2004 - State of New Jersey

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NEW JERSEY C ORE CURRICULUM C ONTENT S TANDARDS

FOR

THE VISION The New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards for language arts literacy capture language experiences all children need in order to grow intellectually, socially, and emotionally in classrooms across the curriculum. The standards are intended to promote students’ capacities to construct meaning in any arena, with others as well as on their own. If students learn to read, write, speak, listen, and view critically, strategically, and creatively, and if they learn to use these arts individually and with others, they will have the literacy skills they need to discover personal and shared meaning throughout their lives. The language arts are integrative, interactive ways of communicating that develop through reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing. They are the means through which one is able to receive information; think logically and creatively; express ideas; understand and participate meaningfully in spoken, written, and nonverbal communications; formulate and answer questions; and search for, organize, evaluate, and apply information. Literacy is a way to acquire knowledge for thinking and communicating; it is more than the acquisition of a specific, predetermined set of skills in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing. Literacy is also recognizing and understanding one’s own purposes for thinking and communicating (through print or nonprint, verbal or nonverbal means) and being able to use one’s own resources to achieve those purposes. Underlying the standards for language arts literacy are four assumptions about language learning. First, language is an active process for constructing meaning. Even the quiet listener is actively working to link prior knowledge and understanding to what other people say. Second, language develops in a social context. While language is used in private activities, the use of language almost always relates to others. Each of us is an active audience for those who create spoken, written, or visual texts; others listen to our thoughts and read our writing. Third, language ability increases in complexity if language is used in increasingly complex ways. Language learners must engage in texts and conversations that are rich in ideas and increasingly complex in the patterns of language they display. Finally, learners achieve mastery of language arts literacy not by adding skills one-by-one to their repertoire, but rather by using and exploring language in its many dimensions. Although the standards define five separate areas of the language arts, these arts are integrative and meant to work together to inform and enrich each other. The language arts are interdependent processes that often merge in an integrated act of rehearsal, reflection, and learning. The division of language arts into separate standards and lettered strands is merely a method that allows us to highlight the special features of each and to identify developmentally appropriate skills and behaviors among language arts learners. The separation is not meant to suggest hierarchical order or any linear or sequential approach to literacy instruction. The standards are not intended to be a curriculum guide but should be used as a catalyst for curriculum alignment and renewal. They are the foundation for the universal thinking skills and strategies that enable all learners to contribute effectively to a global society.

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Language Arts Literacy

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LANGUAGE ARTS LITERACY

The standards represent the importance of language arts to learning in two distinct but complementary ways. On the one hand, students develop the skills they will carry with them into adulthood as contributing members of society: critical thinking, problem solving, and creativity. On the other hand, students discover the inner joy and selfillumination that comes with reading great literature and communicating through speech and writing. These two views are complementary; in striving for the goals of one, the goals of the other are fostered.

STATE READING GOAL A primary state goal for reading is that “Students will read well and independently by the end of the third grade.” In order to accomplish this goal, the language arts committee has placed a strong emphasis on developing performance benchmarks in grades K-12 that reflect both a state and national perspective on reading achievement. Teachers and parents can assist students in achieving these proficiencies by recognizing that learning extends beyond the classroom door to everyday experiences related to self, others, and the world. The following set of beliefs about students, teaching, and the language arts learning process were established as the underlying framework for standards revisions. A “balanced and comprehensive approach” to instruction is essential in all language arts programs, and classrooms should provide students with: . . .

. . . . . . .

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. . . . .

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Differentiated instructional strategies to address individual learning styles and diverse student needs; Exposure to and experience with many literary genres through reaction, reflection, and introspection; Instructional skills and strategies, including direct and explicit instruction; modeling of skills/strategies for students, and opportunities for students to be a teacher to others, that ready students to become competent readers, writers, speakers, listeners, and viewers; Instruction delivered in meaningful contexts so that students preserve the learning for future use or transfer to other learning; “Active learning” in which students are engaged in active questioning, active listening, authentic activities, and the learning process; Explicit teaching of skills as a means of supporting mastery of standard English conventions, comprehension strategies, and communication skills; Acquisition of reading and literacy skills in all content areas to support learning; Development of self-help strategies that are practiced across all disciplines; Connections to prior knowledge as a necessary component of new learning and retention; Immersion in reading, writing, listening, speaking, and viewing standards that leads to deeper and wider understanding; Use of textual resources, especially those linked to current technologies, as an integral part of a language arts literacy program; Experiences using technology as a tool for learning, especially as it applies to research and data retrieval; Time to practice learned skills and reflect on one’s work as an important part of the learning process; Activities encouraging problem-solving and inquiry skills as critical attributes to learning; and Explicit and systematic instruction in phonemic awareness and phonics, fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary development.

LANGUAGE ARTS LITERACY

Brain research clearly shows implications for student learning when there are links to the arts, like classical music, and the real world. For example, having young children recite the alphabet with a song enables the learner to remember and retain the information longer. Language arts classrooms should be alive with authentic learning opportunities that motivate and incorporate the arts.

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The language arts classroom should be purposeful, stimulating to the senses, and engaging for all types of learners, including varied activities for visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learners. Classroom organization should include some form of team and partner work and provide an environment that is responsive to students’ personal and academic goals.

REVISED STANDARDS The language arts standards adopted by the State Board of Education in 1996 and the revised standards continue to be aligned with national standards developed by the National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association. Achieve, Inc., reviewed New Jersey’s 1996 standards in language arts literacy and provided recommendations for improvement. They suggested that the standards provide more clarity and specificity by including benchmarking at more grade levels. In addition, New Jersey standards should reflect sufficient rigor and complexity from grade level to grade level. Achieve recommended that attention be given to the primary grades and integration of phonics instruction in the context of meaningful reading and writing tasks. Achieve’s recommendations are reflected in the revised standards. The revised standards are also influenced by the research of the National Reading Panel (2000). There are five dimensions in early reading, plus a child’s motivation to read, that must be developed so that young students become proficient readers. A comprehensive and balanced elementary literacy program should include the following areas: . . . . . .

Phonemic awareness; Explicit and systematic phonics; Reading fluency; Reading comprehension; Vocabulary development; and The child’s motivation.

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The reading standard (3.1) incorporates these literacy components throughout the grades and takes into consideration individual learning differences and student motivation. Specific to reading, speaking, and listening standards are oral language, decoding, comprehension, vocabulary development, and phonemic awareness. Phonemic awareness, a child’s ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words, contributes to early, emergent reading development. Since phonemic awareness is mastered by most students prior to the third grade, these skills are included only at the K-2 grade level. With regard to phonics, even though there are different approaches to teaching phonics, research findings indicate that comprehensive phonics programs should incorporate explicit and systematic phonics instruction. Phonics programs should provide ample opportunities for children to apply what they are learning about letters and sounds to the reading of words, sentences, and stories. Effective instruction in the early grades includes providing students with a variety of literary genres, including decodable books that contain specific letter-sound words they are learning. Hence, students understand that there is a predictable relationship between sounds and letters in spoken and written language, and in the language found in their favorite books.

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LANGUAGE ARTS LITERACY

The expectation for reading at all grade levels is that students will read widely. It is important for all students, including students with disabilities and second language learners, to have multiple opportunities to participate in read-alouds, shared and individual reading of high quality materials. Guided repeated oral reading is an effective way of helping students improve their comprehension and fluency skills. Many studies have found that students who become fluent readers read a great deal (National Reading Panel, 2000). Good readers read and comprehend text using similar strategies. Effective strategies used by successful readers at all grade levels include: . . . . . . . .

Drawing from prior knowledge to make meaning from print; Creating visual images in one’s mind to enhance understanding; Monitoring one’s own reading and checking for understanding; Asking questions to identify key points in text and remembering them; Making conscious inferences about important information presented; Synthesizing new information with existing understanding about a topic; Summarizing and understanding how different parts of text are related; and Evaluating and forming opinions about ideas presented.

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In the language arts classroom, the role of writing is an integral part of reading instruction and offers a means for readers to extend and clarify their ideas. Students need many opportunities to write each day. Through writing workshops, students learn specific writing strategies and produce their own authentic writings. It is important that students at all grade levels write a range of pieces, including narrative, persuasive, informational, fiction, and poetry. In addition, there should be a seamless integration of word processing activities into a program of reading and writing instruction. Technology can be used as an effective tool for literacy tasks, and can facilitate reading comprehension and provide individualized instruction in areas like vocabulary development, phonemic awareness, and word processing.

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LANGUAGE ARTS LITERACY

There are five language arts literacy standards, each of which has lettered strands and learning expectations for each grade level in grades K-8, as well as a combined cluster for grades 9-12. The standards and strands are outlined below:

3.1

Reading A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H.

Concepts About Print Phonological Awareness Decoding and Word Recognition Fluency Reading Strategies (before, during, and after reading) Vocabulary and Concept Development Comprehension Skills and Response to Text Inquiry and Research

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STANDARDS AND STRANDS

Writing A. B. C. D.

Writing as a Process Writing as a Product Mechanics, Spelling, and Handwriting Writing Forms, Audiences, and Purposes

3.3

Speaking A. B. C. D.

Discussion Questioning (Inquiry) and Contributing Word Choice Oral Presentation

3.4

Listening A. Active Listening B. Listening Comprehension

3.5

Viewing and Media Literacy

The Early Literacy Task Force, formed in February 2003 by Executive Order No. 8, required the development of individual grade-level indicators in kindergarten through fourth grade for all five language arts. Subsequently, the department developed grade-level expectations for grades 5-8 to comply with requirements set forth in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and to align with federal testing requirements. The early elementary school experiences are critical to school success. Five-year-olds enter school with a wide range of abilities, motivation to learn, and preschool and home literacy experiences. It is understood that some schools

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A. Constructing Meaning B. Visual and Verbal Messages C. Living with Media

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LANGUAGE ARTS LITERACY

continue to provide half-day kindergartens, while others provide full-day programs for children. Half-day kindergarten programs should make every effort to address the prescribed grade-level expectations outlined in this document. It may be necessary for administrators to review their existing kindergarten schedule, program, staff needs, or classroom materials in order for all students to achieve these standards.

SUMMARY The revised standards for language arts literacy, along with the vision statement, offer a framework for classroom instruction and curriculum development in our schools. While this is a powerful challenge to students, teachers, principals, and parents, it can be met through a united commitment. The singular goal of increasing student achievement through effective instruction in the skills required to live and work in a 21st century global community is the driving force of this challenge and these standards. The primary grades are building blocks that lay the foundation for learning and skill development so that each succeeding grade builds on the foundation achieved by all students in their efforts to become fluent readers, writers, speakers, listeners, and viewers. As language arts skills spiral and become increasingly sophisticated, students progress through the grades with increased confidence and proficiency in oral and written language, comprehension, and critical thinking skills. Language skills are essential to furthering learning, communication, career development, and the human spirit.

REFERENCES California Department of Education. (1998). California English language arts content standards for public schools. Sacramento, CA: Author. Indiana Department of Education. (2000). Indiana’s academic standards: English/language arts. Indianapolis, IN: Author. Maryland Department of Education. (July, 1999). Maryland reading standards and standards for instruction content in English language arts: K-12. Annapolis, MD: Author. Massachusetts Department of Education. (November, 2000). Massachusetts English language arts curriculum framework. Boston, MA: Author. Unpublished draft.

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Pennsylvania Department of Education. (1999). Pennsylvania academic standards for reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Harrisburg, PA: Author. Texas Department of Education. (1998). Texas language arts standards. Austin, TX: Author.

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LANGUAGE ARTS LITERACY

Calkins, L. (2001). The art of teaching reading. New York: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers, Inc. New Jersey Department of Education. (1998). Directory of test specifications in language arts literacy. Trenton, NJ: Author. Griffin, P., Smith, P., & Burrill, L. (1995). The American literacy profile scales: A framework for authentic assessment. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

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OTHER REFERENCES

Keene, E. & Zimmerman, S. (1997). Mosaic of thought: Teaching comprehension in a reader’s workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. National Center on Education & the University of Pittsburgh. (1997). Performance standards: English language arts. Washington, DC and Pittsburgh, PA: Author. National Council of Teacher of English & International Reading Association. (1996). Standards for the English language arts. Urbana, IL and Newark, DE: Author. National Reading Panel. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read: Reports of the subgroups. Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Ray, K. W. (1999). Wondrous words: Writers and writing in the elementary classroom. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teacher of English. Reutzel, D. & Cooper, R. (2000). Teaching children to read: Putting the pieces together (3rd ed.). Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. Snow, C. E., Burns, S. M., & Griffin, P. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

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3 .1

LANGUAGE ARTS LITERACY

STANDARD 3.1

Reading ALL STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND AND APPLY THE KNOWLEDGE OF SOUNDS, LETTERS, AND WORDS IN WRITTEN ENGLISH TO BECOME INDEPENDENT AND FLUENT READERS AND WILL READ A VARIETY OF MATERIALS AND TEXTS WITH FLUENCY AND COMPREHENSION.

Descriptive Statement: A primary reading goal is for students of all grades to read independently with fluency and comprehension so that they become lifelong readers and learners. In order to achieve this goal, students benefit from “daily opportunities to read books they choose for themselves, for their own purposes, and their own pleasures” (Calkins, 2001). Students should read grade-level appropriate or more challenging classic and contemporary literature and informational readings, both self-selected and assigned. In order to grow as readers and deepen their understanding of texts, students need many opportunities to think about, talk about, and write about the texts they are reading. A diversity of reading material (including fiction and nonfiction) provides students with opportunities to grow intellectually, emotionally, and socially as they consider universal themes, diverse cultures and perspectives, and the common aspects of human existence.

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In early reading instruction (preK-2), children need rich experiences with oral language and learning about sounds, letters and words, and their relationships. Phonemic awareness, knowledge of the relationships between sounds and letters, and an understanding of the features of written English texts are essential to beginning reading. Direct systematic phonics instruction enables many students to develop their knowledge of phonics, and provides a bridge to apply this knowledge in becoming independent and fluent readers. Systematic phonics instruction typically involves explicitly teaching students a pre-specified set of letter-sound relations and having students read text that provides practice using these relations to decode words (National Reading Panel, 2000). Additionally, direct instruction and time to practice these skills should be provided in comprehension, strategy, reading fluency, and vocabulary development at all grade levels. It is important to help students become fluent readers in the early years, and then help them expand their literacy abilities as they progress through the middle and high school grades. The reading process requires readers to respond to texts, both personally and critically, and relate prior knowledge and personal experiences to written texts. Students apply literal, inferential, and critical comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading to examine, construct, and extend meaning. In becoming fluent readers, students must draw on the word meaning and sentence structure of text and sound/symbol relationships, and use these cueing systems interchangeably in order to comprehend and gain meaning. Students need to recognize that what they hear, speak, write, and view contributes to the content and quality of their reading experiences.

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LANGUAGE ARTS LITERACY

By the end of Kindergarten, students will:

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3.1.K A. Concepts About Print 1. Realize that speech can be recorded in words (e.g., his/her own name; words and symbols in the environment). 2. Distinguish letters from words. 3. Recognize that words are separated by spaces. 4. Follow words left to right and from top to bottom. 5. Recognize that print represents spoken language. 6. Demonstrate understanding of the function of a book and its parts, including front and back and title page. 3.1.K B. Phonological Awareness (includes phonemic awareness) 1. Demonstrate understanding that spoken words consist of sequences of phonemes. 2. Demonstrate phonemic awareness by rhyming, clapping syllables, and substituting sounds. 3. Understand that the sequence of letters in a written word represents the sequence of sounds (phonemes) in a spoken word (alphabetic principle). 4. Learn many, though not all, one-to-one letter-sound correspondences. 5. Given a spoken word, produce another word that rhymes with it. 3.1.K C. Decoding and Word Recognition 1. Recognize some words by sight. 2. Recognize and name most uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet. 3. Recognize and read one’s name. 3.1.K D. Fluency 1. Practice reading behaviors such as retelling, reenacting, or dramatizing stories. 2. Recognize when a simple text fails to make sense when listening to a story read aloud. 3. Attempt to follow along in book while listening to a story read aloud. 4. Listen and respond attentively to literary texts (e.g., nursery rhymes) and functional texts (e.g., science books). 3.1.K E. Reading Strategies (before, during, and after reading) 1. Begin to track or follow print when listening to a familiar text being read. 2. Think ahead and make simple predictions about text. 3. Use picture clues to aid understanding of story content. 4. Relate personal experiences to story characters’ experiences, language, customs, and cultures with assistance from teacher. 5. “Read” familiar texts from memory, not necessarily verbatim from the print alone. 3.1.K F. Vocabulary and Concept Development 1. Continue to develop a vocabulary through meaningful, concrete experiences. 2. Identify and sort words in basic categories. 3. Explain meanings of common signs and symbols. 4. Use new vocabulary and grammatical construction in own speech. 3.1.K G. Comprehension Skills and Response to Text 1. Respond to a variety of poems and stories through movement, art, music, and drama. 2. Verbally identify the main character, setting, and important events in a story read aloud. 3. Identify favorite books and stories.

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Strands and Cumulative Progress Indicators

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LANGUAGE ARTS LITERACY

4. Retell a story read aloud using main characters and events. 5. Participate in shared reading experiences. 6. Make predictions based on illustrations or portions of stories. 3.1.K H. Inquiry and Research 1. Locate and know the purposes for various literacy areas of the classroom and the library/media center. 2. Choose books related to topics of interest.

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Building upon knowledge and skills gained in the preceding grade, by the end of Grade 1, students will: 3.1.1 A. Concepts About Print 1. Match oral words to printed words (e.g., pointing to print as one reads). 2. Practice reading print in the environment at school and at home with assistance. 3. Locate and identify the title, author, and illustrator of a book or reading selection. 4. Interpret simple graphs, charts, and diagrams. 3.1.1 B. Phonological Awareness (includes phonemic awareness) 1. Demonstrate understanding of all sound- symbol relationships. 2. Blend or segment the phonemes of most one-syllable words. 3. Listen and identify the number of syllables in a word. 4. Merge spoken segments into a word. 5. Add, delete, or change sounds to change words (e.g., cow to how, cat to can). 3.1.1 C. Decoding and Word Recognition 1. Identify all consonant sounds in spoken words (including blends such as bl, br; and digraphs such as th, wh). 2. Recognize and use rhyming words to reinforce decoding skills. 3. Decode regular one-syllable words and nonsense words (e.g., sit, zot). 4. Use sound-letter correspondence knowledge to sound out unknown words when reading text. 5. Recognize high frequency words in and out of context. 6. Decode unknown words using basic phonetic analysis. 7. Decode unknown words using context clues. 3.1.1 D. Fluency 1. Answer questions correctly that are posed about stories read. 2. Begin to read simple text with fluency. 3. Read with fluency both fiction and nonfiction that is grade-level appropriate. 3.1.1 E. Reading Strategies (before, during, and after reading) 1. Use prior knowledge to make sense of text. 2. Establish a purpose for reading and adjust reading rate. 3. Use pictures as cues to check for meaning. 4. Check to see if what is being read makes sense. 5. Monitor their reading by using fix-up strategies (e.g., searching for clues). 6. Use graphic organizers to build on experiences and extend learning. 7. Begin to apply study skills strategies (e.g., survey, question, read, recite, and review—SQ3R) to assist with retention and new learning. 3.1.1 F. Vocabulary and Concept Development 1. Develop a vocabulary of 300-500 high-frequency sight words and phonetically regular words. 2. Use and explain common antonyms and synonyms. 3. Comprehend common and/or specific vocabulary in informational texts and literature.

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3.1.1 G. Comprehension Skills and Response to Text 1. Draw simple conclusions from information gathered from pictures, print, and people. 2. Demonstrate familiarity with genres of text, including storybooks, expository texts, poetry, and newspapers. 3. Sequence information learned from text into a logical order to retell facts. 4. Identify, describe, compare, and contrast the elements of plot, setting, and characters. 5. Make simple inferences. 6. Read regularly in independent-level materials. 7. Engage in silent independent reading for specific purposes. 3.1.1 H. Inquiry and Research 1. Ask and explore questions related to a topic of interest. 2. Draw conclusions from information and data gathered. 3. Be exposed to and read a variety of fiction and nonfiction, and produce evidence of reading.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 2, students will:

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3.1.2 A. Concepts About Print/Text 1. Use titles, tables of contents, and chapter headings to locate information. 2. Recognize the purpose of a paragraph. 3.1.2 B. Phonological Awareness (includes phonemic awareness) 1. Add, delete, or change middle sounds to change words (e.g., pat to put). 2. Use knowledge of letter-sound correspondences to sound out unknown words. 3.1.2 C. Decoding and Word Recognition 1. Look for known chunks or small words to attempt to decode an unknown word. 2. Reread inserting the beginning sound of the unknown word. 3. Decode regular multisyllable words and parts of words (e.g., capital, Kalamazoo). 4. Read many irregularly spelled words and such spelling patterns as diphthongs, special vowel spellings, and common endings. 3.1.2 D. Fluency 1. Pause at appropriate end points (e.g., comma, period). 2. Use appropriate pace; “not choppy” or word-by-word. 3. Use appropriate inflection (e.g., dialogue, exclamations, questions). 4. Read silently without finger or lip movement. 5. Self-monitor when text does not make sense. 6. Employ learned strategies to determine if text makes sense without being prompted. 3.1.2 E. Reading Strategies (before, during, and after reading) 1. Skip over difficult words in an effort to read on and determine meaning. 2. Return to the beginning of a sentence and try again. 3.1.2 F. Vocabulary and Concept Development 1. Develop a vocabulary of 500-800 regular and irregular sight words. 2. Know and relate meanings of simple prefixes and suffixes. 3. Demonstrate evidence of expanding language repertory. 4. Understand concept of antonyms and synonyms. 5. Begin to use a grade-appropriate dictionary with assistance from teacher. 3.1.2 G. Comprehension Skills and Response to Text 1. Demonstrate ability to recall facts and details of text.

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LANGUAGE ARTS LITERACY

2. Recognize cause and effect in text. 3. Make inferences and support them with textual information. 4 Continue to identify story elements in text. 5. Respond to text by using how, why, and what-if questions. 3.1.2 H. Inquiry and Research 1. Locate information using alphabetical order. 2. Read a variety of nonfiction and fiction books and produce evidence of reading.

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Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 3, students will: 3.1.3 A. Concepts About Print/Text 1. Recognize that printed materials provide specific information. 2. Recognize purposes for print conventions such as end-sentence punctuation, paragraphing, and bold print. 3. Use a glossary or index to locate information in a text. 3.1.3 B. Phonological Awareness (includes phonemic awareness) 1. Demonstrate a sophisticated sense of sound-symbol relationships, including all phonemes (e.g., blends, digraphs, diphthongs). 3.1.3 C. Decoding and Word Recognition 1. Know sounds for a range of prefixes and suffixes (e.g., re-, ex-, -ment, -tion). 2. Use letter-sound knowledge and structural analysis to decode words. 3. Use context to accurately read words with more than one pronunciation. 3.1.3 D. Fluency 1. Recognize grade-level words accurately and with ease so that a text sounds like spoken language when read aloud. 2. Read longer text and chapter books independently and silently. 3. Read aloud with proper phrasing, inflection, and intonation. 3.1.3 E. Reading Strategies (before, during, after reading) 1. Set purpose for reading and check to verify or change predictions during/after reading. 2. Monitor comprehension and accuracy while reading in context and self-correct errors. 3. Use pictures and context clues to assist with decoding of new words. 4. Develop and use graphic organizers to build on experiences and extend learning. 3.1.3 F. Vocabulary and Concept Development 1. Spell previously studied words and spelling patterns accurately. 2. Point to or clearly identify specific words or wording that cause comprehension difficulties. 3. Infer word meanings from taught roots, prefixes, and suffixes. 4. Use a grade-appropriate dictionary with assistance from teacher. 5. Use pictures and context clues to assist with meaning of new words. 3.1.3 G. Comprehension Skills and Response to Text 1. Recognize purpose of the text. 2. Distinguish cause/effect, fact/opinion, and main idea/supporting details in interpreting texts. 3. Interpret information in graphs, charts, and diagrams. 4. Ask how, why, and what-if questions in interpreting nonfiction texts. 5. Recognize how authors use humor, sarcasm, and imagery to extend meaning. 6. Discuss underlying theme or message in interpreting fiction. 7. Summarize major points from fiction and nonfiction texts.

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8. Draw conclusions and inferences from texts. 9. Recognize first-person “I” point of view. 10. Compare and contrast story plots, characters, settings, and themes. 11. Participate in creative responses to texts (e.g., dramatizations, oral presentations). 12. Read regularly in materials appropriate for their independent reading level. 13. Read and comprehend both fiction and nonfiction that is appropriately designed for grade level. 14. Use information and reasoning to examine bases of hypotheses and opinions. 3.1.3 H. Inquiry and Research 1. Use library classification systems, print or electronic, to locate information. 2. Draw conclusions from information and data gathered. 3. Read a variety of nonfiction and fiction books and produce evidence of understanding.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 4, students will:

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3.1.4 A. Concepts About Print/Text 1. Identify differences of various print formats, including newspapers, magazines, books, and reference resources. 2. Recognize purposes and uses for print conventions such as paragraphs, end-sentence punctuation, and bold print. 3. Identify and locate features that support text meaning (e.g., maps, charts, illustrations). 3.1.4 B. Phonological Awareness No additional indicators at this grade level. 3.1.4 C. Decoding and Word Recognition 1. Use letter-sound correspondence and structural analysis (e.g., roots, affixes) to decode words. 2. Know and use common word families to decode unfamiliar words. 3. Recognize compound words, contractions, and common abbreviations. 3.1.4 D. Fluency 1. Use appropriate rhythm, flow, meter, and pronunciation in demonstrating understanding of punctuation marks. 2. Read at different speeds using scanning, skimming, or careful reading as appropriate. 3.1.4 E. Reading Strategies (before, during, and after reading) 1. Use knowledge of word meaning, language structure, and sound-symbol relationships to check understanding when reading. 2. Identify specific words or passages causing comprehension difficulties and seek clarification. 3. Select useful visual organizers before, during, and after reading to organize information (e.g., Venn diagrams). 3.1.4 F. Vocabulary and Concept Development 1. Infer word meanings from learned roots, prefixes, and suffixes. 2. Infer specific word meanings in the context of reading passages. 3. Identify and correctly use antonyms, synonyms, homophones, and homographs. 4. Use a grade-appropriate dictionary (independently) to define unknown words. 3.1.4 G. Comprehension Skills and Response to Text 1. Discuss underlying themes across cultures in various texts. 2. Distinguish cause and effect, fact and opinion, main idea, and supporting details in nonfiction texts (e.g., science, social studies). 3. Cite evidence from text to support conclusions. 4. Understand author’s opinions and how they address culture, ethnicity, gender, and historical periods.

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5. Follow simple multiple-steps in written instructions. 6. Recognize an author’s point of view. 7. Identify and summarize central ideas in informational texts. 8. Recognize differences among forms of literature, including poetry, drama, fiction, and nonfiction. 9. Recognize literary elements in stories, including setting, characters, plot, and mood. 10. Identify some literary devices in stories. 11. Identify the structures in poetry. 12. Identify the structures in drama. 13. Read regularly in materials appropriate for their independent reading level. 3.1.4 H. Inquiry and Research 1. Use library classification systems, print or electronic, to locate information. 2. Investigate a favorite author and produce evidence of research. 3. Read independently and research topics using a variety of materials to satisfy personal, academic, and social needs, and produce evidence of reading.

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Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 5, students will: 3.1.5 A. Concepts About Print/Text 1. Use a text index and glossary appropriately. 2. Survey and explain text features that contribute to comprehension (e.g., headings, introductory and concluding paragraphs). 3.1.5 B. Phonological Awareness No additional indicators at this grade level. 3.1.5 C. Decoding and Word Recognition 1. Use the pronunciation key of a dictionary to decode new words. 2. Use context clues or knowledge of phonics, syllabication, prefixes, and suffixes to decode new words. 3. Interpret new words correctly in context. 4. Apply spelling and syllabication rules that aid in decoding and word recognition. 3.1.5 D. Fluency 1. Adjust reading speed appropriately for different purposes and audiences. 2. Apply knowledge of letter-sound associations, language structures, and context to recognize words. 3. Read aloud in ways that reflect understanding of proper phrasing and intonation. 4. Read silently for the purpose of increasing speed, accuracy, and reading fluency. 5. Apply self-correcting strategies to decode and gain meaning from print both, orally and silently. 3.1.5 E. Reading Strategies (before, during, and after reading) 1. Activate prior knowledge and anticipate what will be read or heard. 2. Vary reading strategies according to their purpose for reading and the nature of the text. 3. Reread to make sense of difficult paragraphs or sections of text. 4. Make revisions to text predictions during and after reading. 5. Apply graphic organizers to illustrate key concepts and relationships in a text. 3.1.5 F. Vocabulary and Concept Development 1. Infer word meanings from learned roots, prefixes, and suffixes. 2. Infer specific word meanings in the context of reading passages. 3. Identify and correctly use antonyms, synonyms, homophones, and homographs. 4. Use a grade-level appropriate dictionary independently to define unknown words. 5. Use a thesaurus to identify alternative word choices and meanings.

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3.1.6 A. Concepts About Print/Text 1. Use a text index and glossary independently and appropriately. 2. Survey and explain text features that contribute to comprehension (e.g., headings, introductory, concluding paragraphs). 3. Recognize and use common print formats to obtain information (e.g., newspapers, magazines, electronic sources). 3.1.6 B. Phonological Awareness No additional indicators at this grade level. 3.1.6 C. Decoding and Word Recognition 1. Use a dictionary to decode new words independently. 2. Use context clues or knowledge of phonics, syllabication, prefixes, and suffixes to decode new words.

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Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 6, students will:

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3.1.5 G. Comprehension Skills and Response to Text 1. Identify author’s purpose, views, and beliefs. 2. Identify genre by their distinctive elements (e.g. tall tale-exaggeration). 3. Use cause and effect and sequence of events to gain meaning. 4. Anticipate and construct meaning from text by making conscious connections to self, an author, and others. 5. Recognize persuasive and propaganda techniques used to influence readers. 6. Recognize historical and cultural biases and different points of view. 7. Understand that theme refers to the central idea or meaning of a selection and recognize themes, whether implied or stated directly. 8. Distinguish between major and minor details. 9. Make inferences using textual information and provide supporting evidence. 10. Recognize common organizational patterns in text that support comprehension (e.g., headings, captions). 11. Identify and analyze text types, formats, and elements in nonfiction. 12. Recognize literary elements in stories, including setting, characters, plot, and mood. 13. Recognize figurative language in text (e.g. simile, metaphor, personification, alliteration). 14. Identify and respond to the elements of sound and structure in poetry. 15. Identify the structures in drama. 16. Read regularly in materials appropriate for their independent reading level. 17. Interpret idiomatic expressions. 3.1.5 H. Inquiry and Research 1. Use library classification systems, print or electronic, to locate information. 2. Develop and revise questions for investigations prior to, during, and after reading. 3. Use multiple sources to locate information relevant to research questions. 4. Read independently and research topics using a variety of materials to satisfy personal, academic, and social needs, and produce evidence of reading. 5. Draw conclusions from information gathered from multiple sources. 6. Interpret and use graphic sources of information such as maps, graphs, timelines, or tables to address research questions. 7. Summarize and organize information by taking notes, outlining ideas, and/or making charts. 8. Produce projects and reports, using visuals, media, and/or technology to show learning and support the learning of an audience.

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3.1.6 D.

3.1.6 E.

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F.

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3.1.6 G.

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3. Apply knowledge of new words correctly (refer to word parts and word origin). 4. Apply spelling and syllabication rules that aid in decoding and word recognition. Fluency 1. Adjust reading speed appropriately for different purposes and audiences. 2. Read aloud in ways that reflect understanding of proper phrasing and intonation. 3. Read silently for the purpose of increasing speed, accuracy, and reading fluency. 4. Apply self-correcting strategies to decode and gain meaning from print, both orally and silently. Reading Strategies (before, during, and after reading) 1. Activate prior knowledge and anticipate what will be read or heard. 2. Vary reading strategies according to their purpose for reading and the nature of the text. 3. Reread to make sense of difficult paragraphs or sections of text. 4. Make revisions to text predictions during and after reading. 5. Use reference aids for word meanings when reading. 6. Apply graphic organizers to illustrate key concepts and relationships in a text. Vocabulary and Concept Development 1. Infer word meanings from learned roots, prefixes, and suffixes. 2. Infer specific word meanings in the context of reading passages. 3. Identify and correctly use antonyms, synonyms, homophones, and homographs. 4. Use the dictionary for a variety of purposes (e.g., definitions, word origins, parts of speech). 5. Use a thesaurus to identify alternative word choices and meanings. Comprehension Skills and Response to Text 1. Respond critically to an author’s purpose, ideas, views, and beliefs. 2. Identify genre by their distinctive elements (e.g. tall tale-exaggeration). 3. Use cause and effect and sequence of events to gain meaning. 4. Construct meaning from text by making conscious connections to self, an author, and others. 5. Recognize persuasive and propaganda techniques used to influence readers. 6. Recognize and understand historical and cultural biases and different points of view. 7. Identify and analyze features of themes conveyed through characters, actions, and images. 8. Distinguish between major and minor details. 9. Make inferences using textual information and provide supporting evidence. 10. Recognize common organizational patterns in text that support comprehension (e.g., headings captions). 11. Identify and analyze text types, formats, and elements in nonfiction. 12. Recognize characterization, setting, plot, theme, and point of view in fiction. 13. Recognize sensory details, figurative language, and other literary devices in text. 14. Identify and respond to the elements of sound and structure in poetry. 15. Analyze drama as a source of information, entertainment, persuasion, or transmitter of culture. 16. Identify and analyze elements of setting, plot, and characterization in plays that are read, written, or performed. 17. Explain ways that the setting contributes to the mood of a novel, play, or poem. 18. Interpret idiomatic expressions. Inquiry and Research 1. Develop and revise questions for investigations prior to, during, and after reading. 2. Select and use multiple sources to locate information relevant to research questions. 3. Draw conclusions from information gathered from multiple sources. 4. Interpret and use graphic sources of information such as maps, graphs, timelines, or tables to address research questions.

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5. Summarize and organize information by taking notes, outlining ideas, and/or making charts. 6. Produce projects and reports, using visuals, media, and/or technology to show learning and support the learning of an audience. 7. Compare themes, characters, settings, and ideas across texts or works and produce evidence of understanding.

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Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 7, students will:

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3.1.7 A. Concepts About Print/Text 1. Identify and use common textual features (e.g., paragraphs, topic, sentence, index, glossary, table of contents) and graphic features, (e.g., charts, maps, diagrams) to comprehend information. 2. Develop an understanding of the organizational structure of printed material (e.g. chronological, sequential, procedural text). 3.1.7 B. Phonological Awareness No additional indicators at this grade level. 3.1.7 C. Decoding and Word Recognition 1. Distinguish among the spellings of homophones (e.g. cite, site, sight). 2. Apply spelling rules and syllabication that aid in correct spelling. 3. Continue to use structural analysis and context analysis to decode new words. 3.1.7 D. Fluency 1. Read aloud in selected texts reflecting understanding of the text and engaging the listener. 2. Read increasingly difficult texts silently with comprehension and fluency. 3. Apply self-correcting strategies automatically to decode and gain meaning from print both orally and silently. 4. Reread informational text for clarity. 3.1.7 E. Reading Strategies (before, during, and after reading) 1. Monitor reading for understanding by setting a purpose for reading, making and adjusting predictions, asking essential questions, and relating new learning to background experiences. 2. Use increasingly complex text guides to understand different text structure and organizational patterns (e.g. chronological sequence or comparison and contrast). 3.1.7 F. Vocabulary and Concept Development 1. Develop an extended vocabulary through both listening and independent reading. 2. Clarify word meanings through the use of a word’s definition, example, restatement, or contrast. 3. Clarify pronunciations, meanings, alternate word choice, parts of speech, and etymology of words using the dictionary, thesaurus, glossary, and technology resources. 4. Expand reading vocabulary by identifying and correctly using idioms and words with literal and figurative meanings in their speaking and writing experiences. 3.1.7 G. Comprehension Skills and Response to Text 1. Speculate about text by generating literal and inferential questions. 2. Distinguish between essential and nonessential information. 3. Differentiate between fact, opinion, bias, and propaganda in newspapers, periodicals, and electronic texts. 4. Articulate the purposes and characteristics of different genres. 5. Analyze ideas and recurring themes found in texts, such as bravery, loyalty, friendship, and loneliness. 6. Develop an awareness of a variety of perspectives on a single event, setting, character, personality, or topic as expressed by different authors.

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7. Locate and analyze the elements of setting, characterization, and plot to construct understanding of how characters influence the progression and resolution of the plot. 8. Read critically by identifying, analyzing, and applying knowledge of the purpose, structure, and elements of nonfiction and providing support from the text as evidence of understanding. 9. Read critically by identifying, analyzing, and applying knowledge of the theme, structure, style, and literary elements of fiction and providing support from the text as evidence of understanding. 10. Respond critically to text ideas and the author’s craft by using textual evidence to support interpretations. 11. Identify and analyze literary techniques and elements, such as figurative language, meter, rhetorical and stylistic features of text. 12. Identify and analyze recurring themes across literary works. 13. Identify and understand the author’s use of idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes in prose and poetry. 14. Compare and contrast the perspectives of authors in a variety of interdisciplinary works. 15. Interpret text ideas through journal writing, discussion, and enactment. 16. Demonstrate the use of everyday texts (e.g., train schedules, directions, brochures) and make judgments about the importance of such documents. 17. Interpret idiomatic expressions. 3.1.7 H. Inquiry and Research 1. Produce written and oral work that demonstrates comprehension of informational materials. 2. Analyze a work of literature, showing how it reflects the heritage, traditions, attitudes, and beliefs of its authors. 3. Collect materials for a portfolio that reflect possible career choices. 4. Self-select materials appropriately related to a research project. 5. Read and compare at least two works, including books, related to the same genre, topic, or subject and produce evidence of reading (e.g., compare central ideas, characters, themes, plots, settings).

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Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 8, students will: 3.1.8 A. Concepts About Print/Text 1. Identify and use organizational structures to comprehend information. (e.g., logical order, comparison/contrast, cause/effect, chronological, sequential, procedural text). 3.1.8 B. Phonological Awareness No additional indicators at this grade level. 3.1.8 C. Decoding and Word Recognition 1. Distinguish among the spellings of homophones to determine meaning (e.g. cite, site, sight). 2. Apply spelling and syllabication rules that aid in decoding and word recognition. 3. Continue to use structural analysis and context analysis to decode new words. 4. Apply knowledge of word structures and patterns to read with automaticity. 3.1.8 D. Fluency 1. Read grade-level text orally with high accuracy and appropriate pacing, intonation, and expression. 2. Read increasingly difficult texts silently with comprehension and fluency. 3. Apply self-correcting strategies automatically to decode and gain meaning from print both orally and silently. 4. Adjust reading rate in response to the type of text and level of difficulty (e.g. recreational reading vs. informational reading).

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3.1.8 E. Reading Strategies (before, during, and after reading) 1. Monitor reading for understanding by automatically setting a purpose for reading, making and adjusting predictions, asking essential questions, and relating new learning to background experiences. 2. Use increasingly complex text guides to understand different text structure and organizational patterns (e.g. chronological sequence or comparison and contrast). 3.1.8 F. Vocabulary and Concept Development 1. Develop and refine an extended vocabulary through listening and exposure to a variety of texts and independent reading. 2. Clarify word meanings through the use of a word’s definition, example, restatement, or contrast. 3. Clarify pronunciations, meanings, alternate word choice, parts of speech, and etymology of words using the dictionary, thesaurus, glossary, and technology resources. 4. Expand reading vocabulary by identifying and correctly using idioms and words with literal and figurative meanings in their speaking and writing experiences. 5. Explain relationships between and among words including connotation/denotation, antonyms/synonyms, and words with multiple meanings. 3.1.8 G. Comprehension Skills and Response to Text 1. Differentiate between fact/opinion and bias and propaganda in newspapers, periodicals, and electronic texts. 2. Compare and analyze several authors’ perspectives of a character, personality, topic, setting, or event. 3. Analyze ideas and recurring themes found in texts, such as good versus evil, across traditional and contemporary works. 4. Locate and analyze the elements of setting, characterization, and plot to construct understanding of how characters influence the progression and resolution of the plot. 5. Read critically by identifying, analyzing, and applying knowledge of the purpose, structure, and elements of nonfiction and providing support from the text as evidence of understanding. 6. Read critically by identifying, analyzing, and applying knowledge of the theme, structure, style, and literary elements of fiction and providing support from the text as evidence of understanding. 7. Respond critically to text ideas and the author’s craft by using textual evidence to support interpretations. 8. Identify and analyze literary techniques and elements, such as figurative language, meter, rhetorical, and stylistic features of text. 9. Identify and analyze recurring themes across literary works. 10. Read critically and analyze poetic forms (e.g., ballad, sonnet, couplet). 11. Identify and understand the author’s use of idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes in prose and poetry. 12. Understand perspectives of authors in a variety of interdisciplinary works. 13. Interpret text ideas through journal writing, discussion, and enactment. 14. Demonstrate the use of everyday texts (e.g., train schedules, directions, brochures) and make judgments about the importance of such documents. 15. Compare and analyze the various works of writers through an author’s study. 3.1.8 H. Inquiry and Research 1. Produce written and oral work that demonstrates comprehension of informational materials. 2. Analyze a work of literature, showing how it reflects the heritage, traditions, attitudes, and beliefs of its authors. 3. Collect materials for a portfolio that reflect personal career choices. 4. Self-select materials appropriately related to a research project.

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5. Read and compare at least two works, including books, related to the same genre, topic, or subject and produce evidence of reading (e.g., compare central ideas, characters, themes, plots, settings).

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 12, students will: 3.1.12 A. Concepts About Print/Text No additional indicators at this grade level. 3.1.12 B. Phonological Awareness No additional indicators at this grade level. 3.1.12 C. Decoding and Word Recognition No additional indicators at this grade level. 3.1.12 D. Fluency 1. Read developmentally appropriate materials at an independent level with accuracy and speed. 2. Use appropriate rhythm, flow, meter, and pronunciation when reading. 3. Read a variety of genres and types of text with fluency and comprehension. 3.1.12 E. Reading Strategies (before, during, and after reading) 1. Identify, assess, and apply personal reading strategies that were most effective in previous learning from a variety of texts. 2. Practice visualizing techniques before, during, and after reading to aid in comprehension. 3. Judge the most effective graphic organizers to use with various text types for memory retention and monitoring comprehension. 3.1.12 F. Vocabulary and Concept Development 1. Use knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meanings of specialized vocabulary. 2. Use knowledge of root words to understand new words. 3. Apply reading vocabulary in different content areas. 3.1.12 G. Comprehension Skills and Response to Text 1. Identify, describe, evaluate, and synthesize the central ideas in informational texts. 2. Understand the study of literature and theories of literary criticism. 3. Understand that our literary heritage is marked by distinct literary movements and is part of a global literary tradition. 4. Compare and evaluate the relationship between past literary traditions and contemporary writing. 5. Analyze how works of a given period reflect historical and social events and conditions. 6. Recognize literary concepts, such as rhetorical device, logical fallacy, and jargon, and their effect on meaning. 7. Interpret how literary devices affect reading emotions and understanding. 8. Analyze and evaluate the appropriateness of diction and figurative language (e.g., irony, paradox). 9. Distinguish between essential and nonessential information, identifying the use of proper references and propaganda techniques where present. 10. Differentiate between fact and opinion by using complete and accurate information, coherent arguments, and points of view. 11. Analyze how an author’s use of words creates tone and mood, and how choice of words advances the theme or purpose of the work. 12. Demonstrate familiarity with everyday texts such as job and college applications, W-2 forms, and contracts.

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13. Read, comprehend, and be able to follow information gained from technical and instructional manuals (e.g., how-to books, computer manuals, or instructional manuals). 3.1.12 H. Inquiry and Research 1. Select appropriate electronic media for research and evaluate the quality of the information received. 2. Develop materials for a portfolio that reflect a specific career choice. 3. Develop increased ability to critically select works to support a research topic. 4. Read and critically analyze a variety of works, including books and other print materials (e.g., periodicals, journals, manuals), about one issue or topic, or books by a single author or in one genre, and produce evidence of reading. 5. Apply information gained from several sources or books on a single topic or by a single author to foster an argument, draw conclusions, or advance a position. 6. Critique the validity and logic of arguments advanced in public documents, their appeal to various audiences, and the extent to which they anticipate and address reader concerns.

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STANDARD 3.2

Writing ALL STUDENTS WILL WRITE IN CLEAR, CONCISE, ORGANIZED LANGUAGE THAT VARIES IN CONTENT AND FORM FOR DIFFERENT AUDIENCES AND PURPOSES.

Descriptive Statement: Writing is a complex process that begins with the recording of one’s thoughts. It is used for composition, communication, expression, learning, and engaging the reader. Proficient writers use a repertoire of strategies that enables them to vary form, style, and conventions in order to write for different purposes, audiences, and contexts. Students should have multiple opportunities to craft and practice writing, to generate ideas, and to refine, evaluate, and publish their writing. In a successful writing program, students develop and demonstrate fluency in all phases of the writing process, including prewriting, drafting, revising, editing of multiple drafts, and postwriting processes that include publishing, presenting, evaluating, and/or performing. Students should be helped to understand the recursive nature and shifting perspectives of the writing process, in moving from the role of writer to the role of reader and back again. It is important for students to understand that writers write, then plan and revise, and then write again. They will learn to appreciate writing not only as a product, but also as a process and mode of thinking and communicating. “By the mysterious alchemy of the written word, we range over time and space, expanding our experiences, enriching our souls, and ultimately becoming more fully, more consciously human” (Keene, 1999). Students should recognize that what they hear, speak, read, and view contributes to the content and quality of their writing.

Strands and Cumulative Progress Indicators

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By the end of Kindergarten, students will: 3.2.K A. Writing as a Process (prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, postwriting) 1. Recognize that thoughts and talk can be written down in words. 2. Observe the teacher modeling writing. 3. Generate and share ideas and experiences for a story. 4. Attempt to put ideas into writing using pictures, developmental spelling, or conventional text. 5. Write (print) own first and last name. 6. Participate in group writing activities such as experience stories, interactive writing, and shared writing. 7. Begin to sequence story events for writing using pictures, developmental spelling, or conventional text. 3.2.K B. Writing as a Product (resulting in work samples) 1. Show and talk about work samples containing pictures, developmental spelling, or conventional text. 2. Begin to collect favorite work samples to place in personal writing folder. 3.2.K C. Mechanics, Spelling, and Handwriting 1. Use letter/sound knowledge in attempting to write (print) some words. 2. Spell own name. 3. Recognize and begin to use left-to-right and top-to-bottom directionality and spacing between words when writing. 4. Gain increasing control of penmanship, including pencil grip, paper position, and beginning strokes. 5. Write all uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet from teacher copy.

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3.2.K D. Writing Forms, Audiences, and Purposes (exploring a variety of writing) 1. Communicate personal response to literature through drawing, telling, or writing. 2. Show and talk about favorite work samples (drawing or writing) with teacher and family.

3.2.1 A. Writing as a Process (prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, postwriting) 1. Begin to generate ideas for writing through talking, sharing, and drawing. 2. Observe the modeling of writing. 3. Begin to use a basic writing process to develop writing. 4. Use simple sentences to convey ideas. 5. Increase fluency (ability to write ideas easily) to improve writing. 6. Continue to use pictures, developmental spelling or conventional text to create writing drafts. 7. Revisit pictures and writings to add detail. 8. Begin to mimic an author’s voice and patterns. 9. Begin to use a simple checklist to improve writing with teacher support. 10. Begin to use simple computer writing applications during some parts of the writing process. 3.2.1 B. Writing as a Product (resulting in a product or publication) 1. Produce finished writings to share with class and/or for publication. 2. Produce stories from personal experiences. 3. Show and talk about own writing for classroom audience. 4. Collect favorite works to place in personal writing folder. 3.2.1 C. Mechanics, Spelling, and Handwriting 1. Write all upper and lowercase letters of the alphabet from memory. 2. Begin to use basic punctuation and capitalization. 3. Apply sound/symbol relationships to writing words. 4. Use developmental spelling or phonics-based knowledge to spell independently, when necessary. 5. Develop awareness of conventional spelling. 6. Use left-to-right and top-to-bottom directionality and use appropriate spacing between words. 3.2.1 D. Writing Forms, Audiences, and Purposes (exploring a variety of writing) 1. Create written texts for others to read. 2. Produce a variety of writings, including stories, descriptions, and journal entries, showing relationships between illustrations and printed text.

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Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 2, students will:

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Building upon knowledge and skills gained in the preceding grade, by the end of Grade 1, students will:

3.2.2 A. Writing as a Process (prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, postwriting) 1. Generate ideas for writing: hearing stories, recalling experiences, brainstorming, and drawing. 2. Observe the modeling of writing. 3. Begin to develop an awareness of simple story structures and author’s voice. 4. Use sentences to convey ideas in writing. 5. Maintain the use of a basic writing process to develop writing. 6. Use graphic organizers to assist with planning writing. 7. Compose readable first drafts. 8. Use everyday words in appropriate written context.

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9. Reread drafts for meaning, to add details, and to improve correctness. 10. Focus on elaboration as a strategy for improving writing. 11. Participate with peers to comment on and react to each other’s writing. 12. Use a simple checklist to improve elements of own writing. 13. Use computer writing applications during some parts of the writing process. 3.2.2 B. Writing as a Product (resulting in a formal product or publication) 1. Produce finished writings to share with classmates and/or for publication. 2. Produce stories from personal experiences. 3. Produce a narrative with a beginning, middle, and end. 4. Write nonfiction pieces, such as letters, procedures, biographies, or simple reports. 5. Organize favorite work samples in a writing folder or portfolio. 3.2.2 C. Mechanics, Spelling, and Handwriting 1. Use correct end point punctuation. 2. Apply basic rules of capitalization. 3. Use correct spelling of some high frequency words. 4. Apply sound/symbol relationships to writing words. 5. Recognize and apply basic spelling patterns. 6. Write legibly to meet district standards. 3.2.2 D. Writing Forms, Audiences, and Purposes (exploring a variety of forms) 1. Create written texts for others to read. 2. Generate ideas and write on topics in forms appropriate to science, social studies, or other subject areas. 3. Use writing as a tool for learning self-discovery and reflection. 4. Use reading and technology to support writing. 5. Write in a variety of simple genres to satisfy personal, academic, and social needs, such as letters, plays, procedures, biographies, or simple reports.

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Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 3 students will: 3.2.3 A. Writing as a Process (prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, postwriting) 1. Generate possible ideas for writing through recalling experiences, listening to stories, reading, brainstorming, and discussion. 2. Examine real-world examples of writing in various genres to gain understanding of how authors communicate ideas through form, structure, and author’s voice. 3. Use graphic organizers to assist with planning writing. 4. Compose first drafts from prewriting work. 5. Revise a draft by rereading for meaning, narrowing the focus, sequencing, elaborating with detail, improving openings, closings, and word choice to show voice. 6. Participate with peers to comment on and react to each other’s writing. 7. Build awareness of ways authors use paragraphs to support meaning. 8. Begin to develop author’s voice in own writing. 9. Use reference materials to revise work, such as a dictionary or internet/software resource. 10. Edit work for basic spelling and mechanics. 11. Use computer word-processing applications during parts of the writing process. 12. Understand and use a checklist and/or rubric to improve writing. 13. Reflect on own writing, noting strengths and areas needing improvement.

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3.2.3 B. Writing as a Product (resulting in a formal product or publication) 1. Write a descriptive piece, such as a description of a person, place, or object. 2. Write a narrative piece based on personal experiences. 3. Write a nonfiction piece and/or simple informational report across the curriculum. 4. Present and discuss writing with other students. 5. Apply elements of grade-appropriate rubrics to improve writing. 6. Develop a collection of writings (e.g., a literacy folder or portfolio). 3.2.3 C. Mechanics, Spelling, Handwriting 1. Use Standard English conventions that are developmentally appropriate to the grade level: sentences, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling. 2. Use grade-appropriate knowledge of English grammar and usage to craft writing, such as singular and plural nouns, subject/verb agreement, and appropriate parts of speech. 3. Study examples of narrative and expository writing to develop understanding of paragraphs and indentation. 4. Develop knowledge of English spelling through the use of patterns, structural analysis, and high frequency words. 5. Write legibly in manuscript or cursive to meet district standards. 3.2.3 D. Writing Forms, Audiences, and Purposes (exploring a variety of forms) 1. Write for a variety of purposes (e.g., to inform, entertain, persuade) and audiences (e.g., self, peers, community). 2. Develop fluency by writing daily and for sustained amounts of time. 3. Generate ideas for writing in a variety of situations and across the curriculum. 4. Write to express thoughts and ideas, to share experiences, and to communicate socially. 5. Write the events of a story sequentially. 6. Produce writing that demonstrates the use of a variety of sentence types, such as declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and imperative. 7. Respond to literature through writing to demonstrate an understanding of a text. 8. Write narrative text (e.g., realistic or humorous story). 9. Write non-fiction text (e.g., reports, procedures, letters).

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 4, students will:

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3.2.4 A. Writing as a Process (prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, postwriting) 1. Generate possible ideas for writing through talking, recalling experiences, hearing stories, reading, discussing models of writing, asking questions, and brainstorming. 2. Develop an awareness of form, structure, and author’s voice in various genres. 3. Use strategies such as reflecting on personal experiences, reading, doing interviews or research, and using graphic organizers to generate and organize ideas for writing. 4. Draft writing in a selected genre with supporting structure according to the intended message, audience, and purpose for writing. 5. Revise drafts by rereading for meaning, narrowing the focus, elaborating, reworking organization, openings, and closings, and improving word choice and consistency of voice. 6. Review own writing with others to understand the reader’s perspective and to consider ideas for revision. 7. Review and edit work for spelling, mechanics, clarity, and fluency.

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8. Use a variety of reference materials to revise work, such as a dictionary, thesaurus, or internet/software resources. 9. Use computer writing applications during most of the writing process. 10. Understand and apply elements of grade-appropriate rubrics to improve and evaluate writing. 11. Reflect on one’s writing, noting strengths and areas needing improvement. 3.2.4 B. Writing as a Product (resulting in a formal product or publication) 1. Create narrative pieces, such as memoir or personal narrative, which contain description and relate ideas, observations, or recollections of an event or experience. 2. Write informational reports across the curriculum that frame an issue or topic, include facts and details, and draw from more than one source of information. 3. Craft writing to elevate its quality by adding detail, changing the order of ideas, strengthening openings and closings, and using dialogue. 4. Build knowledge of the characteristics and structures of a variety of genres. 5. Sharpen focus and improve coherence by considering the relevancy of included details, and adding, deleting, and rearranging appropriately. 6. Write sentences of varying lengths and complexity, using specific nouns, verbs, and descriptive words. 7. Recognize the difference between complete sentences and sentence fragments and examine the uses of each in real-world writing. 8. Improve the clarity of writing by rearranging words, sentences, and paragraphs. 9. Examine real-world writing to expand knowledge of sentences, paragraphs, usage, and authors’ writing styles. 10. Provide logical sequence and support the purpose of writing by refining organizational structure and developing transitions between ideas. 11. Engage the reader from beginning to end with an interesting opening, logical sequence, and satisfying conclusion. 3.2.4 C. Mechanics, Spelling, and Handwriting 1. Use Standard English conventions that are appropriate to the grade level, such as sentence structure, grammar and usage, punctuation, capitalization, spelling, and handwriting. 2. Use increasingly complex sentence structure and syntax to express ideas. 3. Use grade appropriate knowledge of English grammar and usage to craft writing, such as subject/verb agreement, pronoun usage and agreement, and appropriate verb tenses. 4. Use punctuation correctly in sentences, such as ending punctuation, commas, and quotation marks in dialogue. 5. Use capital letters correctly in sentences, for proper nouns, and in titles. 6. Study examples of narrative and expository writing to develop understanding of the reasons for and use of paragraphs and indentation. 7. Indent in own writing to show the beginning of a paragraph. 8. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly with particular attention to frequently used words, contractions, and homophones. 9. Use knowledge of base words, structural analysis, and spelling patterns to expand spelling competency in writing. 10. Use a variety of reference materials, such as a dictionary, grammar reference, and internet/software resources to edit written work. 11. Write legibly in manuscript or cursive to meet district standards.

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3.2.4 D. Writing Forms, Audiences, and Purposes (exploring a variety of forms) 1. Write for different purposes (e.g., to express ideas, to inform, to entertain, to respond to literature, to question, to share) and a variety of audiences (e.g., self, peers, community). 2. Study the characteristics of a variety of genres, including expository, narrative, poetry, and reflection. 3. Develop independence by setting self-selected purposes and generating topics for writing. 4. Write independently to satisfy personal, academic, and social needs (e.g., stories, summaries, letters, or poetry). 5. Use writing to paraphrase, clarify, and reflect on new learning across the curriculum. 6. Respond to literature in writing to demonstrate an understanding of the text, to explore personal reactions, and to connect personal experiences with the text. 7. Write narratives that relate recollections of an event or experience and establish a setting, characters, point of view, and sequence of events. 8. Write informational reports that frame a topic, include facts and details, and draw information from several sources. 9. Write formal and informal letters for a variety of audiences and purposes. 10. Use a variety of strategies to organize writing, including sequence, chronology, and cause/effect. 11. Demonstrate higher-order thinking skills through responses to open-ended and essay questions in content areas or as responses to literature. 12. Use relevant graphics in writing (e.g., maps, charts, illustrations). 13. Demonstrate the development of a personal style and voice in writing. 14. Review scoring criteria of a writing rubric. 15. Develop a collection of writings (e.g., a literacy folder or a literacy portfolio).

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 5, students will:

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3.2.5 A. Writing as a Process (prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, postwriting) 1. Write stories with multiple paragraphs that develop a situation or plot, describe the setting, and include an ending. 2. Write informational compositions with multiple paragraphs that present important ideas, provide details, and offer a concluding paragraph. 3. Generate possible ideas for writing through listening, talking, recalling experiences, hearing stories, reading, discussing models of writing, asking questions, and brainstorming. 4. Develop an awareness of form, structure, and author’s voice in various genres. 5. Use strategies such as graphic organizers and outlines to elaborate and organize ideas for writing. 6. Draft writing in a selected genre with supporting structure according to the intended message, audience, and purpose for writing 7. Make decisions about the use of precise language, including adjectives, adverbs, verbs, and specific details, and justify the choices made. 8. Revise drafts by rereading for meaning, narrowing focus, elaborating and deleting, as well as reworking organization, openings, closings, word choice, and consistency of voice. 9. Review own writing with others to understand the reader’s perspective and to consider and incorporate ideas for revision. 10. Review and edit work for spelling, usage, clarity, organization, and fluency. 11. Use a variety of reference materials to revise work. 12. Use computer writing applications during the writing process.

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13. Understand and apply the elements of a scoring rubric to improve and evaluate writing. 14. Reflect on own writing, noting strengths and setting goals for improvement. 3.2.5 B. Writing as a Product (resulting in a formal product or publication) 1. Expand knowledge of characteristics and structures of selected genres. 2. Write a range of grade appropriate essays across curricula (e.g., persuasive, personal, descriptive, issuebased). 3. Write grade appropriate, multi-paragraph, expository pieces across curricula (e.g., problem/solution, cause/effect, hypothesis/results, feature articles, critique, research reports). 4. Write various types of prose, such as short stories, biography, autobiography, or memoir, that contain narrative elements. 5. Support main idea, topic, or theme with facts, examples, or explanations, including information from multiple sources. 6. Sharpen focus and improve coherence by considering the relevancy of included details and adding, deleting, and rearranging appropriately. 7. Write sentences of varying length and complexity, using specific nouns, verbs, and descriptive words. 8. Prepare a works consulted page for reports or research papers. 9. Provide logical sequence throughout multi-paragraph works by refining organizational structure and developing transitions between ideas. 10. Engage the reader from beginning to end with an interesting opening, logical sequence, and satisfying conclusion. 3.2.5 C. Mechanics, Spelling, and Handwriting 1. Use Standard English conventions in all writing, such as sentence structure, grammar and usage, punctuation, capitalization, spelling, and handwriting. 2. Use increasingly complex sentence structure and syntax to express ideas. 3. Use knowledge of English grammar and usage to express ideas effectively. 4. Use correct capitalization and punctuation, including commas and colons, throughout writing. 5. Use quotation marks and related punctuation correctly in passages of dialogue. 6. Use knowledge of roots, prefixes, suffixes, and English spelling patterns to spell words correctly in writing. 7. Study examples of narrative and expository writing to develop understanding of the reasons for and use of paragraphs and indentation. 8. Edit writing for correct grammar usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling. 9. Use a variety of reference materials, such as a dictionary, grammar reference, and/or internet/software resources to edit written work. 10. Write legibly in manuscript or cursive to meet district standards. 3.2.5 D. Writing Forms, Audiences, and Purposes (exploring a variety of forms) 1. Write for different purposes (e.g., to express ideas, inform, entertain, respond to literature, persuade, question, reflect, clarify, share) and a variety of audiences (e.g., self, peers, community). 2. Gather, select, and organize information appropriate to a topic, task, and audience. 3. Develop and use knowledge of a variety of genres, including expository, narrative, persuasive, poetry, critiques, and everyday/ workplace writing. 4. Organize a response that develops insight into literature by exploring personal reactions, connecting to personal experiences, and referring to the text through sustained use of examples. 5. Use transitions between and within paragraphs. 6. Organize paragraphs using topic sentences. 7. Write narratives, establishing a plot or conflict, setting, characters, point of view, and resolution.

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8. Use narrative techniques (e.g., dialogue, specific actions of characters, sensory description, and expression of thoughts and feelings of characters). 9. Write reports based on research with a scope narrow enough to be thoroughly covered, supporting the main ideas or topic with facts, examples, and explanations, and including a works consulted page. 10. Write persuasive essays with clearly stated positions or opinions supported by organized and relevant evidence to validate arguments and conclusions, and sources cited when needed. 11. Demonstrate the ability to write friendly/business letters in correct format and coherent style. 12. Use a variety of strategies to organize writing, including sequence, chronology, cause/effect, problem/solution, and order of importance. 13. Demonstrate higher-order thinking skills and writing clarity when answering open-ended and essay questions in content areas or as responses to literature. 14. Use relevant graphics in writing (e.g., maps, charts, illustrations, graphs, photographs). 15. Demonstrate the development of a personal style and voice in writing. 16. Review scoring criteria of relevant rubrics. 17. Develop a collection of writings (e.g., a literacy folder, a literacy portfolio).

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 6, students will:

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3.2.6 A. Writing as a Process (prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, postwriting) 1. Write informational compositions of several paragraphs that engage the interest of the reader, state a clear purpose, develop the topic, and conclude with a detailed summary. 2. Generate ideas for writing through reading and making connections across the curriculum and with current events. 3. Expand knowledge about form, structure, and voice in a variety of genres. 4. Use strategies such as graphic organizers and outlines to elaborate and organize ideas for writing. 5. Draft writing in a selected genre with supporting structure and appropriate voice according to the intended message, audience, and purpose for writing. 6. Make decisions about the use of precise language, including adjectives, adverbs, verbs, and specific details, and justify the choices made. 7. Revise drafts by rereading for meaning, narrowing focus, elaborating and deleting, as well as reworking organization, openings, closings, word choice, and consistency of voice. 8. Review own writing with others to understand the reader’s perspective and to consider and incorporate ideas for revision. 9. Review and edit work for spelling, usage, clarity, organization, and fluency. 10. Use a variety of reference materials to revise work. 11. Use computer writing applications during the writing process. 12. Understand and apply the elements of a scoring rubric to improve and evaluate writing. 13. Reflect on own writing, noting strengths and setting goals for improvement. 3.2.6 B. Writing as a Product (resulting in a formal product or publication) 1. Expand knowledge of characteristics, structures, and tone of selected genres. 2. Write a range of grade appropriate essays across curricula (e.g., persuasive, personal, descriptive, issuebased). 3. Write grade appropriate, multi-paragraph expository pieces across curricula (e.g., problem/solution, cause/effect, hypothesis/results, feature articles, critique, research reports). 4. Write various types of prose, such as short stories, biography, autobiography, or memoir that contain narrative elements.

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5. Support main idea, topic, or theme with facts, examples, or explanations, including information from multiple sources. 6. Sharpen focus and improve coherence by considering the relevancy of included details, and adding, deleting, and rearranging appropriately. 7. Write sentences of varying length and complexity, using specific nouns, verbs, and descriptive words. 8. Prepare a works consulted page for reports or research papers. 9. Provide logical sequence throughout multi-paragraph works by refining organizational structure and developing transitions between ideas. 10. Engage the reader from beginning to end with an interesting opening, logical sequence, and satisfying conclusion. 3.2.6 C. Mechanics, Spelling, and Handwriting 1. Use Standard English conventions in all writing, such as sentence structure, grammar and usage, punctuation, capitalization, spelling, handwriting. 2. Use a variety of sentence types and syntax, including independent and dependent clauses and prepositional and adverbial phrases, to connect ideas and craft writing in an interesting and grammatically correct way. 3. Use knowledge of English grammar and usage to express ideas effectively. 4. Use correct capitalization and punctuation, including commas and colons, throughout writing. 5. Use quotation marks and related punctuation correctly in passages of dialogue. 6. Use knowledge of roots, prefixes, suffixes, and English spelling patterns to spell words correctly in writing. 7. Demonstrate understanding of reasons for paragraphs in narrative and expository writing and indent appropriately in own writing. 8. Edit writing for correct grammar usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling. 9. Use a variety of materials, such as a dictionary, grammar reference, and/or internet/software resources to edit written work. 10. Write legibly in manuscript or cursive to meet district standards. 3.2.6 D. Writing Forms, Audiences, and Purposes (exploring a variety of forms) 1. Write for different purposes (e.g., to express ideas, inform, entertain, respond to literature, persuade, question, reflect, clarify, share) and a variety of audiences (e.g., self, peers, community). 2. Gather, select, and organize information appropriate to a topic, task, and audience. 3. Develop and use knowledge of a variety of genres, including expository, narrative, persuasive, poetry, critiques, and everyday/ workplace writing. 4. Organize a response that develops insight into literature by exploring personal reactions, connecting to personal experiences, and referring to the text through sustained use of examples. 5. Write narratives, establishing a plot or conflict, setting, characters, point of view, and resolution. 6. Use narrative techniques (e.g., dialogue, specific actions of characters, sensory description, and expression of thoughts and feelings of characters). 7. Write reports based on research with a scope narrow enough to be thoroughly covered, supporting the main ideas or topic with facts, examples, and explanations from authoritative sources, and including a works consulted page. 8. Write persuasive essays with clearly stated positions or opinions supported by organized and relevant evidence to validate arguments and conclusions, and sources cited when needed. 9. Demonstrate the ability to write business letters in correct format and coherent style. 10. Use a variety of strategies to organize writing, including sequence, chronology, cause/effect, problem/ solution, and order of importance.

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3.2.7 A. Writing as a Process (prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, postwriting) 1. Write stories or scripts with well-developed characters, setting, dialogue, clear conflict and resolution, and sufficient descriptive detail. 2. Write multi-paragraph compositions that have clear topic development, logical organization, effective use of detail, and variety in sentence structure. 3. Generate and narrow topics by considering purpose, audience, and form with a variety of strategies (e.g., graphic organizers, brainstorming, or technology-assisted processes). 4. Revise and edit drafts by rereading for content and organization, usage, sentence construction, mechanics, and word choice. 5. Demonstrate understanding of a scoring rubric to improve and evaluate writing. 6. Compose, revise, edit, and publish writing using appropriate word processing software. 7. Reflect on own writing, noting strengths and setting goals for improvement. 3.2.7 B. Writing as a Product (resulting in a formal product or publication) 1. Extend knowledge of specific characteristics, structures, and appropriate voice and tone of selected genres and use this knowledge in creating written work, considering the purpose, audience, and context of the writing. 2. Write various types of prose, such as short stories, biographies, autobiographies, or memoirs that contain narrative elements. 3. Write reports and subject-appropriate nonfiction pieces across the curriculum based on research and including citations, quotations, and a works consulted page. 4. Write a range of essays, including persuasive, speculative (picture prompt), descriptive, personal, or issuebased. 3.2.7 C. Mechanics, Spelling, and Handwriting 1. Use Standard English conventions in all writing, such as sentence structure, grammar and usage, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling. 2. Use a variety of sentence types correctly, including combinations of independent and dependent clauses, prepositional and adverbial phrases, and varied sentence openings to develop a lively and effective personal style. 3. Understand and use parallelism, including similar grammatical forms, to present items in a series or to organize ideas for emphasis. 4. Experiment in using subordination, coordination, apposition, and other devices to indicate relationships between ideas. 5. Use transition words to reinforce a logical progression of ideas. 6. Edit writing for correct grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling. 7. Use a variety of reference materials, such as a dictionary, thesaurus, grammar reference, and/or internet/software resources to edit written work. 8. Write legibly in manuscript or cursive to meet district standards.

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Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 7, students will:

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11. Demonstrate higher-order thinking skills and writing clarity when answering open-ended and essay questions in content areas or as responses to literature. 12. Use relevant graphics in writing (e.g., maps, charts, illustrations, graphs, photographs). 13. Demonstrate the development of a personal style and voice in writing. 14. Review scoring criteria of relevant rubrics. 15. Develop a collection of writings (e.g., a literacy folder or a literacy portfolio).

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3.2.7 D. Writing Forms, Audiences, and Purposes (exploring a variety of forms) 1. Gather, select, and organize information appropriate to a topic, task, and audience. 2. Apply knowledge and strategies for composing pieces in a variety of genres (e.g., narrative, expository, persuasive, poetic, and everyday/ workplace or technical writing). 3. Write responses to literature and develop insights into interpretations by connecting to personal experiences and referring to textual information. 4. Write personal narratives, short stories, memoirs, poetry and persuasive and expository text that relate clear, coherent events or situations through the use of specific details. 5. Use narrative and descriptive writing techniques that show compositional risks (e.g., dialogue, literary devices, sensory words and phrases, background information, thoughts and feelings of characters, and comparison and contrast of characters). 6. Use primary and secondary sources to understand the value of each when writing a research report. 7. Write reports based on research and include citations, quotations, and works consulted page. 8. Explore the central idea or theme of an informational reading and support analysis with details from the article and personal experiences. 9. Demonstrate writing clarity and supportive evidence when answering open-ended and essay questions across the curriculum. 10. State a position clearly in a persuasive essay by stating the issue, giving facts, examples, and details to support the position, and citing sources when appropriate. 11. Present evidence when writing persuasive essays, examples, and justification to support arguments. 12. Choose an appropriate organizing strategy, such as cause/effect, pro and con, or parody to effectively present a topic, point of view, or argument. 13. Develop the use of a personal style and voice effectively to support the purpose and engage the audience with a piece of writing. 14. Maintain a collection of writing (e.g., a literacy folder, or a literacy portfolio). 15. Review scoring criteria of relevant rubrics.

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Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 8, students will: 3.2.8 A. Writing as a Process (prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, postwriting) 1. Write stories or scripts with well-developed characters, setting, dialogue, clear conflict and resolution, and sufficient descriptive detail. 2. Write multi-paragraph compositions that have clear topic development, logical organization, effective use of detail, and variety in sentence structure. 3. Generate and narrow topics by considering purpose, audience, and form with a variety of strategies (e.g., graphic organizers, brainstorming, technology-assisted processes). 4. Revise and edit drafts by rereading for content and organization, usage, sentence construction, mechanics, and word choice. 5. Utilize the New Jersey Registered Holistic scoring rubric to improve and evaluate their writing and the writing of peers. 6. Compose, revise, edit, and publish writing using appropriate word processing software. 7. Reflect on own writing, noting strengths and setting goals for improvement. 3.2.8 B. Writing as a Product (resulting in a formal product or publication) 1. Extend knowledge of specific characteristics, structures, and appropriate voice and tone of selected genres and use this knowledge in creating written work, considering the purpose, audience, and context of the writing.

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2. Write various types of prose, such as short stories, biographies, autobiographies, or memoirs that contain narrative elements. 3. Write reports and subject-appropriate nonfiction pieces across the curriculum based on research and including citations, quotations, and a works cited page. 4. Write a range of essays, including persuasive, speculative (picture prompt), descriptive, personal, or issue-based. 3.2.8 C. Mechanics, Spelling, and Handwriting 1. Use Standard English conventions in all writing, such as sentence structure, grammar and usage, punctuation, capitalization, spelling. 2. Use a variety of sentence types correctly, including combinations of independent and dependent clauses, prepositional and adverbial phrases, and varied sentence openings to develop a lively and effective personal style. 3. Understand and use parallelism, including similar grammatical forms, to present items in a series or to organize ideas for emphasis. 4. Refine the use of subordination, coordination, apposition, and other devices to indicate relationships between ideas. 5. Use transition words to reinforce a logical progression of ideas. 6. Edit writing for correct grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling. 7. Use a variety of reference materials, such as a dictionary, thesaurus, grammar reference, and/or internet/software resources to edit written work. 8. Write legibly in manuscript or cursive to meet district standards. 3.2.8 D. Writing Forms, Audiences, and Purposes (exploring a variety of forms) 1. Gather, select, and organize the most effective information appropriate to a topic, task, and audience. 2. Apply knowledge and strategies for composing pieces in a variety of genres (e.g., narrative, expository, persuasive, poetic, and everyday/ workplace or technical writing). 3. Write responses to literature and develop insights into interpretations by connecting to personal experiences and referring to textual information. 4. Write personal narratives, short stories, memoirs, poetry, and persuasive and expository text that relate clear, coherent events, or situations through the use of specific details. 5. Use narrative and descriptive writing techniques that show compositional risks (e.g., dialogue, literary devices sensory words and phrases, background information, thoughts and feelings of characters, comparison and contrast of characters). 6. Use a variety of primary and secondary sources to understand the value of each when writing a research report. 7. Write reports based on research and include citations, quotations, and works cited page. 8. Explore the central idea or theme of an informational reading and support analysis with details from the article and personal experiences. 9. Demonstrate writing clarity and supportive evidence when answering open-ended and essay questions across the curriculum. 10. State a position clearly and convincingly in a persuasive essay by stating the issue, giving facts, examples, and details to support the position, and citing sources when appropriate. 11. Present evidence when writing persuasive essays, examples, and justification to support arguments. 12. Choose an appropriate organizing strategy such as cause/effect, pro and con, parody, to effectively present a topic, point of view, or argument. 13. Use of a personal style and voice effectively to support the purpose and engage the audience of a piece of writing.

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14. Maintain a collection of writing (e.g., a literacy folder, or a literacy portfolio). 15. Review scoring criteria of relevant rubrics.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 12, students will: 3.2.12 A. Writing as a Process (prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, postwriting) 1. Engage in the full writing process by writing daily and for sustained amounts of time. 2. Use strategies such as graphic organizers and outlines to plan and write drafts according to the intended message, audience, and purpose for writing. 3. Analyze and revise writing to improve style, focus and organization, coherence, clarity of thought, sophisticated word choice and sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning. 4. Review and edit work for spelling, usage, clarity, and fluency. 5. Use the computer and word-processing software to compose, revise, edit, and publish a piece. 6. Use a scoring rubric to evaluate and improve own writing and the writing of others. 7. Reflect on own writing and establish goals for growth and improvement. 3.2.12 B. Writing as a Product (resulting in a formal product or publication) 1. Analyzing characteristics, structures, tone, and features of language of selected genres and apply this knowledge to own writing. 2. Critique published works for authenticity and credibility. 3. Draft a thesis statement and support/defend it through highly developed ideas and content, organization, and paragraph development. 4. Write multi-paragraph, complex pieces across the curriculum using a variety of strategies to develop a central idea (e.g., cause-effect, problem/solution, hypothesis/results, rhetorical questions, parallelism). 5. Write a range of essays and expository pieces across the curriculum, such as persuasive, analytic, critique, or position paper. 6. Write a literary research paper that synthesizes and cites data using researched information and technology to support writing. 7. Use primary and secondary sources to provide evidence, justification, or to extend a position, and cite sources, such as periodicals, interviews, discourse, and electronic media. 8. Foresee readers’ needs and develop interest through strategies such as using precise language, specific details, definitions, descriptions, examples, anecdotes, analogies, and humor as well as anticipating and countering concerns and arguments and advancing a position. 9. Provide compelling openings and strong closure to written pieces. 10. Employ relevant graphics to support a central idea (e.g., charts, graphic organizers, pictures, computergenerated presentation). 11. Use the responses of others to review content, organization, and usage for publication. 12. Select pieces of writing from a literacy folder for a presentation portfolio that reflects performance in a variety of genres. 3.2.12 C. Mechanics, Spelling, and Handwriting 1. Use Standard English conventions in all writing, such as sentence structure, grammar and usage, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling. 2. Demonstrate a well-developed knowledge of English syntax to express ideas in a lively and effective personal style. 3. Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and other devices effectively to indicate relationships between ideas.

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4. Use transition words to reinforce a logical progression of ideas. 5. Exclude extraneous details, repetitious ideas, and inconsistencies to improve writing. 6. Use knowledge of Standard English conventions to edit own writing and the writing of others for correctness. 7. Use a variety of reference materials, such as a dictionary, grammar reference, and/or internet/software resources to edit written work. 8. Write legibly in manuscript or cursive to meet district standards. 3.2.12 D. Writing Forms, Audiences, and Purposes (exploring a variety of forms) 1. Employ the most effective writing formats and strategies for the purpose and audience. 2. Demonstrate command of a variety of writing genres, such as: . Persuasive essay . Personal narrative . Research report . Literary research paper . Descriptive essay . Critique . Response to literature . Parody of a particular narrative style (fable, myth, short story) . Poetry 3. Evaluate the impact of an author’s decisions regarding tone, word choice, style, content, point of view, literary elements, and literary merit, and produce an interpretation of overall effectiveness. 4. Apply all copyright laws to information used in written work. 5. When writing, employ structures to support the reader, such as transition words, chronology, hierarchy or sequence, and forms, such as headings and subtitles. 6. Compile and synthesize information for everyday and workplace purposes, such as job applications, resumes, business letters, and college applications. 7. Demonstrate personal style and voice effectively to support the purpose and engage the audience of a piece of writing.

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STANDARD 3.3

Speaking ALL STUDENTS WILL SPEAK IN CLEAR, CONCISE, ORGANIZED LANGUAGE THAT VARIES IN CONTENT AND FORM FOR DIFFERENT AUDIENCES AND PURPOSES.

Descriptive Statement: Oral language is a powerful tool for communicating, thinking, and learning. Through speaking and listening, students acquire the building blocks necessary to connect with others, develop vocabulary, and perceive the structure of the English language. An important goal in the language arts classroom is for students to speak confidently and fluently in a variety of situations. Speaking is the process of expressing, transmitting, and exchanging information, ideas, and emotions. When students listen and talk to others about their ideas, they are able to clarify their thinking. Whether in informal interactions with others or in more formal settings, communicators are required to organize and deliver information clearly and adapt to their listeners. Students should have multiple opportunities to use speaking for a variety of purposes, including questioning, sharing information, telling a humorous story, or helping others to achieve goals. Students should recognize that what they hear, write, read, and view contributes to the content and quality of their oral language.

Strands and Cumulative Progress Indicators

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By the end of Kindergarten, students will: 3.3.K A. Discussion 1. Share experiences and express ideas. 2. Participate in conversations with peers and adults. 3. React to stories, poems, and songs. 3.3.K B. Questioning (Inquiry) and Contributing 1. Share in conversations with others. 2. Use oral language to extend learning. 3.3.K C. Word Choice 1. Use language to describe feelings, people, objects, and events. 2. Suggest rhyming words during word play, songs, or read-aloud. 3.3.K D. Oral Presentation 1. Sing familiar songs and rhymes to promote oral language development. 2. Begin to use social conventions of language.

Building on the knowledge and skills gained in the preceding grade, by the end of Grade 1, students will: 3.3.1 A. Discussion 1. Speak in complete sentences. 2. Offer personal opinions in discussion and retell personal experiences. 3. Role-play situations and dramatize story events. 3.3.1 B. Questioning (Inquiry) and Contributing 1. Respond to ideas and questions posed by others. 2. Ask and answer various types of questions.

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3.3.1 C. Word Choice 1. Attempt to use new vocabulary learned from shared literature and classroom experiences. 2. Use descriptive words to clarify and extend ideas. 3.3.1 D. Oral Presentation 1. Recite poems, stories, or rhymes orally (e.g., favorite nursery rhymes). 2. Participate in choral reading to develop phonemic awareness, oral language, and fluency. 3. Retell a story to check for understanding. 4. Read aloud from developmentally appropriate texts with attention to expression.

Building on the knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 2, students will: 3.3.2 A. Discussion (small group and whole class) 1. Elaborate on experiences and ideas. 2. Begin to stay focused on a topic of discussion. 3. Offer personal opinions related to topics of discussion. 4. Wait their turn to speak. 3.3.2 B. Questioning (Inquiry) and Contributing 1. Ask for explanation to clarify meaning. 2. Respond to ideas posed by others. 3. Restate to demonstrate understanding. 4. Identify a problem and simple steps for solving the problem. 3.3.2 C. Word Choice 1. Use new vocabulary learned from literature and classroom experiences. 2. Recognize and discuss how authors use words to create vivid images. 3.3.2 D. Oral Presentation 1. Participate in a dramatization or role play. 2. Begin to understand the importance of looking at a speaker. 3. Talk about an experience or work sample in front of a small group.

Building on the knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 3, students will:

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3.3.3 A. Discussion (small group and whole class) 1. Listen and follow a discussion in order to contribute appropriately. 2. Stay focused on topic. 3. Take turns. 4. Support an opinion with details. 3.3.3 B. Questioning (Inquiry) and Contributing 1. Develop appropriate questions to explore a topic. 2. Contribute information, ideas, and experiences to classroom inquiry. 3.3.3 C. Word Choice 1. Use vocabulary related to a particular topic. 2. Adapt language to persuade, explain, or seek information. 3. Use new vocabulary and figurative language learned from literature and classroom experiences. 3.3.3 D. Oral Presentation 1. Use pictures to support an oral presentation.

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2. Attempt to revise future presentations based on feedback from peers and teacher. 3. Use appropriate strategies to prepare, rehearse, and deliver an oral presentation, such as word choice, expression, eye contact, and volume.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 4, students will: 3.3.4 A. Discussion (small group and whole class) 1. Use details, examples and reasons to support central ideas or clarify a point of view. 2. Stay focused on a topic and ask relevant questions. 3. Take turns without dominating. 3.3.4 B. Questioning (Inquiry) and Contributing 1. Develop questioning techniques (e.g., who, what, when, where, why, and how). 2. Use interview techniques to develop inquiry skills. 3. Explore concepts by describing, narrating, or explaining how and why things happen. 4. Discuss information heard, offer personal opinions, and ask for restatement or general explanation to clarify meaning. 5. Reflect and evaluate information learned as a result of the inquiry. 6. Solve a problem or understand a task through group cooperation. 3.3.4 C. Word Choice 1. Use convincing dialogue to role-play short scenes involving familiar situations or emotions. 2. Use figurative language purposefully in speaking situations. 3. Use appropriate vocabulary to support or clarify a message. 4. Adapt language to persuade, explain, or seek information. 3.3.4 D. Oral Presentation 1. Speak for a variety of audiences and purposes. 2. Prepare, rehearse, and deliver a formal presentation in logical or sequential order, including an opening, supportive details, and a closing statement. 3. Use notes or other memory aids to structure a presentation. 4. Maintain audience interest during formal presentations, incorporating adequate volume, proper pacing, and clear enunciation. 5. Participate in a dramatization or role-play across the curriculum. 6. Read aloud with fluency. 7. Understand and use criteria for a rubric to improve an oral presentation.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 5, students will: 3.3.5 A. Discussion (small group and whole class) 1. Use details, examples, and reasons to support central ideas or clarify a point of view. 2. Stay focused on a topic and ask relevant questions. 3. Accept others’ opinions and respond appropriately. 4. Respond orally to literature. 5. Participate in class discussions appropriately. 3.3.5 B. Questioning (Inquiry) and Contributing 1. Respond orally by adding questions and comments while integrating knowledge. 2. Use interview techniques to develop inquiry skills.

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3. Explore concepts by describing, narrating, or explaining how and why things happen. 4. Discuss information heard, offer personal opinions, and ask for restatement or general explanation to clarify meaning. 5. Reflect and evaluate information learned as a result of the inquiry. 6. Solve a problem or understand a task through group cooperation. 3.3.5 C. Word Choice 1. Use convincing dialogue to role-play short scenes involving familiar situations or emotions. 2. Use varied word choice to clarify, illustrate, and elaborate. 3. Use figurative language purposefully in speaking situations. 4. Select and use suitable vocabulary to fit a range of audiences. 3.3.5 D. Oral Presentation 1. Develop and deliver a formal presentation based on a central theme, including logical sequence, introduction, main ideas, supporting details, and concluding remarks to an audience of peers, younger students, and/or parents. 2. Prepare, rehearse, and deliver a formal presentation in logical or sequential order, including an opening, supportive details, and a closing statement. 3. Use clear, precise, organized language that reflects the conventions of spoken English. 4. Use visuals such as charts or graphs when presenting for clarification. 5. Use props effectively while speaking. 6. Maintain audience interest during formal presentations, incorporating adequate volume, proper pacing, and clear enunciation. 7. Use verbal and non verbal elements of delivery (e.g., eye contact, stance) to maintain audience focus. 8. Read aloud with fluency. 9. Understand and use criteria from a rubric to improve an oral presentation. 10. Incorporate peer feedback and teacher suggestions for revisions in content, organization, and delivery.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 6, students will:

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3.3.6 A. Discussion (small group and whole class) 1. Support a position with organized, appropriate details. 2. Stay focused on a topic and ask relevant questions. 3. Acknowledge others’ opinions and respond appropriately. 4. Respond orally to literature. 5. Participate in class discussion appropriately. 3.3.6 B. Questioning (Inquiry) and Contributing 1. Respond orally by adding questions and comments while integrating knowledge. 2. Demonstrate effective use of a variety of questions, including literal, inferential, and evaluative questions. 3. Explore concepts by describing, narrating, or explaining how and why things happen. 4. Discuss information heard, offer personal opinions, and ask for restatement or general explanation to clarify meaning. 5. Reflect and evaluate information learned as a result of the inquiry. 6. Solve a problem or understand a task through group cooperation. 3.3.6 C. Word Choice 1. Use varied word choice to clarify, illustrate, and elaborate. 2. Use figurative language purposefully in speaking situations. 3. Select and use suitable vocabulary to fit a range of audiences.

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3.3.6 D. Oral Presentation 1. Develop and deliver a formal presentation based on a central theme, including logical sequence, introduction, main ideas, supporting details, and concluding remarks to an audience of peers, younger students, and/or parents. 2. Prepare, rehearse, and deliver a formal presentation in logical or sequential order, including an opening, supportive details, and a closing statement. 3. Use clear, precise, organized language that reflects the conventions of spoken English. 4. Use visuals such as charts or graphs when presenting for clarification. 5. Use props effectively while speaking. 6. Use verbal and non verbal elements of delivery (e.g., eye contact, stance) to maintain audience focus. 7. Read aloud with fluency. 8. Understand and use criteria from a rubric to improve an oral presentation. 9. Incorporate peer feedback and teacher suggestions for revisions in content, organization, and delivery.

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Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 7, students will: 3.3.7 A. Discussion (small group and whole class) 1. Support a position, acknowledging opposing views. 2. Present ideas and opinions spontaneously in response to a topic or other speakers. 3. Apply rules for cooperative or whole class debate on a controversial issue. 4. Define group roles using consensus to ensure task is understood and completed. 5. Participate in an informal debate (e.g., small group discussion). 6. Respond orally to literature. 7. Participate in class discussions appropriately. 3.3.7 B. Questioning (Inquiry) and Contributing 1. Paraphrase others’ comments to clarify viewpoints. 2. Question to clarify others’ opinions. 3. Talk with others to identify and explore issues and problems. 4. Solve a problem or understand a task through group cooperation. 3.3.7 C. Word Choice 1. Paraphrase, illustrate, clarify, and/or expand on a topic or idea. 2. Develop and use advanced vocabulary related to a topic. 3. Use language that stimulates an audience’s interest. 4. Incorporate varied sentence structure and correct grammar. 3.3.7 D. Oral Presentation 1. Use writing to prompt discussion and enhance planning of formal and informal presentations. 2. Use visual aids, media, and/or technology to support oral communication. 3. Give oral presentations to different audiences for various purposes, such as summaries of books and articles, narratives, and persuasive topics. 4. Acknowledge the audience with eye contact and use appropriate verbal responses to clarify questions and inquiries. 5. Incorporate peer feedback and teacher suggestions for revisions in content, organization, and delivery. 6. Develop speaking techniques, including voice modulation, inflection, tempo, enunciation, and eye contact for effective presentations. 7. Use a scoring rubric to prepare, evaluate, and improve the oral presentations of self and others. 8. Read aloud with fluency.

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3.3.12 A. Discussion 1. Support a position integrating multiple perspectives. 2. Support, modify, or refute a position in small or large-group discussions. 3. Assume leadership roles in student-directed discussions, projects, and forums. 4. Summarize and evaluate tentative conclusions and take the initiative in moving discussions to the next stage. 3.3.12 B. Questioning (Inquiry) and Contributing 1. Ask prepared and follow-up questions in interviews and other discussions.

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Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 12, students will:

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3.3.8 A. Discussion (small group and whole class) 1. Support a position, acknowledging opposing views. 2. Present ideas and opinions spontaneously in response to a topic or other speakers. 3. Apply rules for cooperative or whole class debate on a controversial issue. 4. Define group roles using consensus to ensure task is understood and completed. 5. Participate in a formal debate (e.g., panel discussion). 6. Respond orally to literature. 7. Participate in class discussion appropriately. 3.3.8 B. Questioning (Inquiry) and Contributing 1. Paraphrase others’ comments to clarify viewpoints. 2. Question to clarify others’ opinions. 3. Integrate relevant information regarding issues and problems from group discussions and interviews for reports, issues, projects, debates, and oral presentations. 4. Solve a problem or understand a task through group cooperation. 3.3.8 C. Word Choice 1. Paraphrase, illustrate, clarify, and/or expand on a topic or idea. 2. Develop and use advanced vocabulary related to a topic. 3. Use language that stimulates an audience’s interest. 4. Incorporate varied sentence structure and correct grammar. 3.3.8 D. Oral Presentation 1. Use writing to prompt discussion and enhance planning of formal and informal presentations. 2. Use visual aids, media, and/or technology to support oral communication. 3. Give oral presentations to different audiences for various purposes, such as summaries of books and articles, narratives, and persuasive topics, research projects, and extemporaneous/impromptu, dramatic speeches. 4. Acknowledge the audience with eye contact and use appropriate verbal responses to clarify questions and inquiries. 5. Incorporate peer feedback and teacher suggestions for revisions in content, organization, and delivery. 6. Use speaking techniques, including voice modulation, inflection, tempo, enunciation, and eye contact, for effective presentations. 7. Use a scoring rubric to prepare, evaluate, and improve the oral presentations of self and others. 8. Read aloud with fluency.

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Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 8, students will:

2. Extend peer contributions by elaboration and illustration. 3. Analyze, evaluate, and modify group processes. 4. Select and discuss literary passages that reveal character, develop theme, and illustrate literary elements. 5. Question critically the position or viewpoint of an author. 6. Respond to audience questions by providing clarification, illustration, definition, and elaboration. 7. Participate actively in panel discussions, symposiums, and/or business meeting formats (e.g., explore a question and consider perspectives). 3.3.12 C. Word Choice 1. Modulate tone and clarify thoughts through word choice. 2. Improve word choice by focusing on rhetorical devices (e.g., puns, parallelism, allusion, alliteration). 3.3.12 D. Oral Presentation 1. Speak for a variety of purposes (e.g., persuasion, information, entertainment, literary interpretation, dramatization, personal expression). 2. Use a variety of organizational strategies (e.g., focusing idea, attention getters, clinchers, repetition, transition words). 3. Demonstrate effective delivery strategies (e.g., eye contact, body language, volume, intonation, articulation) when speaking. 4. Edit drafts of speeches independently and in peer discussions. 5. Modify oral communications through sensing audience confusion, and make impromptu revisions in oral presentation (e.g., summarizing, restating, adding illustrations/details). 6. Use a rubric to self-assess and improve oral presentations.

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STANDARD 3.4

Listening ALL STUDENTS WILL LISTEN ACTIVELY TO INFORMATION FROM A VARIETY OF SOURCES IN A VARIETY OF SITUATIONS.

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Descriptive Statement: Listening is the process of hearing, receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages. Through active listening, students gain understanding and appreciation of language and communication. Students call on different listening skills depending on their purpose for listening (e.g., listening to letter sounds to gain phonemic awareness, comprehending information, evaluating a message, appreciating a performance). Effective listeners are able to listen actively, restate, interpret, respond to, and evaluate increasingly complex messages. Students need to recognize that what they say, read, write, and view contributes to the content and quality of their listening experiences.

Strands and Cumulative Progress Indicators By the end of Kindergarten students will: 3.4.K A. Active Listening 1. Listen fully to understand instructions or hear daily messages. 2. Listen to identify main characters and events in stories. 3. Listen to rhymes and songs to begin developing an understanding of letter/sound relationships. 3.4.K B. Listening Comprehension 1. Listen attentively to books teacher reads to class. 2. Answer questions correctly about books read aloud.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in the preceding grade, by the end of Grade 1, students will:

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3.4.1 A. Active Listening 1. Listen and respond appropriately to directions. 2. Listen to hear initial, final, and eventually middle sounds in words. 3. Listen to a familiar text being read to begin tracking print. 4. Listen to a spoken word to produce another word that rhymes with it. 3.4.1 B. Listening Comprehension 1. Listen to make predictions about stories read aloud. 2. Follow simple oral directions. 3. Recall information from listening to stories, poems, television, and film. 4. Retell, reenact, or dramatize stories or parts of stories heard. 5. Respond appropriately to questions about stories read aloud. 6. Begin to track print when listening to a familiar text being read or when rereading their own writing. 7. Ask questions for clarification and explanation of stories and ideas heard.

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Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 2, students will: 3.4.2 A. Active Listening 1. Listen critically to identify main ideas and supporting details. 2. Begin to distinguish between types of speech (e.g., a joke, a chat, a warning). 3. Listen and contribute to class discussions. 3.4.2 B. Listening Comprehension 1. Follow one- and two- step oral directions. 2. Develop a strong listening vocabulary to aid comprehension and oral and written language growth.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 3, students will: 3.4.3 A. Active Listening 1. Connect messages heard to prior knowledge and experiences. 2. Exchange information through verbal and nonverbal messages. 3.4.3 B. Listening Comprehension 1. Follow two-and three-step directions. 2. Listen to a story read aloud and/or information from television or film, and summarize main ideas. 3. Paraphrase information shared by others.

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Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 4, students will: 3.4.4 A. Active Listening 1. Listen actively for a variety of purposes such as enjoyment and obtaining information. 2. Listen attentively and critically to a variety of speakers. 3. Interpret vocabulary gained through listening. 3.4.4 B. Listening Comprehension 1. Demonstrate competence in active listening through comprehension of a story, interview, and oral report of an event or incident. 2. Develop listening strategies (e.g., asking questions and taking notes) to understand what is heard. 3. Demonstrate competence in active listening by interpreting and applying received information to new situations and solving problems. 4. Make inferences based on an oral report or presentation. 5. Describe how language reflects specific regions and/or cultures. 6. Follow three-and four-step oral directions.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 5, students will: 3.4.5 A. Active Listening 1. Listen actively for a variety of purposes such as enjoyment and obtaining information. 2. Listen attentively and critically to a variety of speakers. 3. Acknowledge the speaker through eye contact and use appropriate feedback and questions to clarify the speaker’s message. 4. Recognize and analyze persuasive techniques while listening. 5. Recognize the rich and varied language of literature (e.g., listen to a recording of poetry or classic literature).

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6. Listen to determine a speaker’s purpose, attitude, and perspective. 7. Use, when appropriate, criteria/rubric to evaluate oral presentations, such as purpose, delivery techniques, content, visual aids, body language, and facial expressions. 3.4.5 B. Listening Comprehension 1. Demonstrate competence in active listening through responding to a story, interview, or oral report (e.g., summarizing, reacting, retelling). 2. Demonstrate competence in active listening by interpreting and applying received information to new situations and in solving problems. 3. Ask pertinent questions, take notes, and draw conclusions based on information presented. 4. Make inferences based on an oral report or presentation. 5. Follow three-and four-step oral directions.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 6, students will: 3.4.6 A. Active Listening 1. Listen actively for a variety of purposes such as enjoyment and obtaining information. 2. Listen attentively and critically to a variety of speakers. 3. Acknowledge the speaker through eye contact and use appropriate feedback and questions to clarify the speaker’s message. 4. Recognize and analyze persuasive techniques while listening. 5. Recognize the rich and varied language of literature (e.g., listen to a recording of poetry or classic literature). 6. Listen to determine a speaker’s purpose, attitude, and perspective. 7. Use, when appropriate, criteria/rubric to evaluate oral presentations, such as purpose, delivery techniques, content, visual aids, body language, and facial expressions. 3.4.6 B. Listening Comprehension 1. Demonstrate competence in active listening through responding to a story, interview, or oral report (e.g. summarizing, reacting, retelling). 2. Demonstrate competence in active listening by interpreting and applying received information to new situations and in solving problems. 3. Ask pertinent questions, take notes, and draw conclusions based on information presented. 4. Make inferences based on an oral report or presentation. 5. Follow three and four-step oral directions.

3.4.7 A. Active Listening 1. Demonstrate active listening behaviors in a variety of situations (e.g., one-on-one or small group). 2. Demonstrate active listening by analyzing information, ideas, and opinions to determine relevancy. 3. Acknowledge the speaker through eye contact and use appropriate feedback and questions to clarify the speaker’s message. 4. Recognize persuasive techniques and credibility in oral communication. 5. Listen to determine a speaker’s purpose, attitude, and perspective. 6. Use, when appropriate, criteria/rubric to evaluate oral presentations, such as purpose, delivery techniques, content, visual aids, body language, and facial expressions.

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Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 7, students will:

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3.4.7 B. Listening Comprehension 1. Interpret a speaker’s verbal and nonverbal messages, purposes, and perspectives. 2. Exhibit proficiency in integrating oral reading with listening, writing, and viewing. 3. Critique information heard or viewed. 4. Critique oral presentations using agreed-upon criteria for evaluation (e.g., rubric). 5. Ask probing questions to elicit information, including evidence to support the speaker’s claims and conclusions. 6. Make inferences based on an oral report or presentation.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 8, students will: 3.4.8 A. Active Listening 1. Demonstrate active listening behaviors in a variety of situations (e.g., one-on-one or small group). 2. Demonstrate active listening by analyzing information, ideas, and opinions to determine relevancy. 3. Acknowledge the speaker through eye contact and use appropriate feedback and questions to clarify the speaker’s message. 4. Recognize persuasive techniques and credibility in oral communication. 5. Listen to determine a speaker’s purpose, attitude, and perspective. 6. Use, when appropriate, criteria/rubric to evaluate oral presentations, such as purpose, delivery techniques, content, visual aids, body language, and facial expressions. 3.4.8 B. Listening Comprehension 1. Interpret a speaker’s verbal and nonverbal messages, purposes, and perspectives. 2. Exhibit proficiency in integrating oral reading with listening, writing, and viewing. 3. Critique information heard or viewed. 4. Critique oral presentations using agreed-upon criteria for evaluation (e.g., rubric). 5. Ask probing questions to elicit information, including evidence to support the speaker’s claims and conclusions. 6. Paraphrase a speaker’s purpose and point of view. 7. Make inferences based on an oral report or presentation.

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Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 12, students will: 3.4.12 A. Active Listening 1. Explore and reflect on ideas while hearing and focusing attentively. 2. Listen skillfully to distinguish emotive and persuasive rhetoric. 3. Demonstrate appropriate listener response to ideas in a persuasive speech, oral interpretation of a literary selection, or scientific or educational presentation. 3.4.12 B. Listening Comprehension 1. Listen to summarize, make judgments, and evaluate. 2. Evaluate the credibility of a speaker. 3. Determine when propaganda and argument are used in oral forms. 4. Listen and respond appropriately to a debate.

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STANDARD 3.5

Viewing and Media Literacy ALL STUDENTS WILL ACCESS, VIEW, EVALUATE, AND RESPOND TO PRINT, NONPRINT, AND ELECTRONIC TEXTS AND RESOURCES.

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Descriptive Statement: Students learn how to view critically and thoughtfully in order to respond to visual messages and images in print, nonverbal interactions, the arts, and electronic media. Effective viewing is essential to comprehend and respond to personal interactions, live performances, visual arts that involve oral and/or written language, and both print media (graphs, charts, diagrams, illustrations, photographs, and graphic design in books, magazines, and newspapers) and electronic media (television, computers, and film). A media-literate person is able to evaluate media for credibility and understands how words, images, and sounds influence the way meanings are conveyed and understood in contemporary society. Students need to recognize that what they speak, hear, write, and read contributes to the content and quality of their viewing.

Strands and Cumulative Progress Indicators By the end of Kindergarten, students will: 3.5.K A. Constructing Meaning 1. Make predictions about visual information (e.g., pictures in books). 2. Discuss favorite characters from books, film, and television. 3.5.K B. Visual and Verbal Messages 1. Begin to sequence a series of pictures or images to tell a story. 2. Show understanding of purpose for pictures in books.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in the preceding grade, by the end of Grade 1, students will:

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 2, students will: 3.5.2 A. Constructing Meaning 1. Speculate about characters, events, and settings in books, film, and television. 2. Recognize that media messages are created for a specific purpose (e.g., to inform, entertain, persuade).

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3.5.1 A. Constructing Meaning 1. Retell the story from a favorite media program (e.g., television, movie). 2. Distinguish between “pretend” and “real” in the media. 3. Begin to recognize that media messages have different purposes. 4. Speculate about visual representations (e.g., pictures, artwork). 5. Use simple graphs and charts to report data. 6. Begin to recognize the work of a favorite illustrator. 7. Begin to compare and contrast media characters. 3.5.1 B. Visual and Verbal Messages 1. Begin to interpret messages in simple advertisements. 2. Sequence a series of pictures or images to tell a story.

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3. Use graphs and charts to report data. 4. Recognize the work of a favorite illustrator. 5. Compare and contrast media characters. 3.5.2 B. Visual and Verbal Messages 1. Interpret messages in simple advertisements. 2. Use a simple rating scale to judge media products. 3. Begin to look at the effects of visual arts on one’s mood and emotions.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 3, students will: 3.5.3 A. Constructing Meaning 1. Begin to demonstrate an awareness of different media forms and how they contribute to communication. 2. Identify the central theme and main ideas in different media. 3.5.3 B. Visual and Verbal Messages 1. Recognize the effects of visual arts on one’s mood and emotions. 2. Begin to explore and interpret messages found in advertisements and other texts.

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Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 4, students will: 3.5.4 A. Constructing Meaning 1. Interpret information found in pictorial graphs, map keys, and icons on a computer screen. 2. Respond to and evaluate the use of illustrations to support text. 3. Use graphs, charts, and diagrams to report data. 4. Distinguish between factual and fictional visual representations. 5. Identify the central theme in a movie, film, or illustration. 6. Identify the target audience for a particular program, story, or advertisement. 7. Demonstrate an awareness of different media forms and how they contribute to communication. 3.5.4 B. Visual and Verbal Messages 1. Understand that creators of both print media and electronic media have a purpose and target audience for their work. 2. Explore and interpret various messages found in advertisements and other texts. 3. Discuss the emotional impact of photos and how they aid understanding. 4. Compare and contrast media sources, such as film and book versions of a story. 3.5.4 C. Living with Media 1. Express preferences for media choices.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 5, students will: 3.5.5 A. Constructing Meaning 1. Respond to and evaluate the use of illustrations to support text. 2. Use graphs, charts, and diagrams to report data. 3. Distinguish between factual and fictional visual representations (e.g. political cartoons). 4. Identify the central theme in a movie, film, or illustration. 5. Identify the target audience for a particular program, story, or advertisement. 6. Demonstrate an awareness of different media forms (e.g. newspapers, internet, magazines) and how they contribute to communication.

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7. Understand uses of persuasive text related to advertising in society. 8. Distinguish different points of view in media texts. 3.5.5 B. Visual and Verbal Messages 1. Understand that creators of both print media and electronic media have a purpose and target audience for their work. 2. Evaluate media messages for credibility. 3. Explore and interpret various messages found in advertisements and other texts. 4. Interpret verbal and nonverbal messages reflected in personal interactions with others. 5. Discuss the emotional impact of a still image (e.g., photo, poster, painting) and how it aids understanding. 6. Compare and contrast media sources, such as film and book versions of a story. 7. Understand the uses of technology (e.g., the Internet for research). 3.5.5 C. Living with Media 1. Express and justify preferences for media choices. 2. Choose the most appropriate media for a presentation. 3. Use a rubric to evaluate the content of media presentations. 4. Examine and evaluate effects of media on the family, home, and school.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 6, students will:

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2 0 0 4 N E W J E R S E Y C O R E C U R R I C U LU M C O N T E N T S TA N DA R D S

3.5.6 A. Constructing Meaning 1. Respond to and evaluate the use of illustrations to support text. 2. Use graphs, charts, and diagrams to report data. 3. Distinguish between factual and fictional visual representations (e.g. political cartoons). 4. Identify the central theme in a movie, film, or illustration. 5. Identify the target audience for a particular program, story, or advertisement. 6. Demonstrate an awareness of different media forms (e.g. newspapers, internet, magazines) and how they contribute to communication. 7. Understand uses of persuasive text related to advertising in society. 8. Distinguish different points of view in media texts. 3.5.6 B. Visual and Verbal Messages 1. Understand that creators of both print media and electronic media have a purpose and target audience for their work. 2. Evaluate media messages for credibility. 3. Explore and interpret various messages found in advertisements and other texts. 4. Interpret verbal and nonverbal messages reflected in personal interactions with others. 5. Discuss the emotional impact of a still image (e.g., photo, poster, painting) and how it aids understanding. 6. Compare and contrast media sources, such as film and book versions of a story. 7. Understand the uses of technology (e.g., the Internet for research). 3.5.6 C. Living with Media 1. Express and justify preferences for media choices. 2. Choose the most appropriate media for a presentation. 3. Use a rubric to evaluate the content of media presentations. 4. Examine and evaluate effects of media on the family, home, and school.

S TA N DA R D

3 . 5

LANGUAGE ARTS LITERACY

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 7, students will: 3.5.7 A. Constructing Meaning 1. Analyze aspects of print and electronic texts that support the author’s point of view, opinion, or attitude. 2. Analyze the use of elements (e.g., setting plot, theme, characters) to understand media presentations, such as film, video, television, and theatrical productions. 3. Analyze and respond to visual and print messages (e.g., humor, irony, metaphor) and recognize how words, sounds, and still or moving images are used in each medium to convey the intended messages. 4. Compare and contrast how the various forms of media (e.g. newspapers, radio, television, internet news outlets) cover the same topic. 3.5.7 B. Visual and Verbal Messages 1. Analyze and compare the pros and cons of visual and verbal advertising. 2. Evaluate various media messages for credibility. 3. Develop criteria/rubric to judge the effectiveness of visual and verbal presentations. 4. Make inferences based upon the content of still images. 5. Compare and contrast media sources, such as film and book versions of a story. 3.5.7 C. Living with Media 1. Evaluate media forms, such as television, video, games, music, and film for content appropriateness (e.g. rating systems, rubric). 2. Analyze media content for emotional effect on audience. 3. Create media presentations and written reports, using multi-media resources such as an overhead projector, computer, and/or a tape recorder to communicate information.

2 0 0 4 N E W J E R S E Y C O R E C U R R I C U LU M C O N T E N T S TA N DA R D S

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 8, students will: 3.5.8 A. Constructing Meaning 1. Analyze aspects of print and electronic texts that support the author’s point of view, opinion, or attitude. 2. Analyze the use of elements (e.g., setting plot, theme, characters) to understand media presentations, such as film, video, television, and theatrical productions. 3. Analyze and respond to visual and print messages (e.g. humor, irony, metaphor) and recognize how words, sounds, and still or moving images are used in each medium to convey the intended messages. 4. Compare and contrast how the various forms of media (e.g. newspapers, radio, television, internet news outlets) cover the same topic. 3.5.8 B. Visual and Verbal Messages 1. Analyze and compare the pros and cons of visual and verbal advertising. 2. Evaluate various media messages for credibility. 3. Develop criteria/rubric to judge the effectiveness of visual and verbal presentations. 4. Make inferences based upon the content of still images 5. Compare and contrast media sources, such as film and book versions of a story. 3.5.8 C. Living with Media 1. Evaluate media forms, such as television, video, games, music, and film for content appropriateness (e.g., rating systems, rubric). 2. Analyze media content for emotional effect on audience.

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LANGUAGE ARTS LITERACY

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 12, students will:

3 . 5

3.5.12 A. Constructing Meaning from Media 1. Understand that messages are representations of social reality and vary by historic time periods and parts of the world. 2. Identify and evaluate how a media product expresses the values of the culture that produced it. 3. Identify and select media forms appropriate for the viewer’s purpose. 3.5.12 B. Visual and Verbal Messages 1. Analyze media for stereotyping (e.g., gender, ethnicity). 2. Compare and contrast three or more media sources. 3.5.12 C. Living with Media 1. Use print and electronic media texts to explore human relationships, new ideas, and aspects of culture (e.g., racial prejudice, dating, marriage, family, and social institutions). 2. Determine influences on news media based on existing political, historical, economical, and social contexts (e.g., importance of audience feedback). 3. Recognize that creators of media and performances use a number of forms, techniques, and technologies to convey their messages.

S TA N DA R D

3. Create media presentations and written reports, using multi-media resources such as an overhead projector, computer, and/or a tape recorder to communicate information.

2 0 0 4 N E W J E R S E Y C O R E C U R R I C U LU M C O N T E N T S TA N DA R D S

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2004 - State of New Jersey

2 0 0 4 N E W J E R S E Y C O R E C U R R I C U LU M C O N T E N T S TA N DA R D S NEW JERSEY C ORE CURRICULUM C ONTENT S TANDARDS FOR THE VISION ...

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