  

Reasons   Applied,  but   No  mobile   long  delay  in   service   getting  the   available   result   Num  

Jaffna   Mannar  

%  

0  

Num    

0.00  

0  

0.00  

24   14  

%  

   

Total      

 

Num  

30.77  

 

78  

32.56  

 

43   114  

Vavuniya  

0  

0.00  

56  

49.12  

 

Mullaitivu  

3  

2.04  

40  

27.21  

 

147  

53.38  

 

133  

27.54  

 

69  

25.00  

 

12  

52.91  

 

172  

41.41  

 

768  

Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

1  

0.75  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

4  

0.52  

71   19   3   91   318  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Sec.11-­‐Q.2.4.Percentages  and  totals  are  based  on  respondents     81 Table  2.68:  Reasons  for  not  having  marriage  certificate   District  

Reasons   Marriage  is  not   legally  registered  

Num   Jaffna  

%  

Did  not  apply  for  a   certificate  

Num  

%  

Problem  of  travel   from  one  district  to   another  district   Num  

%  

Distance  to  the   registrar's  office  

Total  

Num  

Num  

%  

41  

61.19  

19  

28.36  

5  

7.46  

2  

2.99  

67  

Mannar  

4  

15.38  

22  

84.62  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

26  

Vavuniya  

29  

55.77  

22  

42.31  

1  

1.92  

0  

0.00  

52  

Mullaitivu  

54  

55.10  

40  

40.82  

4  

4.08  

0  

0.00  

98  

Kilinochchi  

66  

57.89  

42  

36.84  

4  

3.51  

2  

1.75  

114  

Batticaloa  

53  

71.62  

19  

25.68  

1  

1.35  

1  

1.35  

74  

Ampara   Trincomalee   Total  

5  

27.78  

12  

66.67  

1  

5.56  

0  

0.00  

18  

22  

38.60  

33  

57.89  

1  

1.75  

1  

1.75  

57  

274  

54.15  

209  

41.30  

17  

3.36  

6  

1.19  

506  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Sec  11-­‐  Q.2.7.  Percentages  and  totals  are  based  on  respondents.          

                                                                                                                        81

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  11.12  

Page  124    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Internally Displaced Persons

3.1  

Demographic  Characteristics  of  Internally  Displaced  Persons  (IDPs)  

  The   second   part   of   the   JNA   survey   questionnaire   was   designed   to   collect   basic   data   on   demographic   and   socio-­‐ economic  characteristics  of  the  remaining  Internally  Displaced  Persons  (IDPs)  waiting  to  be  resettled  to  Northern   and  Eastern  provinces  of  Sri  Lanka.  The  large  majority  of  IDPs  are  living  with  or  on  land  provided  by  relatives  and   82 friends.    For  this  report  they  will  be  described  as  “Other  IDPs”.  The  largest  group  remains  in  Jaffna,  with  others  in   Anuradhapura,   Trincomalee,   Mannar,   Vavuniya,   Batticaloa,   Polonnaruwa   and   Ampara,   and   small   numbers   in   Mullaitivu  and  Kilinochchi.  A  few  remaining  IDPs  are  currently  living  in  the  three  districts  of  Jaffna,  Vavuniya  and   Trincomalee  in  welfare  centers.  For  this  report  they  will  be  described  as  in  “Welfare  Centres”.  83    

3.1.1   IDP  -­‐  Household  Age  Composition  

  A  separate  questionnaire  was  designed  to  collect  information  from  a  sample  of  IDPs.  The  data  collected  in  relation   to   demographic   characteristics   such   as   sex,   age   composition,   marital   status   and   education   level,   provide   useful   empirical   evidence.   This   can   be   used   to   understand   IDPs   capabilities   and   potential   in   terms   of   human   resources   available   at   household   level   to   recover   and   re-­‐establish   sustainable   livelihood   solutions,   once   they   are   resettled   or   84 relocated.     Age  distribution  patterns  of  both  male  and  female  population  of  IDPs  is  important  to  understand  the  demographic   dynamic;   sustainability   depends   on   availability   of   active   labor   force,   as   well   as   presence   of   children   and   elderly   people  in  the  IDP  households.  The  majority  of  male  IDPs  are  comparatively  young  (under  the  age  of  40),  with  the   highest  representation  of  78  per  cent  in  Ampara  district;  followed  by  77  percent  in  Mannar  district.  Only  Mullativu   district   reported   the   lowest   percentage   of   population   under   40   years   of   age   (37   per   cent).   Similarly,   the   female   population   under   40   years   of   age   has   the   same   pattern   of   growth.   This   indicates   that   the   percentages   of   young   population   in   both   welfare   centers   and   other   places   are   significantly   high,   with   the   potential   of   expanding   the   households  with  more  active  labor  force,  children  in  school  age  and  infants.  However,  Mullativu  district  represents   the   highest   proportion   of   population   above   60   years   of   age   (62   per   cent   male   and   50   per   cent   female   population).   Population  under  40  years  of  age  was  exceptionally  low  in  this  district,  amounting  to  only  12  per  cent  as  compared   to  other  districts.            

3.1.2   IDP  -­‐  Gender  Composition  

  Gender   imbalance   is   believed   to   be   a   factor   contributing   to   social   or   cultural   limitations,   as   well   as   increased   vulnerability  of  conflict  affected  households.  The  proportion  of  females  among  the  IDP  population  is  aligned  with   the   national   gender   ratio.   However;   the   gender   ratio   of   households   among   IDPs   indicates   a   53   per   cent   female   representation,  which  is  slightly  higher  than  the  national  average  (51  per  cent  women  to  49  per  cent  men).  The   table  below  indicates  the  status  of  gender  composition  of  IDP  households.  In  the  Jaffna  welfare  unit,  Vavuniya  and   Ampara  districts,  male  members  represent  more  than  50  percent  compared  to  their  female  counterparts.        

 

 

                                                                                                                        82

83

 Current  total  IDP  figures  are  being  updated  by  the  GOSL  in  consultation  with  the  United  Nations. Please  note  that  according   to  the  GOSL  the  Vavuniya  welfare  centers  are  officially  closed.   83 Please  note  that  according  to  the  GOSL  the  Vavuniya  welfare  centers  are  officially  closed.   84 Demographic  data  for  all  the  districts  were  collected  in  the  2012  Population  Survey  by  the  Department  of  Census  and   Statistics  which  can  also  be  used  for  comparison.  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  127  

3.1.3   IDP  -­‐  Status  of  Head  of  Households  

  The  head  of  the  household  plays  a  vital  role  in  the  process  of  resettlement  and  relocation  of  IDPs.  Land  housing   and   livelihood-­‐related   facilities   and   resources   should   be   channeled   through   an   identical   male   or   female   head   of   household.   The   table   below   indicates   the   age   distribution   of   head   of   households   of   IDPs   by   districts,   including   those  who  live  in  welfare  centers  and  with  relatives  or  friends.  The  majority  of  head  of  households  in  both  welfare   units  and  other  places  are  below  60  years  of  age.  The  highest  percentage  was  (85  per  cent)  in  Batticaloa  district,   followed  by  (82  per  cent)  in  Manna  district,  and  78  per  cent  in  Ampara  district.  Mullativu  district  represents  again   an   exceptionally   low   number   of   head   of   households   below   60   years   of   age.   Only   (6.7   per   cent)   of   head   of   households   in   this   district   are   below   60   years   of   age   compared   to   all   other   districts   and   welfare   centers   with   more   than  60  per  cent  head  of  households  are  below  60  years  of  age.      

3.1.4   IDP  -­‐  Age  Distribution  of  Spouses  

  Age   distribution   of   spouses   of   IDPs   is   important   to   understand   their   future   needs   as   a   family   unit   of   production.   In   relation   to   age   distribution   of   spouses   of   IDPs,   it   is   important   to   note   that   the   majority   of   IDPs   in   most   of   the   districts   and   welfare   centers   are   below   50   years   of   age.   Ampara   district   represents   the   highest   number   of   spouses   (87   per   cent)   under   50   years   of   age,   followed   by   79   per   cent   in   Mannar   district   and   (77   per   cent)   in   Batticaloa   distinct.  Jaffna  welfare  center  has  (77  per  cent)  of  spouses  under  50  years  of  age,  74  per  cent  in  the  welfare  center   located  in  Trincomalee  district,  and  (50  per  cent)  in  Vavuniya  district  welfare  center.  More  than  half  of  the  spouses   in   all   districts   were   below   50   years   of   age,   except   Mullativu   district   which   represents   only   (18   per   cent)   of   spouses   below  50   years   of   age.   The   majority   of   spouses   are   young   and   they   are   in   productive   age.   This   indicates   further   demographic  expansion  of  household  units  in  the  future.       The   majority   of   sons   and   daughters   of   families   of   IDPs   in   all   districts   and   across   all   welfare   centers   are   young,   under  20  years  of  age.  The  highest  percentage  was  in  Mannar  district,  where  95  per  cent  of  sons  and  daughters  are   under  20  years  of  age,  followed  by  Ampara  district  (83  per  cent),  and  Trincomalee  (78  per  cent).  It  is  interesting  to   note  that  more  than  (70  per  cent)  of  sons  and  daughters  of  IDPs  in  all  welfare  centers  are  below  20  years  of  age.   This   indicates   comparatively   higher   needs   for   education,   food   /   nutrition   and   health   particularly   for   the   most   vulnerable  in  the  process  of  settlement  development  and  unequal  access  to  basic  resources.          

3.1.5   IDP  -­‐  Marital  Status  

  The  table  overleaf  indicates  the  marital  status  of  IDPs  by  districts.  On  average,  30  per  cent  of  IDPs  in  all  districts   and   welfare   centers   are   not   married.   The   highest   unmarried   percentage   of   IDPs   (34.3   per   cent)   who   live   with   relatives,  friends  or  others  are  from  Jaffna  district,  followed  by  30  percent  in  Anuradhapura  district.  The  highest   number  of  widows  among  IDPs  (13.4  per  cent)  is  in  Batticaloa  district,  followed  by  (12.7  per  cent)  in  Trincomalee   district  welfare  centers.  The  number  of  divorced  or  separated  individuals  is  negligible  in  all  districts  and  the  highest   ratio  of  five  percent  is  in  Vavuniya  and  Batticaloa  districts.      

3.1.6   IDP  -­‐  Economic  Engagement    

  Economic  engagement  of  IDPs  is  a  broader  indicator  to  understand  their  access  to  income  generating  activities  and   vulnerability.  Most  IDPs  (51  per  cent)  are  involved  in  economic  activities  related  to  the  welfare  center  located  in   Vavuniya  district,  followed  by  (50  per  cent)  in  Polonnaruwa  district,  and  45.5  per  cent  in  the  welfare  center  located   in   Jaffna   district.   In   all   other   districts   and   welfare   centers,   more   than   30   per   cent   of   IDPs   are   engaged   with   economic  activities.  The  only  exception  is  Mullativu  district  which  reported  the  lowest  percentage  of  IDPs  (13  per   cent)  involved  in  economic  activities.          

Page  128    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

85

Table  3.1:  Age  Distribution  of  Head  of  the  household   District  

Age  Group  

Place  of   Residence  

0  -­‐  20   Num  

21-­‐30   %  

Num  

31-­‐40  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

0  

0.00  

4  

4.71  

11  

12.94  

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

4  

14.29  

10  

35.71  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

8.70  

2  

8.70  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0   0  

0   0  

0   0  

6.67  

Other  

0   0  

1  

Kilinochchi  

1  

6.67  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

9  

26.47  

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

5  

15.15  

6  

18.18  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

2.50   0  

2.50  

13  

16.25  

Other  

2   0  

2  

Polonnaruwa     Jaffna   Vavuniya  

Sub  Total   Welfare  Centre   Welfare  Centre  

2   1  

0.60   2.22  

1   18   10  

5.00   5.41   22.22  

3   56   8  

15.00   16.82   17.78  

0  

0  

1  

4.76  

7  

33.33  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  Centre  

 

Sub  Total  

1   2  

3.03   2.02  

3   9.09   14   14.14  

11   26  

33.33   26.26  

   

Total  

4  

0.93  

32  

82  

18.98  

7.41  

  Table  3.1:  Age  Distribution  of  Head  of  the  household  (continued)  

District  

Age  Group  

Place  of   Residence  

41-­‐50   Num  

51-­‐60  

%  

Num  

%  

61-­‐70   Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

18  

21.18  

21  

24.71  

19  

22.35  

Mannar  

Other  

5  

17.86  

4  

14.29  

2  

7.14  

Vavuniya  

Other  

6  

26.09  

6  

26.09  

5  

21.74  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

1  

6.67  

9  

60.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

5  

33.33  

4  

26.67  

1  

6.67  

Batticaloa  

Other  

7  

20.59  

13  

38.24  

2  

5.88  

Ampara  

Other  

8  

24.24  

7  

21.21  

5  

15.15  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

26  

32.50  

23  

28.75  

11  

13.75  

Polonnaruwa     Jaffna  

Other   Sub  Total  

6   81  

30.00   24.32  

5   25.00   84   25.23  

1   55  

5.00   16.52  

Welfare  Centre  

8  

17.78  

6  

13.33  

8  

17.78  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  Centre  

2  

9.52  

4  

19.05  

4  

19.05  

Trincomalee    

Welfare  Centre   Sub  Total  

1   11  

3.03   11.11  

5   15.15   15   15.15  

6   18  

18.18   18.18  

   

Total  

92  

21.30  

99   22.92  

73  

16.90  

   

 

                                                                                                                        85

 Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.05  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  129  

Table  3.1:  Age  Distribution  of  Head  of  the  household  (continued)   Age  Group  

Place  of   Residence  

District  

71-­‐80   Num  

 

above  80  

%  

Total  

%  

 

2.35  

 

85  

100.00  

 

28   23  

100.00   100.00  

Num  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu  

Other   Other   Other  

2   2  

7.14   8.70  

1   0  

3.57   0.00  

2  

13.33  

2  

13.33  

   

15  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

3  

20.00  

1  

6.67  

 

15  

100.00  

 

34  

100.00  

33  

100.00  

80  

100.00  

20   333  

100.00   100.00  

45  

100.00  

21  

100.00  

33   99  

100.00   100.00  

432  

100.00  

10  

11.76  

2  

Batticaloa  

Other  

Ampara  

Other  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

2  

2.50  

1  

1.25  

Polonnaruwa     Jaffna  

Other   Sub  Total   Welfare  Centre  

4   30  

20.00   9.01  

0   7  

0   2.10  

4  

8.89  

0  

0.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  Centre  

2  

9.52  

1  

4.76  

 

Trincomalee  

Welfare  Centre  

 

Sub  Total    

6   12  

18.18   12.12  

0   1  

0   1.01  

 

   

Total  

42  

9.72  

8  

1.85  

3  

8.82  

0  

0  

2  

6.06  

0  

0  

       

     

Base:  all  head  of  the  households  who  responded  

  86

Table  3.2:  Gender   District  

Sex  

Place  of     Residence  

Male   Num  

Female   %  

Num  

%  

Total   Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

158  

48.62  

167  

51.38  

325  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

39  

42.86  

52  

57.14  

91  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

37  

52.86  

33  

47.14  

70  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

16  

50.00  

16  

50.00  

32  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

20  

40.82  

29  

59.18  

49  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

49  

41.18  

70  

58.82  

119  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

73  

53.28  

64  

46.72  

137  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

159  

44.92  

195  

55.08  

354  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

31  

45.59  

37  

54.41  

68  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

582  

46.75  

663   53.25  

1245  

100.00  

Jaffna  

Welfare  Centre  

99  

52.11  

91  

47.89  

190  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  Centre  

33  

49.25  

34  

50.75  

67  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  Centre  

38  

39.18  

59  

60.82  

97  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

170  

48.02  

184   51.98  

354  

100.00  

   

Total  

752  

47.03  

847   52.97  

1599  

100.00  

 

 

 

                                                                                                                        86

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.04  

Page  130    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

87

Table  3.3:    Age  Distribution  of  Wife  or  Husband   District  

Place  of   Residence  

Age  Group   0  -­‐  20   Num  

21-­‐30   %  

Num  

31-­‐40   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

1  

1.82  

3  

5.45  

13  

23.64  

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

5  

20.83  

9  

37.50  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

15.38  

2  

15.38  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

1  

9.09  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

1  

11.11  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

1  

5.56  

6  

33.33  

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

6  

26.09  

7  

30.43  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

0  

0  

7  

11.48  

14  

22.95  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

12.50  

3  

18.75  

 

Sub  Total  

1  

0.43  

26  

11.30  

56  

24.35  

Jaffna  

Welfare  Centre  

0  

0.00  

7  

25.93  

8  

29.63  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  Centre  

0  

0  

3  

25.00  

3  

25.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  Centre  

0  

0  

4  

21.05  

6  

31.58  

 

Sub  Total  

0  

0  

14  

24.14  

17  

29.31  

   

Total  

1  

0.35  

40  

13.89  

73  

25.35  

  Table  3.3:    Age  Distribution  of  Wife  or  Husband  (continued)   District  

Place  of   Residence  

Age  Group   41-­‐50   Num  

51-­‐60   %  

Num  

61-­‐70   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

17  

30.91  

10  

18.18  

7  

12.73  

Mannar  

Other  

5  

20.83  

2  

8.33  

2  

8.33  

Vavuniya  

Other  

3  

23.08  

5  

38.46  

0  

0.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

1  

9.09  

4  

36.36  

1  

9.09  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

4  

44.44  

0  

0  

4  

44.44  

Batticaloa  

Other  

7  

38.89  

3  

16.67  

0  

0  

Ampara  

Other  

7  

30.43  

3  

13.04  

0  

0  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

20  

32.79  

15  

24.59  

4  

6.56  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

6  

37.50  

3  

18.75  

1  

6.25  

  Jaffna  

Sub  Total     Welfare  Centre  

70   6  

30.43   22.22  

45   3  

19.57   11.11  

19   3  

8.26   11.11  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  Centre  

0  

0.00  

4  

33.33  

1  

8.33  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  Centre  

4  

21.05  

3  

15.79  

2  

10.53  

 

Sub  Total  

10  

17.24  

10  

17.24  

6  

10.34  

   

Total  

80  

27.78  

55  

19.10  

25  

8.68  

   

 

                                                                                                                        87

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.06  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  131  

Table  3.3:    Age  Distribution  of  Wife  or  Husband  (continued)   District  

Age  Group  

Place  of   Residence  

71-­‐80   Num  

 

Total  

above  80  

%  

Num  

 

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

3  

5.45  

1  

1.82    

Mannar  

Other  

1  

4.17  

0  

0  

Vavuniya  

Other  

1  

7.69  

0  

0  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

4  

36.36  

0  

0  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Batticaloa  

Other  

1  

5.56  

0  

0  

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

1  

1.64  

0  

0  

Polonnaruwa    

Other   Sub  Total  

1   12  

6.25   5.22  

0   1  

0   0.43  

Jaffna  

Welfare  Centre  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  Centre  

1  

8.33  

0  

0  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  Centre  

0  

0  

0  

0  

 

Sub  Total  

1  

1.72  

0  

0  

   

Total  

13  

4.51  

1  

0.35  

Num  

55   100.00  

 

24   100.00  

 

13   100.00  

 

11   100.00  

 

9   100.00  

 

18   100.00  

 

23   100.00  

 

61   100.00  

 

16   100.00   230   100.00  

   

27   100.00  

 

12   100.00  

 

19   100.00  

   

58   100.00   288   100.00  

 

Base:  Wives  or  Husbands  who  responded  

%  

  88

Table  3.4:    Age  Distribution  of  Son  or  Daughter   District  

Place  of   Residence  

Age  Group   0  -­‐  20   Num  

21-­‐30   %  

Num  

Jaffna  

Other  

89  

63.12  

39  

31-­‐40   %  

Num  

%  

27.66  

9  

6.38  

Mannar  

Other  

38  

95.00  

2  

5.00  

0  

0  

Vavuniya  

Other  

18  

64.29  

9  

32.14  

0  

0  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

4  

66.67  

2  

33.33  

0  

0  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

11  

55.00  

4  

20.00  

2   10.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

37  

74.00  

8  

16.00  

4  

8.00  

Ampara  

Other  

58  

82.86  

8  

11.43  

2  

2.86  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

130  

73.45  

41  

23.16  

4  

2.26  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

15  

53.57  

11  

39.29  

1  

3.57  

 

Sub  Total  

400   71.43  

124  

22.14  

Jaffna  

Welfare  Centre  

63  

73.26  

19  

22.09  

3  

3.49  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  Centre  

27  

84.38  

5  

15.63  

0  

0  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  Centre  

32  

78.05  

6  

14.63  

2  

4.88  

 

Sub  Total  

122   76.73  

30  

18.87  

5   3.14  

   

Total  

522   72.60  

154  

21.42  

27   3.76  

   

22   3.93  

 

                                                                                                                        88

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.07    

Page  132    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.4:    Age  Distribution  of  Son  or  Daughter  (continued)   Age  Group     District  

Place  of  Residence  

41-­‐50  

 

Total  

51-­‐60  

Num   %  

Num  

%  

 

Jaffna  

Other  

2   1.42  

2  

1.42  

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Vavuniya  

Other  

1   3.57  

0  

0  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

2  10.00  

1  

5.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

1   2.00  

0  

0  

Ampara  

Other  

2   2.86  

0  

0  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

1   0.56  

1  

0.56  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

1   3.57  

0  

0  

 

Sub  Total  

10   1.79  

4  

0.71  

Jaffna  

Welfare  Centre  

0   0.00  

1  

1.16  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  Centre  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  Centre  

1   2.44  

0  

0  

 

Sub  Total  

1   0.63  

1  

0.63  

   

Total  

11   1.53  

5  

0.70  

Num    

Base:  Son  or  Daughter  who  responded  

                             

%  

141  

100.00  

40  

100.00  

28  

100.00  

6  

100.00  

20  

100.00  

50  

100.00  

70  

100.00  

177  

100.00  

28  

100.00  

560  

100.00  

86  

100.00  

32  

100.00  

41  

100.00  

159  

100.00  

719  

100.00  

  89

Table  3.5:  Marital  Status  –  age  15  and  above   Age  Group   District  

Place  of   Residence  

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Anuradhapura   Polonnaruwa  

Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other  

  Jaffna   Vavuniya   Trincomalee        

Sub  Total   Welfare  Centre   WelfareCentre   Welfare  Centre   Sub  Total   Total  

   

Never   married   Num   %   85   34.27   13   20.00   12   23.08   5   16.67   11   27.50   21   25.61   27   30.68   81   32.02   18   32.14   273   41   15   18   74   347  

29.87   31.30   31.91   25.35   29.72   29.84  

Married   Num   135   48   33   23   24   46   52   142   33  

Widowed  

%   54.44   73.85   63.46   76.67   60.00   56.10   59.09   56.13   58.93  

Num   26   4   5   2   4   11   7   27   5  

%   10.48   6.15   9.62   6.67   10.00   13.41   7.95   10.67   8.93  

536   58.64   75   57.25   25   53.19   43   60.56   143   57.43   679   58.38  

91   12   4   9   25   116  

9.96   9.16   8.51   12.68   10.04   9.97  

 

                                                                                                                        89

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.13  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  133  

Table  3.5:  Marital  Status  –  age  15  and  above  (continued)   District   Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Anuradhapura   Polonnaruwa     Jaffna   Trincomalee   Vavuniya        

Age  Group  

Place  of   Residence  

Divorced   Num   %   0   0   0   0   0   0.00   0   0   0   0   1   1.22   0   0   2   0.79   0   0   3   0.33   0   0   0   0   1   2.13   1   0.40   4   0.34  

Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Sub  Total   Welfare  Centre   Welfare  Centre   Welfare  Centre   Sub  Total   Total  

  Separated     Num   %   2   0.81     0   0   2   3.85   0   0   1   2.50   3   3.66   2   2.27   1   0.40   0   0   11   1.20   3   2.29   1   1.41   2   4.26   6   2.41   17   1.46  

Base:  For  selected  age  is  above  15     90 Table  3.6:  Involvement  in  economic  activity     District  

Total   Num   248   65   52   30   40   82   88   253   56   914   131   71   47   249   1163  

                             

%   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

Involvement  in  any  economic  activity  

Place  of   Residence  

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

88  

35.06  

163  

64.94  

251   100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

29  

44.62  

36  

55.38  

65   100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

19  

35.19  

35  

64.81  

54   100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

4  

13.33  

26  

86.67  

30   100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

12  

30.00  

28  

70.00  

40   100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

36  

43.37  

47  

56.63  

83   100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

39  

44.83  

48  

55.17  

87   100.00  

Anuradhapura   Polonnaruwa    

Other   Other   Sub  Total  

97   28   352  

38.49   50.91   38.39  

155   27   565  

61.51   49.09   61.61  

252   100.00   55   100.00   917   100.00  

Jaffna  

Welfare  Centre  

61  

45.52  

73  

54.48  

134   100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  Centre  

25  

51.02  

24  

48.98  

49   100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  Centre  

26  

36.11  

46  

63.89  

72   100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

112  

43.92  

143  

56.08  

255   100.00  

   

Total  

464  

39.59  

708  

60.41  

1172   100.00  

 

 

 

                                                                                                                        90

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  11.14  

Page  134    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

IDP Livelihoods

3.2  

IDP  Livelihoods  

The  livelihood  section  of  the  IDP  questionnaire  broadly  addressed  the  following  issues:   · Changing  Livelihood  Sources;   · Current  level  of  livelihood;   · Assets;   · Fisheries;   · Transport;   · Skills  and  training.   · Engagement  with  Livelihood  Organizations    

3.2.1   Changing  Livelihood  Sources   Livelihood   sources   of   IDPs   have   changed   substantively   since   displacement.   The   percentage   of   self-­‐employed   households   engaged   in   farming,   fishing,   livestock   raising,   wholesale   and   retail   trading   and   manufacturing   has   decreased  in  Jaffna  (Other  IDPs  from  11.32per  cent  to  4.30  per  cent  and  Welfare  center  IDPs  from  9.38  per  cent  to   2.53  per  cent),  Mannar  (from  33.33  per  cent  to  20.51  per  cent),  Vavuniya  (Other  IDPs  from  50  per  cent  to  6.45  per   cent   and   Welfare   center   IDPs   from   28.57   per   cent   to   2.56   per   cent),   Trincomalee   district   welfare   centers   (from   38.18   per   cent   to   5.71   per   cent),   Batticaloa   (from   19.05   per   cent   to   12.20   per   cent),   Anuradhapura   (from   42.17per   cent  to  25.58  per  cent)  Ampara  (from  74.07  per  cent  to  28.0  per  cent  and  Polonnaruwa  (from  31.25  per  cent  to   10.81  per  cent)  districts  after  displacement.     The  engagement  in  fishery  has  increased  in  Mannar  (from  46.43  per  cent  to  67.85  per  cent)  while  no  change  was   reported  in  Kilinochchi.    There  is  a  marginal  increase  reported  in  Batticaloa  (from  14.29  per  cent  to  15.38  per  cent)   while  no  data  is  given  for  Vavuniya,  Trincomalee,  Ampara  and  Mullaitivu  districts.   However,   the   percentage   of   IDP   households   whose   livelihood   source   was   waged/salaried   employment   in   the   private  sector  prior  to  displacement  has  increased  substantively  after  displacement  in  Jaffna  (Other  IDPs  from  44.4   per  cent  to  60.07  per  cent  and  Welfare  center  IDPs  from  15.4  per  cent  to  37.5  per  cent),  Anuradhapura  (from  18.2   per   cent   to   37.5   per   cent)   and   Polonnaruwa   district   (from   25.0   per   cent   to   28.6   per   cent).   The   private   sector   employment   of   IDP   households   in   Vavuniya   district   has   decreased   (Other   IDPs   from   42.9   per   cent   to   20.0   per   cent   and  Welfare  center  IDPs  from  41.7  per  cent  to  14.3  per  cent),  while  no  change  is  reported  in  Ampara  district,  and   no   data   was   available   for   Mannar   and   Kilinochchi   districts.   In   Trincomalee   district   welfare   centers,   other   wage   earners  mainly  as  skills  and  unskilled  laborers  increased  substantively  (from  57.9  per  cent  to  82.1  per  cent),   Since  

the   welfare   centers   are   located   close   to   district   cities   they   have   move   from   farming   to   other   self   employments   such   as   fisheries,   livestock,   trading   and   manufacturing   related   activities.     However,   the   major   shift   was   from   rural   agriculture   related   livelihood   activities   to   monthly   wage   earning   activities   mostly  in  the  private  sector  and  other  daily/monthly  wage  earning  from  skills  and  unskilled  laborers. Grants  and  remittances  have  increased  after  displacement  in  Anuradhapura  district  (from  6.38  to  26.27  per  cent),       Jaffna   (from   2.32to   11.04   percent),   Trincomalee   (from   7.27   to   61.64per   cent),   Vavuniya   from   0   to   38   per   cent,   Mullaitivu   (from   28.57   to   54.54   per   cent),   Ampara   (from   15.6   to   24   per   cent),Batticaloa   (from   9.52   to   37.09   per   cent),  and  decreased  in  Kilinochchi  districts  (from  57.21  to  22.22  per  cent)  andMannar  (from  7.40  to  1.95  per  cent).       Unskilled  labor  has  become  a  major  source  of  livelihoods  for  IDPs  in  Jaffna,  Batticaloa,  and  Anuradhapura  districts,   while  it  is  not  reported  as  significant  in  other  districts.     The   number   of   IDPs   receiving   Samurdhi   grants   has   increased   in   Ampara   (from   20   to   33.33   per   cent),   Kilinochchi   (from  25  to  50  per  cent).  The  number  decreased  in  Trincomalee  (from  75  to  55.56  per  cent)  and  in  Anuradhapura   (12.5  per  cent  to  3.23  per  cent)  following  displacement.  No  data  was  available  in  relation  to  Samurdhi  grants  for   Polonnaruwa,  Jaffna,  Batticaloa,  Mannar,  Vavuniya  and  Mullaitivu  districts.     Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  137  

Livelihood  grants  for  IDPs  decreased  in  Jaffna  (from  50  to  31.58  per  cent)  and  Mannar  (50  to  28.57  per  cent),  while   data  was  not  reported  in  other  districts.    

3.2.2   Current  Level  of  Livelihood  

  The   percentage   of   IDP   households   who   earned   less   than   Rs.   10,000   per   month   prior   to   displacement   decreased   considerably   in   most   districts   after   displacement,   except   in   Mullaitivu   where   it   increased   (from   11.76   to   50   per   cent)  and  Trincomalee  districts  welfare  centers  (from  31.25  to  43.75  per  cent)where  it  increased  substantially.  The   highest  decrease  was  in  Vavuniya  district  welfare  centers  from  81.82  per  cent  prior  to  displacement  to  38.10  per   cent.  In  the  Jaffna  district  welfare  centers  it  decreased  from  58.62  to  33.93  per  cent.     The   percentage   of   IDP   households   with   a   monthly   average   income   from   Rs.   10,000   to   Rs.25,000   has   increased   substantially   since   displacement   in   most   districts.   There   was   a   considerable   increase   in   Jaffna   welfare   centers   (41.38   to   53.57   per   cent)   and   Vavuniya   welfare   centers   (18.18   to   42.86   per   cent).   However,   monthly   average   income   decreased   in   Trincomalee   welfare   centers,   and   Mullaitivu   and   Polonnaruwa   districts.   The   highest   decrease   was  In  the  Vavuniya  district  welfare  centers  from  81.82  per  cent  prior  to  displacement  to  38.10  per  cent  current   level.  In  the  Jaffna  district  welfare  centers  decreased  from  58.32  to  current  level  of  33.93  per  cent.     There  were  no  IDP  households  within  the  monthly  average  income  range  of  Rs.  25,000  to  50,000  in  Vavuniya  and   Batticaloa   districts   prior   to   displacement.   However,   the   percentage   of   IDP   households   currently   in   this   income   range  in  Vavuniya  district  was  recorded  at  25  per  cent,  while  in  Batticaloa  district  was  reported  at  5.71  per  cent.     There   were   only   0.34   per   cent   of   IDP   households   with   an   average   monthly   income   of   over   Rs.   50,000   prior   to   displacement  in  all  districts.  The  survey  data  indicate  an  increase  to  4.08  per  cent  in  the  number  of  IDP  households   with  an  average  monthly  income  of  over  Rs.  50,000  across  most  districts  after  displacement.  There  was  no  increase   in  Mullaitivu  and  Batticaloa  districts.      

3.2.3   Assets  

  Data   collected   on   land   ownership   was   not   comprehensive   enough   to   drawsignificant   conclusions.   There   was   a   low   response   to   questions   on   land   ownership.   Among   sample   households   from   Jaffna   welfare   centers   only   4   of   59   responded;  amongother  IDPs  in  Jaffna  only  2  out  of  88  households,  in  Mannar  13  out  of  22  households,in  Vavuniya   welfare   centers   3   out   of   21   households,   in   Vavuniya   others   2   out   of   23   householdsin   Kilinochchi   1   out   of   17   householdsand  Batticaloa  2  out  of  35  households.     There  was  a  drastic  reduction  of  agricultural  tools  and  equipment  owned  by  these  households  after  displacement   in   all   districts,   except   in   Ampara.   This   may   be   due   to   the   decreased   engagement   in   agricultural   activities   by   IDP   households.    

  3.2.4   Fisheries  

  There   are   IDP   households   who   own   boats   and   canoes   in   most   districts,   including   38.98   per   centin   the   Jaffna   welfare  centers;  28.41  per  cent  among  Jaffna  other  IDPs;19.45  per  cent  in  Mannar;  9.11  per  cent  in  Vavuniya;  8.57   per  cent  in  Batticaloa;  2.94  per  cent  in  Ampara;  3.03  per  cent  in  Trincomalee;  and  6.49  per  cent  in  Anuradhapura.   A   high   percentage   of   IDPs   in   Mannar   and   Jaffna   indicated   that   some   households   own   more   than   one   boat   or   canoe.      

3.2.5   Transport  

  Data  indicates  an  increase  in  the  number  of  transport  assets  such  as  three  wheelers  and  motorcycles  in  all  districts   after  displacement  compared  with  the  situation  prior  to  displacement.     Page  138     Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

3.2.6   Skills  and  training  

  The   highest   number   of   qualified   IDP   family   members   with   a   National   Vocational   Qualification   (NVQ)   level   1   was   reported   in   Kilinochchi   district   with   three   households   reporting   members   with   NVQ   level   1   qualification.   This   is   followed   by   Trincomalee   district   welfare   centers   (two   members).   In   Jaffna,   there   are   four   IDP   households   with   members  with  NVQ  level  4  qualification;  this  indicates  that  young  people  have  higher  aspirations.  It  also  implies   that  there  is  both  the  need  and  the  opportunity  to  promote  vocational  training  targeting  IDP  households  across  all   districts.    

3.2.7   Engagement  with  Livelihood  Organizations  

  The   engagement   in   community-­‐level   organizations   varies   across   districts   except   in   the   case   of   those   engaging  with   Samurdhi  societies.  Large  numbers  of  IDPs  in  Jaffna  are  engaged  in  rural  development  and  co-­‐operative  societies   confirming  the  effectiveness  of  traditional  grassroots-­‐level  societies.     91 Table  3.7:  Monthly  income  

%  

Total  

%  

Other  

%  

Fishing  

Livelihoods   Before  

Farming  

Self  employed  

%  

Jaffna   Mannar  

Other  

6   11.32  

12   22.64  

7  

13.21  

25   47.17  

Other  

9   33.33  

13   48.15  

1  

3.70  

23   85.19  

Vavuniya  

Other  

7   50.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

7   50.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

5   23.81  

0  

0.00  

4  

19.05  

9   42.86  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

1  

2  

9.52  

3  

14.29  

6   28.57  

Batticaloa  

Other  

4   19.05  

3   14.29  

4  

19.05  

11   52.38  

Ampara  

Other  

20   62.50  

0  

0.00  

1  

3.13  

21   65.63  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

5   31.25  

0  

0.00  

3  

18.75  

8   50.00  

35   42.17  

3  

3.61  

12  

14.46  

50   60.24  

35   12.15  

160   55.56  

Anuradhapura   Other   Other  IDPS   Sub  Total  

4.76  

92   31.94  

Welfare  

3  

Welfare  

4   28.57  

1  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

21   38.18  

0  

Welfare  IDPs  

Sub  Total  

28   27.45   120   30.77  

     

Total  

9.09  

33   11.46  

Jaffna   Vavuniya  

10   30.30  

5  

15.15  

18   54.55  

7.14  

0  

0.00  

5   35.71  

0.00  

14  

25.45  

35   63.64  

11   10.78  

19   18.63  

58   56.86  

44   11.28  

54   13.85  

218   55.90  

 

                                                                                                                        91

More  comprehensive  tables  with  data  by  districts  are    attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Tables  7.01  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  139  

Table  3.7:  Monthly  income  (continued)   wage/salary  

 

53  

100  

0  

0.00  

1  

3.70  

4  

3.70  

2  

7.41  

27  

100  

Other  

4  

28.57  

3  

21.43  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

 

14  

100  

28.57  

 

21  

100  

57.14  

 

21  

100  

Other  

2  

9.52  

3   1  

14.29   4.76  

6   9  

0.00   0.00  

1  

1.89  

Other  

14.29  

7   13.21  

%  

 

Vavuniya  

3  

22.64  

G.   Total    

Other  

12  

%  

Other  

Kilinochchi  

15.09  

%  

Jaffna   Mannar   Mullaitivu  

8  

%  

 

 

Grants  

Livelihoods   Before  

Other  

Public  

Private  

%  

6   12  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0.00  

1  

4.76  

9   33.33  

2  

9.52  

 

21  

100  

Ampara  

Other  

2  

6.25  

1  

3.13  

3  

5  

15.63  

 

32  

100  

12.50  

 

16  

100  

Polonnaruwa   Anuradhapur a   Other  IDPS   Jaffna   Vavuniya  

Other  

2  

Other   Sub  Total   Welfare  

6  

7.23  

27  

9.38  

5  

Welfare  

12.50  

0  

15.15   0.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

2  

3.64  

Welfare  IDPs  

Sub  Total  

7  

6.86  

Total    

34  

2   6  

4   12.50  

2  

 

7.23  

21   15.66  

8  

9.64  

83  

100  

30   10.42  

63   11.46  

38  

13.19  

 

288  

100  

3.03  

 

33  

100  

0.00  

 

14  

100  

2   7  

6.06   50.00  

6   21.21   2   14.29  

1   0  

10.91  

11   14.55  

4  

7.27  

 

55  

100  

15   14.71  

19   16.67  

5  

4.90  

 

102  

100  

11.03  

 

390  

100  

6  

8.72  

   

12.50  

9.38  

11.54  

82   12.82  

43  

 

 

 

Page  140    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.7:  Monthly  income  (continued)  

Total  

%  

Other  

%  

Fishing  

Livelihoods   Current  

Farming  

Self  employed  

%  

%  

Jaffna   Mannar  

Other  

4  

4.30  

10   10.75  

7  

7.53  

21  

22.58  

Other  

8  

20.51  

19   67.85  

4  

10.26  

31  

79.49  

Vavuniya  

Other  

2  

6.45  

0  

0.00  

4  

12.90  

6  

19.35  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

2  

18.18  

0  

0.00  

1  

9.09  

3  

27.27  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0.00  

1   11.11  

2  

22.22  

3  

33.33  

Batticaloa  

Other  

5  

8.06  

4  

6.45  

6  

9.68  

15  

24.19  

Ampara  

Other  

14  

28.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

14  

28.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

4  

10.81  

0  

0.00  

5  

13.51  

9  

24.32  

22  

18.64  

2  

1.69  

14  

11.86  

38  

32.20  

36    

8.00  

43  

9.56  

140  

31.11  

15   18.99  

6  

7.59  

23  

29.11  

Anuradhapura   Other   Other  IDPS   Sub  Total  

61  

13.56  

Jaffna   Vavuniya  

welfare  

2  

2.53  

Welfare  

1  

2.56  

0  

0.00  

5  

12.82  

6  

15.38  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

4  

5.48  

0  

0.00  

10  

13.70  

14  

19.18  

Welfare  IDPs  

Sub  Total  

7  

3.66  

15    

7.85  

21   10.99  

43  

22.51  

68  

10.61  

51  

7.96  

64  

183  

28.55  

Total  

9.98  

    wage/salary  

 

 

Jaffna   Mannar  

Other   Other  

11   0  

11.83   0.00  

37   0  

%   39.78  

13  

0.00  

8  

%   13.98   2.56  

Grants  

Other  

%  

Private  

Livelihoods   Current  

Public  

 

11   7  

G.   Total  

%  

%  

11.83  

 

93  

100  

17.95  

 

39  

100  

Vavuniya  

Other  

10  

32.26  

5  

16.13  

10  

0.00  

10  

32.26  

 

31  

100  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0.00  

2  

18.18  

6  

0.00  

6  

54.55  

 

11  

100  

22.22  

 

9  

100  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

4  

44.44  

0  

0.00  

2  

0.00  

2  

Batticaloa  

Other  

3  

4.84  

6  

9.68  

17  

24.19  

23  

37.10  

 

62  

100  

Ampara  

Other  

9  

18.00  

4  

8.00  

23  

22.00  

12  

24.00  

 

50  

100  

21.62  

 

37  

100  

26.27  

 

118  

100  

Polonnaruwa  

Other   Anuradhapura   Other   Other  IDPS   Sub  Total   Jaffna   Vavuniya   Trincomalee   Welfare  IDPs  

welfare   Welfare   Welfare   Sub  Total   Total  

4   1  

10.81   0.85  

8   18  

21.62  

16  

15.25  

29  

21.62   25.42  

8   31  

42  

9.33  

80  

17.78  

78  

17.33  

110  

24.44  

 

450  

100  

4  

5.06  

18  

22.78  

26  

32.91  

8  

10.13  

 

79  

100  

35.90  

 

39  

100  

61.64  

 

73  

100  

35.08  

 

191  

100  

27.61  

 

641  

100  

1   2   7   49  

2.56   2.74   3.66   7.64  

15   8   41   121  

38.46  

20  

10.96  

46  

21.47  

33  

18.88  

111  

7.69   5.48   17.28   17.32  

14   45   67   177  

  Base:   All  who  reported  for  section  7  -­‐  Q.2  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  141  

 

92

Table  3.8:  Income  group-­‐  prior  to  displacement  

District  

Before  Displacement   Income  Group  (Rs.  Per  month)  

Place  of   Residence  

Less  than  10000   Num  

10000  -­‐    <  25000  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

25  

52.08  

18  

37.50  

Mannar  

Other  

6  

31.58  

11  

57.89  

Vavuniya  

Other  

9  

90.00  

1  

10.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

2  

11.76  

11  

64.71  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

8  

47.06  

7  

41.18  

Batticaloa  

Other  

16  

88.89  

2  

11.11  

Ampara  

Other  

18  

81.82  

2  

9.09  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

22  

35.48  

34  

54.84  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

 

Sub  Total  

Jaffna   Vavuniya  

6  

46.15  

6  

46.15  

112  

49.56  

92  

40.71  

Welfare  

17  

58.62  

12  

41.38  

Welfare  

9  

81.82  

2  

18.18  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

10  

31.25  

17  

53.13  

 

Sub  Total  

36  

50.00  

31  

43.06  

   

Total  

148  

49.66  

123  

41.28  

 

 

                                                                                                                        92

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  7.02a  

Page  142    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.8:  Income  group-­‐  prior  to  displacement  (continued)  

District  

Before  Displacement   Income  Group  

Place  of   Residence  

25000  -­‐  <50000   Num  

 

50000  +  

%  

Num  

 

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

5  

10.42  

0  

0    

Mannar  

Other  

2  

10.53  

0  

0  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

3  

17.65  

1  

5.88  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

2  

11.76  

0  

0  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Ampara  

Other  

2  

9.09  

0  

0  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

6  

9.68  

0  

0  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

1  

7.69  

0  

0  

 

Sub  Total  

21  

9.29  

1  

0.44  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

0  

0.00  

0  

0  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Trincomalee        

Welfare   Sub  Total   Total  

5   5   26  

15.63   6.94   8.72  

0   0   1  

0   0.00   0.34  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  7  -­‐  Q.2     93 Table  3.9:  Income  Group–Current   District  

Num                                

%  

48  

100.00  

19  

100.00  

10  

100.00  

17  

100.00  

17  

100.00  

18  

100.00  

22  

100.00  

62  

100.00  

13  

100.00  

226  

100.00  

29  

100.00  

11  

100.00  

32   72   298  

100.00   100.00   100.00  

Current  Location   Income  Group  (  Rs.  Per  month)  

Place  of   Residence  

Less  than  10000   Num   %   27   37.50   5   18.52   1   5.26  

10000  -­‐    <  25000   Num   %   36   50.00   18   66.67   11   57.89  

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya  

Other   Other   Other  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

5  

50.00  

4  

40.00  

Kilinochchi   Batticaloa  

Other   Other  

2   12  

28.57   34.29  

3   21  

42.86   60.00  

Ampara   Anuradhapura  

Other   Other  

11   8  

35.48   12.31  

13   36  

41.94   55.38  

Polonnaruwa     Jaffna   Vavuniya   Trincomalee    

Other   Sub  Total   Welfare   Welfare   Welfare   Sub  Total  

3   74   19   8   14   41  

17.65   26.15   33.93   38.10   43.75   37.61  

6   148   30   9   16   55  

35.29   52.30   53.57   42.86   50.00   50.46  

   

Total  

115  

29.34  

203  

51.79  

 

Total  

 

 

                                                                                                                        93

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  7.02b  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  143  

Table  3.9:  Income  Group–Current  (continued)   Current  Location  Income  Group  

Place  of   Residence  

District  

25000  -­‐  <50000   Num  

50000  +  

%   5   2   6   1   1   2   5   19  

   

Num  

 

%   4   2   1   0   1   0   2   2  

5.56     7.41   5.26   0   14.29   0   6.45   3.08  

35.29  

2  

11.76  

16.61   10.71   19.05   3.13   10.09  

14   1   0   1   2  

4.95   1.79   0.00   3.13   1.83  

16  

4.08  

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Anuradhapura  

Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other  

6.94   7.41   31.58   10.00   14.29   5.71   16.13   29.23  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

6  

  Jaffna   Vavuniya   Trincomalee    

Sub  Total   Welfare   Welfare   Welfare   Sub  Total  

47   6   4   1   11  

   

Total  

58  

14.80  

Total  

Num                                

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  7  -­‐  Q.2  

72   27   19   10   7   35   31   65  

%   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

17   100.00   283   56   21   32   109  

100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

392   100.00  

94

Table  3.10:  Fishing  Resources-­‐  Other  IDPs   Jaffna   New  

No.of  Resources  

No.  Reported  

No.of  Resources  

No.  Reported  

No.of  Resources  

No.  Reported  

No.of  Resources  

Repaired  

No.  Reported  

New  

No.of  Resources  

Repaired  

No.    Reported  

New  

No.of  Resources  

Repaired  

Vavuniya  

No.  Reported  

Description             Multi  day  boats  

Mannar  

1  

1  

2  

2  

1  

2  

1  

2  

0  

0  

0  

-­‐  

Fiber  glass  boat  with  motor  

1  

1  

9  

11  

6  

7  

6  

8  

0  

0  

0  

-­‐  

Fiber  glass  boat  without  motor  

0  

0  

0  

0  

2  

3  

2  

3  

0  

0  

0  

-­‐  

Vallam  with  motor  

2  

2  

6  

8  

5  

7  

6  

7  

0  

0  

0  

1  

Vallam  without  motor  

0  

0  

1  

1  

2  

3  

6  

6  

0  

0  

0  

-­‐  

Canoes  

0  

0  

3  

5  

2  

3  

4  

5  

0  

0  

0  

-­‐  

Deep  sea  fishing  gear  

0  

0  

2  

70  

2  

3  

4  

4  

0  

0  

0  

-­‐  

Crab  and  prawn  nets  

1  

10  

6  

92  

10  

53  

16  

89  

0  

0  

0  

-­‐  

Inland  water  fishing  nets  

2  

90  

11   264  

12  

84  

19  

184  

0  

0  

0  

-­‐  

Other  fishing  gears  

0  

0  

2  

51  

1  

2  

6  

19  

2  

2  

1  

1  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

3  

1  

1  

3  

5  

4  

4  

3  

3  

Total  

7   104  

44   168  

73  

332  

0  

0  

0  

0    

   

44   507  

 

                                                                                                                        94

More  comprehensive  tables  with  data  by  districts  are  attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  7.04  

Page  144    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.10:  Fishing  Resources-­‐  other  IDPs  (continued)   Batticaloa  

No.of  Resources  

No.  Reported  

No.of  Resources  

No.  Reported  

No.of  Resources  

No.  Reported  

No.of  Resources  

Repaired  

No.  Reported  

New  

No.of  Resources  

Repaired  

No.  Reported  

New  

No.of  Resources  

Repaired  

Anuradhapura  

No.  Reported  

New  

Ampara  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Fiber  glass  boat  with  motor  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Fiber  glass  boat  without  motor  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

3  

4  

Vallam  with  motor  

0  

0  

1  

1  

0  

0  

0  

0  

1  

1  

1  

1  

Vallam  without  motor  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Canoes  

1  

1  

1  

1  

1  

1  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Deep  sea  fishing  gear  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

3  

3  

Crab  and  prawn  nets  

1  

1  

1  

1  

0  

0  

0  

0  

1  

1  

0  

0  

Inland  water  fishing  nets  

4  

6  

3  

5  

1  

1  

1  

1  

0  

0  

1  

1  

Other  fishing  gears  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

3  

5  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

2  

2  

2  

4  

6  

8  

2  

2  

1  

1  

4  

4  

13  

18  

Description           Multi  day  boats  

Total   6   8     Table  3.10:    Fishing  Resources-­‐  Welfare  Centre  IDPs   Jaffna  

No.of  Resources  

No.  Reported  

No.of  Resources  

No.  Reported  

No.of  Resources  

No.  Reported  

No.of  Resources  

Repaired  

No.  Reported  

New  

No.of  Resources  

Repaired  

No.  Reported  

New  

No.of  Resources  

Repaired  

Trincomalee  

No.  Reported  

New  

Vavuniya  

0  

0  

5  

5  

0  

0  

1  

1  

0  

0  

1  

1  

Fiber  glass  boat  with  motor  

1  

1  

3  

3  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Vellum  with  motor  

3  

2  

7  

7  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Vellum  without  motor  

1  

1  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Canoes  

2  

2  

1  

1  

0  

0  

0  

0  

1  

1  

0  

0  

Deep  sea  fishing  gear  

1  

0  

1  

1  

0  

0  

0  

0  

1  

1  

0  

0  

Crab  and  prawn  nets  

3  

28  

2  

2  

0  

0  

0  

0  

1  

1  

0  

0  

Inland  water  fishing  nets  

3  

37  

11   201  

0  

0  

1  

1  

0  

0  

1  

1  

Other  fishing  gears  

0  

0  

2  

2  

0  

0  

0  

0  

1  

1  

0  

0  

Other  

1  

1  

1  

1  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Total  

15  

72  

33   223  

-­‐  

-­‐  

2  

2  

5  

5  

2  

2  

Description   Welfare  Center  IDPs     Multi  day  boats  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  7  -­‐  Q.3.2   Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  145  

95

Table  3.11:  Participation  in  livelihood  organizations   Organization   District  

Place  of   Residence  

Rural   development   society   Num  

Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Anuradhapura   Polonnaruwa     Jaffna   Vavuniya   Trincomalee        

Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Sub  Total   Welfare   Welfare   Welfare   Sub  Total   Total  

35   27   11   14   17   28   18   6   16   172   16   8   13   37   209  

Farmers   organization   Nu m   33   22   10   11   17   27   33   13   17   183   14   6   13   33   216  

%   11.90   15.70   12.09   15.73   13.39   11.16   10.40   6.90   10.26   11.94   12.90   14.81   9.42   11.71   11.90  

 

%  

District   Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Anuradhapura   Polonnaruwa     Jaffna   Vavuniya   Trincomalee        

Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Sub  Total   Welfare   Welfare   Welfare   Sub  Total   Total  

Cooperative   society   Num   %   31   10.54   17   9.88   10   10.99   12   13.48   17   13.39   27   10.76   15   8.67   3   3.45   17   10.90   149   10.35   14   11.29   5   9.26   14   10.14   33   10.44   182   10.36  

Num  

11.22   12.79   10.99   12.36   13.39   10.76   19.08   14.94   10.90   12.71   11.29   11.11   9.42   10.44   12.30  

  Organization     Place  of   Residence  

Credit  society  

33   19   10   9   17   27   15   8   17   155   14   5   13   32   187  

 

Samurdhi   Num   33   19   10   11   17   31   21   10   16   168   13   7   30   50   218  

%   11.22   11.05   10.99   10.11   13.39   10.76   8.67   9.20   10.90   10.76   11.29   9.26   9.42   10.13   10.65  

  Fishing  society  

%   11.22   11.05   10.99   12.36   13.39   12.35   12.14   11.49   10.26   11.67   10.48   12.96   21.74   15.82   12.41  

Num   35   26   10   9   13   30   15   3   17   158   20   5   17   42   200  

%   11.90   15.12   10.99   10.11   10.24   11.95   8.67   3.45   10.90   10.97   16.13   9.26   12.32   13.29   11.39  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  7  -­‐  Q.5    

 

 

 

                                                                                                                        95

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  7.08  

Page  146    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.11:  Participation  in  livelihood  organizations  (continued)   Organization   District  

Place  of   Residence  

Livestock  society  

Death  donation   society  

Num  

Num  

%  

 

%  

Num  

%  

 

10.20    

Jaffna  

Other  

32  

10.88  

32  

10.88  

30  

Mannar  

Other  

18  

10.47  

19  

11.05  

5  

2.91  

Vavuniya  

Other  

10  

10.99  

10  

10.99  

10  

10.99  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

9  

10.11  

7  

7.87  

7  

7.87  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

14  

11.02  

12  

9.45  

3  

2.36  

Batticaloa  

Other  

27  

10.76  

27  

10.76  

27  

10.76  

Ampara  

Other  

15  

8.67  

27  

15.61  

14  

8.09  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

3  

3.45  

24  

27.59  

17  

19.54  

Polonnaruwa     Jaffna  

Other   Sub  Total   Welfare  

17   145   12  

10.90   10.07   9.68  

20   178   12  

12.82   12.36   9.68  

19   132   9  

12.18   9.17   7.26  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

5  

9.26  

6  

11.11  

7  

12.96  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

13  

9.42  

13  

9.42  

12  

8.70  

 

Sub  Total  

30  

9.49  

31  

9.81  

28  

8.86  

   

Total  

175  

9.97  

209  

11.90  

160  

9.11  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

 

   

 

 

Num                                

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  7  -­‐  Q.5    

Total  

Other  

 

 

%  

294  

100.00  

172  

100.00  

91  

100.00  

89  

100.00  

127  

100.00  

251  

100.00  

173  

100.00  

87  

100.00  

156   1440   124  

100.00   100.00   100.00  

54  

100.00  

138  

100.00  

316  

100.00  

1756  

100.00  

 

Page  147  

Page  148    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

IDP Food Security and Nutrition

3.3  

IDP  Food  Security  and  Nutrition96  

  This  section  of  the  report  includes  data  from  two  sections  of  the  questionnaire:  the  “food  security”section  and  the   “nutrition  and  health”  sector.  The  relevant  aspects  of  these  two  sections  were  broadly  divided  as  follows:       Food  security:   · Household  food  consumption  (average  number  of  meals  per  day  consumed,  by  age);   · Food  consumption  scores;   · Food  Security  Coping  strategies.   · Food  Security  -­‐  Gaps     Nutrition:     · Breastfeeding  practices;   · Complementary  feeding;   · Nutrient  supplementation  of  children  under  the  age  of  five;   · Support  available  to  improve  the  nutritional  status  of  children  under  the  age  of  five;   · Nutrient  supplementation  during  pregnancy.    

3.3.1   Food  Security  -­‐  Household  Food  Consumption  

  The   following   aspects   were   evaluated:   average   number   of   meals   consumed   by   household   residents   by   age   groups,   food  consumption  score  and  coping  strategies  adopted  by  the  households.  Study  of  the  average  number  of  meals   consumed  by  the  household  members  was  considered  to  be  an  indicator  of  food  availability  and  consumption  in   general  terms.  However,  it  should  be  noted  that  several  factors  might  have  influenced  the  responses.       In   the   0   –   5   year   age   group,   75.6   per   cent   of   children   consumed   three   meals   a   day   and   another   21.1   per   cent,   four   meals.  It  should  be  noted  that  infants  were  included  in  this  group;  therefore,  milk  feeds  may  or  may  not  have  been   included  in  the  estimation  of  the  number  of  meals,  thus  giving  these  findings.     In  all  other  age  groups  except  the  61+  age  group,  more  than  97  per  cent  consumed  three  or  more  meals  per  day.  In   the  61+  age  group,  approximately  six  per  cent  consumed  less  than  three  meals  per  day.  There  was  no  clear  pattern   identified   across   districts,   even   though   some   variations   were   observed.   Availability   of   three   or   more   meals   at   household  level  could  be  considered  as  a  satisfactory  situation  as  far  as  food  availability  is  concerned.    

                                                                                                                            96

REFERENCES  

·

Sri  Lanka  Joint  Needs  Assessment  –  Survey  of  Surveys  Atlas  2013.  United  Nations  Office  for  the  Coordination  of   Humanitarian  Affairs,  Sri  Lanka,  2014.  

· ·

Family  Health  Bureau,  Ministry  of  Health,  Sri  Lanka  Annual  Report  on  Family  Health  Sri  Lanka  2010.  

·

Medical  Research  Institute,  UNICEF,  World  Food  Programme  March  2012.  Assessment  of  Nutritional  Status  Northern   Province  2012.  

· ·

WHO,  Geneva  2010  Indicators  for  assessing  infant  and  young  child  feeding  practices  Part  3  country  profiles.  

Medical  Research  Institute,  UNICEF,  World  Food  Programme  2011.  Assessment  of  Nutritional  Status  and  Food  Security   levels  among  resettled  families  October  –  November  2010.  

Medical  Research  Institute,  UNICEF,  March  2009,  Rapid  assessment  of  nutritional  status  among  the  displaced  population  in   Vavuniya  transit  camps,  March  2009.  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  151  

3.3.2   Food  Security  -­‐  Food  Consumption  Score    

  Food   consumption   score   (FCS)   is   a   composite   score   based   on   dietary   diversity,   food   frequency   and   relative   nutritional   importance   of   different   food   groups.   The   developed   score   is   used   to   categorize   the   FCS   as   poor,   borderline   or   acceptable.   As   first   step   in   this   assessment,   for   each   household,   the   food   consumption   score   was   calculated.   Then,   each   household   was   categorized   as   belonging   to   one   of   the   FCS   categories   of   poor,   borderline   or   acceptable.  As  the  next  step,  the  percentage  distribution  of  households  belonging  to  each  category  was  assessed   at  district  level.       For  all  districts,  85.2  per  cent  of  households  had  “acceptable”  FCS;  12.4  per  cent  in  the  “borderline”  category  and   2.4   per   cent   in   the   “poor”   category.   Six   districts   (Mannar,   Vavuniya,   Mullaitivu,   Batticaloa,   Anuradhapura   and   Polonnaruwa)  had  more  than  95  per  cent  of  households  having  FCS  in  the  “acceptable”  category,  with  Mullaitivu   and   Batticaloa   indicating   a   percentage   of   100   per   cent.   Trincomalee   district   welfare   centers   (37.5   per   cent)   and   Ampara  (52.9  per  cent)  districts  had  low  percentages  of  households  in  the  “acceptable”  category,  highlighting  their   vulnerability.   FCS   is   comparatively   high   in   Jaffna   and   Vavuniya   welfare   centers.   Trincomalee   welfare   centers   reported  the  lowest  percentage  atthe  “acceptable”  level.     These  findings  led  to  the  identification  of  the  districts  which  are  vulnerable,  especially  those  that  have  less  than  90   per   cent   of   households   belonging   to   the   “acceptable”   category.   At   the   same   time,   those   with   90-­‐95   per   cent   of   households  in  this  category  also  require  attention        

3.3.3   Food  Security  -­‐  Coping  Strategies    

  Of  the  454  households  interviewed,  243  households  do  not  adopt  coping  strategies  and  211  households  (46  per   cent)   reported   adopting   a   coping   strategy.   In   Anuradhapura,   Polonnaruwa   and   Batticaloa   districts,   adopting   the   coping   strategy   of   borrowing   money/   food   was   very   negligible   as   the   reported   number   is   only   one   member   for   each  district.  The  highest  number  or  24.17  per  cent  was  reported  from  Jaffna  district  (25  from  other  IDPs  and  26   from   welfare   centers).   The   number   in   Vavuniya   district   was   twenty   two   or   10.42   per   cent   (from   other   IDPs   10   and   from   welfare   centers   12).   In   Mannar   21   members   (9.95   per   cent),   Ampara   19   members   (9.00   per   cent)   and   Trincomalee   welfare   centers   16   members   (7.58   per   cent)   have   employed   the   strategy   of   ”borrowing   food   /money”.  Mullaitivu  and  Kilinochchi  districts  represented  less  than  10  members  each,  only  4.73  per  cent  and  3.79   respectively.  Limited  food  intake  by  whole  family  was  adopted  only  by  3.31  per  cent  in  Ampara  district.  Except  one   member  reported  from  Trincomalee  welfare  center  on  one  was  from  all  other  districts.         In  Jaffna  and  Vavuniya  districts,  the  strategy  of  ”borrowing  food/money”  was  more  frequently  practiced  by  those   in  welfare  centers  compared  to  those  in  other  places  of  residence.    

3.3.4   Food  Security  -­‐  Gaps  

  The   reasons   for   adopting   different   coping   strategies   are   not   known;   similarly   it   is   not   clear   why   there   are   inter-­‐ district  variations.  Due  to  the  limited  data  available,  other  relevant  indicators  which  may  have  allowed  establishing   comparisons  could  not  be  assessed.       Assessment  of  additional  and  more  detailed  indicators  of  food  security  was  not  possible  in  this  assessment.  As  a   result,   more   detailed   information   is   required   in   relation   to   the   low   percentages   of   households   with   acceptable   levels  of  food  consumption  scores  in  some  districts.    

   

 

Page  152    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

3.3.5   Nutrition  -­‐  Breastfeeding  Practices  

  Assessments   in   nutrition   among   the   IDPs   at   the   time   of   the   survey   were   focused   on   children   in   the   age   group   0-­‐59   months  and  selected  sub-­‐groups  within  that  age  group.  The  number  of  children  included  in  this  component  was   102,  of  whom  three  children  were  not  in  the  0-­‐59  month  age  group.  All  three  of  them  were  from  Jaffna  district.       Among  the  99  children  in  the  0-­‐59  month  age  group,  31  were  residing  in  welfare  centers  in  Jaffna,  Vavuniya  and   Trincomalee   districtsat   the   time   of   the   study68   were   residing   elsewhere.   The   number   of   children   varied   widely   between  districts  ranging  from  a  high  number  of  32  in  Jaffna,  to  one  each,  in  Mullaitivu  and  Kilinochchi  districts.           Study  of  breastfeeding  practices  showed  that  in  all  districts  except  Jaffna,  all  children  in  the  age  group  0-­‐59  months   belonged  to  the  category  ”ever  breastfed”.  This  observation  could  be  considered  as  satisfactory,  in  keeping  with   the  WHO  guidelines.  However,  in  Jaffna,  only  95  per  cent  of  children  in  welfare  centers,  and  86  per  cent  of  those  in   other   places   of   residence   have   been   “ever   breastfed”.   A   comparison   of   these   data   with   the   Health   Ministry   data   is   important  as  the  methodology  adopted  is  different  from  that  of  the  Department  of  Health  Services.     Among  this  group,  for  89.9  per  cent  of  children,  breast  milk  was  given  within  one  hour  of  birth,  in  line  with  WHO   guidelines.   It   was   noted   that   in   districts   other   than   Jaffna,   Mannar   and   Anuradhapura,   100   per   cent   of   children   were  given  breast  milk  within  this  time  period.  Of  the  other  children,  9.1  per  cent  were  given  breast  milk  within   one  day  of  birth  and  one  per  cent  after  one  day  of  birth.     Information  on  breastfeeding  practices  on  the  day  prior  to  the  interview  for  children  aged  0-­‐  24  months  showed   that   58.4   per   cent   of   the   sample   had   breastfed   their   infants   on   the   day   prior   to   the   interview.   Inter-­‐district   variations   were   noted,   with   80.95   per   cent   of   children   in   Anuradhapura   having   been   breastfed,   compared   to   50   per  cent  in  Jaffna  district.  However,  caution  should  be  applied  in  the  interpretation  of  data,  since  the  number  of   children  in  districts  other  than  Jaffna  and  Anuradhapura  was  less  than  ten.        

3.3.6   Nutrition  -­‐  Complementary  Feeding  

  Only   three   children,   one   each   in   the   districts   of   Jaffna,   Vavuniya   and   Anuradhapura   were   identified   to   be   within   6-­‐ 8  months  of  age.  This  sample  group  was  used  to  collect  information  on  the  number  of  times  the  child  was  given   solid,  semi-­‐solid  or  soft  foods  on  the  day  prior  to  the  interview.  The  child  in  Vavuniya  was  given  such  food  twice   during   the   day   prior   to   the   interview,   whereas   the   child   in   Jaffna   was   given   three   feeds;   the   child   in   Anuradhapura   was  given  four  or  more  feeds.    

3.3.7   Nutrition  -­‐  Nutrient  Supplementation  of  Children  Under  Five  Years  of  Age    

  The   availability   of   nutrient   supplements   to   children   in   the   age   group   0-­‐59   months   was   assessed.   They   included   provision  of  vitamin  A,  Thriposha,  Corn  Soy  Blend  (CSB),  other  supplementary  foods  and  therapeutic  foods.  It  was   possible  for  a  given  child  to  receive  more  than  one  of  the  above  supplements.  Of  the  99  children,  70  per  cent  had   received  vitamin  A,  53.5  per  cent  multiple  micronutrients,  72.7  per  cent  Thriposha,  32.3  per  cent  Corn  Soy  Blend   (CSB),  and  23.2  per  cent  other  supplementary  foods.  Only  6.9  per  cent  had  received  therapeutic  foods.     Comparison  of  availability  of  vitamin  A  received  by  children  showed  some  variation  between  districts.  The  single   child   included   from   Mullaitivu   district   had   received   all   the   above   mentioned   supplements.   In   the   surveyed   Kilinochchi   where   there   was   only   one   child,   he/she   had   received   vitamin   A,   other   supplementary   foods   and   therapeutic  foods.       In   Ampara   and   Batticaloa   districts,   vitamin   A   provision   was   low,   with   coverage   of   33.3   per   cent   and   28.57   per   cent   respectively.   There   is   a   need   for   a   further   study   in   these   two   districts.   The   other   districts   indicated   that   more   than   60  per  cent  of  the  children  were  given  vitamin  A  supplement.       Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  153  

Availability  of  multiple  micronutrients  also  varied  widely  between  districts,  ranging  from  a  high  value  of  87.5  per   cent  in  Mannar,  to  a  low  value  of  22.2  per  cent  in  Ampara,  and  over  50  per  cent  in  Jaffna,  Vavuniya,  Batticaloa  and   Anuradhapura  districts.     Thriposha   supplement   reported   over   70   per   cent   coverage   in   all   districts   except   in   Anuradhapura,   where   the   coverage   was   very   low   at   14.3   per   cent   only.   Only   32   per   cent   of   children   were   supplemented   with   CSB;   the   coverage   was   less   than   30   per   cent   in   all   districts   except   in   Jaffna,   Mannar,   Vavuniya   and   Mullaitivu   districts.   Provision   of   other   supplementary   foods   was   reported   low,   22.77   per   cent   with   very   low   coverage   in   Jaffna.   As   would   be   expected,   only   7.14   per   cent   were   provided   with   therapeutic   foods.   Limited   numbers   of   children   in   Mullaitivu  and  Kilinochchi  received  such  foods  and  other  districts  had  a  low  coverage  of  less  than  20  per  cent.  It   must  be  mentioned  that  caution  should  be  applied  in  the  interpretation  of  data,  since  the  number  of  children  at   district  level  are  limited.    

3.3.8   Nutrition  -­‐  Support  Available  to  Improve  the  Nutritional  Status  of  Children  Under  the   Age  of  Five  

  Support  available  for  improvement  of  the  nutritional  status  of  children  in  the  age  group  0-­‐59  months  was  assessed.   Multiple  responses  were  possible.  In  general,  field  level  public  health  staff  were  the  sources  of  such  support.  The   main  source  of  support  was  the  public  health  midwife  (PHM)  with  95.95  per  cent  of  all  children  receiving  support   from  the  PHM.  Public  health  nursing  sister  (PHNS)  provided  support  for  42.55  per  cent  of  children  with  the  medical   officer   of   health   (MOH)   providing   support   to   41.03   per   cent.   The   contribution   by   staff   from   non-­‐governmental   organizations   (NGO)   was   limited,   with   only   10.81   per   cent   of   children   receiving   such   support.   Mothers’   groups   provided  support  to  18.42  per  cent  of  children.  Between  districts,  variations  were  most  marked  in  the  percentage   of   support   provided   by   the   PHM,   where   this   percentage   was   100   per   cent   in   all   districts   except   Jaffna   and   Ampara   (over  85  per  cent  coverage).       Caution  should  be  applied  in  the  interpretation  of  data  on  sources  of  support  for  improvement  of  nutritional  status   of  children,  since  there  are  only  a  few  children  at  district  level.    

3.3.9   Nutrition  -­‐  Nutrient  Supplementation  During  Pregnancy  

  The  number  of  pregnant  women  who  attended  antenatal  clinics  and  that  were  included  in  the  sample  was  14.  Out   of  these,  six  were  residing  in  welfare  camps,  while  the  other  eight  were  in  alternative  places  of  residence.  Among   this  group,  there  were  three  mothers  from  each  of  the  districts  of  Jaffna,  Vavuniya  and  Anuradhapura,  two  each   from   Mannar   and   Polonnaruwa   and   one   from   Trincomalee.   There   were   no   pregnant   women   reported   from   Mullaitivu,  Kilinochchi,  Batticaloa  and  Ampara  districts.       All   pregnant   women   had   received   iron/folate   supplement   during   antenatal   visits.   However,   the   supplementary   food,  Thriposha,  was  received  by  12  women  (75  per  cent),  with  all  pregnant  women  from  the  districts  of  Mannar,   Vavuniya,   Trincomalee   and   Polonnaruwa   having   received   the   supplement.   One   mother   from   Jaffna   and   two   mothers  from  Trincomalee  did  not  receive  the  supplement.     It  must  be  noted  that  the  number  of  pregnant  women  among  the  surveyed  IDP  household  sample  in  these  districts   was  very  low.        

Page  154    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

97

Table  3.12:  Meals  per  day  by  Age  group  and  Place  of  residence   Age  group  00  -­‐  05   Meals  per  day  

District          

Place  of   Residence        

Jaffna  

Other  

Mannar  

Other  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

Batticaloa  

Other  

Ampara  

Other  

0  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

0  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

   

Sub  Total  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

Vavuniya  

One    Num    

Two    %    

0  

Num  

0  

           1     11.11    

Three   %  

         1     3.33    

Num  

Four   %  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

       21    

70.00    

           8     26.67    

         30     100    

55.56    

           3     33.33    

             9     100    

0  

0  

           5    

0  

0  

0  

           1    

0  

0  

0   0  

0  

0  

0  

           1    

           1     11.11    

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

           1    

2.50  

0  

0  

Welfare  

0  

0  

0  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0  

0  

   

Sub  Total  

           1    

Total  

 100.00    

0  

0  

             1     100    

0  

0  

0     0    

 100.00    

0  

0  

             1     100    

           8    

   88.89    

0  

0  

             9     100    

0  

           6    

     75.00    

           2     25.00    

             8     100    

0  

       15    

     78.95    

           4     21.05    

         19     100    

0  

0  

           3    

     75.00    

           1     25.00    

             4     100    

0    

0    

       32    

80.00  

           7     17.50  

         40     100  

         1     2.78    

       29    

     80.56    

           6     16.67    

         36     100    

0  

0  

0  

0  

           4    

     66.67    

           2     33.33    

2.50  

       -­‐         0.00  

       32    

80.00  

           7     17.50  

         40     100  

           2        1.63    

         2     1.63    

       93    

     75.61    

     26     21.14    

     123     100    

0  

0  

0  

0    

0    

             6     100    

   

District      

Place  of   Residence    

Age  group  06  -­‐  15   Meals  per  day   One   Num  

Two   %  

Num  

Three   %  

Num  

Four   %  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

Jaffna  

Other  

1    

2.63    

0  

0  

34        89.47    

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

     12     100.00    

0  

0  

12     100    

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

         1     100.00    

0  

0  

         1     100    

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

 -­‐    

 -­‐    

           1     100.00    

         1     100    

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

         3    

 75.00    

           1        25.00    

         4     100    

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

     14    

 93.33    

           1            6.67    

     15     100    

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

     22        91.67    

           1            4.17    

     24     100    

Anuradhapura  

Other  

         1    

2.56    

0  

0  

     37        94.87    

           1            2.56    

     39     100    

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

         4    

 66.67    

           2        33.33    

         6     100    

   

Sub  Total  

         2    

1.43    

   127        90.71    

       10            7.14    

 140     100    

Jaffna  

Welfare  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0  

         1     7.14    

   

Sub  Total  

0    

0    

         1     2.13    

     46    

 97.87    

0    

0    

     47     100    

         2    

1.07    

         2     1.07    

   173        92.51    

       10    

     5.35    

 187     100    

Total  

         1     4.17    

         1     0.71    

           3            7.89    

%  

     33     100.00    

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

     13        92.86    

0  

0  

0  

38     100    

     33     100     0    

0    

     14     100    

   

                                                                                                                        97

More  comprehensive  tables  with  data  by  districts  are  attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.01  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  155  

Table  3.12:  Meals  per  day  by  Age  group  and  Place  of  residence  (continued)  

District      

Place  of   Residence    

Age  group  16  -­‐  30   Meals  per  day   Two   Num  

Three   %  

Num  

Four  

%  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

0  

0  

     43     100.00    

0  

0  

       43    

100    

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

     14     100.00    

0  

0  

       14    

100    

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

         4     100.00    

0  

0  

           4    

100    

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

         4     100.00    

0  

0  

           4    

100    

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

     18        94.74                1    

5.26            19    

100    

Ampara  

Other  

           1    

4.76    

     20        95.24    

0  

0  

       21    

100    

Anuradhapura  

Other  

0  

0  

     49     100.00    

0  

0  

       49    

100    

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

0  

     14     100.00    

0  

0  

       14    

100    

   

Sub  Total  

           1    

0.60    

0.60        168    

100    

Jaffna  

Welfare  

0  

0  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0  

0  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0  

   13    

   

Sub  Total   Total  

0  

 166        98.81                1        29     100.00    

0  

0  

       29    

100    

0  

0  

0  

0  

 92.86                1    

7.14            14    

100    

0  

0    

0    

     42        97.67                1    

2.33            43    

100    

           1    

0.47    

 208        98.58                2    

0.95        211    

100    

   

District      

Place  of   Residence    

Age  group  31  -­‐  60   Meals  per  day   Two   Num  

Three   %  

Num  

Four  

%  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

0  

0  

57     100.00    

0  

0  

       57      100    

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

20     100.00    

0  

0  

       20      100    

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0  

1     100.00    

0  

0  

           1      100    

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

9     100.00    

0  

0  

           9      100    

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

15     100.00    

0  

0  

       15      100    

Batticaloa  

Other  

           2              6.06    

31          93.94    

0  

0  

       33      100    

Ampara  

Other  

           4          16.00    

21          84.00    

0  

0  

       25      100    

Anuradhapura  

Other  

           1    

       1.64    

60          98.36    

0  

0  

       61      100    

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

0  

18     100.00    

0  

0  

       18    

100    

   

Sub  Total  

2.93        232          97.07    

0    

0    

   239    

100    

Jaffna  

Welfare  

0  

0  

       27    

100    

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0    

0    

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

           1    

4.35    

21          91.30    

         1    

4.35    

       23    

100    

   

Sub  Total  

           1    

2.00    

48          96.00    

         1    

2.00    

       50    

100    

Total  

           8    

2.77        280          96.89    

         1    

0.35    

   289    

100    

           7     0  

0  

27     100.00     0  

     

 

Page  156    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.12:  Meals  per  day  by  Age  group  and  Place  of  residence  (continued)  

District      

61+   Meals  per  day  

Place  of   One   Residence     Num   %  

Two   Num  

Three   %  

Num  

%  

Four   Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

       29     100.00    

0  

0  

       29      100    

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

         6     100.00    

0  

0  

           6      100    

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

         3        75.00                1     25.00    

           4      100    

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

       13     100.00    

0  

     13      100    

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

         6        85.71                1     14.29    

           7      100    

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

         7     100.00    

0  

0  

         7    

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

           2    

28.57    

         5        71.43    

0  

0  

           7      100    

Anuradhapura  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

       20     100.00    

0  

0  

     20      100    

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

         3     100.00    

0  

0  

           3      100    

   

Sub  Total  

0    

0                2    

   2.08            92        95.83                2    

 2.08    

       96      100    

Jaffna  

Welfare  

0  

0  

           1    

11.11    

0  

           9      100    

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0  

0  

0  

         2        66.67                1     33.33    

           3      100    

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

         1    

 7.69                3    

23.08    

       9        69.23    

0  

0  

       13      100    

   

Sub  Total  

         1    

4.00                4    

16.00            19        76.00                1    

 4.00    

       25      100    

Total  

         1    

 0.90                6    

 5.41        111     100.00                3    

 2.48    

   121      100    

         8        88.89    

0  

0  

100    

  Base:   All  who  reported  for  Section  6-­‐1.1.  

 

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

 

   

Page  157  

98

Table  3.13:  Food  Consumption  Score  (FCS)   Food  consumption  score   Total  

Place  of   Residence  

District  

Poor   Num  

Borderline   %  

Num  

Acceptable  

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

2  

2.25  

11  

12.36  

76  

85.39  

89  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

1  

3.45  

28  

96.55  

29  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0.00  

23  

100.00  

23  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

16  

100.00  

16  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

1  

5.88  

2  

11.76  

14  

82.35  

17  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

35  

100.00  

35  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

4  

11.76  

12  

35.29  

18  

52.94  

34  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

0  

0  

1  

1.27  

78  

98.73  

79  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

0  

1  

5.00  

19  

95.00  

20  

100.00  

  Jaffna   Vavuniya  

Sub  Total   Welfare   Welfare  

7   1   0  

2.05   1.69   0  

28   10   1  

8.19   16.95   4.76  

307   48   20  

89.77   81.36   95.24  

342   59   21  

100.00   100.00   100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

3  

9.38  

17  

53.13  

12  

37.50  

32  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

4  

3.57  

28  

25.00  

80  

71.43  

112  

100.00  

   

Total  

11  

2.42  

56  

12.33  

387  

85.24  

454  

100.00  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Section  6  -­‐  2.1.1  to  2.1.13     99 Table  3.14:  Coping  Mechanism    by  place  of  residence     Mechanism   Place  of   Residence  

District   Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Anuradhapura   Polonnaruwa     Jaffna   Vavuniya   Trincomalee        

Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Sub  Total   Welfare   Welfare   Welfare   Sub  Total   Total  

   

Borrowing  food/   money   Num   %   25   89.29   21   87.50   10   90.91   10   83.33   8   88.89   1   33.33   19   59.38   1   100.00   1   100.00   96   79.34   26   63.41   12   66.67   16   51.61   54   60.00   150   71.09  

Assistance  from   Govt.  /  agencies   Num   %   0   0.00   0   0   1   9.09   0   0   1   11.11   1   33.33   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   2.48   2   4.88   0   0.00   2   6.45   4   4.44   7   3.32  

 

                                                                                                                        98

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.02   Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.03  

99

Page  158    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.14:  Coping  Mechanism  by  place  of  residence  (continued)   Mechanism   District  

Place  of   Residence  

Limited  food   intake  of  adults   Num  

%  

 

Limited  food   intake  of  whole   family   Num   %  

Total  

 

Jaffna  

Other  

3  

10.71  

0  

0    

Mannar  

Other  

3  

12.50  

0  

0  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0.00  

0  

0  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

2  

16.67  

0  

0  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Batticaloa  

Other  

1  

33.33  

0  

0  

Ampara  

Other  

6  

18.75  

7  

21.88  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

 

Sub  Total  

15  

12.40  

7  

5.79  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

13  

31.71  

0  

0  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

6  

33.33  

0  

0  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

12  

38.71  

1  

3.23  

 

Sub  Total  

31  

34.44  

1  

1.11  

   

Total  

46  

21.80  

8  

3.79  

Num                                

Based:  all  who  reported  for  Section  6  -­‐  3.1.1  to  3.1.4     100 Table  3.15:  Has  your  child  ever  been  breast  fed?   District  

Place  of   Residence  

%  

28  

100.00  

24  

100.00  

11  

100.00  

12  

100.00  

9  

100.00  

3  

100.00  

32  

100.00  

1  

100.00  

1  

100.00  

121  

100.00  

41  

100.00  

18  

100.00  

31  

100.00  

90  

100.00  

211  

100.00  

 

Ever  breast  fed   Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

12  

85.71  

2  

14.29  

14   100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

8  

100.00  

0  

0  

8   100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

4  

100.00  

0  

0  

4   100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

1  

100.00  

0  

0  

1   100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

1  

100.00  

0  

0  

1   100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

7  

100.00  

0  

0  

7   100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

9  

100.00  

0  

0  

9   100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

21  

100.00  

0  

0  

21   100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

5  

100.00  

0  

0  

5   100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

68  

97.14  

2  

2.86  

70   100.00  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

20  

95.24  

1  

4.76  

21   100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

4  

100.00  

0  

0  

4   100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

7  

100.00  

0  

0  

7   100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

31  

96.88  

1  

3.13  

32   100.00  

   

Total  

99  

97.06  

3  

2.94    

102   100.00  

 

 

 

Base  :  All  who  reported  for  section  5  -­‐  Q.2.1  

                                                                                                                       

 

100

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  5.02  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  159  

     

Table  3.16:  Nutrient  supplementation  during  pregnancy

101

 

Nutrient  supplementation  during  pregnancy   District  

Place  of   Residence  

Attend   antenatal   clinics   Yes  

Is  there  a  pregnant  women  in  the  household   Yes   No   Total   Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

0  

0.00  

57  

100.00  

57  

100  

1  

100  

Mannar  

Other  

3  

10.71  

25  

89.29  

28  

100  

3  

100  

Vavuniya  

Other  

1  

4.55  

21  

95.45  

22  

100  

1  

100  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

11  

100.00  

11  

100  

0  

0  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

5  

100.00  

5  

100  

0  

0  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

35  

100.00  

35  

100  

0  

0  

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

27  

100.00  

27  

100  

0  

0  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

3  

4.35  

66  

95.65  

69  

100  

3  

100  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

1  

6.67  

14  

93.33  

15  

100  

2  

100  

   

Sub  Total  

8  

2.97  

261  

97.03  

269  

100  

10  

100  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

2  

4.65  

41  

95.35  

43  

100  

2  

100  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

1  

4.76  

20  

95.24  

21  

100  

2  

100  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

2  

6.06  

31  

93.94  

33  

100  

2  

100  

   

Sub  Total  

5  

5.15  

92  

94.85  

97  

100  

6  

100  

   

Total  

13  

3.55  

353  

96.45  

366  

100  

16  

100  

   

 

                                                                                                                        101

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  5.08  

Page  160    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

IDP Shelter and Housing

3.4  

IDP  Shelter  and  Housing  

The  “shelter  and  housing”  section  of  the  questionnaire  broadly  covered  four  aspects:   · Status  of  IDPs  house/shelter,  type,  condition,  size  and  level  of  damage  of  housing  units  prior  to  displacement   and  at  current  residence;   · Status  of  ownership  of  the  IDP  house  /shelter  at  the  current  residence,  and  prior  to  displacement;   · Availability  of  basic  facilities  and  services  for  IDPs  prior  to  displacement  and  at  current  residence.     In   addition   to   the   above   outlined   aspects,   the   sample   survey   objective   was   to   collate   the   status   of   IDP   households   in  relation  to  gender,  citizens’  seniority  of  people  with  disabilities,  elderly  persons  and  single  parent  families.       The   housing   standards   developed   by   various   agencies   within   this   sector   covering   public   and   local   government   agencies,  project  specific  standards  and  UN  Agencies,  were  outlined  in  the  previous  section  of  this  report.  As  for   returnee’s  shelter  and  housing  assessment,  these  standards  were  adopted  as  the  benchmarks  for  this  analysis.        

3.4.1   Status   of   IDPs   House/Shelter,   type,   condition,   size   and   level   of   damage   of   housing   units  prior  to  displacement  and  at  current  residence  

  The  analysis  of  the  survey  data  indicates  that  the  basic  condition  of  IDP  housing  units  is  more  satisfactory  in  their   current  residences,  as  compared  to  the  housing  units  prior  to  their  displacement.  Among  IDPs,  74.29  per  cent  have   reported  that  their  current  housing  units  had  walls  made  with  bricks  and  cement/  blocks,  as  compared  to  62.64   per   cent   housing   units   prior   to   displacement.   Similar   conditions   are   indicated   for   the   type   of   roof   and   floor.   For   example,  89.89  per  cent  of  current  residence  of  “other  IDPs”  roofs  were  made  using  tiles,  asbestos  or  tin  sheets,  as   compared  to  59.72  per  cent  of  their  housing  units  prior  to  displacement.       Comparatively  low  standards  ofcurrent  housing  conditionswere  reported  across  welfare  centers  compared  to  prior   to  displacement,  especially  in  Trincomalee.  Among  respondent  households  in  Trincomalee  welfare  centers  15.15   percent  currently  had  housing  units  constructed  with  bricks  or  cement  blocks  compared  to  100  per  cent  prior  to   102 displacement.     In   Jaffna   district   welfare   centers,   the   condition   has   changed   little   from   69.49   per   cent   prior   to   displacement  to  current  level  of  68.97  percent.  Reported  roof  conditions  of  current  housing  units  are  better  than   those   of   earlier   housing   units.   Prior   to   displacement   only   62.94   percent   of   houses   had   permanent   roofs   compared   to   89.89   percent   at   present.   There   has   been   a   noticeable   improvement   in   Jaffna   welfare   centers   from   62.71   to   91.38  per  cent  and  Vavuniya  welfare  centers  from  19.05  to  71.43  per  cent.  Floor  conditions  of  Trincomalee  welfare   centers  have  reduced  from  100  to  81.82  percent.     The  current  residence  of  “other  IDPs”  floors  were  largely  made  using  tiles,  concrete,  cement,  or  bricks  (83.96  per   cent),  as  compared  to  prior  to  displacement  (63.50  per  cent).  The  condition  of  Jaffna  district  welfare  centers  has   improved   71.19   per   cent   prior   to   displacement   to   86.21   per   cent.   The   worst   conditions   were   reported   in   Vavuniya   welfare  centers  where  it  dropped  from  23.81  per  cent  prior  to  displacement  to  9.52  per  cent  at  present.   However,   acceptable   types   and   conditions   of   other   IDPs   current   residences   show   some   disparity   between   districts.   The   remaining   housing   units   were   made   using   traditional   or   temporary   building   material.   District   level   disparity   of   conditions   was   fairly   high.   The   housing   condition   of   welfare   centers   remains   low.   Therefore,   further   detailed   assessment  is  needed  to  evaluate  the  standards  of  IDP  housing  units  in  terms  of  the  materials  used,  adequacy  of   space  and  basic  facilities.     Among   all   IDPs,   a   greater   number   of   housing   units   were   fully   damaged   prior   to   displacement   (94.12   per   cent)   compared  to  damages  reported  to  the  current  residence  (18.30  per  cent).    

                                                                                                                        102

 See  table  3.01  attached  in  Annex  5.3  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  163  

The  data  indicates  that  the  majority  of  IDPs  both  in  welfare  centres  as  well  as  “others”  were  still  living  in  houses   scoring   below   the   national   minimum   space   requirements.   For   example,   only   23.71   per   cent   of   the   IDPs   of   both   categories  used  to  live  in  houses  of  more  than  500  sq.  ft  prior  to  displacement.  The  standard  has  slightly  increased   to  32.37  per  cent  in  the  current  place  of  residence.  In  relation  to  housing  conditions  of  the  current  residence,  the   floor   area   is   better   in   Anuradhapura   (69.62   per   cent),   Polonnaruwa,   (63.16   per   cent)   and   Batticaloa   (51.43   per   cent),  while  in  welfare  centers,  98  per  cent  of  the  reported  families  have  less  than  500  sq.  ft  compared  to  86.49  per   cent  prior  to  displacement.  The  worst  case  is  Vavuniyawelfare  centres  where  nearly  all  houses  are  below  500  sq   103 ft. In   general,   the   housing/shelter   data   indicates   progress.   However,   district   level   data   is   varied   and   therefore   there  is  a  need  to  conduct  a  further  in-­‐depth  assessment,  with  a  specific  focus  on  IDPs  and  their  shelter/housing   needs.      

3.4.2   Status  of  the  Ownership  of  the  IDP  House  /Shelter  in  Current  Residence     Among   the   category   of   “other   IDPs”,   about   63.13   percent   are   currently   living   in   housing   units   which   belong   to   family  members  living  therein,  while  approximately  26  per  cent  belongs  to  landlord  or  others,  and  4.42  per  cent   belongs   to   relatives.   It   is   clearly   indicated   that   100   per   cent   housing   units   were   owned   by   family   members   in   Batticaloa,  Polonnaruwa  and  Ampara  districts.  In  contrast,  this  percentage  was  only  6.06  per  cent  in  Trincomalee   welfare  centers,  93.94  per  cent  of  housing  units  are  belonging  to  landlords.  Similar  situation  prevails  in  Vavuniya   welfare   centers.   However,   it   should   be   noted   that   the   actual   status   of   land   ownership   is   very   difficult   to   assess   through   a   questionnaire.   This   is   due   to   the   fact   that   document   verification   and   comparison   with   official   records   was  not  possible.    Findings  of  the  JNA  data  indicate  that  nearly  90  per  cent  of  the  IDP  households  who  reported  to   be  living  with  host  families  are  now  living  in  their  own  houses  or  rented  houses.    

3.4.3   Availability   of   Basic   Facilities   and   Services   for   IDPs   Prior   to   Displacement   and   at   Current  Residence     Electricity-­‐The  JNA  data  indicates  that  26.48  per  cent  of  IDP  households  had  access  to  electricity  facilities  prior  to   displacement.   Currently   this   figure   has   increased   to   69.89   per   cent   of   IDP   households.   The   exception   is   Mannar   district,  where  only  6.9  per  cent  of  IDP  households  reported  having  access  to  electricity.  Further  study  is  needed  to   understand  the  reasons  for  such  a  low  level  of  reported  access  to  electricity.  IDP  households  in  all  other  districts   reported  substantial  progress  in  obtaining  electricity  facilities.       Distance  to  bus  route-­‐Respondents  reported  that  for  47.20  per  cent  of  IDP  housing  units  the  distance  to  bus  route   was   located   within   1   kilometer   prior   to   displacement;   this   number   has   slightly   increased   to   51.76   per   cent   in   relation   to   the   current   residence.   Disparity   between   districts   is   high,   as   only   5per   cent   of   IDP   housing   units   in   Polonnaruwa   are   located   within   1   kilometer   radius   to   the   nearest   bus   route.   In   the   Trincomalee   welfare   center   69.70  per  cent  of  IDP  housing  units  are  located  less  than  1kilometer  away  from  the  bus  route.     Type  of  road  access-­‐The  JNA  data  indicates  a  minor  regression  in  status  of  road  access,  as  only  36.73  per  cent  of   IDP   households   have   roads   access   with   higher   standards   (metal,   tarred,   concrete,   carpet   roads),   compared   to   40.44  per  cent  prior  to  displacement.  IDP  households  reported  that  prior  to  displacement  they  hadroads  made  of   metal  and  tarred  (38.90  per  cent),  gravel  (23.74  per  cent)  and  earth  roads  (35.82  per  cent).         Distance  to  the  nearest  town-­‐  JNA  data  findings  indicate  that  the  current  IDP  residencies  are  located  further  away   from   towns   compared   to   their   original   areas   of   residence   prior   to   displacement.   A   12.01   per   cent   of   IDPs   reported   that  they  lived  less  than  1km  away  from  the  nearest  town  prior  to  displacement.  This  figure  increases  to  39.13  per   cent   and   48.86   per   cent   for   those   who   used   to   live   1-­‐5km   and   over   5km   away   from   the   nearest   town   respectively.   In  relation  to  the  current  residence  location,  only  8.28  per  cent  of  IDPs  reported  to  be  living  within  the  radius  of   less  than  1km  from  the  nearest  town.  Most  respondents  reported  to  be  living  within  1-­‐5km  radius  to  a  town  (51.55   per  cent),  whereas  40.17  per  cent  reported  to  be  living  over  5km  away  from  the  nearest  town.    

                                                                                                                        103

 See  table  3.05  attached  in  Annex  5.3  

Page  164    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

104

Table  3.17:  Floor  area  of  the  House  prior  to  displacement District  

 

Prior  to  displacement  

Place  of   Residence  

<200  sq.ft   Num  

%  

200-­‐300sq.ft   Num  

300-­‐400  sq.  ft  

%  

Num  

400-­‐500  sq.ft  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

4  

4.65  

15  

17.44  

19  

22.09  

13  

15.12  

Mannar  

Other  

1  

3.57  

6  

21.43  

7  

25.00  

5  

17.86  

Vavuniya  

Other  

12  

52.17  

5  

21.74  

3  

13.04  

0  

0  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

1  

6.67  

0  

0  

2  

13.33  

4  

26.67  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

1  

5.88  

1  

5.88  

1  

5.88  

9  

52.94  

Batticaloa  

Other  

11  

31.43  

11  

31.43  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Ampara  

Other  

7  

20.59  

9  

26.47  

12  

35.29  

4  

11.76  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

2  

2.56  

24  

30.77  

24  

30.77  

14  

17.95  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

 

Sub  Total  

Jaffna  

1  

5.00  

5  

25.00  

7  

35.00  

5  

25.00  

40  

12.66  

76  

24.05  

75  

23.73  

54  

17.09  

Welfare  

7  

12.28  

14  

24.56  

13  

22.81  

11  

19.30  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

11  

52.38  

6  

28.57  

4  

19.05  

0  

0  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

1  

3.03  

7  

21.21  

11  

33.33  

11  

33.33  

 

Sub  Total  

19  

14.50  

27  

20.61  

28  

21.37  

22  

16.79  

   

Total  

59  

13.20  

103  

23.04  

103  

23.04  

76  

17.00  

                                                                                                                        104

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  3.05  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  165  

Table  3.17:  Floor  area  of  the  House  Prior  to  displacement  (continued)  

District  

Place  of   Residence  

Prior  to   displacement   >500  sq.  ft.   Num  

%  

Total     Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

12  

21.05  

57  

100  

Jaffna  

Other  

35  

40.70  

86  

100  

Mannar  

Other  

9  

32.14  

28  

100  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0.00  

21  

100  

Vavuniya  

Other  

3  

13.04  

23  

100  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

8  

53.33  

15  

100  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

5  

29.41  

17  

100  

Batticaloa  

Other  

13  

37.14  

35  

100  

Ampara  

Other  

2  

5.88  

34  

100  

 

Sub  Total  

87  

27.53  

316  

100  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

3  

9.09  

33  

100  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

14  

17.95  

78  

100  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

2  

10.00  

20  

100  

 

Sub  Total  

19  

14.50  

131  

100  

   

Total  

106  

23.71  

447  

100  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  3  -­‐  Q.5    

 

Page  166    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.18:  Floor  area  of  the  House-­‐Current  residence District  

105

  Current  residence  

Place  of   Residence  

<200  sq.ft   Num  

200-­‐300sq.ft  

%  

Num  

300-­‐400  sq.  ft  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

9  

10.11  

13  

14.61  

24  

26.97  

Mannar  

Other  

8  

27.59  

6  

20.69  

1  

3.45  

Vavuniya  

Other  

7  

30.43  

7  

30.43  

4  

17.39  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

5  

31.25  

1  

6.25  

2  

12.50  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

2  

11.76  

5  

29.41  

0  

0  

Batticaloa  

Other  

4  

11.43  

8  

22.86  

0  

0  

Ampara  

Other  

2  

6.45  

0  

0  

6  

19.35  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

0  

0  

3  

3.80  

7  

8.86  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

1  

5.26  

0  

0  

2  

10.53  

 

Sub  Total  

38  

11.24  

43  

12.72  

46  

13.61  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

18  

30.51  

24  

40.68  

15  

25.42  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

11  

52.38  

9  

42.86  

1  

4.76  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

16  

48.48  

9  

27.27  

5  

15.15  

 

Sub  Total  

45  

39.82  

42  

37.17  

21  

18.58  

   

Total  

83  

18.40  

85  

18.85  

67  

14.86  

District  

Current  residence  

Place  of   Residence  

400-­‐500  sq.ft  

>500  sq.  ft.  

Total  

Jaffna  

Other  

Num   12  

%   13.48  

Num   31  

%   34.83  

Num   89  

%   100  

Mannar  

Other  

9  

31.03  

5  

17.24  

29  

100  

Vavuniya  

Other  

1  

4.35  

4  

17.39  

23  

100  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

2  

12.50  

6  

37.50  

16  

100  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

4  

23.53  

6  

35.29  

17  

100  

Batticaloa   Ampara  

Other   Other  

5   16  

14.29   51.61  

18   7  

51.43   22.58  

35   31  

100   100  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

14  

17.72  

55  

69.62  

79  

100  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

4  

21.05  

12  

63.16  

19  

100  

 

Sub  Total  

67  

19.82  

144  

42.60  

338  

100  

Jaffna   Vavuniya  

Welfare   Welfare  

1   0  

1.69   0.00  

1   0  

1.69   0.00  

59   21  

100   100  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

2  

6.06  

1  

3.03  

33  

100  

 

Sub  Total  

3  

2.65  

2  

1.77  

113  

100  

   

Total  

70  

15.52  

146  

32.37  

451  

100  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  3  -­‐  Q.5      

 

                                                                                                                        105

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  3.05  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  167  

Table  3.19:  Type  and  Condition  of  the  House  -­‐  Prior  to  Displacement District  

Place  of   Residence  

Brick/Cement   Blocks   Num   %   79   88.76  

106

 

Type  of  condition   Walls   Wattle  and   Cadjan/   daub/mud   tarpaulin   Num   %   Num   %   6   6.74   1   1.12  

Tin  sheet   Num   %   3   3.37  

Total   Num   %   89   100  

Jaffna  

Other  

Mannar  

Other  

25  

89.29  

1  

3.57  

1  

3.57  

1  

3.57  

28  

100  

Vavuniya  

Other  

6  

26.09  

14  

60.87  

3  

13.04  

0    

0  

23  

100  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

15  

88.24  

1  

5.88  

1  

5.88  

0    

0  

17  

100  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

10  

58.82  

6  

35.29  

1  

5.88  

0    

0  

17  

100  

Batticaloa  

Other  

6  

17.14  

29  

82.86  

0    

0  

0    

0  

35  

100  

Ampara  

Other  

4  

12.12  

29  

87.88  

0    

0  

0    

0  

33  

100  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

47  

58.75  

28  

35.00  

5  

6.25  

0    

0  

80  

100  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

14  

70.00  

6  

30.00  

0    

0  

0    

0  

20  

100  

 

Sub  Total  

206  

60.23  

120  

35.09  

12  

3.51  

4   1.17  

342  

100  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

41  

69.49  

9  

15.25  

7  

11.86  

2  

3.39  

59  

100  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

5  

23.81  

15  

71.43  

1  

4.76  

0    

0  

21  

100  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

33  

100.00  

0    

0  

0    

0  

0    

0  

33  

100  

 

Sub  Total  

79  

69.91  

24  

21.24  

8  

7.08  

2   1.77  

113  

100  

   

Total  

285  

62.64  

144  

31.65  

20  

4.40  

6  

455  

100  

District  

Place  of   Residence  

Type  of  condition   Roof   Tiles/asbestos/ti Cadjan/   n  sheets   palmyra  leaf   Num   %   Num   %  

1.32  

Total   Num   %  

Jaffna  

Other  

76  

85.39  

13  

14.61  

89  

100  

Mannar  

Other  

24  

85.71  

4  

14.29  

28  

100  

Vavuniya  

Other  

6  

26.09  

17  

73.91  

23  

100  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

15  

88.24  

2  

11.76  

17  

100  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

14  

82.35  

3  

17.65  

17  

100  

Batticaloa  

Other  

2  

5.71  

33  

94.29  

35  

100  

Ampara  

Other  

9  

26.47  

25  

73.53  

34  

100  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

54  

67.50  

26  

32.50  

80  

100  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

14  

70.00  

6  

30.00  

20  

100  

 

Sub  Total  

214  

62.39  

129  

37.61  

343  

100  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

37  

62.71  

22  

37.29  

59  

100  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

4  

19.05  

17  

80.95  

21  

100  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

32  

96.97  

1  

3.03  

33  

100  

 

Sub  Total  

73  

64.60  

40  

35.40  

113  

100  

   

Total  

287  

62.94  

169  

37.06  

456  

100  

                                                                                                                        106

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  3.01  

Page  168    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.19:  Type  and  Condition  of  the  House  -­‐  Prior  to  Displacement  (continued)   Type  of  condition   Floor   District  

Floor  tiles/   Concrete/   Cement/   Bricks  

Place  of   Residence  

Num  

%  

Mud  and  cow   dung   Num  

%  

Total     Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

80  

89.89  

9  

10.11  

89  

100  

Mannar  

Other  

24  

85.71  

4  

14.29  

28  

100  

Vavuniya  

Other  

8  

34.78  

15  

65.22  

23  

100  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

15  

88.24  

2  

11.76  

17  

100  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

14  

82.35  

3  

17.65  

17  

100  

Batticaloa  

Other  

15  

42.86  

20  

57.14  

35  

100  

Ampara  

Other  

6  

17.65  

28  

82.35  

34  

100  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

48  

60.00  

32  

40.00  

80  

100  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

14  

70.00  

6  

30.00  

20  

100  

 

Sub  Total  

224  

65.31  

119  

34.69  

343  

100  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

42  

71.19  

17  

28.81  

59  

100  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

5  

23.81  

16  

76.19  

21  

100  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

33  

100.00  

0  

0  

33  

100  

 

Sub  Total  

80  

70.80  

33  

29.20  

113  

100  

   

Total  

304  

66.67  

152  

33.33  

456  

100  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  3  -­‐  Q.1    

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

 

   

Page  169  

Table  3.20:  Type  and  Condition  of  the  House  -­‐  Current  Residence

107

 

Type  of  condition-­‐  Walls   District  

Place  of   Residence  

Brick/Cement   Blocks   Num  

%  

Wattle  and   daub/mud   Num  

%  

Cadjan/   tarpaulin   Num  

Total    

Tin  sheet  

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

83  

93.26  

3  

3.37  

2  

2.25  

1  

1.12  

89  

100  

Mannar  

Other  

16  

55.17  

4  

13.79  

9  

31.03  

0  

0  

29  

100  

Vavuniya  

Other  

15  

65.22  

8  

34.78  

0  

0  

0  

0.00  

23  

100  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

13  

76.47  

0  

0  

2  

11.76  

2  

11.76  

17  

100  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

10  

58.82  

3  

17.65  

2  

11.76  

2  

11.76  

17  

100  

Batticaloa  

Other  

30  

85.71  

3  

8.57  

1  

2.86  

1  

2.86  

35  

100  

Ampara  

Other  

18  

54.55  

14  

42.42  

0  

0  

1  

3.03  

33  

100  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

80   100.00  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

80  

100  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

19  

95.00  

1  

5.00  

0  

0  

0  

0  

20  

100  

 

Sub  Total  

284  

82.80  

36   10.50  

16  

4.66  

7  

2.04  

343  

100  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

40  

68.97  

7  

12.07  

3  

5.17  

8  

13.79  

58  

100  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

9  

42.86  

11  

52.38  

0  

0  

1  

4.76  

21  

100  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

5  

15.15  

0  

0  

0  

0  

28  

84.85  

33  

100  

 

Sub  Total  

54  

48.21  

18   16.07  

3  

2.68  

37   33.04  

112  

100  

   

Total  

338  

74.29  

54   11.87  

19  

4.18  

44  

455  

100  

9.67  

Type  of  condition  -­‐  Roof   District  

Place  of   Residence  

Tiles/   asbestos/   tin  sheets   Num  

%  

Cadjan/   palmyra  leaf   Num  

%  

Total     Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

85  

95.51  

4  

4.49  

89  

100  

Mannar  

Other  

15  

51.72  

14  

48.28  

29  

100  

Vavuniya  

Other  

16  

69.57  

7  

30.43  

23  

100  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

16  

94.12  

1  

5.88  

17  

100  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

14  

82.35  

3  

17.65  

17  

100  

Batticaloa  

Other  

33  

94.29  

2  

5.71  

35  

100  

Ampara  

Other  

33   100.00  

0  

0  

33  

100  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

78  

97.50  

2  

2.50  

80  

100  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

19  

95.00  

1  

5.00  

20  

100  

 

Sub  Total  

309  

90.09  

34  

9.91  

343  

100  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

53  

91.38  

5  

8.62  

58  

100  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

15  

71.43  

6  

28.57  

21  

100  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

32  

96.97  

1  

3.03  

33  

100  

 

Sub  Total  

100  

89.29  

12   10.71  

112  

100  

   

Total  

409  

89.89  

46   10.11  

455  

100  

                                                                                                                        107

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  3.02  

Page  170    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.20:  Type  and  Condition  of  the  House  -­‐  Current  Residence  (continued)   Type  of  condition   Floor   District  

Place  of   Residence  

Floor  tiles/   Concrete/   Cement/Bricks  

Mud  and  cow   dung  

Num  

Num  

%  

%  

Total     Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

86  

96.63  

3  

3.37  

89  

100  

Mannar  

Other  

19  

65.52  

10  

34.48  

29  

100  

Vavuniya  

Other  

16  

69.57  

7  

30.43  

23  

100  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

16  

94.12  

1  

5.88  

17  

100  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

12  

70.59  

5  

29.41  

17  

100  

Batticaloa  

Other  

34  

97.14  

1  

2.86  

35  

100  

Ampara  

Other  

24  

72.73  

9  

27.27  

33  

100  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

78  

97.50  

2  

2.50  

80  

100  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

18  

90.00  

2  

10.00  

20  

100  

 

Sub  Total  

303  

88.34  

40  

11.66  

343  

100  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

50  

86.21  

8  

13.79  

58  

100  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

2  

9.52  

19  

90.48  

21  

100  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

27  

81.82  

6  

18.18  

33  

100  

 

Sub  Total  

79  

70.54  

33  

29.46  

112  

100  

   

Total  

382  

83.96  

73  

16.04  

455  

100  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  3  -­‐  Q.1        

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  171  

Table  3.21:  Ownership  of  the  House District  

Place  of   Residence    

108

  Ownership  of  the  house  

Husband   Num  

Wife  

%  

Num  

Son   %  

Daughter  

Num  

%  

Num  

Relative  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

15  

17.05  

6  

6.82  

1  

1.14  

8  

9.09  

10  

11.36  

Mannar  

Other  

20  

68.97  

3  

10.34  

0  

0  

0  

0  

1  

3.45  

Vavuniya  

Other  

2  

8.70  

2  

8.70  

0  

0.00  

7  

30.43  

1  

4.35  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

13  

81.25  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

1  

6.25  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

7  

43.75  

0  

0  

0  

0  

2  

12.50  

2  

12.50  

Batticaloa  

Other  

30  

85.71  

2  

5.71  

3  

8.57  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Ampara  

Other  

31  

93.94  

1  

3.03  

0  

0  

1  

3.03  

0  

0  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

75  

93.75  

3  

3.75  

0  

0  

1  

1.25  

0  

0  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

20  

100.00  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

 

Sub  Total  

213  

62.65  

17  

5.00  

4  

1.18  

19  

5.59  

15  

4.41  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

18  

30.51  

3  

5.08  

2  

3.39  

3  

5.08  

3  

5.08  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

2  

9.52  

0  

0.00  

1  

4.76  

2  

9.52  

1  

4.76  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

 

Sub  Total  

   

Total  

District  

Place  of   Residence    

0    

0  

2  

6.06  

0    

0  

0    

0  

1  

3.03  

20  

17.70  

5  

4.42  

3  

2.65  

5  

4.42  

5  

4.42  

233  

51.43  

22  

4.86  

7  

1.55  

24  

5.30  

20  

4.42  

Ownership  of  the  house   Landlord-­‐ entered   Other  

Friend   Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

Total     %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

19  

21.59  

20  

22.73  

9  

10.23  

88   100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

-­‐  

-­‐  

2  

6.90  

3  

10.34  

29   100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

3  

13.04  

0  

0.00  

8  

34.78  

23   100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

2  

12.50  

0  

0  

0  

0  

16   100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

1  

6.25  

3  

18.75  

1  

6.25  

16   100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

35   100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

33   100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

0  

0  

1  

1.25  

0  

0  

80   100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

20   100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

25  

7.35  

26  

7.65  

21  

6.18  

340   100.00  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

2  

3.39  

24  

40.68  

4  

6.78  

59   100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0.00  

8  

38.10  

7  

33.33  

21   100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

1  

3.03  

29  

87.88  

0  

0  

33   100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

3  

2.65  

61  

53.98  

11  

9.73  

113   100.00  

   

Total  

28  

6.18  

87  

19.21  

32  

7.06  

453   100.00  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  3  -­‐  Q.2  

                                                                                                                        108

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  3.06  

Page  172    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

109

Table  3.22:  Availability  of  Electricity  -­‐  Prior  to  displacement District  

Place  of   Residence  

 

Prior  to  displacement  Electricity   Yes   No   Num   %   Num   %  

Total     Num   %  

Jaffna  

Other  

51  

57.30  

38  

42.70  

89  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

2  

6.90  

27  

93.10  

29  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0.00  

23  

100.00  

23  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

7  

41.18  

10  

58.82  

17  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

5  

29.41  

12  

70.59  

17  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

35  

100.00  

35  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

1  

2.94  

33  

97.06  

34  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

6  

7.50  

74  

92.50  

80  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

2  

10.00  

18  

90.00  

20  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

74  

21.51  

270  

78.49  

344  

100.00  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

18  

30.51  

41  

69.49  

59  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

1  

4.76  

20  

95.24  

21  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

28  

84.85  

5  

15.15  

33  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

47  

41.59  

66  

58.41  

113  

100.00  

   

Total  

121    

26.48  

336    

73.52  

457     100.00  

  District  

Place  of   Residence  

Current  residence  Electricity   Yes   No   Num   %   Num   %  

Total     Num   %  

Jaffna  

Other  

78  

88.64  

10  

11.36  

88   100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

2  

6.90  

27  

93.10  

29   100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

19  

82.61  

4  

17.39  

23   100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

11  

64.71  

6  

35.29  

17   100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

9  

52.94  

8  

47.06  

17   100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

20  

57.14  

15  

42.86  

35   100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

23  

69.70  

10  

30.30  

33   100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

72  

90.00  

8  

10.00  

80   100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

19  

95.00  

1  

5.00  

20   100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

253  

73.98  

89  

26.02  

342   100.00  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

34  

57.63  

25  

42.37  

59   100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

3  

14.29  

18  

85.71  

21   100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

28  

84.85  

5  

15.15  

33   100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

65  

57.52  

48  

42.48  

113   100.00  

   

Total  

318    

69.89  

137    

30.11  

455     100.00  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  3  -­‐  Q.8  

                                                                                                                        109

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  3.09  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  173  

110

Table  3.23  -­‐  Distance  to  the  nearest  bus  route  (km)

District  

 

Distance  to  nearest  bus  route  (km)   Prior  to  displacement   Distance(Km)  

Place  of   Residence   Less  than  1   Num  

%  

1  to  5   Num  

5  or  above  

%  

Num  

%  

Total   Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

39  

43.82  

47  

52.81  

3  

3.37  

89   100  

Mannar  

Other  

31  

77.50  

9  

22.50  

0  

0  

40   100  

Vavuniya  

Other  

22  

95.65  

1  

4.35  

0  

0.00  

23   100  

Mullativu  

Other  

3  

15.79  

15  

78.95  

1  

5.26  

19   100  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

9  

45.00  

11  

55.00  

0  

0  

20   100  

Batticaloa  

Other  

18  

48.65  

19  

51.35  

0  

0  

37   100  

Ampara  

Other  

7  

17.50  

7  

17.50  

26  

65.00  

40   100  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

25  

31.25  

44  

55.00  

11  

13.75  

80   100  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

9  

45.00  

10  

50.00  

1  

5.00  

20   100  

   

Sub  Total  

163  

44.29  

163  

44.29  

42  

11.41  

368   100  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

33  

54.10  

25  

40.98  

3  

4.92  

61   100  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

42.86  

11  

52.38  

1  

4.76  

21   100  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

23  

69.70  

0  

0  

10  

30.30  

33   100  

   

Sub  Total  

56  

48.70  

36  

31.30  

14  

12.17  

115   100  

   

Total    

219  

45.34  

199  

41.20  

56  

11.59  

483   100  

`  

                                                                                                                        110

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  3.10  

Page  174    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.23  -­‐  Distance  to  the  nearest  bus  route  (km)  (continued)

District  

Distance  to  nearest  bus  route  (km)   Current  residence   Distance(Km)  

Place  of   Residence   Less  than  1   Num  

%  

1  to  5   Num  

5  or  above  

%  

Num  

%  

Total   Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

40  

44.94  

47  

52.81  

2  

2.25  

89   100  

Mannar  

Other  

31  

77.50  

9  

22.50  

0  

0  

40   100  

Vavuniya  

Other  

23  

100  

0  

0.00  

0  

0  

23   100  

Mullativu  

Other  

3  

15.79  

15  

78.95  

1  

5.26  

19   100  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

6  

30.00  

14  

70.00  

0  

0  

20   100  

Batticaloa  

Other  

25  

67.57  

12  

32.43  

0  

0  

37   100  

Ampara  

Other  

17  

42.50  

22  

55.00  

1  

2.50  

40   100  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

27  

33.75  

48  

60.00  

5  

6.25  

80   100  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

1  

5.00  

19  

95.00  

 -­‐    

 -­‐    

20   100  

   

Sub  Total  

173  

47.01  

186  

50.54  

9  

2.45  

368   100  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

37  

60.66  

23  

37.70  

1  

1.64  

61   100  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

17  

80.95  

4  

19.05  

0  

0  

21   100  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

23  

69.70  

0  

0  

10  

30.30  

33   100  

   

Sub  Total  

77  

66.96  

27  

23.48  

11  

9.57  

115   100  

   

Total    

250  

51.76  

213  

44.10  

20  

4.14  

483   100  

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

 

   

Page  175  

Table  3.24:  Distance  to  the  nearest  town  (km)  -­‐  Prior  to  displacement

District  

111

 

Distance  to  the  nearest  town   Prior  to  displacement  Distance(Km)  

Place  of   Residence  

Less  than  1   Num  

1  to  5  

%  

Num  

Total      

5  or  above   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

10  

11.24  

49  

55.06  

30  

33.71  

89  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

11  

27.50  

0  

0  

29  

72.50  

40  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

2  

8.70  

7  

30.43  

14  

60.87  

23  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

3  

15.79  

15  

78.95  

1  

5.26  

19  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

9  

45.00  

10  

50.00  

1  

5.00  

20  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

2  

5.41  

7  

18.92  

28  

75.68  

37  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

6  

15.00  

0  

0  

34  

85.00  

40  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

4  

5.00  

29  

36.25  

47  

58.75  

80  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

0  

12  

60.00  

8  

40.00  

20  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

47   12.77  

129  

35.05  

192  

52.17  

368  

100.00  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

11  

18.03  

34  

55.74  

16  

26.23  

61  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0.00  

4  

19.05  

17  

80.95  

21  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0  

22  

66.67  

11  

33.33  

33  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

11  

9.57  

60  

52.17  

44  

38.26  

115  

100.00  

   

Total  

58   12.01  

189  

39.13  

236  

48.86  

483  

100.00  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  3  -­‐  Q.11    

 

                                                                                                                        111

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  3.11  

Page  176    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.25:  Distance  to  the  nearest  town  (km)  -­‐  Current  residence

District  

Place  of   Residence  

112

 

Distance  to  the  nearest  town   Current  residence  Distance(Km)   Less  than  1   Num  

1  to  5  

%  

Num  

Jaffna  

Other  

4  

4.49  

62  

Mannar  

Other  

11  

27.50  

Vavuniya  

Other  

1  

4.35  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

3  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

Batticaloa  

Total      

5  or  above   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

69.66  

23  

25.84  

89  

100.00  

0  

0    

29  

72.50  

40  

100.00  

7  

30.43  

15  

65.22  

23  

100.00  

15.79  

15  

78.95  

1  

5.26  

19  

100.00  

5  

25.00  

13  

65.00  

2  

10.00  

20  

100.00  

Other  

2  

5.41  

7  

18.92  

28  

75.68  

37  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

6  

15.00  

15  

37.50  

19  

47.50  

40  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

3  

3.75  

42  

52.50  

35  

43.75  

80  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

 

Sub  Total  

Jaffna  

0  

0    

20  

100.00  

0  

0    

20  

100.00  

35  

9.51  

181  

49.18  

152  

41.30  

368  

100.00  

Welfare  

5  

8.20  

36  

59.02  

20  

32.79  

61  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

21  

100.00  

21  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0    

32  

96.97  

1  

3.03  

33  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

5  

4.35  

68  

59.13  

42  

36.52  

115  

100.00  

   

Total  

40  

8.28  

249  

51.55  

194  

40.17  

483  

100.00  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  3  -­‐  Q.11  

                                                                                                                        112

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  3.11  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  177  

Page  178    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

IDP Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

3.5  

IDP  Water,  Sanitation  and  Hygiene     This  section  of  the  questionnaire  was  broadly  divided  into  the  following  sections:   · Water  supply  and  use  –  drinking  and  cooking;   · Water  supply  and  use  –  bathing  and  washing;   · Sanitation  facilities;   · Key  gaps.     3.5.1   Water  Supply  and  Use  -­‐  Drinking  and  Cooking  

  The   main   sources   of   safe   water   for   IDPs   in   all   districts   and   welfare   centers   were   “own”   or   “common   protected   wells”   or   “own”   or   “common   taps”   with   85per   cent   households   reporting   prior   to   displacement   compared   to   above  97  per  cent  of  current  residences  among  other  IDPs  in  all  districts  except  76.46  in  Polonnaruwa  and  87.30   per  cent  in  Anuradhapura  districts.  In  Jaffna  welfare  centers  86  per  cent  use  protected  sources,  Vavuniya  100  per   cent   and   Trincomalee   97   percent   (57.6   per   cent   clean   water   delivery   by   browsers   included).   Tap   water   was   the   main  source  of  water  in  the  welfare  centers.  Generally,  these  sources  are  clean  and  safe.  Therefore,  over  97  per   cent   of   IDPs   can   be   considered   to   have   access   to   safe   and   clean   water,   compared   to   85   per   centprior   to   displacement.  In  relation  to  the  current  place  of  residence,  the  highest  ratio  of  IDPs  who  access  water  from  safe   sources  was  100  per  cent  in  Vavuniya  and  Mullaitivu.The  lowest  ratio  was  50.3  per  cent  in  Kilinochchi  district.  Prior   to  displacement,  100  per  cent  reported  obtaining  water  from  safe  sources  in  Trincomalee  welfare  centre,  followed   by  97  per  cent  in  Batticaloa,  with  the  lowest  percentage  reported  in  Ampara  (35  per  cent)  and  Kilinochchi  (53  per   cent)  districts.       Only   9.57   per   cent   of   households   reported   that   they   currently   have   access   to   water,   which   may   be   safe   and   clean.   Water  from  temporary  sources  such  as  neighbors’  wells  or  water  bowsers  is  safe  and  clean.    About  6.68  per  cent   currently   obtain   water   from   unsafe   sources   such   as   unprotected   wells,   tanks,   rivers,   and   springs,   compared   to   13.82  per  cent  prior  to  displacement.  The  highest  percentage  who  has  access  to  water  from  these  unsafe  sources   was  approximately  50  per  cent  in  Ampara  district,  followed  by  Kilinochchi  (46.7  per  cent)  in  the  current  place  of   residence;   64.70   per   cent   was   reported   in   Ampara   and   41.2   per   cent   in   Kilinochchi   prior   to   displacement.   This   indicates  that  prior  to  displacement;  most  IDPs  depended  on  protected  wells  for  their  drinking  water.  Currently,   these   sources   have   declined   by   13.81   per   cent   and   were   represented   by   a   higher   percentage   of   individual   or   community   taps   supplemented   by   water   delivered   by   water   bowsers;   especially   in   Trincomalee   welfare   centres   (57.6  percent).  Thus,  the  majority  of  IDPs  are  currently  able  to  obtain  safe  and  clean  water,  compared  to  prior  to   displacement.  Mannar  (67.9  per  cent),  Polonnaruwa  (46.9  per  cent)  and  Ampara  (46.9  per  cent)  districts  reported   that  water  for  drinking  and  cooking  is  not  available  throughout  the  year.  In  other  districts,  the  percentage  varied   from   4.7-­‐29   per   cent   of   non-­‐availability.   Appropriate   steps   must   be   taken   to   increase   water   supply   to   meet   the   needs  of  all  IDPs  in  the  above  districts.       Prior   to   displacement,   79.55   per   cent   of   IDPs   had   access   to   water   that   was   drinkable   without   boiling,   as   compared   to  the  current  68.94  per  cent.  This  indicates  a  10.61  per  cent  decrease  in  obtaining  very  good  quality  water  after   displacement.   An   additional   12.58   per   cent   of   IDPs   had   access   to   water   that   was   drinkable   after   boiling   and/or   filtering   prior   to   displacement.   This   is   compared   to   22.03   per   cent   in   the   current   place   of   residence   or   a   9   per   cent   increase   in   the   proportion   obtaining   fairly   good   quality   water.   Therefore,   it   could   be   noted   that   most   IDPs   had   access  to  good  quality  water  (drinkable  with  and  without  boiling  and  filtering)  prior  to  and  after  displacement  (91   per  cent).  Overall,  water  quality  declined  to  some  extent  in  the  current  place  of  residence  compared  to  prior  to   displacement.  Access  to  water  drinkable  after  boiling  or  filtering  was  high  in  the  current  residence  in  Trincomalee   welfare   centers   (43.8   per   cent),   Polonnaruwa   (52.6   per   cent),   Mannar   (32.14   per   cent),   Kilinochchi   (35.3   per   cent),   Vavuniya  (29.5  per  cent)  and  Anuradhapura  (25.0  per  cent)  districts.  The  above  mentioned  are  the  priority  districts   where  water  quality  improvements  should  be  implemented.       Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

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Water   Standard   3   “People   have   adequate   facilities   to   collect,   store   and   use   sufficient   quantities   of   water   for   113 drinking,  cooking  and  personal  hygiene,  and  to  ensure  that  drinking  water  remains  safe  until  it  is  consumed”.     As   technical   testing   was   not   undertaken   as   part   of   the   JNA   survey   this   aspect   was   covered   in   the   survey   by   identifying  the  percentage  not  using  toilets.  Boiling  of  water  and  other  treatment  of  water  has  reduced  the  level  of   water-­‐borne  diseases  across  all  districts.   In   addition,  most  households  reported   to   have   adequate   storage  facilities   for  the  collection  and  use  of  water  for  household  use.  Drinking  water  is  usually  stored  in  clean  vessels  and  covered   to  avoid  contamination.  

3.5.2   Water  Supply  and  Use  -­‐  Bathing  and  Washing  

  The   main   sources   of   water   for   washing   and   other   purposes   are   from   taps   and   protected   wells   (74   per   cent   currently,  compared  to  64.58  per  cent  prior  to  displacement).  A  lower  percentage  of  IDPs  are  currently  using  water   from  tanks,  rivers  and  springs  for  washing  (19.86  per  cent),  than  prior  to  displacement  (27.55  per  cent).  About  16   per   cent   of   IDPs   reported   that   water   was   currently   muddy   or   saline   and   not   suitable   for   washing   and   other   purposes,   as   compared   to   6   per   cent   prior   to   displacement.   The   districts   which   are   currently   affected   by   poor   water   quality   for   washing   are:   Mannar   with   43   per   cent   of   households,   followed   by   Trincomalee   (34   per   cent)   and   Vavuniya  (29  per  cent).     Overall,  the  proportion  of  other  IDPs  transporting  water  for  less  than  20  meters  remained  around  54.88  per  cent   prior  to  displacement,  compared  to  50.23  per  cent  in  the  current  residence.  The  percentage  of  IDPs  transporting   water   for   20   to   200   meters   remained   at   around   29.27-­‐   30.79   per   cent   both   prior   to   displacement   and   in   the   current   residence.   The   percentage   transporting   water   between   200   meters   to   1   Km   increased   from   about   6   per   cent  prior  to  displacement  to  16.2  per  cent  for  the  current  residence.  The  percentage  of  IDPs  transporting  water   for  more  than  1  Km  declined  from  about  4  per  cent  prior  to  displacement  to  about  2.78  per  cent  for  the  current   residence.   Therefore,   a   majority   (84   per   cent)   of   IDPs   transported   water   for   less   than   200   meters   prior   to   displacement,  as  compared  to  81  per  cent  for  the  current  place  of  residence.  Prior  to  displacement,  15.92  per  cent   of  IDPs  transported  water  for  more  than  200  meters  compared  to  19  per  cent  at  present,  with  high  percentages   reported   for   Mannar   (53.60   per   cent),   Vavuniya   (47   per   cent),   Ampara   (44   per   cent)   and   Trincomalee   welfare   centres   (28   per   cent).   Therefore,   there   is   the   need   to   provide   water   sources   closer   to   the   current   places   of   residences  in  many  districts.       A   vast   majority   of   IDP   households   (84.73   per   cent)   reported   to   have   currently   access   to   adequate   water   supply.   However,   access   to   water   supply   has   decreased   compared   to   prior   to   displacement:     more   than   nine   tenth   of   IDPs   (91   per   cent)   had   access   to   adequate   water   supply   prior   to   displacement.   The   reduction   of   access   to   adequate   water  supply  is  well  reflected  in  Mannar,  where  100  per  cent  adequacy  rate  decreased  to  53.6  per  cent.  Similarly,   in   Mullaitivu   district   and   Trincomalee   welfare   centre,   the   rate   decreased   from   100   per   cent   to   87.5   per   cent.   Prior   to  displacement,  80-­‐100per  cent  adequacy  was  reported  in  all  districts  except  Ampara,  where  the  adequacy  rate   was  only  41  per  cent.  At  present,  Polonnaruwa  (52.6  per  cent),  Mannar  (53.6  per  cent),  Ampara  (55.9  per  cent)  and   Kilinochchi  (64.7  per  cent)  reported  a  lower  ratio  of  water  supply  adequacy.  Water  was  reported  to  be  available   throughout  the  year  by  87.19  per  cent  of  households  prior  to  displacement  and  81  per  cent  in  the  current  place  of   residence.      

3.5.3   Sanitation  Facilities     Excreta   disposal   standard   1:   Environment   free   from   human   faeces.   “The   living   environment   in   general   and   specifically  the  habitat,  food  production  areas,  public  centres  and  surroundings  of  drinking  water  sources  are  free   114 from  human  faecal  contamination”.    

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SPHERE  Humanitarian  Charter  and  Minimum  Standards  in  Humanitarian  Response.    SPHERE  Humanitarian  Charter  and  Minimum  Standards  in  Humanitarian  Response.  

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These   aspects   were   not   covered   by   the   survey,   as   no   technical   testing   was   undertaken.   Currently,   faecal   contamination  of  water  sources  is  prevalent  to  some  extent,  but  boiling  of  water  and  other  treatment  of  water  has   reduced  the  level  of  water-­‐borne  diseases  in  the  areas.           Excreta   disposal   standard   2:   Appropriate   and   adequate   toilet   facilities.   “People   have   adequate,   appropriate   and   acceptable  toilet  facilities,  sufficiently  close  to  their  dwellings,  to  allow  rapid,  safe  and  secure  access  at  all  times,   115 day  and  night.”     There  has  not  been  much  variance  on  the  availability  of  toilets  for  IDPs  before  and  after  displacement  (64.57  per   cent  and  68.20  per  cent  respectively).  Overall,  ownership  or  use  of  permanent  toilets  has  increased  from  59  per   cent   per   cent,   prior   to   displacement,   to   66   per   cent   for   the   current   residence.   A   substantial   decline   in   ownership/use  was  reported  in  Trincomalee  welfare  centre,  from  81  per  cent  prior  to  displacement,  to  only  3  per   cent  for  the  current  residence;  a  decline  of  10  /  20  per  cent  was  reported  in  Jaffna  (81  per  cent  to  62  per  cent),   Mullaitivu  (76  per  cent  to   64  per  cent)  and  Kilinochchi  (72  per  cent  to  60  per  cent)  districts.  Significant  increases  in   ownership/use   of   permanent   toilets   among   other   IDPs   were   reported   for   the   current   place   of   residence,   as   compared  to  the  situation  prior  to  displacement  in  Ampara  (6  per  cent,  compared  to  82  per  cent),  Batticaloa  (26   per   cent,   compared   to   83   per   cent),   Anuradhapura   (53   per   cent,   compared   to   90   per   cent),   and   to   some   extent   Vavuniya   (40   per   cent,   compared   to   50   per   cent)   districts.   Little   or   no   change   in   the   percentage   of   IDPs   having   ownership/use  of  permanent  toilets  was  reported  in  Mannar  district.       The  percentage  of  households  sharing  their  toilets  increased  from  10.06  per  cent  prior  to  displacement  to  24.5  per   cent  at  present.  The  highest  percentage  of  IDPs  currently  sharing  toilets  was  in  Mullaitivu  (43.8  per  cent),  followed   by   Vavuniya   (39.1   per   cent),   Jaffna   (37.9   per   cent),   Ampara   (26.5   per   cent),   and   Mannar   (20   per   cent).   The   percentage  of  households  owning  or  using  temporary  or  semi-­‐permanent  toilets  declined  from  41  per  cent  prior  to   displacement  to  34  per  cent  for  the  current  place  of  residence.  The  highest  level  of  temporary,  repaired  or  semi-­‐ permanent   toilets   used   by   households   at   the   current   place   of   residence   was   reported   in   Trincomalee   welfare   center  (97  per  cent),  followed  by  Vavuniya  (50  per  cent),  Mannar  (45  per  cent),  Kilinochchi  (40  per  cent),  Jaffna  (38   per  cent),  and  Mullaitivu  (36  per  cent).  The  lowest  percentage  of  IDPs  who  use  temporary  toilets  was  reported  in   Anuradhapura  (10  per  cent),  followed  by  Polonnaruwa  (13  per  cent),  Batticaloa  (17  per  cent)  and  Ampara  (18  per   cent).  The  percentage  of  IDPs  without  toilets  or  without  access  to  toilets  was  reported  only  in  Trincomalee  welfare   centre   (3   per   cent   prior   to   displacement   and   3   per   cent   at   present);   3   per   cent   prior   to   displacement   was   reported   in  Ampara.        

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3.5.4   Key  Gaps  

  Clean  and  safe  source  of  water-­‐  According  to  the  JNA  data,  about  10  per  cent  of  the  IDPs  need  to  be  provided  with   a  source  of  clean  and  safe  water.  IDP  households  in  Kilinochchi,  Ampara,  Trincomalee,  Mannar  and  Polonnaruwa,   with  the  highest  level  of  temporary  or  unsafe  water  sources,  need  priority  attention.         Adequacy  of  water-­‐  Currently,  adequacy  is  reported  to  be  low  in  Mannar  (53.6  per  cent),  Polonnaruwa  (52.6  per   cent),  Ampara  (56  per  cent)  and  to  some  extent  Kilinochchi  (64.7  per  cent).   These  sites  may  need  assistance  for   improving  adequacy  and  availability  of  water  for  drinking  and  cooking  purposes.       Quality   of   Water-­‐   According  to  the  JNA  data,  the  quality  of  water  for  drinking,  cooking  as  well  as  washing  is   low   in   Trincomalee   welfare   centre,   Polonnaruwa,   Mannar,   Ampara   and   Vavuniya   districts   in   the   locations   where   IDP   households  are  situated.       Quality   and   adequacy   of   sanitation   facilities-­‐   IDPs   currently   living   in   Trincomalee   welfare   centre,   Vavuniya   and   Mannar   districts   reported   a   lower   rate   of   access   to   adequate   sanitation   facilities.   These   districts   need   to   be   prioritized  in  the  provision  of  support  to  improve  sanitation  facilities.       116 Table  3.26:  Source  of  water  supply  (for  Drinking  and  Cooking)  Prior  to  Displacement Source  of  water  supply   District      

Place  of   Residence    

Own  tap   Num  

Common  tap  

%  

Num  

%  

Own  protected   well  

Common   protected  well  

Num  

Num  

%  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

8    

9.30    

1    

1.16    

55    

64.0    

21    

24.4    

Mannar  

Other  

0    

0  

1    

4    

1    

3.6    

25    

89.3    

Vavuniya    

Other  

1    

4.55    

1    

4.55    

11    

50.0    

5    

22.7    

Mullaitivu  

Other  

1    

5.88    

0  

0  

11    

64.7    

1    

5.9    

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

7    

41.2    

2    

11.8    

Batticaloa  

Other  

1    

3.45    

0  

0  

21    

72.4    

6    

20.7    

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

2    

5.9    

10    

29.4    

Anuradhapura  

Other  

6    

8.45    

1    

1.41    

27    

38.0    

22    

31.0    

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

2    

11.11    

0  

0  

6    

33.3    

4    

22.2    

 

Sub  Total  

19  

5.90  

4  

1.24  

141  

43.79  

96  

29.81  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

6    

11.54    

4    

7.69    

25    

48.1    

17    

32.7    

Vavuniya    

Welfare  

0    

0  

7    

35    

7    

35.0    

4    

20.0    

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

3    

9.09    

0  

0  

30    

90.9    

0  

0  

 

Sub  Total  

9  

8.57  

11  

10.48  

62  

59.05  

21  

20.00  

   

Total  

28    

6.56    

15    

3.51    

203    

47.54    

117    

27.40    

                                                                                                                        116

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.01  

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Table  3.26:  Source  of  water  supply  (for  Drinking  &  Cooking)  Prior  to  Displacement  (continued)  

District        

Place  of   Residence      

Own   unprotected   well   Nu m   %  

 

Source  of  water  supply   Tank/   Stream/   River/   Spring   Bowser   Nu m   %   Num   %  

  Total      

Neighbors     Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

1    

1.2    

0  

0  

 

86  

100    

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

1    

3.6    

0  

0  

 

28    

100    

Vavuniya    

Other  

4    

18.2    

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

 

22    

100    

Mullaitivu  

Other  

4    

23.5    

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

 

17    

100    

Kilinochchi  

Other  

7    

41.2    

0  

0  

1    

5.9    

0  

0  

 

17    

100    

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

1    

3.4    

 

29    

100    

Ampara  

Other  

7    

20.6    

15     44.1    

0  

0  

0  

0  

 

34    

100    

Anuradhapura  

Other  

12    

16.9    

2    

2.8    

1    

1.4    

0  

0  

 

71    

100    

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

6    

33.3    

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

 

18    

100    

 

Sub  Total  

40  

12.42  

17  

5.28  

4  

1.24  

1  

0.31  

   

322  

100  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

 

52    

100    

Vavuniya    

Welfare  

2    

10.0    

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

 

20    

100    

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

 

33    

100    

 

Sub  Total  

2  

1.90  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

 

105  

100  

   

Total  

42    

9.84    

17     3.98    

4    

0.94    

1    

0.23    

 

427    

100    

Base:  All  who  reported  for  1.1    

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

 

   

Page  185  

Table  3.27:  Source  of  water  supply  (for  Drinking  &  Cooking)  at  Current  Residence District        

Place  of   residence    

 

Source  of  water  supply   Own  protected   Common  tap   well  

Own  tap   Num  

117

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

Common  protected   well  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

12    

13.48    

5    

5.6    

49    

55.1    

21    

23.6    

Mannar  

Other  

0    

0  

7    

29.2    

1    

4.2    

9    

37.5    

Vavuniya  

Other  

1    

5.88    

5    

29.4    

11    

64.7    

0    

0  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

2    

16.67    

2    

16.7    

7    

58.3    

 1    

8.3    

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0    

0  

0    

0  

5    

33.3    

2    

13.3    

Batticaloa  

Other  

3    

9.38    

0    

0  

19    

59.4    

9    

28.1    

Ampara  

Other  

2    

6.25    

0    

0  

10    

31.3    

4    

12.5    

Anuradhapura  

Other  

22    

30.99    

7    

9.9    

15    

21.1    

18    

25.4    

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

2    

11.76    

0    

0  

8    

47.1    

3    

17.6    

 

Sub  Total  

44  

14.24  

26  

8.41  

125  

40.45  

67  

21.68  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

4    

7.02    

20    

35.1    

8    

14.0    

17    

29.8    

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0    

0  

19    

95.0    

0    

0  

1    

5.0    

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0    

0  

1    

3.0    

1    

3.0    

12    

36.4    

 

Sub  Total  

4  

3.64  

40  

36.36  

9  

8.18  

30  

27.27  

   

Total  

48    

11.46    

66    

15.75    

134    

31.98    

97    

23.15    

 

 

                                                                                                                        117

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.03  

Page  186    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.27:  Source  of  water  supply  (for  Drinking  &  Cooking)  at  Current  Residence  (continued)   District          

Place   ofresidence          

Source  of  water  supply   Tank/   Stream/   River/   Spring   Bowser  

Own  unprotected   well   Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

Relevant  house   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

0    

0  

0    

0  

2    

2.2    

0    

0  

Mannar  

Other  

0    

0  

0    

0  

7    

29.2    

0    

0  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0    

0  

0    

0  

0    

0  

0    

0  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0    

0  

0    

0  

0    

0  

0    

0  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

7    

46.7    

0    

0  

1    

6.7    

0    

0  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0    

0  

0    

0  

0    

0  

0    

0  

Ampara  

Other  

2    

6.3    

14    

43.8    

0    

0  

0    

0  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

1    

1.4    

1    

1.4    

0    

0  

1    

1.4    

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

2    

11.8    

1    

5.9    

0    

0  

0    

0  

 

Sub  Total  

12  

3.88  

16  

5.18  

10  

3.24  

1  

0.32  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

0    

0  

0    

0  

8    

14.0    

0    

0  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0    

0  

0    

0  

0    

0  

0    

0  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0    

0  

0    

0  

19    

57.6    

0    

0  

 

Sub  Total  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

27  

24.55  

0  

0.00  

   

Total  

12    

2.86    

16    

3.82    

37    

8.83    

1    

0.24    

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  187  

Table  3.27:  Source  of  water  supply  (for  Drinking  &  Cooking)  at  Current  Residence  (continued)   District      

Place  of   residence    

Source  of  water  supply  

 

Neighbors  

 

Num  

Total  

 

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna    

Other  

0    

0  

 

89  

100  

Mannar  

Other  

0    

0  

 

24  

100  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0    

0  

 

17  

100  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0    

0  

 

12  

100  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0    

0  

 

15  

100  

Batticaloa  

Other  

1    

3.1    

 

32  

100  

Ampara  

Other  

0    

0  

 

32  

100  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

6    

8.5    

 

71  

100  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

1    

5.9    

 

17  

100  

 

Sub  Total  

8  

2.59  

   

309  

100  

Jaffna    

Welfare  

0    

0  

 

57  

100  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0    

0  

 

20  

100  

0  

0.00  

   

110  

100  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

 

Sub  Total  

0  

0.00  

   

110  

100  

   

Total  

8    

1.91    

 

419    

100  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  1.1  

Page  188    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.28:  Total  Distance  water  is  transported  by  place  of  residence-­‐  Prior  to  displacement

118

 

Distance  to  the  source   District      

Place  of   residence    

Less  than   20m     Num  

20  to  200m    

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

Mannar  

Other  

0  

Vavuniya  

Num  

48     55.17    

%  

200m  to  1Km     Num  

%  

More  than   1Km     Num  

Total    

%  

Num  

%  

31    

35.6    

4    

4.6    

4    

4.6    

87    

100.0    

0  

10    

38.5    

9    

34.6    

7    

26.9    

26    

100.0    

Other  

5     33.33    

5    

33.3    

4    

26.7    

1    

6.7    

15    

100.0    

Mullativu  

Other  

13     76.47    

3    

17.6    

0  

0  

1    

5.9    

17    

100.0    

Kilinochchi  

Other  

15     88.24    

2    

11.8    

0  

0  

0  

0  

17    

100.0    

Batticaloa  

Other  

27     77.14    

2    

5.7    

4    

11.4    

2    

5.7    

35    

100.0    

Ampara  

Other  

5     14.71    

12    

35.3    

9    

26.5    

8    

23.5    

34    

100.0    

Anuradhapura  

Other  

48     64.00    

22    

29.3    

5    

6.7    

0  

0  

75    

100.0    

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

10     52.63    

6    

31.6    

2    

10.5    

1    

5.3    

19    

100.0    

 

Sub  Total  

171   52.62  

93  

28.62  

37  

11.38  

24  

7.38  

325  

100.0  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

28     52.83    

23    

43.4    

1    

1.9    

1    

1.9    

53    

100.0    

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

6     35.29    

6    

35.3    

5    

29.4    

0  

0  

17    

100.0    

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

29     90.63    

3    

9.4    

0  

0  

0  

0  

32    

100.0    

 

Sub  Total  

63   61.76  

32  

31.37  

6  

5.88  

1  

0.98  

102  

100.0  

   

Total  

125     29.27    

43    

10.07    

25    

5.85    

427    

100.0  

234     54.80    

Base:  All  who  reported  for  1.2    

 

                                                                                                                        118

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.05  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  189  

Table  3.29:  Total  Distance  water  is  transported  by  place  of  residence-­‐  at  current  residence

119

 

Distance  to  the  source   District      

Place  of   residence    

Less  than  20m   Num  

%  

20  to  200m   Num  

%  

200m  to  1Km   Num  

%  

More  than   1Km   Num  

%  

Total     Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

54    

62.79    

26    

30.2    

6    

7.0    

0  

0  

86    

100.0    

Mannar  

Other  

2  

7.14  

11  

39.3  

12  

42.9  

3  

10.7  

28  

100.0  

 Vavuniya  

Other  

4  

26.67  

5  

33.3  

6  

40.0  

0  

0  

15  

100.0  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

7  

41.18  

8  

47.1  

1  

5.9  

1  

5.9  

17  

100.0  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

13  

76.47  

4  

23.5  

0  

0  

0  

0  

17  

100.0  

Batticaloa  

Other  

24  

68.57  

9  

25.7  

2  

5.7  

0  

0  

35  

100.0  

Ampara  

Other  

16  

47.06  

3  

8.8  

8  

23.5  

7  

20.6  

34  

100.0  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

47    

62.67    

14  

18.7    

13  

17.3    

1    

1.3    

75  

100.0    

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

12  

63.16    

5  

26.3    

2  

10.5    

0  

0  

19  

100.0    

 

Sub  Total  

179  

54.91  

85  

26.07  

50  

15.34  

12  

3.68  

326  

100.0  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

23    

40.35    

31    

54.4    

3    

5.3    

0  

0  

57    

100.0    

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

Trincomalee    

Welfare   Sub  Total  

   

Total  

1  

5.88  

8  

47.1  

8  

47.1  

0  

0  

17  

100.0  

14   38  

43.75   35.85  

9   48  

28.1     45.28  

9     20  

28.1     18.87  

0   0  

0   0.00  

32   106  

100.0   100.0  

217  

50.23    

133  

30.79    

70  

16.20    

12  

2.78    

432  

100.0    

Base:  All  who  reported  for  1.2    

 

                                                                                                                        119

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.06  

Page  190    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.30:  Quality  of  water  by  place  of  Residence  -­‐  Prior  to  displacement

120

 

Quality  of  water  for  drinking  

District        

Place  of   residence        

Drinkable   Num  

%  

Drinkable  after   boiling  or   filtering  

Drinkable  after   boiling  and   filtering  

Num  

Num  

%  

%  

Total      

Other   Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

68  

79.07    

5  

5.8    

12  

14.0    

1  

1.2    

86  

100.0    

Mannar  

Other  

25  

96.15  

0    

0    

1  

3.8  

0  

0  

26  

100.0  

Vavuniya  

Other  

18  

78.26    

5    

21.7    

0  

0  

0  

0  

23  

100.0  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

15  

88.24  

2  

11.8  

0  

0  

0  

0  

17  

100.0  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

12  

75.00  

2  

12.5  

0  

0  

2  

12.5  

16  

100.0  

Batticaloa  

Other  

28  

80.00  

3  

8.6  

2  

5.7  

2  

5.7  

35  

100.0  

Ampara  

Other  

21  

63.64  

11  

33.3  

1  

3.0  

0  

0  

33  

100.0  

Anuradhapura   Other  

70  

87.50  

9  

11.3  

1    

1.3  

0  

0  

80  

100.0  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

13  

68.42  

3  

15.8  

2  

10.5  

1  

5.3  

19  

100.0  

 

Sub  Total  

270  

80.60  

40  

11.94  

19  

5.67  

6  

1.79  

335  

100.0  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

43  

76.79    

3  

5.4    

8  

14.3    

2  

3.6    

56  

100.0    

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

18  

85.71  

3  

14.3  

0  

0  

0  

0  

21  

100.0    

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

23  

69.70  

10  

30.3  

0  

0  

0  

0  

33  

100.0  

 

Sub  Total  

84  

76.36  

16  

14.55  

8  

7.27  

2  

1.82  

110  

100.0  

   

Total  

354  

79.55  

56  

12.58  

27  

6.07  

8  

1.80  

445  

100.0  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  1.3  &1.5  

 

 

                                                                                                                        120

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.07  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  191  

Table  3.30:  Quality  of  water  by  place  of  Residence  -­‐  Current  residences

121

 

Quality  of  water  for  drinking  

District        

Place  of   residence   Drinkable       Num   %    

Drinkable   after   boiling  or   filtering  

Drinkable  after   boiling  and   filtering  

Num   %    

Num  

%    

Total      

Other   Num   %    

Num  

%    

Jaffna  

Other  

72  

80.90  

7  

7.9  

10  

11.2  

0  

0  

89  

100.0  

Mannar  

Other  

15  

53.57  

9  

32.1  

4  

14.3  

0  

0  

28  

100.0  

Vavuniya  

Other  

16  

69.57  

7  

30.4  

0  

0  

0  

0  

23  

100.0  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

15    

88.24    

2    

11.8    

0  

0  

0  

0  

17    

100.0    

Kilinochchi  

Other  

9    

52.94    

6    

35.3    

1    

5.9    

1    

5.9    

17    

100.0    

Batticaloa  

Other  

26    

74.29    

6    

17.1    

1    

2.9    

2    

5.7    

35    

100.0    

Ampara  

Other  

25    

73.53    

8    

23.5    

0  

0  

1    

2.9    

34    

100.0    

Anuradhapura  

Other  

55    

68.75    

20    

25.0    

2    

2.5    

3    

3.8    

80    

100.0    

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

 

Sub  Total  

Jaffna  

9    

47.37    

10    

52.6    

0  

0  

0  

0  

19    

100.0    

242  

70.76  

75  

21.93  

18  

5.26  

7  

2.05  

342  

100.0  

Welfare  

45  

76.27  

5  

8.5  

9  

15.3  

0  

0  

59  

100.0  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

15  

71.43  

6  

28.6  

0  

0  

0  

0  

21  

100.0  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

11    

34.38    

14    

43.8    

7    

21.9    

0  

0  

32    

100.0    

 

Sub  Total  

71  

63.39  

25  

22.32  

16  

14.29  

0  

0.00  

112  

100.0  

   

Total  

313    

68.94    

100    

22.03    

34    

7.49    

7    

1.54    

454    

100.0    

Base:  All  who  reported  for  1.3  &1.5  

                                                                                                                        121

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.08  

Page  192    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.31:  Availability  of  drinking/cooking  water  throughout  the  year  by  place  of  residence

122

 

Prior  to  displacement   District        

Place  of   Residence      

Availability  of    drinking/cooking  water    Yes     Num  

 No     %  

Num  

%  

Total     Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

82    

100.00    

0  

0  

82    

100    

Mannar  

Other  

   26    

100.00    

0  

0  

26    

100    

Vavuniya  

Other  

     22    

   95.65    

       1    

   4.3    

23    

100    

Mullativu  

Other  

   17        100.00    

0  

0  

17    

100    

Kilinochchi  

Other  

     16    

94.12    

1    

     5.9    

17    

100    

Batticaloa  

Other  

     28            80.00    

   7    

   20.0    

35    

100    

Ampara  

Other  

     12    

     36.36    

   21    

     63.6    

33    

100    

Anuradhapura  

Other  

   63    

     78.75    

     17    

21.3    

80    

100    

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

     14    

73.68    

     5    

     26.3    

19    

100    

   

Total  

   280    

   84.34    

52    

     15.66    

   332    

100    

Jaffna  

Welfare  

53        100.00    

0  

0  

53    

100    

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

   17    

     80.95    

4    

 19.0    

21    

100    

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

   31    

100.00    

0  

0  

31    

100    

   

Total    

   101    

96.19    

       4    

3.81    

   105    

100    

Current  residence   District        

Place  of   Residence      

Jaffna  

Other  

Mannar  

Availability  of    drinking/cooking  water    Yes     Num   89    

 No     %  

Num  

%  

Total     Num  

%  

       100.0    

0  

0  

89    

100    

Other  

                 9                  32.1    

     19    

     67.9    

28    

100    

Vavuniya  

Other  

18                  78.3    

     5    

21.7    

 23    

100    

Mullativu  

Other  

17    

       100.0    

0  

0  

17    

100    

Kilinochchi  

Other  

12                  70.6    

   5    

   29.4    

17    

100    

Batticaloa  

Other  

28                  80.0    

7    

   20.0    

35    

100    

Ampara  

Other  

17                  53.1    

15    

   46.9    

32    

100    

Anuradhapura  

Other  

69                  86.3    

   11    

     13.8    

80    

100    

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

10                  52.6    

       9    

       47.4    

19    

100    

   

Total  

       79.12    

       71    

20.88    

340    

100    

Jaffna  

Welfare  

52                  88.1    

         7    

     11.9    

59    

100    

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

18                  85.7    

       3    

     14.3    

21    

100    

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

29                  90.6    

     3    

       9.4    

32    

100    

   

Total    

     131    

   20.63    

635    

100    

269    

504    

       79.37    

Base:  All  who  reported  for  1.7    

 

                                                                                                                        122

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.10  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  193  

Table  3.32:  Availability  and  type  of  toilet  use  -­‐  Prior  to  displacement District      

Availability  of  a  toilet   Yes   No   Num   %   Num   %   73     84.88     13     15.1    

123

 

  Total   Num   %   86     100.0    

Jaffna  

Place  of   residence   Other  

Mannar  

Other  

16    

59.26    

11    

40.7    

27    

100.0    

Vavuniya  

Other  

12    

54.55    

10    

45.5    

22    

100.0    

Mullaitivu  

Other  

15    

93.75    

1    

6.3    

16    

100.0    

Kilinochchi  

Other  

16    

94.12    

1    

5.9    

17    

100.0    

Batticaloa  

Other  

8    

22.86    

27    

77.1    

35    

100.0    

Ampara  

Other  

3    

8.82    

31    

91.2    

34    

100.0    

Anuradhapura  

Other  

51    

63.75    

29    

36.3    

80    

100.0    

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

20    

100.00    

0  

0  

20    

100.0    

 

Sub  Total  

214  

63.50  

123  

36.50  

337  

100.0  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

43    

76.79    

13    

23.2    

56    

100.0    

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

5    

25.00    

15    

75.0    

20    

100.0    

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

26    

78.79    

7    

21.2    

33    

100.0    

 

Sub  Total  

74  

67.89  

35  

32.11  

109  

100.0  

   

Total  

288    

64.57    

158    

35.43    

446    

100.0    

Base:  All  who  reported  for  2.1  -­‐  2.4    

 

                                                                                                                        123

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.11  

Page  194    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.33:  Availability  and  type  of  toiletuse  -­‐current  residence   District    

Place  of   residence  

Yes   Num  

124

 

Availability  of  a  toilet   No   %   Num   %  

Num  

Total   %  

Jaffna  

Other  

78    

87.64    

11    

12.4    

89    

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

15    

53.57    

13    

46.4    

28    

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

17    

73.91    

6    

26.1    

23    

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

13    

76.47    

4    

23.5    

17    

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

12    

70.59    

5    

29.4    

17    

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

30    

85.71    

5    

14.3    

35    

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

30    

88.24    

4    

11.8    

34    

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

74    

92.50    

6    

7.5    

80    

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

 

Sub  Total  

Jaffna  

20    

100.00    

0    

0    

20    

100.00  

289  

84.26  

54  

15.74  

343  

100.00  

Welfare  

14    

23.73    

45    

76.3    

59    

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

6    

28.57    

15    

71.4    

21    

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

2    

6.06    

31    

93.9    

33    

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

22  

19.47  

91  

80.53  

113  

100.00  

   

Total  

311  

68.20  

145  

31.80  

456  

100.00  

  Availability  of  a  toilet   District      

Place  of   residence    

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

       78            87.64    

       11        12.36    

         89    

       100    

Mannar  

Other  

       15            53.57    

       13        46.43    

         28    

       100    

Vavuniya  

Other  

       17            73.91    

           6        26.09    

         23    

       100    

Mullativu  

Other  

       13            76.47    

           4        23.53    

         17    

       100    

Kilinochchi  

Other  

       12            70.59    

           5        29.41    

         17    

       100    

Batticaloa  

Other  

       30            85.71    

           5        14.29    

         35    

       100    

Ampara  

Other  

       30            88.24    

           4        11.76    

         34    

       100    

Anuradhapura  

Other  

       74            92.50    

           6            7.50    

         80    

       100    

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

       20        100.00    

0  

         20    

       100    

   

Total  

   289            84.26    

       54        15.74    

 343    

       100    

Jaffna  

Welfare  

       14            23.73    

       45            76.3    

         59    

       100    

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

         21    

       100    

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

           6            28.57            15            71.4                   6.06            31            93.9                2    

         33    

       100    

   

Total  

       22            19.47    

0113    

       100    

0  

       91        80.53    

 

                                                                                                                        124

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.12  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  195  

Table  3.33:    Ownership  of  toilet,  Type  of  toilet,  sharing  with  another  HH,  if  not  what  is  the  toilet  your  family  uses   -­‐  Current  residence      (continued)  

Other  

Mannar  

Other  

Vavuniya  

Num  

%  

Num  

   14     18.42    

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

Temporary  latrine    

Pit  latrine  with  temporary   superstructure    

Permanent  pit  latrine    

Permanent  water  sealed  with   flush  

 Place  of  resident                     Jaffna  

Permanent  water  sealed  without   flush    

Type  of  a  toilet  

Total     %  

Num  

   51    

67.1    

11    

14.47    

0  

0  

0  

     15    

88.2    

     1    

 5.88    

0  

0  

Other  

         9     52.94    

     8    

47.1    

0  

0  

0  

0  

Mullativu  

Other  

         4     25.00    

   1    

   6.3    

     9    

56.25    

0  

0  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

         4     26.67    

Batticaloa  

Other  

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

   30    

0  

0  

0  

         6     20.00    

   21    

70.0    

   1    

3.33    

   74    

0  

0  

   20    

0  

Anuradhapura   Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

   8      53.33    

1      6.67     0  

0  

%   0  

Num  

%  

       76     100    

     1     5.88            17     100     0  

0  

       17     100    

     2     2.50            16     100          2     3.33    

15     100    

0  

0  

0  

       30     100    

2      6.67    

0  

0  

       30     100    

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

       74     100    

0  

0  

0  

0  

       20     100    

     5     1.69    

295     100    

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

   

Total  

   37     12.54    

220     74.58    

30    

10.17    

3      1.02    

Jaffna  

Welfare  

         6    

25.0    

   12    

50.0    

     6    

25.00    

0  

0  

0  

0  

       24     100    

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

         1    

16.7    

   5    

83.3    

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

         6     100    

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0  

     1     100.0    

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

           1     100    

   

Total  

         7     22.58    

   18     58.06    

     6    

19.35    

0  

0    

0  

0            31     100    

Page  196    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.33:  Ownership  of  toilet,  Type  of  toilet,  sharing  with  another  HH,  if  not  what  is  the  toilet  your  family  uses   -­‐  Current  residence  (continued)   Place  of  Residence          

Sharing   Yes   Num  

No  

%  

Num  

Total  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

11    

16.67    

 55    

83.33    

66    

100    

Mannar  

Other  

4    

20.00    

16    

80.00    

20    

100    

Vavuniya  

Other  

7    

41.18    

 10    

58.82    

17    

100    

Mullativu  

Other  

7    

43.75    

9    

56.25    

16    

100    

Kilinochchi  

Other  

3    

17.65    

 14    

82.35    

17    

100    

Batticaloa  

Other  

2    

6.67    

28    

93.33    

30    

100    

Ampara  

Other  

9    

26.47    

25    

73.53    

34    

100    

Anuradhapura  

Other  

10    

12.99    

67    

87.01    

77    

100    

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

0  

18    

100.00    

   18    

100    

   

Total  

53    

17.97    

242    

82.03        295    

100    

Jaffna  

Welfare  

25    

86.21    

4    

13.79    

29    

100    

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

2    

33.33    

4    

66.67    

6    

100    

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

1    

   100.00    

0  

0  

1    

100    

   

Total  

28    

77.78    

8    

22.22    

36    

100    

 

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

 

   

Page  197  

Table  3.33:  Ownership  of  toilet,  Type  of  toilet,  sharing  with  another  HH,  if  not  what  is  the  toilet  your  family  uses   -­‐  Current  residence      (continued)  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Provided  a  semi  permanent  

Place  of  residence      

Provided  a  temporary  latrine  

Repaired  the  damaged  lavatory  

If  not,  toilet  your  family  uses  

Num  

%  

Total     Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

         3          27.27                7    

63.64    

             1    

9.09    

     11     100    

Mannar  

Other  

         1    

         8.33                6    

50.00    

             5     41.67    

     12     100    

Vavuniya  

Other  

         3          37.50                1    

12.50    

             4     50.00    

         8     100    

Mullativu  

Other  

         5          83.33    

0  

0  

             1     16.67    

         6     100    

Kilinochchi  

Other  

         2          40.00    

0  

0  

             3     60.00    

         5     100    

Batticaloa  

Other  

         5          83.33                1    

16.67    

Ampara  

Other  

         1          25.00    

Anuradhapura  

Other  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

             3     100.0    

         3     100    

   

Total  

     25          39.68            16      25.40    

         22     34.92    

     63     100    

Jaffna  

Welfare  

         7          14.29            42      85.71    

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

         2          13.33                8      53.33    

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

   

Total  

0  

         6     100    

0  

             3     75.00    

         4     100    

         5          62.50                1      12.50    

             2     25.00    

         8     100    

0  

0  

0  

0  

0   0  

       31      100.0    

         9              9.47            81      85.26    

0  

0  

0  

     49     100    

             5     33.33    

     15     100    

0  

0  

     31     100    

             5        5.26    

     95     100    

Base:  All  who  reported  for  2.1  -­‐  2.4  

Page  198    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

IDP Health Services

3.6  

IDP  Health  Services  

  This  section  focuses  specifically  on  the  health  of  the  last  born  child.  Only  few  questions  were  included  in  the  JNA   questionnaire   given   the   comprehensive   availability   of   health   data   in   Sri   Lanka.   The   questions   asked   by   the   JNA   survey  explored  two  main  themes:  

· ·

Antenatal  care  for  the  mother;   Care  during  and  after  birth  

 

3.6.1   Antenatal  Care  for  the  Mother     Nearly   all   mothers   (97.7   per   cent)   in   IDP   communities   had   seen   someone   for   antenatal   care.   In   over   half   of   the   cases,  this  was  received  at  a  Ministry  of  Health  office  clinic  (58.3  per  cent).  In  over  a  third  of  the  cases  (38.9  per   cent)  a  Government  hospital  provided  care.  Municipal  clinics  provided  care  in  just  2.8  per  cent  of  cases.  In  just  over   half  of  all  cases  (52.4  per  cent)  mothers  sought  antenatal  care  between  the  fourth  and  eighth  week  of  pregnancy.       During   the   pregnancy,   in   over   four   out   of   five   cases   (85.7   per   cent)   a   midwife   visited   the   mother   at   home.   In   most   cases  (57.1  per  cent)  the  midwife  visited  between  two  and  five  times  in  total.      

3.6.2   Care  During  and  After  Birth     Responsibility  for  delivering  babies  in  the  IDP  communities  is  shared  between  “doctors”,  “nurses/midwives”  and   ”assistant   midwives”.   Of   these,   doctors   are   most   commonly   responsible   for   the   delivery   (40   per   cent   of   cases)   while  “nurses/midwives”  (30.9  per  cent)  and  “assistant  midwives”  (23.6  per  cent)  are  also  substantially  involved.  In   92.9  per  cent  of  the  cases,  public  health  midwives  checked  on  the  health  of  the  mother  after  birth.       Mothers  were  asked  about  their  preferred  sources  of  health-­‐related  information.  Three  broad  categories  offered   in  the  questionnaire  were  “personal”,  “place”  and  “mass  media”.  In  terms  of  personal  health,  patients  preferred   western   doctors   (58.5   per   cent)   over   Ayurvedic   doctors   (36.6   per   cent).   So   far   as   the   “place”   was   concerned,   mothers  in  IDP  communities  were  found  to  have  more  interest  in  a  “Government  hospital/clinic”  (53.3  per  cent)   than   a   “Ministry   of   Health   (MoH)   clinic”   (44.4   per   cent).   In   terms   of   “mass   media”,   television   (73   per   cent)   was   found  to  be  of  more  interest  than  radio  (13.5  per  cent)  and  newspapers  (10.8  per  cent).    

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  201  

Table  3.34:  Children  aged  1-­‐59  months  in  the  household District  

Place  of   Residence  

125

 

Existence  of  Children  age  1-­‐59  months   Yes   Num  

Total    

No   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

12  

85.71  

2  

14.29  

14  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

8  

100.00  

0  

0  

8  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

4  

100.00  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

1  

100.00  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

1  

100.00  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

7  

100.00  

0  

0  

7  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

9  

100.00  

0  

0  

9  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

21  

100.00  

0  

0  

21  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

5  

100.00  

0  

0  

5  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

68  

97.14  

2  

2.86  

70  

100.00  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

20  

95.24  

1  

4.76  

21  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

4  

100.00  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

7  

100.00  

0  

0  

7  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

31  

96.88  

1  

3.13  

32  

100.00  

   

Total  

99  

97.06  

3  

2.94    

102  

100.00  

District  

Sex  of  Children  

Place  of   Residence  

Male   Num  

Total    

Female   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

6  

50.00  

6  

50.00  

12  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

2  

25.00  

6  

75.00  

8  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

2  

50.00  

2  

50.00  

4  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

1  

100.00  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

1  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

5  

71.43  

2  

28.57  

7  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

8  

88.89  

1  

11.11  

9  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

9  

45.00  

11  

55.00  

20  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

3  

60.00  

2  

40.00  

5  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

36  

53.73  

31  

46.27  

67  

100.00  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

13  

61.90  

8  

38.10  

21  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

3  

75.00  

1  

25.00  

4  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

4  

57.14  

3  

42.86  

7  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

20  

62.50  

12  

37.50  

32  

100.00  

   

Total  

56  

56.57  

43  

43.43  

99  

100.00  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  5  -­‐  Q.1      

                                                                                                                        125

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  5.01  

 

Page  202    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.35:  Support  from  outside  the  family District  

126

 

Support  from  outside     Public  Health  Midwife  

Place  of   Residence  

Yes   Num  

Total    

No   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

8  

88.89  

1  

11.11  

9  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

5  

100.00  

0  

0  

5  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

4  

100.00  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

1  

100.00  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

1  

100.00  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

2  

100.00  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

7  

87.50  

1  

12.50  

8  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

17  

100.00  

0  

0  

17  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

4  

100.00  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

49  

96.08  

2  

3.92  

51  

100.00  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

14  

93.33  

1  

6.67  

15  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

4  

100.00  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

4  

100.00  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

22  

95.65  

1  

4.35  

23  

100.00  

   

Total  

71  

95.95  

3  

4.05  

74  

100.00  

District  

Support  from  outside  Public  Health   Nursing  Sister   Yes   No  

Place  of   Residence  

Num   Jaffna  

Other  

1  

Mannar  

Other  

Vavuniya  

Other  

Mullaitivu  

%  

Num  

Total    

%  

Num  

%  

16.67  

5  

83.33  

6  

100.00  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

3  

100.00  

3  

100.00  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

Other  

1  

100.00  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

1  

100.00  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

1  

50.00  

1  

50.00  

2  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

2  

33.33  

4  

66.67  

6  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

1  

14.29  

6  

85.71  

7  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

1  

100.00  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

11  

36.67  

19  

63.33  

30  

100.00  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

6  

54.55  

5  

45.45  

11  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

3  

100.00  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

3  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

9  

52.94  

8  

47.06  

17  

100.00  

   

Total  

20  

42.55  

27  

57.45  

47  

100.00  

 

                                                                                                                        126

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  5.07  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  203  

Table  3.35:  Support  from  outside  the  family  (continued)  

District  

Place  of   Residence  

Support  from  outside  Medical   Officer  of  Health   Yes   Num  

Total    

No   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

0  

0  

5  

100.00  

5  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

3  

100.00  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

3  

100.00  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

1  

100.00  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

2  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

1  

20.00  

4  

80.00  

5  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

1  

100.00  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

2  

66.67  

1  

33.33  

3  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

11  

47.83  

12  

52.17  

23  

100.00  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

0  

0  

10  

100.00  

10  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

3  

100.00  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

2  

66.67  

1  

33.33  

3  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

5  

31.25  

11  

68.75  

16  

100.00  

   

Total  

16  

41.03  

23  

58.97  

39  

100.00  

District  

Place  of   Residence  

Support  from  outside  Staff  from   Non-­‐Govt.  Agency   Yes   Num  

Total    

No   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

0  

0  

5  

100.00  

5  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

3  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0.00  

3  

100.00  

3  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

1  

100.00  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

2  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

1  

20.00  

4  

80.00  

5  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

1  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

1  

100.00  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

3  

14.29  

18  

85.71  

21  

100.00  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

0  

0  

10  

100.00  

10  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

1  

33.33  

2  

66.67  

3  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

3  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

1  

6.25  

15  

93.75  

16  

100.00  

   

Total  

4  

10.81  

33  

89.19  

37  

100.00  

Page  204    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.35:  Support  from  outside  the  family  (continued)  

District  

Place  of   Residence  

Support  from  outside  Mothers   group   Yes   Num  

Total    

No   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

1  

20.00  

4  

80.00  

5  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

3  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

3  

100.00  

0  

0.00  

3  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

1  

100.00  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

2  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

1  

20.00  

4  

80.00  

5  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

1  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

1  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

6  

28.57  

15  

71.43  

21  

100.00  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

1  

9.09  

10  

90.91  

11  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0.00  

3  

100.00  

3  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

3  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

1  

5.88  

16  

94.12  

17  

100.00  

   

Total  

7  

18.42  

31  

81.58  

38  

100.00  

District  

Place  of   Residence  

Support  from  outside  Any  Other   Group   Yes   Num  

Total    

No   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

0  

0  

5  

100.00  

5  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

1  

33.33  

2  

66.67  

3  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

1  

33.33  

2  

66.67  

3  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

1  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

2  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

5  

100.00  

5  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

1  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

1  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

2  

9.52  

19  

90.48  

21  

100.00  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

0  

0  

9  

100.00  

9  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

1  

33.33  

2  

66.67  

3  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

3  

100.00  

 

Sub  Total  

1  

6.67  

14  

93.33  

15  

100.00  

   

Total  

3  

8.33  

33  

91.67  

36  

100.00  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  5  -­‐  Q.4.3       Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  205  

 

Page  206    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

IDP Education

3.7  

IDP  Education     The   education   section   of   the   survey   explored   the   schooling   experiences   of   all   young   people   between   5   and   20   years  among  the  IDPs.  It  assessed  the  following  broad  areas:   · Education  Level  of  IDPs     · School  attendance   · Access  to  School   · Quality  of  Education   · Sanitation  Facilities   · National  Standards     3.7.1   Education  Level  of  IDPs  

  The  general  assumption  is  that  the  education  level  of  children  in  the  North  and  East  might  have  been  affected  by   nearly   three   decades   of   ethnic   conflict.   Education   on   the   other   hand   is   the   key   factor   that   can   contribute   to   regaining  social  and  economic  status,  as  well  as  overcome  vulnerable  situations.  However,  the  education  level  of   IDPs   in   all   districts,   including   the   welfare   centers,   is   highly   satisfactory.   It   is   interesting   to   note   that   the   level   of   education  among  IDPs  is  in  line  with  the  national  level,  or  even  higher  than  in  some  of  the  other  districts  in  the  dry   zone   that   were   not   affected   by   conflict.127   More   than   90   per   cent   of   IDPs   in   all   districts   and   welfare   centers   have   some   level   of   education.   More   than   50   per   cent   of   IDPs   have   secondary   level   education,   with   the   highest   percentage   of   82   per   cent   in   Polonnaruwa   district,   followed   by   73   per   cent   in   Jaffna   district,   72   per   cent   in   Kilinochchi   district   and   69   per   cent   in   Vavuniya   district.   The   lowest   level   of   education   was   50   per   cent   in   Trincomalee  district.      

3.7.2   School  Attendance  

  There  are  522  children  (sons  and  daughters)  below  20   years  reported  in  the  JNA  survey.  The  number   of  those   who   responded   to   the   education   section   of   the   JNA   questionnaire   variedin   different   questions   from   382   to   413   households.  The  balance  number  could  be  those  who  are  below  the  schooling  age  of  5  years.Almost  all  children   within  the  age  of  schooling  (97.24  per  cent)  were  reported  as  “currently  attending  school  without  disruption”.  Out   of   these   children,   76.13   per   cent   reported   that   they   did   not   attend   school   at   their   place   of   origin   prior   to   displacement.   All   the   children   who   are   currently   living   in   welfare   centers   or   elsewhere   in   Vavuniya   (26)   and   Batticaloa  (29)  reported  they  did  not  attend  schools  prior  to  displacement.  Additional  117  children  in  Jaffna,  43  in   Ampara  and  56  in  Anuradhapura  reported  the  same  situation.  Only  5  children  out  of  a  total  398  from  Mullaitivu   (1),  Kilinochchi  (1)  and  Ampara  (3)  reported  as  not  attending  school  currently  although  they  were  attending  school   prior  to  displacement.  Six  children  who  are  living  in  displacement  with  host  families  in  Jaffna  reported  that  they   neither   attended   school   at   their   place   of   origin   nor   are   they   currently   attending   school   at   their   current   place   of   displacement.       In  all  10  districts  children  attend  school  in  primary  level  (grade  1-­‐5)  junior  secondary  level  (grade  6-­‐9)  and  senior   secondary   level   (grade   10   to   General   Certificate   of   Education   (GCE)   Advanced   Level).   The   attendance   proportion   is   high  in  the  senior  secondary  level  (grade  10  to  GCE  Advance  Level)  in  all  districts  except  Mannar  and  Ampara.  In   Jaffna  it  was  24.80  per  cent,  Mannar  26.10  per  cent,  Vavuniya  19.23  per  cent,  Kilinochchi  10  per  cent,  Batticaloa   37.92   per   cent,   Ampara   32.15   per   cent,   Trincomalee   welfare   centers   (17.40   per   cent),   Anuradhapura   (33.69   per   cent),  and  Polonnaruwa  (25  per  cent).  The  attendance  proportion  is  high  in  the  junior  secondary  level  (grade  6-­‐9)   in   all   districts.   At   the   time   of   the   JNA   field   survey,   111   students   were   studying   for   the   GCE   Advance   Level   in   all   districts  except  in  Vavuniya,  Mullaitivu  and  Kilinochchi  districts.    

                                                                                                                        127

 The  Dry  Zone  is  located  in  the  southeast,  east,  and  northern  parts  of  Sri  Lanka.  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  209  

The  number  of  students  at  General  Arts  Qualifying  (GAQ)  or  degree  level  is  low  (below  2  per  cent)  in  all  districts,  it   is  highest  in  Jaffna  (4.91  per  cent)  and  Anuradhapura  (4.50  per  cent).   In  all  districts,  there  are  students  attending  universities.  The  average  is  around  2  percent,  but  in  Jaffna  it  is  4.91  per   cent  and  Anuradhapura  4.50  per  cent.   In  Jaffna,  Mannar,  Vavuniya,  Batticaloa  and  Ampara,  children  are  studying  in  all  the  types  of  schools  as  classified  by   the  Ministry  of  Education.  Jaffna  district  reports  the  highest  number  of  students  enrolled  in  type  1A   and1B  schools   128 (37).  According  to  the  data  by  the  Ministry  of  Education,  there  are  high  numbers  of  type  1C,  type  2  and  type  3   schools  in  all  the  three  provinces.  This  was  confirmed  by  the  JNA  survey.  

  3.7.3   Access  to  School  

  As  reported  by  the  majority  of  survey  respondents,  the  average  distance  between  home  and  school  is  less  than  2   km   (61.26   per   cent).   Fifty   children   (12.11   per   cent)   in   Jaffna,   Mannar,   Batticaloa,   Ampara,   Trincomalee   and   Anuradhapura  districts  travel  5  kilometersor  above  to  attend  schools  as  reported.      

3.7.4   Quality  of  Education    

  The   majority   of   children   (90.31   per   cent)   have   a   desk   and   a   chair   individually   provided   to   them   in   the   classroom   in   all   districts.   Very   few   students   have   to   share   a   desk   and   bench   with   one   or   two   other   students   (5.76   per   cent)   and   only   3.93   per   cent   (15   students)   reported   having   to   share   a   bench   with   many   other   students   in   Jaffna,   Kilinochchi,   Ampara   and   Anuradhapura   districts.   National   education   policy   is   to   provide   a   primary   school   within   one   kilometer   and  the  secondary  within  five  kilometers.  Survey  data  indicates  the  achievement  of  those  school  distance  levels.   However,  among  IDPs  over  12  percent  of  students  travel  more  than  five  kilometers.  This  requires  further  study  to   determine  the  reasons  why  this  is  the  case.   Almost  all  students  (99.50  per  cent)  have  a  class  teacher  except  two  students  in  Jaffna  and  Mannar  districts.  The   JNA   data   indicates   that   there   is   a   shortage   of   16-­‐20   per   cent   of   teachers   in   science,   mathematics   and   English   language.  This  requires  the  attention  of  Government  authorities.        

3.7.5   Sanitation  Facilities  

  A   high   majority   of   students   (96.48   per   cent)   have   adequate   water   and   sanitation   facilities   in   schools   they   are   attending   in   all   districts.   A   very   small   number   of   students   (14   students   or   3.52   per   cent)   in   Mannar,   Vavuniya,   Kilinochchi,  Batticaloa,  Ampara  and  Anuradhapura  do  not  have  adequate  WASH  facilities  in  schools.      

3.7.6   National  Standards  

  According  to  the  EFA  final  report  compiled  by  the  EFA  Branch  of  the  Ministry  of  Education  in  2014,  the  EFA  Goal   No.  2  was  reached  in  all  districts  including  the  districts  selected  by  the  JNA  sample.  The  JNA  study  supports  these   findings  according  to  which  no  gap  in  school  enrollment  exists.       Data  related  to  the  IDP  children’s  quality  of  education  indicates  the  shortage  of  teachers  in  English,  Mathematics   and  Science.  The  EFA  final  report  pointsout  that  there  is  a  significant  island  wide  gap  in  equal  access  to  quality  and   relevant  education  opportunities  in  Sri  Lanka.      

                                                                                                                        128

Types  of  schools:  Type  1A  &  1B  (schools  with  GCE  Advance  Level  classes);  Type  1C  (schools  with  GCE  Advance  Level  classes  in   arts  and  commerce);  Type  2  (schools  with  classes  up  to  grade  11  or  GCE  Ordinary  Level);  Type  3  (i)  (elementary  schools  with   classes  up  to  grade  8)  and  Type  3  (ii)  (primary  schools  with  classes  up  to  grade  5)  

Page  210    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.36:  Level  of  education District  

129

Place  of   Residence  

  Age  Group   00  -­‐  05  

Num  

%  

06  -­‐  09   Num  

Grade  10   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

83  

26.18  

89  

28.08  

59  

18.61  

Mannar  

Other  

27  

32.93  

33  

40.24  

7  

8.54  

Vavuniya  

Other  

21  

32.81  

13  

20.31  

11  

17.19  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

10  

35.71  

4  

14.29  

10  

35.71  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

13  

25.49  

12  

23.53  

1  

1.96  

Batticaloa  

Other  

35  

32.11  

26  

23.85  

23  

21.10  

Ampara  

Other  

48  

36.64  

44  

33.59  

10  

7.63  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

104  

31.23  

69  

20.72  

61  

18.32  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

 

Sub  Total  

11   352  

17.74   29.91  

11   301  

17.74   25.57  

13   195  

20.97   16.57  

Jaffna  

Welfare  

60  

33.52  

55  

30.73  

30  

16.76  

Vavuniya  

Welfare    

21  

33.33  

25  

39.68  

8  

12.70  

Trincomalee  

Welfare    

 

Sub  Total  

41   122  

45.56   36.75  

13   93  

14.44   28.01  

14   52  

15.56   15.66  

   

Total  

474  

31.41  

394  

26.11  

247  

16.37  

                                                                                                                        129

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.02  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  211  

Table  3.36:  Level  of  education  (continued)   Age  Group   District  

Place  of   Residence  

11  -­‐  13   Num  

GAQ  or  degree   %  

Num  

%  

 

Num  

 

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

72  

22.71  

12  

3.79  

2  

0.63    

Mannar  

Other  

13  

15.85  

1  

1.22  

1  

1.22  

Vavuniya  

Other  

17  

26.56  

2  

3.13  

0  

0  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

3  

10.71  

1  

3.57  

0  

0  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

22  

43.14  

2  

3.92  

1  

1.96  

Batticaloa  

Other  

13  

11.93  

2  

1.83  

10  

9.17  

Ampara  

Other  

20  

15.27  

2  

1.53  

7  

5.34  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

77  

23.12  

15  

4.50  

7  

2.10  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

20  

32.26  

7  

11.29  

0  

0  

 

Sub  Total  

257  

21.84  

44  

3.74  

28  

2.38  

Jaffna  

Welfare    

26  

14.53  

2  

1.12  

6  

3.35  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

8  

12.70  

1  

1.59  

0  

0  

Trincomalee  

Welfare    

17  

18.89  

1  

1.11  

4  

4.44  

 

Sub  Total  

51  

15.36  

4  

1.20  

10  

3.01  

   

Total  

308  

20.41  

48  

3.18  

38  

2.52  

Base:  all  who  responded.      

Total  

SEU  or  no   schooling  

Num                                

%  

317   100.00   82   100.00   64   100.00   28   100.00   51   100.00   109   100.00   131   100.00   333   100.00   62   100.00   1177   100.00   179   100.00   63   100.00   90   100.00   332   100.00   1509   100.00  

 

Page  212    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.37:  School  education  group  by  Place  of  residence  and  District

130

 

School  education  group   District          

Place  of   residence        

C/attending   and  attended   at  place  of   origin  

C/attending   and  NOT   attended  at   place  of  origin  

C/  NOT   attending  and   attended  at   place  of  origin  

C/  NOT   attending  and   NOT  attended   at  place  of   origin  

Num  

Num  

Num  

Num  

Jaffna  

Other  

Mannar  

Other  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0    

Mullaitivu  

Other  

1     50.00    

0    

Kilinochchi  

Other  

7     63.64    

3    

Batticaloa  

Other  

0    

Ampara  

Other  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

  Jaffna  

0    

%  

%  

%  

Num  

%  

0    

64    

91.43    

0    

0    

6    

8.57    

70    

100    

10     43.48    

13    

56.52    

0    

0    

0    

0    

23    

100    

11     100.00    

0    

0    

0    

0    

11    

 100    

0    

1    

50.00    

0    

0    

2    

100    

27.27    

1    

9.09    

0    

0    

11    

100    

29     100.00    

0    

0    

0    

0    

29    

 100    

9     16.36    

43    

78.18    

3    

5.45    

0    

0    

55    

 100    

41     42.27    

56    

57.73    

0    

0    

0    

0    

97    

 100    

0    

0    

2     28.57    

5    

71.43    

0    

0    

0    

0    

7    

 100    

Sub  Total  

70   22.95  

224  

73.44  

5  

1.64  

6  

1.97  

305  

100  

53    

Welfare  

 2    

3.64    

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0    

0    

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

     

%  

Total      

96.36    

0    

0    

0    

0    

55    

100    

15     100.00    

0    

0    

0    

0    

15    

100    

12     52.17    

11    

47.83    

0    

0    

0    

0    

 23    

 100    

Sub  Total  

14   15.05  

79  

84.95  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

93  

100  

Total  

84     21.11    

303    

76.13    

5    

1.26    

6    

1.51    

398    

100    

Base:  all  who  responded  

                                                                                                                        130

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.01  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  213  

Table  3.38  School  type  by  place  of  residence  and  district  -­‐  current  status  of  schooling

 

School  type  

Place  of   residence  

District  

131

Type  1AB   Num  

Type  1C  

%  

Num  

Type  2  

%  

Num  

Type  3  

%  

Num  

Total  

   

   

Jaffna  

 Other    

28     40.00    

   16     22.86    

13    

18.57    

13    

   18.57    

%  

Num  

   70     100    

%  

Mannar  

 Other    

 5     21.74    

   1        4.35    

11    

47.83    

6    

   26.09    

   23     100    

Vavuniya  

 Other    

 3     27.27    

 3     27.27    

3    

27.27    

   2    

   18.18    

   11     100    

Mullativu  

 Other    

 1     50.00    

0    

0    

0    

0    

1    

   50.00    

     2     100    

Kilinochchi  

 Other    

 6     54.55    

   4        36.3  

1    

9.09    

0    

0    

     11     100    

Batticaloa  

 Other    

 3     10.34    

 13     44.83  

7    

24.14    

6    

Ampara  

 Other    

 6     13.04    

 25     54.35  

13    

28.26    

2    

   4.35    

   46     100    

Anuradhapura  

 Other    

 3    

 3.57    

 71     84.52    

10    

11.90    

0    

0    

     84     100    

Polonnaruwa  

 Other    

0    

0    

 6     75.00    

2    

25.00    

0    

0    

   8     100    

   

 Sub  Total    

55     19.37    

 139     48.94    

60    

21.13    

30    

   10.56    

 284     100    

Jaffna  

 Welfare    

 9     17.31    

 12     23.08    

28    

53.85    

3    

   5.77    

   52     100    

Vavuniya  

 Welfare    

0    

0    

 3     20.00    

12    

80.00    

0    

0    

     15     100    

Trincomalee  

 Welfare    

 3     13.04    

   15     65.22    

     5    

21.74    

0    

0    

   23     100    

   

 Sub  Total    

12     13.33    

30     33.33  

45    

50.00    

3    

3.33    

90     300    

   

 Total    

67     17.91    

 169     45.19  

105    

28.07    

33    

   8.82    

 374     100    

   20.69            29     100    

       

 

                                                                                                                        131

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.02  

Page  214    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

132

 

Table  3.39:-­‐  Distance  from  home  to  school  (km)  by  place  of  residence  &  district  

District    

Place  of   Residence    

Distance  from  home  to  school(Km)   <  1   Num  

1  -­‐  2   %  

Num  

2  -­‐  3   %  

Num  

3  -­‐  4   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

 Other    

13    

18.57    

32    

45.71    

5    

7.14    

9    

12.86    

Mannar  

 Other    

6    

25.00    

6    

25.00    

2    

8.33    

1    

4.17    

Vavuniya  

 Other    

1    

9.09    

5    

45.45    

2    

18.18    

3    

27.27    

Mullaitivu  

 Other    

2    

66.67    

0  

0  

1    

33.33    

0  

0  

Kilinochchi  

 Other    

5    

45.45    

0  

0  

0  

0  

3    

27.27    

Batticaloa  

 Other    

9    

31.03    

6    

20.69    

0  

0  

7    

24.14    

Ampara  

 Other    

14    

24.14    

22    

37.93    

9    

15.52    

0  

0  

Anuradhapura  

 Other    

35    

33.33    

26    

24.76    

33    

31.43    

5    

4.76    

Polonnaruwa  

 Other    

0    

0    

4    

50.00    

3    

37.50    

1    

12.50    

Sub  Total  

85  

26.65  

101  

31.66  

55  

17.24  

29  

9.09  

 Welfare    

5    

9.09    

27    

49.09    

11    

20.00    

2    

3.64    

Vavuniya  

 Welfare    

2    

13.33    

10    

66.67    

2    

13.33    

1    

6.67    

Trincomalee  

 Welfare    

16    

66.67    

7    

29.17    

0  

0  

0  

0  

Sub  Total  

23  

24.47  

44  

46.81  

13  

13.83  

3  

3.19  

108    

26.15    

145    

35.11    

68    

16.46    

32    

7.75    

  Jaffna  

     

 Total    

District    

Place  of   Residence    

 

  4  -­‐  5   Num  

5  or  above   %  

Num  

Total  

   

%  

Num  

 

%  

Jaffna  

 Other    

0  

0  

11    

15.71    

 

70     100.00    

Mannar  

 Other    

1    

4.17    

8    

33.33    

 

24     100.00    

Vavuniya  

 Other    

0  

0  

0  

0  

 

11     100.00    

Mullaitivu  

 Other    

0  

0  

0  

0  

 

3     100.00    

Kilinochchi  

 Other    

3    

27.27    

0  

0  

 

11     100.00    

Batticaloa  

 Other    

1    

3.45    

6    

20.69    

 

29     100.00    

Ampara  

 Other    

1    

1.72    

12    

20.69    

 

58     100.00    

Anuradhapura  

 Other    

2    

1.90    

4    

3.81    

 

105     100.00    

Polonnaruwa  

 Other    

0  

0  

0  

0  

 

8     100.00    

Sub  Total  

8  

2.51  

41  

12.85  

   

 Welfare    

2    

3.64    

8    

14.55    

 

55     100.00    

Vavuniya  

 Welfare    

0  

0  

0  

0  

 

15     100.00    

Trincomalee  

 Welfare    

0  

0  

1    

4.17    

 

24     100.00    

Sub  Total  

2  

2.13  

9  

9.57  

   

94  

10    

2.42    

50    

12.11    

 

  Jaffna  

     

 Total    

319  

100.00  

100.00  

413     100.00    

Base:  all  who  responded   Table  3.40:  Availability  of  a  desk  and  a  chair  for  the  child  by  Place  of  residence  and  District

133

 

                                                                                                                        132

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.06  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  215  

Availability  of  a  desk  and  a  chair  for  the  child   District        

Place  of   residence      

Individual  a   desk  and  a   chair   Num  

%  

Desk  and  a   bench   shared  with   one  other  

Desk  and  a   bench   shared  with   two  others  

Bench  shared   with   many  others  

Num  

Num  

Num  

%  

%  

%  

Total       Num  

%  

Jaffna  

 Other    

62    

88.57    

0  

0  

0  

0  

8    

11.43    

70     100.00    

Mannar  

 Other    

20    

86.96    

3     13.04    

0  

0  

0  

0  

23     100.00    

Vavuniya  

 Other    

10    

90.91    

1    

9.09    

0  

0  

0  

0  

11     100.00    

Mullaitivu  

 Other    

1     100.00    

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

1     100.00    

Kilinochchi  

 Other    

9    

81.82    

0  

0  

1    

9.09    

1    

9.09    

11     100.00    

Batticaloa  

 Other    

29     100.00    

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

29     100.00    

Ampara  

 Other    

49    

89.09    

5    

9.09    

0  

0  

1    

1.82    

55     100.00    

Anuradhapura    Other    

91    

87.50    

4    

3.85    

7    

6.73    

2    

1.92    

104     100.00    

7    

87.50    

1     12.50    

0  

0  

0  

0  

8     100.00    

Sub  Total  

278  

89.10  

14  

4.49  

8  

2.56  

12  

3.85  

 Welfare    

52    

94.55    

0  

0  

0  

0  

 3    

5.45    

55     100.00    

Vavuniya  

 Welfare    

12    

80.00    

3     20.00    

0  

0  

0  

0  

15     100.00    

Trincomalee  

 Welfare    

23     100.00    

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

23     100.00    

Sub  Total  

87  

93.55  

3  

3.23  

0  

0.00  

3  

3.23  

345    

90.31    

14    

3.66    

8    

2.09    

15    

3.93    

Polonnaruwa     Jaffna  

     

 Other    

 Total    

312  

93  

100.00  

100.00  

382     100.00    

Base:  all  who  responded  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              133

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.08  

Page  216    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

134

Table  3.41:  Availability  of  teachers  and  sanitation  facilities  by  Place  of  residence  and  District  

District      

Place  of     residence    

Availability  of  class  teacher   Yes   Num  

Total    

No   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

 Other    

70    

100.00    

0  

0  

70    

100.00    

Mannar  

 Other    

21    

95.45    

1    

4.55    

22    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

 Other    

11    

100.00    

0  

0  

11    

100.00    

Mullaitivu  

 Other    

1    

100.00    

0  

0  

1    

100.00    

Kilinochchi  

 Other    

11    

100.00    

0  

0  

11    

100.00    

Batticaloa  

 Other    

29    

100.00    

0  

0  

29    

100.00    

Ampara  

 Other    

55    

100.00    

0  

0  

55    

100.00    

Anuradhapura  

 Other    

104    

100.00    

0  

0  

104    

100.00    

Polonnaruwa  

 Other    

8    

100.00    

0  

0  

8    

100.00    

Sub  Total  

310  

99.68  

1  

0.32  

311  

100.00  

 Welfare    

54    

98.18    

1    

1.82    

55    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

 Welfare    

15    

100.00    

0  

0  

15    

100.00    

Trincomalee  

 Welfare    

23    

100.00    

0  

0  

23    

100.00    

Sub  Total  

92  

98.92  

1  

1.08  

93  

100.00  

402    

99.50    

2    

0.50    

404    

100.00    

  Jaffna  

     

 Total    

 

 

District      

Place  of     residence    

Availability  of  Science  teacher     Yes   Num  

Total    

No   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

 Other    

57    

86.36    

9    

13.64    

66    

100.00    

Mannar  

 Other    

14    

63.64    

8    

36.36    

22    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

 Other    

10    

90.91    

1    

9.09    

11    

100.00    

Mullaitivu  

 Other    

1    

100.00    

0  

0  

1    

100.00    

Kilinochchi  

 Other    

7    

63.64    

4    

36.36    

11    

100.00    

Batticaloa  

 Other    

26    

89.66    

3    

10.34    

29    

100.00    

Ampara  

 Other    

46    

86.79    

7    

13.21    

53    

100.00    

Anuradhapura  

 Other    

70    

68.63    

32    

31.37    

102    

100.00    

Polonnaruwa  

 Other    

5    

62.50    

3    

37.50    

8    

100.00    

Sub  Total  

236  

77.89  

67  

22.11  

303  

100.00  

 Welfare    

47    

88.68    

6    

11.32    

53    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

 Welfare    

13    

86.67    

2    

13.33    

15    

100.00    

Trincomalee  

 Welfare    

21    

100.00    

0  

0  

21    

100.00    

Sub  Total  

81  

91.01  

8  

8.99  

89  

100.00  

317    

80.87  

75    

19.13  

392    

100.00  

  Jaffna  

     

 Total    

                                                                                                                        134

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.10  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  217  

Table  3.41:  Availability  of  teachers  and  sanitation  facilities  by  Place  of  residence  and  District  (continued)  

District      

Place  of     residence    

Mathematics  teacher   Response   Yes   Num  

Total    

No   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

 Other    

58    

86.57    

9    

13.43    

67    

100.00    

Mannar  

 Other    

14    

63.64    

8    

36.36    

22    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

 Other    

10    

90.91    

1    

9.09    

11    

100.00    

Mullaitivu  

 Other    

1    

100.00    

0  

0  

1    

100.00    

Kilinochchi  

 Other    

10    

90.91    

1    

9.09    

11    

100.00    

Batticaloa  

 Other    

27    

93.10    

2    

6.90    

29    

100.00    

Ampara  

 Other    

48    

88.89    

6    

11.11    

54    

100.00    

Anuradhapura  

 Other    

76    

74.51    

26    

25.49    

102    

100.00    

Polonnaruwa  

 Other    

5    

62.50    

3    

37.50    

8    

100.00    

Sub  Total  

249  

81.64  

56  

18.36  

305  

100.00  

 Welfare    

47    

88.68    

6    

11.32    

53    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

 Welfare    

13    

86.67    

 2    

13.33    

15    

100.00    

Trincomalee  

 Welfare    

21    

100.00    

0  

0  

21    

100.00    

Sub  Total  

81  

91.01  

8  

8.99  

89  

100.00  

330    

83.76  

64    

16.24  

394    

100.00  

  Jaffna  

     

 Total    

District      

Place  of     residence    

English  teacher   Response   Yes   Num  

Total    

No   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

 Other    

63    

90.00    

7    

10.00    

70    

100.00    

Mannar  

 Other    

14    

63.64    

8    

36.36    

22    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

 Other    

10    

90.91    

1    

9.09    

11    

100.00    

Mullaitivu  

 Other    

1    

100.00    

0  

0  

1    

100.00    

Kilinochchi  

 Other    

8    

72.73    

3    

27.27    

11    

100.00    

Batticaloa  

 Other    

24    

82.76    

5    

17.24    

29    

100.00    

Ampara  

 Other    

40    

74.07    

14    

25.93    

54    

100.00    

Anuradhapura  

 Other    

71    

69.61    

31    

30.39    

102    

100.00    

Polonnaruwa  

 Other    

5    

62.50    

3    

37.50    

8    

100.00    

Sub  Total  

236  

76.62  

72  

23.38  

308  

100.00  

  Jaffna  

 Welfare    

48    

90.57    

5    

9.43    

53    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

 Welfare    

14    

93.33    

1    

6.67    

15    

100.00    

Trincomalee  

 Welfare    

22    

100.00    

0  

0  

 22    

100.00    

Sub  Total  

84  

93.33  

6  

6.67  

90  

100.00  

320    

80.40  

78    

19.60  

398    

100.00  

     

 Total    

Page  218    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.41:  Availability  of  teachers  and  sanitation  facilities  by  Place  of  residence  and  District  (continued)  

District      

Place  of     residence    

Availability  of  Water/sanitation     Yes   Num  

Total    

No   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

 Other    

70    

100.00    

0  

0  

70    

100.00    

Mannar  

 Other    

20    

86.96    

3    

13.04    

23    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

 Other    

11    

100.00    

0  

0  

11    

100.00    

Mullaitivu  

 Other    

1    

100.00    

0  

0  

1    

100.00    

Kilinochchi  

 Other    

10    

90.91    

1    

9.09    

11    

100.00    

Batticaloa  

 Other    

28    

96.55    

1    

3.45    

29    

100.00    

Ampara  

 Other    

48    

88.89    

6    

11.11    

54    

100.00    

Anuradhapura  

 Other    

97    

97.98    

2    

2.02    

99    

100.00    

Polonnaruwa  

 Other    

8    

100.00    

0  

0  

8    

100.00    

Sub  Total  

293  

95.75  

13  

4.25  

306  

100.00  

 Welfare    

 55    

100.00    

0  

0  

55    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

 Welfare    

14    

93.33    

1    

 6.67    

15    

100.00    

Trincomalee  

 Welfare    

22    

100.00    

0  

0  

22    

100.00    

Sub  Total  

91  

98.91  

1  

1.09  

92  

100.00  

384    

96.48  

14    

3.52  

398    

100.00  

  Jaffna  

     

 Total    

Base:  all  who  responded  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  219  

Page  220    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

IDP Child Protection and Women’s Empowerment

3.8  

IDP  Child  Protection  and  Women’s  Empowerment  

This  section  of  the  questionnaire  was  broadly  divided  into  the  following  sections:    

· ·

Awareness  and  Engagement  with  Child  Protection,  Child  Rights  and  Other  Services    Engagement  with  Women’s  Empowerment  Programs  

 

3.8.1   Awareness  and  Engagement  with  Child  Protection,  Child  Rights  and  Other  Services     Out  of  the  total  414  IDP  families  with  children  under  the  age  of  five,  only  15.46  per  cent  were  currently  attending   pre-­‐school.  In  Kilinochchi  district  in  particular,  this  figure  was  as  low  as  6.2  per  cent  with  93.7  per  cent  of  under  5   year-­‐old`s   not   attending   pre-­‐schools.   It   should   be   noted   that   children   who   were   still   too   young   to   attend   pre-­‐ school  were  not  eliminated  from  this  estimation,  which  may  overly  reduce  the  attendance  figures.       In   contrast   to   the   situation   amongst   returnees,   the   main   providers   of   pre-­‐school   education   to   IDP   children   are   the   private   sector   (43.1   per   cent)   and   NGOs   (23.5   per   cent).   The   Government,   which   is   the   major   provider   of   pre-­‐ school  education  among  returnees,  accounts  for  17.6  per  cent  of  education  among  IDPs.       Only   one   third   (33.8   per   cent)   of   the   IDPs   were   previously   educated   in   child   protection,   which   indicates   that   information   on   such   programmes   is   significantly   less   widespread   among   IDPs   than   among   those   in   resettled   populations.  In  Kilinochchi  (70.6  per  cent),  Polonnaruwa  (70  per  cent)  and  Mannar  (69.6  per  cent)  larger  groups  are   aware   of   child   protection   programmes,   however,   this   drops   to   just   14.7   per   cent   of   IDP   respondents   in   Jaffna,   where   the   largest   sampled   group   is   located.   Exactly   one   third   (33.3   per   cent)   said   that   they   were   aware   of   information   on   “child   rights”   and   just   over   a   quarter   (26.1   per   cent)   said   that   they   knew   of   the   local   child   helpline.   More   awareness   on   child   protection   measures   among   IDPs   needs   to   be   created   to   ensure   their   knowledge   of   protective  measures  for  children.     Intervieweeswere  asked  how  they  had  become  aware  of  child  protection  initiatives.  The  majority  responded  with   either   an   NGO   (26   per   cent)   or   Divisional   Secretariat   (23.6   per   cent).   Education   services,   midwives,   civil   defence   and   religious   organisations   are   not   considered   significant   sources   of   information   with   regard   to   creating   child   protection  and  children’s  right  awareness.  They  might,  however,  be  useful  avenues  of  information  for  IDPs  prior  to   resettlement   with   their   presence   at   community   level   both   in   welfare   centres   and   resettled   areas.   Meanwhile,   children’s   rights   information   was   mostly   disseminated   by   the   DS   (39.2   per   cent),   the   Grama   Niladhari   (19.2   per   cent),  Public  Health  Inspector  (12  per  cent)  or  Public  Health  Midwife  (11.2  per  cent).  The  JNA  data  indicates  that   pre-­‐school   and   school   teachers   play   a   very   minor   role   in   sharing   information   on   children’s   rights   (1.6   per   cent).   Therefore,   it   is   vital   that   all   training   programs   or   awareness-­‐creation   campaigns   on   children’s   rights   specifically   target  pre-­‐school  and  school  teachers  to  further  disseminateinformation  among  IDP  communities.       Density  of  state  care  centres  related  to  child  protection  programming  in  eight  of  the  ten  districts  (excluding  data   from  Polonnaruwa  and  Anuradhapura)  is  relatively  high  compared  to  countries  in  similar  development  and  post-­‐ conflict   stages.   In   the   eight   districts   about   58   social   care   centres   exist,   offering   integrated   social   services   for   vulnerable  children  and  their  families.  According  to  the  Ministry  Child  Development  and  Women  Affairs,  in  recent   years  some  95  social  workers  in  the  districts  have  completed  child  protection  diploma  training.        

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  223  

3.8.2   Engagement  with  Women’s  Empowerment  Programs       IDPs   were   asked   if   anyone   in   their   family   had   benefited   from   women’s   empowerment   programmes   of   which   an   average   of   11.9   per   cent   (out   of   421   respondents)   responded   positively.   The   highest   proportion   benefiting   from   these  programmes  was  from  Mullaitivu  (46.1  per  cent)  followed  by  Mannar  (34.7  per  cent),  Polonnaruwa  district   (25   per   cent)   and   Trincomalee   welfare   centres   (21.2   per   cent).   However,   in   Anuradhapura   all   80   respondents   reported   that   none   of   their   family   members   ever   benefited   from   a   women’s   empowerment   programme   and   in   Jaffna   this   was   only   marginally   higher   at   4.8   per   cent.   Both   are   districts   with   relatively   high   numbers   of   respondents.   This   data   is   not   desegregated   and   cannot   indicate   what   percentage   of   the   families   are   female-­‐ headed  households;  neither  does  the  data  breakdown  the  nature  of  the  women’s  empowerment  programmes  or   initiatives   families   have   benefitted   from.   These   programmes   are   mostly   organized   by   the   Government   (54.2   per   cent),  NGOs  (25  per  cent)  and  private  organizations  (21  per  cent).       Respondents   were   asked   if   they   were   aware   of   women   and   child   desks   at   police   stations,   with   34   per   cent   indicating  their  knowledge  of  child  help  lines.  There  are  around  86  women  and  children’s  desks  at  police  stations  in   8   of   the   10   districts   (excluding   data   from   Polonnaruwa   and   Anuradhapura   districts)In   comparison,   22.6   per   cent   are  aware  of  child  protection  committees  in  their  children’s  schools,  14.9  per  cent  stated  there  is  such  a  committee   in  their  local  village,  and  10.6  per  cent  said  that  counseling  services  are  available  for  their  children..  It  would  be   interesting  to  further  understand  why  a  significantly  low  percentage  of  IDP  respondents  are  aware  of  women  and   child   desks,   and   ensure   that   trusted   local   Government   and   NGO   sources   of   child   protection   programming   and   children’s  rights  information  reach  these  IDP  households.     As  resettlement  enters  its  final  stages  in  Sri  Lanka  there  is  a  need  for  broad  based  assessments  of  the  protection   needs  of  women  and  children  in  the  north  and  the  east.  These  require  an  analysis  of  women  and  children’s  overall   vulnerabilities,  the  areas  in  which  they  exist,  and  any  vulnerabilities  which  are  residual  from  the  30  years  of  armed   conflict.   In-­‐depth   analysis   of   primary   data   as   well   as   secondary   data   is   required   to   assess   the   situation   and   provide   strategic   decision-­‐making   recommendations   for   policy   and   planning   to   ensure   full   protection   for   women   and   children.        

Page  224    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.42:  Attend  pre-­‐school-­‐  below  5  years District  

135

  Attend  pre-­‐school-­‐  below  5yrs  

Place  of   Residence  

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

7  

10.29  

61  

89.71  

68  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

6  

26.09  

17  

73.91  

23  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

3  

13.04  

20  

86.96  

23  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

2  

15.38  

11  

84.62  

13  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

1  

6.25  

15  

93.75  

16  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

3  

9.09  

30  

90.91  

33  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

5  

15.63  

27  

84.38  

32  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

10  

12.50  

70  

87.50  

80  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

6  

30.00  

14  

70.00  

20  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

43  

13.96  

265  

86.04  

308  

100.00  

Welfare  

13  

25.00  

39  

75.00  

52  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

3  

14.29  

18  

85.71  

21  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

5  

15.15  

28  

84.85  

33  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

21  

19.81  

85  

80.19  

106  

100.00  

Total  

64  

15.46  

350  

84.54  

414  

100.00  

  Jaffna  

     

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  8  -­‐  Q.1.1    

 

                                                                                                                        135

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  8.01  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  225  

Table  3.43:  Managing  the  pre-­‐school  by: District  

Place  of   Residence  

136

 

Government   Num  

CBO  

%  

NGO  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

1  

14.29  

1  

14.29  

1  

14.29  

Mannar  

Other  

1  

16.67  

0  

0  

2  

33.33  

Vavuniya  

Other  

1  

33.33  

0  

0  

1  

33.33  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

1  

100.00  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

1  

33.33  

Ampara  

Other  

2  

50.00  

1  

25.00  

1  

25.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

1  

14.29  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Sub  Total  

7  

21.21  

2  

6.06  

6  

18.18  

Welfare  

1  

10.00  

2  

20.00  

1  

10.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

1  

33.33  

0  

0  

1  

33.33  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0  

0  

0  

4  

80.00  

Sub  Total  

2  

11.11  

2  

11.11  

6  

33.33  

Total  

9  

17.65  

4  

7.84  

12  

23.53  

  Jaffna  

     

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  8  -­‐  Q.1.2.  Percentages  and  totals  are  based  on  respondents.  

District  

Place  of   Residence  

Local  Government   Num  

%  

Private   Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

1  

14.29  

3  

42.86  

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

3  

50.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0  

1  

33.33  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

66.67  

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

1  

14.29  

5  

71.43  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

2  

6.06  

16  

48.48  

Welfare  

2  

20.00  

4  

40.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0  

1  

33.33  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0  

1  

20.00  

Sub  Total  

2  

11.11  

6  

33.33  

4.00  

7.84  

22.00  

43.14  

  Jaffna  

     

Total  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  8  -­‐  Q.1.2.  Percentages  and  totals  are  based  on  respondents.  

 

 

                                                                                                                        136

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  8.02  

Page  226    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.44:    Information  on  child  protection

District  

Place  of   Residence  

137

 

Information  on  child  protection  Child   protection   Aware   Num  

Total    

Unaware   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

5  

7.69  

60  

92.31  

65  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

16  

69.57  

7  

30.43  

23  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

8  

34.78  

15  

65.22  

23  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

3  

23.08  

10  

76.92  

13  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

12  

70.59  

5  

29.41  

17  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

7  

21.88  

25  

78.13  

32  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

11  

36.67  

19  

63.33  

30  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

26  

32.50  

54  

67.50  

80  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

14  

70.00  

6  

30.00  

20  

100.00  

102  

33.66  

201  

66.34  

303  

100.00  

Welfare  

12  

23.53  

39  

76.47  

51  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

11  

52.38  

10  

47.62  

21  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

11  

33.33  

22  

66.67  

33  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

34  

32.38  

71  

67.62  

105  

100.00  

136  

33.83  

272  

67.66  

408  

100.00  

  Jaffna  

     

Sub  Total  

Total  

District  

Place  of   Residence  

Information  on  child  protection  Child  rights   Aware   Num  

Total    

Unaware   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

10  

14.93  

57  

85.07  

67  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

18  

81.82  

4  

18.18  

22  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

8  

34.78  

15  

65.22  

23  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

3  

25.00  

9  

75.00  

12  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

11  

64.71  

6  

35.29  

17  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

11  

34.38  

21  

65.63  

32  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

8  

27.59  

21  

72.41  

29  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

25  

31.25  

55  

68.75  

80  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

12  

60.00  

8  

40.00  

20  

100.00  

106  

35.10  

196  

64.90  

302  

100.00  

Welfare  

6  

11.76  

45  

88.24  

51  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

10  

47.62  

11  

52.38  

21  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

12  

36.36  

21  

63.64  

33  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

28  

26.67  

77  

73.33  

105  

100.00  

134  

33.33  

273  

67.91  

407  

100.00  

  Jaffna  

     

Sub  Total  

Total  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  8  -­‐  Q.1.3,  Q.1.5  &Q.1.7  

                                                                                                                        137

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  8.03  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  227  

Table  3.44:  -­‐  Information  on  child  protection  (continued)  

District  

Information  on  child  protection     Child  helpline  

Place  of   Residence  

Aware   Num  

Total    

Unaware   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

12  

18.18  

54  

81.82  

66  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

12  

52.17  

11  

47.83  

23  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

12  

52.17  

11  

47.83  

23  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

4  

33.33  

8  

66.67  

12  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

9  

56.25  

7  

43.75  

16  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

5  

15.63  

27  

84.38  

32  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

4  

14.29  

24  

85.71  

28  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

10  

12.50  

70  

87.50  

80  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

9  

45.00  

11  

55.00  

20  

100.00  

77  

25.67  

223  

74.33  

300  

100.00  

Welfare  

7  

14.29  

42  

85.71  

49  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

10  

50.00  

10  

50.00  

20  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

11  

33.33  

22  

66.67  

33  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

28  

27.45  

74  

72.55  

102  

100.00  

105  

26.12  

297  

73.88  

402  

100.00  

  Jaffna  

     

Sub  Total  

Total  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  8  -­‐  Q.1.3,  Q.1.5  and  Q.1.7    

 

Page  228    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.45:  Women  empowerment  benefits   District  

138

 

Women  empowerment  benefits  

Place  of   Residence  

Received   Num  

Not  received  

%  

Num  

Total  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

3  

4.11  

70  

95.89  

73  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

8  

34.78  

15  

65.22  

23  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

1  

4.35  

22  

95.65  

23  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

6  

46.15  

7  

53.85  

13  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

4  

23.53  

13  

76.47  

17  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

7  

20.59  

27  

79.41  

34  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

3  

9.38  

29  

90.63  

32  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

-­‐  

-­‐  

80  

100  

80  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

5  

25.00  

15  

75.00  

20  

100.00  

37  

11.75  

278  

88.25  

315  

100.00  

Welfare  

3  

5.77  

49  

94.23  

52  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

3  

14.29  

18  

85.71  

21  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

7  

21.21  

26  

78.79  

33  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

13  

12.26  

93  

87.74  

106  

100.00  

Total  

50  

11.88  

371  

88.12  

421  

100.00  

  Jaffna  

     

Sub  Total  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  section  8  -­‐  Q.2.1  

                                                                                                                        138

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  8.05  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  229  

Page  230    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

IDP Social Services

3.9  

IDP  Social  Services  

  This  section  is  designed  to  assess  the  nature  of  service  provision  offered  to  three  main  vulnerable  groups:   · Status  of  the  Displaced  People  with  Disabilities;   · Assistance  Required  by  the  People  with  Disabilities;   · Elderly  People  Among  IDPs;   · Single  Parent  Families;    

3.9.1   Status  of  the  Displaced  People  with  Disabilities      

  Among  the  456  IDP  families,  51  families  (11  per  cent)  contain  at  least  one  person  with  a  disability.  A  total  of  56   people   with   disabilities   are   reported   among   the   IDPs   from   all   surveyed   districts.   In   Jaffna,   10.2   per   cent   of   families   out  of  147  IDP  families  have  persons  with  disabilities.  When  compared  with  other  districts  this  is  a  relatively  high   incidence  rate.       Based   on   data   collected   on   the   family   members   with   disabilities,   30   per   cent   (15   people)   indicated   walking   difficulties,  yet  only  seven  people  have  received  assistive  devices  such  as  crutches  and  wheel  chairs.  Similarly,  of   the   12   people   (24   per   cent)   who   have   seeing   difficulties,   only   one   person   has   received   eye   lenses.   There   is   no   information   available   on   assistive   devices   provided   to   20   other   families   (40   per   cent)   with   other   types   of   disabilities.     Out  of  45  families  who  responded  with  regard  to  other  forms  of  assistance,  such  as  housing,  monthly  allowance  of   Rs.  3,000,  self-­‐employment,  financial  and  educational  assistance  or  vocational  training,  less  than  5  per  cent  have   received   assistance   except   counseling   services   which   covered   13.3   per   cent   in   Mannar   district   and   Trincomalee   welfare  centres.  The  monthly  allowance  of  Rs.  3,000  has  been  received  by  only  one  family  in  Mullaitivu  while  one   family  in  a  welfare  centre  in  Jaffna  was  not  eligible  to  receive  the  allowance  and  one  family  in  Ampara  applied  with   official  decision  pending.      

3.9.2   Assistance  Required  by  the  People  with  Disabilities  

  The   priority   requirement   for   families   with   a   physically   disabled   member   was   health   and   medical   facilities   (41.9   per   cent),   followed   by   livelihood   assistance   (23.2   per   cent).   The   request   for   health   and   medical   facilities   was   very   prominent  in  Vavuniya  district  and  particularly  in  Trincomalee  welfare  centres  (100  per  cent)  where  IDPs  requested   support  for  health  and  medical  facilities  only.      

3.9.3   Elderly  People  Among  IDPs  

  Only  18  per  cent  of  the  IDP  households  (80),  out  of  a  total  446  interviewed,  had  at  least  one  elderly  person.  The   proportion  of  having  elderly  family  member  is  high  in  Vavuniya  (23  out  of  44  families),  Jaffna  (20  out  of  87  families)   and  Anuradhapura  (10  out  of  80  families).       Apart   from   the   monthly   allowance   of   Rs.   1,000   (41.3   per   cent)   all   other   forms   of   assistance,   such   as   self-­‐ employment,  financial,  counseling  and  grievances,  was  received  by  less  than  10  per  cent  of  the  families  in  need.   This   is   an   indication   of   limited   access   to   available   services   for   elderly   people   living   in   the   surveyed   districts.   Therefore  it  is  necessary  to  ensure  broader  access  to  assistance,  facilities  and  services  available  for  senior  citizens   of  Sri  Lanka.     Similarly,  JNA  data  indicates  that  only  five  families  have  received  assistive  devices  for  the  elderly  people  such  as   crutches   (two   families)   and   eye   lenses   (three   families).   In   total,   11   elderly   family   members   require   eye   lenses.   About   42.5   per   cent   of   the   families   with   elderly   family   members   requested   livelihood   support   and   15   per   cent   Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  233  

requested  an  increment  of  the  monthly  payment  of  Rs.  1,000  for  the  elders.  Other  requested  assistance  included   medical  aid,  education,  health  support,  toilets  and  hearing  aid.    

3.9.4     Single  Parent  Families  

  Among   the   427   currently   displaced   families,   53   families   (12   per   cent)   fall   into   the   category   of   “single   parent   families”.  The  highest  proportions  of  single  parent  families  were  reported  from  Batticaloa  (23.5  per  cent),  Vavuniya   (20.9   per   cent),   Polonnaruwa   (20   per   cent)   and   Anuradhapura   (15   per   cent).   The   majority   of   identified   single   parent  families  have  received  very  limited  external  assistance  such  as  training  on  self-­‐employment,  counseling  and   micro  enterprises.  Only  one  family  living  in  a  welfare  centre  in  Jaffna  district  received  support  to  engage  in  self-­‐ employment   and   only   five   families   in   Jaffna,   Vavuniya   and   Trincomalee   welfare   centres   received   counseling   services.   Micro-­‐enterprise   training   had   been   received   only   by   two   families   in   Jaffna   and   Vavuniya   districts.   Nevertheless,   educational   assistance   for   children   had   reached   13.7   per   cent   of   single   parent   families.   The   majority   of   them   (44.2   per   cent)   requested   support   for   livelihoods   and   30.2   per   cent   requested   support   for   self-­‐ employment.  Other  external  assistance  including  housing,  medicine,  health  and  education  were  less  of  a  priority   among  the  single  parent  families.  Therefore,  the  JNA  findings  indicate  the  need  for  more  targeted  assistance  for   single  parent  families  to  ensure  the  families’  economic  and  social  empowerment  and  sustainable  development.       139 Table  3.46:  Existence  of  elderly  persons  in  the  household   District    

Place  of   residence    

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

20  

22.99  

67  

77.01  

87  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

4  

13.79  

25  

86.21  

29  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

6  

26.09  

17  

73.91  

23  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

9  

56.25  

7  

43.75  

16  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

6  

35.29  

11  

64.71  

17  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

2  

5.88  

32  

94.12  

34  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

2  

6.25  

30  

93.75  

32  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

10  

12.50  

70  

87.50  

80  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

3  

17.65  

14  

82.35  

17  

100.00  

62  

18.51  

273  

81.49  

335  

100.00  

Welfare  

8  

14.04  

49  

85.96  

57  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

4  

19.05  

17  

80.95  

21  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

6  

18.18  

27  

81.82  

33  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

18  

16.22  

93  

83.78  

111  

100.00  

Total  

80  

17.94    

366  

82.06    

446  

100.00    

  Jaffna  

     

Sub  Total  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Section  9-­‐4  

                                                                                                                        139

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  9.07  

Page  234    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.47:  Assistance  for  the  family  with  elderly  people  -­‐  monthly  allowance  of  Rs.  1000 District      

Place  of   residence    

140

 

Monthly  allowance  of  Rs.  1000   Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

Not  Eligible   %  

Num  

Total    

Pending  

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

6  

35.29  

9  

52.94  

1  

5.88  

1  

5.88  

17  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

3  

75.00  

1  

25.00  

0  

0  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

3  

50.00  

0  

0.00  

2  

33.33  

1  

16.67  

6  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

1  

11.11  

4  

44.44  

4  

44.44  

0  

0  

9  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

4  

66.67  

2  

33.33  

0  

0  

0  

0  

6  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

2   100.00  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

1  

50.00  

1  

50.00  

0  

0  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

Anuradhapura   Other  

3  

30.00  

7  

70.00  

0  

0  

0  

0  

10  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

1  

50.00  

1  

50.00  

0  

0  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

24  

41.38  

25  

43.10  

7  

12.07  

2  

3.45  

58  

100.00  

Welfare  

3  

42.86  

3  

42.86  

1  

14.29  

0  

0.00  

7  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

2  

50.00  

2  

50.00  

0  

0  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

2  

33.33  

4  

66.67  

0  

0  

0  

0  

6  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

7  

41.18  

9  

52.94  

1  

5.88  

0  

0.00  

17  

100.00  

31  

 41.33    

34  

45.33    

8  

10.67    

2  

2.67    

75  

100.00    

  Jaffna  

     

Other   Sub  Total  

Total  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Section  9-­‐4.1  to  4.5    

 

                                                                                                                        140

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  9.08  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  235  

Table  3.48:-­‐Assistance  for  elderly  people  self-­‐employment  assistance District        

Place  of   residence      

Self-­‐employment   Yes   Num  

141

 

Total  

No   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

0  

0.00  

16  

100.00  

16   100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

4   100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0  

6  

100.00  

6   100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

1  

11.11  

8  

88.89  

9   100.00  

Kilinochchi   Batticaloa  

Other   Other  

0   0  

0   0  

6   2  

100.00   100.00  

6   100.00   2   100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

2   100.00  

Anuradhapura   Other  

0  

0  

10  

100.00  

10   100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

2   100.00  

Sub  Total  

1  

1.75  

56  

98.25  

57   100.00  

Welfare  

1  

16.67  

5  

83.33  

6   100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

4   100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0  

6  

100.00  

6   100.00  

Sub  Total  

1  

1.75  

56  

98.25  

57   100.00  

Total  

2  

 2.74    

71  

97.26    

73   100.00    

  Jaffna  

     

Table  3.48:  Assistance  for  elderly  people  financial  assistance   Financial  assistance  for  medical   treatment  

District         Jaffna   Mannar  

Place  of   residence       Other   Other  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

Batticaloa   Ampara   Anuradhapura   Polonnaruwa     Jaffna  

Yes   Num   %   1   6.25   0   0  

No  

Total   Num   %   16   100.00   4   100.00  

Num   15   4  

%   93.75   100.00  

0  

6  

100.00  

6  

100.00  

0  

0  

9  

100.00  

9  

100.00  

1  

16.67  

5  

83.33  

6  

100.00  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

2  

100.00  

Other   Other  

0   1  

0   10.00  

2   9  

100.00   90.00  

2   10  

100.00   100.00  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

2  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

3  

5.26  

54  

94.74  

57  

100.00  

Welfare  

0  

0.00  

6  

100.00  

6  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

4  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0  

6  

100.00  

6  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

0  

0.00  

16  

100.00  

16  

100.00  

Total  

3  

4.11    

70  

95.89    

73  

100.00    

     

 

 

                                                                                                                        141

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  9.08  

Page  236    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.48:  Assistance  for  elderly  people  (continued)  -­‐  counseling  services   District       Jaffna   Mannar   Vavuniya   Mullaitivu   Kilinochchi   Batticaloa   Ampara   Anuradhapura   Polonnaruwa     Jaffna   Vavuniya   Trincomalee        

Place  of   residence       Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Other   Sub  Total   Welfare   Welfare   Welfare   Sub  Total  

Counseling  services   Yes  

No  

Num   0   0   0   1   1   0   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3  

0   0   0   11.11   16.67   0   0   0   0   3.51   0   0   50.00   18.75  

Num   16   4   6   8   5   2   1   10   2   54   6   4   3   13  

%   100.00   100.00   100.00   88.89   83.33   100.00   50.00   100.00   100.00   94.74   100.00   100.00   50.00   81.25  

Num   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   1   0   0   0   0  

0   0   0   0   0   0   50   0   0   1.75   0   0   0   0.00  

Num   16   4   6   9   6   2   2   10   2   57   6   4   6   16  

%   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00   100.00  

5  

6.85    

67  

91.78    

1  

1.37    

73  

100.00    

Total  

%  

Total    

Not  Eligible   %  

  Table  3.48  -­‐Assistance  for  elderly  people  obtained  services  for  grievances       District      

  Place  of   residence      

Services  from  maintenance  board  for  your   grievances   Yes   No   Pending   Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Num  

Total     Num   %  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

0  

0.00  

16  

100.00  

0  

0  

16  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0  

6  

100.00  

0  

0  

6  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

9  

100.00  

0  

0  

9  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

6  

100.00  

0  

0  

6  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

0  

0  

1  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

0  

0  

9  

90.00  

1  

10.00  

10  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

0  

0.00  

55  

98.21  

1  

1.79  

56  

100.00  

Welfare  

1  

16.67  

5  

83.33  

0  

0  

6  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

1  

16.67  

5  

83.33  

0  

0  

6  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

2  

12.50  

14  

87.50  

0  

0.00  

16  

100.00  

Total  

2  

2.78    

69  

95.83    

1  

1.39    

72  

100.00    

  Jaffna  

     

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Section  9-­‐4.1  to  4.5    

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

 

   

Page  237  

Table  3.49:  Existence  of  disabled  persons District  

Place  of   residence  

142

 

Yes  

No  

Num  

%  

Total  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

9  

10.23  

79  

89.77  

88  

100  

Mannar  

Other  

2  

6.90  

27  

93.10  

29  

100  

Vavuniya  

Other  

4  

17.39  

19  

82.61  

23  

100  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

3  

21.43  

11  

78.57  

14  

100  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

4  

23.53  

13  

76.47  

17  

100  

Batticaloa  

Other  

2  

5.71  

33  

94.29  

35  

100  

Ampara  

Other  

7  

21.21  

26  

78.79  

33  

100  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

5  

6.33  

74  

93.67  

79  

100  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

0  

20  

100.00  

20  

100  

36  

10.65  

302  

89.35  

338  

100  

Welfare  

6  

10.17  

53  

89.83  

59  

100  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

3  

14.29  

18  

85.71  

21  

100  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

6  

18.18  

27  

81.82  

33  

100  

Sub  Total  

15  

13.27  

98  

86.73  

113  

100  

Total  

51  

11.31    

400  

88.69    

451  

100  

  Jaffna  

     

Sub  Total  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Section  9-­‐1.   Table  3.50:  Type  of  disabled  assistance

143

  Monthly  allowance  of  Rs.  3000  

District    

Place  of   residence    

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

Not  Eligible   %  

Num  

%  

Applied  and   Pending   Num  

%  

Total     Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

0  

0  

9  

100.00  

0  

0.00  

0  

0.00  

9  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

0  

0  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

0  

0  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

1  

33.33  

2  

66.67  

0  

0  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

0  

0  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

0  

0  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

6  

85.71  

0  

0  

1   14.29  

7  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

1  

3.23  

29  

93.55  

0  

0.00  

3.23  

31  

100.00  

Welfare  

0  

0  

3  

60.00  

1   20.00  

1   20.00  

5  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

0  

0  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0  

6  

100.00  

0  

0  

0  

0  

6  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

0  

0.00  

12  

85.71  

1  

7.14  

1  

7.14  

14  

100.00  

Total  

1  

2.22    

41  

91.11    

1  

2.22    

2  

4.44    

45  

100.00    

  Jaffna  

     

1  

                                                                                                                        142

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  9.01   Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  9.05  

143

Page  238    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.50:  Type  of  disabled  assistance(continued) Housing  assistance   District  

Place  of   residence  

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

0  

0.00  

9  

100.00  

9  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

2  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

4  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

3  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

4  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

2  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

7  

100.00  

7  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

0  

0.00  

31  

100.00  

31  

100.00  

Welfare  

2  

40.00  

3  

60.00  

5  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

3  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0  

6  

100.00  

6  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

2  

14.29  

12  

85.71  

14  

100.00  

Total  

2  

4.44    

43  

95.56    

45  

100.00    

  Jaffna  

     

  Self-­‐employment  assistance   District  

Place  of   residence  

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

Not  Eligible   %  

Num  

Total  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

0  

0  

9  

100.00  

0  

0  

9  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

66.67  

1  

33.33  

3  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

1  

25.00  

3  

75.00  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

7  

100.00  

0  

0  

7  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

1  

3.23  

29  

93.55  

1  

3.23  

31  

100.00  

Welfare  

0  

0  

5  

100.00  

0  

0  

5  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0  

6  

100.00  

0  

0  

6  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

0  

0.00  

14  

100.00  

0  

0.00  

14  

100.00  

Total  

1  

2.22    

43  

 95.56    

1  

 2.22    

45  

100.00  

  Jaffna  

     

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  239  

Table  3.50:  Type  of  disabled  assistance(continued) Educational  assistance   District    

Place  of   residence    

Yes   Num  

Applied  and   Pending  

No   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

Total    

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

0  

0  

9  

100.00  

0  

0.00  

9  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

1  

25.00  

3  

75.00  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

7  

100.00  

0  

0  

7  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

1  

3.23  

30  

96.77  

0  

0.00  

31  

100.00  

Welfare  

0  

0  

4  

80.00  

1  

20.00  

5  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0.00  

3  

100.00  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0  

6  

100.00  

0  

0  

6  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

0  

0.00  

13  

92.86  

1  

7.14  

14  

100.00  

Total  

1  

2.22    

43  

95.56    

1  

 2.22    

45  

100.00  

  Jaffna  

     

Financial  assistance   District    

Place  of   residence  

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

0  

0  

9  

100.00  

9  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

2  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

4  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

3  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

4  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

2  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

7  

100.00  

7  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

0  

0.00  

31  

100.00  

31  

100.00  

Welfare  

0  

0  

5  

100.00  

5  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

3  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

1  

16.67  

5  

83.33  

6  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

1  

7.14  

13  

92.86  

14  

100.00  

Total  

1  

 2.22    

44  

97.78    

45  

100.00  

  Jaffna  

     

Page  240    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.50:  Type  of  disabled  assistance(continued) Counseling  service   District  

Place  of   residence  

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Total  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

0  

0  

9  

100.00  

9  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

1  

50.00  

1  

50.00  

2  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

4  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

3  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

4  

100.00  

4  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

0  

0  

2  

100.00  

2  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

7  

100.00  

7  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

1  

3.23  

30  

96.77  

31  

100.00  

Welfare  

0  

0  

5  

100.00  

5  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0  

3  

100.00  

3  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

5  

83.33  

1  

16.67  

6  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

5  

35.71  

9  

64.29  

14  

100.00  

Total  

6  

13.33    

39  

 86.67    

45  

100.00  

  Jaffna  

     

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Section  9-­‐3.2  to  3.8   Table  3.51:  Existence  of  single  parent  families District    

Place  of   residence  

144

 

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

Total   %  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

7  

9.33  

68  

90.67  

75  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

1  

3.85  

25  

96.15  

26  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

4  

17.39  

19  

82.61  

23  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

0  

0  

13  

100.00  

13  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

17  

100.00  

17  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

8  

23.53  

26  

76.47  

34  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

4  

12.50  

28  

87.50  

32  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

12  

15.00  

68  

85.00  

80  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

4  

20.00  

16  

80.00  

20  

100.00  

40  

12.50  

280  

87.50  

320  

100.00  

Welfare  

5  

9.26  

49  

90.74  

54  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

5  

25.00  

15  

75.00  

20  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

  Jaffna  

     

Sub  Total  

3  

9.09  

30  

90.91  

33  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

13  

12.15  

94  

87.85  

107  

100.00  

Total  

53  

12.41    

374  

87.59    

427  

100.00    

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Section  9-­‐5  

                                                                                                                          144

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  9.11  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  241  

 

 

Page  242    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

IDP Legal Documentation

3.10   IDP  Legal  Documentation       This   section   seeks   to   understand   the   extent   to   which   people   own   key   types   of   documents.   The   five   broad   areasexplored  were:  

· · · · ·

Ownership  of  Birth  Certificates  and  National  Identity  Cards     Evidence  of  deeds  for  houses   Lost  and  attempted  reclamation  of  key  documents   Registration  on  the  electoral  role   Marriage  certificates  

 

3.10.1   Ownership  of  Birth  Certificates  and  National  Identity  Cards  

  A  clear  majority  of  the  IDP  households  interviewed  possess  birth  certificates  (93.2  per  cent).    Across  districts,  this   hardly  varies  with  at  least  9  out  of  10  family  members  owning  a  birth  certificate.  JNA  data  indicates  that  75.3  per   cent   of   the   remaining   IDP   families   possess   National   Identity   Cards   (NIC)   with   inter-­‐district   variance   from   65-­‐90   per   cent.  It  must  be  noted  that  in  Sri  Lanka,  a  NIC  can  be  obtained  only  after  the  age  of  16  years  whereas  all  citizens   are  issued  a  birth  certificate  at  birth.      

3.10.2   Evidence  of  Deeds  for  Land/Houses  

  Many  IDPs  (62.8  per  cent)  indicated  possessing  deeds  or  having  documentary  evidence  for  land/housing  at  their   places   of   origin.   Almost   all   the   interviewed   IDP   families   (95.2   per   cent)   who   currently   live   in   Vavuniya   welfare   centers  said  that  they  do  not  possess  a  deed  or  documentary  evidence  for  lands  in  their  places  of  origin.  People   who  do  not  possess  deeds  are  37.22  per  cent.  The  majority  did  not  have  deeds  prior  to  displacement  (62  per  cent)   while  other  reasons  included  long  delays  in  replacing  the  lost  deeds  (12.6  per  cent),  land  ownership  disputes  (7.2   per  cent),  delay  in  registering  the  deeds  (9  per  cent),  lack  of  interest  (4.5  per  cent)  and  lack  of  knowledge  of  where   to  obtain  deeds  (4.5  per  cent).    

3.10.3   Lost  and  Attempted  Reclamation  of  Lost  Documents  

  A  comparatively  low  number  of  IDP  family  members  lost  documents  in  the  process  of  displacement  including  birth   certificates  (67);  national  identity  card  (NIC)  (37);  passport  (3);  marriage  certificate  (24);  and  motor  vehicle  license   (1).   Fifty   percent   of   these   respondents   were   able   to   replace   these   documents   birth   certificates   (32);   NICs   (22);   passports  (3);  and  marriage  certificates  (9)  by  the  time  of  the  JNA  survey  The  main  reasons  for  the  very  low  rate  of   replacement  applications  for  lost  documents  is  the  lack  of  interest  (44.8  per  cent)  among  the  IDP  families,  followed   by  not  having  the  relevant  supportive  documents  (31  per  cent).  Lack  of  interest  to  replace  lost  documentation  is   very   high   among   the   IDP   families   in   Anuradhapura   (91.7   per   cent)   and   Mannar   (62.5   per   cent)   districts.   Other   reasons,  such  as  not  knowing  how  to  apply  (8.6  per  cent),  long  travelling  distance  to  DS  offices  (5  per  cent),  lack  of   support  by   Government  officers  (8.62  per  cent)  and  lack  of  awareness  on  the  mobile  service  (1.7  per  cent),  ranked   comparatively  low.    

3.10.4   Registration  on  the  Electoral  Role  

  Out  of  the  total  families  interviewed,  95.8  per  cent  were  already  registered  for  electoral  vote.  All  eligible  IDPs  living   in   welfare   centres   in   Vavuniya   district   and   Trincomalee   welfare   centres   are   registered   in   the   electoral   vote.   Out   of   the  families  who  are  not  yet  registered,  the  majority  has  no  interest  in  registering  (4  families)  and  3  families  were   not  aware  of  the  registration  process.    

 

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

 

   

Page  245  

3.10.5   Marriage  Certificates  

  Within  the  selected  sample,  84  per  cent  of  all  households  have  at  least  one  married  couple.  All  IDPs  in  Mannar  (29)   reported   as   either   being   married   or   having   at   least   one   married   couple   in   their   household.   Out   of   a   total   376   married  couples,  91  per  cent  possess  a  marriage  certificate.  Except  for  Mullaitivu  and  Polonnaruwa  districts,  a  total   of  34  married  families  in  all  other  districts  do  not  possess  marriage  certificates.  The  main  reason  for  this  is  that  the   marriages   were   either   not   legally   registered   or   couples   did   not   apply   for   a   certificate   (44.7   per   cent   each).   Only   10   couples  admitted  that  they  were  not  aware  of  the  importance  of  a  marriage  certificate  hence  did  not  apply  for  one   in  Jaffna,  Vavuniya,  Kilinochchi,  Batticaloa,  Ampara  and  Polonnaruwa  districts.     145 Table  3.52:  Information  about  the  identification  documents  by  place  of  residence  

District      

Place  of   Residence      

Availability  of  documents,   Identity  card     Yes   Num  

No   %  

Jaffna  

Other  

312    

93.41    

Mannar  

Other  

72    

Vavuniya  

Other  

64    

Mullaitivu  

Other  

Kilinochchi  

Num  

Not  applicable   %  

Num  

%  

9    

2.69    

13    

 3.89    

86.75    

9    

10.84    

2    

2.41    

91.43    

 6    

8.57    

0    

0    

25    

83.33    

5    

16.67    

0    

0    

Other  

49    

92.45    

4    

7.55    

0    

0    

Batticaloa  

Other  

106    

92.98    

4    

3.51    

4    

3.51    

Ampara  

Other  

129    

92.81    

7    

5.04    

3    

2.16    

Anuradhapura  

Other  

339    

96.86    

11    

3.14    

0    

0    

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

64    

94.12    

4    

5.88    

0  

0  

1160  

93.47  

59  

4.75  

22  

1.77  

Welfare  

227    

94.58    

8    

3.33    

5    

2.08    

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

59    

86.76    

9    

13.24    

0    

0    

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

91    

91.00    

7    

7.00    

2    

2.00    

377  

92.40  

24  

5.88  

7  

1.72  

1,537    

93.21    

83    

5.03    

29    

1.76    

  Jaffna  

Sub  Total  

Sub  Total  

     

Total  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Section  10-­‐  1.1  

                                                                                                                        145

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.01  

Page  246    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.52:  Information  about  the  identification  documents  by  place  of  residence  (continued)     District          

Place  of   residence        

Type  of  document   Identity  card   Response   Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

%  

    Not  applicable  

 

Num  

 

%  

Total  

 Num    

 %      

Jaffna  

Other  

222    

81.32    

9    

3.30    

42    

15.38    

 

273    

100.00    

Mannar  

Other  

49    

72.06    

2    

2.94    

17    

25.00    

 

68    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

Other  

50    

71.43    

1    

1.43    

19    

27.14    

 

70    

100.00    

Mullaitivu  

Other  

23    

85.19    

2    

7.41    

2    

7.41    

 

27    

100.00    

Kilinochchi  

Other  

39    

82.98    

1  

2.13    

7    

14.89    

 

47    

100.00    

Batticaloa  

Other  

70    

64.81    

7    

6.48    

31    

28.70    

 

108    

100.00    

Ampara  

Other  

80    

61.07    

4    

3.05    

47    

35.88    

 

131    

100.00    

Anuradhapura  

Other  

246    

88.49    

15    

5.40    

17    

6.12    

 

278    

100.00    

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

50    

90.91    

3    

5.45    

2    

3.64    

 

55    

100.00    

Sub  Total  

829  

78.43  

44  

4.16  

184  

17.41  

 

1,057  

100.00  

  Jaffna  

Welfare  

131    

68.23    

22    

11.46    

39    

20.31    

 

192    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

38    

58.46    

8    

12.31    

19    

29.23    

 

65    

100.00    

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

60    

65.93    

9    

9.89    

22    

24.18    

 

91    

100.00    

229  

65.80  

39  

11.21  

80  

22.99  

 

348  

100.00  

1,058    

75.30    

83    

5.91    

264    

18.79    

 

1,405    

100.00    

     

Sub  Total   Total  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Section  10-­‐  1.1  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  247  

Table  3.53:-­‐  Responses  for  electoral  registration  by  place  of  residence District      

146

 

Electoral  registration  

Place  of   Residence    

Yes   Num  

No   %  

Num  

Total    

Do  not  know   %  

Num  

%  

Num  

%  

Jaffna  

 Other    

 85    

96.59    

3    

3.41    

0  

0  

88    

100.00    

Mannar  

 Other    

27    

93.10    

1    

3.45    

1    

3.45    

29    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

 Other    

21    

91.30    

2    

8.70    

0  

0  

 23    

100.00    

Mullaitivu  

 Other    

16    

94.12    

1    

5.88    

0  

0  

 17    

100.00    

Kilinochchi  

 Other    

16    

94.12    

1    

5.88    

0  

0  

17    

100.00    

Batticaloa  

 Other    

35    

100.00    

0  

0  

0  

0  

35    

100.00    

Ampara  

 Other    

33    

97.06    

1    

2.94    

0  

0  

34    

100.00    

Anuradhapura  

 Other    

76    

95.00    

3    

3.75    

1    

1.25    

80    

100.00    

Polonnaruwa  

 Other    

19    

100.00    

0  

0  

0  

0  

19    

100.00    

Sub  Total  

328  

95.91  

12  

3.51  

2  

0.58  

342  

100.00  

 Welfare    

54    

91.53    

5    

8.47    

0  

0  

 59    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

 Welfare    

21    

100.00    

0  

0  

0  

0  

21    

100.00    

Trincomalee  

 Welfare    

33    

100.00    

0  

0  

0  

0  

33    

100.00    

Sub  Total  

108  

95.58  

5  

4.42  

0  

0.00  

113  

100.00  

Total  

436    

95.82    

17    

3.74    

2    

0.44    

 455    

100.00    

  Jaffna  

     

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Section  10  -­‐  2.1    

 

                                                                                                                        146

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.06  

Page  248    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.53:  Deed  or  documentary  evidence  by  place  of  residence District      

147

 

 Deed  or  documentary  evidence    

Place  of   residence    

 Yes      Num    

 Total        

 No      %      

 Num    

 %      

 Num    

 %      

Jaffna  

 Other    

64    

74.42    

22    

25.58    

86    

100.00    

Mannar  

 Other    

 3    

11.54    

23    

88.46    

26    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

 Other    

14    

60.87    

   9    

39.13    

23    

100.00    

Mullaitivu  

 Other    

16    

94.12    

1    

 5.88    

17    

100.00    

Kilinochchi  

 Other    

16    

94.12    

1  

5.88    

17    

100.00    

Batticaloa  

 Other    

34    

97.14    

1    

2.86    

35    

100.00    

Ampara  

 Other    

26    

76.47    

8    

23.53    

34    

100.00    

Anuradhapura  

 Other    

42    

53.16    

37    

46.84    

 79    

100.00    

Polonnaruwa  

 Other    

17    

89.47    

 2    

10.53    

19    

 100.00    

Sub  Total  

232  

69.05  

104  

30.95  

336  

100.00  

 Welfare    

22    

39.29    

34    

60.71    

56    

100.00    

Vavuniya  

 Welfare    

1    

4.76    

20    

95.24    

21    

100.00    

Trincomalee  

 Welfare    

 25    

75.76    

8    

24.24    

33    

100.00    

Sub  Total  

48  

43.64  

62  

56.36  

110  

100.00  

280    

62.78    

166    

37.22    

446    

100.00    

  Jaffna  

     

Total  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Section  10  -­‐  2.3  

 

 

                                                                                                                        147

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  1.08  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  249  

 

 

Page  250    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

IDP Options for Durable Solutions

3.11   Options  for  Durable  Solutions  –  IDPs       This  section  intends  to  highlight  the  international  standards  of  durable  solutions  for  internally  displaced  persons   (IDPs)  and  the  current  status  of  remaining  IDPs  in  the  10  districts.  The  section  explores  the  following  areas:  

· · · ·

International  standards  for  IDPs   Preference  for  durable  solutions     Reasons  for  protracted  displacement   Required  assistance  

 

3.11.1   International  Standards  for  Internally  Displaced  People  (IDPs)    

  The   Guiding   Principles   on   Internal   Displacement   (Guiding   Principles)   address   all   phases   of   displacement   –   protection  from  displacement,  protection  and  assistance  during  displacement  and  durable  solutions  –  and  set  out   the   basic   principles   of   a   human   rights   based   approach   for   addressing   internal   displacement.   The   guiding   principles   are   based   upon,   reflect   on   and   are   consistent   with   international   human   rights   and   humanitarian   law.   They   have   been  recognized  by  the  2005  World  Summit,  the  Human  Rights  Council  and  the  General  Assembly  as  “an  important   framework   for   the   protection   of   internally   displaced   persons”.   This   rights   based   approach   ensures   that   IDPs   are   in   a  position  to  make  a  voluntary  and  informed  choice  on  what  durable  solution  they  would  like  to  pursue.  Guiding   principle  28  emphasizes  that  IDPs  should  be  able  “to  return  voluntarily,  in  safety  and  with  dignity,  to  their  homes   148 or  places  of  habitual  residence,  or  to  resettle  voluntarily  in  another  part  of  the  country.”     Therefore,   the   key   objective   of   this   section   is   to   gather   data   on   the   preference   for   durable   solutions   among   the   IDPs   who   were   interviewed   through   the   JNA   questionnaire   (sample   size:   456   households).   The   JNA   interview   sample  included  113families  currently  living  in  welfare  centres  in  Jaffna  (59  households),  Vavuniya  (21  households)   and  Trincomalee  (33  households).    

3.11.2   Preference  for  Durable  Solutions   The  IDPs  indicated  their  preference  of  durable  solution  options  by  order  of  priority:   1. Return  to  place  of  origin  (99.3  per  cent)   2. Voluntary  local  integration  (74  per  cent)   3. Voluntary  resettlement  in  another  part  of  the  country  (73  per  cent)     The  JNA  findings  indicate  that  all  the  IDP  families,  except  in  Anuradhapura  and  Jaffna  welfare  centers  who  were   interviewed   preferred   to   return   to   their   places   of   origin.   In   Anuradhapura   3.75   percent   and   in   Jaffna   welfare   centers   1.69   percent   did   not   prefer   this   option.     In   Vavuniya   district,   21   IDP   households   (100   per   cent)   living   in   welfare   centres   and   in   Batticaloa   district   35   IDP   households   (100   per   cent)   listed   all   three   durable   solution   options   with  equal  priority.   100  per  cent  of  the  IDPs  in  Vavuniya  welfare  centers,  Batticaloa  and  Ampara  districts  gave  preference  for  returning   to   their   place   of   origin.   The   lowest   preference   for   opting   to   settle   elsewhere   was   among   the   IDP   households   living   in  Trincomalee  welfare  centres  (18.1  per  cent)  and  in  Kilinochchi  (29.4  per  cent).  

 

 

                                                                                                                        148

 The  Guiding  Principles  on  Internal  Displacement,  2004.  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  253  

3.11.3   Reasons  for  Protracted  Displacement   The   remaining   IDP   families   were   questioned   on   the   reasons   for   their   protracted   displacement,   in   particular   why   they   opted   to   remain   in   the   place   of   displacement   (either   welfare   centre   or   outside   welfare   centre)   without   returning  to  their  areas  of  origin.     The   main   reason   for   not   returning   to   the   areas   of   origin,   as   reported   in   the   survey,   is   that   the   IDPs   received   better   employment  opportunities  at  the  place  of  displacement  (welfare  centre  or  outside).  Out  of  the  10  districts,  374  IDP   families   (77.4   per   cent)   found   better   employment   opportunities   at   the   place   of   displacement   compared   to   their   places   of   origin.   All   IDP   families   (100   per   cent)   in   Mannar,   Kilinochchi,   Trincomalee   welfare   centres,   Anuradhapura   and  Polonnaruwa  expressed  this  sentiment.  Other  reasons  for  not  returning  to  areas  of  origin  were  that  the  village   was   not   released   due   to   security   reasons   (15   per   cent),   ongoing   demining   activities   (6.2   per   cent)   and   better   education  facilities  at  the  current  location  (1  per  cent).  IDPs  from  Mullaitivu  (10  families),  Jaffna  (30  families)  and   Batticaloa   (32   families)   reported   that   their   villages   of   origin   had   not   yet   been   released   due   to   security   reasons.   There  are  ongoing  demining  activities  in  Vavuniya  (27  families)  and  Batticaloa  (3  families)  districts.    

3.11.4   Required  Assistance   The   IDP   families   interviewed   were   requested   to   select   their   preferences   out   of   17   different   types   of   assistance   required   tofind   a   durable   solution.   Out   of   456   families   interviewed   only   207(45.39   percent)   responded   to   this   question.  Those  reporting  the  lowest  regarding  the  need  for  further  assistance  were  in  Jaffna  welfare  centers  (8.47   per   cent)   Jaffna   other   IDPs   (11.24   per   cent)   and   Kilinochchi   (23.53   per   cent).   Highest   level   of   reported   need   for   further  assistance  wasin  Mannar  (100  per  cent),  Mullaitivu  (100  per  cent),  Vavuniya  welfare  centers  (100  per  cent),   Ampara   (94.12   per   cent)   Anuradhapura   (87.5   per   cent)   and   Polonnaruwa   (100   per   cent).   Facilities   for   water   (30.43   per   cent)   and   sanitation   (13.53per   cent)   were   ranked   as   the   highest   priority   and   most   urgently   needed.   The   request   for   water   assistance   was   high   in   Jaffna   welfare   centers,   Mullaitivu,   Polonnaruwa,   Mannar   and   Ampara   districts.   A   considerably   significant   percentage   (22.7   per   cent)   requested   housing   aid,   particularly   in   Vavuniya   welfare  centres  (66.66  per  cent).  About  18.35of  all  IDP  families  requested  livelihood  support.  In  contrastto  this,  the   requests   for   fishing   equipment   (3.38   per   cent),   agriculture   equipment   (8.21   per   cent)   and   support   for   self-­‐ employment/training   (12.56   per   cent)   are   significantly   low.   Among   the   assistance   requested   for   livelihood   the   highest   request   was   for   support   for   self   employmentThe   development   of   infrastructure   facilities   are   not   considered  a  priority  imperative  for  return/resettlement  as  only  a  minority  of  IDP  families  requested  support  for   electricity   (11.11   per   cent),   transport   (2.42   per   cent),   road   development   (3.86   per   cent)   and   improved   infrastructure   (1.7   per   cent).   Around   15.94   per   cent   of   the   interviewed   families   requested   land,   particularly   in   Jaffna  and  Vavuniya  districts,  and  8.21  per  cent  requested  land  for  agriculture.        

 

Page  254    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Table  3.54:  Option  selected  for  a  durable  solution District    

149

 

Return  to  the   origin  

Place  of   residence  

Num  

%  

Integrate     Num  

%  

Relocate   elsewhere   Num  

%  

Total   Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

89  

100.00  

47  

52.81  

43  

48.31  

89  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

29  

100.00  

19  

65.52  

18  

62.07  

29  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

23  

100.00  

22  

95.65  

22  

95.65  

23  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

17  

100.00  

10  

58.82  

11  

64.71  

17  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

17  

100.00  

5  

29.41  

5  

29.41  

17  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

35  

100.00  

35  

100.00  

35  

100.00  

35  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

34  

100.00  

30  

88.24  

37  

108.82  

34  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

77  

96.25  

74  

92.50  

71  

88.75  

80  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

19  

100.00  

17  

89.47  

15  

78.95  

19  

100.00  

340  

99.13  

259  

75.51  

257  

74.93  

343  

100.00  

Welfare  

58  

98.31  

50  

84.75  

49  

83.05  

59  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

21  

100.00  

21  

100.00  

21  

100.00  

21  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

34  

103.03  

7  

21.21  

6  

18.18  

33  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

113  

100.00  

78  

69.03  

76  

67.26  

113  

100.00  

Total  

453  

99.34    

337  

 73.90    

333  

73.03    

456  

100.00  

  Jaffna  

     

Sub  Total  

Base:  All  who  reported  for  Sec11-­‐1.  Percentages  and  totals  are  based  on  multiple  option  responses.    

 

                                                                                                                        149

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  11.01  

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014      

   

Page  255  

Table3.55:  Reasons  for  not  returning  up  to  now

District    

Place  of   residence  

150

 

Village  not   released  due  to   security  reasons   Num  

%  

Village  not  release   due  to  demining   Num  

%  

Better  education   facilities   Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

25  

28.09  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Mannar  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Vavuniya  

Other  

0  

0  

22  

95.65  

0  

0  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

10  

52.63  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Batticaloa  

Other  

32  

86.49  

3  

8.11  

0  

0  

Ampara  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

5  

12.50  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

67  

18.21  

25  

6.79  

5  

1.36  

Welfare  

5  

8.20  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

0  

0  

5  

23.81  

0  

0  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

0  

Sub  Total  

5  

4.35  

5  

4.35  

0  

0.00  

72  

14.91    

30  

6.21    

5  

1.04    

  Jaffna  

     

Sub  Total  

Total  

District    

Place  of   residence    

Better   employment   opportunities  

 

Num  

 

%  

Total     Num  

%  

Jaffna  

Other  

64  

71.91  

 

89  

100.00  

Mannar  

Other  

40  

100.00  

 

29  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Other  

1  

4.35  

 

23  

100.00  

Mullaitivu  

Other  

9  

47.37  

 

17  

100.00  

Kilinochchi  

Other  

20  

100.00  

 

17  

100.00  

Batticaloa  

Other  

2  

5.41  

 

35  

100.00  

Ampara  

Other  

35  

87.50  

 

34  

100.00  

Anuradhapura  

Other  

80  

100.00  

 

80  

100.00  

Polonnaruwa  

Other  

20  

100.00  

 

19  

100.00  

271  

73.64  

   

343  

100.00  

Welfare  

56  

91.80  

 

59  

100.00  

Vavuniya  

Welfare  

16  

76.19  

 

21  

100.00  

Trincomalee  

Welfare  

  Jaffna  

     

Sub  Total  

33  

100.00  

 

33  

100.00  

Sub  Total  

105  

91.30  

   

113  

100.00  

Total  

376  

77.84  

 

456  

100.00    

Base:  All  who  reported  saying  reasons  for  not  returning  up  to  now.  

                                                                                                                        150

Attached  in  Annex  5.3  as  Table  11.02  

Page  256    

   

Joint  Needs  Assessment  2014  

Recommendations

4.0   Recommendations    

4.1  

Returnee  Livelihoods  

  4.1.1

Further  study  on  traditional  livelihood  options:   The   data   indicates   that   the   returnees   broadly   possess  a  level  of  resources  which  are  sufficient  for  sustainable  livelihoods.  However,  income  inequality   remains  a  challenge  across  districts.  Farming  is  still  a  key  livelihood  option  in  all  districts,  while  livestock   and  fisheries  play  a  less  key  role  in  livelihoods  in  most  of  the  districts.  Further  assessment  and  analysis  is   required   to   capture   the   reasons   behind   the   diminishing   role   of   traditional   livelihoods   and   how   these   livelihoods  could  be  revived  in  support  of  people  who  are  engaged  in  those  activities.    

  4.1.2

Natural  disaster  impact  mitigation  strategy:  Returnees  engaged  in  farming  are  mainly  affected  

by   unfavorable   weather   conditions.   (floods   and   droughts),   A   comprehensive   strategy   and   assistance   to   mitigate   natural   disaster   impacts   on   agriculture   sector   at   community   level   is   needed   to   build   resilience   among  these  communities  and  address  vulnerability.  

  4.1.3

  4.1.4

Program  to  increase  family  income:  Household  monthly  average  income  less  than  Rs.10,000  was   reported   in   all   the   districts.   Ampara   81.82   percent,   Batticaloa   (76.8   per   cent),   Jaffna   (62.1   per   cent),   Mannar   (61.80   per   cent),   Trincomalee   (57   per   cent),   Mullaitivu   (57.4   per   cent),   Kilinochchi   (52.7   per   cent)   and   Vavuniya   (49   per   cent).   This   requires   a   special   program   for   diversification   of   income   generating   activities  and  increasing  family  income  with  priority  attention  to  most  vulnerable  districts.   Skills   and   entrepreneurship   Development   Program:   JNA   revealed   a   shift   of   income   sources  

from  traditional  self  employment  to  wage  and  salaries  earning.  This  is  associated  with  a  larger  number  of   young   (20   to   40   years   of   age)   returnee   families   with   more   preference   to   small   and   micro   enterprises.   Livelihood  development  programs  in  future  should  address  this  special  need.  

  4.1.5

  4.1.6

 

Support   for   productivity   improvement   in   agriculture   and   fisheries   sectors:   Around   one   third  of  population  still  depends  on  agriculture  for  their  livelihood.  Percentage  in  fisheries  sector   is  only   9.0.    Therefore  the  ongoing  programs  on  agriculture  and  fisheries  development  should  strengthen  further.   Comprehensive   survey   on   livelihood   sector:  Given  the  limitations  of  the  JNA  design  in  assessing   the  need  of  a  complex  sector  like  livelihood,  a  future  assessment  exclusively  dedicated  to  livelihood  needs   in  quantitative  form  supplemented  by  qualitative  information  is  recommended.  

4.2  

Returnee  Nutrition  and  Food  Security  

  4.2.1

Food  assistance  interventions:  The  study  reveals  that  92.8  percent  of  families  have  acceptable  Food  

Consumption  Score  (FCS)  and  most  of  the  families  are  having  more  than  three  meals  per  day.  However,  in   Vavuniya,  Batticaloa  and  Trincomalee  around  10percent  of  the  families  are  in